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Sample records for loading an organ physiological

  1. Neighborhood features and physiological risk: An examination of allostatic load.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Jennifer W; Charles, Susan T; Almeida, David M; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2016-09-01

    Poor neighborhoods may represent a situation of chronic stress, and may therefore be associated with health-related correlates of stress. We examined whether lower neighborhood income would relate to higher allostatic load, or physiological well-being, through psychological, affective, and behavioral pathways. Using data from the Biomarker Project of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study and the 2000 Census, we demonstrated that people living in lower income neighborhoods have higher allostatic load net of individual income. Moreover, findings indicate that this relation is partially accounted for by anxious arousal symptoms, fast food consumption, smoking, and exercise habits. PMID:27583527

  2. Effect of an on-hip load-carrying belt on physiological and perceptual responses during bimanual anterior load carriage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Z G; Sun, S Q; Goonetilleke, R S; Chow, D H K

    2016-07-01

    Manual load carriage continues to be a major contributor of musculoskeletal injury. This study investigates the physiological and subjective effects of an on-hip load-carrying belt (HLCB) during bimanual anterior load carriage. Fifteen healthy male participants walked on a level ground treadmill at 4.5 km/h for 5 min carrying 5, 10 and 15 kg loads with hands and arms in front of the body, with and without using the HLCB (WD and ND). Heart rate, normalized oxygen uptake, minute ventilation and, central and peripheral ratings of perceived exertion were the dependent variables. The mean heart rate, normalized oxygen uptake, minute ventilation and peripheral rating of perceived exertion increased significantly with load under both WD and ND conditions. At a load of 15 kg, the mean heart rate, normalized oxygen uptake, minute ventilation and peripheral rating of perceived exertion were significantly lower by 6.6%, 8.0%, 11.8% and 13.9% respectively in WD condition when compared to the ND condition. There was no significant difference between WD and ND conditions with 5 or 10 kg load. It can be concluded that the HLCB could reduce a person's physiological and peripheral perceptual responses when walking on a level ground treadmill at 4.5 km/h with a load of 15 kg. Using a HLCB or similar device is therefore recommended for bimanual anterior load carriage for loads of 15 kg or probably larger.

  3. Physiologically relevant organs on chips.

    PubMed

    Yum, Kyungsuk; Hong, Soon Gweon; Healy, Kevin E; Lee, Luke P

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in integrating microengineering and tissue engineering have generated promising microengineered physiological models for experimental medicine and pharmaceutical research. Here we review the recent development of microengineered physiological systems, or also known as "ogans-on-chips", that reconstitute the physiologically critical features of specific human tissues and organs and their interactions. This technology uses microengineering approaches to construct organ-specific microenvironments, reconstituting tissue structures, tissue-tissue interactions and interfaces, and dynamic mechanical and biochemical stimuli found in specific organs, to direct cells to assemble into functional tissues. We first discuss microengineering approaches to reproduce the key elements of physiologically important, dynamic mechanical microenvironments, biochemical microenvironments, and microarchitectures of specific tissues and organs in microfluidic cell culture systems. This is followed by examples of microengineered individual organ models that incorporate the key elements of physiological microenvironments into single microfluidic cell culture systems to reproduce organ-level functions. Finally, microengineered multiple organ systems that simulate multiple organ interactions to better represent human physiology, including human responses to drugs, is covered in this review. This emerging organs-on-chips technology has the potential to become an alternative to 2D and 3D cell culture and animal models for experimental medicine, human disease modeling, drug development, and toxicology.

  4. Effects of feed time, organic loading and shock loads in anaerobic whey treatment by an AnSBBR with circulation.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Roberto A; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different feeding times (2, 4, and 6 h) and organic loading rates (3, 6 and 12 gCOD l(-1) day(-1)) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass, as well as to verify the minimum amount of alkalinity that can be added to the influent. The reactor, in which mixing was achieved by recirculation of the liquid phase, was maintained at 30 +/- 1 degrees C, possessed 2.5 l reactional volume and treated 1.5 l cheese whey in 8-h cycles. Results showed that the effect of feeding time on reactor performance was more pronounced at higher values of organic loading rates (OLR). During operation at an OLR of 3 gCOD l(-1) day(-1), change in feeding time did not affect efficiency of organic matter removal from the reactor. At an OLR of 6 gCOD l(-1) day(-1), reactor efficiency improved in relation to the lower loading rate and tended to drop at longer feeding times. At an OLR of 12 gCOD l(-1) day(-1) the reactor showed to depend more on feeding time; higher feeding times resulted in a decrease in reactor efficiency. Under all conditions shock loads of 24 gCOD l(-1) day(-1) caused an increase in acids concentration in the effluent. However, despite this increase, the reactor regained stability readily and alkalinity supplied to the influent showed to be sufficient to maintain pH close to neutral during operation. Regardless of applied OLR, operation with feeding time of 2 h was which provided improved stability and rendered the process less susceptible to shock loads. PMID:18931955

  5. Effect of Device Rigidity and Physiological Loading on Spinal Kinematics after Dynamic Stabilization : An In-Vitro Biomechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kwonsoo; Yang, Inchul; Kim, Namhoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of posterior implant rigidity on spinal kinematics at adjacent levels by utilizing a cadaveric spine model with simulated physiological loading. Methods Five human lumbar spinal specimens (L3 to S1) were obtained and checked for abnormalities. The fresh specimens were stripped of muscle tissue, with care taken to preserve the spinal ligaments and facet joints. Pedicle screws were implanted in the L4 and L5 vertebrae of each specimen. Specimens were tested under 0 N and 400 N axial loading. Five different posterior rods of various elastic moduli (intact, rubber, low-density polyethylene, aluminum, and titanium) were tested. Segmental range of motion (ROM), center of rotation (COR) and intervertebral disc pressure were investigated. Results As the rigidity of the posterior rods increased, both the segmental ROM and disc pressure at L4-5 decreased, while those values increased at adjacent levels. Implant stiffness saturation was evident, as the ROM and disc pressure were only marginally increased beyond an implant stiffness of aluminum. Since the disc pressures of adjacent levels were increased by the axial loading, it was shown that the rigidity of the implants influenced the load sharing between the implant and the spinal column. The segmental CORs at the adjacent disc levels translated anteriorly and inferiorly as rigidity of the device increased. Conclusion These biomechanical findings indicate that the rigidity of the dynamic stabilization implant and physiological loading play significant roles on spinal kinematics at adjacent disc levels, and will aid in further device development. PMID:26713140

  6. [Physiological processes in organism: nanomechanism].

    PubMed

    Chekman, I S

    2010-01-01

    Physiologically active substances by nanosizes are divided into 4 groups. The first group includes substances up to 100 nm: leukocytes, erythrocytes, cell components (nucleus, mitochondria), cancer cells, bacteria and bacteriophages. The second group consists of nanoparticles with size from 10 to 100 nm. These are antibody, ribosomes, glycogen granules, liposomes, and others. The third group of substances has sizes from 10 to 1 nm. This group includes: albumin, hemoglobin, membrane cells, fibrixogen, receptors (serotonin, beta-adrenergic receptor and others), insulin, fat soluble vitamins (ergocalciferol, retinol), folic acid, drugs (digoxin, quetcitin), chlorophyll plants, fullerenes. The fourth group consists of matter smaller than 1 nm, in particular: ATP, fructose, mediators (acetyl-choline, adrenaline, noradrenaline), phenylephrine, amino acids, water molecules, CO2, NO, oxygen atoms, hydrogen. The existence in the body of physiological processes based on natural nanotechnology may be proved by the following facts. 1. Physiologically active substances have nanosizes. 2. Cell membranes, the capillary wall have also nanosizes, promoting effective physiological processes involving biologically active substances with nanosizes. 3. Due to the small size of nanoparticles can penetrate through cell membranes and be distributed in the body. 4. From the position of modern nanoscience functioning organs, cells, subcellular structures, calcium channels, sodium-potassium pump is under the laws of natural nanomechanisms. 5. Summarising the literature data and own research, we can argue that the body's physiological processes based on natural nanomechanisms require more detailed, in-depth research. Nanophysiology studies peculiarities of the physiological processes in the body from the position of nanoscience and the impact of nanoparticles on the function of cells and organs. The author accepts the fact that not all ideas reported in this article have experimental

  7. Creative Teaching Assistant Organization to Maintain an Integrative Physiology Course with 440 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrant, Coral L.

    2007-01-01

    We were recently challenged with trying to maintain the integrity and learning experience of our Physiology course, which included the use of long-answer, essay-style test questions, with a class size that increased over 2 yr by approximately 200 students. We reorganized the teaching assistant (TA) support structure in an attempt to keep the…

  8. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  9. The Utah paradigm of skeletal physiology: an overview of its insights for bone, cartilage and collagenous tissue organs.

    PubMed

    Frost, H M

    2000-01-01

    In a 1960 paradigm of skeletal physiology, effector cells (chondroblasts, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, etc.) regulated by nonmechanical agents wholly determined the architecture, strength, and health of bones, joints, fascia, ligaments, and tendons. Biomechanical and tissue-level phenomena had no roles in that paradigm. Subsequent studies and evidence slowly revealed skeletal tissue-level mechanisms and their functions, including biomechanical ones, as well as "game rules" that seem to govern them. That slow discovery process found that effector cells are only parts of tissue-level mechanisms, as kidney cells are only parts of nephrons and wheels are only parts of cars. Normally all those things help to determine skeletal architecture, strength, and health, and adding them to the 1960 paradigm led to the still-evolving Utah paradigm of skeletal physiology that concerns, in part, how load-bearing skeletal organs adapt to the voluntary mechanical loads on them. That caused controversies this article does not try to resolve; instead, it describes some issues they concern. In that regard, controversy can depend on how one assesses the relevance of facts to a problem more than on their accuracy. If a paradigm added new facts to a former one and the new one's advocates viewed all those facts as relevant, but the former's advocates questioned the relevance of some of the new facts, their views about a problem could differ even though each view depended on accurate facts. Readers would make their own judgments about the bearing of those ideas on this article's content. PMID:11052462

  10. Physiological loading of tendons induces scleraxis expression in epitenon fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mendias, Christopher L; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Bakhurin, Konstantin I; Lynch, Evan B; Brooks, Susan V

    2012-04-01

    Scleraxis is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a central role in promoting fibroblast proliferation and matrix synthesis during the embryonic development of tendons. Mice with a targeted inactivation of scleraxis (Scx(-/-)) fail to properly form limb tendons, but the role that scleraxis has in regulating the growth and adaptation of tendons of adult organisms is unknown. To determine if scleraxis expression changes in response to a physiological growth stimulus to tendons, we subjected adult mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the scleraxis promoter (ScxGFP) to a 6-week-treadmill training program designed to induce adaptive growth in Achilles tendons. Age matched sedentary ScxGFP mice were used as controls. Scleraxis expression was sparsely observed in the epitenon region of sedentary mice, but in response to treadmill training, scleraxis was robustly expressed in fibroblasts that appeared to be emerging from the epitenon and migrating into the superficial regions of tendon fascicles. Treadmill training also led to an increase in scleraxis, tenomodulin, and type I collagen gene expression as measured by qPCR. These results suggest that in addition to regulating the embryonic formation of limb tendons, scleraxis also appears to play an important role in the adaptation of adult tendons to physiological loading.

  11. Evaluation of an In Situ Gelable and Injectable Hydrogel Treatment to Preserve Human Disc Mechanical Function Undergoing Physiologic Cyclic Loading Followed by Hydrated Recovery.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Brent L; Elliott, Dawn M; Chen, Weiliam; Malhotra, Neil R

    2015-08-01

    Despite the prevalence of disc degeneration and its contributions to low back problems, many current treatments are palliative only and ultimately fail. To address this, nucleus pulposus replacements are under development. Previous work on an injectable hydrogel nucleus pulposus replacement composed of n-carboxyethyl chitosan, oxidized dextran, and teleostean has shown that it has properties similar to native nucleus pulposus, can restore compressive range of motion in ovine discs, is biocompatible, and promotes cell proliferation. The objective of this study was to determine if the hydrogel implant will be contained and if it will restore mechanics in human discs undergoing physiologic cyclic compressive loading. Fourteen human lumbar spine segments were tested using physiologic cyclic compressive loading while intact, following nucleotomy, and again following treatment of injecting either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (sham, n = 7) or hydrogel (implant, n = 7). In each compressive test, mechanical parameters were measured immediately before and after 10,000 cycles of compressive loading and following a period of hydrated recovery. The hydrogel implant was not ejected from the disc during 10,000 cycles of physiological compression testing and appeared undamaged when discs were bisected following all mechanical tests. For sham samples, creep during cyclic loading increased (+15%) from creep during nucleotomy testing, while for implant samples creep strain decreased (-3%) toward normal. There was no difference in compressive modulus or compressive strains between implant and sham samples. These findings demonstrate that the implant interdigitates with the nucleus pulposus, preventing its expulsion during 10,000 cycles of compressive loading and preserves disc creep within human L5-S1 discs. This and previous studies provide a solid foundation for continuing to evaluate the efficacy of the hydrogel implant.

  12. Influence of feed time and sulfate load on the organic and sulfate removal in an ASBR.

    PubMed

    Mockaitis, Gustavo; Friedl, Gregor F; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugênio

    2010-09-01

    The removal of sulfate and organic matter was assessed in an ASBR, which treated wastewater containing 500 mg CODL(-1) (3 g CODL(-1)d(-1)) in 8h-cycles at 30 degrees C. The wastewater was enriched with sulfate at [COD/SO(4)(2-)] ratios of 1.34, 0.67 and 0.34 (8.8,4.5 and 2.2 gSO(4)(2-)L(-1)d(-1)). For each COD/[SO(4)(2-)] ratio fill times used were: 10 min (batch), 3 and 6h (fed-batch), achieving sulfate reduction of 30%, 72% and 72% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 25%, 58% and 55% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 23%, 37% and 27% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively, and organic matter removal of 87%, 68% and 80% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 78%, 75% and 69% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 85%, 84% and 83% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively. The results showed that fed-batch operation improved sulfate reduction, whereas organic matter removals were similar for batch and fed-batch operation. In addition, increase in sulfate loading in the fed-batch operation improved organic matter removal. PMID:20392632

  13. Physiological Evaluation of a Wheeled Assistive Device for Load Carriage.

    PubMed

    Ketko, Itay; Yanovich, Ran; Plotnik, Meir; Gefen, Amit; Heled, Yuval

    2015-11-01

    Carrying heavy weight imposes high physiological strain on the human body, which can adversely affect physical performance. This is especially important for soldiers whose physical performance level may influence mission completion and survival. Recently, wheel-based devices (WBDs), designed to reduce the load on the soldier, have been suggested as a possible solution. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects of a proposed WBD prototype. Ten volunteers performed 3 exercise protocols on a treadmill as follows: without carrying any load, with a military backpack, and with the WBD. While using both modalities, they carried 40% of their body weight. Data acquisition included heart rate, body core temperature, oxygen consumption, and subjective comfort. Postural sway was also measured to evaluate the effect of WBD on standing balance. There were no significant differences between the physiological measures while using both modalities. Subjective comfort evaluation showed that the WBD may be more comfortable, yet it raises difficulty in maintaining balance while walking, as can be explained by the postural sway results. We suggest that the similarity in physiological strain while using the WBD was due to reduced walking efficiency in an attempt to maintain balance. It appears that the WBD may have some biomechanical advantages in reducing the subjective pain and pressure at the shoulder region, a matter that should be further examined together with other biomechanical measures. PMID:26506177

