Sample records for load shedding plans

  1. 77 FR 53884 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on August 9, 2012, North American Electric Reliability Corporation submitted a compliance... Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards, 139 FERC ] 61,098, (Order No. 763) (2012). Any person...

  2. An Under-frequency Load Shedding Scheme with Continuous Load Control Proportional to Frequency Deviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changgang; Sun, Yanli; Yu, Yawei

    2017-05-01

    Under frequency load shedding (UFLS) is an important measure to tackle with frequency drop caused by load-generation imbalance. In existing schemes, loads are shed by relays in a discontinuous way, which is the major reason leading to under-shedding and over-shedding problems. With the application of power electronics technology, some loads can be controlled continuously, and it is possible to improve the UFSL with continuous loads. This paper proposes an UFLS scheme by shedding loads continuously. The load shedding amount is proportional to frequency deviation before frequency reaches its minimum during transient process. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is analysed with analytical system frequency response model. The impacts of governor droop, system inertia, and frequency threshold on the performance of the proposed UFLS scheme are discussed. Cases are demonstrated to validate the proposed scheme by comparing it with conventional UFLS schemes.

  3. A Study on a Centralized Under-Voltage Load Shedding Scheme Considering the Load Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiyu; Liu, Junyong

    Under-voltage load shedding is an important measure for maintaining voltage stability.Aiming at the optimal load shedding problem considering the load characteristics,firstly,the traditional under-voltage load shedding scheme based on a static load model may cause the analysis inaccurate is pointed out on the equivalent Thevenin circuit.Then,the dynamic voltage stability margin indicator is derived through local measurement.The derived indicator can reflect the voltage change of the key area in a myopia linear way.Dimensions of the optimal problem will be greatly simplified using this indicator.In the end,mathematical model of the centralized load shedding scheme is built with the indicator considering load characteristics.HSPPSO is introduced to slove the optimal problem.Simulation results on IEEE-39 system show that the proposed scheme display a good adaptability in solving the under-voltage load shedding considering dynamic load characteristics.

  4. An intelligent load shedding scheme using neural networks and neuro-fuzzy.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Ahmed M A; Mohamed, Azah; Al-Dabbagh, Majid; Hussain, Aini; Masoum, Mohammad

    2009-12-01

    Load shedding is some of the essential requirement for maintaining security of modern power systems, particularly in competitive energy markets. This paper proposes an intelligent scheme for fast and accurate load shedding using neural networks for predicting the possible loss of load at the early stage and neuro-fuzzy for determining the amount of load shed in order to avoid a cascading outage. A large scale electrical power system has been considered to validate the performance of the proposed technique in determining the amount of load shed. The proposed techniques can provide tools for improving the reliability and continuity of power supply. This was confirmed by the results obtained in this research of which sample results are given in this paper.

  5. Reliability Constrained Priority Load Shedding for Aerospace Power System Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momoh, James A.; Zhu, Jizhong; Kaddah, Sahar S.; Dolce, James L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for improving load shedding on board the space station is one of the goals of aerospace power system automation. To accelerate the optimum load-shedding functions, several constraints must be involved. These constraints include congestion margin determined by weighted probability contingency, component/system reliability index, generation rescheduling. The impact of different faults and indices for computing reliability were defined before optimization. The optimum load schedule is done based on priority, value and location of loads. An optimization strategy capable of handling discrete decision making, such as Everett optimization, is proposed. We extended Everett method to handle expected congestion margin and reliability index as constraints. To make it effective for real time load dispatch process, a rule-based scheme is presented in the optimization method. It assists in selecting which feeder load to be shed, the location of the load, the value, priority of the load and cost benefit analysis of the load profile is included in the scheme. The scheme is tested using a benchmark NASA system consisting of generators, loads and network.

  6. Distributed Load Shedding over Directed Communication Networks with Time Delays

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yang, Tao; Wu, Di

    When generation is insufficient to support all loads under emergencies, effective and efficient load shedding needs to be deployed in order to maintain the supply-demand balance. This paper presents a distributed load shedding algorithm, which makes efficient decision based on the discovered global information. In the global information discovery process, each load only communicates with its neighboring load via directed communication links possibly with arbitrarily large but bounded time varying communication delays. We propose a novel distributed information discovery algorithm based on ratio consensus. Simulation results are used to validate the proposed method.

  7. A bankruptcy problem approach to load-shedding in multiagent-based microgrid operation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs' output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent's interactions.

  8. A Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-shedding in Multiagent-based Microgrid Operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs’ output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent’s interactions. PMID:22163386

  9. 78 FR 13213 - Regional Reliability Standard PRC-006-NPCC-1- Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...; Order No. 775] Regional Reliability Standard PRC-006-NPCC-1--Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding... transferred to the system upon loss of the facility.'' \\27\\ Compensatory load shedding is automatic shedding of load adequate to compensate for the loss of a generator due to the generator tripping early (i.e...

  10. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  11. 25. 'HANGAR SHEDS TRUSSES DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'HANGAR SHEDS - TRUSSES - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Sections and details of trusses, ironwork, and joints, as modified to show ridge joint detail. As built. This blueline also shows the fire suppression system, added in orange pencil for 'Project 13: Bldgs. T-30, T-50, T-70, T-90' at a later, unspecified date. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/84, revision B, dated August 24, 1942. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. The Very Specific Vortex Shedding Test on VEGA Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leofanti, Jose Luis; Fotio, Domenico; Grillenbeck, Anton; Dillinger, Stephan; Scaccia, Aldo

    2012-07-01

    When tall structures are subjected to lateral wind flow, under certain conditions, vortices are shed from alternate sides of the structure inducing periodic cross wind loads on the structure. The periodic loads, in a relatively narrow and stable frequency band, can couple with the structure’s natural frequencies. To avoid this effect the VEGA Launch System (LS) comprised a decoupling device at the launch vehicle (LV) base called Anti Vortex Shedding (AVS). During the LV-Ground Segment combined test campaign in Kourou, the LV mounted on AVS was experimentally verified, including a modal characterization test, a verification under artificial operational loads and finally tested under real wind environment. The paper gives an overview on the particular aspects of test planning, the test setup preparation inside the launch pad gantry, the test performance, test results and the conclusion for the VEGA launch system’s operational readiness.

  13. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. The load shedding advisor: An example of a crisis-response expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, Terry B.; Lightner, Eric; Laverty, John; Ambrose, Edward

    1987-01-01

    A Prolog-based prototype expert system is described that was implemented by the Network Operations Branch of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The purpose of the prototype was to test whether a small, inexpensive computer system could be used to host a load shedding advisor, a system which would monitor major physical environment parameters in a computer facility, then recommend appropriate operator reponses whenever a serious condition was detected. The resulting prototype performed significantly to efficiency gains achieved by replacing a purely rule-based design methodology with a hybrid approach that combined procedural, entity-relationship, and rule-based methods.

  15. Multi-stage rescheduling of generation, load shedding and short-term transmission capacity for emergency state control

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Krogh, B.; Chow, J.H.; Javid, H.S.

    1983-05-01

    A multi-stage formulation of the problem of scheduling generation, load shedding and short term transmission capacity for the alleviation of a viability emergency is presented. The formulation includes generation rate of change constraints, a linear network solution, and a model of the short term thermal overload capacity of transmission lines. The concept of rotating transmission line overloads for emergency state control is developed. The ideas are illustrated by a numerical example.

  16. Load Forecasting in Electric Utility Integrated Resource Planning

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo; Larsen, Peter H.; Sanstad, Alan H

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is a process used by many vertically-integrated U.S. electric utilities to determine least-cost/risk supply and demand-side resources that meet government policy objectives and future obligations to customers and, in many cases, shareholders. Forecasts of energy and peak demand are a critical component of the IRP process. There have been few, if any, quantitative studies of IRP long-run (planning horizons of two decades) load forecast performance and its relationship to resource planning and actual procurement decisions. In this paper, we evaluate load forecasting methods, assumptions, and outcomes for 12 Western U.S. utilities by examining and comparing plansmore » filed in the early 2000s against recent plans, up to year 2014. We find a convergence in the methods and data sources used. We also find that forecasts in more recent IRPs generally took account of new information, but that there continued to be a systematic over-estimation of load growth rates during the period studied. We compare planned and procured resource expansion against customer load and year-to-year load growth rates, but do not find a direct relationship. Load sensitivities performed in resource plans do not appear to be related to later procurement strategies even in the presence of large forecast errors. These findings suggest that resource procurement decisions may be driven by other factors than customer load growth. Our results have important implications for the integrated resource planning process, namely that load forecast accuracy may not be as important for resource procurement as is generally believed, that load forecast sensitivities could be used to improve the procurement process, and that management of load uncertainty should be prioritized over more complex forecasting techniques.« less

  17. Optimal Load Shedding and Generation Rescheduling for Overload Suppression in Large Power Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Young-Hyun

    Ever-increasing size, complexity and operation costs in modern power systems have stimulated the intensive study of an optimal Load Shedding and Generator Rescheduling (LSGR) strategy in the sense of a secure and economic system operation. The conventional approach to LSGR has been based on the application of LP (Linear Programming) with the use of an approximately linearized model, and the LP algorithm is currently considered to be the most powerful tool for solving the LSGR problem. However, all of the LP algorithms presented in the literature essentially lead to the following disadvantages: (i) piecewise linearization involved in the LP algorithms requires the introduction of a number of new inequalities and slack variables, which creates significant burden to the computing facilities, and (ii) objective functions are not formulated in terms of the state variables of the adopted models, resulting in considerable numerical inefficiency in the process of computing the optimal solution. A new approach is presented, based on the development of a new linearized model and on the application of QP (Quadratic Programming). The changes in line flows as a result of changes to bus injection power are taken into account in the proposed model by the introduction of sensitivity coefficients, which avoids the mentioned second disadvantages. A precise method to calculate these sensitivity coefficients is given. A comprehensive review of the theory of optimization is included, in which results of the development of QP algorithms for LSGR as based on Wolfe's method and Kuhn -Tucker theory are evaluated in detail. The validity of the proposed model and QP algorithms has been verified and tested on practical power systems, showing the significant reduction of both computation time and memory requirements as well as the expected lower generation costs of the optimal solution as compared with those obtained from computing the optimal solution with LP. Finally, it is noted that an

  18. 1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END (FRONT) OF TRANSIT SHED, IN CONTEXT WITH LOADING YARD AND DERRICK, LOOKING WEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 7. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF SHED, SHOWING ALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF SHED, SHOWING ALL EIGHTEEN LOADING BAYS, LOOKING WEST FROM ACROSS TURNING BASIN - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. Transport aircraft loading and balancing system: Using a CLIPS expert system for military aircraft load planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.

  1. 77 FR 27574 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Requirement R8 and the ``Medium'' VRF for Requirement R5 of PRC-006-1. 11. In response to the NOPR, comments... Requirement R8 and the ``Medium'' VRF for Requirement R5 of PRC-006-1. Regarding the last issue, the Commission directs NERC to modify the ``Lower VSL'' for Requirement R8 of PRC-0061 and the ``Medium'' VRF for...

  2. 76 FR 66220 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ..., EPRI Power Systems Dynamics Tutorial, Chapter 4 at page 4-78 (2009), available at http://www.epri.com.... Power systems consist of static components (e.g., transformers and transmission lines) and dynamic... decisions on simulations, both static and dynamic, using area power system models to meet requirements in...

  3. 7 CFR 1710.209 - Approval requirements for load forecast work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cooperate in the preparation of and submittal of the load forecast work plan of their power supply borrower. (b) An approved load forecast work plan establishes the process for the preparation and maintenance... approved load forecast work plan must outline the coordination and preparation requirements for both the...

  4. Managing Saginaw Bay nutrient loading by surrounding watersheds through near real time hydrologic resource sheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We can quantify source areas contributing material to a location during various time periods as resource sheds. Various kinds of resource sheds and their source material distributions are defined. For watershed hydrology, we compute resource sheds and their source material distri...

  5. 30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 PLOT PLAN & TRANSVERSE SECTION. Sheet 1 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Replication and shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in juvenile rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Scott, Robert J.; Kerr, Benjamin; Kurath, Gael

    2017-01-01

    Viral replication and shedding are key components of transmission and fitness, the kinetics of which are heavily dependent on virus, host, and environmental factors. To date, no studies have quantified the shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), or how they are associated with replication, making it difficult to ascertain the transmission dynamics of this pathogen of high agricultural and conservation importance. Here, the replication and shedding kinetics of two M genogroup IHNV genotypes were examined in their naturally co-evolved rainbow trout host. Within host virus replication began rapidly, approaching maximum values by day 3 post-infection, after which viral load was maintained or gradually dropped through day 7. Host innate immune response measured as stimulation of Mx-1 gene expression generally followed within host viral loads. Shedding also began very quickly and peaked within 2 days, defining a generally uniform early peak period of shedding from 1 to 4 days after exposure to virus. This was followed by a post-peak period where shedding declined, such that the majority of fish were no longer shedding by day 12 post-infection. Despite similar kinetics, the average shedding rate over the course of infection was significantly lower in mixed compared to single genotype infections, suggesting a competition effect, however, this did not significantly impact the total amount of virus shed. The data also indicated that the duration of shedding, rather than peak amount of virus shed, was correlated with fish mortality. Generally, the majority of virus produced during infection appeared to be shed into the environment rather than maintained in the host, although there was more retention of within host virus during the post-peak period. Viral virulence was correlated with shedding, such that the more virulent of the two genotypes shed more total virus. This fundamental understanding of IHNV

  7. Replication and shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in juvenile rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Andrew R; Scott, Robert J; Kerr, Benjamin; Kurath, Gael

    2017-01-02

    Viral replication and shedding are key components of transmission and fitness, the kinetics of which are heavily dependent on virus, host, and environmental factors. To date, no studies have quantified the shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), or how they are associated with replication, making it difficult to ascertain the transmission dynamics of this pathogen of high agricultural and conservation importance. Here, the replication and shedding kinetics of two M genogroup IHNV genotypes were examined in their naturally co-evolved rainbow trout host. Within host virus replication began rapidly, approaching maximum values by day 3 post-infection, after which viral load was maintained or gradually dropped through day 7. Host innate immune response measured as stimulation of Mx-1 gene expression generally followed within host viral loads. Shedding also began very quickly and peaked within 2days, defining a generally uniform early peak period of shedding from 1 to 4days after exposure to virus. This was followed by a post-peak period where shedding declined, such that the majority of fish were no longer shedding by day 12 post-infection. Despite similar kinetics, the average shedding rate over the course of infection was significantly lower in mixed compared to single genotype infections, suggesting a competition effect, however, this did not significantly impact the total amount of virus shed. The data also indicated that the duration of shedding, rather than peak amount of virus shed, was correlated with fish mortality. Generally, the majority of virus produced during infection appeared to be shed into the environment rather than maintained in the host, although there was more retention of within host virus during the post-peak period. Viral virulence was correlated with shedding, such that the more virulent of the two genotypes shed more total virus. This fundamental understanding of IHNV shedding

  8. Replication and shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in juvenile rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Scott, Robert J.; Kerr, Benjamin; Kurath, Gael

    2016-01-01

    Viral replication and shedding are key components of transmission and fitness, the kinetics of which are heavily dependent on virus, host, and environmental factors. To date, no studies have quantified the shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), or how they are associated with replication, making it difficult to ascertain the transmission dynamics of this pathogen of high agricultural and conservation importance. Here, the replication and shedding kinetics of two M genogroup IHNV genotypes were examined in their naturally co-evolved rainbow trout host. Within host virus replication began rapidly, approaching maximum values by day 3 post-infection, after which viral load was maintained or gradually dropped through day 7. Host innate immune response measured as stimulation of Mx-1 gene expression generally followed within host viral loads. Shedding also began very quickly and peaked within 2 days, defining a generally uniform early peak period of shedding from 1 to 4 days after exposure to virus. This was followed by a post-peak period where shedding declined, such that the majority offish were no longer shedding by day 12 post-infection. Despite similar kinetics, the average shedding rate over the course of infection was significantly lower in mixed compared to single genotype infections, suggesting a competition effect, however, this did not significantly impact the total amount of virus shed. The data also indicated that the duration of shedding, rather than peak amount of virus shed, was correlated with fish mortality. Generally, the majority of virus produced during infection appeared to be shed into the environment rather than maintained in the host, although there was more retention of within host virus during the post-peak period. Viral virulence was correlated with shedding, such that the more virulent of the two genotypes shed more total virus. This fundamental understanding of IHNV

  9. Detail of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126) monorail switches. Workers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126) monorail switches. Workers pulled the chains at right to align the switches. Workers also pulled the hoists, loaded or unloaded, along the monorail tracks - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, C.W.E. Storage Shed, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  10. Virus and host-specific differences in oral human herpesvirus shedding kinetics among Ugandan women and children.

    PubMed

    Matrajt, Laura; Gantt, Soren; Mayer, Bryan T; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Orem, Jackson; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Schiffer, Joshua T; Casper, Corey

    2017-10-12

    Human herpesviruses (HHV) establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted primarily via shedding at mucosal surfaces. Each HHV causes a unique spectrum of disease depending on the infected individual's age and immunity. We collected weekly oral swabs from young children and mothers in 32 Ugandan households for a median of one year. We characterized kinetics of oral shedding during primary and chronic infection for each virus. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 were shed at high rates following primary infection. The rate of oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding was lower overall, and children and mothers with chronic HSV infection had lower shedding rates than children with primary infection. CMV shedding rate and viral load were higher in children with primary infection compared to children with chronic infection, and even lower in mothers with chronic infection. HHV-6 shedding rate and viral load were similar between children with primary or chronic infection, but lower in mothers. EBV shedding rate and quantity decreased less dramatically in mothers versus children, with HIV-positive mothers shedding at a higher rate than HIV-negative mothers. Each HHV has a distinct pattern of oral shedding which depends partially on the age and immune status of the host.

  11. Longitudinal Study on Oral Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Varicella-Zoster Virus in Individuals Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    van Velzen, Monique; Ouwendijk, Werner J.D.; Selke, Stacy; Pas, Suzan D.; van Loenen, Freek B.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Wald, Anna; Verjans, Georges M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Primary herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection leads to a life-long latent infection of ganglia innervating the oral mucosa. HSV-1 and VZV reactivation is more common in immunocompromised individuals and may result in viral shedding in saliva. We determined the kinetics and quantity of oral HSV-1 and VZV shedding in HSV-1 and VZV seropositive individuals infected with HIV and to assess whether HSV-1 shedding involves reactivation of the same strain intra-individually. HSV-1 and VZV shedding was determined by real-time PCR of sequential daily oral swabs (n=715) collected for a median period of 31 days from 22 individuals infected with HIV. HSV-1 was genotyped by sequencing the viral thymidine kinase gene. Herpesvirus shedding was detected in 18 of 22 participants. Shedding of HSV-1 occurred frequently, on 14.3% of days, whereas solely VZV shedding was very rare. Two participants shed VZV. The median HSV-1 load was higher compared to VZV. HSV-1 DNA positive swabs clustered into 34 shedding episodes with a median duration of 2 days. The prevalence, duration and viral load of herpesvirus shedding did not correlate with CD4 counts and HIV load. The genotypes of the HSV-1 viruses shed were identical between and within shedding episodes of the same person, but were different between individuals. One-third of the individuals shed an HSV-1 strain potentially refractory to acyclovir therapy. Compared to HSV-1, oral VZV shedding is rare in individuals infected with HIV. Recurrent oral HSV-1 shedding is likely due to reactivation of the same latent HSV-1 strain. PMID:23780621

  12. Floor Plans Rolling Platform, Tech Systems Platform, and Load ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Rolling Platform, Tech Systems Platform, and Load Platform Plans - Marshall Space Flight Center, F-1 Engine Static Test Stand, On Route 565 between Huntsville and Decatur, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. Photoreceptor disc shedding in the living human eye

    PubMed Central

    Kocaoglu, Omer P.; Liu, Zhuolin; Zhang, Furu; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Jonnal, Ravi S.; Miller, Donald T.

    2016-01-01

    Cone photoreceptors undergo a daily cycle of renewal and shedding of membranous discs in their outer segments (OS), the portion responsible for light capture. These physiological processes are fundamental to maintaining photoreceptor health, and their dysfunction is associated with numerous retinal diseases. While both processes have been extensively studied in animal models and postmortem eyes, little is known about them in the living eye, in particular human. In this study, we report discovery of the optical signature associated with disc shedding using a method based on adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) in conjunction with post-processing methods to track and monitor individual cone cells in 4D. The optical signature of disc shedding is characterized by an abrupt transient loss in the cone outer segment tip (COST) reflection followed by its return that is axially displaced anteriorly. Using this signature, we measured the temporal and spatial properties of shedding events in three normal subjects. Average duration of the shedding event was 8.8 ± 13.4 minutes, and average length loss of the OS was 2.1 μm (7.0% of OS length). Prevalence of cone shedding was highest in the morning (14.3%) followed by the afternoon (5.7%) and evening (4.0%), with load distributed across the imaged patch. To the best of our knowledge these are the first images of photoreceptor disc shedding in the living retina. PMID:27895995

  14. HydroSHEDS: A global comprehensive hydrographic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickel, B. A.; Lehner, B.; Sindorf, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales (HydroSHEDS) is an innovative product that, for the first time, provides hydrographic information in a consistent and comprehensive format for regional and global-scale applications. HydroSHEDS offers a suite of geo-referenced data sets, including stream networks, watershed boundaries, drainage directions, and ancillary data layers such as flow accumulations, distances, and river topology information. The goal of developing HydroSHEDS was to generate key data layers to support regional and global watershed analyses, hydrological modeling, and freshwater conservation planning at a quality, resolution and extent that had previously been unachievable. Available resolutions range from 3 arc-second (approx. 90 meters at the equator) to 5 minute (approx. 10 km at the equator) with seamless near-global extent. HydroSHEDS is derived from elevation data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) at 3 arc-second resolution. The original SRTM data have been hydrologically conditioned using a sequence of automated procedures. Existing methods of data improvement and newly developed algorithms have been applied, including void filling, filtering, stream burning, and upscaling techniques. Manual corrections were made where necessary. Preliminary quality assessments indicate that the accuracy of HydroSHEDS significantly exceeds that of existing global watershed and river maps. HydroSHEDS was developed by the Conservation Science Program of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), The Nature Conservancy (TNC), and the Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR) of the University of Kassel, Germany.

  15. View northnorthwest of turret shed (building 56), at right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north-northwest of turret shed (building 56), at right of photograph. Electrical and electronics facility (building 1000) located south of drydock no. 2. The gantry crane and its supporting structure (left foreground) was used to load assembled gun turrets onto barges moored in the barge basin under the gantry structure. After loading on a crane on pier 4 and lifted into positioned on a battleship or cruiser. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Autonomous Spacecraft Communication Interface for Load Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; May, Ryan D.; Morris, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Ground-based controllers can remain in continuous communication with spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) with near-instantaneous communication speeds. This permits near real-time control of all of the core spacecraft systems by ground personnel. However, as NASA missions move beyond LEO, light-time communication delay issues, such as time lag and low bandwidth, will prohibit this type of operation. As missions become more distant, autonomous control of manned spacecraft will be required. The focus of this paper is the power subsystem. For present missions, controllers on the ground develop a complete schedule of power usage for all spacecraft components. This paper presents work currently underway at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous spacecraft, and focuses on the development of communication between the Mission Manager and the Autonomous Power Controller. These two systems must work together in order to plan future load use and respond to unanticipated plan deviations. Using a nominal spacecraft architecture and prototype versions of these two key components, a number of simulations are run under a variety of operational conditions, enabling development of content and format of the messages necessary to achieve the desired goals. The goals include negotiation of a load schedule that meets the global requirements (contained in the Mission Manager) and local power system requirements (contained in the Autonomous Power Controller), and communication of off-plan disturbances that arise while executing a negotiated plan. The message content is developed in two steps: first, a set of rapid-prototyping "paper" simulations are preformed; then the resultant optimized messages are codified for computer communication for use in automated testing.

  17. Persistent Genital Tract HIV-1 RNA Shedding After Change in Treatment Regimens in Antiretroviral-Experienced Women with Detectable Plasma Viral Load

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, Allison K.; Kantor, Rami; Chapman, Stacey; Ingersoll, Jessica; Kurpewski, Jaclynn; De Pasquale, Maria Pia; D'Aquila, Richard; Caliendo, Angela M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To longitudinally assess the association between plasma viral load (PVL) and genital tract human immunodeficiency virus (GT HIV) RNA among HIV-1 infected women changing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) because of detectable PVL on current treatment. Methods Women were eligible for the study if they had detectable PVL (defined as two consecutive samples with PVL>1000 copies/mL) and intended to change their current HAART regimen at the time of enrollment. Paired plasma and GT HIV-1 RNA were measured prospectively over 3 years. Longitudinal analyses examined rates of GT HIV-1 RNA shedding and the association with PVL. Results Sixteen women were followed for a median of 11 visits contributing a total of 205 study visits. At study enrollment, all had detectable PVL and 69% had detectable GT HIV-1 RNA. Half of the women changed to a new HAART regimen with ≥3 active antiretroviral drugs. The probability of having detectable PVL ≥30 days after changing HAART was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.37 to 0.74). Fourteen women (88%) had detectable PVL on a follow-up visit ≥30 or 60 days after changing HAART; and 12 women (75%) had detectable GT HIV-1 RNA on a follow-up visit ≥30 or 60 days after changing HAART. When PVL was undetectable, GT shedding occurred at 11% of visits, and when PVL was detectable, GT shedding occurred at 47% of visits. Conclusions Some treatment-experienced HIV-infected women continue to have detectable virus in both the plasma and GT following a change in HAART, highlighting the difficulty of viral suppression in this patient population. PMID:23531097

  18. Floor Plans Level 15 Load Platform, Level 17 Lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans - Level 15 Load Platform, Level 17 Lower Platform, Level 22 and Upper Platform, and Level 27 - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V S-IC Static Test Facility, West Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Systemic Immune Activation and HIV Shedding in the Female Genital Tract.

    PubMed

    Spencer, LaShonda Y; Christiansen, Shawna; Wang, Chia-Hao H; Mack, Wendy J; Young, Mary; Strickler, Howard D; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Cohen, Mardge; Geenblatt, Ruth M; Karim, Roksana; Operskalski, Eva; Frederick, Toni; Homans, James D; Landay, Alan; Kovacs, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Plasma HIV RNA is the most significant determinant of cervical HIV shedding. However, shedding is also associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical inflammation. The mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. There is evidence that systemic immune activation promotes viral entry, replication, and HIV disease progression. We hypothesized that systemic immune activation would be associated with an increase in HIV genital shedding. Clinical assessments, HIV RNA in plasma and genital secretions, and markers of immune activation (CD38(+)DR(+) and CD38(-)DR(-)) on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in blood were evaluated in 226 HIV+ women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. There were 569 genital evaluations of which 159 (28%) exhibited HIV RNA shedding, defined as HIV viral load >80 copies per milliliter. We tested associations between immune activation and shedding using generalized estimating equations with logit link function. In the univariate model, higher levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation in blood were significantly associated with genital tract shedding. However, in the multivariate model adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections, only higher levels of resting CD8(+) T cells (CD38(-)DR(-)) were significantly inversely associated with HIV shedding in the genital tract (odds ratios = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.21 to 0.9, P = 0.02). The association of systemic immune activation with genital HIV shedding is multifactorial. Systemic T-cell activation is associated with genital tract shedding in univariate analysis but not when adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections. In addition, women with high percentage of resting T cells are less likely to have HIV shedding compared with those with lower percentages. These findings suggest that a higher percentage of resting cells, as a result of maximal viral suppression with treatment, may decrease local genital activation, HIV

  20. Severity of mumps disease is related to MMR vaccination status and viral shedding.

    PubMed

    Gouma, Sigrid; Hahné, Susan J M; Gijselaar, Daphne B; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Binnendijk, Rob S

    2016-04-07

    During recent years, various mumps outbreaks have occurred among measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccinated persons in various countries worldwide, including the Netherlands. We studied mumps virus shedding in MMR vaccinated and unvaccinated mumps patients and related these findings to clinical data. In this study, we included 1112 mumps patients of whom diagnostic samples were tested positive in our laboratory between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2014. We compared mumps virus shedding and severity of disease between patients who had received 2 doses of MMR (n=592) and unvaccinated mumps patients (n=195). Mumps virus shedding in saliva and urine specimens was measured by qPCR. Severity of disease was studied in a subset of patients with clinical data available. Mumps patients who had received 2 MMR doses shed less often mumps virus in their urine than unvaccinated patients. Salivary viral loads were higher at day of onset of disease in twice MMR vaccinated patients with viruria than in twice MMR vaccinated patients without viruria. However, salivary viral loads did not significantly differ between patients who had received 2 MMR doses and unvaccinated patients. Bilateral parotitis and orchitis were less often reported in patients who had received 2 MMR doses than in unvaccinated patients. Furthermore, the prevalence of bilateral parotitis and orchitis was higher among twice MMR vaccinated patients with viruria than among twice MMR vaccinated patients without viruria. MMR vaccination was associated with less severe disease among mumps patients. Systemic spread of virus was associated with more severe disease. The elevated salivary viral loads in patients with systemic mumps disease suggest that these patients pose a higher risk for mumps virus transmission. Our study contributes to the understanding of mumps virus pathogenesis and shows the protective effect of MMR vaccination on severity of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 7 CFR 1710.209 - Approval requirements for load forecast work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) In addition to the approved load forecast required under §§ 1710.202 and 1710.203, any power supply... that are members of a power supply borrower with a total utility plant of $500 million or more must cooperate in the preparation of and submittal of the load forecast work plan of their power supply borrower...

  2. DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW, BLM TACK SHED ON LEFT, BLM SEED SHED AT LEFT CENTER, FIRE DISPATCH OFFICES 1 AND 2 AT RIGHT CENTER, UTILITY BUILDING "B" ON RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Cedar City Automotive Repair Shop, 820 North Main Street, Cedar City, Iron County, UT

  3. Aeroelastic Ground Wind Loads Analysis Tool for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Launch vehicles are exposed to ground winds during rollout and on the launch pad that can induce static and dynamic loads. Of particular concern are the dynamic loads caused by vortex shedding from nearly-cylindrical structures. When the frequency of vortex shedding nears that of a lowly-damped structural mode, the dynamic loads can be more than an order of magnitude greater than mean drag loads. Accurately predicting vehicle response to vortex shedding during the design and analysis cycles is difficult and typically exceeds the practical capabilities of modern computational fluid dynamics codes. Therefore, mitigating the ground wind loads risk typically requires wind-tunnel tests of dynamically-scaled models that are time consuming and expensive to conduct. In recent years, NASA has developed a ground wind loads analysis tool for launch vehicles to fill this analytical capability gap in order to provide predictions for prelaunch static and dynamic loads. This paper includes a background of the ground wind loads problem and the current state-of-the-art. It then discusses the history and significance of the analysis tool and the methodology used to develop it. Finally, results of the analysis tool are compared to wind-tunnel and full-scale data of various geometries and Reynolds numbers.

  4. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. An expansion plan for the 60 Hz power distribution system at KSC: LC-39 substations load allocation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The increasing load density in the LC-39 area of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) can be met by either modifying the existing substation and increasing its capacity or by planning an additional new substation. Evidence that the later approach is more economical, enhances the system reliability, and would produce more satisfactory performance indices is provided. Network theory is the basis for the optimal location determination of the proposed substation. A load reallocation plan which minimizes investment cost and power losses and meets other desirable system features is drafted. The report should be useful to the system designer and can be a useful guideline for future facility planners.

  6. Temporal and Lateral Dynamics of HIV Shedding and Elevated Sodium in Breast Milk Among HIV-Positive Mothers During the First 4 Months of Breast-Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Katherine; Ghosh, Mrinal; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sinkala, Moses; Kasonde, Prisca; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M.; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To better understand the dynamics of breast milk HIV shedding and its relation to postnatal HIV transmission, we investigated the temporal and lateral relations of breast milk viral shedding and sodium concentrations in HIV-positive women. Design This was a longitudinal cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia. Method We examined patterns of HIV shedding in breast milk over the first 4 months of breast-feeding and their correlations with postnatal HIV transmission among 138 breast-feeding mothers. Sodium concentration in breast milk was also examined in the same samples and in breast milk from 23 HIV-negative controls. Results Higher breast milk viral load at 1 week, 1 month, and 4 months and consistent viral shedding in breast milk were significantly associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. Elevated breast milk sodium concentration ($13 mmol/L) at 4 months was associated with HIV transmission, low maternal CD4 cell count, and high maternal plasma viral load. Elevated sodium concentration at 1 week postpartum was common and was not associated with any of these parameters. Conclusions Consistent viral shedding and high breast milk viral load are strong predictors of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Although sodium concentrations later in breast-feeding correlate with breast milk viral load, increased breast milk sodium is normal in early lactation and does not predict HIV transmission. PMID:18398972

  7. Temporal and lateral dynamics of HIV shedding and elevated sodium in breast milk among HIV-positive mothers during the first 4 months of breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Katherine; Ghosh, Mrinal; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sinkala, Moses; Kasonde, Prisca; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2008-03-01

    To better understand the dynamics of breast milk HIV shedding and its relation to postnatal HIV transmission, we investigated the temporal and lateral relations of breast milk viral shedding and sodium concentrations in HIV-positive women. This was a longitudinal cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia. We examined patterns of HIV shedding in breast milk over the first 4 months of breast-feeding and their correlations with postnatal HIV transmission among 138 breast-feeding mothers. Sodium concentration in breast milk was also examined in the same samples and in breast milk from 23 HIV-negative controls. Higher breast milk viral load at 1 week, 1 month, and 4 months and consistent viral shedding in breast milk were significantly associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. Elevated breast milk sodium concentration (> or =13 mmol/L) at 4 months was associated with HIV transmission, low maternal CD4 cell count, and high maternal plasma viral load. Elevated sodium concentration at 1 week postpartum was common and was not associated with any of these parameters. Consistent viral shedding and high breast milk viral load are strong predictors of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Although sodium concentrations later in breast-feeding correlate with breast milk viral load, increased breast milk sodium is normal in early lactation and does not predict HIV transmission.

  8. Planning sentences while doing other things at the same time: effects of concurrent verbal and visuospatial working memory load.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Jana; Mädebach, Andreas; Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jörg D

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated to what extent advance planning during sentence production is affected by a concurrent cognitive load. In two picture-word interference experiments in which participants produced subject-verb-object sentences while ignoring auditory distractor words, we assessed advance planning at a phonological (lexeme) and at an abstract-lexical (lemma) level under visuospatial or verbal working memory (WM) load. At the phonological level, subject and object nouns were found to be activated before speech onset with concurrent visuospatial WM load, but only subject nouns were found to be activated with concurrent verbal WM load, indicating a reduced planning scope as a function of type of WM load (Experiment 1). By contrast, at the abstract-lexical level, subject and object nouns were found to be activated regardless of type of concurrent load (Experiment 2). In both experiments, sentence planning had a more detrimental effect on concurrent verbal WM task performance than on concurrent visuospatial WM task performance. Overall, our results suggest that advance planning at the phonological level is more affected by a concurrently performed verbal WM task than advance planning at the abstract-lexical level. Also, they indicate an overlap of resources allocated to phonological planning in speech production and verbal WM.

  9. Birds Shed RNA-Viruses According to the Pareto Principle

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, Mark D.; Williams, Christopher J.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Owen, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in disease ecology is to understand the role of individual variation of infection load on disease transmission dynamics and how this influences the evolution of resistance or tolerance mechanisms. Such information will improve our capacity to understand, predict, and mitigate pathogen-associated disease in all organisms. In many host-pathogen systems, particularly macroparasites and sexually transmitted diseases, it has been found that approximately 20% of the population is responsible for approximately 80% of the transmission events. Although host contact rates can account for some of this pattern, pathogen transmission dynamics also depend upon host infectiousness, an area that has received relatively little attention. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of pathogen shedding rates of 24 host (avian) – pathogen (RNA-virus) studies, including 17 bird species and five important zoonotic viruses. We determined that viral count data followed the Weibull distribution, the mean Gini coefficient (an index of inequality) was 0.687 (0.036 SEM), and that 22.0% (0.90 SEM) of the birds shed 80% of the virus across all studies, suggesting an adherence of viral shedding counts to the Pareto Principle. The relative position of a bird in a distribution of viral counts was affected by factors extrinsic to the host, such as exposure to corticosterone and to a lesser extent reduced food availability, but not to intrinsic host factors including age, sex, and migratory status. These data provide a quantitative view of heterogeneous virus shedding in birds that may be used to better parameterize epidemiological models and understand transmission dynamics. PMID:23991129

  10. Longitudinal study of Escherichia coli O157 shedding and super shedding in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Williams, K J; Ward, M P; Dhungyel, O P

    2015-04-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the methods available for detection of Escherichia coli O157 and to investigate the prevalence and occurrence of long-term shedding and super shedding in a cohort of Australian dairy heifers. Samples were obtained at approximately weekly intervals from heifers at pasture under normal management systems. Selective sampling techniques were used with the aim of identifying heifers with a higher probability of shedding or super shedding. Rectoanal mucosal swabs (RAMS) and fecal samples were obtained from each heifer. Direct culture of feces was used for detection and enumeration. Feces and RAMS were tested by enrichment culture. Selected samples were further tested retrospectively by immunomagnetic separation of enriched samples. Of 784 samples obtained, 154 (19.6%) were detected as positive using culture methods. Adjusting for selective sampling, the prevalence was 71 (15.6%) of 454. In total, 66 samples were detected as positive at >10(2) CFU/g of which 8 were >10(4) CFU/g and classed as super shedding. A significant difference was observed in detection by enriched culture of RAMS and feces. Dairy heifers within this cohort exhibited variable E. coli O157 shedding, consistent with previous estimates of shedding. Super shedding was detected at a low frequency and inconsistently from individual heifers. All detection methods identified some samples as positive that were not detected by any other method, indicating that the testing methods used will influence survey results.

  11. 28. GRAIN TERMINAL/COLUMBIA STREET PIER/ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS TO PIER SHED: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. GRAIN TERMINAL/COLUMBIA STREET PIER/ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS TO PIER SHED: WARM AREA - PLAN AND RETAILS (Drawing 2 of 7) - New York Barge Canal, Gowanus Bay Terminal Pier, East of bulkhead supporting Columbia Street, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  12. Effects of Planning on Task Load, Knowledge, and Tool Preference: A Comparison of Two Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonestroo, Wilco J.; de Jong, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Self-regulated learners are expected to plan their own learning. Because planning is a complex task, it is not self-evident that all learners can perform this task successfully. In this study, we examined the effects of two planning support tools on the quality of created plans, planning behavior, task load, and acquired knowledge. Sixty-five…

  13. Risk factors for Escherichia coli O157 shedding and super-shedding by dairy heifers at pasture.

    PubMed

    Williams, K J; Ward, M P; Dhungyel, O P; Hall, E J S

    2015-04-01

    We undertook a longitudinal study within a cohort of 52 dairy heifers maintained under constant management systems and sampled weekly to investigate a comprehensive range of risk factors which may influence shedding or super-shedding of E. coli O157 (detected by direct faecal culture and immunomagnetic separation). E. coli O157 was detected from 416/933 (44.6%) samples (faeces and recto-anal mucosal swabs) and 32 (3.4%) samples enumerated at >10000 c.f.u./g. Weekly point prevalence ranged from 9.4% to 94.3%. Higher temperature (P < 0.001), rainfall (P = 0.02), relative humidity (P < 0.001), pasture growth (P = 0.013) and body score (P = 0.029) were positively associated with increased shedding. Higher rainfall (P < 0.001), hide contamination (P = 0.002) and increased faecal consistency (P = 0.023) were positively associated with super-shedding. Increased solar exposure had a negative effect on both shedding and super-shedding within bivariate analyses but in the final multivariate model for shedding demonstrated a positive effect (P = 0.017). Results suggest that environmental factors are important in E. coli O157 shedding in cattle.

  14. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Planning Training Loads for the 400 M Hurdles in Three-Month Mesocycles using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Przednowek, Krzysztof; Iskra, Janusz; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Krzeszowski, Tomasz; Maszczyk, Adam

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to planning training loads in hurdling using artificial neural networks. The neural models performed the task of generating loads for athletes' training for the 400 meters hurdles. All the models were calculated based on the training data of 21 Polish National Team hurdlers, aged 22.25 ± 1.96, competing between 1989 and 2012. The analysis included 144 training plans that represented different stages in the annual training cycle. The main contribution of this paper is to develop neural models for planning training loads for the entire career of a typical hurdler. In the models, 29 variables were used, where four characterized the runner and 25 described the training process. Two artificial neural networks were used: a multi-layer perceptron and a network with radial basis functions. To assess the quality of the models, the leave-one-out cross-validation method was used in which the Normalized Root Mean Squared Error was calculated. The analysis shows that the method generating the smallest error was the radial basis function network with nine neurons in the hidden layer. Most of the calculated training loads demonstrated a non-linear relationship across the entire competitive period. The resulting model can be used as a tool to assist a coach in planning training loads during a selected training period.

  16. Planning Training Loads for the 400 M Hurdles in Three-Month Mesocycles using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Iskra, Janusz; Wiktorowicz, Krzysztof; Krzeszowski, Tomasz; Maszczyk, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a novel approach to planning training loads in hurdling using artificial neural networks. The neural models performed the task of generating loads for athletes’ training for the 400 meters hurdles. All the models were calculated based on the training data of 21 Polish National Team hurdlers, aged 22.25 ± 1.96, competing between 1989 and 2012. The analysis included 144 training plans that represented different stages in the annual training cycle. The main contribution of this paper is to develop neural models for planning training loads for the entire career of a typical hurdler. In the models, 29 variables were used, where four characterized the runner and 25 described the training process. Two artificial neural networks were used: a multi-layer perceptron and a network with radial basis functions. To assess the quality of the models, the leave-one-out cross-validation method was used in which the Normalized Root Mean Squared Error was calculated. The analysis shows that the method generating the smallest error was the radial basis function network with nine neurons in the hidden layer. Most of the calculated training loads demonstrated a non-linear relationship across the entire competitive period. The resulting model can be used as a tool to assist a coach in planning training loads during a selected training period. PMID:29339998

  17. Elevation and vegetation determine Cryptosporidium oocyst shedding by yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

    PubMed

    Montecino-Latorre, Diego; Li, Xunde; Xiao, Chengling; Atwill, Edward R

    2015-08-01

    Wildlife are increasingly recognized as important biological reservoirs of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium that might contaminate water and cause human exposure to this protozoal parasite. The habitat range of the yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) overlaps extensively with the watershed boundaries of municipal water supplies for California communities along the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study to estimate the fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts by yellow-bellied marmots and to quantify the environmental loading rate and determine risk factors for Cryptosporidium fecal shedding in this montane wildlife species. The observed proportion of Cryptosporidium positive fecal samples was 14.7% (33/224, positive number relative to total number samples) and the environmental loading rate was estimated to be 10,693 oocysts animal(-1) day(-1). Fecal shedding was associated with the elevation and vegetation status of their habitat. Based on a portion of the 18s rRNA gene sequence of 2 isolates, the Cryptosporidium found in Marmota flaviventris were 99.88%-100% match to multiple isolates of C. parvum in the GenBank.

  18. Elevation and vegetation determine Cryptosporidium oocyst shedding by yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Montecino-Latorre, Diego; Li, Xunde; Xiao, Chengling; Atwill, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife are increasingly recognized as important biological reservoirs of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium that might contaminate water and cause human exposure to this protozoal parasite. The habitat range of the yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) overlaps extensively with the watershed boundaries of municipal water supplies for California communities along the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study to estimate the fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts by yellow-bellied marmots and to quantify the environmental loading rate and determine risk factors for Cryptosporidium fecal shedding in this montane wildlife species. The observed proportion of Cryptosporidium positive fecal samples was 14.7% (33/224, positive number relative to total number samples) and the environmental loading rate was estimated to be 10,693 oocysts animal-1 day-1. Fecal shedding was associated with the elevation and vegetation status of their habitat. Based on a portion of the 18s rRNA gene sequence of 2 isolates, the Cryptosporidium found in Marmota flaviventris were 99.88%–100% match to multiple isolates of C. parvum in the GenBank. PMID:25834788

  19. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Stacey X; Leontyev, Danila; Kaul, Rupert; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  20. Short Term Load Forecasting with Fuzzy Logic Systems for power system planning and reliability-A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmukhe, R. M.; Dhumale, Mrs. Sunita; Chaudhari, Mr. P. S.; Kulkarni, Mr. P. P.

    2010-10-01

    Load forecasting is very essential to the operation of Electricity companies. It enhances the energy efficient and reliable operation of power system. Forecasting of load demand data forms an important component in planning generation schedules in a power system. The purpose of this paper is to identify issues and better method for load foecasting. In this paper we focus on fuzzy logic system based short term load forecasting. It serves as overview of the state of the art in the intelligent techniques employed for load forecasting in power system planning and reliability. Literature review has been conducted and fuzzy logic method has been summarized to highlight advantages and disadvantages of this technique. The proposed technique for implementing fuzzy logic based forecasting is by Identification of the specific day and by using maximum and minimum temperature for that day and finally listing the maximum temperature and peak load for that day. The results show that Load forecasting where there are considerable changes in temperature parameter is better dealt with Fuzzy Logic system method as compared to other short term forecasting techniques.

  1. Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Guatteo, Raphaël; Beaudeau, François; Joly, Alain; Seegers, Henri

    2007-01-01

    While shedding routes of Coxiella burnetii are identified, the characteristics of Coxiella shedding are still widely unknown, especially in dairy cattle. However, this information is crucial to assess the natural course of Coxiella burnetii infection within a herd and then to elaborate strategies to limit the risks of transmission between animals and to humans. The present study aimed at (i) describing the characteristics of Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows (in milk, vaginal mucus, faeces) in five infected dairy herds, and at (ii) investigating the possible relationships between shedding patterns and serological responses. A total of 145 cows were included in a follow-up consisting of seven concomitant samplings of milk, vaginal mucus, faeces and blood (Day 0, D7, D14, D21, D28, D63, D90). Detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii titres were performed in milk, vaginal mucus and faeces samples using real-time PCR assay, while antibodies against Coxiella were detected using an ELISA technique. For a given shedding route, and a given periodicity (weekly or monthly), cows were gathered into different shedding kinetic patterns according to the sequence of PCR responses. Distribution of estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii was described according to shedding kinetic patterns. Coxiella burnetii shedding was found scarcely and sporadically in faeces. Vaginal mucus shedding concerned almost 50% of the cows studied and was found intermittently or sporadically, depending on the periodicity considered. Almost 40% of cows were detected as milk shedders, with two predominant shedding patterns: persistent and sporadic, regardless of the sampling periodicity. Significantly higher estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii were observed in cows with persistent shedding patterns suggesting the existence of heavy shedder cows. These latter cows were mostly, persistently highly-seropositive, suggesting that repeated serological testings could be a reliable tool to screen

  2. Lipid shedding from single oscillating microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Luan, Ying; Lajoinie, Guillaume; Gelderblom, Erik; Skachkov, Ilya; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Vos, Hendrik J; Versluis, Michel; De Jong, Nico

    2014-08-01

    Lipid-coated microbubbles are used clinically as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging and are being developed for a variety of therapeutic applications. The lipid encapsulation and shedding of the lipids by acoustic driving of the microbubble has a crucial role in microbubble stability and in ultrasound-triggered drug delivery; however, little is known about the dynamics of lipid shedding under ultrasound excitation. Here we describe a study that optically characterized the lipid shedding behavior of individual microbubbles on a time scale of nanoseconds to microseconds. A single ultrasound burst of 20 to 1000 cycles, with a frequency of 1 MHz and an acoustic pressure varying from 50 to 425 kPa, was applied. In the first step, high-speed fluorescence imaging was performed at 150,000 frames per second to capture the instantaneous dynamics of lipid shedding. Lipid detachment was observed within the first few cycles of ultrasound. Subsequently, the detached lipids were transported by the surrounding flow field, either parallel to the focal plane (in-plane shedding) or in a trajectory perpendicular to the focal plane (out-of-plane shedding). In the second step, the onset of lipid shedding was studied as a function of the acoustic driving parameters, for example, pressure, number of cycles, bubble size and oscillation amplitude. The latter was recorded with an ultrafast framing camera running at 10 million frames per second. A threshold for lipid shedding under ultrasound excitation was found for a relative bubble oscillation amplitude >30%. Lipid shedding was found to be reproducible, indicating that the shedding event can be controlled. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shedding and serological patterns of dairy cows following abortions associated with Coxiella burnetii DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Guatteo, R; Joly, A; Beaudeau, F

    2012-03-23

    To describe both shedding and serological patterns following abortions detected as being associated with Coxiella burnetii (Cb), 24 cows experiencing an abortion due to Cb were followed over a one month period. Samples taken on the day of abortion (D0) were followed 3-fold by weekly samplings from day 14 (D14) to D28 after the abortion. Milk and vaginal mucus were collected at each weekly sampling and tested using real-time PCR while blood samples were collected 2-fold on D21 and D28 and tested using ELISA. We found a very short duration of C. burnetii shedding in vaginal mucus after abortion, highlighting the need to collect samples as rapidly as possible following an abortion to avoid false negative results. In contrast with previous results, concomitancy of vaginal and mucus shedding was frequent, especially for cows shedding a high bacterial load on DO leading to the hypothesis that the clinical onset of the infection influences the modalities of Cb shedding. Lastly, serological results indicating a lack of sensitivity to detect Cb shedder cows (especially for cows for which Ct values were high) suggest that ELISA is not a useful tool to diagnose abortions at the individual level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding during Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of immune parameters of both cellular and innate immunity indicate alterations in immune function in astronauts. Immune changes are due to stress and perhaps other factors associated with launch, flight, and landing phases. Medical relevance of observed changes is not known. The reactivation of latent viruses has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of specific viral DNA in body fluids. Initial studies demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during all 3 mission phases. EBV is shed in saliva following reactivation from B-cells. Incidence of EBV in saliva was higher than control subjects during all 3 mission phases. However, quantitative PCR revealed 10-fold higher levels of EBV DNA present in saliva collected during flight than found in pre- and post flight specimens. To determine if other latent viruses showed similar effects, cytomegalovirus (CMV), another herpes virus, shed in urine following reactivation was studied. A very low incidence (less than 2%) of CMV in urine is found in healthy, lowstressed individuals. However, 25-50% of astronauts shed CMV in their urine before, during, or after flight. Our studies are now focused on varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the etiological agent of chicken-pox during childhood and shingles later in life. We demonstrated reactivation of VZV and shedding of the virus during and after spaceflight in saliva of astronauts with no sign of active infection or symptoms. The maximum shedding of VZV occurred during the flight phase and diminishes rapidly during the first five days after landing. We have utilized the same PCR assay for VZV in a clinical study of shingles patients. Generally, shingles patients shed much more VZV in saliva than astronauts. However, the VZV levels in astronauts overlap with the lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients. Saliva from shingles patients and

  5. 55. Photograph of Original Plan (original plans in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Photograph of Original Plan (original plans in the possession of the Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal Corporation) BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS UNITY, STREET LEVEL FLOOR PLAN, SECTION III - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Booster Interface Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steve; Wood, Bill; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between shock waves and the wake shed from the forward booster/core attach hardware results in unsteady pressure fluctuations, which can lead to large buffeting loads on the vehicle. This task investigates whether computational tools can adequately predict these flows, and whether alternative booster nose shapes can reduce these loads. Results from wind tunnel tests will be used to validate the computations and provide design information for future Space Launch System (SLS) configurations. The current work combines numerical simulations with wind tunnel testing to predict buffeting loads caused by the boosters. Variations in nosecone shape, similar to the Ariane 5 design (fig. 1), are being evaluated with regard to lowering the buffet loads. The task will provide design information for the mitigation of buffet loads for SLS, along with validated simulation tools to be used to assess future SLS designs.