  14. Influence of Organic Load on Biohydrogen Production in an AnSBBR Treating Glucose-Based Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Souza, L P; Lullio, T G; Ratusznei, S M; Rodrigues, J A D; Zaiat, M

    2015-06-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with immobilized biomass (AnSBBR) was applied to the production of biohydrogen treating a glucose-based wastewater. The influence of the applied volumetric organic load was studied by varying the concentration of influent at 3600 and 5250 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) and cycle lengths of 4, 3, and 2 h resulting in volumetric organic loads of 10.5 to 31.1 g COD L(-1). The results revealed system stability in the production of biohydrogen and substrate consumption. The best performance was an organic removal (COD) of 24 % and carbohydrate removal (glucose) of 99 %. Volumetric and specific molar productivity were 60.9 mol H2 m(-3) day(-1) and 5.8 mol H2 kg SVT(-1) day(-1) (biogas containing 40 % H2 and no CH4) at 20.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (5250 mg COD L(-1) and 3 h). The yield between produced hydrogen and removed organic matter in terms of carbohydrates was 0.94 mol H2 Mol GLU(-1) (biogas containing 52 % H2 and no CH4) at 10.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (3600 mg COD L(-1) and 4 h), corresponding to 23 and 47 % of the theoretical values of the acetic and butyric acid metabolic routes, respectively. Metabolites present at significant amounts were ethanol, acetic acid, and butyric acid. The conditions with higher influent concentration and intermediate cycle length, and the condition with lower influent concentration and longer cycle showed the best results in terms of productivity and yield, respectively. This indicates that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the biogas production, and the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter also involves substrate consumption. PMID:25900436

  15. Influence of Organic Load on Biohydrogen Production in an AnSBBR Treating Glucose-Based Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Souza, L P; Lullio, T G; Ratusznei, S M; Rodrigues, J A D; Zaiat, M

    2015-06-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with immobilized biomass (AnSBBR) was applied to the production of biohydrogen treating a glucose-based wastewater. The influence of the applied volumetric organic load was studied by varying the concentration of influent at 3600 and 5250 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) and cycle lengths of 4, 3, and 2 h resulting in volumetric organic loads of 10.5 to 31.1 g COD L(-1). The results revealed system stability in the production of biohydrogen and substrate consumption. The best performance was an organic removal (COD) of 24 % and carbohydrate removal (glucose) of 99 %. Volumetric and specific molar productivity were 60.9 mol H2 m(-3) day(-1) and 5.8 mol H2 kg SVT(-1) day(-1) (biogas containing 40 % H2 and no CH4) at 20.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (5250 mg COD L(-1) and 3 h). The yield between produced hydrogen and removed organic matter in terms of carbohydrates was 0.94 mol H2 Mol GLU(-1) (biogas containing 52 % H2 and no CH4) at 10.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (3600 mg COD L(-1) and 4 h), corresponding to 23 and 47 % of the theoretical values of the acetic and butyric acid metabolic routes, respectively. Metabolites present at significant amounts were ethanol, acetic acid, and butyric acid. The conditions with higher influent concentration and intermediate cycle length, and the condition with lower influent concentration and longer cycle showed the best results in terms of productivity and yield, respectively. This indicates that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the biogas production, and the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter also involves substrate consumption.

  16. Limulus ventral eye. Physiological properties of photoreceptor cells in an organ culture medium

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Ventral photoreceptor cells bathed in an organ culture medium typically have resting potentials of -85 mV and membrane resistances of 35 Momega and, when dark-adapted, exhibit large potential fluctuations (LPFs) of 60 mV and small potential fluctuations (SPFs) of less than 30 mV. LPFs appear to be regenerative events triggered by SPFs, the well-known quantum bumps. In the dark, SPFs and LPFs occur spontaneously. At intensities near threshold, the rate of occurrence is directly proportional to light intensity, indicating that SPFs and LPFs are elicited by single photon events. At higher intensities, SPFs and LPFs sum to produce a receptor potential that is graded over approximately a 9-log-unit range of light intensity. Amplitude histograms of the discrete potential waves are bimodal, reflecting the SPF and LPF populations. Histograms of current waves are unimodal. SPFs and LPFs are insensitive to 1 microgram tetrodotoxin. I-V characteristics show initial inward currents of approximately 15 nA for voltage clamps to - 40 mV and steady-state outward currents for all clamp potentials. Photoreceptor cells bathed in organ culture medium retain these properties for periods of at least 75 days. PMID:722278

  17. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems. PMID:26555073

  18. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems. PMID:26555073

  19. Microengineered physiological biomimicry: organs-on-chips.

    PubMed

    Huh, Dongeun; Torisawa, Yu-suke; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Kim, Hyun Jung; Ingber, Donald E

    2012-06-21

    Microscale engineering technologies provide unprecedented opportunities to create cell culture microenvironments that go beyond current three-dimensional in vitro models by recapitulating the critical tissue-tissue interfaces, spatiotemporal chemical gradients, and dynamic mechanical microenvironments of living organs. Here we review recent advances in this field made over the past two years that are focused on the development of 'Organs-on-Chips' in which living cells are cultured within microfluidic devices that have been microengineered to reconstitute tissue arrangements observed in living organs in order to study physiology in an organ-specific context and to develop specialized in vitro disease models. We discuss the potential of organs-on-chips as alternatives to conventional cell culture models and animal testing for pharmaceutical and toxicology applications. We also explore challenges that lie ahead if this field is to fulfil its promise to transform the future of drug development and chemical safety testing.

  20. Predicting physiological capacity of human load carriage - a review.

    PubMed

    Drain, Jace; Billing, Daniel; Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Aisbett, Brad

    2016-01-01

    This review article aims to evaluate a proposed maximum acceptable work duration model for load carriage tasks. It is contended that this concept has particular relevance to physically demanding occupations such as military and firefighting. Personnel in these occupations are often required to perform very physically demanding tasks, over varying time periods, often involving load carriage. Previous research has investigated concepts related to physiological workload limits in occupational settings (e.g. industrial). Evidence suggests however, that existing (unloaded) workload guidelines are not appropriate for load carriage tasks. The utility of this model warrants further work to enable prediction of load carriage durations across a range of functional workloads for physically demanding occupations. If the maximum duration for which personnel can physiologically sustain a load carriage task could be accurately predicted, commanders and supervisors could better plan for and manage tasks to ensure operational imperatives were met whilst minimising health risks for their workers. PMID:26360198

  1. The Language Organ: Linguistics as Cognitive Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen R.; Lightfoot, David W.

    This book treats human language as the manifestation of a faculty of the mind, a mental organ whose nature is determined by human biology, suggesting that its functional properties should be explored just as physiology explores the functional properties of physical organs. The book asserts that linguistics investigates cognition, taking as its…

  2. Selecting boundary conditions in physiological strain analysis of the femur: Balanced loads, inertia relief method and follower load.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Mark; Trepczynski, Adam; Duda, Georg N; Zehn, Manfred; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Märdian, Sven

    2015-12-01

    Selection of boundary constraints may influence amount and distribution of loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential of inertia relief and follower load to maintain the effects of musculoskeletal loads even under large deflections in patient specific finite element models of intact or fractured bone compared to empiric boundary constraints which have been shown to lead to physiological displacements and surface strains. The goal is to elucidate the use of boundary conditions in strain analyses of bones. Finite element models of the intact femur and a model of clinically relevant fracture stabilization by locking plate fixation were analyzed with normal walking loading conditions for different boundary conditions, specifically re-balanced loading, inertia relief and follower load. Peak principal cortex surface strains for different boundary conditions are consistent (maximum deviation 13.7%) except for inertia relief without force balancing (maximum deviation 108.4%). Influence of follower load on displacements increases with higher deflection in fracture model (from 3% to 7% for force balanced model). For load balanced models, follower load had only minor influence, though the effect increases strongly with higher deflection. Conventional constraints of fixed nodes in space should be carefully reconsidered because their type and position are challenging to justify and for their potential to introduce relevant non-physiological reaction forces. Inertia relief provides an alternative method which yields physiological strain results.

  3. Retrospective Analysis of Inflight Exercise Loading and Physiological Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Buxton, R. E.; De Witt, J. K.; Guilliams, M. E.; Hanson, A. M.; Peters, B. T.; Pandorf, M. M. Scott; Sibonga, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts perform exercise throughout their missions to counter the health declines that occur as a result of long-term exposure to weightlessness. Although all astronauts perform exercise during their missions, the specific prescriptions, and thus the mechanical loading, differs among individuals. For example, inflight ground reaction force data indicate that subject-specific differences exist in foot forces created when exercising on the second-generation treadmill (T2) [1]. The current exercise devices allow astronauts to complete prescriptions at higher intensities, resulting in greater benefits with increased efficiency. Although physiological outcomes have improved, the specific factors related to the increased benefits are unknown. In-flight exercise hardware collect data that allows for exploratory analyses to determine if specific performance factors relate to physiological outcomes. These analyses are vital for understanding which components of exercise are most critical for optimal human health and performance. The relationship between exercise performance variables and physiological changes during flight has yet to be fully investigated. Identifying the critical performance variables that relate to improved physiological outcomes is vital for creating current and future exercise prescriptions to optimize astronaut health. The specific aims of this project are: 1) To quantify the exercise-related mechanical loading experienced by crewmembers on T2 and ARED during their mission on ISS; 2) To explore relationships between exercise loading variables, bone, and muscle health changes during the mission; 3) To determine if specific mechanical loading variables are more critical than others in protecting physiology; 4) To develop methodology for operational use in monitoring accumulated training loads during crew exercise programs. This retrospective analysis, which is currently in progress, is being conducted using data from astronauts that have flown long

  4. Physiological Indications of Organic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Roy E.

    1971-01-01

    The presence of three or more minor and/or major anomalies in an individual with mental retardation may indicate not just a developmental relationship between the retardation and malformation syndromes, but a common cause for the entire retardation malformation syndrome. Tables, Bibliography. (Author)

  5. Types of biological reactions to the gravitation loads.

    PubMed

    Pestov, I D

    1997-07-01

    The nature of adaptation to gravitational loads is reviewed. Topics include an organism's antigravitation function, exposure to gravitational loads, types of physiological reactions, and results of adaptation.

  6. [An occupational physiology study at the Asarel Mining and Milling Works. The evaluation of the work load in the basic jobs in an open-pit mine].

    PubMed

    Mincheva, L; Khadzhiolova, I; Deianov, Kh

    1995-01-01

    This occupational physiology study was undertaken within a wider applied-research framework designed to evaluate the occupational environment and its impact on workers at "Asarel" Mining and Milling Works. Analysis of activities showed physical effort (dynamic and static) to be the major problem at the open pit, though varying in extent between jobs (most prominent for blasters and bulldozerists). Nervous/emotional strain, while not leading, was sustained mostly by diggers and blasters, followed by drivers. Organization of work (shift regimen, no regulated breaks, stepwise schedule of days off work) was hardly appropriate and did not allow for recovery. Interviewed workers qualified working conditions as extremely unfavorable; they disapproved with the physical factors of the occupational environment, the workplace, the state of machines and devices, and remuneration for work performed. Exertion from work, assessed by pulse rate and energy expended, was moderate for most activities of diggers, drivers, and drillers. The burden of physical effort was great for blasters at the open pit and for diggers and drillers performing extra repair operations (pulse rate, 100-110 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.2-5.5 Kcal/min). Hardest and least attractive was the work of blasters at stores for explosive materials (pulse rate, 120-141 strokes/min; energy expended, 5.5-6.5 Kcal/min). These adverse factors of labor activities might produce a negative impact on worker health and performance, leading to occupational impairment of their musculoskeletal system, to labor-related disorders of their cardiovascular and nervous systems, etc. Preventive measures are thus necessary to limit physical exertion, optimize the work-and-rest regimen; also, there is a need for conducting pertinent preventive medical examinations, providing social measures (conditions for transportation, rest, nutrition, sports), etc. PMID:8524750

  7. Effect of organic load on the performance and methane production of an AnSBBR treating effluent from biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Roberto Antonio; Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Canto, Catarina Simone Andrade; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Currently, there is an increasing demand for the production of biodiesel and, consequently, there will be an increasing need to treat wastewaters resulting from the production process of this biofuel. The main objective of this work was, therefore, to investigate the effect of applied volumetric organic load (AVOL) on the efficiency, stability, and methane production of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor applied to the treatment of effluent from biodiesel production. As inert support, polyurethane foam cubes were used in the reactor and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. Increase in AVOL resulted in a drop in organic matter removal efficiency and increase in total volatile acids in the effluent. AVOLs of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) resulted in removal efficiencies of 92%, 81%, 67%, and 50%, for effluent filtered samples, and 91%, 80%, 63%, and 47%, for non-filtered samples, respectively, whereas total volatile acids concentrations in the effluent amounted to 42, 145, 386 and 729 mg HAc L(-1), respectively. Moreover, on increasing AVOL from 1.5 to 4.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) methane production increased from 29.5 to 55.5 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1). However, this production dropped to 36.0 N mL CH(4) g COD(-1) when AVOL was increased to 6.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1), likely due to the higher concentration of volatile acids in the reactor. Despite the higher concentration of volatile acids at the highest AVOL, alkalinity supplementation to the influent, in the form of sodium bicarbonate, at a ratio of 0.5-1.3 g NaHCO(3) g COD (fed) (-1) , was sufficient to maintain the pH near neutral and guarantee process stability during reactor operation. PMID:21494753

  8. Impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAnPBR).

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Zaiat, Marcelo; Gupta, Medhavi; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George

    2014-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production from glucose in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAnPBR). Two mesophilic UAPBRs (UAnPBR1 and 2) were tested at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 6.5 to 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1). To overcome biomass washout, design modifications were made in the UAnPBR2 to include a settling zone to capture the detached biomass. The design modifications in UAnPBR2 increased the average hydrogen yield from 0.98 to 2.0 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose at an OLR of 25.7 g COD L(-1)d(-1). Although, a maximum hydrogen production rate of 23.4 ± 0.9 L H2 L(-1)d(-1) was achieved in the UAnPBR2 at an OLR of 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1), the hydrogen yield dropped by 50% to around 1 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose. The microbiological analysis (PCR/DGGE) showed that the biohydrogen production was due to the presence of the hydrogen and volatile acid producers such as Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium butyricum, Megasphaera elsdenii and Propionispira arboris.

  9. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  10. Region Specific Response of Intervertebral Disc Cells to Complex Dynamic Loading: An Organ Culture Study Using a Dynamic Torsion-Compression Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Samantha C. W.; Walser, Jochen; Käppeli, Patrick; Shamsollahi, Mohammad Javad; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Gantenbein-Ritter, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The spine is routinely subjected to repetitive complex loading consisting of axial compression, torsion, flexion and extension. Mechanical loading is one of the important causes of spinal diseases, including disc herniation and disc degeneration. It is known that static and dynamic compression can lead to progressive disc degeneration, but little is known about the mechanobiology of the disc subjected to combined dynamic compression and torsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the mechanobiology of the intervertebral disc when subjected to combined dynamic compression and axial torsion or pure dynamic compression or axial torsion using organ culture. We applied four different loading modalities [1. control: no loading (NL), 2. cyclic compression (CC), 3. cyclic torsion (CT), and 4. combined cyclic compression and torsion (CCT)] on bovine caudal disc explants using our custom made dynamic loading bioreactor for disc organ culture. Loads were applied for 8 h/day and continued for 14 days, all at a physiological magnitude and frequency. Our results provided strong evidence that complex loading induced a stronger degree of disc degeneration compared to one degree of freedom loading. In the CCT group, less than 10% nucleus pulposus (NP) cells survived the 14 days of loading, while cell viabilities were maintained above 70% in the NP of all the other three groups and in the annulus fibrosus (AF) of all the groups. Gene expression analysis revealed a strong up-regulation in matrix genes and matrix remodeling genes in the AF of the CCT group. Cell apoptotic activity and glycosaminoglycan content were also quantified but there were no statistically significant differences found. Cell morphology in the NP of the CCT was changed, as shown by histological evaluation. Our results stress the importance of complex loading on the initiation and progression of disc degeneration. PMID:24013824

  11. Physiological effects of solar heat load in a fighter cockpit.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, S A; Myhre, L G

    1976-09-01

    The use of bubble canopies to improve vision in fighter aircraft exposes the cockpit to a high radiant heat load. Incoming sunlight increases the heat stress on crewmembers, both by raising air temperature and by directly heating exposed skin and clothing. An F-15 aircraft at Edwards AFB was modified to permit cockpit ventilation by external ground carts. Eight volunteers from the Test Pilot School were studied during 1-h periods in the closed cockpit, in sun and in shade. Mean cockpit air temperatures were 35.2 degrees C in shade and 51.9 degrees C in sun with PH2O less than 10 torr. The corresponding WBGT's were 22.6 and 36.4 degrees C. Sunlight added significantly to overall heat stress, as indicated by a rising heart rate and evaporative weight loss of 284 g/m2 - h (shade value was 109 g/m2 - hr). Mean skin temperatures were 34.3 degrees C in shade and 35.8 degrees C in sun. Particularly high skin temperatures were observed on the chest, the forehead and the top of the head under the helmet. The legs remained cool due to the flow of conditioned air, and this may explain why rectal temperature showed no meaningful change. Heat stress, which alone poses no physiological hazard, may cause crew performance decrements as well as diminishing acceleration tolerance. Possible means of eliminating or ameliorating these effects are discussed.

  12. The effect of organic loading rate on VFA/COD ratio for methane production from an EGSB reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Yuan, Linjiang; Liu, Wenhui

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on VFA/COD ratio for continuous production of methane using an expanded granular sludge bed(EGSB) reactor for 200 d. Reactor performances were studied in treating high OLRs ranging from 4.91 +/- 0.54 to 16.79 +/- 1.62 g-COD l(-1)d(-1) of glucose-based synthetic wastewater in a mesophilic condition. Results showed that performance of anaerobic fermentation system was distinctly influenced by OLR in terms of organic removal efficiency, VFA yield, methane production rate and system stability.Acetic and propionic acids accounted for 80-90% of total VFA, and presented highest VFA concentration and composition of VFA showed minor changes with OLR variation. Moreover, an increase in OLR increased VFA/COD ratio in the whole operation period and high VFA/COD ratio could inhibit methanogenesis at high OLR (16.79 +/- 1.62 g-COD l(-1) d(-1)). PMID:26364485

  13. The effect of organic loading rate on VFA/COD ratio for methane production from an EGSB reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Yuan, Linjiang; Liu, Wenhui

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on VFA/COD ratio for continuous production of methane using an expanded granular sludge bed(EGSB) reactor for 200 d. Reactor performances were studied in treating high OLRs ranging from 4.91 +/- 0.54 to 16.79 +/- 1.62 g-COD l(-1)d(-1) of glucose-based synthetic wastewater in a mesophilic condition. Results showed that performance of anaerobic fermentation system was distinctly influenced by OLR in terms of organic removal efficiency, VFA yield, methane production rate and system stability.Acetic and propionic acids accounted for 80-90% of total VFA, and presented highest VFA concentration and composition of VFA showed minor changes with OLR variation. Moreover, an increase in OLR increased VFA/COD ratio in the whole operation period and high VFA/COD ratio could inhibit methanogenesis at high OLR (16.79 +/- 1.62 g-COD l(-1) d(-1)).

  14. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-09-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function.

  15. Biohydrogen production in an AnSBBR treating glycerin-based wastewater: effects of organic loading, influent concentration, and cycle time.

    PubMed

    Bravo, I S Moncayo; Lovato, G; Rodrigues, J A D; Ratusznei, S M; Zaiat, M

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the applied volumetric organic load on biohydrogen production in an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) with 3.5 L of liquid medium and treating 1.5 L of glycerin-based wastewater per cycle at 30 °C. Six applied volumetric organic loads (AVOLCT) were generated from the combination of cycle periods (3 and 4 h) and influent concentrations (3000, 4000, and 5000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)), with values ranging from 7565 to 16,216 mg COD L(-1) day(-1). No clear relationship was found between the applied volumetric organic load and the hydrogen production. However, the highest hydrogen molar production (MPr 67.5 mol H2 m(-3) day(-1)) was reached when the reactor was operated with a cycle period of 4 h and an influent concentration of 5000 mg COD L(-1) (AVOLCT 12,911 mg COD L(-1) day(-1)). This condition also reached the highest molar yield per applied load based on the organic matter (MYALC,m 21.1 mol H2 kg COD(-1)). In addition, the pretreatment of the sludge/inoculum was found to not influence the productivity/yield of the process, and the use of crude glycerol as a sole source of carbon exhibited a clear disadvantage for hydrogen production compared to pure glycerol. The AnSBBR used for the hydrogen production experiments operated with pure glycerol as a sole carbon source exhibited important practical potential.

  16. Influence of varying compressive loading methods on physiologic motion patterns in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kevin M; Yan, Yiguo; Debski, Richard E; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Kang, James D; Tashman, Scott

    2016-01-25

    The human cervical spine supports substantial compressive load in-vivo arising from muscle forces and the weight of the head. However, the traditional in-vitro testing methods rarely include compressive loads, especially in investigations of multi-segment cervical spine constructs. Various methods of modeling physiologic loading have been reported in the literature including axial forces produced with inclined loading plates, eccentric axial force application, follower load, as well as attempts to individually apply/model muscle forces in-vitro. The importance of proper compressive loading to recreate the segmental motion patterns exhibited in-vivo has been highlighted in previous studies. However, appropriate methods of representing the weight of head and muscle loading are currently unknown. Therefore, a systematic comparison of standard pure moment with no compressive loading versus published and novel compressive loading techniques (follower load - FL, axial load - AL, and combined load - CL) was performed. The present study is unique in that a direct comparison to continuous cervical kinematics over the entire extension to flexion motion path was possible through an ongoing intra-institutional collaboration. The pure moment testing protocol without compression or with the application of follower load was not able to replicate the typical in-vivo segmental motion patterns throughout the entire motion path. Axial load or a combination of axial and follower load was necessary to mimic the in-vivo segmental contributions at the extremes of the extension-flexion motion path. It is hypothesized that dynamically altering the compressive loading throughout the motion path is necessary to mimic the segmental contribution patterns exhibited in-vivo. PMID:26708967

  17. Preparation and evaluation of raloxifene-loaded solid dispersion nanoparticle by spray-drying technique without an organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan Hiep; Poudel, Bijay K; Marasini, Nirmal; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2013-02-25

    The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, raloxifene by solid dispersion (SD) nanoparticles using the spray-drying technique. These spray-dried SD nanoparticles were prepared with raloxifene (RXF), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tween 20 in water. Reconstitution of optimized RXF-loaded SD nanoparticles in pH 1.2 medium showed a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that RXF existed in an amorphous form within spray-dried nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed an enhanced dissolution rate of RXF at pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and distilled water as compared to pure RXF powder. The improved dissolution of raloxifene from spray-dried SD nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced oral bioavailability of raloxifene in rats. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the spray-dried SD nanoparticles showed increased AUC(0-∞) and C(max) of RXF by approximately 3.3-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the preparation of RXF-SD nanoparticles using the spray drying technique without organic solvents might be a promising approach for improving the oral bioavailability of RXF. PMID:23318367

  18. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species

    PubMed Central

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A.; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M.; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator–prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect

  19. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species.

    PubMed

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta

  20. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species.

    PubMed

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta

  1. Survival strategies of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and glycogen accumulating organisms under conditions of low organic loading.

    PubMed

    Carvalheira, Mónica; Oehmen, Adrian; Carvalho, Gilda; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-11-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is usually limited by organic carbon availability in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were operated under extended periods with low organic carbon loading in order to examine its impact on their activity and survival. The decrease in organic carbon load affected PAOs and GAOs in different ways, where the biomass decay rate of GAOs was approximately 4times higher than PAOs. PAOs tended to conserve a relatively high residual concentration of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under aerobic conditions, while GAOs tended to deplete their available PHA more rapidly. This slower oxidation rate of PHA by PAOs at residual concentration levels enabled them to maintain an energy source for aerobic maintenance processes for longer than GAOs. This may provide PAOs with an advantage over GAOs in surviving the low organic loading conditions commonly found in full-scale wastewater treatment plants. PMID:25270044

  2. Oxygen flux as an indicator of physiological stress in aquatic organisms: a real-time biomonitoring system of water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Brian C.; Yale, Gowri; Chatni, Rameez; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo G.; Porterfield, D. Marshall; Mclamore, Eric S.; Sepúlveda, María S.

    2009-05-01

    The detection of harmful chemicals and biological agents in real time is a critical need for protecting water quality. We studied the real-time effects of five environmental contaminants with differing modes of action (atrazine, pentachlorophenol, cadmium chloride, malathion, and potassium cyanide) on respiratory oxygen consumption in 2-day post-fertilization fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) eggs. Our objective was to assess the sensitivity of fathead minnow eggs using the self-referencing micro-optrode technique to detect instantaneous changes in oxygen consumption after brief exposures to low concentrations of contaminants. Oxygen consumption data indicated that the technique is indeed sensitive enough to reliably detect physiological alterations induced by all contaminants. After 2 h of exposure, we identified significant increases in oxygen consumption upon exposure to pentachlorophenol (100 and 1000 μg/L), cadmium chloride (0.0002 and 0.002 μg/L), and atrazine (150 μg/L). In contrast, we observed a significant decrease in oxygen flux after exposures to potassium cyanide (5.2, 22, and 44 μg/L) and atrazine (1500 μg/L). No effects were detected after exposures to malathion (200 and 340 μg/L). We have also tested the sensitivity of Daphnia magna embryos as another animal model for real-time environmental biomonitoring. Our results are so far encouraging and support further development of this technology as a physiologically coupled biomonitoring tool for the detection of environmental toxicants.

  3. The role of irrigation runoff and winter rainfall on dissolved organic carbon loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oh, Neung-Hwan; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Ohara, Noriaki; Kavvas, M. Levent; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Horwath, William R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of land use/land cover and agriculture practices on stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in the Willow Slough watershed (WSW) from 2006 to 2008. The 415 km2watershed in the northern Central Valley, California is covered by 31% of native vegetation and the remaining 69% of agricultural fields (primarily alfalfa, tomatoes, and rice). Stream discharge and weekly DOC concentrations were measured at eight nested subwatersheds to estimate the DOC loads and yields (loads/area) using the USGS developed stream load estimation model, LOADEST. Stream DOC concentrations peaked at 18.9 mg L−1 during summer irrigation in the subwatershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use, demonstrating the strong influence of agricultural activities on summer DOC dynamics. These high concentrations contributed to DOC yields increasing up to 1.29 g m−2 during the 6 month period of intensive agricultural activity. The high DOC yields from the most agricultural subwatershed during the summer irrigation period was similar throughout the study, suggesting that summer DOC loads from irrigation runoff would not change significantly in the absence of major changes in crops or irrigation practices. In contrast, annual DOC yields varied from 0.89 to 1.68 g m−2 yr−1 for the most agricultural watershed due to differences in winter precipitation. This suggests that variability in the annual DOC yields will be largely determined by the winter precipitation, which can vary significantly from year to year. Changes in precipitation patterns and intensities as well as agricultural practices have potential to considerably alter the DOC dynamics.

  4. Circadian Organization of Behavior and Physiology in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Allada, Ravi; Chung, Brian Y.

    2010-01-01

    Circadian clocks organize behavior and physiology to adapt to daily environmental cycles. Genetic approaches in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, have revealed widely conserved molecular gears of these 24-h timers. Yet much less is known about how these cell-autonomous clocks confer temporal information to modulate cellular functions. Here we discuss our current knowledge of circadian clock function in Drosophila, providing an overview of the molecular underpinnings of circadian clocks. We then describe the neural network important for circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, including how these molecular clocks might influence neuronal function. Finally, we address a range of behaviors and physiological systems regulated by circadian clocks, including discussion of specific peripheral oscillators and key molecular effectors where they have been described. These studies reveal a remarkable complexity to circadian pathways in this “simple” model organism. PMID:20148690

  5. The effect of organic load and feed strategy on biohydrogen production in an AnSBBR treating glycerin-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lovato, G; Moncayo Bravo, I S; Ratusznei, S M; Rodrigues, J A D; Zaiat, M

    2015-05-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) with recirculation of the liquid phase (at 30 °C with 3.5 L of working volume and treating 1.5 L per cycle) treating pure glycerin-based wastewater was applied to biohydrogen production. The applied volumetric organic load (AVOL) ranged from 7.7 to 17.1 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), combining different influent concentrations (3000, 4000 and 5000 mgCOD L(-1)) and cycle lengths (4 and 3 h). The feed strategy used was to maintain the feeding time equal to half of the cycle time. The increase in the influent concentration and the decrease in cycle length improved the molar yield and molar productivity of hydrogen. The highest productivity (100.8 molH2 m(-3) d(-1)) and highest yield of hydrogen per load removed (20.0 molH2 kgCOD(-1)) were reached when the reactor operated with an AVOL of 17.1 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), with 68% of H2 and only 3% of CH4 in its biogas. It was also found that pretreatment of the sludge/inoculum does not influence the productivity/yield of the process and the use of crude industrial glycerin-based wastewater in relation to the pure glycerol-based wastewater substantially decreased the production and composition of the hydrogen produced.

  6. Quantification and simulation of layer-specific mitral valve interstitial cells deformation under physiological loading.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Hao; Carruthers, Christopher A; Ayoub, Salma; Gorman, Robert C; Gorman, Joseph H; Sacks, Michael S

    2015-05-21

    Within each of the four layers of mitral valve (MV) leaflet tissues there resides a heterogeneous population of interstitial cells that maintain the structural integrity of the MV tissue via protein biosynthesis and enzymatic degradation. There is increasing evidence that tissue stress-induced MV interstitial cell (MVIC) deformations can have deleterious effects on their biosynthetic states that are potentially related to the reduction of tissue-level maintenance and to subsequent organ-level failure. To better understand the interrelationships between tissue-level loading and cellular responses, we developed the following integrated experimental-computational approach. Since in vivo cellular deformations are not directly measurable, we quantified the in-situ layer-specific MVIC deformations for each of the four layers under a controlled biaxial tension loading device coupled to multi-photon microscopy. Next, we explored the interrelationship between the MVIC stiffness and deformation to layer-specific tissue mechanical and structural properties using a macro-micro finite element computational model. Experimental results indicated that the MVICs in the fibrosa and ventricularis layers deformed significantly more than those in the atrialis and spongiosa layers, reaching a nucleus aspect ratio of 3.3 under an estimated maximum physiological tension of 150N/m. The simulated MVIC moduli for the four layers were found to be all within a narrow range of 4.71-5.35kPa, suggesting that MVIC deformation is primarily controlled by each tissue layer's respective structure and mechanical behavior rather than the intrinsic MVIC stiffness. This novel result further suggests that while the MVICs may be phenotypically and biomechanically similar throughout the leaflet, they experience layer-specific mechanical stimulatory inputs due to distinct extracellular matrix architecture and mechanical behaviors of the four MV leaflet tissue layers. This also suggests that MVICs may behave

  7. Thirty years of the heart as an endocrine organ: physiological role and clinical utility of cardiac natriuretic hormones.