  7. SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual Appendices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The appendices for the SHEDS-Dietary Technical Manual include a sample food diary, backgorund information on the water concentration data used in SHEDS-Dietary, a food list, food definitions and sample code.

  8. Field Testing of Telemetry for Demand Response Control of Small Loads

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lanzisera, Steven; Weber, Adam; Liao, Anna

    The electricity system in California, from generation through loads, must be prepared for high renewable penetration and increased electrification of end uses while providing increased resilience and lower operating cost. California has an aggressive renewable portfolio standard that is complemented by world-leading greenhouse gas goals. The goal of this project was to evaluate methods of enabling fast demand response (DR) signaling to small loads for low-cost site enablement. We used OpenADR 2.0 to meet telemetry requirements for providing ancillary services, and we used a variety of low-cost devices coupled with open-source software to enable an end-to-end fast DR. The devices,more » architecture, implementation, and testing of the system is discussed in this report. We demonstrate that the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Home movements provide an opportunity for diverse small loads to provide fast, low-cost demand response. We used Internet-connected lights, thermostats, load interruption devices, and water heaters to demonstrate an ecosystem of controllable devices. The system demonstrated is capable of providing fast load shed for between 20 dollars and $300 per kilowatt (kW) of available load. The wide range results from some loads may have very low cost but also very little shed capability (a 10 watt [W] LED light can only shed a maximum of 10 W) while some loads (e.g., water heaters or air conditioners) can shed several kilowatts but have a higher initial cost. These costs, however, compare well with other fast demand response costs, with typically are over $100/kilowatt of shed. We contend these loads are even more attractive than their price suggests because many of them will be installed for energy efficiency or non-energy benefits (e.g., improved lighting quality or controllability), and the ability to use them for fast DR is a secondary benefit. Therefore the cost of enabling them for DR may approach zero if a software-only solution can

  9. Load theory behind the wheel; perceptual and cognitive load effects.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M

    2017-09-01

    Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. The findings were largely in line with Load Theory, with reduced distractor processing under high perceptual load, but increased distractor processing under high cognitive load. The effect of load on driving behaviour was also analysed, with significant differences in driving behaviour under perceptual and cognitive load. In addition, the effect of perceptual load on drivers' levels of awareness was investigated. High perceptual load significantly increased inattentional blindness and deafness, for stimuli that were both relevant and irrelevant to driving. High perceptual load also increased RTs to hazards. The current study helps to advance Load Theory by illustrating its usefulness outside of traditional paradigms. There are also applied implications for driver safety and roadway design, as the current study suggests that perceptual and cognitive load are important factors in driver attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Long term load forecasting accuracy in electric utility integrated resource planning

    DOE PAGES

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo; Larsen, Peter H.; Sanstad, Alan H.; ...

    2018-05-23

    Forecasts of electricity consumption and peak demand over time horizons of one or two decades are a key element in electric utilities’ meeting their core objective and obligation to ensure reliable and affordable electricity supplies for their customers while complying with a range of energy and environmental regulations and policies. These forecasts are an important input to integrated resource planning (IRP) processes involving utilities, regulators, and other stake-holders. Despite their importance, however, there has been little analysis of long term utility load forecasting accuracy. We conduct a retrospective analysis of long term load forecasts on twelve Western U. S. electricmore » utilities in the mid-2000s to find that most overestimated both energy consumption and peak demand growth. A key reason for this was the use of assumptions that led to an overestimation of economic growth. We find that the complexity of forecast methods and the accuracy of these forecasts are mildly correlated. In addition, sensitivity and risk analysis of load growth and its implications for capacity expansion were not well integrated with subsequent implementation. As a result, we review changes in the utilities load forecasting methods over the subsequent decade, and discuss the policy implications of long term load forecast inaccuracy and its underlying causes.« less

  11. Long term load forecasting accuracy in electric utility integrated resource planning

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo; Larsen, Peter H.; Sanstad, Alan H.

    Forecasts of electricity consumption and peak demand over time horizons of one or two decades are a key element in electric utilities’ meeting their core objective and obligation to ensure reliable and affordable electricity supplies for their customers while complying with a range of energy and environmental regulations and policies. These forecasts are an important input to integrated resource planning (IRP) processes involving utilities, regulators, and other stake-holders. Despite their importance, however, there has been little analysis of long term utility load forecasting accuracy. We conduct a retrospective analysis of long term load forecasts on twelve Western U. S. electricmore » utilities in the mid-2000s to find that most overestimated both energy consumption and peak demand growth. A key reason for this was the use of assumptions that led to an overestimation of economic growth. We find that the complexity of forecast methods and the accuracy of these forecasts are mildly correlated. In addition, sensitivity and risk analysis of load growth and its implications for capacity expansion were not well integrated with subsequent implementation. As a result, we review changes in the utilities load forecasting methods over the subsequent decade, and discuss the policy implications of long term load forecast inaccuracy and its underlying causes.« less

  12. Rotavirus shedding following administration of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Daniel; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2017-08-03

    The RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine aims to provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. A phase IIa safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand between January 2012 and April 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥ 36 weeks gestation) babies, who were 0-5 d old were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 3 doses of oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 d after birth (neonatal schedule), or the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to receive placebo (placebo schedule). Vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) was detected after 3 doses of RV3-BB vaccine in >90% of participants when the first dose was administered in the neonatal and infant schedules. The aim of the current study was to characterize RV3-BB shedding and virus replication following administration of RV3-BB in a neonatal and infant vaccination schedule. Shedding was defined as detection of rotavirus by VP6 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool on days 3-7 after administration of RV3-BB. Shedding of rotavirus was highest following vaccination at 8 weeks of age in both neonatal and infant schedules (19/30 and 17/27, respectively). Rotavirus was detected in stool on days 3-7, after at least one dose of RV3-BB, in 70% (21/30) of neonate, 78% (21/27) of infant and 3% (1/32) placebo participants. In participants who shed RV3-BB, rotavirus was detectable in stool on day 1 following RV3-BB administration and remained positive until day 4-5 after administration. The distinct pattern of RV3-BB stool viral load demonstrated using a NSP3 quantitative qRT-PCR in participants who shed RV3-BB, suggests that detection of RV3-BB at day 3-7 was the result of replication rather than passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Comparison of Shedding Characteristics of Seasonal Influenza Virus (Sub)Types and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09; Germany, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Suess, Thorsten; Remschmidt, Cornelius; Schink, Susanne B.; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Heider, Alla; Milde, Jeanette; Nitsche, Andreas; Schroeder, Kati; Doellinger, Joerg; Braun, Christian; Haas, Walter; Krause, Gérard; Buchholz, Udo

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza viral shedding studies provide fundamental information for preventive strategies and modelling exercises. We conducted a prospective household study to investigate viral shedding in seasonal and pandemic influenza between 2007 and 2011 in Berlin and Munich, Germany. Methods Study physicians recruited index patients and their household members. Serial nasal specimens were obtained from all household members over at least eight days and tested quantitatively by qRT-PCR for the influenza virus (sub)type of the index patient. A subset of samples was also tested by viral culture. Symptoms were recorded daily. Results We recruited 122 index patients and 320 household contacts, of which 67 became secondary household cases. Among all 189 influenza cases, 12 were infected with seasonal/prepandemic influenza A(H1N1), 19 with A(H3N2), 60 with influenza B, and 98 with A(H1N1)pdm09. Nine (14%) of 65 non-vaccinated secondary cases were asymptomatic/subclinical (0 (0%) of 21 children, 9 (21%) of 44 adults; p = 0.03). Viral load among patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) peaked on illness days 1, 2 or 3 for all (sub)types and declined steadily until days 7–9. Clinical symptom scores roughly paralleled viral shedding dynamics. On the first day prior to symptom onset 30% (12/40) of specimens were positive. Viral load in 6 asymptomatic/subclinical patients was similar to that in ILI-patients. Duration of infectiousness as measured by viral culture lasted approximately until illness days 4–6. Viral load did not seem to be influenced by antiviral therapy, age or vaccination status. Conclusion Asymptomatic/subclinical infections occur infrequently, but may be associated with substantial amounts of viral shedding. Presymptomatic shedding may arise in one third of cases, and shedding characteristics appear to be independent of (seasonal or pandemic) (sub)type, age, antiviral therapy or vaccination; however the power to find moderate differences was

  14. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Root cause analysis of oxide scale forming and shedding in high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Jiang; Hao, Weidong; Hu, Zhihong; Liu, Fuguo

    2015-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of over temperature tube-burst caused by oxide scale shedding and blocking tubes of high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure power plant boiler, this paper expounds the mechanism of scale forming and shedding, and analyzes the probable causes of the tube-burst failure. The results show that the root cause of scale forming is that greater steam extraction flow after reforming of the second extraction leads to less steam flow into reheater, which causes over temperature to some of the heated tubes; and the root cause of scale shedding is that long term operation in AGC-R mode brings about great fluctuations of unit load, steam temperature and pressure, accelerating scale shedding. In conclusion, preventive measures are drawn up considering the operation mode of the unit.

  16. Agriculture and future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Insights from the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine contemporary (2000) and future (2030) estimates of coastal N loads in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future estimates are based on Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) scenarios and two additional scenarios that reflect “...

  17. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S; Storgaard, Merete; Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Johansen, Isik S; Pedersen, Gitte; Nørregård Nielsen, Lars; Bonde, Jesper; Katzenstein, Terese L; Weis, Nina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-05-31

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. WLWH between 18-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (<40 copies/mL). BV was diagnosed in 32%. Overall, 11% had detectable vaginal HIV RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies that HIV shedding does not seem to be increased by BV.

  18. Theoretical antisymmetric span loading for wings of arbitrary plan form at subsonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, John

    1951-01-01

    A simplified lifting-surface theory that includes effects of compressibility and spanwise variation of section lift-curve slope is used to provide charts with which antisymmetric loading due to arbitrary antisymmetric angle of attack can be found for wings having symmetric plan forms with a constant spanwise sweep angle of the quarter-chord line. Consideration is given to the flexible wing in roll. Aerodynamic characteristics due to rolling, deflected ailerons, and sideslip of wings with dihedral are considered. Solutions are presented for straight-tapered wings for a range of swept plan forms.

  19. Loads and Aeroelasticity Division research and technology accomplishments for FY 1986 and plans for FY 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, James E.; Dixon, S. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Loads and Aeroelasticity Division's research accomplishments for FY 86 and research plans for FY 87 are presented. The work under each Branch (technical area) is described in terms of highlights of accomplishments during the past year and highlights of plans for the current year as they relate to five year plans for each technical area. This information will be useful in program coordination with other government organizations and industry in areas of mutual interest.

  20. Housing a Raspberry Pi Connected AS-1 Seismometer in a Solar-Paneled Shed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, F.; Tokman, T. L.; Echreshzadeh, M.; Palaric, K. D.; Filippone, N. V.; Sivo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Last year, students working on the SeismoSTEM project at Bergen Community College successfully manufactured and assembled an AS-1 seismometer1. However, issues students encountered were not knowing where to place the TC-1 and AS-1 seismometers, nor how to configure the instruments with a computer for monitoring and measuring earthquakes. Our solution was to purchase a Raspberry Pi 3 model B, which has four USB ports and a Wi-Fi adapter. We then installed the Raspbian operating system that can run jAmaSeis, which allows for the collection and analysis of seismic data. In terms of the shed that was constructed last summer2, we installed roof shingles, as well as a ventilation system to prevent overheating. The seismometers will then be placed on a concrete slab. In the future, we plan on applying a wood varnish around the exterior of the shed, as well as gravel around the shed for water drainage as well as to make it more visually appealing. Moreover, we plan on mounting a 170-W solar panel on the roof to charge a 12-V deep cycle marine battery, which will provide electricity to the system. References: 1Tokman, T.L. et al., What's shaking? Manufacturing & assembling an AS-1 educational seismometer for undergraduate stem research, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015. 2Palaric, K.D., et al., Constructing a solar-powered seismic station for educational seismometers, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015.

  1. Draft Plan to Develop Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Test Protocols

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Petersen, Joseph M.

    2015-09-29

    This document presents a Draft Plan proposed to develop a common test protocol that can be used to evaluate the performance requirements of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring. Development on the test protocol will be focused on providing a consistent method that can be used to quantify and compare the performance characteristics of NILM products. Elements of the protocols include specifications for appliances to be used, metrics, instrumentation, and a procedure to simulate appliance behavior during tests. In addition, three priority use cases for NILM will be identified and their performance requirements will specified.

  2. Loads and aeroelasticity division research and technology accomplishments for FY 1982 and plans for FY 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Accomplishments of the past year and plans for the coming year are highlighted as they relate to five year plans and the objectives of the following technical areas: aerothermal loads; multidisciplinary analysis and optimization; unsteady aerodynamics; and configuration aeroelasticity. Areas of interest include thermal protection system concepts, active control, nonlinear aeroelastic analysis, aircraft aeroelasticity, and rotorcraft aeroelasticity and vibrations.

  3. Vortex Shedding Inside a Baffled Air Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Philip; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Common in the operation of both segmented and un-segmented large solid rocket motors is the occurrence of vortex shedding within the motor chamber. A portion of the energy within a shed vortex is converted to acoustic energy, potentially driving the longitudinal acoustic modes of the motor in a quasi-discrete fashion. This vortex shedding-acoustic mode excitation event occurs for every Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) operation, giving rise to subsequent axial thrust oscillations. In order to better understand this vortex shedding/acoustic mode excitation phenomena, unsteady CFD simulations were run for both a test geometry and the full scale RSRM geometry. This paper covers the results from the subscale geometry runs, which were based on work focusing on the RSRM hydrodynamics. Unsteady CFD simulation parameters, including boundary conditions and post-processing returns, are reviewed. The results were further post-processed to identify active acoustic modes and vortex shedding characteristics. Probable locations for acoustic energy generation, and subsequent acoustic mode excitation, are discussed.

  4. Loads and aeroelasticity division research and technology accomplishments for FY 1985 and plans for FY 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. E.; Dixon, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Langley Research Center Loads and Aeroelasticity Division's research accomplishments for FY85 and research plans for FY86 are presented. The rk under each branch (technical area) will be described in terms of highlights of accomplishments during the past year and highlights of plans for the current year as they relate to five year plans for each technical area. This information will be useful in program coordination with other government organizations and industry in areas of mutual interest.

  5. Joint Seasonal ARMA Approach for Modeling of Load Forecast Errors in Planning Studies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2014-04-14

    To make informed and robust decisions in the probabilistic power system operation and planning process, it is critical to conduct multiple simulations of the generated combinations of wind and load parameters and their forecast errors to handle the variability and uncertainty of these time series. In order for the simulation results to be trustworthy, the simulated series must preserve the salient statistical characteristics of the real series. In this paper, we analyze day-ahead load forecast error data from multiple balancing authority locations and characterize statistical properties such as mean, standard deviation, autocorrelation, correlation between series, time-of-day bias, and time-of-day autocorrelation.more » We then construct and validate a seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model to model these characteristics, and use the model to jointly simulate day-ahead load forecast error series for all BAs.« less

  6. Loads and aeroelasticity division research and technology accomplishments for FY 1987 and plans for FY 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, S. C.; Gardner, James E.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Loads and Aeroelasticity Division's research accomplishments for FY87 and research plans for FY88. The work under each Branch (technical area) is described in terms of highlights of accomplishments during the past year and highlights of plans for the current year as they relate to five year plans for each technical area. This information will be useful in program coordination with other government organizations and industry in areas of mutual interest.

  7. Long-term viremia and fecal shedding in pups after modified-live canine parvovirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Desario, Costantina; Cavalli, Alessandra; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Ventrella, Gianpiero; Rizzi, Stefania; Aulicino, Stefano; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2014-06-24

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) modified live virus vaccines are able to infect vaccinated dogs replicating in the bloodstream and enteric mucosa. However, the exact duration and extent of CPV vaccine-induced viremia and fecal shedding are not known. With the aim to fill this gap, 26 dogs were administered two commercial vaccines containing a CPV-2 or CPV-2b strain and monitored for 28 days after vaccination. By using real-time PCR, vaccine-induced viremia and shedding were found to be long lasting for both vaccinal strains. Vaccinal CPV-2b shedding was detected for a shorter period than CPV-2 (12 against 19 mean days) but with greater viral loads, whereas viremia occurred for a longer period (22 against 19 mean days) and with higher titers for CPV-2b. Seroconversion appeared as early as 7 and 14 days post-vaccination for CPV-2b and CPV-2 vaccines, respectively. With no vaccine there was any diagnostic interference using in-clinic or hemagglutination test, since positive results were obtained only by fecal real-time PCR testing. The present study adds new insights into the CPV vaccine persistence in the organism and possible interference with diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of vitamin supplements on HIV shedding in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Koulinska, Irene N; Aboud, Said; Murrin, Clare; Bosch, Ronald J; Manji, Karim P; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2010-10-01

    Supplementation in lactating HIV-1-infected women with preformed vitamin A and β-carotene (VA/BC) increases the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Identifying a biological mechanism to explain this unexpected finding would lend support to a causal effect. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of VA/BC or multivitamin (B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplementation of HIV-infected women on HIV shedding in breast milk during the first 2 y postpartum. We quantified viral (cell-free) and proviral (cell-associated) HIV loads in breast-milk samples collected ≤15 d after delivery and every 3 mo thereafter from 594 Tanzanian HIV-1-infected women who participated in a randomized trial. Women received 1 of the following 4 daily oral regimens in a 2 × 2 factorial fashion during pregnancy and throughout the first 2 y postpartum: multivitamin, VA/BC, multivitamin including VA/BC, or placebo. The proportion of breast-milk samples with detectable viral load was significantly higher in women who received VA/BC (51.3%) than in women who were not assigned to VA/BC (44.8%; P = 0.02). The effect was apparent ≥6 mo postpartum (relative risk: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.73). No associations with proviral load were observed. The multivitamin had no effects. In observational analyses, β-carotene but not retinol breast-milk concentrations were significantly associated with an increased viral load in milk. VA/BC supplementation in lactating women increases the HIV load in breast milk. This finding contributes to explaining the adverse effect of VA/BC on mother-to-child transmission. β-Carotene appears to have an effect on breast-milk viral load, independent of preformed vitamin A. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00197756.

  9. Loads and Aeroelasticity Division research and technology accomplishments for FY 1984 and plans for FY 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. E.; Dixon, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The loads and aeroelasticity divisions research accomplishments are presented. The work under each branch or technical area, described in terms of highlights of accomplishments during the past year and highlights of plans for the current year as they relate to 5 year plans for each technical area. This information will be useful in program coordination with other government organizations and industry in areas of mutual interest.

  10. August 2007 FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Recommendations for SHEDS-Dietary and SHEDS-Residential Modules (Summarized) and EPA Responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past ten years, the Agency has requested the Panel to review several probabilistic dietary exposure software models. These have included DEEM-FCID™, Calendex-FCID, CARES™, LifeLine™, and an earlier (specialized) version of SHEDS (SHEDS-Wood) designed to assess exposure...

  11. 78 FR 31851 - Harmonization of Airworthiness Standards-Gust and Maneuver Load Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... airplanes equipped with wing-mounted engines; revise the engine torque loads criteria; add an engine failure... equipped with wing-mounted engines. Following an accident in which an airplane shed a large wing- mounted...-93-137, November 15, 1993). This recommendation was specifically aimed at gust loads on wing-mounted...

  12. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE LOADING DOCKS, SHOWING SUSPENDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE LOADING DOCKS, SHOWING SUSPENDER BARS AND ORIGINAL SHIPLAP SIDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 19. WEST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE, SOUTH STORAGE SHED ATTACHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST REAR AND SOUTH SIDE, SOUTH STORAGE SHED ATTACHED TO REAR OF HANGAR SHED. A SIMILAR NORTH STORAGE SHED IS VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Permissive and protective factors associated with presence, level, and longitudinal pattern of cervicovaginal HIV shedding.

    PubMed

    Homans, James; Christensen, Shawna; Stiller, Tracey; Wang, Chia-Hao; Mack, Wendy; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth; Cohen, Mardge; Strickler, Howard; Karim, Roksana; Spencer, Lashonda Yvette; Operskalski, Eva; Frederick, Toinette; Kovacs, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    Cervicovaginal HIV level (CV-VL) influences HIV transmission. Plasma viral load (PVL) correlates with CV-VL, but discordance is frequent. We evaluated how PVL, behavioral, immunological, and local factors/conditions individually and collectively correlate with CV-VL. CV-VL was measured in the cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL) of 481 HIV-infected women over 976 person-visits in a longitudinal cohort study. We correlated identified factors with CV-VL at individual person-visits and detectable/undetectable PVL strata by univariate and multivariate linear regression and with shedding pattern (never, intermittent, persistent ≥3 shedding visits) in 136 women with ≥3 visits by ordinal logistic regression. Of 959 person-visits, 450 (46.9%) with available PVL were discordant, 435 (45.3%) had detectable PVL with undetectable CV-VL, and 15 (1.6%) had undetectable PVL with detectable CV-VL. Lower CV-VL correlated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usage (P = 0.01). Higher CV-VL correlated with higher PVL (P < 0.001), inflammation-associated cellular changes (P = 0.03), cervical ectopy (P = 0.009), exudate (P = 0.005), and trichomoniasis (P = 0.03). In multivariate analysis of the PVL-detectable stratum, increased CV-VL correlated with the same factors and friability (P = 0.05), while with undetectable PVL, decreased CV-VL correlated with HAART use (P = 0.04). In longitudinal analysis, never (40.4%) and intermittent (44.9%) shedding were most frequent. Higher frequency shedders were more likely to have higher initial PVL [odds ratio (OR) = 2.47/log10 increase], herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositivity (OR = 3.21), and alcohol use (OR = 2.20). Although PVL correlates strongly with CV-VL, discordance is frequent. When PVL is detectable, cervicovaginal inflammatory conditions correlate with increased shedding. However, genital shedding is sporadic and not reliably predicted by associated factors. HAART, by reducing PVL, is the most reliable means of reducing

  15. 12. VIEW OF CANOPY OVER NORTHWEST LOADING PLATFORM, RUNNING NEARLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF CANOPY OVER NORTHWEST LOADING PLATFORM, RUNNING NEARLY THE ENTIRE LENGTH OF THE BUILDING - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER SUPPORT MEMBERS AND SUSPENDER BAR MOUNTING HARDWARE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. On the flexibility of grammatical advance planning during sentence production: Effects of cognitive load on multiple lexical access.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Valentin; Jescheniak, Jörg D; Schriefers, Herbert

    2010-03-01

    Three picture-word interference experiments addressed the question of whether the scope of grammatical advance planning in sentence production corresponds to some fixed unit or rather is flexible. Subjects produced sentences of different formats under varying amounts of cognitive load. When speakers described 2-object displays with simple sentences of the form "the frog is next to the mug," the 2 nouns were found to be lexically-semantically activated to similar degrees at speech onset, as indexed by similarly sized interference effects from semantic distractors related to either the first or the second noun. When speakers used more complex sentences (including prenominal color adjectives; e.g., "the blue frog is next to the blue mug") much larger interference effects were observed for the first than the second noun, suggesting that the second noun was lexically-semantically activated before speech onset on only a subset of trials. With increased cognitive load, introduced by an additional conceptual decision task and variable utterance formats, the interference effect for the first noun was increased and the interference effect for second noun disappeared, suggesting that the scope of advance planning had been narrowed. By contrast, if cognitive load was induced by a secondary working memory task to be performed during speech planning, the interference effect for both nouns was increased, suggesting that the scope of advance planning had not been affected. In all, the data suggest that the scope of advance planning during grammatical encoding in sentence production is flexible, rather than structurally fixed.

  18. Evaluative pressure overcomes perceptual load effects.

    PubMed

    Normand, Alice; Autin, Frédérique; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2015-06-01

    Perceptual load has been found to be a powerful bottom-up determinant of distractibility, with high perceptual load preventing distraction by any irrelevant information. However, when under evaluative pressure, individuals exert top-down attentional control by giving greater weight to task-relevant features, making them more distractible from task-relevant distractors. One study tested whether the top-down modulation of attention under evaluative pressure overcomes the beneficial bottom-up effect of high perceptual load on distraction. Using a response-competition task, we replicated previous findings that high levels of perceptual load suppress task-relevant distractor response interference, but only for participants in a control condition. Participants under evaluative pressure (i.e., who believed their intelligence was assessed) showed interference from task-relevant distractor at all levels of perceptual load. This research challenges the assumptions of the perceptual load theory and sheds light on a neglected determinant of distractibility: the self-relevance of the performance situation in which attentional control is solicited.

  19. Delineating resource sheds in aquatic ecosystems (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of spatially-explicit ecological phenomena in aquatic ecosystems is impeded by a lack of knowledge of, and tools to delimit, spatial patterns of material supply to point locations. Here we apply the concept of "resource sheds" to coasts and watersheds. Resource sheds ar...

  20. 3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING DOCK AND GABLE ROOFED SHED. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Shed-blood-separation and cell-saver: an integral Part of MiECC? Shed-blood-separation and its influence on the perioperative inflammatory response during coronary revascularization with minimal invasive extracorporeal circulation systems - a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Adrian; Hausmann, Harald; Schaarschmidt, Jan; Scharpenberg, Martin; Troitzsch, Dirk; Johansen, Peter; Nygaard, Hans; Eberle, Thomas; Hasenkam, J Michael

    2018-03-01

    The postoperative systemic inflammatory response after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is still an undesirable side-effect after cardiac surgery. It is most likely caused by blood contact with foreign surfaces and by the surgical trauma itself. However, the recirculation of activated shed mediastinal blood is another main cause of blood cell activation and cytokine release. Minimal invasive extracorporeal circulation (MiECC) comprises a completely closed circuit, coated surfaces and the separation of suction blood. We hypothesized that MiECC, with separated cell saved blood, would induce less of a systemic inflammatory response than MiECC with no cell-saver. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the impact of cell washing shed blood from the operating field versus direct return to the ECC on the biomarkers for systemic inflammation. In the study, patients with MiECC and cell-saver were compared with the control group, patients with MiECC and direct re-transfusion of the drawn blood shed from the surgical field. High amounts of TNF-α (+ 120% compared to serum blood) were found in the shed blood itself, but a significant reduction was demonstrated with the use of a cell-saver (TNF-α ng/l post-ECC 10 min: 9.5±3.5 vs. 19.7±14.5, p<0.0001). The values for procalcitonin were not significantly increased in the control group (6h: 1.07±3.4 vs. 2.15±9.55, p=0.19) and lower for C-reactive protein (CRP) (24h: 147.1±64.0 vs.134.4±52.4 p=0.28). The use of a cell-saver and the processing of shed blood as an integral part of MiECC significantly reduces the systemic cytokine load. We, therefore, recommend the integration of cell-saving devices in MiECC to reduce the perioperative inflammatory response.

  2. Prevalence, environmental loading, and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia isolates from domestic and wild animals along the Central California Coast.

    PubMed

    Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Conrad, Patricia A; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Dominik, Clare; Roug, Annette; Tinker, M Tim; Miller, Woutrina A

    2012-12-01

    The risk of disease transmission from waterborne protozoa is often dependent on the origin (e.g., domestic animals versus wildlife), overall parasite load in contaminated waterways, and parasite genotype, with infections being linked to runoff or direct deposition of domestic animal and wildlife feces. Fecal samples collected from domestic animals and wildlife along the central California coast were screened to (i) compare the prevalence and associated risk factors for fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species parasites, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of animal host groups that contribute to pathogen loading in coastal ecosystems, and (iii) characterize zoonotic and host-specific genotypes. Overall, 6% of fecal samples tested during 2007 to 2010 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and 15% were positive for Giardia cysts. Animal host group and age class were significantly associated with detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in animal feces. Fecal loading analysis revealed that infected beef cattle potentially contribute the greatest parasite load relative to other host groups, followed by wild canids. Beef cattle, however, shed host-specific, minimally zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis genotypes, whereas wild canids shed potentially zoonotic genotypes, including G. duodenalis assemblages A and B. Given that the parasite genotypes detected in cattle were not zoonotic, the public health risk posed by protozoan parasite shedding in cattle feces may be lower than that posed by other animals, such as wild canids, that routinely shed zoonotic genotypes.

  3. Prevalence, Environmental Loading, and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Domestic and Wild Animals along the Central California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Conrad, Patricia A.; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Dominik, Clare; Roug, Annette; Tinker, M. Tim; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of disease transmission from waterborne protozoa is often dependent on the origin (e.g., domestic animals versus wildlife), overall parasite load in contaminated waterways, and parasite genotype, with infections being linked to runoff or direct deposition of domestic animal and wildlife feces. Fecal samples collected from domestic animals and wildlife along the central California coast were screened to (i) compare the prevalence and associated risk factors for fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species parasites, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of animal host groups that contribute to pathogen loading in coastal ecosystems, and (iii) characterize zoonotic and host-specific genotypes. Overall, 6% of fecal samples tested during 2007 to 2010 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and 15% were positive for Giardia cysts. Animal host group and age class were significantly associated with detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in animal feces. Fecal loading analysis revealed that infected beef cattle potentially contribute the greatest parasite load relative to other host groups, followed by wild canids. Beef cattle, however, shed host-specific, minimally zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis genotypes, whereas wild canids shed potentially zoonotic genotypes, including G. duodenalis assemblages A and B. Given that the parasite genotypes detected in cattle were not zoonotic, the public health risk posed by protozoan parasite shedding in cattle feces may be lower than that posed by other animals, such as wild canids, that routinely shed zoonotic genotypes. PMID:23042185

  4. 2. SOUTH FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757) SHOWING SIGN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757) SHOWING SIGN HOLDER ON LEFT AND ENTRANCE TO TEST CELL. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER AND METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) IN BACKGROUND ON LEFT; SOUTHEAST CORNER OF GPS AZIMUTH STATION (BLDG. 775) IN BACKGROUND BEHIND AND RIGHT OF PYROTECHNIC SHED. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Pyrotechnic Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Effect of vitamin supplements on HIV shedding in breast milk123

    PubMed Central

    Koulinska, Irene N; Aboud, Said; Murrin, Clare; Bosch, Ronald J; Manji, Karim P; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2010-01-01

    Background: Supplementation in lactating HIV-1–infected women with preformed vitamin A and β-carotene (VA/BC) increases the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. Identifying a biological mechanism to explain this unexpected finding would lend support to a causal effect. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of VA/BC or multivitamin (B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) supplementation of HIV-infected women on HIV shedding in breast milk during the first 2 y postpartum. Design: We quantified viral (cell-free) and proviral (cell-associated) HIV loads in breast-milk samples collected ≤15 d after delivery and every 3 mo thereafter from 594 Tanzanian HIV-1–infected women who participated in a randomized trial. Women received 1 of the following 4 daily oral regimens in a 2 × 2 factorial fashion during pregnancy and throughout the first 2 y postpartum: multivitamin, VA/BC, multivitamin including VA/BC, or placebo. Results: The proportion of breast-milk samples with detectable viral load was significantly higher in women who received VA/BC (51.3%) than in women who were not assigned to VA/BC (44.8%; P = 0.02). The effect was apparent ≥6 mo postpartum (relative risk: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.73). No associations with proviral load were observed. The multivitamin had no effects. In observational analyses, β-carotene but not retinol breast-milk concentrations were significantly associated with an increased viral load in milk. Conclusions: VA/BC supplementation in lactating women increases the HIV load in breast milk. This finding contributes to explaining the adverse effect of VA/BC on mother-to-child transmission. β-Carotene appears to have an effect on breast-milk viral load, independent of preformed vitamin A. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00197756. PMID:20739426

  6. Counter and Complicit Masculine Discourse Among Men's Shed Members.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Corey S; Roger, Kerstin; Robertson, Steve; Oliffe, John L; Nurmi, Mary Anne; Urquhart, James

    2017-07-01

    Men's Sheds is a growing international movement aimed at providing men with places and activities that facilitate social connectedness. Despite Men's Sheds' focus on males, little attention has been paid to masculinities within the specific context of these settings. The current study used a gender relations framework to explore the ways in which attendees discussed Men's Sheds, with particular attention to discussions that were complicit and counter to traditional, hegemonic views of masculinity, and diverse positions in between these binaries. The data consisted of transcripts and field notes from four focus groups comprising mostly older, White, retired male members of a Canadian shed ( N = 22). The analysis revealed three overall themes: (1) focus on work, (2) independence, and (3) need for male-focused spaces. These themes and associated subthemes suggest that shed members ascribe to dominant masculine values and ideals, but also support more fluid and flexible views of masculinity. Implications are discussed for how working with an array of masculinities within the Men's Sheds movement will be helpful with respect to their future growth in Canada and internationally.

  7. Numerical Simulations of Vortex Shedding in Hydraulic Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel; Marcu, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    Turbomachines for rocket propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. Oxidizer boost turbines often operate in liquid oxygen, resulting in an incompressible flow field. Vortex shedding from airfoils in this flow environment can have adverse effects on both turbine performance and durability. In this study the effects of vortex shedding in a low-pressure oxidizer turbine are investigated. Benchmark results are also presented for vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder. The predicted results are compared with available experimental data.

  8. Prevalence, environmental loading, and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Conrad, Patricia A.; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.; Dominik, Clare; Roug, Annette; Tinker, M. Tim; Miller, Woutrina A.

    2012-01-01

    The risk of disease transmission from waterborne protozoa is often dependent on the origin (e.g., domestic animals versus wildlife), overall parasite load in contaminated waterways, and parasite genotype, with infections being linked to runoff or direct deposition of domestic animal and wildlife feces. Fecal samples collected from domestic animals and wildlife along the central California coast were screened to (i) compare the prevalence and associated risk factors for fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species parasites, (ii) evaluate the relative importance of animal host groups that contribute to pathogen loading in coastal ecosystems, and (iii) characterize zoonotic and host-specific genotypes. Overall, 6% of fecal samples tested during 2007 to 2010 were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and 15% were positive for Giardia cysts. Animal host group and age class were significantly associated with detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in animal feces. Fecal loading analysis revealed that infected beef cattle potentially contribute the greatest parasite load relative to other host groups, followed by wild canids. Beef cattle, however, shed host-specific, minimally zoonotic Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis genotypes, whereas wild canids shed potentially zoonotic genotypes, including G. duodenalis assemblages A and B. Given that the parasite genotypes detected in cattle were not zoonotic, the public health risk posed by protozoan parasite shedding in cattle feces may be lower than that posed by other animals, such as wild canids, that routinely shed zoonotic genotypes.

  9. A Proteomic Approach to Characterize Protein Shedding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ahram, Mamoun; Adkins, Joshua N.; Auberry, Deanna L.

    2005-01-01

    Shedding (i.e., proteolysis of ectodomains of membrane proteins) plays an important pathophysiological role. In order to study the feasibility of identifying shed proteins, we analyzed serum-free media of human mammary epithelial cells by mass spectrometry following induction of shedding by the phorbol ester, 4β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Different means of sample preparation, including biotinylation of cell surface proteins, isolation of glycosylated proteins, and preparation of crude protein fraction, were carried out to develop the optimal method of sample processing. The collected proteins were digested with trypsin and analyzed by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography interfaced to an ion-trap mass spectrometer. Themore » resulting peptide spectra were interpreted using the program SEQUEST. Analyzing the sample containing the crude protein mixture without chemical modification or separation resulted in the greatest number of identifications, including putatively shed proteins. Overall, 93 membrane-associated proteins were identified including 57 that contain at least one transmembrane domain and 36 that indirectly associate with the extracellular surface of the plasma membrane. Of the 57 transmembrane proteins, 43 were identified by extracellular peptides providing strong evidence for them originating from regulated proteolysis or shedding processes. We combined results from the different experiments and used a peptide count method to estimate changes in protein abundance. Using this approach, we identified 2 proteins, syndecan-4 and hepatoma-derived growth factor, whose abundances increased in media of cells treated with PMA. We also detected proteins whose abundances decreased after PMA treatment such as 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein and calreticulin. Further analysis using immunoblotting validated the abundance changes for syndecan-4 and 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein as a result of PMA treatment. These results demonstrate that

  10. Men's Sheds and the experience of depression in older Australian men.

    PubMed

    Culph, Jennifer S; Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2015-10-01

    Men's Sheds are community spaces where, usually, older men can socialise as they participate in a range of woodwork and other activities. There is currently little research evidence supporting the anecdotally reported mental health and wellbeing benefits of Men's Sheds. This research project investigated how older men with self-reported symptoms of depression experience their participation in Men's Sheds. This study included in-depth interviews and administration of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with 12 men from 3 Men's Sheds, triangulated with observation of the different shed environments. Interviews explored how participation in the Men's Shed, living in a regional area, and retirement intersected with experiences of depression. Participants had either self-reported symptoms of depression or a diagnosis of depression. The findings from this study support the notion that participation at Men's Sheds decreases self-reported symptoms of depression. Beck Depression Inventory-II scores showed that most participants were currently experiencing minimal depression. The Men's Sheds environment promoted a sense of purpose through relationships and in the sharing of skills, new routines, motivation, and enjoyment for its members. The shed encouraged increased physical activity and use of cognitive skills. Finally, participants reported feelings of pride and achievement which had an impact on their sense of self-worth. Men's Sheds provide an opportunity to promote health and wellbeing among retired men. The shed's activity and social focus offers a way to help men rediscover purpose and self. Further research is required to measure symptoms of depression before and after participation in Men's Sheds. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yard and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-2012.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the : concentration, load, and yield of selected water-quality constituents transported by stormwater from SCDOT section shed : and maintenance yard facilities. From March 2010 to January 2012, storm samp...

  12. Fostering transition to adulthood for young Australian males: an exploratory study of Men's Sheds' intergenerational mentoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Rahja, Miia; Scanlan, Justin Newton; Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie

    2016-06-01

    Men's Sheds are community spaces where socialisation occurs alongside participation in meaningful activities. Shed activities and socialisation make them useful for supporting transition to adulthood of 'at-risk' young people through meaningful occupations. Many sheds have implemented intergenerational mentoring programmes. However, many programmes are established on an ad-hoc basis without specific attention to factors that may support effective and sustainable outcomes. We aimed to inform future programmes by exploring different programmes to provide insight into the purpose, design and programme characteristics that are perceived as beneficial for young males. Four Sydney-based sheds providing intergenerational mentoring programmes were selected. We interviewed shed coordinators, mentors and mentees to explore their perceptions of programme characteristics that supported mentees' transition to adulthood. Thematic analysis techniques were used to first analyse and understand the unique context of each programme and these were then merged and integrated to identify the most helpful aspects of these mentoring programmes. Mentor attitude towards the mentees, freedom to make independent choices and the nature and perceived usefulness of the project were considered the most significant characteristics of these programmes. This was the first known examination of the different characteristics of Men's Sheds intergenerational mentoring programmes. On the basis of our findings, we have made recommendations to help guide the planning and implementation of future programmes. While our findings largely support previous research on mentoring programmes, findings from this study suggest that 'expert skills' may not be as important as mentor attitude to working with the mentees. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  13. 34. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce) no date CONTRACT 1519/CITY OF NEW YORK/DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES/ FREIGHT SHED/ W. 55TH ST. IMPROVEMENT/BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ GENERAL FRAMING PLANS - PIER SHED (Drawing 6 of 16) - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  14. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby andmore » Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed

  15. 28. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce) dated July 11, 1985 CONTRACT NO. 3960/CITY OF NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF PORTS AND TERMINALS/DEMOLITION & REMOVAL OF SHEDS OF PIERS 95 AND 96, N.R./ BOROUGH OF. MANHATTAN/ PLANS, PIERHSED & BULKHEAD SHED, PIER 95 - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  16. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2) 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3) 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4) 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL), herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined. Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03). In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL) was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, p<0.001) and HSV shedding (β = 0.24 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95% CI:0.16-0.32, p<0.001) but not the presence of herpetic lesions (β = -0.10, 95%CI:-0.28-0.08, p = 0.27). HIV PVL and HSV shedding were more important determinants of genital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  17. Nanoscale interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, Sebastian; Provatas, Nikolas; Rey, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Interfacial defect shedding is the most recent known mechanism for defect formation in a thermally driven isotropic-to-nematic phase transition. It manifests in nematic-isotropic interfaces going through an anchoring switch. Numerical computations in planar geometry established that a growing nematic droplet can undergo interfacial defect shedding, nucleating interfacial defect structures that shed into the bulk as +1/2 point defects. By extending the study of interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet to larger length and time scales, and to three dimensions, we unveil an oscillatory growth mode involving shape and anchoring transitions that results in a controllable regular distributions of point defects in planar geometry, and complex structures of disclination lines in three dimensions.

  18. A Workflow to Model Microbial Loadings in Watersheds ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many watershed models simulate overland and instream microbial fate and transport, but few actually provide loading rates on land surfaces and point sources to the water body network. This paper describes the underlying general equations for microbial loading rates associated with 1) land-applied manure on undeveloped areas from domestic animals; 2) direct shedding on undeveloped lands by domestic animals and wildlife; 3) urban or engineered areas; and 4) point sources that directly discharge to streams from septic systems and shedding by domestic animals. A microbial source module, which houses these formulations, is linked within a workflow containing eight models and a set of databases that form a loosely configured modeling infrastructure which supports watershed-scale microbial source-to-receptor modeling by focusing on animal-impacted catchments. A hypothetical example application – accessing, retrieving, and using real-world data – demonstrates the ability of the infrastructure to automate many of the manual steps associated with a standard watershed assessment, culminating with calibrated flow and microbial densities at the pour point of a watershed. Presented at 2016 Biennial Conference, International Environmental Modelling & Software Society.

  19. Load Forecasting of Central Urban Area Power Grid Based on Saturated Load Density Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huping, Yang; Chengyi, Tang; Meng, Yu

    2018-03-01

    In the current society, coordination between urban power grid development and city development has become more and more prominent. Electricity saturated load forecasting plays an important role in the planning and development of power grids. Electricity saturated load forecasting is a new concept put forward by China in recent years in the field of grid planning. Urban saturation load forecast is different from the traditional load forecasting method for specific years, the time span of it often relatively large, and involves a wide range of aspects. This study takes a county in eastern Jiangxi as an example, this paper chooses a variety of load forecasting methods to carry on the recent load forecasting calculation to central urban area. At the same time, this paper uses load density index method to predict the Longterm load forecasting of electric saturation load of central urban area lasted until 2030. And further study shows the general distribution of the urban saturation load in space.

  20. 1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  1. Modeling of Protection in Dynamic Simulation Using Generic Relay Models and Settings

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Samaan, Nader A.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Makarov, Yuri V.

    This paper shows how generic protection relay models available in planning tools can be augmented with settings that are based on NERC standards or best engineering practice. Selected generic relay models in Siemens PSS®E have been used in dynamic simulations in the proposed approach. Undervoltage, overvoltage, underfrequency, and overfrequency relays have been modeled for each generating unit. Distance-relay protection was modeled for transmission system protection. Two types of load-shedding schemes were modeled: underfrequency (frequency-responsive non-firm load shedding) and underfrequency and undervoltage firm load shedding. Several case studies are given to show the impact of protection devices on dynamic simulations. Thismore » is useful for simulating cascading outages.« less

  2. Houses and Sheds in Australia: An Exploration of the Genesis and Growth of Neighbourhood Houses and Men's Sheds in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry; Kimberley, Helen; Foley, Annette; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research into the genesis and spread of both neighbourhood houses and learning centres in Victoria and community-based men's sheds in Australia to identify some similarities and differences. Our article asks questions about the gendered communities of practice that underpin houses for women on the one hand, and sheds for men…

  3. Analysis and Prediction of Ice Shedding for a Full-Scale Heated Tail Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Work, Andrew; Douglass, Rebekah; Gazella, Matthew; Koster, Zakery; Turk, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    When helicopters are to fly in icing conditions, it is necessary to consider the possibility of ice shed from the rotor blades. In 2013, a series of tests were conducted on a heated tail rotor at NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The tests produced several shed events that were captured on camera. Three of these shed events were captured at a sufficiently high frame rate to obtain multiple images of the shed ice in flight that had a sufficiently long section of shed ice for analysis. Analysis of these shed events is presented and compared to an analytical Shedding Trajectory Model (STM). The STM is developed and assumes that the ice breaks off instantly as it reaches the end of the blade, while frictional and viscous forces are used as parameters to fit the STM. The trajectory of each shed is compared to that predicted by the STM, where the STM provides information of the shed group of ice as a whole. The limitations of the model's underlying assumptions are discussed in comparison to experimental shed events.

  4. A structural analysis of an ocean going patrol boat subjected to planning loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, James H.; Lafreniere, Robert; Stoodt, Robert; Wiedenheft, John

    1987-01-01

    A static structural analysis of an ocean going patrol vessel subjected to hydrodynamic planning loads is discussed. The analysis required the development of a detailed model that included hull plating, five structural bulkheads, longitudinal and transverse stiffners, and a coarse representation of the superstructure. The finite element model was developed from fabrication drawings using the Navy computer aided design system. Various stress and displacement contours are shown for the entire hull. Because several critical areas appeared to be overstressed, these areas were remeshed for detail and are presented for completeness.