    PubMed

    Clerico, Aldo; Giannoni, Alberto; Vittorini, Simona; Passino, Claudio

    2011-07-01

    Thirty years ago, De Bold et al. (20) reported that atrial extracts contain some biologically active peptides, which promote a rapid and massive diuresis and natriuresis when injected in rats. It is now clear that the heart also exerts an endocrine function and in this way plays a key role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal systems. The aim of this review is to discuss some recent insights and still-debated findings regarding the cardiac natriuretic hormones (CNHs) produced and secreted by cardiomyocytes (i.e., atrial natriuretic peptide and B-type natriuretic peptide). The functional status of the CNH system depends not only on the production/secretion of CNHs by cardiomyocytes but also on both the peripheral activation of circulating inactive precursor of natriuretic hormones and the transduction of the hormone signal by specific receptors. In this review, we will discuss the data supporting the hypothesis that the production and secretion of CNHs is the result of a complex integration among mechanical, chemical, hemodynamic, humoral, ischemic, and inflammatory inputs. The cross talk among endocrine function, adipose tissue, and sex steroid hormones will be discussed more in detail, considering the clinically relevant relationships linking together cardiovascular risk, sex, and body fat development and distribution. Finally, we will review the pathophysiological role and the clinical relevance of both peripheral maturation of the precursor of B-type natriuretic peptides and hormone signal transduction.

  8. Measuring Cognitive Load: A Comparison of Self-Report and Physiological Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    This study explored three methods to measure cognitive load in a learning environment using four logic puzzles that systematically varied in level of intrinsic cognitive load. Participants' perceived intrinsic load was simultaneously measured with a self-report measure-a traditional subjective measure-and two objective, physiological measures…

  9. Effects of organic loading, influent concentration, and feed time on biohydrogen production in a mechanically stirred AnSBBR treating sucrose-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manssouri, M; Rodrigues, J A D; Ratusznei, S M; Zaiat, M

    2013-12-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR-total volume 7.5 L; liquid volume 3.6 L; treated volume per cycle 1.5 L) treated sucrose-based wastewater to produce biohydrogen (at 30 °C). Different applied volumetric organic loads (AVOL of 9.0, 12.0, 13.5, 18.0, and 27.0 kg COD m(-3) day(-1)), which were varied according to the influent concentration (3,600 and 5,400 mg COD L(-1)) and cycle length (4, 3, and 2 h), have been used to assess the following parameters: productivity and yield of biohydrogen per applied and removed load, reactor stability, and efficiency. The removed organic matter (COD) remained stable and close to 18 % and carbohydrates (sucrose) uptake rate remained between 83 and 97 % during operation. The decrease in removal performance of the reactor with increasing AVOL, by increasing the influent concentration (at constant cycle length) and decreasing the cycle lengths (at constant influent concentrations), resulted in lower conversion efficiencies. Under all conditions, when organic load increased there was a predominance of acetic, propionic, and butyric acid as well as ethanol. The highest concentration of biohydrogen in the biogas (24-25 %) was achieved at conditions with AVOL of 12.0 and 13.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), the highest daily production rate (0.139 mol H2 day(-1)) was achieved at AVOL of 18.0 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), and the highest production yields per removed and applied load were 2.83 and 3.04 mol H2 kg SUC(-1), respectively, at AVOL of 13.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1). The results indicated that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the "biochemical generation" of biogas, and the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter involves "biochemical consumption" of the substrate.

  10. High organic loading rate on thermophilic hydrogen production and metagenomic study at an anaerobic packed-bed reactor treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Júnior, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Etchebehere, Claudia; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a high organic loading rate (OLR) on thermophilic hydrogen production at an up-flow anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery. The APBR, filled with low-density polyethylene, was operated at an OLR of 84.2 kg-COD m(-3) d(-1). This value was determined in a previous study. The maximum values of hydrogen production and yield were 5,252.6 mL-H2 d(-1) and 3.7 mol-H2 mol(-1)(total carbohydrates), respectively. However, whereas the OLR remained constant, the specific organic load rate (sOLR) decreased throughout operation from 1.38 to 0.72 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1), this decrease negatively affected hydrogen production. A sOLR of 0.98 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1) was optimal for hydrogen production. The microbial community was studied using 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Organisms belonging to the genera Caloramator, Clostridium, Megasphaera, Oxobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, and Thermohydrogenium were detected in samples taken from the reactor at operation days 30 and 60, suggesting that these organisms contribute to hydrogen production. PMID:25812810

  11. High organic loading rate on thermophilic hydrogen production and metagenomic study at an anaerobic packed-bed reactor treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Júnior, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Etchebehere, Claudia; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a high organic loading rate (OLR) on thermophilic hydrogen production at an up-flow anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) treating a residual liquid stream of a Brazilian biorefinery. The APBR, filled with low-density polyethylene, was operated at an OLR of 84.2 kg-COD m(-3) d(-1). This value was determined in a previous study. The maximum values of hydrogen production and yield were 5,252.6 mL-H2 d(-1) and 3.7 mol-H2 mol(-1)(total carbohydrates), respectively. However, whereas the OLR remained constant, the specific organic load rate (sOLR) decreased throughout operation from 1.38 to 0.72 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1), this decrease negatively affected hydrogen production. A sOLR of 0.98 g-Total carbohydratesg-VS(-1) h(-1) was optimal for hydrogen production. The microbial community was studied using 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Organisms belonging to the genera Caloramator, Clostridium, Megasphaera, Oxobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, and Thermohydrogenium were detected in samples taken from the reactor at operation days 30 and 60, suggesting that these organisms contribute to hydrogen production.

  12. Physiological Signal Monitoring Bed for Infants Based on Load-Cell Sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Kyu; Yoon, Heenam; Han, Chungmin; Joo, Kwang Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Ballistocardiographs (BCGs), which record the mechanical activity of the heart, have been a subject of interest for several years because of their advantages in providing unobtrusive physiological measurements. BCGs could also be useful for monitoring the biological signals of infants without the need for physical confinement. In this study, we describe a physiological signal monitoring bed based on load cells and assess an algorithm to extract the heart rate and breathing rate from the measured load-cell signals. Four infants participated in a total of 13 experiments. As a reference signal, electrocardiogram and respiration signals were simultaneously measured using a commercial device. The proposed automatic algorithm then selected the optimal sensor from which to estimate the heartbeat and respiration information. The results from the load-cell sensor signals were compared with those of the reference signals, and the heartbeat and respiration information were found to have average performance errors of 2.55% and 2.66%, respectively. The experimental results verify the positive feasibility of BCG-based measurements in infants. PMID:27007378

  13. Physiological Signal Monitoring Bed for Infants Based on Load-Cell Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Kyu; Yoon, Heenam; Han, Chungmin; Joo, Kwang Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Ballistocardiographs (BCGs), which record the mechanical activity of the heart, have been a subject of interest for several years because of their advantages in providing unobtrusive physiological measurements. BCGs could also be useful for monitoring the biological signals of infants without the need for physical confinement. In this study, we describe a physiological signal monitoring bed based on load cells and assess an algorithm to extract the heart rate and breathing rate from the measured load-cell signals. Four infants participated in a total of 13 experiments. As a reference signal, electrocardiogram and respiration signals were simultaneously measured using a commercial device. The proposed automatic algorithm then selected the optimal sensor from which to estimate the heartbeat and respiration information. The results from the load-cell sensor signals were compared with those of the reference signals, and the heartbeat and respiration information were found to have average performance errors of 2.55% and 2.66%, respectively. The experimental results verify the positive feasibility of BCG-based measurements in infants. PMID:27007378

  14. Physiological processes underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M; Lang, Charles H; Nagy, Laura E; Bailey, Shannon M; Parsons, Loren H; Murray, Gary J

    2016-09-01

    This review summarizes the American Physiological Society (APS) Presidential Symposium 1 entitled "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse" at the 2016 Experimental Biology meeting. The symposium was organized by Dr. Patricia Molina, past president of the APS, was held on April 3 at the Convention Center in San Diego, CA, and was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse Symposium" assembled experts and leaders in the field and served as a platform to discuss and share knowledge on the latest developments and scientific advances on the mechanisms underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse. This symposium provided unique, interdisciplinary alcohol research, including several organs, liver, muscle, adipose, and brain, affected by excessive alcohol use. PMID:27436613

  15. A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Svensson, Mats Y; Linder, Astrid

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical cervical spine models allow for studying of impact loading that can cause whiplash associated disorders (WAD). However, existing models only cover the male anthropometry, despite the female population being at a higher risk of sustaining WAD in automotive rear-end impacts. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a ligamentous cervical spine intended for biomechanical research on the effect of automotive impacts. A female model has the potential to aid the design of better protection systems as well as improve understanding of injury mechanisms causing WAD. A finite element (FE) mesh was created from surface data of the cervical vertebrae of a 26-year old female (stature 167 cm, weight 59 kg). Soft tissues were generated from the skeletal geometry and anatomical literature descriptions. Ligaments were modeled with nonlinear elastic orthotropic membrane elements, intervertebral disks as composites of nonlinear elastic bulk elements, and orthotropic anulus fibrosus fiber layers, while cortical and trabecular bones were modeled as isotropic plastic-elastic. The model has geometrical features representative of the female cervical spine-the largest average difference compared with published anthropometric female data was the vertebral body depth being 3.4% shorter for the model. The majority the cervical segments compare well with respect to biomechanical data at physiological loads, with the best match for flexion-extension loads and less biofidelity for axial rotation. An average female FE ligamentous cervical spine model was developed and validated with respect to physiological loading. In flexion-extension simulations with the developed female model and an existing average male cervical spine model, a greater range of motion (ROM) was found in the female model. PMID:26974520

  16. The physiological load imposed on basketball players during competition.

    PubMed

    McInnes, S E; Carlson, J S; Jones, C J; McKenna, M J

    1995-10-01

    In this study, the intensities of activity and movement patterns during men's basketball were investigated by videoing the movements and monitoring the heart rate and blood lactate responses of eight elite players during competition. The results are expressed according to 'live time', which is actual playing time, and 'total time', which includes live time as well as all stoppages in play. The mean (+/- S.D.) frequency of all activities was 997 +/- 183, with a change in movement category every 2.0 s. A mean total of 105 +/- 52 high-intensity runs (mean duration 1.7 s) was recorded for each game, resulting in one high-intensity run every 21 s during live time. Sixty percent of live time was spent engaged in low-intensity activity, while 15% was spent in high-intensity activity. The mean heart rate (HR) during live time was 169 +/- 9 beats min-1 (89 +/- 2% peak HR attained during laboratory testing); 75% of live time was spent with a HR response of greater than 85% peak HR. The mean blood lactate concentration was 6.8 +/- 2.8 mM, indicating the involvement of glycolysis in the energy demands of basketball. It is concluded that the physiological requirements of men's basketball are high, placing considerable demands on the cardiovascular and metabolic capacities of players.

  17. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells. PMID:27580124

  18. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells. PMID:27580124

  19. Physiological roles of connexins and pannexins in reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Kibschull, Mark; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Carette, Diane; Segretain, Dominique; Pointis, Georges; Gilleron, Jerome

    2015-08-01

    Reproductive organs are complex and well-structured tissues essential to perpetuate the species. In mammals, the male and female reproductive organs vary on their organization, morphology and function. Connectivity between cells in such tissues plays pivotal roles in organogenesis and tissue functions through the regulation of cellular proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. Connexins and pannexins can be seen as major regulators of these physiological processes. In the present review, we assembled several lines of evidence demonstrating that these two families of proteins are essential for male and female reproduction.

  20. Effects of +Gz Loads on Structural Organization of Central Autonomic Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Sukhoterin, A F; Pashchenko, P S

    2015-09-01

    Structural alterations in the central autonomic nuclei (dorsal vagal complex and intermediolateral nucleus) of the centrifuged random-bred male rats subjected to +Gz loads were examined. Acute exposure to gravitational loads predominantly produced the reactive changes in these nuclei, while persistently repeated regular loads resulted in cumulation of the destructive alterations. The structural perturbations in the central autonomic nuclei can disturb the autonomic regulation of physiological functions. The character of such disturbances is partially determined by the peculiarities in structural organization of these nuclei. PMID:26463057

  1. An overview of gravitational physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, Jaime; Souza, Kenneth A.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this review is on the response of humans and animals to the effects of the near weightless condition occurring aboard orbiting spacecraft. Gravity is an omnipresent force that has been a constant part of our lives and of the evolution of all living species. Emphasis is placed on the general mechanisms of adaptation to altered gravitational fields and vectors, i.e., both hypo- and hypergravity. A broad literature review of gravitational biology was conducted and the general state of our knowledge in this area is discussed. The review is specifically targeted at newcomers to the exciting and relatively new area of space and gravitational biology.

  2. Physiological and performance consequences of heavy thoracic load carriage in females.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Devin B; Stickland, Michael K; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-07-01

    The purposes of this experiment were to study physiological responses to graded exercise to exhaustion (Part I) and ventilatory responses during 45 min of exercise (Part II) with and without a 25-kg backpack. In Part I, on separate days, 24 females completed randomly ordered modified Balke treadmill tests. Analysis revealed significant decreases in absolute peak oxygen uptake (3.5%), peak power output (20%), and test duration (40%) under load. There was a significant but modest negative relationship between body mass and the change in test duration between conditions (r = -0.44). While physiological responses to peak exercise were similar, exercise performance was negatively impacted under load. On separate days in Part II, 14 females completed randomly ordered, loaded and unloaded exercise challenges of submaximal treadmill walking at matched oxygen demands. Under load, breathing frequency, dead space, and minute ventilation were increased by 19.9%, 29.8%, and 11.6% (P < 0.05), respectively, while tidal volume and end-inspiratory lung volume decreased by 13.6% and 6.0% (P < 0.05), respectively. After loaded exercise, maximal inspiratory pressure was decreased by 11.5% (P < 0.05) with no changes in maximal expiratory pressure in either condition. Despite matched oxygen uptake between loaded and unloaded exercise challenges, perceived exertion and breathing discomfort were higher (P < 0.05) under load. With heavy load carriage, the altered breathing pattern led to increased dead space and minute ventilation, which likely contributed to higher perceptions of exercise stress and breathing discomfort. These results are similar to previous research in males and underscore the impact of heavy load carriage during exercise. PMID:27337671

  3. Physiological and performance consequences of heavy thoracic load carriage in females.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Devin B; Stickland, Michael K; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-07-01

    The purposes of this experiment were to study physiological responses to graded exercise to exhaustion (Part I) and ventilatory responses during 45 min of exercise (Part II) with and without a 25-kg backpack. In Part I, on separate days, 24 females completed randomly ordered modified Balke treadmill tests. Analysis revealed significant decreases in absolute peak oxygen uptake (3.5%), peak power output (20%), and test duration (40%) under load. There was a significant but modest negative relationship between body mass and the change in test duration between conditions (r = -0.44). While physiological responses to peak exercise were similar, exercise performance was negatively impacted under load. On separate days in Part II, 14 females completed randomly ordered, loaded and unloaded exercise challenges of submaximal treadmill walking at matched oxygen demands. Under load, breathing frequency, dead space, and minute ventilation were increased by 19.9%, 29.8%, and 11.6% (P < 0.05), respectively, while tidal volume and end-inspiratory lung volume decreased by 13.6% and 6.0% (P < 0.05), respectively. After loaded exercise, maximal inspiratory pressure was decreased by 11.5% (P < 0.05) with no changes in maximal expiratory pressure in either condition. Despite matched oxygen uptake between loaded and unloaded exercise challenges, perceived exertion and breathing discomfort were higher (P < 0.05) under load. With heavy load carriage, the altered breathing pattern led to increased dead space and minute ventilation, which likely contributed to higher perceptions of exercise stress and breathing discomfort. These results are similar to previous research in males and underscore the impact of heavy load carriage during exercise.

  4. Competitive Performance, Training Load and Physiological Responses During Tapering in Young Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Toubekis, Argyris G.; Drosou, Evgenia; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Thomaidis, Savvas; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas P.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the changes of training load and physiological parameters in relation to competitive performance during a period leading to a national championship. The training content of twelve swimmers (age: 14.2±1.3 yrs) was recorded four weeks before the national championship (two weeks of normal training and two weeks of the taper). The training load was calculated: i) by the swimmer’s session-RPE score (RPE-Load), ii) by the training intensity levels adjusted after a 7×200-m progressively increasing intensity test (LA-Load). Swimmers completed a 400-m submaximal intensity test, a 15 s tethered swimming and hand-grip strength measurements 34–35 (baseline: Test 1), 20–21 (before taper: Test 2) and 6–7 (Test 3) days before the national championship. Performance during the national championship was not significantly changed compared to season best (0.1±1.6%; 95% confidence limits: −0.9, 1.1%; Effect Size: 0.02, p=0.72) and compared to performance before the start of the two-week taper period (0.9±1.7%; 95% confidence limits: 0.3, 2.1%; Effect size: 0.12, p=0.09). No significant changes were observed in all measured physiological and performance related variables between Test 1, Test 2, and Test 3. Changes in RPE-Load (week-4 vs. week-1) were correlated with changes in performance (r=0.63, p=0.03) and the RPE-Load was correlated with the LA-Load (r=0.80, p=0.01). The estimation of the session-RPE training load may be helpful for taper planning of young swimmers. Increasing the difference between the normal and last week of taper training load may facilitate performance improvements. PMID:24233022

  5. Performance of rotating drum biofilter for volatile organic compound removal at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunping; Chen, Hong; Zeng, Guangming; Zhu, Xueqing; Suidan, Makram T

    2008-01-01

    Uneven distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biomass, and excess biomass accumulation in some biofilters hinder the application of biofiltration technology. An innovative multilayer rotating drum biofilter (RDB) was developed to correct these problems. The RDB was operated at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 30 s and a rotational rate of 1.0 r/min. Diethyl ether was chosen as the model VOC. Performance of the RDB was evaluated at organic loading rates of 32.1, 64.2, 128, and 256 g ether/(m3 x h) (16.06 g ether/(m3 x h) approximately 1.0 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 x d)). The EBCT and organic loading rates were recorded on the basis of the medium volume. Results show that the ether removal efficiency decreased with an increased VOC loading rate. Ether removal efficiencies exceeding 99% were achieved without biomass control even at a high VOC loading rate of 128 g ether/(m3 x h). However, when the VOC loading rate was increased to 256 g ether/(m3 x h), the average removal efficiency dropped to 43%. Nutrient limitation possibly contributed to the drop in ether removal efficiency. High biomass accumulation rate was also observed in the medium at the two higher ether loading rates, and removal of the excess biomass in the media was necessary to maintain stable performance. This work showed that the RDB is effective in the removal of diethyl ether from waste gas streams even at high organic loading rates. The results might help establish criteria for designing and operating RDBs. PMID:18595394

  6. Effects of increasing organic loading rate on performance and microbial community shift of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating diluted pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Wang, Yuguang; Li, Kai; Zhou, Hongbo

    2014-09-01

    The performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated in the treatment of diluted pharmaceutical fermentation wastewater for a continuous operation of 140 days. The dynamics and compositions of the microbial community were monitored using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2.7 kg COD/m(3) d to 7.2 COD/m(3) d led to an increase in the COD removal efficiency from 83% to 91%. The dominant bacteria shifted from Proteobacteria (23.8%), Chloroflexi (14.5%) and Firmicutes (4.0%) to Firmicutes (48.4%), Bacteroidetes (9.5%) and Proteobacteria (5.4%). For archeaon, the dominant groups changed from Thermoplasmata (24.4%), Thermoprotei (18.0%) and Methanobacteria (30.8%) to Thermoplasmata (70.4%) and Methanomicrobia (16.8%). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Thermoplasmata and Methanobacteria could outcompete other species and dominated in the reactor under higher OLR. The results indicated that, to some extent, microbial community shift could reflect the performance of the reactor and a significant community shift corresponded to a considerable process event.

  7. The application of an innovative continuous multiple tube reactor as a strategy to control the specific organic loading rate for biohydrogen production by dark fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Simone D; Fuess, Lucas T; Penteado, Eduardo D; Lucas, Shaiane D M; Gotardo, Jackeline T; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Biohydrogen production in fixed-bed reactors often leads to unstable and decreasing patterns because the excessive accumulation of biomass in the bed negatively affects the specific organic loading rate (SOLR) applied to the reactor. In this context, an innovative reactor configuration, i.e., the continuous multiple tube reactor (CMTR), was assessed in an attempt to better control the SOLR for biohydrogen production. The CMTR provides a continuous discharge of biomass, preventing the accumulation of solids in the long-term. Sucrose was used as the carbon source and mesophilic temperature conditions (25°C) were applied in three continuous assays. The reactor showed better performance when support material was placed in the outlet chamber to enhance biomass retention within the reactor. Although the SOLR could not be effectively controlled, reaching values usually higher than 10gsucroseg(-1)VSSd(-1), the volumetric hydrogen production and molar hydrogen production rates peaked, respectively, at 1470mLH2L(-1)d(-1) and 45mmolH2d(-1), indicating that the CMTR was a suitable configuration for biohydrogen production.

  8. Using Physiological Metaphors to Understand and Lead Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, William; Hostiuck, Katherine; Johnson, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    This conceptual paper suggests and elaborates on the use of physiological metaphors pertaining to the systems and parts of the body as an approach for fostering an understanding of organizational theories among students of educational administration. The importance of this pursuit is related to the recognition that the students often reject the…

  9. Prediction of diffuse organic micropollutant loads in streams under changing climatic, socio-economic and technical boundary conditions with an integrated transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honti, Mark; Schuwirth, Nele; Rieckermann, Jörg; Ghielmetti, Nico; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Catchments are complex systems where water quantity, quality and the ecological services provided are determined by interacting physical, chemical, biological, economical and social factors. The realization of these interactions led to the prevailing catchment management paradigm: Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). IWRM requires considering all these aspects during the design of sustainable resource utilization. Due to the complexity of this task, mathematical modeling plays a key role in IWRM, namely in the evaluation of the impacts of hypothetical scenarios and management measures. Toxicity is a key determinant of the ecological state and as such a focal point in IWRM, but we still have significant knowledge gaps about the diffuse loads of organic micropollutants (OMP) that leak from both urban and agricultural areas. Most European catchments possess mixed land use, containing rural (natural and agricultural) landscapes and settlements in varying proportions. Thus, a catchment model supporting IWRM must be able to cope with both classes. However, the majority of existing catchment models is dedicated to either rural or urban areas, while the minority capable of simulating both contain overly simplified descriptions for either land use category. We applied a conceptual model that describes all major land use classes for assessing the impacts of climate change, socio-economic development and management alternatives on diffuse OMP loads. We simulated the loads of 12 compounds (agricultural and urban pesticides and urban biocides) with daily resolution at 11 locations in the stream network of a small catchment (46 km2) in Switzerland. The model considers all important diffuse transport pathways separately, but each with a simple empirical process rate. Consequently, some site-specific observations were required to calibrate rate parameters. We assessed uncertainty during both calibration and prediction phases. Predictions indicated that future OMP loads

  10. Influence of the organic loading rate on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an EGSB reactor used for treating traditional Chinese medicine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguang; Su, Chengyuan; Liu, Xingzhe; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance and the granular sludge characteristics of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor used for treating real traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater were investigated. Over 90% of the COD removal by the EGSB reactor was observed at the OLRs of 4 to 13 kg COD/(m(3) day). However, increasing the OLR to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day) by reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 h) reduced the COD removal efficiency to 78%. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was 512.22 mg/L, resulting in an accumulation of VFAs, and propionic acid was the main acidification product, accounting for 66.51% of the total VFAs. When the OLR increased from 10 to 20 kg COD/(m(3) day), the average size of the granule sludge decreased from 469 to 258 μm. There was an obvious reduction in the concentration of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in the granular sludge. The visible humic acid-like peak was identified in the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of the soluble microbial products (SMPs). The fatty acid bond, amide II bond, amide III bond, and C-H bond bending were also observed in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the SMPs. Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanococcus, and Bacteria populations exhibited significant shifts, and these changes were accompanied by an increase in VFA production. The results indicated that a short HRT and high OLR in the EGSB reactor caused the accumulation of polysaccharides, protein, and VFAs, thereby inhibiting the activity of methanogenic bacteria and causing granular sludge corruption.

  11. Biaxial Mechanical Evaluation of Absorbable and Nonabsorbable Synthetic Surgical Meshes Used for Hernia Repair: Physiological Loads Modify Anisotropy Response.

    PubMed

    Cordero, A; Hernández-Gascón, B; Pascual, G; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B; Peña, E

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanical properties of six meshes commonly used for hernia repair (Surgipro(®), Optilene(®), Infinit(®), DynaMesh(®), Ultrapro™ and TIGR(®)) by planar biaxial tests. Stress-stretch behavior and equibiaxial stiffness were evaluated, and the anisotropy was determined by testing. In particular, equibiaxial test (equal simultaneous loading in both directions) and biaxial test (half of the load in one direction following the Laplace law) were selected as a representation of physiologically relevant loads. The majority of the meshes displayed values in the range of 8 and 18 (N/mm) in each direction for equibiaxial stiffness (tangent modulus under equibiaxial load state in both directions), while a few achieved 28 and 50 (N/mm) (Infinit (®) and TIGR (®)). Only the Surgipro (®) mesh exhibited planar isotropy, with similar mechanical properties regardless of the direction of loading, and an anisotropy ratio of 1.18. Optilene (®), DynaMesh (®), Ultrapro (®) and TIGR (®) exhibited moderate anisotropy with ratios of 1.82, 1.84, 2.17 and 1.47, respectively. The Infinit (®) scaffold exhibited very high anisotropy with a ratio of 3.37. These trends in material anisotropic response changed during the physiological state in the human abdominal wall, i.e. T:0.5T test, which the meshes were loaded in one direction with half the load used in the other direction. The Surgipro (®) mesh increased its anisotropic response (Anis[Formula: see text] = 0.478) and the materials that demonstrated moderate and high anisotropic responses during multiaxial testing presented a quasi-isotropic response, especially the Infinit(®) mesh that decreased its anisotropic response from 3.369 to 1.292. PMID:26620778

  12. Biaxial Mechanical Evaluation of Absorbable and Nonabsorbable Synthetic Surgical Meshes Used for Hernia Repair: Physiological Loads Modify Anisotropy Response.

    PubMed

    Cordero, A; Hernández-Gascón, B; Pascual, G; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B; Peña, E

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanical properties of six meshes commonly used for hernia repair (Surgipro(®), Optilene(®), Infinit(®), DynaMesh(®), Ultrapro™ and TIGR(®)) by planar biaxial tests. Stress-stretch behavior and equibiaxial stiffness were evaluated, and the anisotropy was determined by testing. In particular, equibiaxial test (equal simultaneous loading in both directions) and biaxial test (half of the load in one direction following the Laplace law) were selected as a representation of physiologically relevant loads. The majority of the meshes displayed values in the range of 8 and 18 (N/mm) in each direction for equibiaxial stiffness (tangent modulus under equibiaxial load state in both directions), while a few achieved 28 and 50 (N/mm) (Infinit (®) and TIGR (®)). Only the Surgipro (®) mesh exhibited planar isotropy, with similar mechanical properties regardless of the direction of loading, and an anisotropy ratio of 1.18. Optilene (®), DynaMesh (®), Ultrapro (®) and TIGR (®) exhibited moderate anisotropy with ratios of 1.82, 1.84, 2.17 and 1.47, respectively. The Infinit (®) scaffold exhibited very high anisotropy with a ratio of 3.37. These trends in material anisotropic response changed during the physiological state in the human abdominal wall, i.e. T:0.5T test, which the meshes were loaded in one direction with half the load used in the other direction. The Surgipro (®) mesh increased its anisotropic response (Anis[Formula: see text] = 0.478) and the materials that demonstrated moderate and high anisotropic responses during multiaxial testing presented a quasi-isotropic response, especially the Infinit(®) mesh that decreased its anisotropic response from 3.369 to 1.292.

  13. Effect of organic loading rate and fill time on the biohydrogen production in a mechanically stirred AnSBBR treating synthetic sucrose-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Inoue, R K; Lima, D M F; Rodrigues, J A D; Ratusznei, S M; Zaiat, M

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility to produce biohydrogen of a mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) treating sucrose-based synthetic wastewater. The bioreactor performance (30 °C) was evaluated as to the combined effect of fill time (2, 1.5, and 1 h), cycle length (4, 3, and 2 h), influent concentration (3,500 and 5,250 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)) and applied volumetric organic load (AVOLCT from 9.0 to 27.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1)). AVOLs were varied according to influent concentration and cycle length (t C). The results showed that increasing AVOLCT resulted in a decrease in sucrose removal from 99 to 86 % and in improvement of molar yield per removed load (MYRLS.n) from 1.02 mol H2 mol carbohydrate(-1) at AVOLCT of 9.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1) to maximum value of 1.48 mol H2 mol carbohydrate(-1), at AVOLCT of 18.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1), with subsequent decrease. Increasing AVOLCT improved the daily molar productivity of hydrogen (MPr) from 15.28 to 49.22 mol H2 m(-3) d(-1). The highest daily specific molar productivity of hydrogen (SMPr) obtained was 8.71 mol H2 kg TVS(-1) d(-1) at an AVOLCT of 18.0 g COD L(-1) d(-1). Decreasing t C from 4 to 3 h decreased sucrose removal, increased MPr, and improved SMPr. Increasing influent concentration decreased sucrose removal only at t C of 2 h, improved MYRLS,n and MPr at all t C, and also improved SMPr at t C of 4 and 3 h. Feeding strategy had a significant effect on biohydrogen production; increasing fill time improved sucrose removal, MPr, SMPr, and MYRLS,n for all investigated AVOLCT. At all operational conditions, the main intermediate metabolic was acetic acid followed by ethanol, butyric, and propionic acids. Increasing fill time resulted in a decrease in ethanol concentration.