  5. The personal and community impact of a Scottish Men's Shed.

    PubMed

    Foster, Emma J; Munoz, Sarah-Anne; Leslie, Stephen J

    2018-02-21

    Social isolation and loneliness are known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reducing social isolation and loneliness may improve such outcomes. In relation to men's health, "Men's Sheds" have been shown as one mechanism to achieve this. Studies in Australia and England have shown social, health and personal benefits; however, this remains an area that has not yet been researched in Scotland. This study, therefore, aimed to assess the characteristics of attendees, self-reported motivations for and the values and benefits of attending the Shed from the views of the attendees themselves. The participants of the study were the members of a Men's Shed in the North of Scotland, which was initially set-up by a small number of core Shedders. A convenience sample was recruited by opportunistic interviewing of participants when they attended the Shed using a mixed methods approach from 1 to 15 November 2016. In the absence of a validated questionnaire, a bespoke questionnaire was developed in several iterative stages. The answers to the questionnaire were transferred to an electronic database and analysed by frequency and thematic analysis. The participants (n = 31) had a mean age (SD) of 69.7 ± 9.5 with 96.8% being retired, thus the majority of the Shed users were older and retired. The results suggest that there were several benefits from attending the Shed, with an overwhelming majority of the sample reporting personal, social and health benefits-however, more research is needed to determine the magnitude of these. This study has also shown that the men attending the Shed frequently discussed health, which could potentially have a beneficial effect. The Shed therefore, as a community project, has the potential to have a positive impact on health welfare by focusing on the social aspects of life. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Efficacy of N-methanocarbathymidine against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding and infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Bravo, Fernando J; Pullum, Derek A; Shen, Hui; Wang, Mei; Rahman, Aquilur; Glazer, Robert I; Cardin, Rhonda D

    2015-02-01

    Current approved nucleoside therapies for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are effective but improved therapies are needed for treatment of both acute and recurrent diseases. The effects of N-methanocarbathymidine were evaluated and compared to acyclovir using guinea pig models of acute and recurrent infection. For acute disease following intravaginal inoculation of 10(6 )pfu HSV-2 (MS strain), animals were treated intraperitoneally beginning 24 h post-infection, and the effects on disease severity, vaginal virus replication, subsequent recurrences, and latent virus loads were evaluated. For evaluation of recurrent infection, animals were treated for 21 days beginning 14 days after infection and disease recurrence and recurrent shedding were evaluated. Treatment of the acute disease with N-methanocarbathymidine significantly reduced the severity of acute disease and decreased acute vaginal virus shedding more effectively than acyclovir. Significantly, none of the animals developed visible disease in the high-dose N-methanocarbathymidine group and this was the only group in which the number of days with recurrent virus shedding was reduced. Treatment of recurrent disease was equivalent to acyclovir when acyclovir was continuously supplied in the drinking water. N-methanocarbathymidine was effective as therapy for acute and recurrent genital HSV-2 disease in the guinea pig models. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. The Role of Collaborative Learning on Training and Development Practices within the Australian Men's Shed Movement: A Study of Five Men's Sheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Jillian; Southcombe, Amie; Bartram, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role and impact of collaborative learning on training and development practices in Australian Men's Sheds. We use a case study approach, underpinned by Peters and Armstrong's theoretical framework of collaborative learning in adult education, to investigate five Men's Sheds. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with…

  8. Effect of Genital Herpes on Cervicovaginal HIV Shedding in Women Co-Infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A.; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Design Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2) 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3) 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4) 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL), herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined. Results Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03). In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL) was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41–0.60, p<0.001) and HSV shedding (β = 0.24 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95% CI:0.16–0.32, p<0.001) but not the presence of herpetic lesions (β = −0.10, 95%CI:−0.28–0.08, p = 0.27). Conclusions HIV PVL and HSV shedding were more important determinants of genital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility. PMID:23516595

  9. HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 genital shedding among co-infected women using self-collected swabs in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Forhan, S E; Dunne, E F; Sternberg, M R; Whitehead, S J; Leelawiwat, W; Thepamnuay, S; Chen, C; Evans-Strickfaden, Tt; McNicholl, J M; Markowitz, L E

    2012-08-01

    We analysed 528 genital self-collected swabs (SCS) from 67 HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infected women collected during the placebo month of a randomized crossover clinical trial of suppressive acyclovir in Chiang Rai, Thailand. In this first longitudinal study of HIV-1 and HSV-2 co-infected women using genital SCS specimens, we found frequent mucosal HIV-1 shedding. Overall, 372 (70%) swabs had detectable HIV-1 RNA with median HIV-1 viral load of 2.61 log(10) copies/swab. We found no statistically significant association between detectable HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 DNA in the same SCS specimen (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.40; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.78-2.60, P = 0.25). Only baseline HIV-1 plasma viral load was independently associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.3-17.2, P < 0.0001). SCS may be useful for future HIV-1 and HSV-2 studies because this method allows for frequent genital sampling, and inclusion of genital sites other than the cervix.

  10. A Workflow to Model Microbial Loadings in Watersheds ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many watershed models simulate overland and instream microbial fate and transport, but few actually provide loading rates on land surfaces and point sources to the water body network. This paper describes the underlying general equations for microbial loading rates associated with 1) land-applied manure on undeveloped areas from domestic animals; 2) direct shedding on undeveloped lands by domestic animals and wildlife; 3) urban or engineered areas; and 4) point sources that directly discharge to streams from septic systems and shedding by domestic animals. A microbial source module, which houses these formulations, is linked within a workflow containing eight models and a set of databases that form a loosely configured modeling infrastructure which supports watershed-scale microbial source-to-receptor modeling by focusing on animal-impacted catchments. A hypothetical example application – accessing, retrieving, and using real-world data – demonstrates the ability of the infrastructure to automate many of the manual steps associated with a standard watershed assessment, culminating with calibrated flow and microbial densities at the pour point of a watershed. In the Proceedings of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs), 8th International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, Toulouse, France

  11. Experimental investigation on cavitating flow shedding over an axisymmetric blunt body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changli; Wang, Guoyu; Huang, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, most researchers focus on the cavity shedding mechanisms of unsteady cavitating flows over different objects, such as 2D/3D hydrofoils, venturi-type section, axisymmetric bodies with different headforms, and so on. But few of them pay attention to the differences of cavity shedding modality under different cavitation numbers in unsteady cavitating flows over the same object. In the present study, two kinds of shedding patterns are investigated experimentally. A high speed camera system is used to observe the cavitating flows over an axisymmetric blunt body and the velocity fields are measured by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique in a water tunnel for different cavitation conditions. The U-type cavitating vortex shedding is observed in unsteady cavitating flows. When the cavitation number is 0.7, there is a large scale cavity rolling up and shedding, which cause the instability and dramatic fluctuation of the flows, while at cavitation number of 0.6, the detached cavities can be conjunct with the attached part to induce the break-off behavior again at the tail of the attached cavity, as a result, the final shedding is in the form of small scale cavity and keeps a relatively steady flow field. It is also found that the interaction between the re-entrant flow and the attached cavity plays an important role in the unsteady cavity shedding modality. When the attached cavity scale is insufficient to overcome the re-entrant flow, it deserves the large cavity rolling up and shedding just as that at cavitation number of 0.7. Otherwise, the re-entrant flow is defeated by large enough cavity to induce the cavity-combined process and small scale cavity vortexes shedding just as that of the cavitation number of 0.6. This research shows the details of two different cavity shedding modalities which is worthful and meaningful for the further study of unsteady cavitation.

  12. Cytomegalovirus Urinary Shedding in HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kristina; Xu, Jiahong; Ank, Bonnie; Watts, D Heather; Mofenson, Lynne M; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Morgado, Mariza G; Bryson, Yvonne J; Veloso, Valdilea G; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Moye, Jack; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) urinary shedding in pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was evaluated to determine whether it poses an increased risk for congenital CMV infection (cCMV). A subset of mother-infant pairs enrolled in the perinatal NICHD HPTN 040 study (distinguished by no antiretroviral use before labor) was evaluated. Maternal and infant urines were tested by qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for CMV DNA with quantitative RT-PCR performed on positive specimens. Urine specimens were available for 260 women with 85.4% from the Americas and 14.6% from South Africa. Twenty-four women (9.2%) had detectable CMV viruria by qualitative PCR. Maternal CMV viruria was not associated with mean CD4 cell counts or HIV viral load but was associated with younger maternal age (P = .02). Overall, 10 of 260 infants (3.8%) had cCMV. Women with detectable peripartum CMV viruria were more likely to have infants with cCMV than those without: 20.8% (5/24) versus 2.1% (5/236), (P = .0001). Women with CMV viruria had significantly higher rates of HIV perinatal transmission (29.2% vs. 8.1%, P = .002). They were 5 times (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-16.8) and nearly 30 times (aOR, 29.7; 95% CI, 5.4-164.2) more likely to transmit HIV and CMV to their infants, respectively. Maternal gonorrhea (aOR, 19.5; 95% CI, 2.5-151.3) and higher maternal HIV log10 viral load (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3) were also significant risk factors for cCMV. In this cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women not on antiretrovirals, urinary CMV shedding was a significant risk factor for CMV and HIV transmission to infants. NCT00099359. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. West elevation of shed. Metal siding covers up the original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West elevation of shed. Metal siding covers up the original front of what was once the Middlekauf shoe shop. - Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Company, Shed, 851 Pennsylvania Avenue, Hagerstown, Washington County, MD

  14. HIV shedding in cervico-vaginal secretions in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Maccabruni, Anna; Mariani, Bianca; Panzeri, Lucia; Zara, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal secretions of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant HIV-seropositive women. We compared 43 known HIV seropositive pregnant patients versus 241 age-matched (± 2 years) control non-pregnant HIV-seropositive subjects. In pregnant patients blood and cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during each trimester of pregnancy. In control subjects the same samples were obtained at enrolment. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma; proviral HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervico-vaginal secretion by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genital shedding of HIV-DNA (22/43 as compared to 79/241, p = 0.02), and cell-free HIV-RNA detection (26/43 as compared to 72/241, p < .001) was more common in first-trimester pregnant than in non pregnant women. Pregnancy correlated with a significant positive trend in the cervico-vaginal load of HIV-DNA (Spearman Rho= 0.149, p= 0.012), and cell-free HIV-RNA (Spearman Rho= 0.253, p < .001), but not of HIV-RNA transcripts (Spearman Rho = 0.06, p= 0.31). After correction for potential confounders, first trimester pregnant women had increased rates of genital HIV- DNA (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 3.78) and cell-free HIV-RNA (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.97 8.41) detection compared to nonpregnant controls. The shedding of genital HIV was increased in pregnant compared to non pregnant subjects, even in patients with undetectable viremia. In this low-risk HIV-positive population the risks of vertical or horizontal transmissions should not be underestimated.

  15. Subclinical herpesvirus shedding among HIV-1-infected men on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Hernandez, Arcadio; Chen, Yue; Bullotta, Arlene; Buchanan, William G; Klamar-Blain, Cynthia R; Borowski, Luann; Riddler, Sharon A; Rinaldo, Charles R; Macatangay, Bernard J C

    2017-09-24

    We evaluated the subclinical shedding of six different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV-positive [HIV(+)] MSM, and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T-cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV-negative [HIV (-)] MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at four timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8. T-cell activation and plasma levels of soluble markers of inflammation and activation were also measured at the corresponding timepoints. HIV(+) participants had a trend for higher total herpesvirus shedding rate. HIV(+) participants also had a significantly higher rate of shedding EBV and CMV compared with the HIV(-) group. Herpesvirus shedding was mostly seen in throat washings. In the HIV(+) group, herpesvirus shedding rate inversely correlated with plasma levels of interferon γ-induced protein 10 and soluble CD163. CMV DNA levels negatively correlated with levels of T-cell activation. There was a trend for a positive correlation between EBV shedding rate and plasma soluble CD14. HHV6 shedding rate negatively correlated with plasma levels of interleukin-6, soluble CD163, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Correlations were not observed among HIV(-) individuals. Among treated HIV-infected MSM, there are higher subclinical shedding rates of some herpesviruses that occur in different body compartments and negatively correlate with levels of inflammation and immune activation.

  16. 4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MACHINERY SHED AND STORAGE ROOM ADDITION, SOUTH AND WEST WALL LOOKING NORTHEAST SEED STORAGE BUILDING (1963) BEHIND - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  17. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    PubMed

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST CORNER OF SHED, OBSTRUCTED BY LATE METAL BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE GENERAL VIEW SHOWING EAST CORNER OF SHED, WITH RAILROAD TRACKS PASSING UNDER DERRICK ALONG WHARF - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 2. ACID STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ACID STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Acid Storage Shed, North of launch area, northwest of earthen berm of Acid Fueling Station, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  1. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  2. East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East elevation of bunkhouse and agriculture storage sheds, looking west. The shower house is adjacent to the storage sheds and just south of the bunkhouse. - Sespe Ranch, Bunkhouse, 2896 Telegraph Road, Fillmore, Ventura County, CA

  3. 2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION TERMINAL (MDAT) INSIDE BUILDING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 2. SHED, SOUTH END OF SHORTER BARRACKS, FRONT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SHED, SOUTH END OF SHORTER BARRACKS, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, South of Launch Area Entrance Drive, near security fence, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  5. View of EPA Farm storage shed, facing north. Greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm storage shed, facing north. Greenhouse is in background - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Storage Shed, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully extended and photographer in bucket - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  7. SHEDS-HT: An Integrated Probabilistic Exposure Model for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) researchers are developing a strategy for highthroughput (HT) exposure-based prioritization of chemicals under the ExpoCast program. These novel modeling approaches for evaluating chemicals based on their potential for biologically relevant human exposures will inform toxicity testing and prioritization for chemical risk assessment. Based on probabilistic methods and algorithms developed for The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Multimedia, Multipathway Chemicals (SHEDS-MM), a new mechanistic modeling approach has been developed to accommodate high-throughput (HT) assessment of exposure potential. In this SHEDS-HT model, the residential and dietary modules of SHEDS-MM have been operationally modified to reduce the user burden, input data demands, and run times of the higher-tier model, while maintaining critical features and inputs that influence exposure. The model has been implemented in R; the modeling framework links chemicals to consumer product categories or food groups (and thus exposure scenarios) to predict HT exposures and intake doses. Initially, SHEDS-HT has been applied to 2507 organic chemicals associated with consumer products and agricultural pesticides. These evaluations employ data from recent USEPA efforts to characterize usage (prevalence, frequency, and magnitude), chemical composition, and exposure scenarios for a wide range of consumer products. In modeling indirec

  8. On the Flexibility of Grammatical Advance Planning during Sentence Production: Effects of Cognitive Load on Multiple Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Valentin; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Three picture-word interference experiments addressed the question of whether the scope of grammatical advance planning in sentence production corresponds to some fixed unit or rather is flexible. Subjects produced sentences of different formats under varying amounts of cognitive load. When speakers described 2-object displays with simple…

  9. 9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH DERRICK AND RAILWAY PASS-TROUGH ON WHARF, LOOKING NORTH - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. EPA's SHEDS-multimedia model: children's cumulative pyrethroid exposure estimates and evaluation against NHANES biomarker data.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Tulve, Nicolle S

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. EPA's SHEDS-Multimedia model was applied to enhance the understanding of children's exposures and doses to multiple pyrethroid pesticides, including major contributing chemicals and pathways. This paper presents combined dietary and residential exposure estimates and cumulative doses for seven commonly used pyrethroids, and comparisons of model evaluation results with NHANES biomarker data for 3-PBA and DCCA metabolites. Model input distributions were fit to publicly available pesticide usage survey data, NHANES, and other studies, then SHEDS-Multimedia was applied to estimate total pyrethroid exposures and doses for 3-5 year olds for one year variability simulations. For dose estimations we used a pharmacokinetic model and two approaches for simulating dermal absorption. SHEDS-Multimedia predictions compared well to NHANES biomarker data: ratios of 3-PBA observed data to SHEDS-Multimedia modeled results were 0.88, 0.51, 0.54 and 1.02 for mean, median, 95th, and 99th percentiles, respectively; for DCCA, the ratios were 0.82, 0.53, 0.56, and 0.94. Modeled time-averaged cumulative absorbed dose of the seven pyrethroids was 3.1 nmol/day (versus 8.4 nmol/day for adults) in the general population (residential pyrethroid use and non-use homes) and 6.7 nmol/day (versus 10.5 nmol/day for adults) in the simulated residential pyrethroid use population. For the general population, contributions to modeled cumulative dose by chemical were permethrin (60%), cypermethrin (22%), and cyfluthrin (16%); for residential use homes, contributions were cypermethrin (49%), permethrin (29%), and cyfluthrin (17%). The primary exposure route for 3-5 year olds in the simulated residential use population was non-dietary ingestion exposure; whereas for the simulated general population, dietary exposure was the primary exposure route. Below the 95th percentile, the major exposure pathway was dietary for the general population; non-dietary ingestion was the major pathway starting below

  11. Comparison of original and generic clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose in the patients who planned undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Srimahachota, Suphot; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat; Udayachalerm, Wasan; Buddhari, Wacin; Chaipromprasit, Jarkarpun; Lertsuwunseri, Vorarit; Akkawat, Benjaporn; Jirapattrathamrong, Somboon

    2012-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of original (Plavix) and generic (Apolets) clopidogrel 600 mg loading in patients planning to undergo coronary angiography. This is an experimental design, parallel, randomized-controlled study. Coronary artery disease patients planned for cardiac catheterization were recruited Patients were randomized to receive either original or generic clopidogrel 600 mg loading dose. Platelet aggregation induced by 5 micromol/L and 20 micromol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was measured by light transmission aggregometry (LTA) at baseline and 6 hours after clopidogrel 600 mg administration. Forty-nine patients were enrolled, 24 patients received original clopidogrel, and 25 patients received generic clopidogrel. After six hours of loading, there was significantly reduction in platelet aggregation induced by adenosine 5 micromol/L from 41.08 +/- 3.04% to 19.50 +/- 1.68% (p < 0.001) in original group compared to 36.76 +/- 2.66% to 21.32 +/- 2.60% (p < 0.001) in generic group. When induced by 20 micromol/L, the platelet aggregation was reduced from 58.50 +/- 2.09% to 32.25 +/- 2.30% (p < 0.001) in original group and from 61.12 +/- 2.54% to 30.04 +/- 3.14% (p < 0.001) in generic group. There was no significant difference between original and generic clopidogrel in reducing platelet aggregation induced by both adenosine 5 and 20 micromol/L. Groin hematoma was found in one case (4.2%) in the original clopidogrel group. Generic clopidogrel (Apolets) 600 mg loading dose is as effective as original clopidogrel (Plavix) in term of platelet aggregation inhibition.

  12. Salmonella Fecal Shedding and Immune Responses are Dose- and Serotype- Dependent in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ivanek, Renata; Österberg, Julia; Gautam, Raju; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of Salmonella infection in pigs, little is known about the associated dynamics of fecal shedding and immunity. In this study, we investigated the transitions of pigs through the states of Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response post-Salmonella inoculation as affected by the challenge dose and serotype. Continuous-time multistate Markov models were developed using published experimental data. The model for shedding had four transient states, of which two were shedding (continuous and intermittent shedding) and two non-shedding (latency and intermittent non-shedding), and one absorbing state representing permanent cessation of shedding. The immune response model had two transient states representing responses below and above the seroconversion level. The effects of two doses [low (0.65×106 CFU/pig) and high (0.65×109 CFU/pig)] and four serotypes (Salmonella Yoruba, Salmonella Cubana, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Derby) on the models' transition intensities were evaluated using a proportional intensities model. Results indicated statistically significant effects of the challenge dose and serotype on the dynamics of shedding and immune response. The time spent in the specific states was also estimated. Continuous shedding was on average 10–26 days longer, while intermittent non-shedding was 2–4 days shorter, in pigs challenged with the high compared to low dose. Interestingly, among pigs challenged with the high dose, the continuous and intermittent shedding states were on average up to 10–17 and 3–4 days longer, respectively, in pigs infected with S. Cubana compared to the other three serotypes. Pigs challenged with the high dose of S. Typhimurium or S. Derby seroconverted on average up to 8–11 days faster compared to the low dose. These findings highlight that Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response following Salmonella challenge are dose- and serotype-dependent and that the detection of specific

  13. 2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. 7. Fog signal house and shed, view south, north and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Fog signal house and shed, view south, north and west sides of fog signal house, northeast and northwest sides of shed - Whitehead Light Station, Whitehead Island, East northeast of Tenants Harbor, Spruce Head, Knox County, ME

  15. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus Into the Rectum of HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Foster, Andrew L; Gaisa, Michael M; Hijdra, Rosanne M; Turner, Samuel S; Morey, Tristan J; Jacobson, Karen B; Fierer, Daniel S

    2017-02-01

    For over a decade we have known of an epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), but there still remains significant controversy over which bodily fluid(s) are responsible for HCV transmission in these men. We enrolled HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV from rectal fluid obtained by blind swab. We compared the rectal HCV viral load (VL) with paired blood HCV VL. We found rectal HCV shedding in 20 (47%) of 43 men, only one (2%) of whom had visible bleeding. Detection of rectal HCV shedding was associated with blood VL > 5 log 10 IU/mL (p = .01), and 85% with blood VL > 5 log 10 IU/mL had rectal shedding. The HCV VL of the rectal fluid ranged from 2.6 to 5.5 log 10 IU/mL. Based on the median rectal fluid VL, the surface of an average human penis would be exposed to at least 2,300 IU of HCV for the duration of anal intercourse. This study provides the first direct evidence to our knowledge that a sufficient quantity of HCV is shed into the rectum in HIV-infected men with HCV infection to directly infect an inserted penis or be passed indirectly through fomite-like transmission to the rectum of sex partner. We must develop an appropriate public health campaign to educate MSM about these routes of HCV infection to reverse the HCV epidemic among HIV-infected MSM. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. GGFC Special Bureau for Loading: current status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, T.; Plag, H.-P.; Francis, O.; Gegout, P.

    The Earth's surface is perpetually being displaced due to temporally varying atmospheric, oceanic and continental water mass surface loads. These non-geodynamic signals are of substantial magnitude that they contribute significantly to the scatter in geodetic observations of crustal motion. In February, 2002, the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) established a Special Bureau of Loading (SBL) whose primary charge is to provide consistent and valid estimates of surface mass loading effects to the IERS community for the purpose of correcting geodetic time series. Here we outline the primary principles involved in modelling the surface displacements and gravity changes induced by surface mass loading including the basic theory, the Earth model and the surface load data. We then identify a list of operational issues, including product validation, that need to be addressed by the SBL before products can be provided to the community. Finally, we outline areas for future research to further improve the loading estimates. We conclude by formulating a recommendation on the best procedure for including loading corrections into geodetic data. Success of the SBL will depend on our ability to efficiently provide consistent and reliable estimates of surface mass loading effects. It is imperative that we work closely with the existing Global Geophysical Fluids Center (GGFC) Special Bureaus and with the community to as much as possible to verify the products.

  17. 34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 70'0' TRUSS. Sheet 7 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  18. 10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WIDE GENERAL VIEW OF SHED SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE AND TRUCK PLATFORM/STAGING AREA AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  19. 32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 161 TYPICAL SECTION & DETAILS. Sheet 5 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 END WALL FRAMING. Sheet 9 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. Counter and Complicit Masculine Discourse Among Men’s Shed Members

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Corey S.; Roger, Kerstin; Robertson, Steve; Oliffe, John L.; Nurmi, Mary Anne; Urquhart, James

    2017-01-01

    Men’s Sheds is a growing international movement aimed at providing men with places and activities that facilitate social connectedness. Despite Men’s Sheds’ focus on males, little attention has been paid to masculinities within the specific context of these settings. The current study used a gender relations framework to explore the ways in which attendees discussed Men’s Sheds, with particular attention to discussions that were complicit and counter to traditional, hegemonic views of masculinity, and diverse positions in between these binaries. The data consisted of transcripts and field notes from four focus groups comprising mostly older, White, retired male members of a Canadian shed (N = 22). The analysis revealed three overall themes: (1) focus on work, (2) independence, and (3) need for male-focused spaces. These themes and associated subthemes suggest that shed members ascribe to dominant masculine values and ideals, but also support more fluid and flexible views of masculinity. Implications are discussed for how working with an array of masculinities within the Men’s Sheds movement will be helpful with respect to their future growth in Canada and internationally. PMID:28068851

  2. Protoearth mass shedding and the origin of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Darwin's (1980) theory of lunar formation from the earth by means of a rotationally driven dynamic fission instability is presently considered in view of viscous shear's maintenance of solid body rotation throughout the protoearth's accretion phase. Assuming the appropriateness of a polytropic account of the protoearth, it is unlikely that dynamic fission could have occurred; instantaneous spin-up following a giant impact would instead have led to mass shedding. The dynamical phenomenon of mass shedding is here explored on the basis of numerical models for a self-gravitating, axisymmetric, polytropic and dissipative protoearth. It is concluded that mass shedding from the protoearth mantle after a giant impact and explosion could have contributed substantial matter to a lunar disk.

  3. 19. RW Meyer Sugar: 18761889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. RW Meyer Sugar: 1876-1889. Cooling Shed Interior, 1881. View: Looking toward west end of cooling shed. After the concentrated syrup flowed out of the sorghum pan it cooled and crystallized in large sugar coolers. The humidity and vapors caused by the sorghum pan would have retarded the crystallizing and cooling of the sugar in the boiling house. In 1881 this shed was constructed to house the coolers and the sugar before it was dried in the centrifugals. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  4. 33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 6 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Oakland Port and General Depot. Transit Shed No. 7, 936 feet, Building 127 STAIR & TOILET ROOM DETAILS. Sheet 3 of 16 - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. 5. PERSONNEL ROOM ON WEST SIDE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PERSONNEL ROOM ON WEST SIDE OF PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757) STORAGE LOCKER ON EAST WALL; PADDED TABLE ON SOUTH WALL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Pyrotechnic Shed, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 15. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF SHED, WITH AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF SHED, WITH AN OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE STEP-DOWN ROOF AND TWO BANKS OF CLEARSTORY LIGHTS - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. 27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ONE-STORY OFFICES, SHOWING TYPICAL COLUMN BASE WITH TIMBER BOLTED TO STEEL 'L' SHOE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. Development of cyclic shedding teeth from semi-shedding teeth: the inner dental arcade of the stem osteichthyan Lophosteus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Donglei; Blom, Henning; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Märss, Tiiu; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2017-05-01

    The numerous cushion-shaped tooth-bearing plates attributed to the stem group osteichthyan Lophosteus superbus, which are argued here to represent an early form of the osteichthyan inner dental arcade, display a previously unknown and presumably primitive mode of tooth shedding by basal hard tissue resorption. They carry regularly spaced, recumbent, gently recurved teeth arranged in transverse tooth files that diverge towards the lingual margin of the cushion. Three-dimensional reconstruction from propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRµCT) reveals remnants of the first-generation teeth embedded in the basal plate, a feature never previously observed in any taxon. These teeth were shed by semi-basal resorption with the periphery of their bases retained as dentine rings. The rings are highly overlapped, which evidences tooth shedding prior to adding the next first-generation tooth at the growing edge of the plate. The first generation of teeth is thus diachronous. Successor teeth at the same sites underwent cyclical replacing and shedding through basal resorption, producing stacks of buried resorption surfaces separated by bone of attachment. The number and spatial arrangement of resorption surfaces elucidates that basal resorption of replacement teeth had taken place at the older tooth sites before the addition of the youngest first-generation teeth at the lingual margin. Thus, the replacement tooth buds cannot have been generated by a single permanent dental lamina at the lingual edge of the tooth cushion, but must have arisen either from successional dental laminae associated with the individual predecessor teeth, or directly from the dental epithelium of these teeth. The virtual histological dissection of these Late Silurian microfossils broadens our understanding of the development of the gnathostome dental systems and the acquisition of the osteichthyan-type of tooth replacement.

  10. The Transition from Thick to Thin Plate Wake Physics: Whither Vortex Shedding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for six different combinations of the Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and boundary layer momentum thickness upstream of the trailing edge (theta). Unlike the case of the cylinder, these Reynolds numbers are independent parameters for the flat plate. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases investigated. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in the wake vortex shedding process as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing theta/D). The value of D varies by a factor of 16 and that of theta by approximately 5 in the computations. Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low theta/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the large theta/D cases. Other shedding characteristics are also significantly altered with increasing theta/D. A visualization of the shedding process in the different cases is provided and discussed. The basic shedding mechanism is explored in depth. The effect of changing theta/D on the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics is also discussed. A functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers mentioned above is obtained.

  11. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts. Note rock foundations of wood tanks once located under the rain shed on the ground at center of photograph. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  12. Comparison of DVH parameters and loading patterns of standard loading, manual and inverse optimization for intracavitary brachytherapy on a subset of tandem/ovoid cases.

    PubMed

    Jamema, Swamidas V; Kirisits, Christian; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Trnkova, Petra; Deshpande, Deepak D; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Pötter, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Comparison of inverse planning with the standard clinical plan and with the manually optimized plan based on dose-volume parameters and loading patterns. Twenty-eight patients who underwent MRI based HDR brachytherapy for cervix cancer were selected for this study. Three plans were calculated for each patient: (1) standard loading, (2) manual optimized, and (3) inverse optimized. Dosimetric outcomes from these plans were compared based on dose-volume parameters. The ratio of Total Reference Air Kerma of ovoid to tandem (TRAK(O/T)) was used to compare the loading patterns. The volume of HR CTV ranged from 9-68 cc with a mean of 41(±16.2) cc. Mean V100 for standard, manual optimized and inverse plans was found to be not significant (p=0.35, 0.38, 0.4). Dose to bladder (7.8±1.6 Gy) and sigmoid (5.6±1.4 Gy) was high for standard plans; Manual optimization reduced the dose to bladder (7.1±1.7 Gy p=0.006) and sigmoid (4.5±1.0 Gy p=0.005) without compromising the HR CTV coverage. The inverse plan resulted in a significant reduction to bladder dose (6.5±1.4 Gy, p=0.002). TRAK was found to be 0.49(±0.02), 0.44(±0.04) and 0.40(±0.04) cGy m(-2) for the standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively. It was observed that TRAK(O/T) was 0.82(±0.05), 1.7(±1.04) and 1.41(±0.93) for standard loading, manual optimized and inverse plans, respectively, while this ratio was 1 for the traditional loading pattern. Inverse planning offers good sparing of critical structures without compromising the target coverage. The average loading pattern of the whole patient cohort deviates from the standard Fletcher loading pattern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Longitudinal study of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- shedding in five Australian pig herds.

    PubMed

    Weaver, T; Valcanis, M; Mercoulia, K; Sait, M; Tuke, J; Kiermeier, A; Hogg, G; Pointon, A; Hamilton, D; Billman-Jacobe, H

    2017-01-01

    The shedding patterns of Salmonella spp. and MLVA profiles of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (I) serotype 1,4,[5],12:i:- were monitored in a 12-month longitudinal observational study of five pig herds to inform management; provide indications of potential hazard load at slaughter; and assist evaluation of MLVA for use by animal and public health practitioners. Twenty pooled faecal samples, stratified by age group, were collected quarterly. When Salmonella was cultured, multiple colonies were characterized by serotyping and where S. Typhimurium-like serovars were confirmed, isolates were further characterized by phage typing and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Salmonella was detected in 43% of samples. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i- was one of several serovars that persisted within the herds and was found among colonies from each production stage. Virtually all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates were phage type 193, but exhibited 12 different, closely-related MLVA profiles. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- diversity within herds was low and MLVA profiles were stable indicating colonization throughout the herds and suggesting each farm had an endemic strain. High prevalence of S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- specific shedding among terminal animals indicated high hazard load at slaughter, suggesting that primary production may be an important pathway of S. 1,4,[5],12:i:- into the human food chain, this has implications for on-farm management and the application and targeting control measures and further evidence of the need for effective process control procedures to be in place during slaughter and in pork boning rooms. These findings have implications for animal health and food safety risk mitigation and risk management. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Men's Sheds function and philosophy: towards a framework for future research and men's health promotion.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Doma, Kenji; Misan, Gary; Vaz, Sharmila

    2015-08-01

    The Men's Shed movement supports a range of men's health promotion initiatives. This paper examines whether a Men's Shed typology could inform future research and enable more efficient and targeted health promotion activities through Men's Sheds. The International Men's Shed Survey consisted of a cross-sectional exploration of sheds, their members, and health and social activities. Survey data about shed 'function' and 'philosophy' were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A framework of Men's Sheds based on function and philosophy demonstrated that most sheds serve a primary utility function, a secondary social function, but most importantly a primary social opportunity philosophy. Sheds with a primary health philosophy participated in fewer health promotion activities when compared with sheds without a primary health philosophy. In addition to the uniform health promotion resources distributed by the Men's Shed associations, specific health promotion activities, such as prostate education, are being initiated from an individual shed level. This framework can potentially be used to enable future research and health promotion activities to be more efficiently and effectively targeted. SO WHAT? Men experience poorer health and well being outcomes than women. This framework offers a novel approach to providing targeted health promotion activities to men in an environment where it is okay to talk about men's health.

  15. Influence of particle shedding from silicone tubing on antibody stability.

    PubMed

    Saller, Verena; Hediger, Constanze; Matilainen, Julia; Grauschopf, Ulla; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    Peristaltic pumps are increasingly employed during fill & finish operations of a biopharmaceutical drug, due to sensitivity of many biological products to rotary piston pump-related stresses. Yet, possibly also unit operations using peristaltic pumps may shed particulates into the final product due to abrasion from the employed tubing. It was the aim of this study to elucidate the potential influence of particles shed from peristaltic pump tubing on the stability of a drug product. Spiking solutions containing shed silicone particles were prepared via peristaltic pumping of placebo under recirculating conditions and subsequently characterized. Two formulated antibodies were spiked with two realistic, but worst-case levels of particles and a 6-month accelerated stability study with storage at 2-8, 25 and 40°C were conducted. Regarding the formation of aggregates and fragments, both mAbs degraded at their typically expected rates and no additional impact of spiked particles was observed. No changes were discerned however in turbidity, subvisible and visible particle assessments. Flow imaging data for one of the mAb formulations with spiked particles suggested limited colloidal stability of shed particles as indicated by a similar increase in spiked placebo. Shed silicone particles from peristaltic pump tubing are assumed to not impair drug product stability. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Tracking dynamics of photoreceptor disc shedding with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Furu; Liu, Zhuolin; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Miller, Donald T.

    2017-02-01

    Absorption of light by photoreceptors initiates vision, but also leads to accumulation of toxic photo-oxidative compounds in the photoreceptor outer segment (OS). To prevent this buildup, small packets of OS discs are periodically pruned from the distal end of the OS, a process called disc shedding. Unfortunately dysfunction in any part of the shedding event can lead to photoreceptor and RPE dystrophy, and has been implicated in numerous retinal diseases, including age related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. While much is known about the complex molecular and signaling pathways that underpin shedding, all of these advancements have occurred in animal models using postmortem eyes. How these translate to the living retina and to humans remain major obstacles. To that end, we have recently discovered the optical signature of cone OS disc shedding in the living human retina, measured noninvasively using optical coherence tomography equipped with adaptive optics in conjunction with post processing methods to track and monitor individual cones in 4D. In this study, we improve on this method in several key areas: increasing image acquisition up to MHz A-scan rates, improving reliability to detect disc shedding events, establishing system precision, and developing cone tracking for use across the entire awake cycle. Thousands of cones were successfully imaged and tracked over the 17 hour period in two healthy subjects. Shedding events were detected in 79.5% and 77.4% of the tracked cones. Similar to previous animal studies, shedding prevalence exhibited a diurnal rhythm. But we were surprised to find that for these two subjects shedding occurred across the entire day with broad, elevated frequency in the morning and decreasing frequency as the day progressed. Consistent with this, traces of the average cone OS length revealed shedding dominated in the morning and afternoon and renewal in the evening.

  17. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  18. Genetic relationship between wool shedding in ewe-lambs and ewes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest in reducing labor costs related to shearing has led to the development of breeds that naturally shed their wool annually. This goal has been achieved by introducing hair-sheep genetics. These developments are relatively recent and thus the genetic underpinnings of wool shedding (WS) are not...

  19. Looking north through the C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north through the C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126) - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, C.W.E. Storage Shed, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  20. 4. Tower entrance wing, covered way, keeper's house and shed, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Tower entrance wing, covered way, keeper's house and shed, view west northwest, northeast side of wing and covered way, southeast and northeast sides of keeper's house, southwest and southeast sides of shed - Burnt Island Light Station, Burnt Island, west side of entrance to Boothbay Harbor, Pine Cliff, Lincoln County, ME

  1. Coherent structures shed by multiscale cut-in trailing edge serrations on lifting wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, S. L.; Buxton, O. R. H.; Bruce, P. J. K.

    2017-07-01

    This experimental study presents the effect of multiscale cut-in trailing edge serrations on the coherent structures shed into the wake of a lifting wing. Two-probe span-wise hot-wire traverses are performed to study spectra, coherence, and phase shift. In addition, planar particle image velocimetry is used to study the spatio-temporal structure of the vortices shed by the airfoils. Compared with a single tone sinusoidal serration, the multiscale ones reduce the vortex shedding energy as well as the span-wise coherence. Results indicate that the vortex shedding is locked into an arch-shaped cell structure. This structure is weakened by the multiscale patterns, which explains the reduction in both shedding energy and coherence.

  2. ADAM15 is involved in MICB shedding and mediates the effects of gemcitabine on MICB shedding in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaohui; Mao, Xianhai; Sun, Weijia

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ADAM15 in MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) protein ectodomain shedding and observe whether or not gemcitabine affects MICB shedding from PANC-1 cells. In this study, immunohistochemistry of MICB and ADAM15 were performed on tumor samples obtained from 93 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The expression of MICB and ADAM15 in the PDAC tissues was significantly higher compared with that in the normal tissues of the pancreas. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the expression of MICB and certain classic clinicopathological characteristics (i.e., histological grade and TNM stage). ADAM15 expression was found to correlate with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. The Spearman's rank test suggested that the expression of MICB was inversely correlated with that of ADAM15 in PDAC tissues. Knockdown of ADAM15 in PANC-1 cells clearly upregulated MICB expression on the cellular surface and downregulated soluble MICB (sMICB) levels in the culture supernatants. A non-toxic dose of 0.5 µmol/l gemcitabine suppresses ADAM15 expression leading, at the same time, to an increase in MICB expression and a decrease in sMICB production in PANC-1 cells. The mRNA levels of MICB did not change following PANC-1 exposure to gemcitabine. Further study suggests that the suppressive effect of gemcitabine on MICB shedding in PANC-1 cells is mediated by ADAM15 downregulation. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that ADAM15 is involved in MICB shedding of PANC-1 cells and that gemcitabine inhibits MICB ectodomain shedding through the suppression of ADAM15.

  3. 26. VIEW OF METAL SHED OVER SHIELDING TANK WITH CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF METAL SHED OVER SHIELDING TANK WITH CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. SHOWS OPEN SIDE OF SHED ROOF, HERCULON SHEET, AND HAND-OPERATED CRANE. TAKEN IN 1983. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 83-476-2-9, TAKEN IN 1983. PHOTOGRAPHER NOT NAMED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Sampling-Based Motion Planning Algorithms for Replanning and Spatial Load Balancing

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Boardman, Beth Leigh

    The common theme of this dissertation is sampling-based motion planning with the two key contributions being in the area of replanning and spatial load balancing for robotic systems. Here, we begin by recalling two sampling-based motion planners: the asymptotically optimal rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT*), and the asymptotically optimal probabilistic roadmap (PRM*). We also provide a brief background on collision cones and the Distributed Reactive Collision Avoidance (DRCA) algorithm. The next four chapters detail novel contributions for motion replanning in environments with unexpected static obstacles, for multi-agent collision avoidance, and spatial load balancing. First, we show improved performance of the RRT*more » when using the proposed Grandparent-Connection (GP) or Focused-Refinement (FR) algorithms. Next, the Goal Tree algorithm for replanning with unexpected static obstacles is detailed and proven to be asymptotically optimal. A multi-agent collision avoidance problem in obstacle environments is approached via the RRT*, leading to the novel Sampling-Based Collision Avoidance (SBCA) algorithm. The SBCA algorithm is proven to guarantee collision free trajectories for all of the agents, even when subject to uncertainties in the knowledge of the other agents’ positions and velocities. Given that a solution exists, we prove that livelocks and deadlock will lead to the cost to the goal being decreased. We introduce a new deconfliction maneuver that decreases the cost-to-come at each step. This new maneuver removes the possibility of livelocks and allows a result to be formed that proves convergence to the goal configurations. Finally, we present a limited range Graph-based Spatial Load Balancing (GSLB) algorithm which fairly divides a non-convex space among multiple agents that are subject to differential constraints and have a limited travel distance. The GSLB is proven to converge to a solution when maximizing the area covered by the agents. The

  5. Vortex shedding experiment with flat and curved bluff plates in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, D.; Nesman, T.; Howard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Vortex shedding experiments were conducted in a water flow facility in order to simulate the strong discrete 4000-Hz vibration detected in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) which is thought to be associated with the SSME LOX inlet tee splitter vanes on the Main Injector. For the case of a flat vane with a blunt trailing edge excited by flow induced vortex shedding, lock-in with the first bending mode of the plate was observed. A curved vane displayed similar behavior, with the lock-in being a more discrete higher amplitude response. Aluminum vanes were employed to decouple the first vane bending mode from the vortex shedding mode. The application of an asymmetric 30-deg trailing edge bevel to both the flat and curved vanes was found to greatly reduce the strength of the shed vortices.

  6. The Gamma-Ray Burst ToolSHED is Open for Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, Timothy W.; Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.

    2004-09-01

    The GRB ToolSHED, a Gamma-Ray Burst SHell for Expeditions in Data-Mining, is now online and available via a web browser to all in the scientific community. The ToolSHED is an online web utility that contains pre-processed burst attributes of the BATSE catalog and a suite of induction-based machine learning and statistical tools for classification and cluster analysis. Users create their own login account and study burst properties within user-defined multi-dimensional parameter spaces. Although new GRB attributes are periodically added to the database for user selection, the ToolSHED has a feature that allows users to upload their own burst attributes (e.g. spectral parameters, etc.) so that additional parameter spaces can be explored. A data visualization feature using GNUplot and web-based IDL has also been implemented to provide interactive plotting of user-selected session output. In an era in which GRB observations and attributes are becoming increasingly more complex, a utility such as the GRB ToolSHED may play an important role in deciphering GRB classes and understanding intrinsic burst properties.

  7. Comparison of three nonlinear models to describe long-term tag shedding by lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Swanson, Bruce L.; Schram, Stephen T.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    We estimated long-term tag-shedding rates for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush using two existing models and a model we developed to account for the observed permanence of some tags. Because tag design changed over the course of the study, we examined tag-shedding rates for three types of numbered anchor tags (Floy tags FD-67, FD-67C, and FD-68BC) and an unprinted anchor tag (FD-67F). Lake trout from the Gull Island Shoal region, Lake Superior, were double-tagged, and subsequent recaptures were monitored in annual surveys conducted from 1974 to 1992. We modeled tag-shedding rates, using time at liberty and probabilities of tag shedding estimated from fish released in 1974 and 1978–1983 and later recaptured. Long-term shedding of numbered anchor tags in lake trout was best described by a nonlinear model with two parameters: an instantaneous tag-shedding rate and a constant representing the proportion of tags that were never shed. Although our estimates of annual shedding rates varied with tag type (0.300 for FD-67, 0.441 for FD-67C, and 0.656 for FD-68BC), differences were not significant. About 36% of tags remained permanently affixed to the fish. Of the numbered tags that were shed (about 64%), two mechanisms contributed to tag loss: disintegration and dislodgment. Tags from about 11% of recaptured fish had disintegrated, but most tags were dislodged. Unprinted tags were shed at a significant but low rate immediately after release, but the long-term, annual shedding rate of these tags was only 0.013. Compared with unprinted tags, numbered tags dislodged at higher annual rates; we hypothesized that this was due to the greater frictional drag associated with the larger cross-sectional area of numbered tags.

  8. Predictors and risk factors for the intestinal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 among working donkeys (Equus asinus) in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jedial, Jesse T.; Shittu, Aminu; Tambuwal, Faruk M.; Abubakar, Mikail B.; Garba, Muhammed K.; Kwaga, Jacob P.; Fasina, Folorunso O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Escherichia coli are an important group of bacteria in the normal gastrointestinal system but can sometimes cause infections in domestic animals and man. Donkeys are routinely used as multipurpose animal but details of burdens of potentially infectious bacteria associated with it are limited. The prevalence and associations between intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 and animal characteristics and management factors were studied among 240 randomly selected working donkeys in north-western Nigeria. Design Four local government areas, of Sokoto State in north-western Nigeria were recruited in this study. A multistage randomised cluster design was used to select subjects and donkey owners within selected zones. Confirmation of infection was based on bacterial culture, isolation and biochemical test for E. coli O157 from faecal samples. Results Of the total bacteria isolated, 203 of the 329 (61.70 per cent) were E. coli, 76 of which was E. coli serotype O157. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the relation between intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 and selected variables. The analysis yielded five potential predictors of shedding: soft faeces in donkeys, Akaza and Fari ecotypes of donkey were positive predictors while maize straw as feed and sampling during the cold dry period were negative predictors. Conclusions This study concludes that controlling intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 among working donkeys in Nigeria is possible using the identified predictors in planning appropriate interventions to reduced human risk of infection. PMID:26392892

  9. 77 FR 26714 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... non-consequential load loss that satisfies the relevant Commission's directives in Order No. 693 and... that would allow a transmission planner to plan for non-consequential load loss following a single...), footnote 12 that would allow a transmission planner to plan for ``non-consequential load loss,'' i.e., load...

  10. 36. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade and Commerce) no date CONTRACT 1519//CITY OF NEW YORK/DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES/ FREIGHT SHED/ W. 55TH ST. IMPROVEMENT/BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ SIDE FRAMING OF PIER SHED (Drawing 10 of 16) - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  11. Low flow vortex shedding flowmeter for hypergolics/all media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thinh, Ngo

    1990-01-01

    A family of vortex shedding flowmeters for flow measurement of hypergols that requires a long term operation without removal from system lines was further developed. A family of vortex shedding flowmeters without moving parts was designed. The test loop to evaluate the meters for the Freon flow, which simulates the hypergolic fluids, was modified and reconstructed. Preliminary results were obtained on the output frequency characteristics of an 1/2 inch flowmeter as a function of the flow rate.

  12. Men's re-placement: Social practices in a Men's Shed.

    PubMed

    Anstiss, David; Hodgetts, Darrin; Stolte, Ottilie

    2018-05-06

    Transitions into retirement can be difficult at the best of times. Many men find themselves having to reflect on who they are and what their lives are about. Their access to social supports and material resources are often disrupted. Men's Sheds offer a space where retired men can actively pursue wellbeing, and respond to disruption and loneliness through emplaced community practices. This paper draws on ethnographic research in a Men's Shed in Auckland, New Zealand in order to explore the social practices through which men create a shared space for themselves in which they can engage in meaningful relationships with each other. We document how participants work in concert to create a space in which they can be together through collective labour. Their emplacement in the shed affords opportunities for supported transitions into retirement and for engaging healthy lives beyond paid employment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating heritability of wool shedding in a cross-bred ewe population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low wool prices and high production costs in sheep systems have resulted in the introduction of hair sheep genetics into flocks to reduce shearing costs. Wool shedding occurs naturally in a few breeds, and can be incorporated by crossbreeding. The opportunity to enhance shedding through selection de...