  14. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport is a routine practice in the modern swine industry. Loading the pigs into trailers can be a novel and stressful experience for the animals. This study compared behaviors and physiological variables during and after loading using a ramp or elevator to determine which method is the least stressful to the pigs. Loading pigs by ramp appears to cause more stress than loading by elevator. Abstract Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05). After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05). The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05). In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp. PMID:26480323

  15. Arabic Phonology: An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    This book presents an acoustical and physiological Investigation of contemporary standard Arabic as spoken in Iraq. Spectrograms and X-ray sound films are used to perform the analysis for the study. With this equipment, the author considers the vowels, consonants, pharyngealized consonants, pharyngeals and glottals, duration, gemination, and…

  16. The effect of shock loading on the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor at constant organic loading rate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The influences of organic loading disturbances on the process performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating potato-processing wastewater were investigated. For this purpose, while the reactor was operated at steady state conditions with organic loading rate of 5.5 kg COD/m3 · day, an instant acetate concentration increase (1 g/L) was introduced to the reactor. During the shock loading test of acetate, it was observed that the overall process performance was adversely affected by all the shock loading, however, the system reached steady state conditions less than 24 hours of operation indicating that thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor is resistant to shock loading and be capable of returning its normal conditions within a short time period. PMID:24872886

  17. Biochemical and physiological parameters and estimated work output in draught horses pulling loads for long periods.

    PubMed

    Perez, R; Recabarren, S E; Valdes, P; Hetz, E

    1992-01-01

    A study was undertaken in five draught horses of 648 +/- 33 kg body weight to find the effects of continuously pulling loads on their cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic responses. A cart equipped with an odometer, for measuring distance, and a hydraulic dynamometer, for measuring draught force, was used. Heart and respiration rates and rectal temperatures were recorded. Blood samples for measuring arterial and venous pH and blood gases, haemoglobin, glucose and lactic acid concentrations and the serum activity of the enzymes creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were taken before exercise and immediately after each journey (morning and afternoon) of the daily work. Draught exercise, with loads which generated forces of between 0.57 and 0.59 kN, at speeds of 1.60 to 2.11 m/s, for 8 h daily for five consecutive days, with resting intervals of 10 min each hour, was well tolerated. Exercise tolerance was evaluated from the recovery from the changes observed in the biochemical and physiological parameters induced by the work. The analysis of these showed that, when the horses were subjected to prolonged periods of resting, their loss of fitness for work was shown by significant increases in the serum activity of muscle-derived enzymes and in blood lactate concentrations during the first day of work. However, over the following days the horses adapted to the work, so that the decreases in serum enzyme activities and blood lactate concentrations were reduced. Since similar observations have been described for racehorses, the determination of blood lactate concentrations and the serum activities of muscle-derived enzymes, specifically CK, seem to be good indicators of fitness in draught horses.

  18. Evaluation of Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Biochemical and Mechanical Properties of Trypsin-Treated Intervertebral Discs Under Physiological Compression Loading

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Fackson; Demers, Caroline N.; Michalek, Arthur J.; Beaudoin, Gilles; Goswami, Tapas; Beckman, Lorne; Iatridis, James C.; Antoniou, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of targeted trypsin digestion and 16 hours compression loading on MR parameters and the mechanical and biochemical properties of bovine disc segments. Materials and Methods Twenty-two 3-disc bovine coccygeal segments underwent compression loading for 16 hours after the nucleus pulposus (NP) of each disc was injected with a solution of trypsin or buffer. The properties of the NP and annulus fibrosus (AF) tissues of each disc were analyzed by quantitative MRI, biochemical tests, and confined compression tests. Results Loading had a significant effect on the MR properties (T1, T2, T1ρ, MTR, ADC) of both the NP and AF tissues. Loading had a greater effect on the MR parameters and biochemical composition of the NP than trypsin. In contrast, trypsin had a larger effect on the mechanical properties. Our data also indicated that localized trypsin injection predominantly affected the NP. T1ρ was sensitive to loading and correlated with the water content of the NP and AF but not with their proteoglycan content. Conclusion Our studies indicate that physiological loading is an important parameter to consider and that T1ρ contributes new information in efforts to develop quantitative MRI as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to detect changes in early disc degeneration. PMID:18219615

  19. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-09-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments are reviewed and the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types are compared.

  20. Load carriage using packs: a review of physiological, biomechanical and medical aspects.

    PubMed

    Knapik, J; Harman, E; Reynolds, K

    1996-06-01

    -cell neoprene insoles and use of an acrylic or nylon sock, combined with a wool sock, reduce blister incidence. A framed pack with a hip belt reduces the incidence of rucksack palsy. Backpack load carriage can be facilitated by lightening loads, optimizing equipment, improving load distribution and by preventive action aimed at reducing the incidence of injury. PMID:15677062

  1. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Tripathi, Sachchida; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    seemed to be reducing the negative impact of OA loading on O/C ratio via oxidation through aqueous processing. Average O/C ratio difference between HL and LL period during no-fog condition is 0.13 while it is reduced to 0.06 during foggy condition. This indicates that fog processing to an extent negating the OA loading impact on O/C ratio. This is happening due to the fact that aqueous oxidation efficiency doesn't depend on OA loading but on fog LWC (liquid water content), RH, NOx and presence/absence of transition metals. These findings indicate that only aerosol volatility based approach to predict particle phase concentration, composition and oxidation ratio of organics may result in some misleading outcome.

  2. Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Emma; Lindén, Per; Svanberg, Bo; Poom, Leo

    2015-05-01

    We measured physiological variables on nine car drivers to capture moderate magnitudes of mental load (ML) during driving in prolonged and repeated city and highway field conditions. Ecological validity was optimized by avoiding any artificial interference to manipulate drivers ML, drivers were alone in the car, they were free to choose their paths to the target, and the repeated drives familiarized drivers to the procedure. Our aim was to investigate if driver's physiological variables can be reliably measured and used as predictors of moderate individual levels of ML in naturally occurring unpredictably changing field conditions. Variables investigated were: heart-rate, skin conductance level, breath duration, blink frequency, blink duration, and eye fixation related potentials. After the drives, with support from video uptakes, a self-rating and a score made by external raters were used to distinguish moderately high and low ML segments. Variability was high but aggregated data could distinguish city from highway drives. Multivariate models could successfully classify high and low ML within highway and city drives using physiological variables as input. In summary, physiological variables have a potential to be used as indicators of moderate ML in unpredictably changing field conditions and to advance the evaluation and development of new active safety systems.

  3. Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Emma; Lindén, Per; Svanberg, Bo; Poom, Leo

    2015-05-01

    We measured physiological variables on nine car drivers to capture moderate magnitudes of mental load (ML) during driving in prolonged and repeated city and highway field conditions. Ecological validity was optimized by avoiding any artificial interference to manipulate drivers ML, drivers were alone in the car, they were free to choose their paths to the target, and the repeated drives familiarized drivers to the procedure. Our aim was to investigate if driver's physiological variables can be reliably measured and used as predictors of moderate individual levels of ML in naturally occurring unpredictably changing field conditions. Variables investigated were: heart-rate, skin conductance level, breath duration, blink frequency, blink duration, and eye fixation related potentials. After the drives, with support from video uptakes, a self-rating and a score made by external raters were used to distinguish moderately high and low ML segments. Variability was high but aggregated data could distinguish city from highway drives. Multivariate models could successfully classify high and low ML within highway and city drives using physiological variables as input. In summary, physiological variables have a potential to be used as indicators of moderate ML in unpredictably changing field conditions and to advance the evaluation and development of new active safety systems. PMID:25857673

  4. Physiomodel - an integrative physiology in Modelica.

    PubMed

    Matejak, Marek; Kofranek, Jiri

    2015-08-01

    Physiomodel (http://www.physiomodel.org) is our reimplementation and extension of an integrative physiological model called HumMod 1.6 (http://www.hummod.org) using our Physiolibrary (http://www.physiolibrary.org). The computer language Modelica is well-suited to exactly formalize integrative physiology. Modelica is an equation-based, and object-oriented language for hybrid ordinary differential equations (http:// www.modelica.org). Almost every physiological term can be defined as a class in this language and can be instantiated as many times as it occurs in the body. Each class has a graphical icon for use in diagrams. These diagrams are self-describing; the Modelica code generated from them is the full representation of the underlying mathematical model. Special Modelica constructs of physical connectors from Physiolibrary allow us to create diagrams that are analogies of electrical circuits with Kirchhoff's laws. As electric currents and electric potentials are connected in electrical domain, so are molar flows and concentrations in the chemical domain; volumetric flows and pressures in the hydraulic domain; flows of heat energy and temperatures in the thermal domain; and changes and amounts of members in the population domain. PMID:26736546

  5. Physiomodel - an integrative physiology in Modelica.

    PubMed

    Matejak, Marek; Kofranek, Jiri

    2015-08-01

    Physiomodel (http://www.physiomodel.org) is our reimplementation and extension of an integrative physiological model called HumMod 1.6 (http://www.hummod.org) using our Physiolibrary (http://www.physiolibrary.org). The computer language Modelica is well-suited to exactly formalize integrative physiology. Modelica is an equation-based, and object-oriented language for hybrid ordinary differential equations (http:// www.modelica.org). Almost every physiological term can be defined as a class in this language and can be instantiated as many times as it occurs in the body. Each class has a graphical icon for use in diagrams. These diagrams are self-describing; the Modelica code generated from them is the full representation of the underlying mathematical model. Special Modelica constructs of physical connectors from Physiolibrary allow us to create diagrams that are analogies of electrical circuits with Kirchhoff's laws. As electric currents and electric potentials are connected in electrical domain, so are molar flows and concentrations in the chemical domain; volumetric flows and pressures in the hydraulic domain; flows of heat energy and temperatures in the thermal domain; and changes and amounts of members in the population domain.

  6. Human Physiology in an Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, David R; Moon, Richard E; Krasney, John J; Held, Heather E; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Water covers over 70% of the earth, has varying depths and temperatures and contains much of the earth's resources. Head-out water immersion (HOWI) or submersion at various depths (diving) in water of thermoneutral (TN) temperature elicits profound cardiorespiratory, endocrine, and renal responses. The translocation of blood into the thorax and elevation of plasma volume by autotransfusion of fluid from cells to the vascular compartment lead to increased cardiac stroke volume and output and there is a hyperperfusion of some tissues. Pulmonary artery and capillary hydrostatic pressures increase causing a decline in vital capacity with the potential for pulmonary edema. Atrial stretch and increased arterial pressure cause reflex autonomic responses which result in endocrine changes that return plasma volume and arterial pressure to preimmersion levels. Plasma volume is regulated via a reflex diuresis and natriuresis. Hydrostatic pressure also leads to elastic loading of the chest, increasing work of breathing, energy cost, and thus blood flow to respiratory muscles. Decreases in water temperature in HOWI do not affect the cardiac output compared to TN; however, they influence heart rate and the distribution of muscle and fat blood flow. The reduced muscle blood flow results in a reduced maximal oxygen consumption. The properties of water determine the mechanical load and the physiological responses during exercise in water (e.g. swimming and water based activities). Increased hydrostatic pressure caused by submersion does not affect stroke volume; however, progressive bradycardia decreases cardiac output. During submersion, compressed gas must be breathed which introduces the potential for oxygen toxicity, narcosis due to nitrogen, and tissue and vascular gas bubbles during decompression and after may cause pain in joints and the nervous system. PMID:26426465

  7. Human Physiology in an Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, David R; Moon, Richard E; Krasney, John J; Held, Heather E; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-09-20

    Water covers over 70% of the earth, has varying depths and temperatures and contains much of the earth's resources. Head-out water immersion (HOWI) or submersion at various depths (diving) in water of thermoneutral (TN) temperature elicits profound cardiorespiratory, endocrine, and renal responses. The translocation of blood into the thorax and elevation of plasma volume by autotransfusion of fluid from cells to the vascular compartment lead to increased cardiac stroke volume and output and there is a hyperperfusion of some tissues. Pulmonary artery and capillary hydrostatic pressures increase causing a decline in vital capacity with the potential for pulmonary edema. Atrial stretch and increased arterial pressure cause reflex autonomic responses which result in endocrine changes that return plasma volume and arterial pressure to preimmersion levels. Plasma volume is regulated via a reflex diuresis and natriuresis. Hydrostatic pressure also leads to elastic loading of the chest, increasing work of breathing, energy cost, and thus blood flow to respiratory muscles. Decreases in water temperature in HOWI do not affect the cardiac output compared to TN; however, they influence heart rate and the distribution of muscle and fat blood flow. The reduced muscle blood flow results in a reduced maximal oxygen consumption. The properties of water determine the mechanical load and the physiological responses during exercise in water (e.g. swimming and water based activities). Increased hydrostatic pressure caused by submersion does not affect stroke volume; however, progressive bradycardia decreases cardiac output. During submersion, compressed gas must be breathed which introduces the potential for oxygen toxicity, narcosis due to nitrogen, and tissue and vascular gas bubbles during decompression and after may cause pain in joints and the nervous system.

  8. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  9. Biofield Physiology: A Framework for an Emerging Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael; McCraty, Rollin; Bat, Namuun; Ives, John A.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Oschman, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Biofield physiology is proposed as an overarching descriptor for the electromagnetic, biophotonic, and other types of spatially-distributed fields that living systems generate and respond to as integral aspects of cellular, tissue, and whole organism self-regulation and organization. Medical physiology, cell biology, and biophysics provide the framework within which evidence for biofields, their proposed receptors, and functions is presented. As such, biofields can be viewed as affecting physiological regulatory systems in a manner that complements the more familiar molecular-based mechanisms. Examples of clinically relevant biofields are the electrical and magnetic fields generated by arrays of heart cells and neurons that are detected, respectively, as electrocardiograms (ECGs) or magnetocardiograms (MCGs) and electroencephalograms (EEGs) or magnetoencephalograms (MEGs). At a basic physiology level, electromagnetic activity of neural assemblies appears to modulate neuronal synchronization and circadian rhythmicity. Numerous nonneural electrical fields have been detected and analyzed, including those arising from patterns of resting membrane potentials that guide development and regeneration, and from slowly-varying transepithelial direct current fields that initiate cellular responses to tissue damage. Another biofield phenomenon is the coherent, ultraweak photon emissions (UPE), detected from cell cultures and from the body surface. A physiological role for biophotons is consistent with observations that fluctuations in UPE correlate with cerebral blood flow, cerebral energy metabolism, and EEG activity. Biofield receptors are reviewed in 3 categories: molecular-level receptors, charge flux sites, and endogenously generated electric or electromagnetic fields. In summary, sufficient evidence has accrued to consider biofield physiology as a viable scientific discipline. Directions for future research are proposed. PMID:26665040

  10. Biofield Physiology: A Framework for an Emerging Discipline.

    PubMed

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Levin, Michael; McCraty, Rollin; Bat, Namuun; Ives, John A; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Oschman, James L

    2015-11-01

    Biofield physiology is proposed as an overarching descriptor for the electromagnetic, biophotonic, and other types of spatially-distributed fields that living systems generate and respond to as integral aspects of cellular, tissue, and whole organism self-regulation and organization. Medical physiology, cell biology, and biophysics provide the framework within which evidence for biofields, their proposed receptors, and functions is presented. As such, biofields can be viewed as affecting physiological regulatory systems in a manner that complements the more familiar molecular-based mechanisms. Examples of clinically relevant biofields are the electrical and magnetic fields generated by arrays of heart cells and neurons that are detected, respectively, as electrocardiograms (ECGs) or magnetocardiograms (MCGs) and electroencephalograms (EEGs) or magnetoencephalograms (MEGs). At a basic physiology level, electromagnetic activity of neural assemblies appears to modulate neuronal synchronization and circadian rhythmicity. Numerous nonneural electrical fields have been detected and analyzed, including those arising from patterns of resting membrane potentials that guide development and regeneration, and from slowly-varying transepithelial direct current fields that initiate cellular responses to tissue damage. Another biofield phenomenon is the coherent, ultraweak photon emissions (UPE), detected from cell cultures and from the body surface. A physiological role for biophotons is consistent with observations that fluctuations in UPE correlate with cerebral blood flow, cerebral energy metabolism, and EEG activity. Biofield receptors are reviewed in 3 categories: molecular-level receptors, charge flux sites, and endogenously generated electric or electromagnetic fields. In summary, sufficient evidence has accrued to consider biofield physiology as a viable scientific discipline. Directions for future research are proposed.