  14. Men's Sheds: enabling environments for Australian men living with and without long-term disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hansji, Neeraj L; Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie

    2015-05-01

    The health of Australian men has recently received greater attention. Men's Sheds are named in national policy as an exemplar community-based organisation for the betterment of men's psychosocial health; yet, the evidence base to support this is limited. This study investigates the comparative experience of men with long-term disabilities and men without long-term disabilities who go to a Men's Shed and to what extent this provides these men with an enabling, as opposed to disabling, environment. Data were collected from 12 individual interviews with men with long-term disabilities (5) and men without long-term disabilities (6), including 1 interview with the male Men's Shed Coordinator (MSC); participant observation within the shed; and a document received from the female MSC regarding the funding the Shed receives. Interviews explored the men's experiences at the Shed and their sense of belonging and social inclusion. Participants had any type of long-term disability and had been attending the shed for a minimum of 1 month. Data were collected between May and September 2013 and were analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. The core theme that emerged was an enabling community space. The four sub-themes were: a community and social hub; an equalising space; a safe and supportive male environment; and meaningful male activities. The current literature exemplifies Men's Sheds to be important community-based organisations beneficial to men's health and well-being. For men living with long-term disabilities, this study illuminates that Men's Sheds offer an environment of equality, facilitating a collegial and egalitarian culture. Men can partake in enabling activities and enjoy the company of other men enhancing their sense of belonging and social inclusion as well as interact with other community groups that occupy the same space as the Men's Shed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Looking south through west portion of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south through west portion of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126) - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, C.W.E. Storage Shed, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  16. Constitutive Endocytosis of VEGFR2 Protects the Receptor against Shedding*

    PubMed Central

    Basagiannis, Dimitris; Christoforidis, Savvas

    2016-01-01

    VEGFR2 plays a fundamental role in blood vessel formation and in life threatening diseases, such as cancer angiogenesis and cardiovascular disorders. Although inactive growth factor receptors are mainly localized at the plasma membrane, VEGFR2 undergoes constitutive endocytosis (in the absence of ligand) and recycling. Intriguingly, the significance of these futile transport cycles of VEGFR2 remains unclear. Here we found that, unexpectedly, the function of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2 is to protect the receptor against plasma membrane cleavage (shedding), thereby preserving the functional state of the receptor until the time of activation by VEGF. Inhibition of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2, by interference with the function of clathrin, dynamin, or Rab5, increases dramatically the cleavage/shedding of VEGFR2. Shedding of VEGFR2 produces an N-terminal soluble fragment (100 kDa, s100), which is released in the extracellular space, and a residual C-terminal part (130 kDa, p130) that remains integrated at the plasma membrane. The released soluble fragment (s100) co-immunoprecipitates with VEGF, in line with the topology of the VEGF-binding domain at the N terminus of VEGFR2. Increased shedding of VEGFR2 (via inhibition of constitutive endocytosis) results in reduced response to VEGF, consistently with the loss of the VEGF-binding domain from the membrane remnant of VEGFR2. These data suggest that constitutive internalization of VEGFR2 protects the receptor against shedding and provides evidence for an unprecedented mechanism via which endocytosis can regulate the fate and activity of growth factor receptors. PMID:27298320

  17. 35. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce) no date CONTRACT 1519/CITY OF NEW YORK/DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES/ FREIGHT SHED/ W. 55TH ST. IMPROVEMENT/BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ CROSS SECTION AND DETAILS - PIER SHED (Drawing 8 of 16) - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  18. Community-based Men's Sheds: promoting male health, wellbeing and social inclusion in an international context.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Reinie; Wilson, Nathan J

    2014-09-01

    Males experience greater mortality and morbidity than females in most Western countries. The Australian and Irish National Male Health Policies aim to develop a framework to address this gendered health disparity. Men's Sheds have a distinct community development philosophy and are thus identified in both policies as an ideal location to address social isolation and positively impact the health and wellbeing of males who attend. The aim of this international cross-sectional survey was to gather information about Men's Sheds, the people who attend Men's Sheds, the activities at Men's Sheds, and the social and health dimensions of Men's Sheds. Results demonstrate that Men's Sheds are contributing a dual health and social role for a range of male subgroups. In particular, Men's Sheds have an outward social focus, supporting the social and mental health needs of men; health promotion and health literacy are key features of Men's Sheds. Men's Sheds have an important role to play in addressing the gendered health disparity that males face. They serve as an exemplar to health promotion professionals of a community development context where the aims of male health policy can be actualized as one part of a wider suite of global initiatives to reduce the gendered health disparity. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Persistent genital herpes simplex virus-2 shedding years following the first clinical episode.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Warren; Saracino, Misty; Magaret, Amalia; Selke, Stacy; Remington, Mike; Huang, Meei-Li; Warren, Terri; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-15

    Patients with newly acquired genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection have virus frequently detected at the genital mucosa. Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking. For this study, 377 healthy adults with history of symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection collected anogenital swabs for HSV-2 DNA polymerase chain reaction for at least 30 consecutive days. Time since first genital herpes episode was significantly associated with reduced genital shedding. Total HSV shedding occurred on 33.6% of days in participants <1 year, 20.6% in those 1-9 years, and 16.7% in those ≥10 years from first episode. Subclinical HSV shedding occurred on 26.2% of days among participants <1 year, 13.1% in those 1-9 years, and 9.3% in those ≥10 years from first episode. On days with HSV detection, mean quantity was 4.9 log₁₀ copies/mL for those <1 year, 4.7 log₁₀ copies/mL among those 1-9 years, and 4.6 log₁₀ copies/mL among those ≥10 years since first episode. Rates of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding decrease after the first year following the initial clinical episode. However, viral shedding persists at high rates and copy numbers years after infection, and therefore may pose continued risk of HSV-2 transmission to sexual partners.

  20. Persistent Genital Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Shedding Years Following the First Clinical Episode

    PubMed Central

    Saracino, Misty; Magaret, Amalia; Selke, Stacy; Remington, Mike; Huang, Meei-Li; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with newly acquired genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection have virus frequently detected at the genital mucosa. Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking. Methods. For this study, 377 healthy adults with history of symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection collected anogenital swabs for HSV-2 DNA polymerase chain reaction for at least 30 consecutive days. Results. Time since first genital herpes episode was significantly associated with reduced genital shedding. Total HSV shedding occurred on 33.6% of days in participants <1 year, 20.6% in those 1–9 years, and 16.7% in those ≥10 years from first episode. Subclinical HSV shedding occurred on 26.2% of days among participants <1 year, 13.1% in those 1–9 years, and 9.3% in those ≥10 years from first episode. On days with HSV detection, mean quantity was 4.9 log10 copies/mL for those <1 year, 4.7 log10 copies/mL among those 1–9 years, and 4.6 log10 copies/mL among those ≥10 years since first episode. Conclusions. Rates of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding decrease after the first year following the initial clinical episode. However, viral shedding persists at high rates and copy numbers years after infection, and therefore may pose continued risk of HSV-2 transmission to sexual partners. PMID:21288817

  1. 4. View north of Lake Whitney Dam. Wood shed at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View north of Lake Whitney Dam. Wood shed at center of photograph houses a turbine installed in 1932. Brick structure to the left of the turbine shed is a gate house which houses the main valves controlling flow of lake to water to the filter plant. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Lake Whitney Dam, East side of Whitney Avenue near intersection with Armory Street, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  2. Sulforaphane inhibits endothelial protein C receptor shedding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Han, Min-Su; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), a natural isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage, is effective in preventing carcinogenesis, diabetes, and inflammatory responses. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that beyond its role in the activation of protein C, endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) is also involved in vascular inflammation. EPCR activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and its release as the soluble EPCR. EPCR can be shed from the cell surface, which is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). However, little is known about the effects of SFN on EPCR shedding. Our results demonstrated that SFN induced potent inhibition of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-, interleukin (IL)-1β, and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced EPCR shedding. SFN also inhibited the expression and activity of PMA-induced TACE in endothelial cells. In addition, treatment with SFN resulted in reduced PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of p38, extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results demonstrate the potential of SFN as an anti-sEPCR shedding reagent against PMA and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. General relativistic considerations of the field shedding model of fast radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Bini, Donato

    2016-06-01

    Popular models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) involve the gravitational collapse of neutron star progenitors to black holes. It has been proposed that the shedding of the strong neutron star magnetic field (B) during the collapse is the power source for the radio emission. Previously, these models have utilized the simplicity of the Schwarzschild metric which has the restriction that the magnetic flux is magnetic `hair' that must be shed before final collapse. But neutron stars have angular momentum and charge and a fully relativistic Kerr-Newman solution exists in which B has its source inside of the event horizon. In this Letter, we consider the magnetic flux to be shed as a consequence of the electric discharge of a metastable collapsed state of a Kerr-Newman black hole. It has also been argued that the shedding model will not operate due to pair creation. By considering the pulsar death line, we find that for a neutron star with B = 1011-1013 G and a long rotation period, >1s this is not a concern. We also discuss the observational evidence supporting the plausibility of magnetic flux shedding models of FRBs that are spawned from rapidly rotating progenitors.

  4. Matrilysin (Matrix Metalloproteinase-7) Mediates E-Cadherin Ectodomain Shedding in Injured Lung Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, John K.; Li, Qinglang; Parks, William C.

    2003-01-01

    Matrilysin (matrix metalloproteinase-7) is highly expressed in lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and other conditions associated with airway and alveolar injury. Although matrilysin is required for closure of epithelial wounds ex vivo, the mechanism of its action in repair is unknown. We demonstrate that matrilysin mediates shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain from injured lung epithelium both in vitro and in vivo. In alveolar-like epithelial cells, transfection of activated matrilysin resulted in shedding of E-cadherin and accelerated cell migration. In vivo, matrilysin co-localized with E-cadherin at the basolateral surfaces of migrating tracheal epithelium, and the reorganization of cell-cell junctions seen in wild-type injured tissue was absent in matrilysin-null samples. E-cadherin ectodomain was shed into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of bleomycin-injured wild-type mice, but was not shed in matrilysin-null mice. These findings identify E-cadherin as a novel substrate for matrilysin and indicate that shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain is required for epithelial repair. PMID:12759241

  5. Vortex shedding from obstacles: theoretical frequency prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Benoît

    2001-11-01

    The existence of self-sustained oscillations in spatially developing systems is closely related to the presence of a locally absolutely unstable region. A recent investigation of a ``synthetic wake'' (a wake with no solid obstacle and no reverse flow region) has proved [Pier and Huerre, J. Fluid Mech. 435, 145 (2001)] that the observed Kármán vortex street is a nonlinear elephant global mode. The same criterion is now shown to hold for real obstacles. Local properties are derived from the unperturbed basic flow computed by enforcing a symmetry condition on the central line. Application of the theoretical criterion then yields the expected Strouhal vortex shedding frequency. The thus predicted frequency is in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulations of the complete flow. The use of the frequency selection mechanism to control the vortex shedding will also be discussed.

  6. Wake shed by an accelerating carangiform fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2008-11-01

    We reveal an important fact that momentum change observed in the wake of an accelerating carangiform fish does not necessarily elucidate orientations of propulsive forces produced. An accelerating Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) was found to shed a wake with net forward fluid momentum, which seemed drag-producing. Based on Newton's law, however, an accelerating fish is expected to shed a thrust wake with net rearward fluid momentum, rather than a drag wake. The unusual wake pattern observed is considered to be resulted primarily from the effect of pressure gradient created by accelerating movements of the fish. Ambient fluids tend to be sucked into low pressure zones behind an accelerating fish, resulting in forward orientations of jets recognizable in the wake. Accordingly, as to an accelerating fish, identifying force orientations from the wake requires considering also the effect of pressure gradient.

  7. Constitutive Endocytosis of VEGFR2 Protects the Receptor against Shedding.

    PubMed

    Basagiannis, Dimitris; Christoforidis, Savvas

    2016-08-05

    VEGFR2 plays a fundamental role in blood vessel formation and in life threatening diseases, such as cancer angiogenesis and cardiovascular disorders. Although inactive growth factor receptors are mainly localized at the plasma membrane, VEGFR2 undergoes constitutive endocytosis (in the absence of ligand) and recycling. Intriguingly, the significance of these futile transport cycles of VEGFR2 remains unclear. Here we found that, unexpectedly, the function of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2 is to protect the receptor against plasma membrane cleavage (shedding), thereby preserving the functional state of the receptor until the time of activation by VEGF. Inhibition of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2, by interference with the function of clathrin, dynamin, or Rab5, increases dramatically the cleavage/shedding of VEGFR2. Shedding of VEGFR2 produces an N-terminal soluble fragment (100 kDa, s100), which is released in the extracellular space, and a residual C-terminal part (130 kDa, p130) that remains integrated at the plasma membrane. The released soluble fragment (s100) co-immunoprecipitates with VEGF, in line with the topology of the VEGF-binding domain at the N terminus of VEGFR2. Increased shedding of VEGFR2 (via inhibition of constitutive endocytosis) results in reduced response to VEGF, consistently with the loss of the VEGF-binding domain from the membrane remnant of VEGFR2. These data suggest that constitutive internalization of VEGFR2 protects the receptor against shedding and provides evidence for an unprecedented mechanism via which endocytosis can regulate the fate and activity of growth factor receptors. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Zika Virus Shedding in Semen of Symptomatic Infected Men.

    PubMed

    Mead, Paul S; Duggal, Nisha K; Hook, Sarah A; Delorey, Mark; Fischer, Marc; Olzenak McGuire, Dana; Becksted, Heidi; Max, Ryan J; Anishchenko, Michael; Schwartz, Amy M; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Nelson, Christina A; McDonald, Erin M; Brooks, John T; Brault, Aaron C; Hinckley, Alison F

    2018-04-12

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been linked to adverse birth outcomes. Previous reports have shown that person-to-person transmission can occur by means of sexual contact. We conducted a prospective study involving men with symptomatic ZIKV infection to determine the frequency and duration of ZIKV shedding in semen and urine and to identify risk factors for prolonged shedding in these fluids. Specimens were obtained twice per month for 6 months after illness onset and were tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay for ZIKV RNA and by Vero cell culture and plaque assay for infectious ZIKV. A total of 1327 semen samples from 184 men and 1038 urine samples from 183 men were obtained 14 to 304 days after illness onset. ZIKV RNA was detected in the urine of 7 men (4%) and in the semen of 60 (33%), including in semen samples from 22 of 36 men (61%) who were tested within 30 days after illness onset. ZIKV RNA shedding in semen decreased substantially during the 3 months after illness onset but continued for 281 days in 1 man (1%). Factors that were independently associated with prolonged RNA shedding included older age, less frequent ejaculation, and the presence of certain symptoms at the time of initial illness. Infectious ZIKV was isolated from 3 of 78 semen samples with detectable ZIKV RNA, all obtained within 30 days after illness onset and all with at least 7.0 log 10 ZIKV RNA copies per milliliter of semen. ZIKV RNA was commonly present in the semen of men with symptomatic ZIKV infection and persisted in some men for more than 6 months. In contrast, shedding of infectious ZIKV appeared to be much less common and was limited to the first few weeks after illness onset. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  9. Genetic factors controlling wool shedding in a composite Easycare sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Matika, O; Bishop, S C; Pong-Wong, R; Riggio, V; Headon, D J

    2013-12-01

    Historically, sheep have been selectively bred for desirable traits including wool characteristics. However, recent moves towards extensive farming and reduced farm labour have seen a renewed interest in Easycare breeds. The aim of this study was to quantify the underlying genetic architecture of wool shedding in an Easycare flock. Wool shedding scores were collected from 565 pedigreed commercial Easycare sheep from 2002 to 2010. The wool scoring system was based on a 10-point (0-9) scale, with score 0 for animals retaining full fleece and 9 for those completely shedding. DNA was sampled from 200 animals of which 48 with extreme phenotypes were genotyped using a 50-k SNP chip. Three genetic analyses were performed: heritability analysis, complex segregation analysis to test for a major gene hypothesis and a genome-wide association study to map regions in the genome affecting the trait. Phenotypes were treated as a continuous or binary variable and categories. High estimates of heritability (0.80 when treated as a continuous, 0.65-0.75 as binary and 0.75 as categories) for shedding were obtained from linear mixed model analyses. Complex segregation analysis gave similar estimates (0.80 ± 0.06) to those above with additional evidence for a major gene with dominance effects. Mixed model association analyses identified four significant (P < 0.05) SNPs. Further analyses of these four SNPs in all 200 animals revealed that one of the SNPs displayed dominance effects similar to those obtained from the complex segregation analyses. In summary, we found strong genetic control for wool shedding, demonstrated the possibility of a single putative dominant gene controlling this trait and identified four SNPs that may be in partial linkage disequilibrium with gene(s) controlling shedding. © 2013 University of Edinburgh, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Long-term Shedding of Influenza A Virus in Stool of Immunocompromised Child

    PubMed Central

    Mix, Samantha; Rowe, Judy; Ikemoto, Sheryl; Baron, Ellen J.

    2010-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients, influenza infection may progress to prolonged viral shedding from the respiratory tract despite antiviral therapy. We describe chronic influenza A virus infection in an immunocompromised child who had prolonged shedding of culturable influenza virus in stool. PMID:20587197

  11. Assessment of Chlamydia psittaci Shedding and Environmental Contamination as Potential Sources of Worker Exposure throughout the Mule Duck Breeding Process

    PubMed Central

    Hulin, V.; Bernard, P.; Vorimore, F.; Aaziz, R.; Cléva, D.; Robineau, J.; Durand, B.; Angelis, L.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for avian chlamydiosis, otherwise known as psittacosis, a zoonotic disease that may lead to severe atypical pneumonia. This study was conducted on seven mule duck flocks harboring asymptomatic birds to explore the circulation and persistence of C. psittaci during the entire breeding process and assess the potential sources of worker exposure. Cloacal swabs and air samples were taken on each occasion requiring humans to handle the birds. In parallel, environmental samples, including dust, water, and soil, were collected. Specific real-time PCR analyses revealed the presence of C. psittaci in all flocks but with three different shedding patterns involving ducks about the age of 4, 8, and 12 weeks with heavy, moderate, and low excretion levels, respectively. Air samples were only positive in flocks harboring heavy shedders. Dust in flocks with heavy or moderate shedders carried chlamydial loads strongly associated with the loads detected in avian and soil samples. Environmental contamination, significantly correlated with shedding dynamics, was considered to be the most probable source of exposure. The high prevalence of bacteriophage Chp1 in all flocks, mostly jointly present with chlamydia, suggests an important factor in C. psittaci persistence, thus creating a greater risk for humans. A survey conducted in these flocks regarding farming practices and activities showed that disinfection seems to be the most promising practice for reducing C. psittaci prevalence in ducks and that the place and the duration of action during operations seem to be potential risk factors. Strict adherence to good practices is strongly recommended. PMID:26712548

  12. 8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  13. View of McKenzieRichey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and wood shed roof, facing southwest - McKenzie Property, Barn, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  14. Detail of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126) monorails and safety ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126) monorails and safety sign for track workers. Machine Shop (Bldg. 134) is in the background - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, C.W.E. Storage Shed, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  15. 78 FR 30804 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... ``Non-Consequential Load Loss.'' 6. On the same day that the Commission issued Order No. 762, it issued... Non-Consequential Load Loss meets the conditions shown in Attachment 1. In no case can the planned Non...- consequential load loss following a single contingency provided that the plan is documented and vetted in an...

  16. Shedding of dual structures in the wake of a surface-mounted low aspect ratio cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zixiang; Martinuzzi, Robert J.

    2018-04-01

    The periodic shedding of vortex pairs in the turbulent wake of a surface-mounted right cone of aspect ratio 0.867 protruding a thin turbulent boundary layer is investigated experimentally. A phase-averaged volumetric velocity field is reconstructed from planar stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. During a typical (phase-averaged) shedding cycle, counter-rotating base vortices alternately form. These are tilted and stretched to merge with stream-wise tip vortices. The merged structure sheds and is convected downstream. A synthesis of earlier observations suggests that a similar shedding process exists for other low aspect ratio tapered geometries and is more complex than the shedding patterns observed for cantilevered cylinders, despite similarities of the mean flow field structure.

  17. Secretome analysis to elucidate metalloprotease-dependent ectodomain shedding of glycoproteins during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tsumagari, Kazuya; Shirakabe, Kyoko; Ogura, Mayu; Sato, Fuminori; Ishihama, Yasushi; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2017-02-01

    Many membrane proteins are subjected to limited proteolyses at their juxtamembrane regions, processes referred to as ectodomain shedding. Shedding ectodomains of membrane-bound ligands results in activation of downstream signaling pathways, whereas shedding those of cell adhesion molecules causes loss of cell-cell contacts. Secreted proteomics (secretomics) using high-resolution mass spectrometry would be strong tools for both comprehensive identification and quantitative measurement of membrane proteins that undergo ectodomain shedding. In this study, to elucidate the ectodomain shedding events that occur during neuronal differentiation, we establish a strategy for quantitative secretomics of glycoproteins released from differentiating neuroblastoma cells into culture medium with or without GM6001, a broad-spectrum metalloprotease inhibitor. Considering that most of transmembrane and secreted proteins are N-glycosylated, we include a process of N-glycosylated peptides enrichment as well as isotope tagging in our secretomics workflow. Our results show that differentiating N1E-115 neurons secrete numerous glycosylated polypeptides in metalloprotease-dependent manners. They are derived from cell adhesion molecules such as NCAM1, CADM1, L1CAM, various transporters and receptor proteins. These results show the landscape of ectodomain shedding and other secretory events in differentiating neurons and/or during axon elongation, which should help elucidate the mechanism of neurogenesis and the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Replication, pathogenicity, shedding, and transmission of Zaire ebolavirus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kobinger, Gary P; Leung, Anders; Neufeld, James; Richardson, Jason S; Falzarano, Darryl; Smith, Greg; Tierney, Kevin; Patel, Ami; Weingartl, Hana M

    2011-07-15

    (See the editorial commentary by Bausch, on pages 179-81.) Reston ebolavirus was recently detected in pigs in the Philippines. Specific antibodies were found in pig farmers, indicating exposure to the virus. This important observation raises the possibility that pigs may be susceptible to Ebola virus infection, including from other species, such as Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), and can transmit to other susceptible hosts. This study investigated whether ZEBOV, a species commonly reemerging in central Africa, can replicate and induce disease in pigs and can be transmitted to naive animals. Domesticated Landrace pigs were challenged through mucosal exposure with a total of 1 ×10(6) plaque-forming units of ZEBOV and monitored for virus replication, shedding, and pathogenesis. Using similar conditions, virus transmission from infected to naive animals was evaluated in a second set of pigs. Following mucosal exposure, pigs replicated ZEBOV to high titers (reaching 10(7) median tissue culture infective doses/mL), mainly in the respiratory tract, and developed severe lung pathology. Shedding from the oronasal mucosa was detected for up to 14 days after infection, and transmission was confirmed in all naive pigs cohabiting with inoculated animals. These results shed light on the susceptibility of pigs to ZEBOV infection and identify an unexpected site of virus amplification and shedding linked to transmission of infectious virus.

  19. Particle shedding from peristaltic pump tubing in biopharmaceutical drug product manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Saller, Verena; Matilainen, Julia; Grauschopf, Ulla; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    In a typical manufacturing setup for biopharmaceutical drug products, the fill and dosing pump is placed after the final sterile filtration unit in order to ensure adequate dispensing accuracy and avoid backpressure peaks. Given the sensitivity of protein molecules, peristaltic pumps are often preferred over piston pumps. However, particles may be shed from the silicone tubing employed. In this study, particle shedding and a potential turbidity increase during peristaltic pumping of water and buffer were investigated using three types of commercially available silicone tubing. In the recirculates, mainly particles of around 200 nm next to a very small fraction of particles in the lower micrometer range were found. Using 3D laser scanning microscopy, surface roughness of the inner tubing surface was found to be a determining factor for particle shedding from silicone tubing. As the propensity toward particle shedding varied between tubing types and also cannot be concluded from manufacturer's specifications, individual testing with the presented methods is recommended during tubing qualification. Choosing low abrasive tubing can help to further minimize the very low particle counts to be expected in pharmaceutical drug products. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. The effect of structural motifs on the ectodomain shedding of human angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Nailah; Schwager, Sylva L U; Carmona, Adriana K; Sturrock, Edward D

    2016-12-02

    Somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE) is comprised of two homologous domains (N and C domains), whereas the smaller germinal isoform (tACE) is identical to the C domain. Both isozymes share an identical stalk, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain, and undergo ectodomain shedding by an as yet unknown protease. Here we present evidence for the role of regions distal and proximal to the cleavage site in human ACE shedding. First, because of intrinsic differences between the N and C domains, discrete secondary structures (α-helix 7 and 8) on the surface of tACE were replaced with their N domain counterparts. Surprisingly, neither α-helix 7 nor α-helix 8 proved to be an absolute requirement for shedding. In the proximal ectodomain of tACE residues H 610 -L 614 were mutated to alanines and this resulted in a decrease in ACE shedding. An N-terminal extension of this mutation caused a reduction in cellular ACE activity. More importantly, it affected the processing of the protein to the membrane, resulting in expression of an underglycosylated form of ACE. When E 608 -H 614 was mutated to the homologous region of the N domain, processing was normal and shedding only moderately decreased suggesting that this region is more crucial for the processing of ACE than it is for regulating shedding. Finally, to determine whether glycosylation of the asparagine proximal to the Pro1199-Leu polymorphism in sACE affected shedding, the equivalent P 623 L mutation in tACE was investigated. The P 623 L tACE mutant showed an increase in shedding and MALDI MS analysis of a tryptic digest indicated that N 620 WT was glycosylated. The absence of an N-linked glycan at N 620 , resulted in an even greater increase in shedding. Thus, the conformational flexibility that the leucine confers to the stalk, is increased by the lack of glycosylation reducing access of the sheddase to the cleavage site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ST-246 inhibits in vivo poxvirus dissemination, virus shedding, and systemic disease manifestation.

    PubMed

    Berhanu, Aklile; King, David S; Mosier, Stacie; Jordan, Robert; Jones, Kevin F; Hruby, Dennis E; Grosenbach, Douglas W

    2009-12-01

    Orthopoxvirus infections, such as smallpox, can lead to severe systemic disease and result in considerable morbidity and mortality in immunologically naïve individuals. Treatment with ST-246, a small-molecule inhibitor of virus egress, has been shown to provide protection against severe disease and death induced by several members of the poxvirus family, including vaccinia, variola, and monkeypox viruses. Here, we show that ST-246 treatment not only results in the significant inhibition of vaccinia virus dissemination from the site of inoculation to distal organs, such as the spleen and liver, but also reduces the viral load in organs targeted by the dissemination. In mice intranasally infected with vaccinia virus, virus shedding from the nasal and lung mucosa was significantly lower (approximately 22- and 528-fold, respectively) upon ST-246 treatment. Consequently, virus dissemination from the nasal site of replication to the lung also was dramatically reduced, as evidenced by a 179-fold difference in virus levels in nasal versus bronchoalveolar lavage. Furthermore, in ACAM2000-immunized mice, vaccination site swabs showed that ST-246 treatment results in a major (approximately 3,900-fold by day 21) reduction in virus detected at the outside surfaces of lesions. Taken together, these data suggest that ST-246 would play a dual protective role if used during a smallpox bioterrorist attack. First, ST-246 would provide therapeutic benefit by reducing the disease burden and lethality in infected individuals. Second, by reducing virus shedding from those prophylactically immunized with a smallpox vaccine or harboring variola virus infection, ST-246 could reduce the risk of virus transmission to susceptible contacts.

  2. Membrane vesicles shed by oligodendroglioma cells induce neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Stefania; Salamone, Monica; Di Liegro, Italia; Vittorelli, M Letizia

    2006-11-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which oligodendrogliomas cause neuronal damage, media conditioned by G26/24 oligodendroglioma cells, were fractionated into shed vesicles and vesicle-free supernatants, and added to primary cultures of rat fetal cortical neurons. After one night treatment with vesicles, a reproducible, dose-dependent, inhibitory effect on neurite outgrowth was already induced and, after 48-72 h of incubation, neuronal apoptosis was evident. Vesicle-free supernatants and vesicles shed by NIH-3T3 cells had no inhibitory effects on neurons. Western blot analyses showed that treated neurons expressed a decreased amount of neurofilament (NF), growth-associated protein (GAP-43) and microtubule-associated protein (MAP-2). Moreover procaspase-3 and -8 were activated while Bcl-2 expression was reduced. Vesicles were found positive for the proapoptotic molecule, Fas-ligand (Fas-L), and for the B isoform of Nogo protein, a myelin component with inhibitory effects on neurons. Nogo B involvement in the vesicle effects was analyzed both by testing the neutralizing capability of anti-Nogo antibodies and by removing the Nogo receptor from neurons by phospholipase C digestion. These treatments did not revert the vesicle effects. To test the role of Fas-L, vesicles were treated with functional anti-Fas-L monoclonals. Vesicle inhibitory and proapoptotic effects were reduced. Vesicles shed by ovarian carcinoma cells (OvCa), which are known to vehicle biologically active Fas-L, had similar effects on neurons to those of oligodendroglioma vesicles, and their inhibitory effects were also reduced by anti Fas-L antibodies. We therefore conclude that vesicles shed by G26/24 cells induce neuronal apoptosis at least partially by a Fas-L mediated mechanism.

  3. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manguro, Griffins O.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth W.; Magaret, Amalia; Wald, Anna; McClelland, R. Scott; Graham, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Genital ulcer disease (GUD) prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART), followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment. Results At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period. Conclusion Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation. PMID:27683204

  4. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  5. Low flow vortex shedding flowmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waugaman, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose was to continue a development project on a no moving parts vortex shedding flowmeter used for flow measurement of hypergols. The project involved the design and construction of a test loop to evaluate the meter for flow of Freon which simulates the hypergol fluids. Results were obtained on the output frequency characteristics of the flow meter as a function of flow rate. A family of flow meters for larger size lines and ranges of flow was sized based on the results of the tested meter.

  6. Infant Mouse Model for the Study of Shedding and Transmission during Streptococcus pneumoniae Monoinfection

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, M. Ammar; Kono, Masamitsu; Wang, Yang; Zangari, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    One of the least understood aspects of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is its transmission from host to host, the critical first step in both the carrier state and the disease state. To date, transmission models have depended on influenza A virus coinfection, which greatly enhances pneumococcal shedding to levels that allow acquisition by a new host. Here, we describe an infant mouse model that can be utilized to study pneumococcal colonization, shedding, and transmission during bacterial monoinfection. Using this model, we demonstrated that the level of bacterial shedding is highest in pups infected intranasally at age 4 days and peaks over the first 4 days postchallenge. Shedding results differed among isolates of five different pneumococcal types. Colonization density was found to be a major factor in the level of pneumococcal shedding and required expression of capsule. Transmission within a litter occurred when there was a high ratio of colonized “index” pups to uncolonized “contact” pups. Transmission was observed for each of the well-colonizing pneumococcal isolates, with the rate of transmission proportional to the level of shedding. This model can be used to examine bacterial and host factors that contribute to pneumococcal transmission without the effects of viral coinfection. PMID:27400721

  7. Quantifying shedding of synthetic fibers from textiles; a source of microplastics released into the environment.

    PubMed

    Carney Almroth, Bethanie M; Åström, Linn; Roslund, Sofia; Petersson, Hanna; Johansson, Mats; Persson, Nils-Krister

    2018-01-01

    Microplastics in the environment are a subject of intense research as they pose a potential threat to marine organisms. Plastic fibers from textiles have been indicated as a major source of this type of contaminant, entering the oceans via wastewater and diverse non-point sources. Their presence is also documented in terrestrial samples. In this study, the amount of microfibers shedding from synthetic textiles was measured for three materials (acrylic, nylon, polyester), knit using different gauges and techniques. All textiles were found to shed, but polyester fleece fabrics shed the greatest amounts, averaging 7360 fibers/m -2 /L -1 in one wash, compared with polyester fabrics which shed 87 fibers/m -2 /L -1 . We found that loose textile constructions shed more, as did worn fabrics, and high twist yarns are to be preferred for shed reduction. Since fiber from clothing is a potentially important source of microplastics, we suggest that smarter textile construction, prewashing and vacuum exhaustion at production sites, and use of more efficient filters in household washing machines could help mitigate this problem.

  8. MODELING HUMAN EXPOSURES AND DOSE USING A 2-DIMENSIONAL MONTE-CARLO MODEL (SHEDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1998, US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has been developing the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model for various classes of pollutants. SHEDS is a physically-based probabilistic model intended for improving estimates of human ex...

  9. The Feasibility of Analytic Models for Academic Planning: A Preliminary Analysis of Seven Quarters of Observations on the "Induced Course Load Matrix."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Frank I.; And Others

    This paper reports on a project undertaken at Humboldt State College, California, to estimate the coefficients of the so-called "induced course load matrix," perhaps the single most vital component of some models that are being developed to aid administrative planning and decisionmaking in institutions of higher education. Chapter I, the…

  10. The Role of Drag Force in Shedding of Multiple Sessile Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, Aysan; Banitabaei, Sayyed Hossein; Amirfazli, Alidad; -Team

    2017-11-01

    A sessile drop placed on a solid surface can shed, if the drag force due to a shearing airflow overcomes the drop adhesion to the surface. Sessile drop shedding is of importance due to its applications in condensation, fuel cells, icing, etc. Majority of the studies so far have considered the shedding of a single sessile droplet; however, in the applications above, multiple sessile droplets appear on a surface. Shedding of sessile drops in different arrangements, i.e. tandem, side by side, triangle, and rectangle have been investigated both experimentally and through VOF simulations. The minimum air velocity (Ucr) at which the drop(s) at the upstream dislodge from the surface was measured. Drops were placed in a wind tunnel with increasing air velocity at a rate of 1m/s2. It has been found that Ucr, deviates from its value for a single drop due to presence of the neighboring drops. The amount of the deviation is closely related to the flow pattern and interaction of drop wakes which are elucidated numerically. The interacting wakes change the drag force on the drops. Generally, the adhesion force is not affected by presence of other drops. As such, when the drops' wakes are interacting strongly, Ucr can increase by 45%.

  11. Acoustic Resonance and Vortex Shedding from Tube Banks of Boiler Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamakawa, Hiromitsu; Matsue, Hiroto; Nishida, Eiichi; Fukano, Tohru

    This paper focuses on the relationship between acoustic resonance and vortex shedding from the tube banks of a boiler plant. We have built a model similar to the actual boiler plant to clarify the characteristics of acoustic resonance phenomena and vortex shedding. The model used in-line tube banks with a small tube pitch ratio. We examined the relationship between the acoustic resonance of the actual plant and that of the model, and measured the sound pressure level, acoustic pressure mode shape, spectrum of velocity fluctuation, and gap velocity. Gap velocity was defined as the mean velocity in the smallest gaps between two neighboring tubes in the transverse direction. As a result, the resonant frequencies and mode shapes of the acoustic resonances in the actual boiler plant agreed well with those in the similar model. We found many peak frequencies in the sound pressure level spectrum when acoustic resonances occurred. The typical Strouhal numbers at the onset velocity of acoustic resonances were about 0.19, 0.26 and 0.52. Periodic velocity fluctuation caused by vortex shedding was observed inside the tube banks without acoustic resonance. The Strouhal number measured for vortex shedding was 0.15. Acoustic resonances of higher-order modes were generated in this plant.

  12. Duration of shedding of respiratory syncytial virus in a community study of Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Okiro, Emelda A; White, Lisa J; Ngama, Mwanajuma; Cane, Patricia A; Medley, Graham F; Nokes, D James

    2010-01-22

    Our understanding of the transmission dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection will be better informed with improved data on the patterns of shedding in cases not limited only to hospital admissions. In a household study, children testing RSV positive by direct immunofluorescent antibody test (DFA) were enrolled. Nasal washings were scheduled right away, then every three days until day 14, every 7 days until day 28 and every 2 weeks until a maximum of 16 weeks, or until the first DFA negative RSV specimen. The relationship between host factors, illness severity and viral shedding was investigated using Cox regression methods. From 151 families a total of 193 children were enrolled with a median age of 21 months (range 1-164 months), 10% infants and 46% male. The rate of recovery from infection was 0.22/person/day (95% CI 0.19-0.25) equivalent to a mean duration of shedding of 4.5 days (95%CI 4.0-5.3), with a median duration of shedding of 4 days (IQR 2-6, range 1-14). Children with a history of RSV infection had a 40% increased rate of recovery i.e. shorter duration of viral shedding (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.01-1.86). The rate of cessation of shedding did not differ significantly between males and females, by severity of infection or by age. We provide evidence of a relationship between the duration of shedding and history of infection, which may have a bearing on the relative role of primary versus re-infections in RSV transmission in the community.

  13. Determination of Shed Ice Particle Size Using High Speed Digital Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broughton, Howard; Owens, Jay; Sims, James J.; Bond, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    A full scale model of an aircraft engine inlet was tested at NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel. Simulated natural ice sheds from the engine inlet lip were studied using high speed digital image acquisition and image analysis. Strategic camera placement integrated at the model design phase allowed the study of ice accretion on the inlet lip and the resulting shed ice particles at the aerodynamic interface plane at the rear of the inlet prior to engine ingestion. The resulting digital images were analyzed using commercial and proprietary software to determine the size of the ice particles that could potentially be ingested by the engine during a natural shedding event. A methodology was developed to calibrate the imaging system and insure consistent and accurate measurements of the ice particles for a wide range of icing conditions.

  14. Development and application of a method for predicting rotor free wake positions and resulting rotor blade air loads. Volume 1: Model and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Rotor wake geometries are predicted by a process similar to the startup of a rotor in a free stream. An array of discrete trailing and shed vortices is generated with vortex strengths corresponding to stepwise radial and azimuthal blade circulations. The array of shed and trailing vortices is limited to an arbitrary number of azimuthal steps behind each blade. The remainder of the wake model of each blade is an arbitrary number of trailing vortices. Vortex element end points were allowed to be transported by the resultant velocity of the free stream and vortex-induced velocities. Wake geometry, wake flow, and wake-induced velocity influence coefficients are generated by this program for use in the blade loads portion of the calculations. Blade loads computations include the effects of nonuniform inflow due to a free wake, nonlinear airfoil characteristics, and response of flexible blades to the applied loads. Computed wake flows and blade loads are compared with experimentally measured data. Predicted blade loads, response and shears and moments are obtained for a model rotor system having two independent rotors. The effects of advance ratio, vertical separation of rotors, different blade radius ratios, and different azimuthal spacing of the blades of one rotor with respect to the other are investigated.

  15. Balancing the Power-to-Load Ratio for a Novel Variable Geometry Wave Energy Converter with Nonideal Power Take-Off in Regular Waves: Preprint

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tom, Nathan M; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D

    This work attempts to balance power absorption against structural loading for a novel variable geometry wave energy converter. The variable geometry consists of four identical flaps that will be opened in ascending order starting with the flap closest to the seafloor and moving to the free surface. The influence of a pitch motion constraint on power absorption when utilizing a nonideal power take-off (PTO) is examined and found to reduce the losses associated with bidirectional energy flow. The power-to-load ratio is evaluated using pseudo-spectral control to determine the optimum PTO torque based on a multiterm objective function. The pseudo-spectral optimalmore » control problem is extended to include load metrics in the objective function, which may now consist of competing terms. Separate penalty weights are attached to the surge-foundation force and PTO control torque to tune the optimizer performance to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. PTO efficiency is not included in the objective function, but the penalty weights are utilized to limit the force and torque amplitudes, thereby reducing losses associated with bidirectional energy flow. Results from pseudo-spectral control demonstrate that shedding a portion of the available wave energy can provide greater reductions in structural loads and reactive power.« less

  16. Low proviral small ruminant lentivirus load as biomarker of natural restriction in goats.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Helena; Bertolotti, Luigi; Proffiti, Margherita; Cascio, Paolo; Cerruti, Fulvia; Acutis, Pier Luigi; de Andrés, Damián; Reina, Ramsés; Rosati, Sergio

    2016-08-30

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) globally affect welfare and production of sheep and goats and are mainly controlled through elimination of infected animals, independently of the viral kinetics within the single animal. Control programs are based on highly sensitive serological tests, however the existence of low antibody responders leads to the permanent presence of seronegative infected animals in the flock, thus perpetuating the infection. On the other hand, long-term non-progressors show a detectable antibody response not indicative of a shedding animal, suggesting immune contention of infection. In this study, we analyse two goat populations within the same herd, harbouring low or high proviral SRLV loads respectively, both showing a robust antibody response. In vivo findings were confirmed in vitro since fibroblastic cell lines obtained from one high and one low proviral load representative goats, showed respectively a high and a faint production of virus upon infection with reference and field circulating SRLV strains. Differences in virus production were relieved when strain CAEV-Co was used for experimental infection. We analysed LTR promoter activity, proviral load, entry step and production of virus and viral proteins. Intriguingly, proteasomal activity was higher in fibroblasts from low proviral load animals and proteasome inhibition increased viral production in both cell lines, suggesting the implication of active proteasome-dependent restriction factors. Among them, we analysed relative expression and sequences of TRIM5α, APOBEC3 (Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3) and BST-2 (Tetherin) and found a global antiviral status in low proviral carriers that may confer protection against viral shedding and disease onset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vehicle-to-Grid Automatic Load Sharing with Driver Preference in Micro-Grids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Yubo; Nazaripouya, Hamidreza; Chu, Chi-Cheng

    Integration of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) with power grid not only brings new challenges for load management, but also opportunities for distributed storage and generation. This paper comprehensively models and analyzes distributed Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) for automatic load sharing with driver preference. In a micro-grid with limited communications, V2G EVs need to decide load sharing based on their own power and voltage profile. A droop based controller taking into account driver preference is proposed in this paper to address the distributed control of EVs. Simulations are designed for three fundamental V2G automatic load sharing scenarios that include all system dynamics of suchmore » applications. Simulation results demonstrate that active power sharing is achieved proportionally among V2G EVs with consideration of driver preference. In additional, the results also verify the system stability and reactive power sharing analysis in system modelling, which sheds light on large scale V2G automatic load sharing in more complicated cases.« less

  18. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determiningmore » BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water

  19. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determiningmore » BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads

  20. Factors Associated with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Shedding by Dairy and Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Venegas-Vargas, Cristina; Henderson, Scott; Khare, Akanksha; Mosci, Rebekah E.; Lehnert, Jonathan D.; Singh, Pallavi; Ouellette, Lindsey M.; Norby, Bo; Funk, Julie A.; Rust, Steven; Bartlett, Paul C.; Grooms, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Cattle are the primary reservoir for STEC, and food or water contaminated with cattle feces is the most common source of infections in humans. Consequently, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,096 cattle in six dairy herds (n = 718 animals) and five beef herds (n = 378 animals) in the summers of 2011 and 2012 to identify epidemiological factors associated with shedding. Fecal samples were obtained from each animal and cultured for STEC. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with STEC positivity. The prevalence of STEC was higher in beef cattle (21%) than dairy cattle (13%) (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25, 2.47), with considerable variation occurring across herds (range, 6% to 54%). Dairy cattle were significantly more likely to shed STEC when the average temperature was >28.9°C 1 to 5 days prior to sampling (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.25, 4.91), during their first lactation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.8), and when they were <30 days in milk (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.1, 7.2). These data suggest that the stress or the negative energy balance associated with lactation may result in increased STEC shedding frequencies in Michigan during the warm summer months. Future prevention strategies aimed at reducing stress during lactation or isolating high-risk animals could be implemented to reduce herd-level shedding levels and avoid transmission of STEC to susceptible animals and people. IMPORTANCE STEC shedding frequencies vary considerably across cattle herds in Michigan, and the shedding frequency of strains belonging to non-O157 serotypes far exceeds the shedding frequency of O157 strains, which is congruent with human infections in the state. Dairy cattle sampled at higher temperatures, in their first lactation, and early in the milk production stage were

  1. A Novel Control Strategy for Autonomous Operation of Isolated Microgrid with Prioritized Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. Hari; Ushakumari, S.

    2018-05-01

    Maintenance of power balance between generation and demand is one of the most critical requirements for the stable operation of a power system network. To mitigate the power imbalance during the occurrence of any disturbance in the system, fast acting algorithms are inevitable. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for load shedding and network reconfiguration in an isolated microgrid with prioritized loads and multiple islands, which will help to quickly restore the system in the event of a fault. The performance of the proposed algorithm is enhanced using genetic algorithm and its effectiveness is illustrated with simulation results on modified Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) microgrid.

  2. Scripts and information units in future planning: Interactions between a past and a future planning task.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, Aline; Barnier, Amanda J; Sutton, John

    2016-01-01

    Research on future thinking has emphasized how episodic details from memories are combined to create future thoughts, but has not yet examined the role of semantic scripts. In this study, participants recalled how they planned a past camping trip in Australia (past planning task) and imagined how they would plan a future camping trip (future planning task), set either in a familiar (Australia) or an unfamiliar (Antarctica) context. Transcripts were segmented into information units that were coded according to semantic category (e.g., where, when, transport, material, actions). Results revealed a strong interaction between tasks and their presentation order. Starting with the past planning task constrained the future planning task when the context was familiar. Participants generated no new information when the future camping trip was set in Australia and completed second (after the past planning task). Conversely, starting with the future planning task facilitated the past planning task. Participants recalled more information units of their past plan when the past planning task was completed second (after the future planning task). These results shed new light on the role of scripts in past and future thinking and on how past and future thinking processes interact.

  3. Duration of shedding of respiratory syncytial virus in a community study of Kenyan children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our understanding of the transmission dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection will be better informed with improved data on the patterns of shedding in cases not limited only to hospital admissions. Methods In a household study, children testing RSV positive by direct immunofluorescent antibody test (DFA) were enrolled. Nasal washings were scheduled right away, then every three days until day 14, every 7 days until day 28 and every 2 weeks until a maximum of 16 weeks, or until the first DFA negative RSV specimen. The relationship between host factors, illness severity and viral shedding was investigated using Cox regression methods. Results From 151 families a total of 193 children were enrolled with a median age of 21 months (range 1-164 months), 10% infants and 46% male. The rate of recovery from infection was 0.22/person/day (95% CI 0.19-0.25) equivalent to a mean duration of shedding of 4.5 days (95%CI 4.0-5.3), with a median duration of shedding of 4 days (IQR 2-6, range 1-14). Children with a history of RSV infection had a 40% increased rate of recovery i.e. shorter duration of viral shedding (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.01-1.86). The rate of cessation of shedding did not differ significantly between males and females, by severity of infection or by age. Conclusion We provide evidence of a relationship between the duration of shedding and history of infection, which may have a bearing on the relative role of primary versus re-infections in RSV transmission in the community. PMID:20096106

  4. Shear driven droplet shedding and coalescence on a superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghtadernejad, S.; Tembely, M.; Jadidi, M.; Esmail, N.; Dolatabadi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The interest on shedding and coalescence of sessile droplets arises from the importance of these phenomena in various scientific problems and industrial applications such as ice formation on wind turbine blades, power lines, nacelles, and aircraft wings. It is shown recently that one of the ways to reduce the probability of ice accretion on industrial components is using superhydrophobic coatings due to their low adhesion to water droplets. In this study, a combined experimental and numerical approach is used to investigate droplet shedding and coalescence phenomena under the influence of air shear flow on a superhydrophobic surface. Droplets with a size of 2 mm are subjected to various air speeds ranging from 5 to 90 m/s. A numerical simulation based on the Volume of Fluid method coupled with the Large Eddy Simulation turbulent model is carried out in conjunction with the validating experiments to shed more light on the coalescence of droplets and detachment phenomena through a detailed analysis of the aerodynamics forces and velocity vectors on the droplet and the streamlines around it. The results indicate a contrast in the mechanism of two-droplet coalescence and subsequent detachment with those related to the case of a single droplet shedding. At lower speeds, the two droplets coalesce by attracting each other with successive rebounds of the merged droplet on the substrate, while at higher speeds, the detachment occurs almost instantly after coalescence, with a detachment time decreasing exponentially with the air speed. It is shown that coalescence phenomenon assists droplet detachment from the superhydrophobic substrate at lower air speeds.

  5. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determiningmore » BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation

  6. Can concurrent memory load reduce distraction? A replication study and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gil-Gómez de Liaño, Beatriz; Stablum, Franca; Umiltà, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of concurrent working memory load in attentional processes have been 1 of the most puzzling issues in cognitive psychology. Studies have shown detrimental effects, no effects, and even beneficial effects of working memory load in different attentional tasks. In the present study we attempted to replicate Kim, Kim, and Chun's (2005, Experiment 3b) findings of beneficial effects of concurrent working memory load in a spatial Stroop-like task. In 3 experiments in which our sample was 3 times larger than that in the original Kim et al. study, we could not replicate their findings. The results are discussed in terms of what may have produced the conflicting results, trying to shed light on how working memory load affects attentional tasks. Also, we emphasize the importance of using adequately large samples in cognitive research. Although we acknowledge the relevance of meta-analyses to analyze conflicting results, in the present article we stress (perhaps more important) the power of an essential trademark in science for research development: replicability. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Men with disabilities - A cross sectional survey of health promotion, social inclusion and participation at community Men's Sheds.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Parsons, Richard; Vaz, Sharmila; Buchanan, Angus

    2016-01-01

    The intersections between chronicity, disability and social inequality are well understood. Novel ways to counter the social determinants of health and disability are needed. Men's Sheds are a community space where men can participate in a range of shared activities and potentially experience a health and social benefits. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to inform future research by determining who attended Men's Sheds and the range of health, social, community, and educational activities undertaken there. This paper explores the membership of people with disabilities (PWD) at Men's Sheds and the factors that predict their membership. An online survey link was sent to all known Men's Sheds internationally in 2012. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (univariate and multivariate) statistics. 32.2% of international sheds and 29% of Australian sheds specifically targeted the inclusion of PWD. 80% of these sheds have significantly more members with disabilities than sheds who do no target PWD. Factors associated with greater membership of PWD included the provision of transport, social outings and promoting occupational skills. PWD are being encouraged to join and are joining Men's Sheds. This is significant as the value of participation and inclusion toward better health and wellbeing is well known. Men's Sheds offer a community space where the social determinants of chronicity and disability can potentially be countered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive load during route selection increases reliance on spatial heuristics.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Martis, Shaina B; Taylor, Holly A

    2018-05-01

    Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. This study tested a prediction from decision-making theory that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load. In Experiment 1, we examined how memory load impacts the southern route heuristic. In Experiment 2, we examined how memory load impacts the initial segment heuristic. Results replicated earlier results demonstrating a southern route preference (Experiment 1) and initial segment strategy (Experiment 2) and further demonstrated that evidence for heuristic reliance is more likely under conditions of concurrent working memory load. Furthermore, the extent to which participants maintained efficient route selection latencies in the 2-back condition predicted the magnitude of this effect. Together, results demonstrate that working memory load increases the application of heuristics during spatial decision making, particularly when participants attempt to maintain quick decisions while managing concurrent task demands.