  11. Biofield Physiology: A Framework for an Emerging Discipline.

    PubMed

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Levin, Michael; McCraty, Rollin; Bat, Namuun; Ives, John A; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Oschman, James L

    2015-11-01

    Biofield physiology is proposed as an overarching descriptor for the electromagnetic, biophotonic, and other types of spatially-distributed fields that living systems generate and respond to as integral aspects of cellular, tissue, and whole organism self-regulation and organization. Medical physiology, cell biology, and biophysics provide the framework within which evidence for biofields, their proposed receptors, and functions is presented. As such, biofields can be viewed as affecting physiological regulatory systems in a manner that complements the more familiar molecular-based mechanisms. Examples of clinically relevant biofields are the electrical and magnetic fields generated by arrays of heart cells and neurons that are detected, respectively, as electrocardiograms (ECGs) or magnetocardiograms (MCGs) and electroencephalograms (EEGs) or magnetoencephalograms (MEGs). At a basic physiology level, electromagnetic activity of neural assemblies appears to modulate neuronal synchronization and circadian rhythmicity. Numerous nonneural electrical fields have been detected and analyzed, including those arising from patterns of resting membrane potentials that guide development and regeneration, and from slowly-varying transepithelial direct current fields that initiate cellular responses to tissue damage. Another biofield phenomenon is the coherent, ultraweak photon emissions (UPE), detected from cell cultures and from the body surface. A physiological role for biophotons is consistent with observations that fluctuations in UPE correlate with cerebral blood flow, cerebral energy metabolism, and EEG activity. Biofield receptors are reviewed in 3 categories: molecular-level receptors, charge flux sites, and endogenously generated electric or electromagnetic fields. In summary, sufficient evidence has accrued to consider biofield physiology as a viable scientific discipline. Directions for future research are proposed. PMID:26665040

  12. Biodegradation and kinetics of aerobic granules under high organic loading rates in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Jiang, Wenju; Liang, David Tee; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2008-05-01

    Biodegradation, kinetics, and microbial diversity of aerobic granules were investigated under a high range of organic loading rate 6.0 to 12.0 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) day(-1) in a sequencing batch reactor. The selection and enriching of different bacterial species under different organic loading rates had an important effect on the characteristics and performance of the mature aerobic granules and caused the difference on granular biodegradation and kinetic behaviors. Good granular characteristics and performance were presented at steady state under various organic loading rates. Larger and denser aerobic granules were developed and stabilized at relatively higher organic loading rates with decreased bioactivity in terms of specific oxygen utilization rate and specific growth rate (muoverall) or solid retention time. The decrease of bioactivity was helpful to maintain granule stability under high organic loading rates and improve reactor operation. The corresponding biokinetic coefficients of endogenous decay rate (kd), observed yield (Yobs), and theoretical yield (Y) were measured and calculated in this study. As the increase of organic loading rate, a decreased net sludge production (Yobs) is associated with an increased solid retention time, while kd and Y changed insignificantly and can be regarded as constants under different organic loading rates.

  13. Physiological and biochemical responses of the Polychaete Diopatra neapolitana to organic matter enrichment.

    PubMed

    Carregosa, Vanessa; Velez, Cátia; Pires, Adília; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that organic matter enrichment may be associated to aquaculture, leading to impoverished benthic communities and species succession with loss of biodiversity, but very few studies have investigated biochemical and physiological alterations that species affected by aquaculture activities undergo. Thus, in the present study, the effects of the organic enrichment originating from an oyster culture were studied in the Polychaete Diopatra neapolitana, a species already shown to be sensitive to inorganic contamination. For this, physiological responses and biochemical alterations were evaluated. The results obtained revealed that individuals from highly organically enriched areas presented lower capacity to regenerate their body but higher glycogen and protein levels. Furthermore, with increasing organic matter D. neapolitana increased the lipid peroxidation (LPO), the oxidized glutathione content (GSSG) and Glutathione S-transferase activity (GSTs) content, and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This study evidenced that organic matter enrichment induced biochemical and physiological alterations in D. neapolitana. Thus, this species was shown to be a good sentinel species to monitor organic contamination. PMID:24973779

  14. Role of Reduced Exogenous Organic Compounds in the Physiology of the Blue-Green Bacteria (Algae): Photoheterotrophic Growth of an “Autotrophic” Blue-Green Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, L. O.; Van Baalen, C.; Calder, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The unicellular blue-green bacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum strain BG-1 was found to be capable of rapid photoheterotrophic growth but unable to grow in the dark on a variety of reduced organic substrates. The generation time on glycerol was 12 h, and on CO2, 3 h. Glycerol carbon was converted into cellular carbon with a very high efficiency. This high efficiency of carbon conversion, the action spectrum for growth on glycerol, cell pigmentation, gas exchange measurements, and immediate ability of photoheterotrophically grown cells to evolve O2 (upon the addition of CO2) suggest the involvement of both photosystems I and II of photosynthesis during photoheterotrophic growth. PMID:4196253

  15. Superexchange Charge Transport in Loaded Metal Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tobias; Liu, Jianxi; Wächter, Tobias; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Welle, Alexander; Mugnaini, Veronica; Meded, Velimir; Zharnikov, Michael; Wöll, Christof; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-26

    In the past, nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been mostly studied for their huge potential with regard to gas storage and separation. More recently, the discovery that the electrical conductivity of a widely studied, highly insulating MOF, HKUST-1, improves dramatically when loaded with guest molecules has triggered a huge interest in the charge carrier transport properties of MOFs. The observed high conductivity, however, is difficult to reconcile with conventional transport mechanisms: neither simple hopping nor band transport models are consistent with the available experimental data. Here, we combine theoretical results and new experimental data to demonstrate that the observed conductivity can be explained by an extended hopping transport model including virtual hops through localized MOF states or molecular superexchange. Predictions of this model agree well with precise conductivity measurements, where experimental artifacts and the influence of defects are largely avoided by using well-defined samples and the Hg-drop junction approach. PMID:27359160

  16. Long-term physiological effects of enhanced O2 release by inositol hexaphosphate-loaded erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Teisseire, B; Ropars, C; Villeréal, M C; Nicolau, C

    1987-01-01

    A continuous lysing and resealing procedure with erythrocytes permitted incorporation in these cells of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6), a strong allosteric effector of Hb. This leads to significant rightward shifts of the HbO2 dissociation curves with in vitro P50 (partial pressure of O2 at 50% Hb saturation), values increasing from 32.2 +/- 1.8 torr for control erythrocytes to 86 +/- 60 torr (pH 7.40; PCO2 40 torr at 37 degrees C; 1 torr = 1.333 X 10(2) Pa). The shape of the dissociation curve was still sigmoidal, although the Hill coefficient was decreased. The life span of InsP6-loaded erythrocytes equaled that of control erythrocytes. The long-term physiological effects of the InsP6-loaded erythrocytes on piglets were increased O2 release and reduced cardiac output. The reduced O2 affinity of the InsP6-loaded erythrocytes was still effective 20 days after transfusion in awake piglets. The electrolyte concentration appeared stable over the 5-day observation period except for a transient, but significant, hyperkalemia immediately after transfusion. The reductions in the O2 affinity of Hb reported here are large compared with previously reported values. Introduction of InsP6 into viable erythrocytes improves tissue oxygenation when, for any reason, normal blood flow is impaired. PMID:3116545

  17. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  18. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  19. Effect of organic loading rates and proton exchange membrane surface area on the performance of an up-flow cylindrical microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Jana, Partha S; Behera, Manaswini; Ghangrekar, M M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of organic loading rates (OLRs) and proton exchange membrane (PEM) surface area on the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was evaluated. Three MFCs (MFC-1, MFC-2 and MFC-3) having PEM surface area of 10 cm2, 20 cm2 and 40 cm2, respectively, were used in the study. The MFCs were operated at influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 500 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h, 17 h, 13 h and 6 h in experimental Run-1 to Run-4. MFC-3, with highest PEM surface area showed highest power generation throughout the study. The optimum performancewas obtained at HRT of 13 h. In Run-5 and Run-6, the influent COD was increased to 1000 mg L(-1) and 1500 mg L(-1), respectively, maintaining the HRT at 13 h. Maximum volumetric powers of 4.26 W m(-3), 9.41 W m(-3) and 17.24 W m(-3) were obtained in MFC-1, MFC-2 and MFC-3, respectively, in Run-5 under the OLR of 1.84 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). These power values are among the higher values reported in literature; MFCs with higher PEM surface area showed better electricity generation, which clearly demonstrates that proton mass transfer is the main constraint in the MFCs which limits the power output. Combined effect of influent COD and HRT was found on electricity generation.

  20. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    At contaminated sediment sites, the bioavailability of contaminants in sediments is assessed using sediment-bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegates (Lv). The testing protocols recommend that ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) should be no less than 50:1. Occasionally, this recommendation is not followed, especially with sediments having low TOC, e.g., <1 %. This study evaluated the impacts and resulting biases in the testing results when the recommendation of "no less than 50:1" is not followed. In the study, seven sediments were tested with a series of TOC/Lv ratios that spanned the recommendation. With increasing loading of organisms, growth of the organisms decreased in six of the seven sediments tested. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the L. variegatus were measured in six of the seven sediments tested, and differences in PCB residues among loading ratios across all sediments were small, i.e., ±50 %, from those measured at the minimum recommended ratio of 50:1 TOC/Lv. In all sediment, PCB residues increased with increasing loading of the organisms for the mono-, di-, and tri-chloro-PCBs. For tetra-chloro and heavier PCBs, residues increased with increasing loading of organisms for only two of the six sediments. PCB residues were not significantly different between TOC/Lv loadings of 50:1 and mid-20:1 ratios indicating that equivalent results can be obtained with TOC/Lv ratios into the mid-20:1 ratios. Overall, the testing results suggest that when testing recommendation of 50:1 TOC/Lv is not followed, potential biases in the biota-sediment accumulations factors from the sediment-bioaccumulation test will be small. PMID:27165691

  1. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    At contaminated sediment sites, the bioavailability of contaminants in sediments is assessed using sediment-bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegates (Lv). The testing protocols recommend that ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) should be no less than 50:1. Occasionally, this recommendation is not followed, especially with sediments having low TOC, e.g., <1 %. This study evaluated the impacts and resulting biases in the testing results when the recommendation of "no less than 50:1" is not followed. In the study, seven sediments were tested with a series of TOC/Lv ratios that spanned the recommendation. With increasing loading of organisms, growth of the organisms decreased in six of the seven sediments tested. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the L. variegatus were measured in six of the seven sediments tested, and differences in PCB residues among loading ratios across all sediments were small, i.e., ±50 %, from those measured at the minimum recommended ratio of 50:1 TOC/Lv. In all sediment, PCB residues increased with increasing loading of the organisms for the mono-, di-, and tri-chloro-PCBs. For tetra-chloro and heavier PCBs, residues increased with increasing loading of organisms for only two of the six sediments. PCB residues were not significantly different between TOC/Lv loadings of 50:1 and mid-20:1 ratios indicating that equivalent results can be obtained with TOC/Lv ratios into the mid-20:1 ratios. Overall, the testing results suggest that when testing recommendation of 50:1 TOC/Lv is not followed, potential biases in the biota-sediment accumulations factors from the sediment-bioaccumulation test will be small.

  2. Backpack load limit recommendation for middle school students based on physiological and psychophysical measurements.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Denise H; Freivalds, Andris

    2009-01-01

    The load of student's backpacks has raised questions over the safety and health of schoolchildren everywhere. The purpose of this study is to use electromyography (EMG), posture evaluation, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion and perceptions of pain to find an acceptable backpack load limit for middle school students. Twenty middle school students aged 11 to 14 (10 female and 10 male) volunteered for the study. The subjects completed two tests, standing stationary and walking on a treadmill, where they carried 5% incremental loads from 0% body mass (BM) to 20% BM. The study indicated that the Borg-CR10 ratings and trunk flexion angle for the walking trial indicated a possible load limit of 10% BM due to the non-significant difference between 0 and 10% BM and the significant difference between 10 and 15% BM. PMID:19369726

  3. Electrochemical Behavior of Novel Superelastic Biomedical Alloys in Simulated Physiological Media Under Cyclic Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, Yu. S.; Pustov, Yu. A.; Konopatsky, A. S.; Filonov, M. R.; Prokoshkin, S. D.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to study corrosion and electrochemical behavior of Ti-22Nb-6Ta and Ti-22Nb-6Zr (at.%) superelastic alloys under conditions which imitate the performance mode of target devices (bone implants), i.e., under cyclic load in simulated physiological solutions. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements were carried out on wire specimens in Hank's solution and artificial saliva at 37 °C with various strain values up to 1.5%. It is shown that at clinically relevant strain values (about 0.2%) the alloys exhibit OCP growth indicating their high stability and resistance to corrosion fatigue under these cycling conditions. At much higher strains (about 1%), fatigue crack initiation and propagation take place, however, the corresponding OCP variation indicates that the fracture process is significantly restrained by reversible martensitic transformation during cycling.

  4. Physiological validation of the concept of glycemic load in lean young adults.

    PubMed

    Brand-Miller, J C; Thomas, M; Swan, V; Ahmad, Z I; Petocz, P; Colagiuri, S

    2003-09-01

    Dietary glycemic load, the mathematical product of the glycemic index (GI) of a food and its carbohydrate content, has been proposed as an indicator of the glucose response and insulin demand induced by a serving of food. To validate this concept in vivo, we tested the hypotheses that 1). portions of different foods with the same glycemic load produce similar glycemic responses; and 2). stepwise increases in glycemic load for a range of foods produce proportional increases in glycemia and insulinemia. In the first study, 10 healthy subjects consumed 10 different foods in random order in amounts calculated to have the same glycemic load as one slice of white bread. Capillary blood samples were taken at regular intervals over the next 2 h. The glycemic response as determined by area under the curve was not different from that of white bread for nine foods. However, lentils produced lower than predicted responses (P < 0.05). In the second study, another group of subjects was tested to determine the effects of increasing glycemic load using a balanced 5 x 5 Greco-Latin square design balanced for four variables: subject, dose, food and order. Two sets of five foods were consumed at five different glycemic loads (doses) equivalent to one, two, three, four and six slices of bread. Stepwise increases in glycemic load produced significant and predictable increases in both glycemia (P < 0.001) and insulinemia (P < 0.001). These findings support the concept of dietary glycemic load as a measure of overall glycemic response and insulin demand.