  9. Modeling and Measurement of Sustained Loading and Temperature-Dependent Deformation of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bonded to Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yoseok; Lee, Jaeha; Kim, WooSeok

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting the effects of short-term sustained load and temperature on time-dependent deformation of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) bonded to concrete and pull-off strength at room temperature after the sustained loading period. The approach involves experimental and numerical analysis. Single-lap shear specimens were used to evaluate temperature and short-term sustained loading effects on time-dependent behavior under sustained loading and debonding behavior under pull-off loading after a sustained loading period. The numerical model was parameterized with experiments on the concrete, FRP, and epoxy. Good correlation was seen between the numerical results and single-lap shear experiments. Sensitivity studies shed light on the influence of temperature, epoxy modulus, and epoxy thickness on the redistribution of interfacial shear stress during sustained loading. This investigation confirms the hypothesis that interfacial stress redistribution can occur due to sustained load and elevated temperature and its effect can be significant. PMID:28787948

  10. Modeling and Measurement of Sustained Loading and Temperature-Dependent Deformation of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Bonded to Concrete.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yoseok; Lee, Jaeha; Kim, WooSeok

    2015-01-29

    This paper aims at presenting the effects of short-term sustained load and temperature on time-dependent deformation of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) bonded to concrete and pull-off strength at room temperature after the sustained loading period. The approach involves experimental and numerical analysis. Single-lap shear specimens were used to evaluate temperature and short-term sustained loading effects on time-dependent behavior under sustained loading and debonding behavior under pull-off loading after a sustained loading period. The numerical model was parameterized with experiments on the concrete, FRP, and epoxy. Good correlation was seen between the numerical results and single-lap shear experiments. Sensitivity studies shed light on the influence of temperature, epoxy modulus, and epoxy thickness on the redistribution of interfacial shear stress during sustained loading. This investigation confirms the hypothesis that interfacial stress redistribution can occur due to sustained load and elevated temperature and its effect can be significant.

  11. Reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus in astronauts during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Tyring, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 71 astronauts was investigated, using polymerase chain reaction. A significantly greater (P<.0001) shedding frequency was found in urine samples from astronauts before spaceflight (10.6%) than in urine from the healthy control subject group (1.2%). Two of 4 astronauts studied during spaceflight shed CMV in urine. A significant increase (P<.0001) in CMV antibody titer, compared with baseline values, was also found 10 days before spaceflight. CMV antibody titer was further increased (P<.001) 3 days after landing, compared with 10 days before the mission. Significant increases in stress hormones were also found after landing. These results demonstrate that CMV reactivation occurred in astronauts before spaceflight and indicate that CMV may further reactivate during spaceflight.

  12. Influence of On-farm pig Salmonella status on Salmonella Shedding at Slaughter.

    PubMed

    Casanova-Higes, A; Andrés-Barranco, S; Mainar-Jaime, R C

    2017-08-01

    The risk of Salmonella shedding among pigs at slaughter with regard to their previous on-farm Salmonella status was assessed in a group of pigs from a farm from NE of Spain. A total of 202 pigs that had been serologically monitored monthly during the fattening period and from which mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and faecal (SFEC) samples were collected at slaughter for Salmonella isolation were included. A repeated-measures anova was used to assess the relationship between mean OD% values during the fattening period and sampling time and bacteriology on MLN and SFEC. Pigs were also grouped into four groups, that is pigs seronegative during the fattening period and Salmonella negative in MLN (group A; n = 69); pigs seronegative during the fattening period but Salmonella positive in MLN (B; n = 36); pigs seropositive at least once and Salmonella positive in MLN (C; n = 50); and pigs seropositive at least once but Salmonella negative in (D; n = 47). Pigs shedding at slaughter seroconverted much earlier and showed much higher mean OD% values than non-shedders pigs. The proportion of Salmonella shedders in groups A and D was high and similar (26.1% and 29.8%, respectively), but significantly lower than that for groups B and C. The odds of shedding Salmonella for groups B and C were 4.8 (95% CI = 1.5-15.5) and 20.9 (3.7-118) times higher, respectively, when compared to A. It was concluded that a large proportion of Salmonella seronegative pigs may shed Salmonella at slaughter, which would be likely associated to previous exposure with contaminated environments (i.e. transport and lairage). For pigs already infected at farm, the likelihood of shedding Salmonella was much higher and may depend on whether the bacterium has colonized the MLN or not. The odds of shedding Salmonella spp. were always much higher for pigs in which Salmonella was isolated from MLN. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Zinc Up-Regulates Insulin Secretion from β Cell-Like Cells Derived from Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Tooth (SHED).

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyuyoup; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Pae, Eung-Kwon

    2016-12-13

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) offer several advantages over other stem cell sources. Using SHED, we examined the roles of zinc and the zinc uptake transporter ZIP8 (Zrt- and irt-like protein 8) while inducing SHED into insulin secreting β cell-like stem cells (i.e., SHED-β cells). We observed that ZIP8 expression increased as SHED differentiated into SHED-β cells, and that zinc supplementation at day 10 increased the levels of most pancreatic β cell markers-particularly Insulin and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). We confirmed that SHED-β cells produce insulin successfully. In addition, we note that zinc supplementation significantly increases insulin secretion with a significant elevation of ZIP8 transporters in SHED-β cells. We conclude that SHED can be converted into insulin-secreting β cell-like cells as zinc concentration in the cytosol is elevated. Insulin production by SHED-β cells can be regulated via modulation of zinc concentration in the media as ZIP8 expression in the SHED-β cells increases.

  14. Balancing Power Absorption Against Structural Loads With Viscous Drag and Power-Takeoff Efficiency Considerations

    DOE PAGES

    Tom, Nathan; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan; ...

    2017-11-17

    The focus of this paper is to balance power absorption against structural loading for a novel fixed-bottom oscillating surge wave energy converter in both regular and irregular wave environments. The power-to-load ratio will be evaluated using pseudospectral control (PSC) to determine the optimum power-takeoff (PTO) torque based on a multiterm objective function. This paper extends the pseudospectral optimal control problem to not just maximize the time-averaged absorbed power but also include measures for the surge-foundation force and PTO torque in the optimization. The objective function may now potentially include three competing terms that the optimizer must balance. Separate weighting factorsmore » are attached to the surge-foundation force and PTO control torque that can be used to tune the optimizer performance to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. To correct the pitch equation of motion, derived from linear hydrodynamic theory, a quadratic-viscous-drag torque has been included in the system dynamics; however, to continue the use of quadratic programming solvers, an iteratively obtained linearized drag coefficient was utilized that provided good accuracy in the predicted pitch motion. Furthermore, the analysis considers the use of a nonideal PTO unit to more accurately evaluate controller performance. The PTO efficiency is not directly included in the objective function but rather the weighting factors are utilized to limit the PTO torque amplitudes, thereby reducing the losses resulting from the bidirectional energy flow through a nonideal PTO. Results from PSC show that shedding a portion of the available wave energy can lead to greater reductions in structural loads, peak-to-average power ratio, and reactive power requirement.« less

  15. Comparison of Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk of dairy bovine, caprine, and ovine herds.

    PubMed

    Rodolakis, A; Berri, M; Héchard, C; Caudron, C; Souriau, A; Bodier, C C; Blanchard, B; Camuset, P; Devillechaise, P; Natorp, J C; Vadet, J P; Arricau-Bouvery, N

    2007-12-01

    The shedding of Coxiella burnetii in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk was measured using PCR, in 3 herds for each species, the bulk tank milk samples of which were positive at the time of their selection. Milk samples of 95 cows, 120 goats, and 90 ewes were sampled over 16 wk, as was the bulk tank milk. The shedding of C. burnetii in vaginal mucus and feces was checked at the beginning of the experiment and 2 mo later. The clinical signs in the selected herds as well as the duration and the shedding routes differed among the 3 species. The cows were asymptomatic and shed C. burnetii almost exclusively in milk. In one of the caprine herds, abortions due to C. burnetii were reported. The goats excreted the bacteria mainly in milk. In contrast, the ewes, which came from flocks with abortions due to Q fever (C. burnetii infection), shed the bacteria mostly in feces and in vaginal mucus. This could explain why human outbreaks of Q fever are more often related to ovine flocks than to bovine herds. These excretions did not seem more frequent when the samples were taken close to parturition. The samples were taken from 0 to 421 d after parturition in bovine herds and from 5 to 119 d and 11 to 238 d after parturition in the caprine and ovine herds, respectively. The shedding in milk was sometimes intermittent, and several animals shed the bacteria but were negative by ELISA: 80% of the ewes were seronegative, underscoring the lack of sensitivity of the ELISA tests available for veterinary diagnosis. The detection of antibodies in milk seems more sensitive than it is in serum.

  16. Effect of Loading Dose of Atorvastatin Prior to Planned Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome: The SECURE-PCI Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Berwanger, Otavio; Santucci, Eliana Vieira; de Barros E Silva, Pedro Gabriel Melo; Jesuíno, Isabella de Andrade; Damiani, Lucas Petri; Barbosa, Lilian Mazza; Santos, Renato Hideo Nakagawa; Laranjeira, Ligia Nasi; Egydio, Flávia de Mattos; Borges de Oliveira, Juliana Aparecida; Dall Orto, Frederico Toledo Campo; Beraldo de Andrade, Pedro; Bienert, Igor Ribeiro de Castro; Bosso, Carlos Eduardo; Mangione, José Armando; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego; Kalil, Renato Abdala Karam; Santos, Luciano de Moura; Sposito, Andrei Carvalho; Rech, Rafael Luiz; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral; Baldissera, Felipe; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Giraldez, Roberto Rocha Corrêa Veiga; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Pereira, Sabrina Bernardez; Mattos, Luiz Alberto; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal; Guimarães, Hélio Penna; Sousa, José Eduardo Moraes Rego; Alexander, John Hunter; Granger, Christopher Bull; Lopes, Renato Delascio

    2018-04-03

    The effects of loading doses of statins on clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and planned invasive management remain uncertain. To determine if periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin decrease 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ACS and planned invasive management. Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted at 53 sites in Brazil among 4191 patients with ACS evaluated with coronary angiography to proceed with a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) if anatomically feasible. Enrollment occurred between April 18, 2012, and October 6, 2017. Final follow-up for 30-day outcomes was on November 6, 2017. Patients were randomized to receive 2 loading doses of 80 mg of atorvastatin (n = 2087) or matching placebo (n = 2104) before and 24 hours after a planned PCI. All patients received 40 mg of atorvastatin for 30 days starting 24 hours after the second dose of study medication. The primary outcome was MACE, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization through 30 days. Among the 4191 patients (mean age, 61.8 [SD, 11.5] years; 1085 women [25.9%]) enrolled, 4163 (99.3%) completed 30-day follow-up. A total of 2710 (64.7%) underwent PCI, 333 (8%) underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 1144 (27.3%) had exclusively medical management. At 30 days, 130 patients in the atorvastatin group (6.2%) and 149 in the placebo group (7.1%) had a MACE (absolute difference, 0.85% [95% CI, -0.70% to 2.41%]; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.69-1.11; P = .27). No cases of hepatic failure were reported; 3 cases of rhabdomyolysis were reported in the placebo group (0.1%) and 0 in the atorvastatin group. Among patients with ACS and planned invasive management with PCI, periprocedural loading doses of atorvastatin did not reduce the rate of MACE at 30 days. These findings do not support the routine use

  17. 31. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports International Trade, and Commerce) no date CONTRACT 1519/CITY OF NEW YORK/DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES/ FREIGHT SHED/ W. 55TH ST. IMPROVEMENT/BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ GENERAL ARCHITECTURAL PLANS AND ELEVATIONS (Drawing 1 of 16) - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  18. Toxoplasma gondii: A study of oocyst re-shedding in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; Sammi, Ana Sue; Dos Santos, Joeleni Rosa; Sasse, João Pedro; Martins, Thais Agostinho; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Cardim, Sérgio Tosi; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the re-shedding of T. gondii oocysts in cats fed tissue cysts of homologous and heterologous strains 12, 24 and 36 months after the first infection. Thirteen cats were used in the present study and were divided into four groups: G1 (n=2), G2 (n=3), G3 (n=5), and G4 (n=3). G1, G3 and G4 cats were infected with brain cysts of ME49 and G2 with TgDoveBr8, both genotype II strains of T. gondii. The G1 and G2 cats were re-infected after twelve months with brain cysts of VEG strain (genotype III), and G3 cats were re-infected with TgDoveBr1 (genotype II). The G3 cats were re-infected a third time after 24 months from the second infection, and the G4 cats were re-infected 36 months after the initial infection with cysts of the VEG strain. The cats' feces were evaluated using fecal flotation and genotyped with PCR-RFLP. The serological responses for IgM, IgA and IgG were determined by ELISA. All cats shed oocysts after the initial infection. Only one G1 cat shed oocysts when re-infected after twelve months with the VEG strain. No G2 cats excreted oocysts after the second infection with VEG. G3 cats, when re-infected after twelve months with the TgDoveBr1 strain, did not shed oocysts. However, when challenged after a third time with the VEG strain, three out of four cats shed oocysts. In the G4 group, when re-infected after thirty-six months with the VEG strain, two out of three cats shed oocysts. All oocyst samples were genotyped and characterized as the same genotype from the inoculum. Protection against oocyst re-excretion occurred in 90%, 25%, and 33.4% of cats after 12, 24, and 36 months from the initial infection, respectively. Therefore, the environmental contamination by oocysts from re-infected adult cats is only 30% lower than from kittens. In conclusion, the excretion of T. gondii oocysts was higher in experimentally re-infected cats throughout the years, especially when a heterologous strain was used. Copyright © 2017

  19. Syndecan-4 shedding impairs macrovascular angiogenesis in diabetes mellitus

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Li, Ran; Xie, Jun; Wu, Han

    Purpose: Syndecan-4 (synd4) is a ubiquitous heparan sulfate proteoglycan cell surface receptor that modulates cell proliferation, migration, mechanotransduction, and endocytosis. The extracellular domain of synd4 sheds heavily in acute inflammation, but the shedding of synd4 in chronic inflammation, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), is still undefined. We investigated the alterations of synd4 endothelial expression in DM and the influence of impaired synd4 signaling on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), diabetic rats, synd4 null mice, and db/db mice. Material and methods: HUVECs were incubated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Western blot analysis was used to determine synd4more » protein expression and ELISA was used to detect soluble synd4 fragments. The concentration of synd4 in the aortic endothelia of diabetic rats was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Aortic ring assays were performed to study the process of angiogenesis in the diabetic rats and in synd4 null and db/db mice. Recombinant adenoviruses containing the synd4 gene or null were constructed to enhance synd4 aortic expression in db/db mice. Results: Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of the synd4 extracellular domain in HUVECs, and ELISA detected increased soluble fragments of synd4 in the media. Synd4 endothelial expression in the aortas of diabetic rats was decreased. Aortic ring assay indicated impaired angiogenesis in synd4 null and db/db mice, which was partially reversed by synd4 overexpression in db/db mice. Conclusion: Synd4 shedding from vascular endothelial cells played an important role in the diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Synd4 shedding from endothelial cells is accelerated under the stimulation of AGEs. •Extracellular domain of synd4 is diminished in the endothelium of DM rats. •Aortic rings of synd4 null mice showed impaired angiogenesis. •Overexpression of synd4 partly rescues

  20. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  1. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.; Gregg, J.; Grady, C.; Collins, R.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 10 1 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml-1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 ?? ?10 8 pfu fish-1 d-1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? Inter-Research 2010.

  2. Emergence of Influenza A Virus Variants after Prolonged Shedding from Pheasants▿

    PubMed Central

    Humberd, Jennifer; Boyd, Kelli; Webster, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the susceptibility of pheasants to infection with influenza A viruses of 15 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes: 13/23 viruses tested were isolated for ≥14 days, all in the presence of serum-neutralizing antibodies; one virus (H10) was shed for 45 days postinfection. Here we confirmed that 20% of pheasants shed low-pathogenic influenza viruses for prolonged periods. We aimed to determine why the antibody response did not clear the virus in the usual 3 to 10 days, because pheasants serve as a long-term source of influenza viruses in poultry markets. We found evidence of virus replication and histological changes in the large intestine, bursa of Fabricius, and cecal tonsil. The virus isolated 41 days postinfection was antigenically distinct from the parental H10 virus, with corresponding changes in the HA and neuraminidase. Ten amino acid differences were found between the parental H10 and the pheasant H10 virus; four were in potential antigenic sites of the HA molecule. Prolonged shedding of virus by pheasants results from a complex interplay between the diversity of virus variants and the host response. It is often argued that vaccination pressure is a mechanism that contributes to the generation of antigenic-drift variants in poultry. This study provided evidence that drift variants can occur naturally in pheasants after prolonged shedding of virus, thus strengthening our argument for the removal of pheasants from live-bird retail markets. PMID:17267493

  3. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1992-01-01

    ALEPS, which is being developed to provide the SSF program with a computer system to automate logistics resupply/return cargo load planning and verification, is presented. ALEPS will make it possible to simultaneously optimize both the resupply flight load plan and the return flight reload plan for any of the logistics carriers. In the verification mode ALEPS will support the carrier's flight readiness reviews and control proper execution of the approved plans. It will also support the SSF inventory management system by providing electronic block updates to the inventory database on the cargo arriving at or departing the station aboard a logistics carrier. A prototype drawer packing algorithm is described which is capable of generating solutions for 3D packing of cargo items into a logistics carrier storage accommodation. It is concluded that ALEPS will provide the capability to generate and modify optimized loading plans for the logistics elements fleet.

  4. Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission.

    PubMed

    Oma, Veslemøy Sunniva; Tråvén, Madeleine; Alenius, Stefan; Myrmel, Mette; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-06-13

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Prevention of virus spread is impeded by a lack of basic knowledge concerning viral shedding and transmission potential in individual animals. The aims of the study were to investigate the duration and quantity of BCoV shedding in feces and nasal secretions related to clinical signs, the presence of virus in blood and tissues and to test the hypothesis that seropositive calves are not infectious to naïve in-contact calves three weeks after BCoV infection. A live animal experiment was conducted, with direct contact between animal groups for 24 h as challenge procedure. Four naïve calves were commingled with a group of six naturally infected calves and sequentially euthanized. Two naïve sentinel calves were commingled with the experimentally exposed group three weeks after exposure. Nasal swabs, feces, blood and tissue samples were analyzed for viral RNA by RT-qPCR, and virus isolation was performed on nasal swabs. Serum was analyzed for BCoV antibodies. The calves showed mild general signs, and the most prominent signs were from the respiratory system. The overall clinical score corresponded well with the shedding of viral RNA the first three weeks after challenge. General depression and cough were the signs that correlated best with shedding of BCoV RNA, while peak respiratory rate and peak rectal temperature appeared more than a week later than the peak shedding. Nasal shedding preceded fecal shedding, and the calves had detectable amounts of viral RNA intermittently in feces through day 35 and in nasal secretions through day 28, however virus isolation was unsuccessful from day six and day 18 from the two calves investigated. Viral RNA was not detected in blood, but was found in lymphatic tissue through day 42 after challenge. Although the calves were shedding BCoV RNA 21 days after infection the sentinel animals were not infected

  5. Baroclinic Instability and Energy Transfer underlying the Kuroshio eddy shedding process in Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Kuroshio eddy shedding in Luzon Strait has been intensively studied, due to its important role in the energy budgets of the special gap-passing western boundary current and its potential influence to South China Sea. In this study, the eddy-mean flow interaction is first diagnosed with two classical "stationary" methods. Both show that, in a "time-averaged" sense, baroclinic instability and energy transfer provides the energy source for Kuroshio anticyclonic eddy shedding and the accompanied cyclonic eddy growth in Luzon Strait (this eddy pair will be called AC/C-Es for short). To take into account the "nonstationary and intermittent" nature, the temporal evolutions of energy transfer during a typical Kuroshio eddy shedding process are investigated using the localized multi-scale-window energy and vorticity analysis, or MS-EVA for short. Two stages are roughly distinguished according to the evolutionary nature of this process: the growing stage and the shedding stage. In the growing stage, the energy source straddles both the AC/C-Es, indicating mean flow supplies potential energy to both AC/C-Es for growth; the energy transfer hot spot persistently strengthens and expands horizontally as well as vertically from 200-300m to 100-400m depth range, culminating in a maximum of approximately 1.5×10-7 m2s-3. In the shedding stage, the energy source moves onto the accompanied cyclonic eddy, i.e., the mean flow now supplies energy mainly to the cyclonic eddy, making it strong enough to cut off the anticyclonic eddy from Kuroshio, leading to the Kuroshio eddy shedding.

  6. Synchronized Schlieren method for vortex shedding in cascade during acoustic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, T.; Tanida, Y.

    1986-10-01

    An evaluation is made of synchronized schlieren optical system methods for the simultaneous visualization of both the acoustic wave and vortex shedding phenomena encountered during acoustic resonance excited by vortex shedding from the trailing edges of cascade blades. Attention is given to the case of parallel flat plate blades in throughflow velocities of up to 100 m/s. The acoustic wavefront is found to appear in the trailing edge region and travel upstream when a pair of vortices of opposite sign are fully developed at the trailing edge.

  7. Coxiella burnetii shedding routes and antibody response after outbreaks of Q fever-induced abortion in dairy goat herds.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Elodie; Berri, Mustapha; Durand, Benoit; Dufour, Philippe; Prigent, Myriam; Delcroix, Thibault; Touratier, Anne; Rodolakis, Annie

    2009-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium largely carried by ruminants and shed into milk, vaginal mucus, and feces. The main potential hazard to humans and animals is due to shedding of bacteria that can then persist in the environment and be aerosolized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shedding after an outbreak of Q fever abortion in goat herds and to assess the relationship with the occurrence of abortions and antibody responses. Aborting and nonaborting goats were monitored by PCR for C. burnetii shedding 15 and 30 days after the abortion episodes. PCR analysis of all samples showed that 70% (n = 50) of the aborting and 53% (n = 70) of the nonaborting goats were positive. C. burnetii was shed into vaginal mucus, feces, and milk of 44%, 21%, and 38%, respectively, of goats that aborted and 27%, 20%, and 31%, respectively, of goats that delivered normally. Statistical comparison of these shedding results did not reveal any difference between these two groups. PCR results obtained for the vaginal and fecal routes were concordant in 81% of cases, whereas those for milk correlated with only 49% of cases with either vaginal or fecal shedding status. Serological analysis, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and complement fixation tests, showed that at least 24% of the seronegative goats shed bacteria. Positive vaginal and fecal shedding, unlike positive milk shedding, was observed more often in animals that were weakly positive or negative by ELISA or IFA. Two opposite shedding trends were thus apparent for the milk and vaginal-fecal routes. Moreover, this study showed that a nonnegligible proportion of seronegative animals that delivered normally could excrete C. burnetii.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE WINTERTIME BOISE, IDAHO, AIR SHED: A COMPREHENSIVE FIELD STUDY REPORT FOR THE U.S. EPA OFFICE OF AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large-scale ambient monitoring program vas conducted in Boise, Idaho, during the 1986-1987 winter heating season to evaluate the impact of residential wood combustion (RWC) and automotive emissions on the local air shed. onsecutive 12-h particle, organic, and gaseous samples we...

  9. Water quality and nutrient loading in the Klamath River between Keno, Oregon and Seiad Valley, CA from 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Sharon G.

    2001-01-01

    Implementing management strategies for reservoir operations to improve water quality and reduce nutrient concentration or loading in the Klamath River study area to benefit anadromous fisheries may be difficult and expensive. However, improving the thermal regime in spring to benefit YOY salmonids may be possible as is short-term relief in late summer for oversummering species. Decreases in nutrient concentration or loading accomplished through best management practices in the water shed may allow general protection of water resources in the Klamath Basin for future needs.

  10. Concurrent vaccination of boars with type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) reduces seminal shedding of type 1 and type 2 PRRSV

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jiwoon; Park, Changhoon; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of concurrent vaccination of boars with type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on seminal shedding of both genotypes. The boars tolerated well concurrent administration of 2 commercial PRRSV vaccines, and no adverse reactions were observed. No interference in the humoral immune response (measured as the level of anti-PRRSV antibodies) or the cell-mediated immune response (measured as the level of PRRSV-specific interferon-γ-secreting cells) was observed after concurrent administration compared with single administration of the same vaccines. Concurrent vaccination significantly reduced the load of type 1 and type 2 PRRSV in blood and semen after singular (type 1 or type 2) and dual (type 1 and type 2) PRRSV challenge, and it did not significantly affect the efficacy of each vaccine. The results demonstrate that concurrent vaccination of boars with type 1 and type 2 PRRSV reduces shedding of both genotypes in semen. PMID:28408778

  11. Inhibition of TGF-β Signaling in SHED Enhances Endothelial Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xu, J G; Gong, T; Wang, Y Y; Zou, T; Heng, B C; Yang, Y Q; Zhang, C F

    2018-02-01

    Low efficiency of deriving endothelial cells (ECs) from adult stem cells hampers their utilization in tissue engineering studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether suppression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling could enhance the differentiation efficiency of dental pulp-derived stem cells into ECs. We initially used vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) to stimulate 2 dental pulp-derived stem cells (dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth [SHED]) and compared their differentiation capacity into ECs. We further evaluated whether the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor I (VEGF-RI)-specific ligand placental growth factor-1 (PlGF-1) could mediate endothelial differentiation. Finally, we investigated whether the TGF-β signaling inhibitor SB-431542 could enhance the inductive effect of VEGF-A on endothelial differentiation, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. ECs differentiated from dental pulp-derived stem cells exhibited the typical phenotypes of primary ECs, with SHED possessing a higher endothelial differentiation potential than dental pulp stem cells. VEGFR1-specific ligand-PLGF exerted a negligible effect on SHED-ECs differentiation. Compared with VEGF-A alone, the combination of VEGF-A and SB-431542 significantly enhanced the endothelial differentiation of SHED. The presence of SB-431542 inhibited the phosphorylation of Suppressor of Mothers Against Decapentaplegic 2/3 (SMAD2/3), allowing for VEGF-A-dependent phosphorylation and upregulation of VEGFR2. Our results indicate that the combination of VEGF-A and SB-431542 could enhance the differentiation of dental pulp-derived stem cells into endothelial cells, and this process is mediated through enhancement of VEGF-A-VEGFR2 signaling and concomitant inhibition of TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling.

  12. Replication kinetics and shedding of very virulent Marek's disease virus and vaccinal Rispens/CVI988 virus during single and mixed infections varying in order and interval between infections.

    PubMed

    Islam, Tanzila; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W; Renz, Katrin G; Islam, A F M Fakhrul; Ralapanawe, Sithara

    2014-10-10

    Vaccination is thought to contribute to an evolution in virulence of the Marek's disease virus (MDV) as vaccines prevent disease but not infection. We investigated the effects of co-infections at various intervals between Rispens/CVI988 vaccine virus (Rispens) and very virulent MDV (vvMDV) on the replication and shedding of each virus. The experiment used 600 ISA Brown layer chickens in 24 isolators with all treatments replicated in two isolators. Chickens were vaccinated with Rispens and/or challenged with the vvMDV isolate 02LAR on days 0, 5, or 10 post hatching providing vaccination to challenge intervals (VCI) of -10, -5, 0, 5 or 10 days with the negative values indicating challenge prior to vaccination. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), feathers and isolator exhaust dust were sampled between 7 and 56 days post infection (dpi) and subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to differentiate the two viruses. Overall Rispens significantly reduced the viral load of vvMDV in PBL and feather cells and shedding in dust. Similarly vvMDV significantly reduced the viral load of Rispens in PBL and feather cells but not in dust. VCI significantly influenced these relationships having strong positive and negative associations with load of vvMDV and Rispens respectively. Differences between the two viruses and their effects on each other were greatest in PBL and feathers, and least in dust. This study expands our understanding of the interaction between pathogenic and vaccinal viruses following vaccination with imperfect vaccines and has implications for selection of appropriate samples to test for vaccination success. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Concrete airship sheds at Orly, France. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    FREYSSINET

    1925-01-01

    This report details the contest to design and build concrete airship hangers. The difficulty lies in the magnitude of the absolute dimensions. An airship shed must withstand two principal types of stresses: those resulting from its own weight and those due to the wind. This report discusses both problems in detail.

  14. Shedding of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Oral Fluid of Infected Swine.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Amy C; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Park, So Lee; Ayers, Victoria B; Hettenbach, Susan M; Higgs, Stephen; McVey, D Scott; Noronha, Leela; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2018-05-09

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Maintenance of JEV in nature involves enzootic transmission by competent Culex mosquitoes among susceptible avian and swine species. Historically, JEV has been regarded as one of the most important arthropod-borne viruses in Southeast Asia. Oronasal shedding of JEV from infected amplification hosts was not recognized until the recent discovery of vector-free transmission of JEV among domestic pigs. In this study, oral shedding of JEV was characterized in domestic pigs and miniature swine representing the feral phenotype. A rope-based sampling method followed by the detection of viral RNA using RT-qPCR allowed the collection and detection of JEV in oral fluid samples collected from intradermally challenged animals. The results suggest that the shedding of JEV in oral fluid can be readily detected by molecular diagnostic assays at the acute phase of infection. It also demonstrates the feasibility of this technique for the diagnosis and surveillance of JEV in swine species.

  15. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.

    1990-07-01

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoringmore » of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.« less

  16. 29. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce) dated July 11, 1985 CONTRACT NO. 3960/CITY OF NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF PORTS AND TERMINALS/DEMOLITION & REMOVAL OF SHEDS OF PIERS 95 AND 96, N.R./ BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ PLANS AND SECTIONS, PIER 96 - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  17. The Role of Shed PrPc in the Neuropathogenesis of HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Megra, Bezawit W; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Berman, Joan W

    2017-07-01

    HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after peripheral infection and causes chronic neuroinflammation and neuronal damage that leads to cognitive impairment in 40-70% of HIV-infected people. The nonpathogenic cellular isoform of the human prion protein (PrP c ) is an adhesion molecule constitutively expressed in the CNS. Previously, our laboratory showed that shed PrP c (sPrP c ) is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected people with cognitive deficits as compared with infected people with no impairment. In this article, we demonstrate that CCL2 and TNF-α, inflammatory mediators that are elevated in the CNS of HIV-infected people, increase shedding of PrP c from human astrocytes by increasing the active form of the metalloprotease ADAM10. We show that the consequence of this shedding can be the production of inflammatory mediators, because treatment of astrocytes with rPrP c increased secretion of CCL2, CXCL-12, and IL-8. Supernatants from rPrP c -treated astrocytes containing factors produced in response to this treatment, but not rPrP c by itself, cause increased chemotaxis of both uninfected and HIV-infected human monocytes, suggesting a role for sPrP c in monocyte recruitment into the brain. Furthermore, we examined whether PrP c participates in glutamate uptake and found that rPrP c decreased uptake of this metabolite in astrocytes, which could lead to neurotoxicity and neuronal loss. Collectively, our data characterize mediators involved in PrP c shedding and the effect of this sPrP c on monocyte chemotaxis and glutamate uptake from astrocytes. We propose that shedding of PrP c could be a potential target for therapeutics to limit the cognitive impairment characteristic of neuroAIDS. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 Shedding Dynamics in an Australian Beef Herd

    PubMed Central

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Muellner, Petra; Lammers, Geraldine; Jones, Meghan; Octavia, Sophie; Lan, Ruiting; Heller, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is an important foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted to humans both directly and indirectly from the feces of beef cattle, its primary reservoir. Numerous studies have investigated the shedding dynamics of E. coli O157 by beef cattle; however, the spatiotemporal trends of shedding are still not well understood. Molecular tools can increase the resolution through the use of strain typing to explore transmission dynamics within and between herds and identify strain-specific characteristics that may influence pathogenicity and spread. Previously, the shedding dynamics and molecular diversity, through the use of multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of STEC O157, were separately investigated in an Australian beef herd over a 9-month study period. Variation in shedding was observed over time, and 33 MLVA types were identified. The study presented here combines the two datasets previously published with an aim to clarify the relationship between epidemiological variables and strain types. Three major genetic clusters (GCs) were identified that were significantly associated with the location of the cattle in different paddocks. No significant association between GCs and individual cow was observed. Results from this molecular epidemiological study provide evidence for herd-level clonal replacement over time that may have been triggered by movement to a new paddock. In conclusion, this study has provided further insight into STEC O157 shedding dynamics and pathogen transmission. Knowledge gaps remain regarding the relationship of strain types and the shedding dynamics of STEC O157 by beef cattle that could be further clarified through the use of whole-genome sequencing. PMID:29230401

  19. Inactivated HSV-2 in MPL/alum adjuvant provides nearly complete protection against genital infection and shedding following long term challenge and rechallenge.

    PubMed

    Morello, Christopher S; Kraynyak, Kimberly A; Levinson, Michael S; Chen, Zhijiang; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Spector, Deborah H

    2012-10-12

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) infection can result in life-long recurrent genital disease, asymptomatic virus shedding, and transmission. No vaccine to date has shown significant protection clinically. Here, we used a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection to test the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of whole, formalin-inactivated HSV-2 (FI-HSV2) formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum adjuvants. Vaccine components were administered alone or as a prime-boost immunization together with DNA vaccines encoding a truncated glycoprotein D2 (gD2t) and two conserved HSV-2 genes necessary for virus replication, UL5 (DNA helicase) and UL30 (DNA polymerase). Our results show: (1) compared with mock immunized controls, mice immunized with FI-HSV2 plus MPL/alum consistently showed protection against disease burden and total viral shedding while the mice immunized with gD2t protein with MPL/alum did not; (2) protection against genital disease and viral replication correlated with the type of boost in a prime-boost immunization with little advantage afforded by a DNA prime; (3) intramuscular (i.m.) immunization with FI-HSV2 in MPL/Alhydrogel adjuvant provided nearly complete protection against vaginal HSV-2 shedding after a lethal intravaginal (i.vag.) short-term challenge and long-term rechallenge; (4) single formulation immunization with DNA vaccines, FI-HSV2, and MPL in an aluminum phosphate (Adju-Phos) adjuvant did not increase protection relative to FI-HSV2/MPL/Adju-Phos alone; and (5) addition of MPL/alum to the FI-HSV2 was required for optimal protection against disease, viral replication, and latent virus load in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Most notably, an optimized vaccine formulation of FI-HSV2 MPL/Alhydrogel given i.m. completely protected against detectable vaginal HSV-2 shedding in the majority of animals and HSV-2 latent DNA in the DRG of all animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vortex Shedding Characteristics of the Wake of a Thin Flat Plate with a Circular Trailing Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2018-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a thin flat plate with a circular trailing edge are investigated with direct numerical simulations (DNS). Data obtained for two different Reynolds numbers (based on plate thickness, D) are the main focus of this study. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in both cases. An earlier investigation of one of the cases (Case F) showed shed vortices in the wake that were about 1.0 D to 4.0 D in spanwise length. Considerable variation in both the strength and frequency of these shed vortices was observed. One objective of the present investigation is to determine the important contributors to this variability in strength and frequency of shed vortices and their finite spanwise extent. Analysis of the data shows that streamwise vortices in the separating boundary layer play an important role in strengthening/weakening of the shed vortices and that high/low-speed streaks in the boundary layer are important contributors to variability in shedding frequency. Both these features of the boundary layer contribute to the finite extent of the vortices in the spanwise direction. The second plate DNS (Case G, with 40 percent of the plate thickness of Case F) shows that while shedding intensity is weaker than obtained in Case F, many of the wake features are similar to that of Case F. This is important in understanding the path to the wake of the thin plate with a sharp trailing edge where shedding is absent. Here we also test the efficacy of a functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers based on the boundary layer momentum thickness (Re (sub theta) and D (Re (sub D)); data for developing this behavioral model is from Cases F & G and five earlier DNSs of the flat plate wake.

  1. Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) shedding in sow colostrum.

    PubMed

    Kedkovid, Roongtham; Woonwong, Yonlayong; Arunorat, Jirapat; Sirisereewan, Chaitawat; Sangpratum, Nattaphong; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Tummaruk, Padet; Teankum, Komkrich; Assavacheep, Pornchalit; Jittimanee, Suphattra; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2018-07-01

    The major objective of this work was to investigate the shedding of porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) in sow colostrum. PCV3 titers in the serum and colostrum samples of 38 sows were determined using qPCR. Interestingly, this is the first report regarding the identification of PCV3 from the colostrum samples. In the studied farm, the prevalence of PCV3 in the colostrum samples was 44.74% (17/38). When sows were grouped based on the PCV3 titers in the serum into the "High-viremic", "Low-viremic" and "Non-viremic" sows, it was shown that the High-viremic sows showed significantly higher PCV3 colostrum prevalence (100%; 9/9) with the PCV3 titers ranging from 4.01 to 7.33 genomic copies/mL. The results indicated that PCV3 in the colostrum might be partly influenced by the viremic stage of the infection. However, the results also showed that approximately 41% of sows shedding PCV3 with low titers in the colostrum (7/17) were non-viremic sows. In conclusion, this study identified the presence of PCV3 in sow colostrum. Clinical impacts and mechanisms of colostrum shedding of PCV3 should be further investigated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Branch breakage under snow and ice loads.

    PubMed

    Cannell, M G; Morgan, J

    1989-09-01

    Measurements were made on branches and trunks of Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. to determine the relationship between (i) the bending moment at the bases of branches that cause breakage, and (ii) midpoint diameter cubed. The theory for cantilever beams was then used to calculate the basal bending moments and midpoint diameters of branches with different numbers of laterals and endpoint deflections, given previously measured values of Young's modulus, taper and weights of foliage and wood. Snow and ice loads (equal to 2 and 4 g cm(-1) of shoot, respectively) were then included in the calculation to determine whether the basal bending moments exceeded the breakage values. The likelihood of breakage increased with an increase in (i) number of laterals, and (ii) endpoint deflection under self weight (without snow or ice)-features that had previously been shown to lessen the amount of branch wood required to support a unit of foliage. However, branches which deflected moderately (> 10% of their length) under their own weight deflected greatly under snow or ice loads and might shed powdery snow before breakage occurs.

  3. Frequency lock-in and phase synchronization of vortex shedding behind circular cylinder due to surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnoo, Hans; Abcha, Nizar; Ezersky, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    The influence of harmonic surface wave on non-regular Karman Vortex Street is investigated. In our experiments, Karman Street arises behind a vertical circular cylinder in a water flow and harmonic surface waves propagating upstream. It is found that surface waves can modify regimes of shedding in Karman Street: frequency lock-in and synchronization of vortex shedding can arise. Intensive surface waves can excite symmetric vortex street instead of chess-like street, and completely suppress shedding behind the cylinder. It is shown experimentally that such effects occur if frequency of harmonic surface wave is approximately twice higher than the frequency of vortex shedding. Region of frequency lock-in is found on the plane amplitude-frequency of surface wave.

  4. Super-shedding and the link between human infection and livestock carriage of Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Chase-Topping, Margo; Gally, David; Low, Chris; Matthews, Louise; Woolhouse, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Cattle that excrete more Escherichia coli O157 than others are known as super-shedders. Super-shedding has important consequences for the epidemiology of E. coli O157 in cattle--its main reservoir--and for the risk of human infection, particularly owing to environmental exposure. Ultimately, control measures targeted at super-shedders may prove to be highly effective. We currently have only a limited understanding of both the nature and the determinants of super-shedding. However, super-shedding has been observed to be associated with colonization at the terminal rectum and might also occur more often with certain pathogen phage types. More generally, epidemiological evidence suggests that super-shedding might be important in other bacterial and viral infections.

  5. RSV-encoded NS2 promotes epithelial cell shedding and distal airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liesman, Rachael M.; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Luongo, Cindy L.; Yang, Lijuan; Proia, Alan D.; DeVincenzo, John P.; Collins, Peter L.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in young children. The factors that contribute to the increased propensity of RSV-induced distal airway disease compared with other commonly encountered respiratory viruses remain unclear. Here, we identified the RSV-encoded nonstructural 2 (NS2) protein as a viral genetic determinant for initiating RSV-induced distal airway obstruction. Infection of human cartilaginous airway epithelium (HAE) and a hamster model of disease with recombinant respiratory viruses revealed that NS2 promotes shedding of infected epithelial cells, resulting in two consequences of virus infection. First, epithelial cell shedding accelerated the reduction of virus titers, presumably by clearing virus-infected cells from airway mucosa. Second, epithelial cells shedding into the narrow-diameter bronchiolar airway lumens resulted in rapid accumulation of detached, pleomorphic epithelial cells, leading to acute distal airway obstruction. Together, these data indicate that RSV infection of the airway epithelium, via the action of NS2, promotes epithelial cell shedding, which not only accelerates viral clearance but also contributes to acute obstruction of the distal airways. Our results identify RSV NS2 as a contributing factor for the enhanced propensity of RSV to cause severe airway disease in young children and suggest NS2 as a potential therapeutic target for reducing the severity of distal airway disease. PMID:24713657

  6. Vortex Shedding in the Wake Induced by a Real Elephant Seal Whisker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, Jodi; Omilion, Alexis; Zhang, Wei; Kim, Jeong-Jae; Kim, Jeong-Ju; Choi, Woo-Rak; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2017-11-01

    Biomimicry has been adopted to create innovative solutions in a vast range of applications. One such application is the design of seal-whisker-inspired flow sensors for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In dark, cramped, and unstable terrain AUVs are not able to maneuver using visual and sonar-based navigation. Hence, it is critical to use underwater flow sensors to accurately detect minute disturbances in the surroundings. Certain seal whiskers exhibit a unique undulating three-dimensional morphology that can reduce vortex induced vibrations (VIVs) if the major axis of the whisker cross-section is aligned to the inflow. This allows the seal to precisely track prey fish upstream using solely their whiskers. The current study aims to understand the effect of a real seal whisker's morphology on the vortex shedding behavior. Despite extensive studies of wake induced by scaled whisker-like models, the vortex shedding in the wake of a real seal whisker is not well understood. A series of experiments are conducted with a high-speed Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) system in a water channel to examine the vortex shedding downstream from a smooth whisker and an undulating whisker at a Reynolds number of a few hundred. Results of the vortex shedding induced by real seal whiskers can provide insights on developing high-sensitivity underwater flow sensors for AUVs and other whisker-inspired structures.

  7. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  8. Matriptase shedding is closely coupled with matriptase zymogen activation and requires de novo proteolytic cleavage likely involving its own activity

    PubMed Central

    Barndt, Robert; Gu, Yayun; Chen, Chien-Yu; Tseng, I-Chu; Su, Sheng-Fang; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Johnson, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The type 2 transmembrane serine protease matriptase is involved in many pathophysiological processes probably via its enzymatic activity, which depends on the dynamic relationship between zymogen activation and protease inhibition. Matriptase shedding can prolong the life of enzymatically active matriptase and increase accessibility to substrates. We show here that matriptase shedding occurs via a de novo proteolytic cleavage at sites located between the SEA domain and the CUB domain. Point or combined mutations at the four positively charged amino acid residues in the region following the SEA domain allowed Arg-186 to be identified as the primary cleavage site responsible for matriptase shedding. Kinetic studies further demonstrate that matriptase shedding is temporally coupled with matriptase zymogen activation. The onset of matriptase shedding lags one minute behind matriptase zymogen activation. Studies with active site triad Ser-805 point mutated matriptase, which no longer undergoes zymogen activation or shedding, further suggests that matriptase shedding depends on matriptase zymogen activation, and that matriptase proteolytic activity may be involved in its own shedding. Our studies uncover an autonomous mechanism coupling matriptase zymogen activation, proteolytic activity, and shedding such that a proportion of newly generated active matriptase escapes HAI-1-mediated rapid inhibition by shedding into the extracellular milieu. PMID:28829816

  9. Effect of noise reducing components on nose landing gear stability for a mid-size aircraft coupled with vortex shedding and freeplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eret, Petr; Kennedy, John; Bennett, Gareth J.

    2015-10-01

    In the pursuit of quieter aircraft, significant effort has been dedicated to airframe noise identification and reduction. The landing gear is one of the main sources of airframe noise on approach. The addition of noise abatement technologies such as fairings or wheel hub caps is usually considered to be the simplest solution to reduce this noise. After touchdown, noise abatement components can potentially affect the inherently nonlinear and dynamically complex behaviour (shimmy) of landing gear. Moreover, fairings can influence the aerodynamic load on the system and interact with the mechanical freeplay in the torque link. This paper presents a numerical study of nose landing gear stability for a mid-size aircraft with low noise solutions, which are modelled by an increase of the relevant model structural parameters to address a hypothetical effect of additional fairings and wheel hub caps. The study shows that the wheel hub caps are not a threat to stability. A fairing has a destabilising effect due to the increased moment of inertia of the strut and a stabilising effect due to the increased torsional stiffness of the strut. As the torsional stiffness is dependent on the method of attachment, in situations where the fairing increases the torsional inertia with little increase to the torsional stiffness, a net destabilising effect can result. Alternatively, it is possible that for the case that if the fairing were to increase equally both the torsional stiffness and the moment of inertia of the strut, then their effects could be mutually negated. However, it has been found here that for small and simple fairings, typical of current landing gear noise abatement design, their implementation will not affect the dynamics and stability of the system in an operational range (Fz ≤ 50 000 N, V ≤ 100 m/s). This generalisation is strictly dependent on size and installation methods. The aerodynamic load, which would be influenced by the presence of fairings, was modelled

  10. Perspectives on super-shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cattle.

    PubMed

    Munns, Krysty D; Selinger, L Brent; Stanford, Kim; Guan, Leluo; Callaway, Todd R; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans worldwide. Cattle are the primary reservoir of this bacterium, with the concentration and frequency of E. coli O157:H7 shedding varying greatly among individuals. The term "super-shedder" has been applied to cattle that shed concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 ≥ 10⁴ colony-forming units/g feces. Super-shedders have been reported to have a substantial impact on the prevalence and transmission of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment. The specific factors responsible for super-shedding are unknown, but are presumably mediated by characteristics of the bacterium, animal host, and environment. Super-shedding is sporadic and inconsistent, suggesting that biofilms of E. coli O157:H7 colonizing the intestinal epithelium in cattle are intermittently released into feces. Phenotypic and genotypic differences have been noted in E. coli O157:H7 recovered from super-shedders as compared to low-shedding cattle, including differences in phage type (PT21/28), carbon utilization, degree of clonal relatedness, tir polymorphisms, and differences in the presence of stx2a and stx2c, as well as antiterminator Q gene alleles. There is also some evidence to support that the native fecal microbiome is distinct between super-shedders and low-shedders and that low-shedders have higher levels of lytic phage within feces. Consequently, conditions within the host may determine whether E. coli O157:H7 can proliferate sufficiently for the host to obtain super-shedding status. Targeting super-shedders for mitigation of E. coli O157:H7 has been proposed as a means of reducing the incidence and spread of this pathogen to the environment. If super-shedders could be easily identified, strategies such as bacteriophage therapy, probiotics, vaccination, or dietary inclusion of plant secondary compounds could be specifically targeted at this subpopulation. Evidence that super-shedder isolates share a commonality with isolates

  11. Rooftop detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241) with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241) with flume and overhead pipeline. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  12. Detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241). Note pipeline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of new rain shed (Building No. 241). Note pipeline connection from collection trough. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  13. Single line source with and without vaginal loading and the impact on target coverage and organ at risk doses for cervix cancer Stages IB, II, and IIIB: treatment planning simulation in patients treated with MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy in a multicentre study (EMBRACE).

    PubMed

    Nkiwane, Karen S; Pötter, Richard; Tanderup, Kari; Federico, Mario; Lindegaard, Jacob C; Kirisits, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional evaluation and comparison of target and organs at risk (OARs) doses from two traditional standard source loading patterns in the frame of MRI-guided cervical cancer brachytherapy for various clinical scenarios based on patient data collected in a multicenter trial setting. Two nonoptimized three-dimensional MRI-based treatment plans, Plan 1 (tandem and vaginal loading) and Plan 2 (tandem loading only), were generated for 134 patients from seven centers participating in the EMBRACE study. Both plans were normalized to point A (Pt. A). Target and OAR doses were evaluated in terms of minimum dose to 90% of the high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV D90) grouped by tumor stage and minimum dose to the most exposed 2cm³ of the OARs volume. An HRCTV D90 ≥ Pt. A was achieved in 82% and 44% of the patients with Plans 1 and 2, respectively. Median HRCTV D90 with Plans 1 and 2 was 120% and 90% of Pt. A dose, respectively. Both plans had optimal dose coverage in 88% of Stage IB tumors; however, the tandem-only plan resulted in about 50% of dose reduction to the vagina and rectum. For Stages IIB and IIIB, Plan 1 had on average 35% better target coverage but with significant doses to OARs. Standard tandem loading alone results in good target coverage in most Stage IB tumors without violating OAR dose constraints. For Stage IIB tumors, standard vaginal loading improves the therapeutic window, however needs optimization to fulfill the dose prescription for target and OAR. In Stage IIIB, even optimized vaginal loading often does not fulfill the needs for dose prescription. The significant dose variation across various clinical scenarios for both target and OARs indicates the need for image-guided brachytherapy for optimal dose adaptation both for limited and advanced diseases. Copyright © 2013 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rooftop view of old rain shed (Building No. 43), pipeline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop view of old rain shed (Building No. 43), pipeline on trestle, and water tanks. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  15. Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rooftop view of new rain shed (Building No. 241) showing collection gutter and overhead pipeline. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  16. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with collection downspouts from gutter to reservoir. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  17. DETAIL, NORTHEAST POST SUPPORTING SHED PORCH ROOF ON NORTH FACADE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL, NORTHEAST POST SUPPORTING SHED PORCH ROOF ON NORTH FACADE; VIEW TO EAST - Fort Bragg, Noncommissioned Officers' Service Club, Guest House Building, South of Butner Road, Fayetteville, Cumberland County, NC

  18. Research on virtual network load balancing based on OpenFlow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Rong; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The Network based on OpenFlow technology separate the control module and data forwarding module. Global deployment of load balancing strategy through network view of control plane is fast and of high efficiency. This paper proposes a Weighted Round-Robin Scheduling algorithm for virtual network and a load balancing plan for server load based on OpenFlow. Load of service nodes and load balancing tasks distribution algorithm will be taken into account.

  19. Unusual planned complex suicide committed with a muzzle-loading pistol in combination with subsequent hanging.

    PubMed

    Ondruschka, Benjamin; Morgenthal, Sylvia; Dreβler, Jan; Bayer, Ronny

    2016-11-01

    In Germany, suicides by firearms are not very common in contrast to deaths by hanging and intoxications. The use of historical muzzle-loading firearms in the context of suicides is a rarity. Contact shots from muzzle loaders cause an unusual wound morphology with extensive soot soiling. We report the case of a 59-year-old man, who committed a planned complex suicide by shooting into his mouth with a replica percussion gun in combination with hanging. The gunshot injury showed strong explosive effects in the oral cavity with fractures of the facial bones and the skull associated with cerebral evisceration (so-called Krönlein shot). Due to the special constellation of the case with hanging immediately after the shot, external bleeding from the head injuries was only moderate. Therefore, the head injuries could be assessed and partially reconstructed already at the scene.

  20. Low Flow Vortex Shedding Flow Meter for Hypergolics/all Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thinh, Ngo Dinh

    1991-01-01

    A family of vortex shedding flow meters, for measurement of hypergol flows, was designed and fabricated. The test loops to evaluate the flow meters for water flow, as well as Freon -113 flow which simulates the hypergolic fluids, were modified and constructed to utilize a pump system which has an output capacity of 200 gpm. Test runs were conducted on the small 1/2 inch model with Freon 113 and on the larger models with water. Results showed that the linearity between the frequency of the vortices and the flow rate of the fluids was very close to that of the turbine flow meter. It is suggested that the vortex shedding flow meter is a possible replacement for the existing turbine type.

  1. A POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: SHEDS-PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has developed a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter (PM) that will be publicly available in Fall 2002. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS-PM) model uses a probabilistic approach ...

  2. Load reduction test method of similarity theory and BP neural networks of large cranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruigang; Duan, Zhibin; Lu, Yi; Wang, Lei; Xu, Gening

    2016-01-01

    Static load tests are an important means of supervising and detecting a crane's lift capacity. Due to space restrictions, however, there are difficulties and potential danger when testing large bridge cranes. To solve the loading problems of large-tonnage cranes during testing, an equivalency test is proposed based on the similarity theory and BP neural networks. The maximum stress and displacement of a large bridge crane is tested in small loads, combined with the training neural network of a similar structure crane through stress and displacement data which is collected by a physics simulation progressively loaded to a static load test load within the material scope of work. The maximum stress and displacement of a crane under a static load test load can be predicted through the relationship of stress, displacement, and load. By measuring the stress and displacement of small tonnage weights, the stress and displacement of large loads can be predicted, such as the maximum load capacity, which is 1.25 times the rated capacity. Experimental study shows that the load reduction test method can reflect the lift capacity of large bridge cranes. The load shedding predictive analysis for Sanxia 1200 t bridge crane test data indicates that when the load is 1.25 times the rated lifting capacity, the predicted displacement and actual displacement error is zero. The method solves the problem that lifting capacities are difficult to obtain and testing accidents are easily possible when 1.25 times related weight loads are tested for large tonnage cranes.

  3. View of Irving Intake System showing shed and steel flume. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Irving Intake System showing shed and steel flume. Looking west-northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  4. 29. Umbrella sheds behind South Station. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Umbrella sheds behind South Station. Boston, Suffolk Co., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 229.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Redwood tanks in foreground with old rain shed (Building No. 43) and steel tanks in background. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  6. Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing redwood dry storage building located inside. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  7. Load Modeling and Calibration Techniques for Power System Studies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chassin, Forrest S.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2011-09-23

    Load modeling is the most uncertain area in power system simulations. Having an accurate load model is important for power system planning and operation. Here, a review of load modeling and calibration techniques is given. This paper is not comprehensive, but covers some of the techniques most commonly found in the literature. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are outlined.

  8. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) enhance wound healing and the possibility of novel cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Yudai; Yamada, Yoichi; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Nakamura, Sayaka; Okabe, Kazuto; Umemura, Eri; Hara, Kenji; Ueda, Minoru

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have received attention as a novel stem cell source with multipotent potential. We examined the effect on wound-healing promotion with unique stem cells from deciduous teeth as a medical waste. An excisional wound-splinting mouse model was used and the effect of wound healing among SHED, human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), human fibroblasts (hFibro) and a control (phosphate-buffered saline; PBS) was evaluated by macroscopy, histology and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the expression of hyaluronan (HA), which is related to wound healing, investigated. SHED and hMSCs accelerated wound healing compared with hFibro and the control. There was a statistically significant difference in wound healing area among hFibro, hMSCs and SHED compared with the control after day 5. At days 7 and 14 after cell transplantation, the histologic observation showed that transplanted PKH26-positive cells were surrounded by human HA binding protein, especially in hMSCs and SHED. HA expression volume values were 1558.41 ± 60.33 (control), 2092.75 ± 42.56 (hFibro), 2342.07 ± 188.10 (hMSCs) and 2314.85 ± 164.91 (SHED) ng/mg, respectively, and significantly higher in hMSCs and SHED compared with hFibro and control at days 7 and 14 (P < 0.05). Our results show that SHED hMSCs have similar effects of wound-healing promotion as hFibro and controls. This implies that SHED might offer a unique stem cell resource and the possibility of novel cell therapies for wound healing in the future.

  9. Characterization of E. coli O157:H7 strains isolated from super-shedding cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Recent reports have indicated that a small sub-population of cattle shedding high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the main source for transmission of the pathogen between animals. Cattle achieving a fecal shedding status of 104 CFU of E. coli O157:H7/gram are now referred to as su...

  10. Managing the space-time-load continuum in TMDL planning: a case study for understanding groundwaer loads through advanced mapping techniques

    Treesearch

    Phillip Harte; Marcel Belaval; Andrea Traviglia

    2016-01-01

    The lag time between groundwater recharge and discharge in a watershed and the potential groundwater load to streams is an important factor in forecasting responses to future land use practices. We call this concept managing the “space-time-load continuum.” It’s understood that in any given watershed, the response function (the load at any given time) will differ for...

  11. Stability analysis of the onset of vortex shedding for wakes behind flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Liu, Li; Zhang, Shi-Bo; Wen, Feng-Bo; Zhou, Xun

    2018-04-01

    Above a critical Reynolds number, wake flows behind flat plates become globally unstable, the leading modal instability in this case is known as Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism. In this article, both local and BiGlobal linear instability analyses are performed numerically to study the onset of the shedding process. Flat plates with different base shapes are considered to assess geometry effects, and the relation between the critical shedding Reynolds number, Re_cr , and the boundary layer thickness is studied. Three types of base shapes are used: square, triangular and elliptic. It is found that the base shape has a great impact on the growth rate of least stable disturbance mode, thus would influence Re_cr greatly, but it has little effect on the vortex shedding frequency. The shedding frequency is determined mainly by boundary layer thickness and has little dependence on the Reynolds number and base shape. We find that for a fixed Reynolds number, increasing boundary layer thickness acted in two ways to modify the global stability characteristics: It increases the length of the absolute unstable region and it makes the flow less locally absolutely unstable in the near-wake region, and these two effects work against each other to destabilize or stabilize the flow.

  12. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Warren; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Krantz, Elizabeth M.; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Kambugu, Fred; Orem, Jackson; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa, the natural history of infection among Africans is not well characterized. We evaluated the frequency of genital HSV shedding in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women in Uganda. Methods. Ninety-three HSV-2–seropositive Ugandan adults collected anogenital swab specimens for HSV DNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction 3 times daily for 6 weeks. Results. HSV-2 was detected from 2484 of 11 283 swab specimens collected (22%), with a median quantity of 4.3 log10 HSV copies/mL (range, 2.2–8.9 log10 HSV copies/mL). Genital lesions were reported on 749 of 3875 days (19%), and subclinical HSV shedding was detected from 1480 of 9113 swab specimens (16%) collected on days without lesions. Men had higher rates of total HSV shedding (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3–2.9]; P < .001); subclinical shedding (RR, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.1–2.7]; P = .01), and genital lesions (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2–3.4]; P = .005), compared with women. No differences in shedding rates or lesion frequency were observed based on HIV serostatus. Conclusions. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2–seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. PMID:26486633

  13. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Warren; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Kambugu, Fred; Orem, Jackson; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa, the natural history of infection among Africans is not well characterized. We evaluated the frequency of genital HSV shedding in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women in Uganda. Ninety-three HSV-2-seropositive Ugandan adults collected anogenital swab specimens for HSV DNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction 3 times daily for 6 weeks. HSV-2 was detected from 2484 of 11 283 swab specimens collected (22%), with a median quantity of 4.3 log10 HSV copies/mL (range, 2.2-8.9 log10 HSV copies/mL). Genital lesions were reported on 749 of 3875 days (19%), and subclinical HSV shedding was detected from 1480 of 9113 swab specimens (16%) collected on days without lesions. Men had higher rates of total HSV shedding (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-2.9]; P < .001); subclinical shedding (RR, 1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.7]; P = .01), and genital lesions (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.4]; P = .005), compared with women. No differences in shedding rates or lesion frequency were observed based on HIV serostatus. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2-seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates epidermal growth factor-family ectodomain shedding and paracrine signaling from human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Tetsuya; Boudreault, Francis; Padem, Nurcicek; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Drazen, Jeffrey M; Tschumperlin, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Lysophospatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator implicated in tissue repair and wound healing. It mediates diverse functional effects in fibroblasts, including proliferation, migration and contraction, but less is known about its ability to evoke paracrine signaling to other cell types involved in wound healing. We hypothesized that human pulmonary fibroblasts stimulated by LPA would exhibit ectodomain shedding of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands that signal to lung epithelial cells. To test this hypothesis, we used alkaline phosphatase-tagged EGFR ligand plasmids transfected into lung fibroblasts, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect shedding of native ligands. LPA induced shedding of alkaline phosphatase-tagged heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), amphiregulin, and transforming growth factor-a; non-transfected fibroblasts shed amphiregulin and HBEGF under baseline conditions, and increased shedding of HB-EGF in response to LPA. Treatment of fibroblasts with LPA resulted in elevated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, enhanced expression of mRNA for c-fos, HB-EGF and amphiregulin, and enhanced proliferation at 96 hours. However, none of these fibroblast responses to LPA required ectodomain shedding or EGFR activity. To test the ability of LPA to stimulate paracrine signaling from fibroblasts, we transferred conditioned medium from LPA-stimulated cells, and found enhanced EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in reporter A549 cells in excess of what could be accounted for by transferred LPA alone. These data show that LPA mediates EGF-family ectodomain shedding, resulting in enhanced paracrine signaling from lung fibroblasts to epithelial cells. © 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Experimental study of the effect on span loading on aircraft wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsiglia, V. R.; Rossow, V. J.; Ciffone, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements were made in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel of the rolling moment induced on a following model in the wake 13.6 spans behind a subsonic transport model for a variety of trailing edge flap settings of the generator. It was found that the rolling moment on the following model was reduced substantially, compared to the conventional landing configuration, by reshaping the span loading on the generating model to approximate a span loading, found in earlier studies, which resulted in reduced wake velocities. This was accomplished by retracting the outboard trailing edge flaps. It was concluded, based on flow visualization conducted in the wind tunnel as well as in a water tow facility, that this flap arrangement redistributes the vorticity shed by the wing along the span to form three vortex pairs that interact to disperse the wake.

  16. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with gutter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) with gutter box on northwest side. Maintenance staff in foreground. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  17. 20. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING TRANSITION FROM RECENT SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING TRANSITION FROM RECENT SHED ADDITION TO ORIGINAL REAR PORCH AREA. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  18. Dynamic load environment of bridge-mounted sign support structures : research implementation plan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-09-01

    Welded aluminum highway sign support trusses must withstand in-service dynamic loads, which largely : constitute the fatigue environment. Sources of these dynamic loads include the natural wind and seismic : environment, the artificial wind environme...

  19. Super-Shed Escherichia coli O157:H7 have potential for increased pathogen persistence and antibiotic resistance dissemination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle are primary reservoirs of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157), and super-shedding cattle shed O157 at greater than or equal to 10,000 colony-forming units/g feces. Host, bacteria, and/or the environment reportedly influence the super-shedding phenomenon. We recently demonstrated that a super-she...

  20. Perspective view showing SW corners of farmhouse shed on left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing SW corners of farmhouse shed on left, farmhouse and farmhouse garage on right (partially hidden by tree). - Kosai Farm, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  1. PLAN2D - A PROGRAM FOR ELASTO-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF PLANAR FRAMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.

    1994-01-01

    PLAN2D is a FORTRAN computer program for the plastic analysis of planar rigid frame structures. Given a structure and loading pattern as input, PLAN2D calculates the ultimate load that the structure can sustain before collapse. Element moments and plastic hinge rotations are calculated for the ultimate load. The location of hinges required for a collapse mechanism to form are also determined. The program proceeds in an iterative series of linear elastic analyses. After each iteration the resulting elastic moments in each member are compared to the reserve plastic moment capacity of that member. The member or members that have moments closest to their reserve capacity will determine the minimum load factor and the site where the next hinge is to be inserted. Next, hinges are inserted and the structural stiffness matrix is reformulated. This cycle is repeated until the structure becomes unstable. At this point the ultimate collapse load is calculated by accumulating the minimum load factor from each previous iteration and multiplying them by the original input loads. PLAN2D is based on the program STAN, originally written by Dr. E.L. Wilson at U.C. Berkeley. PLAN2D has several limitations: 1) Although PLAN2D will detect unloading of hinges it does not contain the capability to remove hinges; 2) PLAN2D does not allow the user to input different positive and negative moment capacities and 3) PLAN2D does not consider the interaction between axial and plastic moment capacity. Axial yielding and buckling is ignored as is the reduction in moment capacity due to axial load. PLAN2D is written in FORTRAN and is machine independent. It has been tested on an IBM PC and a DEC MicroVAX. The program was developed in 1988.

  2. Determination of mean camber surfaces for wings having uniform chordwise loading and arbitrary spanwise loading in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, S; Faison, M Frances; Dubose, Hugh C

    1954-01-01

    The field of a uniformly loaded wing in subsonic flow is discussed in terms of the acceleration potential. It is shown that, for the design of such wings, the slope of the mean camber surface at any point can be determined by a line integration around the wing boundary. By an additional line integration around the wing boundary, this method is extended to include the case where the local section lift coefficient varies with spanwise location (the chordwise loading at every section still remaining uniform). For the uniformly loaded wing of polygonal plan form, the integrations necessary to determine the local slope of the surface and the further integration of the slopes to determine the ordinate can be done analytically. An outline of these integrations and the resulting formulas are included. Calculated results are given for a sweptback wing with uniform chordwise loading and a highly tapered spanwise loading, a uniformly loaded delta wing, a uniformly loaded sweptback wing, and the same sweptback wing with uniform chordwise loading but elliptical span load distribution.

  3. SSME/side loads analysis for flight configuration, revision A. [structural analysis of space shuttle main engine under side load excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, W.

    1974-01-01

    This document describes the dynamic loads analysis accomplished for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) considering the side load excitation associated with transient flow separation on the engine bell during ground ignition. The results contained herein pertain only to the flight configuration. A Monte Carlo procedure was employed to select the input variables describing the side load excitation and the loads were statistically combined. This revision includes an active thrust vector control system representation and updated orbiter thrust structure stiffness characteristics. No future revisions are planned but may be necessary as system definition and input parameters change.

  4. Pumphouse/garage and shed, looking southwest Thomas Murphy Homestead, North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pumphouse/garage and shed, looking southwest - Thomas Murphy Homestead, North of John Moulton Homestead, approximately 1,000 feet west of Mormon Row Road, and .25 mile north of Antelope Flats Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  5. 1. EAST ELEVATION, SHOWING PENTHOUSE, STAIRS, AND SHED USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST ELEVATION, SHOWING PENTHOUSE, STAIRS, AND SHED USED TO TREAT HELICOPTER COMPONENTS. SOUTHEAST DOOR TO BUILDING 10 AT RIGHT. - Hughes Aircraft Company, Garage & Maintenance Building, 6775 Centinela Avenue, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 3. Peeler Shed, SE side, with blower assembly. This structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Peeler Shed, SE side, with blower assembly. This structure was need to move back to the Chipper Building for processing. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Log Peeling Operation, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. Th1 cytokine-induced syndecan-4 shedding by airway smooth muscle cells is dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiahui; Khalil, Najwa; Tesarik, Candice; Vanapalli, Karunasri; Yaputra, Viki; Alkhouri, Hatem; Oliver, Brian G G; Armour, Carol L; Hughes, J Margaret

    2012-04-01

    In asthma, airway smooth muscle (ASM) chemokine secretion can induce mast cell recruitment into the airways. The functions of the mast cell chemoattractant CXCL10, and other chemokines, are regulated by binding to heparan sulphates such as syndecan-4. This study is the first demonstration that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) from people with and without asthma express and shed syndecan-4 under basal conditions. Syndecan-4 shedding was enhanced by stimulation for 24 h with the Th1 cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but not interferon-γ (IFNγ), nor the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. ASMC stimulation with IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFNγ (cytomix) induced the highest level of syndecan-4 shedding. Nonasthmatic and asthmatic ASM cell-associated syndecan-4 protein expression was also increased by TNF-α or cytomix at 4-8 h, with the highest levels detected in cytomix-stimulated asthmatic cells. Cell-associated syndecan-4 levels were decreased by 24 h, whereas shedding remained elevated at 24 h, consistent with newly synthesized syndecan-4 being shed. Inhibition of ASMC matrix metalloproteinase-2 did not prevent syndecan-4 shedding, whereas inhibition of ERK MAPK activation reduced shedding from cytomix-stimulated ASMC. Although ERK inhibition had no effect on syndecan-4 mRNA levels stimulated by cytomix, it did cause an increase in cell-associated syndecan-4 levels, consistent with the shedding being inhibited. In conclusion, ASMC produce and shed syndecan-4 and although this is increased by the Th1 cytokines, the MAPK ERK only regulates shedding. ASMC syndecan-4 production during Th1 inflammatory conditions may regulate chemokine activity and mast cell recruitment to the ASM in asthma.

  8. Multi-Objective Differential Evolution for Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow in Deregulated Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselyn, J. Preetha; Devaraj, D.; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar

    2013-11-01

    Voltage stability is an important issue in the planning and operation of deregulated power systems. The voltage stability problems is a most challenging one for the system operators in deregulated power systems because of the intense use of transmission line capabilities and poor regulation in market environment. This article addresses the congestion management problem avoiding offline transmission capacity limits related to voltage stability by considering Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (VSCOPF) problem in deregulated environment. This article presents the application of Multi Objective Differential Evolution (MODE) algorithm to solve the VSCOPF problem in new competitive power systems. The maximum of L-index of the load buses is taken as the indicator of voltage stability and is incorporated in the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. The proposed method in hybrid power market which also gives solutions to voltage stability problems by considering the generation rescheduling cost and load shedding cost which relieves the congestion problem in deregulated environment. The buses for load shedding are selected based on the minimum eigen value of Jacobian with respect to the load shed. In the proposed approach, real power settings of generators in base case and contingency cases, generator bus voltage magnitudes, real and reactive power demands of selected load buses using sensitivity analysis are taken as the control variables and are represented as the combination of floating point numbers and integers. DE/randSF/1/bin strategy scheme of differential evolution with self-tuned parameter which employs binomial crossover and difference vector based mutation is used for the VSCOPF problem. A fuzzy based mechanism is employed to get the best compromise solution from the pareto front to aid the decision maker. The proposed VSCOPF planning model is implemented on IEEE 30-bus system, IEEE 57 bus practical system and IEEE 118 bus system. The pareto optimal

  9. The distribution of actin immunoreactivity in rhabdomeres of tipulid flies in relation to extracellular membrane shedding.

    PubMed

    Blest, A D; Stowe, S; Clausen, J A; Carter, M

    1991-09-01

    Rhabdomeres of tipulid flies lose membrane during turnover from a 'shedding zone' composed of microvillar tips. These distal domains lack intramicrovillar cytoskeletons and appear to be empty sacs of membrane. Recent concerns about the role of ninaC mechano-enzymes in the architecture of dipteran rhabdomeral microvilli and the dynamic role that they may play in the creation of shedding zones demand an examination of the distribution of actin in tipulid rhabdomeres. We compared rhabdomeres from tipulid retinae incubated before fixation for immunocytochemistry in a buffer without additives and a stabilising buffer that contained a cocktail of cysteine protease inhibitors; both were challenged by an anti-actin antibody for immunogold labelling after embedding in LR White Resin. Shedding zones thus processed collapse to structureless detritus. Stabilised and unstabilized shedding zones were immunonegative to anti-actin. To ensure that the negative results were not consequent upon conformational changes generated by the processing protocol, we examined microvilli of degenerating rhabdomeres of the Drosophila light-dependent retinal degeneration mutant rdgBKS222 (which separate and collapse without creating a shedding zone) and found the detritus they generate to be immunopositive to anti-actin. Stabilised and unstabilized regions of basal regions of tipulid rhabdomeres were equally immunopositive. We infer that (a) actin is absent from shedding zones; (b) actin is not degraded by microvillar cysteine proteases. The implications of these conclusions are discussed in relation to some functional models of arthropod photoreceptor microvilli.

  10. In Vitro Evaluation and Mechanism Analysis of the Fiber Shedding Property of Textile Pile Debridement Materials

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yijun; Xie, Qixue; Lao, Jihong; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Fiber shedding is a critical problem in biomedical textile debridement materials, which leads to infection and impairs wound healing. In this work, single fiber pull-out test was proposed as an in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of a textile pile debridement material. Samples with different structural design (pile densities, numbers of ground yarns and coating times) were prepared and estimated under this testing method. Results show that single fiber pull-out test offers an appropriate in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of textile pile debridement materials. Pull-out force for samples without back-coating exhibited a slight escalating trend with the supplement in pile density and number of ground yarn plies, while back-coating process significantly raised the single fiber pull-out force. For fiber shedding mechanism analysis, typical pull-out behavior and failure modes of the single fiber pull-out test were analyzed in detail. Three failure modes were found in this study, i.e., fiber slippage, coating point rupture and fiber breakage. In summary, to obtain samples with desirable fiber shedding property, fabric structural design, preparation process and raw materials selection should be taken into full consideration. PMID:28773428

  11. Withaferin A is an inhibitor of endothelial protein C receptor shedding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Han, Min-Su; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-06-01

    Withaferin A (WFA), an active compound from Withania somnifera, has been widely researched for its anti-inflammatory and cardioactive properties and effects on the central nervous system. The endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) plays important roles in blood coagulation and inflammation. EPCR activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble EPCR. EPCR is shed from the cell surface, mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). In this study, we investigated the effects of WFA on the EPCR shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in mice and the associated signaling pathways. WFA was found to induce inhibition of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced EPCR shedding and WFA suppressed the expression and activity of TACE. In addition, treatment with WFA resulted in reduced PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of p38, extracellular regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results demonstrate a therapeutic potentiality of WFA as an anti-sEPCR shedding reagent against PMA and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. View of Irving intake system showing shed and a portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Irving intake system showing shed and a portion of the concrete cover (foreground). Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  13. 7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, machinery shed atop east portal of Tunnel 28, showing shaft and pulley system, 210mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  14. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing vertical posts on concrete footing with diagonal timber bracing and wire bracing. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  15. Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss type A in foreground and truss type B behind that. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  16. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (LN) COOLING SHED, MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT CYANAMIDE (L-N) COOLING SHED, MILL BUILDING AND CONVEYOR BRIDGE. NOTE CORNERSTONE ON THE MILL BUILDING. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  17. Genital Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Among Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Persons with HSV-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tronstein, Elizabeth; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Warren, Terri; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Context Since HSV-2 antibody tests have become commercially available, an increasing number of persons learn that they have genital herpes through serologic testing. The course of natural history of HSV-2 in asymptomatic, seropositive persons is uncertain. Objective To evaluate the virologic and clinical course of HSV genital shedding among participants with symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV-2 infection. Design, Setting and Participants Cohort of 498 immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive persons enrolled in prospective studies of genital HSV shedding at the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic, Seattle, Washington, and Westover Heights Clinic in Portland, Oregon, between 1992 and 2008. Each participant obtained daily self-collected swabs of genital secretions for ≥ 30 days. Main Outcome Measurement The rate of viral shedding measured by quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV DNA from genital swabs. Results HSV was detected on 4,753 of 23,683 days (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.3 to 22.0) in persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 519 of 5,070 days (10.2%; 95% CI, 7.7 to 13.6) in persons with asymptomatic infection, p<0.001. Subclinical shedding rates were higher in persons with symptomatic infection compared with asymptomatic infection (2,708 of 20,735 days (13.1%; 95% CI, 11.5 to14.6) vs. 434 of 4,929 days (8.8%; 95% CI, 6.3 to 11.5), p<0.001. However, the amount of HSV detected during subclinical shedding episodes was similar (median 4.3 [IQR 3.1-5.6] log10 copies in the symptomatic infection group vs. 4.2 [IQR, 2.9-5.5], p=0.27 in the asymptomatic infection group). Days with lesions accounted for 2,045 of 4,753 days (43.0%; 95% CI, 39.8 to 46.5) with genital viral shedding among persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 85 of 519 days (16.4%; 95% CI, 11.2 to 23.9) among persons with asymptomatic infection, p<0.001. Conclusions Persons with asymptomatic HSV-2 infection shed virus in

  18. Seasonality in the proportions of domestic cats shedding Toxoplasma gondii or Hammondia hammondi oocysts is associated with climatic factors.

    PubMed

    Schares, G; Ziller, M; Herrmann, D C; Globokar, M V; Pantchev, N; Conraths, F J

    2016-04-01

    contrast to T. gondii, and the coincidence in the periods of high abundance of birds and high proportions of cats shedding T. gondii suggest that birds may play an important role in the epidemiology of this infection. The result that North Atlantic Oscillation index is an important variable in modelling variations in the proportion of cats shedding T. gondii and H. hammondi over the year is an indication that global warming may also influence the infection risk of animals and humans with T. gondii and H. hammondi. The findings have important implications for planning epidemiological studies and for estimating the risk of human infection. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2003-01-01

    Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40+/-1.7) and postflight (44+/-5) phases. Eighteen control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

  20. Prospective cohort study showing persistent HSV-2 shedding in women with genital herpes 2 years after acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, Meena; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Barnum, Gail; Huang, Meei-Li Wu; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2017-11-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a prevalent infection with great variability in clinical and virological manifestations among individuals. This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the natural history of HSV-2 reactivation in the genital area in the same group of women over time. Eighteen immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive women were evaluated for viral shedding for 70 consecutive days within a median of 8 months (range 1-24 months) of HSV-2 acquisition and again approximately 2.5 years later from the original study. Participants obtained daily swabs of genital secretions for HSV PCR and recorded genital symptoms. The viral shedding rate was 29% during the initial study and 19% in the follow-up study (32% reduction, P=0.019). Subclinical shedding rate also decreased from 24% to 13% (37% reduction, P=0.032), as did the rate of days with genital lesions from 22% to 15% (33% reduction, P=0.24). The mean copy number during viral shedding remained unchanged over time at 4.8 log 10 c/mL (SD=2.0 and 1.6 during each study, respectively, P=0.33). Women with high viral shedding rates in the past were likely to continue to have high shedding rates (r=0.63, P=0.005). Despite some reduction, high viral shedding rates persist in women with genital HSV-2 greater than 2 years after acquisition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl: prevalence of antibodies and cloacal shedding of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Éva; Ojkic, Davor; Leishman, David; Crawshaw, Graham; Elias, Kyle; Smith, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    We surveyed free-ranging Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to avian bornavirus (ABV) and of cloacal shedding of ABV RNA in southern Ontario, Canada. Blood samples and cloacal swabs were collected from 206 free-ranging Canada Geese, 135 Trumpeter Swans, 75 Mute Swans, and 208 Mallards at 10 main capture sites between October 2010 and May 2012. Sera were assessed for antibodies against ABV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and swabs were evaluated for ABV RNA using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Serum antibodies were detected in birds from all four species and at each sampling site. Thirteen percent of the geese caught on the Toronto Zoo site shed ABV RNA in feces compared with 0% in geese sampled at three other locations. The proportions of shedders among Mute Swans, Trumpeter Swans, and Mallards were 9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Birds that were shedding viral RNA were more likely to have antibodies against ABV and to have higher antibody levels than those that were not, although many birds with antibodies were not shedding. We confirmed that exposure to, or infection with, ABV is widespread in asymptomatic free-ranging waterfowl in Canada; however, the correlation between cloacal shedding, presence of antibodies, and presence of disease is not fully understood.

  2. Factors associated with Salmonella shedding among equine colic patients at a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Kim, L M; Morley, P S; Traub-Dargatz, J L; Salman, M D; Gentry-Weeks, C

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate factors potentially associated with fecal Salmonella shedding among equine patients hospitalized for colic at a veterinary teaching hospital and to determine the effects of probiotic treatment on fecal Salmonella shedding and clinical signs. Longitudinal study and controlled trial. 246 equine colic patients. History and medical information were obtained from patient records. Fecal and environmental samples were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture for Salmonella enterica. Fifty-one patients were treated with a commercially available probiotic; 46 were treated with a placebo. Logistic regression was used to evaluate data. Salmonella organisms were detected in feces from 23 (9%) patients at least once during hospitalization. Patients were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms if diarrhea was evident < or = 6 hours after hospitalization and duration of hospitalization exceeded 8 days (odds ratio [OR], 20.3), laminitis developed during hospitalization (OR, 12.0), results of nasogastric intubation were abnormal (OR, 4.9), leukopenia was evident < or =6 hours after hospitalization (OR, 4.6), or travel time to the teaching hospital exceeded 1 hour (OR, 3.5). Horses treated with the probiotic did not differ from control horses in regard to likelihood of fecal Salmonella shedding (OR, 1.5) or prevalence of clinical signs. Results suggest that certain risk factors are associated with fecal shedding of S enterica among equine patients hospitalized at a veterinary teaching hospital because of colic and that pathogen monitoring in patients and the hospital environment and use of barrier nursing precautions for equine colic patients are beneficial.

  3. Effect of perforation on flow past a conic cylinder at Re = 100: vortex-shedding pattern and force history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L. M.; Zhong, X. F.; Wu, Y. X.

    2017-09-01

    The flow past a circular-section cylinder with a conic shroud perforated with four holes at the peak was simulated numerically at Re=100 , considering two factors, viz. the angle of attack and the diameter of the holes. The effects of the perforated conic shroud on the vortex shedding pattern in the near wake was mainly investigated, as well as the time history of the drag and lift forces. In the investigated parameter space, three flow regimes were generally identified, corresponding to weak, moderate, and strong disturbance effects. In regime I, the wake can mainly be described by alternately shedding Kármán or Kármán-like vortices. In regime II, the spanwise vortices are obviously disturbed along the span due to the appearance of additional vorticity components and their interactions with the spanwise vortices, but still shed in synchronization along the spanwise direction. In regime III, the typical Kármán vortices partially or totally disappear, and some new vortex shedding patterns appear, such as Ω -type, obliquely shedding, and crossed spanwise vortices with opposite sign. Corresponding to these complex vortex shedding patterns in the near wake, the fluid forces no longer oscillate regularly at a single vortex shedding frequency, but rather with a lower modulation frequency and multiple amplitudes. An overview of these flow regimes is presented.

  4. 6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW TO WEST, SAMPLING BUILDING, MECHANIC SHED, MILL WAREHOUSE, DRYERS, AND GRINDING/ROD MILL. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  5. GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF DEHYDRATER (STRUCTURE 12), SHED (STRUCTURE 18), FRUIT TRAY STORAGE ROOM (STRUCTURE 11), WITH FRUIT DRYING AREA AND TRAM TRACKS IN FOREGROUND, FROM NORTHWEST - Stevens Ranch Complex, State Route 101, Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  6. 64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CARBIDE COOLING SHED. VIEW IS SHOWING CALCIUM CARBIDE IN COOLING CARS ON THE FLOOR. DECEMBER 26, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  7. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater.

    PubMed

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2004-07-05

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha.year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control.

  8. Operating and Maintaining Energy Smart Schools Action Plan Template - All Action Plans

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    none,

    2009-07-01

    EnergySmart Schools action plan templates for benchmarking, lighting, HVAC, water heating, building envelope, transformer, plug loads, kitchen equipment, swimming pool, building automation system, other.

  9. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates (n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA, ironA, and misL. There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella

  10. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems.

    PubMed

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates ( n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA , ironA , and misL There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella serovars in

  11. Comparative analysis of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with central nervous system-associated enterovirus infections from 2013 to 2015 in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Cordey, S; Schibler, M; L'Huillier, A G; Wagner, N; Gonçalves, A R; Ambrosioni, J; Asner, S; Turin, L; Posfay-Barbe, K M; Kaiser, L

    2017-04-01

    Several enterovirus (EV) genotypes can result in aseptic meningitis, but their routes of access to the central nervous system remain to be elucidated and may differ between the pediatric and adult populations. To assess the pattern of viral shedding in pediatric and adult subjects with acute EV meningitis and to generate EV surveillance data for Switzerland. All pediatric and adult subjects admitted to the University Hospitals of Geneva with a diagnosis of EV meningitis between 2013 and 2015 were enrolled. A quantitative EV real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT)-PCR was performed on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, stool, urine and respiratory specimens to assess viral shedding and provide a comparative analysis of pediatric and adult populations. EV genotyping was systematically performed. EV positivity rates differed significantly between pediatric and adult subjects; 62.5% of pediatric cases (no adult case) were EV-positive in stool and blood for subjects for whom these samples were all collected. Similarly, the EV viral load in blood was significantly higher in pediatric subjects. Blood C-reactive protein levels were lower and the number of leucocytes/mm 3 in the CSF were higher in non-viremic than in viremic pediatric subjects, respectively. A greater diversity of EV genotypes was observed in pediatric cases, with a predominance of echovirus 30 in children ≥3 years old and adults. In contrast to adults, EV-disseminated infections are predominant in pediatric subjects and show different patterns of EV viral shedding. This observation may be useful for clinicians and contribute to modify current practices of patient care. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 1710.205 - Minimum approval requirements for all load forecasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... electronically to RUS computer software applications. RUS will evaluate borrower load forecasts for readability...'s engineering planning documents, such as the construction work plan, incorporate consumer and usage...

  13. 7 CFR 1710.205 - Minimum approval requirements for all load forecasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... electronically to RUS computer software applications. RUS will evaluate borrower load forecasts for readability...'s engineering planning documents, such as the construction work plan, incorporate consumer and usage...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.205 - Minimum approval requirements for all load forecasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... electronically to RUS computer software applications. RUS will evaluate borrower load forecasts for readability...'s engineering planning documents, such as the construction work plan, incorporate consumer and usage...

  15. 7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Outhouse and shed, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  16. 2016 Targeted AirShed Grant Program - Closed Announcement FY 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Targeted Air Shed Grant Program proposal for FY 2016. The overall goal of the program is to reduce air pollution in the Nation’s areas with the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 ambient air concentrations.

  17. New rain shed (Building No. 241) on right with Tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) on right with Tanks T5, T4 and T2 on left from front to back. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  18. Interior detail of south wall with shed roofs showing steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of south wall with shed roofs showing steel structure, paint room on lower right, view facing west-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat Shop, Seventh Street near Avenue E, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Factors Associated With Prolonged Viral Shedding in Patients With Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yeming; Guo, Qiang; Yan, Zheng; Zhou, Daming; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Shujun; Li, Yu-Ping; Yuan, Jing; Uyeki, Timothy M; Shen, Xinghua; Wu, Wenjuan; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Yun-Fu; Shang, Jia; He, Zhengguang; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Hongsheng; Hong, Yongqing; Zhang, Zehua; Wu, Min; Wei, Tiemin; Deng, Xilong; Deng, Yijun; Cai, Li-Hua; Lu, Weihua; Shu, Hongmei; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Hong; Ing Zhou, Y; Weng, Heng; Song, Keyi; Yao, Li; Jiang, Mingguang; Zhao, Boliang; Chi, Ruibin; Guo, Boqi; Fu, Lin; Yu, Long; Min, Haiyan; Chen, Pu; Chen, Shuifang; Hong, Liang; Mao, Wei; Huang, Xiaoping; Gu, Lijun; Li, Hui; Wang, Chen; Cao, Bin

    2018-05-05

    Data are limited on the impact of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) treatment on avian influenza A(H7N9) virus RNA shedding. In this multicenter, retrospective study, data were collected from adults hospitalized with A(H7N9) infection during 2013-2017 in China. We compared clinical features and A(H7N9) shedding among patients with different NAI doses and combination therapies and evaluated factors associated with A(H7N9) shedding, using Cox proportional hazards regression. Among 478 patients, the median age was 56 years, 71% were male, and 37% died. The median time from illness onset to NAI treatment initiation was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 6-10 days), and the median duration of A(H7N9) RNA detection from onset was 15.5 days (IQR, 12-20 days). A(H7N9) RNA shedding was shorter in survivors than in patients who died (P < .001). Corticosteroid administration (hazard ratio [HR], 0.62 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .50-.77]) and delayed NAI treatment (HR, 0.90 [95% CI, .91-.96]) were independent risk factors for prolonged A(H7N9) shedding. There was no significant difference in A(H7N9) shedding duration between NAI combination treatment and monotherapy (P = .65) or between standard-dose and double-dose oseltamivir treatment (P = .70). Corticosteroid therapy and delayed NAI treatment were associated with prolonged A(H7N9) RNA shedding. NAI combination therapy and double-dose oseltamivir treatment were not associated with a reduced A(H7N9) shedding duration as compared to standard-dose oseltamivir.

  20. The dynamics of herpesvirus and polyomavirus reactivation and shedding in healthy adults: a 14-month longitudinal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Paul D.; Lednicky, John A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; White, Zoe S.; Peng, RongSheng; Liu, Zhensheng; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Rooney, Cliona M.; hide

    2003-01-01

    Humans are infected with viruses that establish long-term persistent infections. To address whether immunocompetent individuals control virus reactivation globally or independently and to identify patterns of sporadic reactivation, we monitored herpesviruses and polyomaviruses in 30 adults, over 14 months. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was quantitated in saliva and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cytomegalovirus (CMV) was assayed in urine, and JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) DNAs were assayed in urine and PBMCs. All individuals shed EBV in saliva, whereas 67% had >or=1 blood sample positive for EBV. Levels of EBV varied widely. CMV shedding occurred infrequently but occurred more commonly in younger individuals (P<.03). JCV and BKV virurias were 46.7% and 0%, respectively. JCV shedding was age dependent and occurred commonly in individuals >or=40 years old (P<.03). Seasonal variation was observed in shedding of EBV and JCV, but there was no correlation among shedding of EBV, CMV, and JCV (P>.50). Thus, adults independently control persistent viruses, which display discordant, sporadic reactivations.

  1. 7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Shed and keeper' house with helicopter pad in foreground, view east, southwest and northwest sides - Goat Island Light Station, Goat Island, next to entrance to Cape Porpoise Harbor, just south of Trott Island, Cape Porpoise, York County, ME

  2. Herpes Simples Virus Type 2 Shedding From Male Circumcision Wounds in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Mary K.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald H.; Armour, Benjamin; Manucci, Jordyn; Serwadda, David; Redd, Andrew D.; Nalugoda, Fred; Patel, Eshan U.; Wawer, Maria J.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective observational study of 176 men coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was conducted to assess whether their sexual partners may be at an increased risk of HSV-2 from male circumcision (MC) wounds. Preoperative and weekly penile lavage samples were tested for penile HSV-2 shedding. Prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Detectable penile HSV-2 shedding was present in 9.7% of men (17 of 176) before MC, compared with 12.9% (22 of 170) at 1 week (PRR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74–2.38) and 14.8% (23 of 155) at 2 weeks (PRR, 1.50; 95% CI, .86–2.62) after MC. HSV-2 shedding was lower among men with healed MC wounds (adjusted PRR, 0.62; 95% CI, .35–1.08). Men undergoing MC should be counseled on sexual abstinence and condom use. PMID:25943201

  3. Shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by Felidae in zoos in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lukesová, D; Literák, I

    1998-01-15

    In 1995 and 1996, the shedding of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts was monitored in the faeces of Felidae in six zoos in the Czech Republic. In all, 2287 samples of faeces from 19 species of Felidae were examined. In Ostrava Zoo, four episodes of shedding of Toxoplasma-like oocysts were identified, using a flotation examination, in a pair of wild cats (Felis silvestris), six episodes in a wild cat held separately, and three episodes in a pair of Amur leopard cats (F. euptilurus). After the passage of sporulated oocysts through laboratory mice, T. gondii was confirmed in the pair of wild cats (three episodes), in the wild cat held separately (three episodes) and in the pair of Amur leopard cats (one episode). In Jihlava Zoo, one episode of shedding of T. gondii oocyst was identified in Geoffroy's cat (Oncifelis geoffroyi) using flotation and isolation examination. The possible sources of toxoplasmosis of the Felidae in zoos are discussed.

  4. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  5. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Validation of Hydrodynamic Load Models Using CFD for the OC4-DeepCwind Semisubmersible: Preprint

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Benitz, M. A.; Schmidt, D. P.; Lackner, M. A.

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out on the OC4-DeepCwind semi-submersible to obtain a better understanding of how to set hydrodynamic coefficients for the structure when using an engineering tool such as FAST to model the system. The focus here was on the drag behavior and the effects of the free-surface, free-ends and multi-member arrangement of the semi-submersible structure. These effects are investigated through code-to-code comparisons and flow visualizations. The implications on mean load predictions from engineering tools are addressed. The work presented here suggests that selection of drag coefficients should take into consideration a variety of geometric factors.more » Furthermore, CFD simulations demonstrate large time-varying loads due to vortex shedding, which FAST's hydrodynamic module, HydroDyn, does not model. The implications of these oscillatory loads on the fatigue life needs to be addressed.« less

  7. 5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), and wood-frame garage (far right). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. 10. VIEW OF A DYNAMITE SHED, LOOKING WEST. THIS BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF A DYNAMITE SHED, LOOKING WEST. THIS BUILDING STANDS TO THE SOUTHWEST OF THE FAN HOUSE. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  9. 1. Shed, keeper's house and light tower, view west northwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Shed, keeper's house and light tower, view west northwest, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  10. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing truss type B at wall post. New aluminum roofing seen in comparison with older galvanized steel siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  11. New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw water tank T4. Distribution pump house can be seen at the center of building. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  12. Total mercury loadings in sediment from gold mining and conservation areas in Guyana.

    PubMed

    Howard, Joniqua; Trotz, Maya A; Thomas, Ken; Omisca, Erlande; Chiu, Hong Ting; Halfhide, Trina; Akiwumi, Fenda; Michael, Ryan; Stuart, Amy L

    2011-08-01

    The Low Carbon Development Strategy proposed in June 2009 by the government of Guyana in response to the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries program has triggered evaluation of forest-related activities, thereby acting as a catalyst for improvements in Guyana's small- to medium-scale gold mining industry. This has also shed light on areas committed to conservation, something that has also been handled by Non Governmental Organizations. This paper compares water quality and mercury concentrations in sediment from four main areas in Guyana, two that are heavily mined for gold using mercury amalgamation methods (Arakaka and Mahdia) and two that are considered conservation areas (Iwokrama and Konashen). Fifty-three sediment and soil mercury loadings ranged from 29 to 1,200 ng/g and averaged 215 ± 187 ng/g for all sites with similar averages in conservation and mining areas. Sediment loadings are within the range seen in French Guiana and Suriname, but conservation area samples had higher loadings than the corresponding uncontaminated baselines. Type of ore and location in the mining process seemed to influence mercury loadings. Mercury sediment loadings were slightly positively correlated with pH (correlation coefficient = 0.2; p value < 0.001) whereas no significant correlations were found with dissolved oxygen or turbidity.

  13. A dynamical systems analysis of the kinematics of time-periodic vortex shedding past a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottino, Julio M.

    1991-01-01

    Computer flow simulation aided by dynamical systems analysis is used to investigate the kinematics of time-periodic vortex shedding past a two-dimensional circular cylinder in the context of the following general questions: (1) Is a dynamical systems viewpoint useful in the understanding of this and similar problems involving time-periodic shedding behind bluff bodies; and (2) Is it indeed possible, by adopting such a point of view, to complement previous analyses or to understand kinematical aspects of the vortex shedding process that somehow remained hidden in previous approaches. We argue that the answers to these questions are positive. Results are described.

  14. Systematic Review of Mucosal Immunity Induced by Oral and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccines against Virus Shedding following Oral Poliovirus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hird, Thomas R.; Grassly, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5–30 days after a “challenge” dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.24)). In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59–1.11]) or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82–1.58]). There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV. PMID:22532797

  15. Super shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cattle and the impact on beef carcass contamination.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Terrance M; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Shackelford, Steven D; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2010-09-01

    Beef carcass contamination is a direct result of pathogen transfer from cattle hides harboring organisms such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Hide contamination occurs from direct and indirect fecal contamination in cattle production and lairage environments. In each of these environments, individual animals shedding E. coli O157:H7 at high levels (>10(4) CFU/g of feces, hereafter referred to as "super shedders") can have a disproportionate effect on cattle hide and subsequent carcass contamination. It is not known what criteria must be met to cause an animal to shed at levels exceeding 10(4) CFU/g. Understanding the factors that play a role in super shedding will aid in minimizing or eliminating the super shedding population. Interventions that would prevent super shedding in the cattle population should reduce E. coli O157:H7 transmission in the production and lairage environments resulting in reduced risk of beef carcass contamination and a safer finished product.

  16. Vortex shedding noise of a cylinder with hairy flaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamps, Laura; Geyer, Thomas F.; Sarradj, Ennes; Brücker, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    This study describes the modification of acoustic noise emitted from cylinders in a stationary subsonic flow for a cylinder equipped with flexible hairy flaps at the aft part as a passive way to manipulate the flow and acoustics. The study was motivated by the results from previous water tunnel measurements, which demonstrated that hairy flaps can modify the shedding cycle behind the cylinder and can reduce the wake deficit. In the present study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted on such a modified cylinder and the results were compared to the reference case of a plain cylinder. The acoustic spectrum was measured using two microphones while simultaneously recording the flap motion. To further examine the flow structures in the downstream vicinity of the cylinder, constant temperature anemometry measurements as well as flow visualizations were also performed. The results show that, above a certain Reynolds number, the hairy flaps lead to a jump in the vortex shedding frequency. This phenomenon is similarly observed in the water flow experiments as a jump in the non-dimensional Strouhal number that is related to the change of the shedding cycle. This jump appears to be coupled to a resonant excitation of the flaps. The specific Reynolds number at which the jump occurs is higher in the present case, which is attributed to the lower added mass in air as compared with the one in water. The flow visualizations confirmed that such action of the flaps lead to a more slender elongated shape of the time-averaged separation bubble. In addition, the hairy flaps induce a noticeable reduction of the tonal noise as well as broadband noise as long as the flaps do not touch each other.

  17. Characterization of stormwater at selected South Carolina Department of Transportation maintenance yards and section shed facilities in Ballentine, Conway, and North Charleston, South Carolina, 2010-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Conlon, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Increased impervious surfaces (driveways, parking lots, and buildings) and human activities (residential, industrial, and commercial) have been linked to substantial changes in both the quality and quantity of stormwater on a watershed scale (Brabec and others, 2002; Pitt and Maestre, 2005). Small-scale storage and equipment repair facilities increase impervious surfaces that prevent infiltration of stormwater, and these facilities accommodate activities that can introduce trace metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants to the facility’s grounds. Thus, these small facilities may contribute pollutants to the environment during storm events (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). The South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) operates section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State. Prior to this investigation, the SCDOT had no data to define the quality of stormwater leaving these facilities. To provide these data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SCDOT, conducted an investigation to identify and quantify constituents that are transported in stormwater from two maintenance yards and a section shed in three different areas of South Carolina. The two maintenance yards, in North Charleston and Conway, S.C., were selected because they represent facilities where equipment and road maintenance materials are stored and complete equipment repair operations are conducted. The section shed, in Ballentine, S.C., was selected because it is a facility that stores equipment and road maintenance material. Characterization of the constituents that were transported in stormwater from these representative SCDOT maintenance facilities may be used by the SCDOT in the development of stormwater management plans for similar section shed and maintenance yard facilities throughout the State to improve stormwater quality.

  18. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ectodomain shedding cleavage-site identification: determinants and constraints.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zon W; Hanchapola, Iresha; Steer, David L; Smith, A Ian

    2011-06-14

    ADAM17, also known as tumor necrosis factor α-converting enzyme, is involved in the ectodomain shedding of many integral membrane proteins. We have previously reported that ADAM17 is able to mediate the cleavage secretion of the ectodomain of human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a functional receptor for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. In this study, we demonstrate that purified recombinant human ADAM17 is able to cleave a 20-amino acid peptide mimetic corresponding to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of human ACE2 between Arg(708) and Ser(709). A series of peptide analogues were also synthesized, showing that glutamate subtitution at Arg(708) and/or Arg(710) attenuated the cleavage process, while alanine substitution at Arg(708) and/or Ser(709) did not inhibit peptide cleavage by recombinant ADAM17. Analysis of CD spectra showed a minimal difference in the secondary structure of the peptide analogues in the buffer system used for the ADAM17 cleavage assay. The observation of the shedding profiles of ACE2 mutants expressing CHO-K1 and CHO-P cells indicates that the Arg(708) → Glu(708) mutation and the Arg(708)Arg(710) → Glu(708)Glu(710) double mutation produced increases in the amount of ACE2 shed when stimulated by phorbol ester PMA. In summary, we have demonstrated that ADAM17 is able to cleave ACE2 peptide sequence analogues between Arg(708) and Ser(709). These findings also indicate that Arg(708) and Arg(710) play a role in site recognition in the regulation of ACE2 ectodomain shedding mediated by ADAM17.

  19. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northwest corner with corrugated siding. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  20. 3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3/4 view of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing southwest corner with open bays. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  1. Bifidobacterium breve reduces apoptotic epithelial cell shedding in an exopolysaccharide and MyD88-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K R; Harnisch, L C; Alcon-Giner, C; Mitra, S; Wright, C J; Ketskemety, J; van Sinderen, D; Watson, A J M; Hall, L J

    2017-01-01

    Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi-a process termed 'cell shedding'. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding. Bifidobacterial-induced protection appears to be mediated by a specific bifidobacterial surface exopolysaccharide and interactions with host MyD88 resulting in downregulation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic responses to protect epithelial cells under highly inflammatory conditions. Our results reveal an important and previously undescribed role for B. breve, in positively modulating epithelial cell shedding outcomes via bacterial- and host-dependent factors, supporting the notion that manipulation of the microbiota affects intestinal disease outcomes. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. 5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM SOUTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. MICROWAVE DISH IN FOREGROUND. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. USEPA SHEDS MODEL: METHODOLOGY FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FOR WOOD PRESERVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physically-based, Monte Carlo probabilistic model (SHEDS-Wood: Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for wood preservatives) has been applied to assess the exposure and dose of children to arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) from contact with chromated copper arsenat...

  4. 38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. East elevation of coffee storage and drying shed with circular, cattle watering pond in left foreground and coffee mill in background right. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-1 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  5. Managing the space-time-load continuum in TMDL planning: A case study for understanding groundwater loads through advanced mapping techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lag time between groundwater recharge and discharge in a watershed and the potential groundwater load to streams is an important factor in forecasting responses to future land use practices. We call this concept managing the “space-time-load continuum”. It’s understood that i...

  6. A High-Resolution Proteomic Landscaping of Primary Human Dental Stem Cells: Identification of SHED- and PDLSC-Specific Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Taraslia, Vasiliki; Lymperi, Stefania; Pantazopoulou, Vasiliki; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Papassideri, Issidora S; Basdra, Efthimia K; Bei, Marianna; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G; Tsangaris, George Th; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Anastasiadou, Ema

    2018-01-05

    Dental stem cells (DSCs) have emerged as a promising tool for basic research and clinical practice. A variety of adult stem cell (ASC) populations can be isolated from different areas within the dental tissue, which, due to their cellular and molecular characteristics, could give rise to different outcomes when used in potential applications. In this study, we performed a high-throughput molecular comparison of two primary human adult dental stem cell (hADSC) sub-populations: Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHEDs) and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs). A detailed proteomic mapping of SHEDs and PDLSCs, via employment of nano-LC tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) revealed 2032 identified proteins in SHEDs and 3235 in PDLSCs. In total, 1516 proteins were expressed in both populations, while 517 were unique for SHEDs and 1721 were exclusively expressed in PDLSCs. Further analysis of the recorded proteins suggested that SHEDs predominantly expressed molecules that are involved in organizing the cytoskeletal network, cellular migration and adhesion, whereas PDLSCs are highly energy-producing cells, vastly expressing proteins that are implicated in various aspects of cell metabolism and proliferation. Applying the Rho-GDI signaling pathway as a paradigm, we propose potential biomarkers for SHEDs and for PDLSCs, reflecting their unique features, properties and engaged molecular pathways.

  7. A High-Resolution Proteomic Landscaping of Primary Human Dental Stem Cells: Identification of SHED- and PDLSC-Specific Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Taraslia, Vasiliki; Lymperi, Stefania; Pantazopoulou, Vasiliki; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K.; Basdra, Efthimia K.; Bei, Marianna; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G.; Tsangaris, George Th.; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J.; Anastasiadou, Ema

    2018-01-01

    Dental stem cells (DSCs) have emerged as a promising tool for basic research and clinical practice. A variety of adult stem cell (ASC) populations can be isolated from different areas within the dental tissue, which, due to their cellular and molecular characteristics, could give rise to different outcomes when used in potential applications. In this study, we performed a high-throughput molecular comparison of two primary human adult dental stem cell (hADSC) sub-populations: Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHEDs) and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs). A detailed proteomic mapping of SHEDs and PDLSCs, via employment of nano-LC tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) revealed 2032 identified proteins in SHEDs and 3235 in PDLSCs. In total, 1516 proteins were expressed in both populations, while 517 were unique for SHEDs and 1721 were exclusively expressed in PDLSCs. Further analysis of the recorded proteins suggested that SHEDs predominantly expressed molecules that are involved in organizing the cytoskeletal network, cellular migration and adhesion, whereas PDLSCs are highly energy-producing cells, vastly expressing proteins that are implicated in various aspects of cell metabolism and proliferation. Applying the Rho-GDI signaling pathway as a paradigm, we propose potential biomarkers for SHEDs and for PDLSCs, reflecting their unique features, properties and engaged molecular pathways. PMID:29304003

  8. A Mathematical Proof of the Vortex Shedding Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, Michael; Cassel, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    A novel mechanism leading to vortex splitting and subsequent shedding that is valid for both inviscid or viscous flows and external, internal, or wall-bounded flows is described. The mechanism, termed the Vortex-Shedding Mechanism (VSM), is simple and intuitive, requiring only two coincident conditions in the flow: (1) the existence of a location with zero momentum and (2) the presence of a net force having a positive divergence. Previous simulations of various flows have demonstrated the VSM numerically. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the VSM that is shown to be both a necessary and sufficient condition for a vortex splitting event in any two-dimensional, incompressible flow. The proof includes relating the positive divergence of the net force, condition (2) above, with the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor, i.e. the Q-criterion. It is shown that the Q-criterion is identical to the determinant of the Hessian matrix for the streamfunction. As a result, the second-partial-derivative test on this Hessian matrix can provide a qualitative description on the behavior of the streamfunction, and thus vortices or recirculation regions, near critical points. Supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (R01 DK90769).

  9. Augmentation of the space station module power management and distribution breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan; Hall, David K.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1991-01-01

    The space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard models power distribution and management, including scheduling, load prioritization, and a fault detection, identification, and recovery (FDIR) system within a Space Station Freedom habitation or laboratory module. This 120 VDC system is capable of distributing up to 30 kW of power among more than 25 loads. In addition to the power distribution hardware, the system includes computer control through a hierarchy of processes. The lowest level consists of fast, simple (from a computing standpoint) switchgear that is capable of quickly safing the system. At the next level are local load center processors, (LLP's) which execute load scheduling, perform redundant switching, and shed loads which use more than scheduled power. Above the LLP's are three cooperating artificial intelligence (AI) systems which manage load prioritizations, load scheduling, load shedding, and fault recovery and management. Recent upgrades to hardware and modifications to software at both the LLP and AI system levels promise a drastic increase in speed, a significant increase in functionality and reliability, and potential for further examination of advanced automation techniques. The background, SSM/PMAD, interface to the Lewis Research Center test bed, the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system, and future plans are discussed.

  10. Computation of rotor aerodynamic loads in forward flight using a full-span free wake analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Chua, Kiat

    1990-01-01

    The development of an advanced computational analysis of unsteady aerodynamic loads on isolated helicopter rotors in forward flight is described. The primary technical focus of the development was the implementation of a freely distorting filamentary wake model composed of curved vortex elements laid out along contours of constant vortex sheet strength in the wake. This model captures the wake generated by the full span of each rotor blade and makes possible a unified treatment of the shed and trailed vorticity in the wake. This wake model was coupled to a modal analysis of the rotor blade dynamics and a vortex lattice treatment of the aerodynamic loads to produce a comprehensive model for rotor performance and air loads in forward flight dubbed RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward Flight). The technical background on the major components of this analysis are discussed and the correlation of predictions of performance, trim, and unsteady air loads with experimental data from several representative rotor configurations is examined. The primary conclusions of this study are that the RotorCRAFT analysis correlates well with measured loads on a variety of configurations and that application of the full span free wake model is required to capture several important features of the vibratory loading on rotor blades in forward flight.

  11. Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of old rain shed (Building No. 43) showing northeast wall and gutter boxes. Two 750,000 gallon steel tanks at right (T19 in foreground with T18 behind). - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  12. The Automated Logistics Element Planning System (ALEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    The design and functions of ALEPS (Automated Logistics Element Planning System) is a computer system that will automate planning and decision support for Space Station Freedom Logistical Elements (LEs) resupply and return operations. ALEPS provides data management, planning, analysis, monitoring, interfacing, and flight certification for support of LE flight load planning activities. The prototype ALEPS algorithm development is described.

  13. Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Royce G.; Zanganehgheshlaghi, Mohannad

    2014-01-01

    The research results described in this paper presents a new understanding of the behavior of fatigue crack growth in the threshold region. It is believed by some crack growth experts that the ASTM load shedding test method does not produce true or valid threshold properties. The concern involves the observed fanning of threshold region da/dN data plots for some materials in which the low R-ratio data fans out or away from the high R-ratio data. This data fanning or elevation of threshold values is obviously caused by an increase in crack closure in the low R-ratio tested specimens. This increase in crack closure is assumed by some investigators to be caused by a plastic wake on the crack surfaces that was created during the load shedding test phase. This study shows that the increase in crack closure is the result of an extensive occurrence of crack bifurcation behavior in some materials, particularly in aluminum alloys, when the crack tip cyclic yield zone size becomes less than the grain size of the alloy. This behavior is related to the high stacking fault energy (SFE) property of aluminum alloys which results in easier slip characteristics. Therefore, the particular fanning behavior in aluminum alloys is a function of intrinsic dislocation property of the materials and that the fanned data represents valid material properties. However, for corrosion sensitive steel alloys used in this study the fanning was caused by a build-up of iron oxide at the crack tip from fretting corrosion.

  14. Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmental transmission, and disease spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of fecal/oral transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via contaminated wetlands, little is known about the length, quantity, or route of AI virus shed by wild waterfowl. We used published laboratory challenge studies to evaluate the length and quantity of low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) virus shed via oral and cloacal routes by AI-infected ducks and geese, and how these factors might influence AI epidemiology and virus detection. We used survival analysis to estimate the duration of infection (from virus inoculation to the last day virus was shed) and nonlinear models to evaluate temporal patterns in virus shedding. We found higher mean virus titer and longer median infectious period for LPAI-infected ducks (10–11.5 days in oral and cloacal swabs) than HPAI-infected ducks (5 days) and geese (7.5 days). Based on the median bird infectious dose, we found that environmental contamination is two times higher for LPAI- than HPAI-infectious ducks, which implies that susceptible birds may have a higher probability of infection during LPAI than HPAI outbreaks. Less environmental contamination during the course of infection and previously documented shorter environmental persistence for HPAI than LPAI suggest that the environment is a less favorable reservoir for HPAI. The longer infectious period, higher virus titers, and subclinical infections with LPAI viruses favor the spread of these viruses by migratory birds in comparison to HPAI. Given the lack of detection of HPAI viruses through worldwide surveillance, we suggest monitoring for AI should aim at improving our understanding of AI dynamics (in particular, the role of the environment and immunity) using long-term comprehensive live bird, serologic, and environmental sampling at targeted areas. Our findings on LPAI and HPAI shedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive

  15. Extended Viral Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus by Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis)

    PubMed Central

    Root, J. Jeffrey; Shriner, Susan A.; Bentler, Kevin T.; Gidlewski, Thomas; Mooers, Nicole L.; Ellis, Jeremy W.; Spraker, Terry R.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, Heather J.; Franklin, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) are susceptible to infection with some influenza A viruses. However, the viral shedding capability of this peri-domestic mammal and its potential role in influenza A virus ecology are largely undetermined. Methodology/Principal Findings Striped skunks were experimentally infected with a low pathogenic (LP) H4N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) and monitored for 20 days post infection (DPI). All of the skunks exposed to H4N6 AIV shed large quantities of viral RNA, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and confirmed for live virus with virus isolation, from nasal washes and oral swabs (maximum ≤106.02 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL and ≤105.19 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL, respectively). Some evidence of potential fecal shedding was also noted. Following necropsy on 20 DPI, viral RNA was detected in the nasal turbinates of one individual. All treatment animals yielded evidence of a serological response by 20 DPI. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that striped skunks have the potential to shed large quantities of viral RNA through the oral and nasal routes following exposure to a LP AIV. Considering the peri-domestic nature of these animals, along with the duration of shedding observed in this species, their presence on poultry and waterfowl operations could influence influenza A virus epidemiology. For example, this species could introduce a virus to a naive poultry flock or act as a trafficking mechanism of AIV to and from an infected poultry flock to naive flocks or wild bird populations. PMID:24489638

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide on virus shedding in avian influenza (H9N2) challenged broilers

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, T.; Ara, G.; Ali, N.; ud Din Mufti, F.; Imran Khan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease causing significant economic losses worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) on tracheal and cloacal virus shedding in AI challenged broilers and contamination of environment with H9N2. A total of 300 1-day-old-broiler chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) and supplemented 0.2, 0.5 and 0.0% MOS, respectively in NRC recommended diet for 36 days. On day 21 the groups were further split into two sub groups A+ve, A-ve, B+ve, B-ve, C+ve and C-ve with 5 replicates each. The positive groups were shifted to remote sheds and were challenged intranasally with 0.1 ml of reference virus (AIV; Pk-UDL/01/08 H9N2) with EID50 = 10-6.66. Treatment reduces (P<0.05) cloacal virus shedding from day 24 to 26 and 28 to 32. Tracheal virus shedding was lower (P<0.05) on days 25-26 and 28-30 in treatment groups. Day 27 showed highest (P>0.05) virus shedding in all groups. However the reduction of viral shedding is faster in treatment groups and showed no virus shedding on day 32. Maternal antibody titer against AI showed a declining pattern but MOS influenced (P<0.05) the titer in treated groups. Hence the use of MOS may constitute a novel and effective plausible alternative that reduces the spread of disease by decreasing virus shedding and contamination of environment from AIV (H9N2) infection in poultry. PMID:28224012

  17. Oblique and Parallel Modes of Vortex Shedding in the Wake of a Circular Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    differences in the shedding angles between experiments. It might then be j,. Vortex shedding in the wake of a circular cylinder 583 suggested that these...sandwiched between cels of frequency fL. In I " :. - Vortex shedding in the wake of a circular cylinder 593 (a) (b) Fioru’ 6. Visualization of the different ...Iparticularly’ suitable (heck, because the water tank is at oistinctl ’ different facility from the wind tunnel. The vortex frequencies in the wakes

  18. 53. VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE CATALYZER BUILDINGS, COOLING SHEDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE CATALYZER BUILDINGS, COOLING SHEDS AND ABSORPTION BUILDINGS IN THE BACKGROUND. MAY 29, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. The variability and seasonality of the environmental reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis shed by wild European badgers.

    PubMed

    King, Hayley C; Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Hung, Yu-Jiun; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M

    2015-08-06

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs. Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1 × 10(3)- 4 × 10(5) M. bovis cells g(-1) of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir. Our findings highlight the potential importance of monitoring environmental reservoirs of M. bovis which may constitute a component of disease spread that is currently overlooked and yet may be responsible for a proportion of transmission amongst badgers and onwards to cattle.

  20. The variability and seasonality of the environmental reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis shed by wild European badgers

    PubMed Central

    King, Hayley C.; Murphy, Andrew; James, Phillip; Travis, Emma; Porter, David; Hung, Yu-Jiun; Sawyer, Jason; Cork, Jennifer; Delahay, Richard J.; Gaze, William; Courtenay, Orin; Wellington, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, has been increasing in UK cattle herds resulting in substantial economic losses. The European badger (Meles meles) is implicated as a wildlife reservoir of infection. One likely route of transmission to cattle is through exposure to infected badger urine and faeces. The relative importance of the environment in transmission remains unknown, in part due to the lack of information on the distribution and magnitude of environmental reservoirs. Here we identify potential infection hotspots in the badger population and quantify the heterogeneity in bacterial load; with infected badgers shedding between 1 × 103 − 4 × 105 M. bovis cells g−1 of faeces, creating a substantial and seasonally variable environmental reservoir. Our findings highlight the potential importance of monitoring environmental reservoirs of M. bovis which may constitute a component of disease spread that is currently overlooked and yet may be responsible for a proportion of transmission amongst badgers and onwards to cattle. PMID:26247348

  1. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow.

  2. A pressure-gradient mechanism for vortex shedding in constricted channels

    PubMed Central

    Boghosian, M. E.; Cassel, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the unsteady, two-dimensional, incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are performed for a Newtonian fluid in a channel having a symmetric constriction modeled by a two-parameter Gaussian distribution on both channel walls. The Reynolds number based on inlet half-channel height and mean inlet velocity ranges from 1 to 3000. Constriction ratios based on the half-channel height of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 are considered. The results show that both the Reynolds number and constriction geometry have a significant effect on the behavior of the post-constriction flow field. The Navier–Stokes solutions are observed to experience a number of bifurcations: steady attached flow, steady separated flow (symmetric and asymmetric), and unsteady vortex shedding downstream of the constriction depending on the Reynolds number and constriction ratio. A sequence of events is described showing how a sustained spatially growing flow instability, reminiscent of a convective instability, leads to the vortex shedding phenomenon via a proposed streamwise pressure-gradient mechanism. PMID:24399860

  3. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow.

  4. Fine scale vegetation classification and fuel load mapping for prescribed burning

    Treesearch

    Andrew D. Bailey; Robert Mickler

    2007-01-01

    Fire managers in the Coastal Plain of the Southeastern United States use prescribed burning as a tool to reduce fuel loads in a variety of vegetation types, many of which have elevated fuel loads due to a history of fire suppression. While standardized fuel models are useful in prescribed burn planning, those models do not quantify site-specific fuel loads that reflect...

  5. 8. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, MECHANIC SHED, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, MECHANIC SHED, AND SKINNER SALT ROASTERS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  6. 3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, MECHANIC SHED, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, MECHANIC SHED, DRYERS, GRINDING/ROD MILL, AND SKINNER SALT ROASTERS. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  7. Shedding of porcine circovirus type 1 DNA and rotavirus RNA by infants vaccinated with Rotarix®.

    PubMed

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Immergluck, Lilly Cheng; Parker, Trisha Chan; Laghaie, Elham; Mohammed, Anaam; McFadden, Terri; Parashar, Umesh D; Bowen, Michael D; Cortese, Margaret M

    2017-04-03

    Thirty-three infants aged ∼2 months had serial stool samples collected after receipt of Rotarix® vaccine dose 1, and were assessed for shedding of porcine circovirus type 1 DNA and Rotavirus group A RNA by molecular methods. We did not find strong evidence that porcine circovirus type 1 replication occurred. Porcine circovirus type 1 genome with the same sequence as that in Rotarix® was detected in a few infants as late as day ≥ 13; while this timing could suggest there may have been replication and not just transient passage through the gastrointestinal tract, the lack of increase in copy number in any infant supports transient passage and there are inherent limitations to the results. We found that 21% of infants did not shed Rotarix® RVA RNA beyond the day 3 sample, which may suggest lack of vaccine virus replication. Of the infants in whom Rotarix RVA RNA shedding continued, peak copy numbers were reached on days 3-5 for ∼40%, and after day 5 in ∼60%, and shedding can be prolonged (≥ 45 days).

  8. 4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM NORTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. TOPS OF BUNKER PERISCOPE AND FLAGPOLE ON ROOF OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF (PRESUMED) OUTHOUSE SHED. DOOR HAS AN AIR FORCE INSIGNIA EMBLEM AFFIXED, 'AIR FORCE WEAPONS LABORATORY.' OTHER SIGN ON DOOR SAYS, 'BSD LIASON OFFICE.' INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6173, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Characterization of shed medicinal leech mucus reveals a diverse microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Brittany M.; Rickards, Allen; Gehrke, Lauren; Rio, Rita V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial transmission through mucosal-mediated mechanisms is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. One example of this occurs with Hirudo verbana, the medicinal leech, where host attraction to shed conspecific mucus facilitates horizontal transmission of a predominant gut symbiont, the Gammaproteobacterium Aeromonas veronii. However, whether this mucus may harbor other bacteria has not been examined. Here, we characterize the microbiota of shed leech mucus through Illumina deep sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) typing with subsequent Sanger Sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene clone library provided qualitative confirmation of the microbial composition. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length 16S rRNA sequences were performed to examine microbial taxonomic distribution. Analyses using both technologies indicate the dominance of the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla within the mucus microbiota. We determined the presence of other previously described leech symbionts, in addition to a number of putative novel leech-associated bacteria. A second predominant gut symbiont, the Rikenella-like bacteria, was also identified within mucus and exhibited similar population dynamics to A. veronii, suggesting persistence in syntrophy beyond the gut. Interestingly, the most abundant bacterial genus belonged to Pedobacter, which includes members capable of producing heparinase, an enzyme that degrades the anticoagulant, heparin. Additionally, bacteria associated with denitrification and sulfate cycling were observed, indicating an abundance of these anions within mucus, likely originating from the leech excretory system. A diverse microbiota harbored within shed mucus has significant potential implications for the evolution of microbiomes, including opportunities for gene transfer and utility in host capture of a diverse group of symbionts. PMID:25620963

  11. Modelling the effect of heterogeneity of shedding on the within herd Coxiella burnetii spread and identification of key parameters by sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Courcoul, Aurélie; Monod, Hervé; Nielen, Mirjam; Klinkenberg, Don; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2011-09-07

    Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium responsible for Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis. Ruminants, especially cattle, are recognized as the most important source of human infections. Although a great heterogeneity between shedder cows has been described, no previous studies have determined which features such as shedding route and duration or the quantity of bacteria shed have the strongest impact on the environmental contamination and thus on the zoonotic risk. Our objective was to identify key parameters whose variation highly influences C. burnetii spread within a dairy cattle herd, especially those related to the heterogeneity of shedding. To compare the impact of epidemiological parameters on different dynamical aspects of C. burnetii infection, we performed a sensitivity analysis on an original stochastic model describing the bacterium spread and representing the individual variability of the shedding duration, routes and intensity as well as herd demography. This sensitivity analysis consisted of a principal component analysis followed by an ANOVA. Our findings show that the most influential parameters are the probability distribution governing the levels of shedding, especially in vaginal mucus and faeces, the characteristics of the bacterium in the environment (i.e. its survival and the fraction of bacteria shed reaching the environment), and some physiological parameters related to the intermittency of shedding (transition probability from a non-shedding infected state to a shedding state) or to the transition from one type of shedder to another one (transition probability from a seronegative shedding state to a seropositive shedding state). Our study is crucial for the understanding of the dynamics of C. burnetii infection and optimization of control measures. Indeed, as control measures should impact the parameters influencing the bacterium spread most, our model can now be used to assess the effectiveness of different control strategies of Q fever within

  12. 2015 Targeted AirShed Grant Program Grant - Closed Announcement FY 2015

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Targeted Air Shed Grant Program proposal for FY 2015. The overall goal of the program is to reduce air pollution in the Nation’s areas with the highest levels of ozone and PM2.5 ambient air concentrations.

  13. 27. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce) no date FREIGHT SHED/WEST 55TH ST. IMPROVEMENT/BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ HEATING SYSTEM INSTALLED BY WILLIAM J. OLVANEY (1 of 2 sheets) - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  14. Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cyclic Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R.; Figert, J.; Beek, J.; Ventura, J.; Martinez, J.; Samonski, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present studies show that fanning in the threshold regime is likely caused by other factors than a plastic wake developed during load shedding. The cause of fanning at low R-values is a result of localized roughness, mainly formation of a faceted crack surface morphology , plus crack bifurcations which alters the crack closure at low R-values. The crack growth behavior in the threshold regime involves both crack closure theory and the dislocation theory of metals. Research will continue in studying numerous other metal alloys and performing more extensive analysis, such as the variation in dislocation properties (e.g., stacking fault energy) and its effects in different materials.

  15. The N domain of somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme negatively regulates ectodomain shedding and catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Zenda L; Schwager, Sylva L U; Redelinghuys, Pierre; Carmona, Adriana K; Ehlers, Mario R W; Sturrock, Edward D

    2005-08-01

    sACE (somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme) consists of two homologous, N and C domains, whereas the testis isoenzyme [tACE (testis ACE)] consists of a single C domain. Both isoenzymes are shed from the cell surface by a sheddase activity, although sACE is shed much less efficiently than tACE. We hypothesize that the N domain of sACE plays a regulatory role, by occluding a recognition motif on the C domain required for ectodomain shedding and by influencing the catalytic efficiency. To test this, we constructed two mutants: CNdom-ACE and CCdom-ACE. CNdom-ACE was shed less efficiently than sACE, whereas CCdom-ACE was shed as efficiently as tACE. Notably, cleavage occurred both within the stalk and the interdomain bridge in both mutants, suggesting that a sheddase recognition motif resides within the C domain and is capable of directly cleaving at both positions. Analysis of the catalytic properties of the mutants and comparison with sACE and tACE revealed that the k(cat) for sACE and CNdom-ACE was less than or equal to the sum of the kcat values for tACE and the N-domain, suggesting negative co-operativity, whereas the kcat value for the CCdom-ACE suggested positive co-operativity between the two domains. Taken together, the results provide support for (i) the existence of a sheddase recognition motif in the C domain and (ii) molecular flexibility of the N and C domains in sACE, resulting in occlusion of the C-domain recognition motif by the N domain as well as close contact of the two domains during hydrolysis of peptide substrates.

  16. The N domain of somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme negatively regulates ectodomain shedding and catalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Zenda L.; Schwager, Sylva L. U.; Redelinghuys, Pierre; Carmona, Adriana K.; Ehlers, Mario R. W.; Sturrock, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    sACE (somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme) consists of two homologous, N and C domains, whereas the testis isoenzyme [tACE (testis ACE)] consists of a single C domain. Both isoenzymes are shed from the cell surface by a sheddase activity, although sACE is shed much less efficiently than tACE. We hypothesize that the N domain of sACE plays a regulatory role, by occluding a recognition motif on the C domain required for ectodomain shedding and by influencing the catalytic efficiency. To test this, we constructed two mutants: CNdom-ACE and CCdom-ACE. CNdom-ACE was shed less efficiently than sACE, whereas CCdom-ACE was shed as efficiently as tACE. Notably, cleavage occurred both within the stalk and the interdomain bridge in both mutants, suggesting that a sheddase recognition motif resides within the C domain and is capable of directly cleaving at both positions. Analysis of the catalytic properties of the mutants and comparison with sACE and tACE revealed that the kcat for sACE and CNdom-ACE was less than or equal to the sum of the kcat values for tACE and the N-domain, suggesting negative co-operativity, whereas the kcat value for the CCdom-ACE suggested positive co-operativity between the two domains. Taken together, the results provide support for (i) the existence of a sheddase recognition motif in the C domain and (ii) molecular flexibility of the N and C domains in sACE, resulting in occlusion of the C-domain recognition motif by the N domain as well as close contact of the two domains during hydrolysis of peptide substrates. PMID:15813703

  17. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Suppressive Effects of Pelargonidin on Endothelial Protein C Receptor Shedding via the Inhibition of TACE Activity and MAP Kinases.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyejin; Lee, Taeho; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Beyond its role in the activation of protein C, the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) plays an important role in the cytoprotective pathway. EPCR can be shed from the cell surface, which is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-[Formula: see text] converting enzyme (TACE). Pelargonidin is a well-known red pigment found in plants, and has been reported to have important biological activities that are potentially beneficial to human health. However, little is known about the effects of pelargonidin on EPCR shedding. We investigated this issue by monitoring the effects of pelargonidin on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text]-, interleukin (IL)-1β-, and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding and by investigating the underlying mechanism of pelargonidin action. Data demonstrate that pelargonidin induced potent inhibition of PMA-, TNF-[Formula: see text]-, IL-1β-, and CLP-induced EPCR shedding by inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as p38, janus kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Pelargonidin also inhibited the expression and activity of PMA-induced TACE in endothelial cells. These results demonstrate the potential of pelargonidin as an anti-EPCR shedding reagent against PMA- and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding.

  19. ADAM10 controls collagen signaling and cell migration on collagen by shedding the ectodomain of discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1)

    PubMed Central

    Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Ito, Noriko; Leitinger, Birgit; Enghild, Jan J.; Itoh, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds and transmits signals from various collagens in epithelial cells. However, how DDR1–dependent signaling is regulated has not been understood. Here we report that collagen binding induces ADAM10-dependent ectodomain shedding of DDR1. DDR1 shedding is not a result of an activation of its signaling pathway, since DDR1 mutants defective in signaling were shed in an efficient manner. DDR1 and ADAM10 were found to be in a complex on the cell surface, but shedding did not occur unless collagen bound to DDR1. Using a shedding-resistant DDR1 mutant, we found that ADAM10-dependent DDR1 shedding regulates the half-life of collagen-induced phosphorylation of the receptor. Our data also revealed that ADAM10 plays an important role in regulating DDR1-mediated cell adhesion to achieve efficient cell migration on collagen matrices. PMID:25540428

  20. Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R. G.; Zanganeh, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research program conducted to improve the understanding of fatigue crack growth rate behavior in the threshold growth rate region and to answer a question on the validity of threshold region test data. The validity question relates to the view held by some experimentalists that using the ASTM load shedding test method does not produce valid threshold test results and material properties. The question involves the fanning behavior observed in threshold region of da/dN plots for some materials in which the low R-ratio data fans out from the high R-ratio data. This fanning behavior or elevation of threshold values in the low R-ratio tests is generally assumed to be caused by an increase in crack closure in the low R-ratio tests. Also, the increase in crack closure is assumed by some experimentalists to result from using the ASTM load shedding test procedure. The belief is that this procedure induces load history effects which cause remote closure from plasticity and/or roughness changes in the surface morphology. However, experimental studies performed by the authors have shown that the increase in crack closure is a result of extensive crack tip bifurcations that can occur in some materials, particularly in aluminum alloys, when the crack tip cyclic yield zone size becomes less than the grain size of the alloy. This behavior is related to the high stacking fault energy (SFE) property of aluminum alloys which results in easier slip characteristics. Therefore, the fanning behavior which occurs in aluminum alloys is a function of intrinsic dislocation property of the alloy, and therefore, the fanned data does represent the true threshold properties of the material. However, for the corrosion sensitive steel alloys tested in laboratory air, the occurrence of fanning results from fretting corrosion at the crack tips, and these results should not be considered to be representative of valid threshold properties because the fanning is

  1. CEO summit, Part 3. Loading the ark.

    PubMed

    Howe, G E; Peddie, E C; Eales, H P; Swedish, J; Chapman, T W; Clay, P; Gaintner, J R

    1996-03-20

    There's a flood of change coming, and health care executives are quickly building and loading big boats to sail to the future. But what do you take--and what do you leave behind? What will be needed in the new world--and what won't? In the third of an exclusive four-part series planned by McManis Associates and co-sponsored by Hospitals & Health Networks, some top CEOs talk about their travel plans.

  2. Shedding of Ebola Virus Surface Glycoprotein Is a Mechanism of Self-regulation of Cellular Cytotoxicity and Has a Direct Effect on Virus Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Dolnik, Olga; Volchkova, Valentina A; Escudero-Perez, Beatriz; Lawrence, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Volchkov, Viktor E

    2015-10-01

    The surface glycoprotein (GP) is responsible for Ebola virus (EBOV) attachment and membrane fusion during virus entry. Surface expression of highly glycosylated GP causes marked cytotoxicity via masking of a wide range of cellular surface molecules, including integrins. Considerable amounts of surface GP are shed from virus-infected cells in a soluble truncated form by tumor necrosis factor α-converting enzyme. In this study, the role of GP shedding was investigated using a reverse genetics approach by comparing recombinant viruses possessing amino acid substitutions at the GP shedding site. Virus with an L635V substitution showed a substantial decrease in shedding, whereas a D637V substitution resulted in a striking increase in the release of shed GP. Variations in shedding efficacy correlated with observed differences in the amounts of shed GP in the medium, GP present in virus-infected cells, and GP present on virions. An increase in shedding appeared to be associated with a reduction in viral cytotoxicity, and, vice versa, the virus that shed less was more cytotoxic. An increase in shedding also resulted in a reduction in viral infectivity, whereas a decrease in shedding efficacy enhanced viral growth characteristics in vitro. Differences in shedding efficacy and, as a result, differences in the amount of mature GP available for incorporation into budding virions did not equate to differences in overall release of viral particles. Likewise, data suggest that the resulting differences in the amount of mature GP on the cell surface led to variations in the GP content of released particles and, as a consequence, in infectivity. In conclusion, fine-tuning of the levels of EBOV GP expressed at the surface of virus-infected cells via GP shedding plays an important role in EBOV replication by orchestrating the balance between optimal virion GP content and cytotoxicity caused by GP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious

  3. Collagen Type I Selectively Activates Ectodomain Shedding of the Discoidin Domain Receptor 1: Involvement of Src Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Barbara E.; Siniaia, Marina S.; Blusztajn, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    The discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is highly expressed in breast carcinoma cells. Upon binding to collagen, DDR1 undergoes autophosphorylation followed by limited proteolysis to generate a tyrosine phosphorylated C-terminal fragment (CTF). Although it was postulated that this fragment is formed as a result of shedding of the N-terminal ectodomain, collagen-dependent release of the DDR1 extracellular domain has not been demonstrated. We now report that, in conjunction with CTF formation, collagen type I stimulates concentration-dependent, saturable shedding of the DDR1 ectodomain from two carcinoma cell lines, and from transfected cells. In contrast, collagen did not promote cleavage of other transmembrane proteins including the amyloid precursor protein (APP), ErbB2, and E-cadherin. Collagen-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and proteolysis of DDR1 in carcinoma cells were reduced by a pharmacologic Src inhibitor. Moreover, expression of a dominant negative Src mutant protein in human embryonic kidney cells inhibited collagen-dependent phosphorylation and shedding of co-transfected DDR1. The hydroxamate-based metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-1 (tumor necrosis factor-α protease inhibitor-1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3, also blocked collagen-evoked DDR1 shedding, but did not reduce levels of the phosphorylated CTF. Neither shedding nor CTF formation were affected by the γ-secretase inhibitor, L-685,458. The results demonstrate that collagen-evoked ectodomain cleavage of DDR1 is mediated in part by Src-dependent activation or recruitment of a matrix- or disintegrin metalloproteinase, and that CTF formation can occur independently of ectodomain shedding. Delayed shedding of the DDR1 ectodomain may represent a mechanism that limits DDR1-dependent cell adhesion and migration on collagen matrices. PMID:16440311

  4. Force reduction induced by unidirectional transversal muscle loading is independent of local pressure.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Tobias; Rode, Christian; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2016-05-03

    Transversal unidirectional compression applied to muscles via external loading affects muscle contraction dynamics in the longitudinal direction. A recent study reported decreasing longitudinal muscle forces with increasing transversal load applied with a constant contact area (i.e., leading to a simultaneous increase in local pressure). To shed light on these results, we examine whether the decrease in longitudinal force depends on the load, the local pressure, or both. To this end, we perform isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis without and with transversal loading (i) changing the local pressure from 1.1-3.2Ncm(-2) (n=9) at a constant transversal load (1.62N) and (ii) increasing the transversal load (1.15-3.45N) at a constant local pressure of 2.3Ncm(-2) (n=7). While we did not note changes in the decrease in longitudinal muscle force in the first experiment, the second experiment resulted in an almost-linear reduction of longitudinal force between 7.5±0.6% and 14.1±1.7%. We conclude that the observed longitudinal force reduction is not induced by local effects such as malfunction of single muscle compartments, but that similar internal stress conditions and myofilament configurations occur when the local pressure changes given a constant load. The decreased longitudinal force may be explained by increased internal pressure and a deformed myofilament lattice that is likely associated with the decomposition of cross-bridge forces on the one hand and the inhibition of cross-bridges on the other hand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vortex Shedding from a Vibrating Cable with Attached Spherical Bodies in a Linear Shear Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-27

    correlation and strengthened parallel vo:tex shedding. The test model used in the present study was a flexible cable. The vortex street wake behind a vibrating...pattern, different tha. the characteristic patterns associated with either the stationary or vibrating locked-on vortex street wakes was observed... vortex shedding to the vibration of a rigid or flexible cylinder has been explored by Griffin [17]. He presents a model for a universal wake Strouhal

  6. Maintaining the Body's Immune System: Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Your body protects you from illness with its own security system - the immune system. This system keeps illness at bay not only by mounting a defense against foreign organisms, but also by controlling the population of bacteria and viruses that normally live in your body. But there's no need to panic: certain microbes can actually exist in your body without causing illness. Some bacteria are even beneficial - like the E. coli in the large intestine that are an important source of vitamin K. While viruses are not exactly considered beneficial, they can also inhabit the human body without causing immediate harm or infection. A good example is the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), more commonly known as cold sores or fever blisters. This virus infects 70 to 80 percent of all adults but remains latent much of the time. While latent, the virus within cells remains dormant. Activation of the dormant virus causes it to make copies of itself (known as replication) constantly detectable in body fluids such as urine or saliva in a process called shedding. When a person becomes sick or stressed, however, this weakened condition allows the virus to reactivate and multiply. These elevated levels may be enough to produce symptoms, but shedding can also occur without symptoms. This ability to shed without showing signs of infection, or asymptomatic shedding, is of great interest, as it increases the chances of infecting others. The stresses associated with space flight - adapting to microgravity, isolation from family and friends, living and working in a confined space, sleep deprivation, and busy schedules, to name but a few - may weaken astronauts' immune systems, leaving them at greater risk of viral reactivation. Members of the STS-107 crew will participate in this experiment, Incidence of Latent Viral Shedding in Space Flight, to help scientists understand how reactivation works in space, and at what level replication reaches before symptoms begin to show. This study also

  7. Effects of an Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine on PCV2 Virus Shedding in Semen from Experimentally Infected Boars ▿

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hwi Won; Han, Kiwon; Kim, Duyeol; Oh, Yeonsu; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Changhoon; Jang, Hyun; Chae, Chanhee

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of an inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine on PCV2b virus shedding in the semen of experimentally infected boars by measuring the immunological response and the PCV2b DNA load in blood and semen. Twelve boars were randomly divided into three groups. The boars in group 1 (n = 4) were immunized with an inactivated PCV2 vaccine and were challenged with PCV2b. The boars in group 2 (n = 4) were only challenged with PCV2b. The boars in group 3 (n = 4) served as negative controls. The number of PCV2 genome copies of PCV2 in the serum and semen were significantly lower in vaccinated challenged boars than in nonvaccinated challenged boars at 7, 10, 14, 21, 32, 35, 42, 49, and 60 days postinoculation. The number of PCV2b genomes in the semen correlated with the number of PCV2b genomes in the blood in both vaccinated challenged (R = 0.714) and nonvaccinated challenged (R = 0.861) boars. The results of the present study demonstrate that the inactivated PCV2 vaccine significantly decreases the amount of PCV2b DNA shedding in semen from vaccinated boars after experimental infection with PCV2b. PMID:21613465

  8. Electrical load management at the Goldstone DSN Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayburn, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    A Power Load Management Plan was deveoped which utilizes the unique power generating capabilities of the stations to reduce the stress on the local utility's reserve capacity and reduce the cost of electrical power at the stations. The plan has greatly reduced the cost of Goldstone electrical power by completely eliminating the use of commercial power during the local utility's high usage periods each day.

  9. The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cindy M.; Osborne, Brendan J. W.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G.; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha

    2014-01-01

    Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024), TNF-α (p = 0.009), and IL-1b (p = 0.002). IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r2 = 0.18, p = 0.02). Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r2 = 0.15, p = 0.02). HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25058515

  10. 33 CFR 155.1125 - Additional response plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional response plan... Additional Response Plan Requirements for Tankers Loading Cargo at a Facility Permitted Under the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act § 155.1125 Additional response plan requirements. (a) The owner or...

  11. 33 CFR 155.1125 - Additional response plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional response plan... Additional Response Plan Requirements for Tankers Loading Cargo at a Facility Permitted Under the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act § 155.1125 Additional response plan requirements. (a) The owner or...

  12. 33 CFR 155.1125 - Additional response plan requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional response plan... Additional Response Plan Requirements for Tankers Loading Cargo at a Facility Permitted Under the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act § 155.1125 Additional response plan requirements. (a) The owner or...

  13. Shedding of porcine circovirus type 1 DNA and rotavirus RNA by infants vaccinated with Rotarix®

    PubMed Central

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Immergluck, Lilly Cheng; Parker, Trisha Chan; Laghaie, Elham; Mohammed, Anaam; McFadden, Terri; Parashar, Umesh D.; Bowen, Michael D.; Cortese, Margaret M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thirty-three infants aged ∼2 months had serial stool samples collected after receipt of Rotarix® vaccine dose 1, and were assessed for shedding of porcine circovirus type 1 DNA and Rotavirus group A RNA by molecular methods. We did not find strong evidence that porcine circovirus type 1 replication occurred. Porcine circovirus type 1 genome with the same sequence as that in Rotarix® was detected in a few infants as late as day ≥ 13; while this timing could suggest there may have been replication and not just transient passage through the gastrointestinal tract, the lack of increase in copy number in any infant supports transient passage and there are inherent limitations to the results. We found that 21% of infants did not shed Rotarix® RVA RNA beyond the day 3 sample, which may suggest lack of vaccine virus replication. Of the infants in whom Rotarix RVA RNA shedding continued, peak copy numbers were reached on days 3–5 for ∼40%, and after day 5 in ∼60%, and shedding can be prolonged (≥ 45 days). PMID:27936349

  14. Fecal microbiome of periparturient dairy cattle and associations with the onset of Salmonella shedding

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Stephen O.; Digianantonio, Rose; Williams, Michele L.; Wijeratne, Asela; Habing, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen with critical importance in animal and public health. The persistence of Salmonella on farms affects animal productivity and health, and represents a risk for food safety. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in the colonization and invasion of this ubiquitous microorganism. To overcome the colonization resistance imparted by the gut microbiome, Salmonella uses invasion strategies and the host inflammatory response to survive, proliferate, and establish infections with diverse clinical manifestations. Cattle serve as reservoirs of Salmonella, and periparturient cows have high prevalence of Salmonella shedding; however, little is known about the association between the gut microbiome and the onset of Salmonella shedding during the periparturient period. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the association between changes in bacterial communities and the onset of Salmonella shedding in cattle approaching parturition. In a prospective cohort study, fecal samples from 98 dairy cows originating from four different farms were collected at four time points relative to calving (-3 wks, -1 wk, +1 wk, +3 wks). All 392 samples were cultured for Salmonella. Sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina platform was completed to evaluate the fecal microbiome in a selected sample subset. Analyses of microbial composition, diversity, and structure were performed according to time points, farm, and Salmonella onset status. Individual cow fecal microbiomes, predominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria phyla, significantly changed before and after parturition. Microbial communities from different farms were distinguishable based on multivariate analysis. Although there were significant differences in some bacterial taxa between Salmonella positive and negative samples, our results did not identify differences in the fecal microbial diversity or

  15. 46 CFR 110.25-1 - Plans and information required for new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....25-1 Section 110.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal § 110.25-1 Plans and information required for new construction... available at the point of application. (b) Electrical plant load analysis including connected loads and...

  16. 46 CFR 110.25-1 - Plans and information required for new construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....25-1 Section 110.25-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GENERAL PROVISIONS Plan Submittal § 110.25-1 Plans and information required for new construction... available at the point of application. (b) Electrical plant load analysis including connected loads and...

  17. The phenomenon of dynamic stall. [vortex shedding phenomenon on oscillating airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The general features of dynamic stall on oscillating airfoils are explained in terms of the vortex shedding phenomenon, and the important differences between static stall, light dynamic stall, and deep stall are described. An overview of experimentation and prediction techniques is given.

  18. 11. VIEW SHOWING THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE SHED ROOF (REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW SHOWING THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE SHED ROOF (REMOVED AUTUMN OF 1996) PROTECTING THE PRESENT INTAKE GATES- AND RAKE-LIFTING MECHANISMS AND THE TRASH RACKS (LOWER FOREGROUND), LOOKING NORTH. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Middle Channel Powerhouse & Dam, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  19. How the Men's Shed Idea Travels to Scandinavia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahl, Helene; Hedegaard, Joel; Golding, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Australia has around 1,000 Men's Sheds--informal community-based workshops offering men beyond paid work somewhere to go, something to do and someone to talk to. They have proven to be of great benefit for older men's learning, health and wellbeing, social integration, and for developing a positive male identity focusing on community…

  20. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Crespo, Javier; Peña, Esther; Padró, Teresa; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke. Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls. Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions. Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger cerebral lesions

  1. Vortex shedding within laminar separation bubbles forming over an airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Thomas M.; Yarusevych, Serhiy

    2017-05-01

    Vortex shedding within laminar separation bubbles forming over the suction side of a NACA 0018 airfoil is studied through a combination of high-speed flow visualization and boundary layer measurements. Wind tunnel experiments are performed at a chord-based Reynolds number of 100,000 and four angles of attack. The high-speed flow visualization is complemented by quantitative velocity and surface pressure measurements. The structures are shown to originate from the natural amplification of small-amplitude disturbances, and the shear layer roll-up is found to occur coherently across the span. However, significant cycle-to-cycle variations are observed in vortex characteristics, including shedding period and roll-up location. The formation of the roll-up vortices precedes the later stages of transition, during which these structures undergo significant deformations and breakdown to smaller scales. During this stage of flow development, vortex merging is also observed. The results provide new insight into the development of coherent structures in separation bubbles and their relation to the overall bubble dynamics and mean bubble topology.

  2. Reliability demonstration test for load-sharing systems with exponential and Weibull components

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingpei; Yu, Dan; Xie, Min

    2017-01-01

    Conducting a Reliability Demonstration Test (RDT) is a crucial step in production. Products are tested under certain schemes to demonstrate whether their reliability indices reach pre-specified thresholds. Test schemes for RDT have been studied in different situations, e.g., lifetime testing, degradation testing and accelerated testing. Systems designed with several structures are also investigated in many RDT plans. Despite the availability of a range of test plans for different systems, RDT planning for load-sharing systems hasn’t yet received the attention it deserves. In this paper, we propose a demonstration method for two specific types of load-sharing systems with components subject to two distributions: exponential and Weibull. Based on the assumptions and interpretations made in several previous works on such load-sharing systems, we set the mean time to failure (MTTF) of the total system as the demonstration target. We represent the MTTF as a summation of mean time between successive component failures. Next, we introduce generalized test statistics for both the underlying distributions. Finally, RDT plans for the two types of systems are established on the basis of these test statistics. PMID:29284030

  3. Reliability demonstration test for load-sharing systems with exponential and Weibull components.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianyu; Hu, Qingpei; Yu, Dan; Xie, Min

    2017-01-01

    Conducting a Reliability Demonstration Test (RDT) is a crucial step in production. Products are tested under certain schemes to demonstrate whether their reliability indices reach pre-specified thresholds. Test schemes for RDT have been studied in different situations, e.g., lifetime testing, degradation testing and accelerated testing. Systems designed with several structures are also investigated in many RDT plans. Despite the availability of a range of test plans for different systems, RDT planning for load-sharing systems hasn't yet received the attention it deserves. In this paper, we propose a demonstration method for two specific types of load-sharing systems with components subject to two distributions: exponential and Weibull. Based on the assumptions and interpretations made in several previous works on such load-sharing systems, we set the mean time to failure (MTTF) of the total system as the demonstration target. We represent the MTTF as a summation of mean time between successive component failures. Next, we introduce generalized test statistics for both the underlying distributions. Finally, RDT plans for the two types of systems are established on the basis of these test statistics.

  4. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian A.; Widder, Sarah H.

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVACmore » technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.« less

  5. On rate-dependent polycrystal deformation: the temperature sensitivity of cold dwell fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Cuddihy, M. A.; Dunne, F. P. E.

    2015-01-01

    A temperature and rate-dependent crystal plasticity framework has been used to examine the temperature sensitivity of stress relaxation, creep and load shedding in model Ti-6Al polycrystal behaviour under dwell fatigue conditions. A temperature close to 120°C is found to lead to the strongest stress redistribution and load shedding, resulting from the coupling between crystallographic slip rate and slip system dislocation hardening. For temperatures in excess of about 230°C, grain-level load shedding from soft to hard grains diminishes because of the more rapid stress relaxation, leading ultimately to the diminution of the load shedding and hence, it is argued, the elimination of the dwell debit. Under conditions of cyclic stress dwell, at temperatures between 20°C and 230°C for which load shedding occurs, the rate-dependent accumulation of local slip by ratcheting is shown to lead to the progressive cycle-by-cycle redistribution of stress from soft to hard grains. This phenomenon is termed cyclic load shedding since it also depends on the material's creep response, but develops over and above the well-known dwell load shedding, thus providing an additional rationale for the incubation of facet nucleation. PMID:26528078

  6. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae). Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels), and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could currently be most effectively

  7. Patterns of herpes simplex virus shedding over 1 month and the impact of acyclovir and HIV in HSV-2-seropositive women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Helen A; LeGoff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Clayton, Tim C; Ross, David A; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard J; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have examined the frequency and duration of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes HSV shedding patterns among a sample of HSV-2-seropositive women enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (acyclovir 400 mg twice a day) in Tanzania. Methods Trial participants were invited to participate in a substudy involving 12 clinic visits over 4 weeks. At each visit, cervical, vaginal and external skin swabs were taken and analysed for HSV DNA using inhouse real-time PCR. Results HSV shedding was mainly subclinical (90%; 57/63 shedding days in the placebo arm). The most frequent shedding site was the external skin, but HSV DNA was detected from all three sites on 42% (27/63) of shedding days. In HIV-negative women, HSV DNA was detected on 3% (9/275) of days in the acyclovir versus 11% (33/309) in the placebo arm, while in HIV-positive women, detection was on 14% (23/160) versus 19% (30/155) of days, respectively. Conclusions HSV shedding was common, varying greatly by individual. Shedding rates were similar to studies in African and non-African settings. Among HIV-negative women, shedding rates were lower in the acyclovir arm; however, acyclovir did not substantially impact on HSV shedding in HIV-positive women. PMID:21653932

  8. Integrated watershed planning across jurisdictional boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A. W.; Roseen, R.; Stacey, P.; Bourdeau, R.

    2014-12-01

    We will present the foundation for an Coastal Watershed Integrated Plan for three communities in southern New Hampshire. Small communities are often challenged by complex regulatory requirements and limited resources, but are wary of perceived risks in engaging in collaborative projects with other communities. Potential concerns include loss of control, lack of resources to engage in collaboration, technical complexity, and unclear benefits. This project explores a multi-town subwatershed application of integrated planning across jurisdictional boundaries that addresses some of today's highest priority water quality issues: wastewater treatment plant upgrades for nutrient removal; green infrastructure stormwater management for developing and re-developing areas; and regional monitoring of ecosystem indicators in support of adaptive management to achieve nutrient reduction and other water quality goals in local and downstream waters. The project outcome is a collaboratively-developed inter-municipal integrated plan, and a monitoring framework to support cross jurisdictional planning and assess attainment of water quality management goals. This research project has several primary components: 1) assessment of initial conditions, including both the pollutant load inputs and the political, economic and regulatory status within each community, 2) a pollutant load model for point and non-point sources, 3) multi-criteria evaluation of load reduction alternatives 4) a watershed management plan optimized for each community, and for Subwatersheds combining multiple communities. The final plan will quantify the financial and other benefits/drawbacks to each community for both inter municipal and individual pollution control approaches. We will discuss both the technical and collaborative aspects of the work, with lessons learned regarding science to action, incorporation of social, economic and water quality assessment parameters, and stakeholder/researcher interaction.

  9. 7 CFR 1710.206 - Approval requirements for load forecasts prepared pursuant to approved load forecast work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... effects on electric revenues caused by competition from alternative energy sources or other electric... uncertainty or alternative futures that may determine the borrower's actual loads. Examples of economic... basis. Include alternative futures, as applicable. This summary shall be designed to accommodate the...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.206 - Approval requirements for load forecasts prepared pursuant to approved load forecast work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... effects on electric revenues caused by competition from alternative energy sources or other electric... uncertainty or alternative futures that may determine the borrower's actual loads. Examples of economic... basis. Include alternative futures, as applicable. This summary shall be designed to accommodate the...

  11. 7 CFR 1710.206 - Approval requirements for load forecasts prepared pursuant to approved load forecast work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... effects on electric revenues caused by competition from alternative energy sources or other electric... uncertainty or alternative futures that may determine the borrower's actual loads. Examples of economic... basis. Include alternative futures, as applicable. This summary shall be designed to accommodate the...

  12. 7 CFR 1710.206 - Approval requirements for load forecasts prepared pursuant to approved load forecast work plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... effects on electric revenues caused by competition from alternative energy sources or other electric... uncertainty or alternative futures that may determine the borrower's actual loads. Examples of economic... basis. Include alternative futures, as applicable. This summary shall be designed to accommodate the...

  13. Effect of diet on the shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a sheep model.

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, I T; Hatfield, P G; Hovde, C J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sheep model to investigate reproduction, transmission, and shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ruminants. In addition, we investigated the effect of diet change on these parameters. Six groups of twin lambs given oral inoculations of 10(5) or 10(9) CFU of E. coli O157:H7 and their nondosed mothers were monitored for colonization by culture of fecal samples. A modified selective-enrichment protocol that detected E. coli O157:H7 at levels as low as 0.06 CFU per g of ovine feces was developed. Horizontal transmission of infection occurred between the lambs and most of the nondosed mothers. When animals were kept in confinement and given alfalfa pellet feed, lambs receiving the higher dose shed the bacteria sooner and longer than all other animals. However, when the animals were released onto a sagebrush-bunchgrass range, every animal, regardless of its previous status (dosed at one of the inoculum levels tested or nondosed) shed E. coli O157:H7 uniformly. Shedding persisted for 15 days, after which all animals tested negative. E. coli O157:H7 reproduction and transmission and the combined effect of diet change and feed withholding were also investigated in a pilot study with experimentally inoculated rams. Withholding feed induced animals to shed the bacteria either by triggering growth of E. coli O157:H7 present in the intestines or by increasing susceptibility to infection. Introduction of a dietary change with brief starvation caused uniform shedding and clearance of E. coli O157:H7, and all animals then tested negative for the bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7747956

  14. Time-dependent fiber bundles with local load sharing.

    PubMed

    Newman, W I; Phoenix, S L

    2001-02-01

    Fiber bundle models, where fibers have random lifetimes depending on their load histories, are useful tools in explaining time-dependent failure in heterogeneous materials. Such models shed light on diverse phenomena such as fatigue in structural materials and earthquakes in geophysical settings. Various asymptotic and approximate theories have been developed for bundles with various geometries and fiber load-sharing mechanisms, but numerical verification has been hampered by severe computational demands in larger bundles. To gain insight at large size scales, interest has returned to idealized fiber bundle models in 1D. Such simplified models typically assume either equal load sharing (ELS) among survivors, or local load sharing (LLS) where a failed fiber redistributes its load onto its two nearest flanking survivors. Such models can often be solved exactly or asymptotically in increasing bundle size, N, yet still capture the essence of failure in real materials. The present work focuses on 1D bundles under LLS. As in previous works, a fiber has failure rate following a power law in its load level with breakdown exponent rho. Surviving fibers under fixed loads have remaining lifetimes that are independent and exponentially distributed. We develop both new asymptotic theories and new computational algorithms that greatly increase the bundle sizes that can be treated in large replications (e.g., one million fibers in thousands of realizations). In particular we develop an algorithm that adapts several concepts and methods that are well-known among computer scientists, but relatively unknown among physicists, to dramatically increase the computational speed with no attendant loss of accuracy. We consider various regimes of rho that yield drastically different behavior as N increases. For 1/2< or =rho< or =1, ELS and LLS have remarkably similar behavior (they have identical lifetime distributions at rho=1) with approximate Gaussian bundle lifetime statistics and a

  15. The Mission Operations Planning Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuetzle, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Principal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZetaLisp and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  16. The mission operations planning assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuetzle, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Prinicpal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZETALISP and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  17. Infections do not predict shedding in co-infections with two helminths from a natural system.

    PubMed

    Cattadori, Isabella M; Wagner, Benjamin R; Wodzinski, Laura A; Pathak, Ashutosh K; Poole, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Given the health and economic burden associated with the widespread occurrence of co-infections in humans and agricultural animals, understanding how coinfections contribute to host heterogeneity to infection and transmission is critical if we are to assess risk of infection based on host characteristics. Here, we examine whether host heterogeneity to infection leads to similar heterogeneity in transmission in a population of rabbits single and co-infected with two helminths and monitored monthly for eight years. Compared to single infections, co-infected rabbits carried higher Trichostrongylus retortaeformis intensities, shorter worms with fewer eggs in utero, and shed similar numbers of parasite eggs. In contrast, the same co-infected rabbits harbored fewer Graphidium strigosum with longer bodies and more eggs in utero, and shed more eggs of this helminth. A positive density-dependent relationship between fecundity and intensity was found for T. retortaeformis but not G. strigosum in co-infected rabbits. Juvenile rabbits contributed to most of the infection and shedding of T. retortaeformis, while adult hosts were more important for G. strigosum dynamics of infection and transmission, and this pattern was consistent in single and co-infected individuals. This host-parasite system suggests that we cannot predict the pattern of parasite shedding during co-infections based on intensity of infection alone. We suggest that a mismatching between susceptibility and infectiousness should be expected in helminth coinfections and should not be overlooked.

  18. PBF (PER620) north facade. Camera facing south. Small metal shed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF (PER-620) north facade. Camera facing south. Small metal shed at right is Stack Gas Monitor Building, PER-629. Date: March 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-2-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Older Men as Learners: Irish Men's Sheds as an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Lucia; Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    To date, little attention has been placed on older men (aged 50+ years) as learners, with much of the literature on adult learning concerned with younger age-groups and issues around gender equity directed mainly at women. This article examines the impact of community-based men's sheds on informal and nonformal learning by older men in Ireland. It…

  20. Automation in the Space Station module power management and distribution Breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Bryan; Lollar, Louis F.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) Breadboard, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, models the power distribution within a Space Station Freedom Habitation or Laboratory module. Originally designed for 20 kHz ac power, the system is now being converted to high voltage dc power with power levels on a par with those expected for a space station module. In addition to the power distribution hardware, the system includes computer control through a hierarchy of processes. The lowest level process consists of fast, simple (from a computing standpoint) switchgear, capable of quickly safing the system. The next level consists of local load center processors called Lowest Level Processors (LLP's). These LLP's execute load scheduling, perform redundant switching, and shed loads which use more than scheduled power. The level above the LLP's contains a Communication and Algorithmic Controller (CAC) which coordinates communications with the highest level. Finally, at this highest level, three cooperating Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems manage load prioritization, load scheduling, load shedding, and fault recovery and management. The system provides an excellent venue for developing and examining advanced automation techniques. The current system and the plans for its future are examined.

  1. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.

  2. Oblique view looking southwest of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view looking southwest of C.W.E. Storage Shed (Bldg. 126), with Heavy Equipment Shop (Bldg. 188) at right - Atchison, Topeka, Santa Fe Railroad, Albuquerque Shops, 908 Second Street, Southwest, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  3. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... when they are needed to address water quality problems. (1) Total maximum daily loads. TMDLs in...

  4. Effect of Map-vaccination in ewes on body condition score, weight and Map-shedding.

    PubMed

    Hüttner, Klim; Krämer, Ulla; Kleist, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) in sheep receives growing attention worldwide, particularly in countries with national Map control strategies. A field study was conducted, investigating the effect of GUDAIR on body condition, weight and Map-shedding in a professionally managed but largely Map-affected suffolk flock prior and after vaccination. For this, 80 ewes out of 1000 animals were randomly sampled. In the univariate analysis body condition scores of ewes twelve months after vaccination improved significantly compared to those sampled prior to vaccination. At the same time the rate of ewes shedding Map was reduced by 37%.

  5. Time-Varying Loads of Co-Axial Rotor Blade Crossings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatzman, Natasha L.; Komerath, Narayanan; Romander, Ethan A.

    2017-01-01

    The blade crossing event of a coaxial counter-rotating rotor is a potential source of noise and impulsive blade loads. Blade crossings occur many times during each rotor revolution. In previous research by the authors, this phenomenon was analyzed by simulating two airfoils passing each other at specified speeds and vertical separation distances, using the compressible Navier-Stokes solver OVERFLOW. The simulations explored mutual aerodynamic interactions associated with thickness, circulation, and compressibility effects. Results revealed the complex nature of the aerodynamic impulses generated by upperlower airfoil interactions. In this paper, the coaxial rotor system is simulated using two trains of airfoils, vertically offset, and traveling in opposite directions. The simulation represents multiple blade crossings in a rotor revolution by specifying horizontal distances between each airfoil in the train based on the circumferential distance between blade tips. The shed vorticity from prior crossing events will affect each pair of upperlower airfoils. The aerodynamic loads on the airfoil and flow field characteristics are computed before, at, and after each airfoil crossing. Results from the multiple-airfoil simulation show noticeable changes in the airfoil aerodynamics by introducing additional fluctuation in the aerodynamic time history.

  6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Shedding in Seropositive Pregnant Women from a High Seroprevalence Population: "The Brazilian Cytomegalovirus Hearing and Maternal Secondary Infection Study" (BraCHS).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Nayara G; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y; Duarte, Geraldo; Aragon, Davi C; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh; Britt, William J; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M

    2018-02-27

    Most congenital CMV infections in highly seropositive populations occur in infants born to women with preexisting CMV seroimmunity. Although essential for developing prevention strategies, CMV shedding patterns in pregnant women with non-primary infections have not been characterized. We investigated correlates of CMV shedding in a cohort of seropositive pregnant women. In a prospective study, saliva, urine, vaginal swabs, and blood were collected from 120 CMV seropositive women in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters and one month postpartum. Specimens were tested for CMV-DNA by PCR. We analyzed the contribution of the specific maternal characteristics to viral shedding. Overall, 2,512 samples were assayed. CMV shedding was detected at least once in 42 (35%) women. Maternal age, race, education, parity and marital status were not associated with viral shedding. Mothers living with or providing daily care to young children (3-6 years) were twice as likely to shed CMV at least once compared to women with less exposure to young children (58% vs. 26%; aRR=2.21; 95%CI=1.37-3.56). Living in crowded households (≥2 people per room) was associated with viral shedding (64% vs. 31%; aRR=1.99; 95%CI=1.26-3.13). Sexual activity as indicated by the number of sexual partners per year or condom use was not found to be a correlate of viral shedding. CMV shedding is relatively frequent in seropositive pregnant women. The association between virus shedding and caring for young children as well as crowded living conditions may provide opportunies for increased exposures that could lead to CMV reinfections in seropositive women.

  7. On the Origins of Vortex Shedding in Two-dimensional Incompressible Flows

    PubMed Central

    Boghosian, M. E.; Cassel, K. W.

    2016-01-01

    An exegesis of a novel mechanism leading to vortex splitting and subsequent shedding that is valid for two-dimensional incompressible, inviscid or viscous, and external or internal or wall-bounded flows, is detailed in this research. The mechanism, termed the Vortex-Shedding Mechanism (VSM), is simple and intuitive, requiring only two coincident conditions in the flow: (1) the existence of a location with zero momentum and (2) the presence of a net force having a positive divergence. Numerical solutions of several model problems illustrate causality of the VSM. Moreover, the VSM criteria is proved to be a necessary and sufficient condition for a vortex splitting event in any two-dimensional, incompressible flow. The VSM is shown to exist in several canonical problems including the external flow past a circular cylinder. Suppression of the von Kármán vortex street is demonstrated for Reynolds numbers of 100 and 400 by mitigating the VSM. PMID:27795617

  8. On the Origins of Vortex Shedding in Two-dimensional Incompressible Flows.

    PubMed

    Boghosian, M E; Cassel, K W

    2016-12-01

    An exegesis of a novel mechanism leading to vortex splitting and subsequent shedding that is valid for two-dimensional incompressible, inviscid or viscous, and external or internal or wall-bounded flows, is detailed in this research. The mechanism, termed the Vortex-Shedding Mechanism (VSM), is simple and intuitive, requiring only two coincident conditions in the flow: (1) the existence of a location with zero momentum and (2) the presence of a net force having a positive divergence. Numerical solutions of several model problems illustrate causality of the VSM. Moreover, the VSM criteria is proved to be a necessary and sufficient condition for a vortex splitting event in any two-dimensional, incompressible flow. The VSM is shown to exist in several canonical problems including the external flow past a circular cylinder. Suppression of the von Kármán vortex street is demonstrated for Reynolds numbers of 100 and 400 by mitigating the VSM.

  9. Evaluation of the antitumor effect of dexamethasone palmitate and doxorubicin co-loaded liposomes modified with a sialic acid-octadecylamine conjugate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Song, Yanzhi; Lu, Mei; Lin, Xiangyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Songlei; Su, Yuqing; Deng, Yihui

    2016-10-10

    Dexamethasone palmitate has the potential to inhibit the activity of tumor-associated macrophages, which promote cancer proliferation, invasion, and metastasis; however, only very high and frequent doses are capable of inducing antitumor effects. With the aim to reduce the anticancer dose and decrease the nonspecific toxicity, we designed a liposomal system to co-deliver dexamethasone palmitate and doxorubicin. Furthermore, a ligand conjugate sialic acid-octadecylamine, with enhanced affinity towards the membrane receptors over-expressed in tumors, was anchored on the surface of the liposomes to increase drug distribution to the tumor tissue. Co-loaded liposomes were developed using lipid film hydration method to load dexamethasone palmitate and remote loading technology to load doxorubicin. The co-loaded liposomes modified with sialic acid-octadecylamine represented comparable physicochemical properties and blood plasma profiles with conventional co-loaded liposomes, but the biodistribution proved that sialic acid-octadecylamine modified liposomes accumulated more in tumor. The co-loaded liposomes showed higher tumor growth suppression than the single-drug loaded liposomes, while showing no additional drug toxicity in S180-bearing Kunming mice. The co-loaded liposomes modified with sialic acid-octadecylamine achieved a significantly better antitumor effect, and induced "shedding" of cancerous tissue in the mice. These finding suggested that co-loaded liposomes modified with sialic acid-octadecylamine provided a safe therapeutic strategy with outstanding anticancer activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NASA Products to Enhance Energy Utility Load Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lough, G.; Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.; Fungard, Y.; Jedlovec, G.; Stackhouse, P.; Homer, R.; Biley, S.

    2012-01-01

    Existing energy load forecasting tools rely upon historical load and forecasted weather to predict load within energy company service areas. The shortcomings of load forecasts are often the result of weather forecasts that are not at a fine enough spatial or temporal resolution to capture local-scale weather events. This project aims to improve the performance of load forecasting tools through the integration of high-resolution, weather-related NASA Earth Science Data, such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. Three companies are participating in operational testing one natural gas company, and two electric providers. Operational results comparing load forecasts with and without NASA weather forecasts have been generated since March 2010. We have worked with end users at the three companies to refine selection of weather forecast information and optimize load forecast model performance. The project will conclude in 2012 with transitioning documented improvements from the inclusion of NASA forecasts for sustained use by energy utilities nationwide in a variety of load forecasting tools. In addition, Battelle has consulted with energy companies nationwide to document their information needs for long-term planning, in light of climate change and regulatory impacts.

  11. Shedding of Rubella Virus among Infants with Congenital Rubella Syndrome Born in Tokyo, Japan, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Akiba, Tetsuya; Sumitomo, Masami; Hayata, Noriko; Hasegawa, Michiya; Tsunoda, Tokuko; Okazaki, Terue; Murauchi, Konomi; Hayashi, Yukinao; Kai, Akemi; Seki, Naomi; Kayebeta, Aya; Iwashita, Yuuko; Kurita, Masayuki; Tahara, Narumi

    2016-09-21

    Rubella is usually a mild illness, with febrile rash being its main symptom. However, serious consequences of rubella infection can result when the infection occurs during the early stages of pregnancy. After the occurrence of a rubella outbreak in Japan that was observed from 2012 to 2013, 45 infants were reportedly born with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). We prospectively followed the 15 CRS cases reported in Tokyo to determine the virus shedding periods by using nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect rubella virus genes. Throast swabs were used for virus detection. The virus shedding period was measured from birth until the time when the sample last tested positive followed by 2 consecutive negative samples. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the proportion of cases remaining positive for rubella virus genes over time. The proportion of CRS cases shedding virus dropped steadily after birth, dropping to 33.8% at 6 months and 16.9% at 12 months. Our findings also suggested that the earlier the mother's onset of rubella during pregnancy, the longer the infant remained positive. Based on our findings, we believe that infants with CRS should be monitored for rubella virus shedding until 1 year of age.

  12. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside frommore » these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).« less

  13. Toxoplasma gondii, source to sea: higher contribution of domestic felids to terrestrial parasite loading despite lower infection prevalence.

    PubMed

    Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Conrad, Patricia A; Miller, Melissa A; Melli, Ann C; Carpenter, Tim E; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2013-09-01

    Environmental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, a global zoonotic parasite, adversely impacts human and animal health. Toxoplasma is a significant cause of mortality in threatened Southern sea otters, which serve as sentinels for disease threats to people and animals in coastal environments. As wild and domestic felids are the only recognized hosts capable of shedding Toxoplasma oocysts into the environment, otter infection suggests land-to-sea pathogen transmission. To assess relative contributions to terrestrial parasite loading, we evaluated infection and shedding among managed and unmanaged feral domestic cats, mountain lions, and bobcats in coastal California, USA. Infection prevalence differed among sympatric felids, with a significantly lower prevalence for managed feral cats (17%) than mountain lions, bobcats, or unmanaged feral cats subsisting on wild prey (73-81%). A geographic hotspot of infection in felids was identified near Monterey Bay, bordering a high-risk site for otter infection. Increased odds of oocyst shedding were detected in bobcats and unmanaged feral cats. Due to their large populations, pet and feral domestic cats likely contribute more oocysts to lands bordering the sea otter range than native wild felids. Continued coastal development may influence felid numbers and distribution, increase terrestrial pathogens in freshwater runoff, and alter disease dynamics at the human-animal-environment interface.

  14. Balancing Power Absorption and Fatigue Loads in Irregular Waves for an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.

    The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of themore » controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.« less

  15. Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule Expression and Shedding in Thyroid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Miccichè, Francesca; Da Riva, Luca; Fabbi, Marina; Pilotti, Silvana; Mondellini, Piera; Ferrini, Silvano; Canevari, Silvana; Pierotti, Marco A.; Bongarzone, Italia

    2011-01-01

    Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM, CD166) is expressed in various tissues, cancers, and cancer-initiating cells. Alterations in expression of ALCAM have been reported in several human tumors, and cell adhesion functions have been proposed to explain its association with cancer. Here we documented high levels of ALCAM expression in human thyroid tumors and cell lines. Through proteomic characterization of ALCAM expression in the human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line TPC-1, we identified the presence of a full-length membrane-associated isoform in cell lysate and of soluble ALCAM isoforms in conditioned medium. This finding is consistent with proteolytically shed ALCAM ectodomains. Nonspecific agents, such as phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or ionomycin, provoked increased ectodomain shedding. Epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation also enhanced ALCAM secretion through an ADAM17/TACE-dependent pathway. ADAM17/TACE was expressed in the TPC-1 cell line, and ADAM17/TACE silencing by specific small interfering RNAs reduced ALCAM shedding. In addition, the CGS27023A inhibitor of ADAM17/TACE function reduced ALCAM release in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited cell migration in a wound-healing assay. We also provide evidence for the existence of novel O-glycosylated forms and of a novel 60-kDa soluble form of ALCAM, which is particularly abundant following cell stimulation by PMA. ALCAM expression in papillary and medullary thyroid cancer specimens and in the surrounding non-tumoral component was studied by western blot and immunohistochemistry, with results demonstrating that tumor cells overexpress ALCAM. These findings strongly suggest the possibility that ALCAM may have an important role in thyroid tumor biology. PMID:21364949

  16. Effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Ozbay, Ahmet; Hu, Hui

    2014-12-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model. The experimental study was performed in a large-scale wind tunnel with a scaled three-blade Horizontal Axial Wind Turbine model placed in two different types of Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) winds with distinct mean and turbulence characteristics. In addition to measuring dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine by using a force-moment sensor, a high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry system was used to achieve detailed flow field measurements to characterize the turbulent wake flows behind the model turbine. The measurement results reveal clearly that the discrepancies in the incoming surface winds would affect the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine dramatically. The dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine were found to fluctuate much more significantly, thereby, much larger fatigue loads, for the case with the wind turbine model sited in the incoming ABL wind with higher turbulence intensity levels. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress levels in the wake behind the model turbine were also found to be significantly higher for the high turbulence inflow case, in comparison to those of the low turbulence inflow case. The flow characteristics in the turbine wake were found to be dominated by the formation, shedding, and breakdown of various unsteady wake vortices. In comparison with the case with relatively low turbulence intensities in the incoming ABL wind, much more turbulent and randomly shedding, faster dissipation, and earlier breakdown of the wake vortices were observed for the high turbulence inflow case, which would promote the vertical transport of kinetic energy by entraining more high-speed airflow from above to re-charge the wake flow and result in a much faster recovery of the velocity deficits in the

  17. 37. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce) no date CONTRACT 1519/CITY OF NEW YORK/DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES/ FREIGHT SHED/ W. 55TH ST. IMPROVEMENT/BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ STAIRWAY AND WAITING ROOM FRAMING (Drawing 13 of 16) - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  18. 33. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce) no date CONTRACT 1519/CITY OF NEW YORK/DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES/ FREIGHT SHED/ W. 55TH ST. IMPROVEMENT/BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ BULKHEAD AND WAITING ROOM DETAILS (Drawing 3 of 16) - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  19. 32. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports International Trade, and Commerce) no date CONTRACT 1519/CITY OF NEW YORK/DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES/ FREIGHT SHED/ W. 55TH ST. IMPROVEMENT/BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ INSHORE AND OUTSHORE ELEVATIONS (Drawing 2 of 16) - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  20. 38. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of original plan (on file at City of New York Department of Ports, International Trade, and Commerce) no date CONTRACT 1519/CITY OF NEW YORK/DEPARTMENT OF DOCKS AND FERRIES/ FREIGHT SHED/ W. 55TH ST. IMPROVEMENT/BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN/ WATER SUPPLY AND HEATING (Drawing 16 of 16) - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  1. Greater intensity and frequency of Cryptosporidium and Giardia oocyst shedding beyond the neonatal period is associated with reductions in growth, carcase weight and dressing efficiency in sheep.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Caroline; Williams, Andrew; Yang, Rongchang; Ryan, Una; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J; Gardner, Graham E

    2016-09-15

    Associations between intensity and frequency of Cryptosporidium and Giardia shedding with growth, carcase weight and dressing% were investigated using a longitudinal study of 1182 lambs on eight Australian farms. Live weight was recorded and faecal samples were collected on three sampling occasions; weaning (approximately 12 weeks of age), post-weaning (approximately 19 weeks) and pre-slaughter (approximately 29 weeks). Hot standard carcase weight (HSCW) and dressing% were measured at slaughter. Faecal samples were screened for presence and concentration of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Haemonchus oocysts using a quantitative PCR. Trichostrongylid eggs were quantified with modified McMaster faecal worm egg count (WEC). Protozoan shedding intensity was categorised as high (above median oocyst concentration in positive sheep), low (below median oocyst concentration in positive sheep) or not detected. Shedding was also categorised for shedding type (no shedding, single Giardia infection, single Cryptosporidium infection, concurrent Giardia and Cryptosporidium infection) and lambs were categorised for frequency of shedding (shedding identified on 0, 1, 2 or 3 occasions). Associations of parasite shedding intensity category, shedding type, shedding frequency, WEC and Haemonchus status (positive or negative) with lamb production were assessed using general linear models (HSCW and dressing%) and linear mixed effects models (live weight). High Cryptosporidium parvum shedding was associated with lower live weight, ranging 2.31-4.52kg over the 3 sampling occasions. Cryptosporidium parvum shedding was associated with less HSCW in high (3.22kg less) and low (3.22kg less) shedding lambs post-weaning, and high (2.21kg less) and low (2.60kg less) shedding lambs pre-slaughter as well as lower dressing% (2.7% lower in high shedding lambs post-weaning). Cryptosporidium (all species) shedding pre-slaughter was associated with reduced dressing% in both high (1.25% lower) and low (1

  2. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration

    Treesearch

    Rachel White; Sarah McCaffrey

    2007-01-01

    A century of fire suppression has created heavy fuel loads in many U.S. forests, leading to increasingly intense wildfires. Addressing this problem will require widespread fuels treatments, yet fuels treatment planners do not always have access to the current scientific information that can help guide their planning process. The Fuels Planning: Science Synthesis and...

  3. 77 FR 26686 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Normal (No Contingency) Conditions (Category A), TPL-002-1b--System Performance Following Loss of a... Reliability Standard should not allow an entity to plan for the loss of non-consequential firm load in the... approval of its proposal to revise and clarify footnote `b' ``in regard to load loss following a single...

  4. Herpes Simplex [corrected] Virus Type 2 Shedding From Male Circumcision Wounds in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mary K; Kigozi, Godfrey; Gray, Ronald H; Armour, Benjamin; Manucci, Jordyn; Serwadda, David; Redd, Andrew D; Nalugoda, Fred; Patel, Eshan U; Wawer, Maria J; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2015-11-15

    A prospective observational study of 176 men coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was conducted to assess whether their sexual partners may be at an increased risk of HSV-2 from male circumcision (MC) wounds. Preoperative and weekly penile lavage samples were tested for penile HSV-2 shedding. Prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Detectable penile HSV-2 shedding was present in 9.7% of men (17 of 176) before MC, compared with 12.9% (22 of 170) at 1 week (PRR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], .74-2.38) and 14.8% (23 of 155) at 2 weeks (PRR, 1.50; 95% CI, .86-2.62) after MC. HSV-2 shedding was lower among men with healed MC wounds (adjusted PRR, 0.62; 95% CI, .35-1.08). Men undergoing MC should be counseled on sexual abstinence and condom use. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Duration of Influenza Virus Shedding Among HIV-Infected Adults in the cART Era, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pragna; Bush, Timothy; Kojic, E Milu; Overton, Edgar T; Henry, Keith; Önen, Nur; Rhame, Frank; Conley, Lois; Brooks, John T; Fry, Alicia

    2016-12-01

    The duration of influenza virus shedding in HIV-infected adults is unknown and could affect quarantine and treatment recommendations. Participants were monitored for influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as fever and cough or sore throat, using weekly telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Those with ILI were further evaluated at three HIV specialty clinics. For those with influenza, we collected nasopharyngeal washes every 3 days after the date of confirmed influenza infection for 21-28 days; specimens underwent reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture. Duration of influenza virus shedding was the interval from the date of onset (day 0) of ILI to the date of last culture-positive specimen. Characteristics were compared between patients with and without influenza using Fisher's exact test. We used the Wilcoxon rank-sum test to examine factors that may have affected influenza virus shedding. From October 2010 to April 2011, we enrolled 961 participants in syndromic surveillance and diagnosed 20 patients with influenza whose characteristics were as follows: median age 48 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 43-53), 60% male, 50% non-Hispanic black, 95% had been prescribed combination highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART), 85% were virologically suppressed (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml), median CD4 cell count 317 cells/mm 3 (IQR: 190-544), and median follow-up time 21 days (IQR: 19-22). Compared with persons without influenza, persons with influenza were more likely to be older, use injection drugs, and have a lower median CD4 cell count and were less likely to have had an influenza vaccination in the past 12 months. Median durations of shedding, PCR detection, and ILI symptoms were 3 (IQR: 0-5), 10 (IQR: 6-15), and 14 days (IQR: 12-26), respectively. Median days of shedding were similar among patients with and without any prior influenza vaccination (0 vs. 4, p = .448), HIV viral suppression (2 vs. 6, p = .053

  6. View of HiattStricklin property privy/outhouse. Note siding and shed design, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Hiatt-Stricklin property privy/outhouse. Note siding and shed design, facing northwest - Hiatt Property, Privy-Outhouse, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  7. Quantification of eDNA shedding rates from invasive bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klymus, Katy E.; Richter, Catherine A.; Chapman, Duane C.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers can more easily mitigate the effects of invasive species if action takes place before a population becomes established. Such early detection requires sensitive survey tools that can detect low numbers of individuals. Due to their high sensitivity, environmental DNA (eDNA) surveys hold promise as an early detection method for aquatic invasive species. Quantification of eDNA amounts may also provide data on species abundance and timing of an organism’s presence, allowing managers to successfully combat the spread of ecologically damaging species. To better understand the link between eDNA and an organism’s presence, it is crucial to know how eDNA is shed into the environment. Our study used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and controlled laboratory experiments to measure the amount of eDNA that two species of invasive bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) shed into the water. We first measured how much eDNA a single fish sheds and the variability of these measurements. Then, in a series of manipulative lab experiments, we studied how temperature, biomass (grams of fish), and diet affect the shedding rate of eDNA by these fish. We found that eDNA amounts exhibit a positive relationship with fish biomass, and that feeding could increase the amount of eDNA shed by ten-fold, whereas water temperature did not have an effect. Our results demonstrate that quantification of eDNA may be useful for predicting carp density, as well as densities of other rare or invasive species.

  8. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Crespo, Javier; Peña, Esther; Padró, Teresa; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke. Methods Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3–7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls. Results Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions. Conclusions Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Avian Rotaviruses Group A and D shed by different bird species in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Maude; Oni, Oluwole O; Sausy, Aurélie; Owoade, Ademola A; Adeyefa, Christopher A O; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M; Snoeck, Chantal J

    2017-06-12

    Avian rotaviruses (RVs) cause gastrointestinal diseases of birds worldwide. However, prevalence, diversity, epidemiology and phylogeny of RVs remain largely under-investigated in Africa. Fecal samples from 349 birds (158 symptomatic, 107 asymptomatic and 84 birds without recorded health status) were screened by reverse transcription PCR to detect RV groups A and D (RVA and RVD). Partial gene sequences of VP4, VP6, VP7 and NSP4 for RVA, and of VP6 and VP7 for RVD were obtained and analyzed to infer phylogenetic relationship. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were applied to identify factors potentially influencing virus shedding in chickens. A high prevalence of RVA (36.1%; 126/349) and RVD (31.8%; 111/349) shedding was revealed in birds. In chickens, RV shedding was age-dependent and highest RVD shedding rates were found in commercial farms. No negative health effect could be shown, and RVA and RVD shedding was significantly more likely in asymptomatic chickens: RVA/RVD were detected in 51.9/48.1% of the asymptomatic chickens, compared to 18.9/29.7% of the symptomatic chickens (p < 0.001/p = 0.01). First RVA sequences were obtained from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and guinea fowls (Numida meleagris). Phylogenetic analyses illustrated the high genetic diversity of RVA and RVD in Nigerian birds and suggested cross-species transmission of RVA, especially at live bird markets. Indeed, RVA strains highly similar to a recently published fox rotavirus (RVA/Fox-tc/ITA/288356/2011/G18P[17]) and distantly related to other avian RVs were detected in different bird species, including pigeons, ducks, guinea fowls, quails and chickens. This study provides new insights into epidemiology, diversity and classification of avian RVA and RVD in Nigeria. We show that cross-species transmission of host permissive RV strains occurs when different bird species are mixed.

  10. Understanding E-Learning Adoption among Brazilian Universities: An Application of the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda; Okazaki, Shintaro

    2013-01-01

    This study sheds light on the organizational dimensions underlying e-learning adoption among Brazilian universities. We propose an organizational e-learning adoption model based on the decomposed theory of planned behavior (TPB). A series of hypotheses are posited with regard to the relationships among the proposed constructs. The model is…

  11. 50. SOUTHEAST TO SOUTHEAST CORNER OF WELLSERVICE SHED ADDITION ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. SOUTHEAST TO SOUTHEAST CORNER OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. HANGING FROM AND LEANING AGAINST THE WALL ARE TOOLS USED IN WATER WELL SERVICE, SUCH AS BAILER, CHAINS, WRENCHES, PULLEYS, ROPE, SAFETY BELT, CHAIN TONGS, AND LEATHER SEALS FOR PISTON DISPLACEMENT PUMPS. CLEARLY VISIBLE ON RAFTERS IS HISTORIC ELECTRICAL WIRING. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  12. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKibben, C.L.; Pascho, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13??C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 106 colony forming units (CFU) fish-1 (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 103 CFU fish-1 (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those of control fish [p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD ??? 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml-1 on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml-1 on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 106 CFU fish-1 can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges beginning 20 darter injection.

  13. Can `loss and damage' carry the load?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verchick, Robert R. M.

    2018-05-01

    Even assuming a heroic rush towards carbon reduction and adaptation, some regions of the world will be hammered hard by climate impacts. Thus, a global consensus now sees the need for a supplemental plan to deal with the kind of harms that cannot be avoided-what Parties call `loss and damage'. For a loss-and-damage plan to work, it must be capable of carrying the load, the load being whatever minimal standards that morality and political consensus require. But if residual risk climbs too high, it will fall short of even the most basic expectations. The Paris Agreement calls for holding the rise in global average temperature to `well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels', while working to limit the increase to 1.5°C. How much difference is in that half-degree? From the point of view of residual risk, quite a lot. According to a 2016 study published by the European Geosciences Union, a jump from 1.5°C to 2°C could produce outsize impacts, particularly in tropical latitudes. That difference could mark the line between a plan that is politically and morally defensible and one that is not. At the very least, the difference is enough to inform the design and expectations of any future plan. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  14. High power s-band vacuum load

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Neubauer, Michael; Dudas, Alan; Krasnykh, Anatoly

    Through a combination of experimentation and calculation the components of a novel room temperature dry load were successfully fabricated. These components included lossy ceramic cylinders of various lengths, thicknesses, and percent of silicon carbide (SiC). The cylinders were then assembled into stainless steel compression rings by differential heating of the parts and a special fixture. Post machining of this assembly provided a means for a final weld. The ring assemblies were then measured for S-parameters, individually and in pairs using a low-cost TE10 rectangular to TE01 circular waveguide adapter specially designed to be part of the final load assembly. Matchedmore » pairs of rings were measured for assembly into the final load, and a sliding short designed and fabricated to assist in determining the desired short location in the final assembly. The plan for the project was for Muons, Inc. to produce prototype loads for long-term testing at SLAC. The STTR funds for SLAC were to upgrade and operate their test station to ensure that the loads would satisfy their requirements. Phase III was to be the sale to SLAC of loads that Muons, Inc. would manufacture. However, an alternate solution that involved a rebuild of the old loads, reduced SLAC budget projections, and a relaxed time for the replacement of all loads meant that in-house labor will be used to do the upgrade without the need for the loads developed in this project. Consequently, the project was terminated before the long term testing was initiated. However, SLAC can use the upgraded test stand to compare the long-term performance of the ones produced in this project with their rebuilt loads when they are available.« less

  15. Balancing Power Absorption and Fatigue Loads in Irregular Waves for an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tom, Nathan M.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan D.

    The aim of this paper is to describe how to control the power-to-load ratio of a novel wave energy converter (WEC) in irregular waves. The novel WEC that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) with control surfaces as part of the structure; however, this work only considers one fixed geometric configuration. This work extends the optimal control problem so as to not solely maximize the time-averaged power, but to also consider the power-take-off (PTO) torque and foundation forces that arise because of WEC motion. The objective function of themore » controller will include competing terms that force the controller to balance power capture with structural loading. Separate penalty weights were placed on the surge-foundation force and PTO torque magnitude, which allows the controller to be tuned to emphasize either power absorption or load shedding. Results of this study found that, with proper selection of penalty weights, gains in time-averaged power would exceed the gains in structural loading while minimizing the reactive power requirement.« less

  16. Breastfeeding linked to the reduction of both rotavirus shedding and IgA levels after Rotarix® immunization in Mexican infants.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Marquez, Aurora; Velasquez, Daniel E; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Luna-Cruz, Maria; Ruiz-Moran, Tatiana; Sugata, Ken; Jiang, Baoming; Parashar, Umesh; Patel, Manish; Richardson, Vesta

    2016-10-17

    We examined potential risk factors on vaccine virus shedding and antibody seroresponse to human rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) in Mexican infants. Two doses of Rotarix were administered to infants during the first two visits for their routine childhood immunization (∼8 and 15weeks of age) in Mexico City. Infant's characteristics and socioeconomic indicators were obtained, including history of long-term feeding practices (exclusively/predominantly breastfed and exclusively/predominantly non-breastfed). Two serum specimens were collected, one during the second rotavirus vaccine visit and one 7weeks later. Stool specimens were collected between days 4-7 after each of the two rotavirus vaccine doses. Rotavirus IgA and IgG titers in serum were determined by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and rotavirus shedding in stool was assessed by EIA and confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall rotavirus IgA geometric mean titers (GMT) increased significantly post dose 2 from post dose 1 [176 (95%CI: 113-273) to 335 (238-471); p=0.020). Infants who were exclusively/predominantly breastfed were less likely to shed vaccine virus in stool than those who were formula-fed (22% vs. 43%, p=0.016). Infants who were breastfed had lower rotavirus IgA titers than those who were formula-fed after dose 1 [GMT: 145 (84-250) vs. 267 (126-566) p=0.188] and dose 2 [236 (147-378) vs.578 (367-910), p=0.007]. Infants who shed vaccine virus post dose 1 had significantly higher serum IgA GMT than those who did not shed [425 (188-965) vs. 150 (84-266), p=0.038]. Breastfeeding was linked with the reduction of both stool vaccine shedding, and IgA seroresponse. The reduced rotavirus replication in the gut and shedding after dose 1 may explain in part the lower IgA response in serum. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Simulation of short-term electric load using an artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanin, O. A.

    2018-01-01

    While solving the task of optimizing operation modes and equipment composition of small energy complexes or other tasks connected with energy planning, it is necessary to have data on energy loads of a consumer. Usually, there is a problem with obtaining real load charts and detailed information about the consumer, because a method of load-charts simulation on the basis of minimal information should be developed. The analysis of work devoted to short-term loads prediction allows choosing artificial neural networks as a most suitable mathematical instrument for solving this problem. The article provides an overview of applied short-term load simulation methods; it describes the advantages of artificial neural networks and offers a neural network structure for electric loads of residential buildings simulation. The results of modeling loads with proposed method and the estimation of its error are presented.

  18. Oral and Vaginal Tenofovir for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding in Immunocompetent Women: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Cross-over Trial.

    PubMed

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Perti, Tara; Magaret, Amalia S; Rajagopal, Sharanya; Stevens, Claire E; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Johnston, Christine; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Wald, Anna

    2015-12-15

    Tenofovir is a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent that decreased risk of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquisition in HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis trials. Whether tenofovir has utility in established HSV-2 disease is unclear. We randomized immunocompetent women with symptomatic HSV-2 infection to oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/placebo vaginal gel, oral placebo/tenofovir (TFV) vaginal gel, or double placebo (ratio 2:2:1) in a one-way cross-over trial. Women collected genital swabs twice daily for HSV PCR during 4-week lead-in and 5-week treatment phases. The primary intent-to-treat end point was within-person comparison of genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. 64 women completed the lead-in phase and were randomized. Neither TDF nor TFV gel decreased overall shedding or lesion rate in the primary analysis; TFV gel decreased quantity of HSV DNA by -0.50 (-0.86-0.13) log10 copies/mL. In the per-protocol analysis, TDF reduced shedding (relative risk [RR] = 0.74, P = .006) and lesion rates (RR = 0.75, P = .032); quantity of virus shed decreased by 0.41 log10 copies/mL. Oral TDF modestly decreased HSV shedding and lesion rate, and quantity of virus shed when used consistently. Vaginal TFV gel decreased quantity of virus shed by 60%. In contrast to effects on HSV-2 acquisition, tenofovir is unlikely to provide clinically meaningful reductions in the frequency of HSV shedding or genital lesions. NCT01448616. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmentaltransmission, and disease spread

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henaux, V.; Samuel, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of fecal/oral transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via contaminated wetlands, little is known about the length, quantity, or route of AI virus shed by wild waterfowl. We used published laboratory challenge studies to evaluate the length and quantity of low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) virus shed via oral and cloacal routes by AI-infected ducks and geese, and how these factors might influence AI epidemiology and virus detection. We used survival analysis to estimate the duration of infection(from virus inoculation to the last day virus was shed) and nonlinear models to evaluate temporal patterns in virus shedding. We found higher mean virus titer and longer median infectious period for LPAI-infected ducks (1011.5 days in oral and cloacal swabs) than HPAI-infected ducks(5 days) and geese (7.5 days). Based on the median bird infectious dose, we found that environmental contamination is two times higher for LPAI- than HPAI-infectious ducks, which implies that susceptible birds may have a higher probability of infection during LPAI than HP AIoutbreaks. Less environmental contamination during the course of infection and previously documented shorter environmental persistence for HPAI than LPAI suggest that the environment is a less favorable reservoir for HPAI. The longer infectious period, higher virus titers, and subclinical infections with LPAI viruses favor the spread of these viruses by migratory birds in comparison to HPAI. Given the lack of detection of HPAI viruses through worldwide surveillance,we suggest monitoring for AI should aim at improving our understanding of AI dynamics (inparticular, the role of the environment and immunity) using long-term comprehensive live bird, serologic, and environmental sampling at targeted areas. Our findings on LPAI and HPAIshedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive epizootio

  20. Relationship between Salmonella infection, shedding and serology in fattening pigs in low-moderate prevalence areas.

    PubMed

    San Román, B; Garrido, V; Sánchez, S; Martínez-Ballesteros, I; Garaizar, J; Mainar-Jaime, R C; Migura-Garcia, L; Grilló, M J

    2018-04-27

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen causing important zoonosis worldwide. Pigs asymptomatically infected in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) can be intermittent shedders of the pathogen through faeces, being considered a major source of human infections. European baseline studies of fattening pig salmonellosis are based on Salmonella detection in MLN. This work studies the relationship between Salmonella infection in MLN and intestinal content (IC) shedding at slaughter and the relationship between the presence of the pathogen and the serologic status at farm level. Mean Salmonella prevalence in the selected pigs (vertically integrated production system of Navarra, Spain) was 7.2% in MLN, 8.4% in IC and 9.6% in serum samples. In this low-moderate prevalence context, poor concordance was found between MLN infection and shedding at slaughter and between bacteriology and serology. In fact, most of shedders were found uninfected in MLN (83%) or carrying different Salmonella strains in MLN and in IC (90%). The most prevalent Salmonellae were Typhimurium resistant to ACSSuT ± Nx or ASSuT antibiotic families, more frequently found invading the MLN (70%) than in IC (33.9%). Multivariable analysis revealed that risk factors associated with the presence of Salmonella in MLN or in IC were different, mainly related either to good hygiene practices or to water and feed control, respectively. Overall, in this prevalence context, detection of Salmonella in MLN is an unreliable predictor of faecal shedding at abattoir, indicating that subclinical infections in fattening pigs MLN could have limited relevance in the IC shedding. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.