  5. Phloem loading: an integrated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.

    1986-01-01

    This study focuses on the regulation of sucrose transport across the plasmalemma. Initially, we re-examined the use of leaf discs to study the kinetics of phloem loading using Allium cepa leaves. All tissues exhibited the same linear plus saturable profile as Beta vulgaris, except fructose uptake into the inner parenchyma and bundle-sheath cells; in this case the response was linear. These results indicate that all tissues of the leaf retrieve exogenous sucrose such that kinetics from leaf discs cannot be taken to represent phloem loading per se. We continued our study by investigating the influence of internal sugars on sugar transport across the plasmalemma. We found that if internal sugars were manipulated by heat-girdling techniques or DCMU treatment there was no appreciable change in sucrose influx. However, longer term heat-girdling decreased sucrose uptake. These data indicate that carbohydrate partitioning among the chloroplast, cytosol, and vacuole modulates cytosolic sugar levels. One interesting discovery was that leaves excised from the plant and allowed to undergo their normal day/night cycle do not transfer (/sup 14/C) sucrose to their minor veins.

  6. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  7. Morphology and physiology of the prosternal chordotonal organ of the sarcophagid fly Sarcophaga bullata (Parker).

    PubMed

    Stölting, Heiko; Stumpner, Andreas; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2007-05-01

    The anatomy and the physiology of the prosternal chordotonal organ (pCO) within the prothorax of Sarcophaga bullata is analysed. Neuroanatomical studies illustrate that the approximately 35 sensory axons terminate within the median ventral association centre of the different neuromeres of the thoracico-abdominal ganglion. At the single-cell level two classes of receptor cells can be discriminated physiologically and morphologically: receptor cells with dorso-lateral branches in the mesothoracic neuromere are insensitive to frequencies below approximately 1 kHz. Receptor cells without such branches respond most sensitive at lower frequencies. Absolute thresholds vary between 0.2 and 8m/s(2) for different frequencies. The sensory information is transmitted to the brain via ascending interneurons. Functional analyses reveal a mechanical transmission of forced head rotations and of foreleg vibrations to the attachment site of the pCO. In summed action potential recordings a physiological correlate was found to stimuli with parameters of leg vibrations, rather than to those of head rotation. The data represent a first physiological study of a putative predecessor organ of an insect ear.

  8. An Author's Philosophy of Physiology Textbook Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the factors that have determined the author's approach to writing medical physiology textbooks. Reviews the author's career and the events surrounding the development of each textbook. Explains the motivation behind critical decisions made during the authoring process. (DDR)

  9. Responses of stream nitrate and dissolved organic carbon loadings to hydrological forcing and climate change in an upland forest of the northeast USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shanley, James B.

    2009-01-01

    [1] In coming decades, higher annual temperatures, increased growing season length, and increased dormant season precipitation are expected across the northeastern United States in response to anthropogenic forcing of global climate. We synthesized long-term stream hydrochemical data from the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont, United States, to explore the relationship of catchment wetness to stream nitrate and DOC loadings. We modeled changes in growing season length and precipitation patterns to simulate future climate scenarios and to assess how stream nutrient loadings respond to climate change. Model results for the 2070–2099 time period suggest that stream nutrient loadings during both the dormant and growing seasons will respond to climate change. During a warmer climate, growing season stream fluxes (runoff +20%, nitrate +57%, and DOC +58%) increase as more precipitation (+28%) and quick flow (+39%) occur during a longer growing season (+43 days). During the dormant season, stream water and nutrient loadings decrease. Net annual stream runoff (+8%) and DOC loading (+9%) increases are commensurate with the magnitude of the average increase of net annual precipitation (+7%). Net annual stream water and DOC loadings are primarily affected by increased dormant season precipitation. In contrast, decreased annual loading of stream nitrate (−2%) reflects a larger effect of growing season controls on stream nitrate and the effects of lengthened growing seasons in a warmer climate. Our findings suggest that leaching of nitrate and DOC from catchment soils will be affected by anthropogenic climate forcing, thereby affecting the timing and magnitude of annual stream loadings in the northeastern United States.

  10. An Overview of Undergraduate Physiology Education in Turkish Medical Faculties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkanci, Z. Dicle; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge

    2008-01-01

    Physiology education, which occupies an important place in undergraduate medical education, exhibits diversities across the world. Since there was no specific source of information about physiology education in Turkish medical faculties, the authors aimed to evaluate the general status of undergraduate physiology teaching of medical students in…

  11. Physiological responses of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers as indicators of nutrient loading.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingping; Huang, Xiaoping; Jiang, Zhijian

    2014-06-30

    To select appropriate bioindicators for the evaluation of the influence of nutrients from human activities in a Thalassia hemprichii meadow, environmental variables and plant performance parameters were measured in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China. Nutrient concentrations in the bay decreased along a gradient from west to southeast. Moreover, the nutrients decreased with an increase in the distance from the shore on the southern side of the bay. Among the candidate indicators, the P content of the tissues closely mirrored the two nutrient loading gradients. The epiphytic algae biomass and the N content in the tissues mirrored one of the two nutrient loading trends. The leaf length, however, exhibited a significant negative correlation with the nutrient gradients. We propose that changes in the P content of T. hemprichii, followed by epiphytic algae biomass and N content of the tissues, may be the useful indicators of nutrient loading to coastal ecosystems. PMID:24433998

  12. Physiological responses of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers as indicators of nutrient loading.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingping; Huang, Xiaoping; Jiang, Zhijian

    2014-06-30

    To select appropriate bioindicators for the evaluation of the influence of nutrients from human activities in a Thalassia hemprichii meadow, environmental variables and plant performance parameters were measured in Xincun Bay, Hainan Island, South China. Nutrient concentrations in the bay decreased along a gradient from west to southeast. Moreover, the nutrients decreased with an increase in the distance from the shore on the southern side of the bay. Among the candidate indicators, the P content of the tissues closely mirrored the two nutrient loading gradients. The epiphytic algae biomass and the N content in the tissues mirrored one of the two nutrient loading trends. The leaf length, however, exhibited a significant negative correlation with the nutrient gradients. We propose that changes in the P content of T. hemprichii, followed by epiphytic algae biomass and N content of the tissues, may be the useful indicators of nutrient loading to coastal ecosystems.

  13. Physiologically acceptable resistance of an air purifying respirator.

    PubMed

    Shykoff, Barbara E; Warkander, Dan E

    2011-12-01

    Physiologically acceptable limits of inspiratory impediment for air purifying respirators (APRs) were sought.Measurements on 30 subjects included pressure in, and flow through, an APR, and respiratory and cardiovascular variables. Exercise with and without APR included ladder climbing, load lift and transfer, incremental running and endurance running, with endurance at 85% peak oxygen uptake. Resistance that did not alter minute ventilation (VE) was judged acceptable long-term. Acceptable short-term impediments were deduced from end exercise conditions. Proposed long-term limits are inspiratory work of breathing per tidal volume (WOBi/VT) ≤ 0.9 kPa and peak inspiratory pressure (P (i) peak) ≤1.2 kPa. Proposed short-term limits are: for VE ≤110 L min(-1), WOBi/VT ≤1.3 kPa and P (i) peak ≤ 1.8 kPa; and for VE >130 L min(-1), WOBi/VT ≤1.6 kPa. A design relation among VE, pressure–flow coefficients of an APR, and WOBi/VT is proposed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work generalises results from one APR by considering the altered physiological parameters related to factors inhibiting exercise. Simple expressions are proposed to connect bench-test parameters to the relation between ventilation and work of breathing. Population-based recommendations recognise that those who need more air flow can also generate higher pressures. PMID:22103726

  14. Use of Concept Mapping in an Undergraduate Introductory Exercise Physiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henige, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Physiology is often considered a challenging course for students. It is up to teachers to structure courses and create learning opportunities that will increase the chance of student success. In an undergraduate exercise physiology course, concept maps are assigned to help students actively process and organize information into manageable and…

  15. Substrate removal kinetics and performance assessment of a vermifilter bioreactor under organic shock load conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Hari Prasad, K S; Singh, Nitin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of short-term organic shock loads (675, 799, 1,084 and 1,410 mg COD/L) on the treatment performance of a pilot-scale vermifilter (VF), employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida and treating synthetic domestic wastewater is investigated. The effect of organic shock loads on the performance and stability of vermifiltration reactor was evaluated to identify its feasibility in actual field conditions. Prior to the application of each organic shock load, normal loading conditions were maintained to achieve the pseudo steady state (PSS) conditions. The results showed satisfactory endurance against imposed organic shock loads with negligible reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals and it was almost similar to PSS condition with removal efficiencies of ∼ 66, 71, 67 and 68%, respectively. The experimental COD data fit well to first-order kinetic model, with a regression value of 0.95. At the end of all shock loads, the nutritional analysis of vermicompost obtained from the top layer of VF, showed increased concentration of total nitrogen (∼31 g/Kg) and total phosphorus (29 g/Kg). Besides, an augmented earthworm biomass, ∼23.2% on weight basis and ∼22% on number basis, was observed at the end of the study. PMID:27642837

  16. Organic nanotubes for drug loading and cellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Ai; Asakawa, Masumi; Kogiso, Masaki; Shimizu, Toshimi; Sato, Mamiko; Maitani, Yoshie

    2011-07-15

    Organic nanotubes made of synthetic amphiphilic molecules are novel materials that form by self-assembly. In this study, organic nanotubes with a carboxyl group (ONTs) at the surface were used as a carrier for the anticancer drug doxorubicin, which has a weak amine group. The IC(50) values of ONT for cells were higher than that of conventional liposomes, suggesting that ONTs are safe. The results showed that the drug loading of ONTs was susceptible to the effect of ionic strength and H(+) concentration in the medium, and drug release from ONTs was promoted at lower pH, which is favorable for the release of drugs in the endosome after cellular uptake. ONTs loaded with the drug were internalized, and the drug was released quickly in the cells, as demonstrated on transmission electron microscopy images of ONTs and the detection of a 0.05% dose of ONT chelating gadolinium in the cells. Moreover, ONT could be modified chemically with folate by simply mixing with a folate-conjugate lipid. Therefore, these novel, biodegradable organic nanotubes have the potential to be used as drug carriers for controlled and targeting drug delivery.

  17. Growing season surface water loading of fecal indicator organisms within a rural watershed.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A; Hebb, D; Jamieson, R; Gordon, R; Benedict, K; Fuller, K; Stratton, G W; Madani, A

    2009-03-01

    The loading of microbial contaminants was examined within the Thomas Brook watershed, a 784 ha mixed land-use catchment located in the headwaters of the Cornwallis River drainage basin (Nova Scotia, Canada). The objectives were to: (i) examine spatial and temporal characteristics of fecal bacteria loading during the growing season from five subwatersheds, and (ii) develop areal fecal indicator organism export coefficients for rural landscapes. Fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations and stream flow were monitored at five locations in the watershed over six consecutive growing seasons (May-Oct, 2001-2006). A nested watershed monitoring approach was used to determine bacterial loading from distinct source types (residential vs. agricultural) during both baseflow and stormflow periods. Areal bacterial loading rates increased in each nested watershed moving downstream through the watershed and were highest in the three subcatchments dominated by agricultural activities. Upper watershed bacterial loading throughout the growing season from an agricultural subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.92 x 10(10) CFU ha(-1)) was consistently higher than a residential subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.43 x 10(9) CFU ha(-1)). As expected, annual average stormflow bacterial loads were higher than baseflow loads, however baseflow loads still comprised between 14 and 35% of the growing season bacterial loads in the five subwatersheds. Fecal bacteria loads were greater during years with higher annual precipitation. A positive linear relationship was observed between E. coli and TSS loading during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons when both parameters were monitored, indicating that the processes of sediment transport and bacterial transport are linked. It is anticipated that computed areal microbial loading coefficients will be useful in developing watershed management plans. More intensive sampling during stormflow events is recommended for

  18. Annual loads of organic contaminants in Chesapeake Bay contributed through fluvial transport

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.D.; Lippa, K.A.

    1994-12-31

    Organic contaminants in fluvial transport, atmospheric deposition, urban runoff, and shoreline erosion are being quantified and compared in an effort to understand contaminant inputs and mass balances in Chesapeake Bay. Concentrations of nine organonitrogen and organophosphorus (organo-N/P) pesticides, eight organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and four polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in fluvial transport were determined at the Susquehanna, Potomac, and James River fall lines for the period of March 1992 through February 1993. Together these rivers account for ca. 75% of the freshwater inflow to the bay from fluvial sources. Sampling was conducted monthly during base flow conditions and during all major storm events. Analysis of nanogram and picogram per liter concentrations of the organic contaminants was performed for both the dissolved and particulate phases of the surface water samples. Daily fluvial loads were calculated using an iterative-increment method from concentration and discharge data, and the resulting daily load estimates were summed to provide annual loads. Loads contributed by the three tributaries from March 1992 through February 1993 were 6.9 metric tons for the organo-N/P pesticides, 0.73 metric tons for the OC compounds and PCBs, and 1.2 metric tons for the PAH. Preliminary comparisons show that loads from fluvial transport are generally greater than other sources for most contaminants except PAH, where atmospheric deposition and urban runoff contribute greater loads of some compounds.

  19. The physiological implications of primary xylem organization in two ferns.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Craig R; Roark, Lindsey C; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2012-11-01

    Xylem structure and function are well described in woody plants, but the implications of xylem organization in less-derived plants such as ferns are poorly understood. Here, two ferns with contrasting phenology and xylem organization were selected to investigate how xylem dysfunction affects hydraulic conductivity and stomatal conductance (g(s)). The drought-deciduous pioneer species, Pteridium aquilinum, exhibits fronds composed of 25 to 37 highly integrated vascular bundles with many connections, high g(s) and moderate cavitation resistance (P50 = -2.23 MPa). By contrast, the evergreen Woodwardia fimbriata exhibits sectored fronds with 3 to 5 vascular bundles and infrequent connections, low g(s) and high resistance to cavitation (P50 = -5.21 MPa). Xylem-specific conductivity was significantly higher in P. aqulinium in part due to its wide, efficient conduits that supply its rapidly transpiring pinnae. These trade-offs imply that the contrasting xylem organization of these ferns mirrors their divergent life history strategies. Greater hydraulic connectivity and g(s) promote rapid seasonal growth, but come with the risk of increased vulnerability to cavitation in P. aquilinum, while the conservative xylem organization of W. fimbriata leads to slower growth but greater drought tolerance and frond longevity.

  20. Waste Load Allocation for Conservative Substances to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    A waste load allocation process is developed to determine the maximum effluent concentration of a conservative substance that will not harm fish and wildlife propagation. If this concentration is not exceeded in the effluent, the acute toxicity criterion will not be violated in the receiving stream, and the chronic criterion will not be exceeded in the zone of passage, defined in many state water quality standards to allow the movement of aquatic organisms past a discharge. Considerable simplification of the concentration equation, which is the heart of any waste load allocation, is achieved because it is based on the concentration in the receiving stream when the concentration gradient on the zone of passage boundary is zero. Consequently, the expression obtained for effluent concentration is independent of source location or stream morphology. Only five independent variables, which are routinely available to regulatory agencies, are required to perform this allocation. It aids in developing permit limits which are protective without being unduly restrictive or requiring large expenditures of money and manpower on field investigations.

  1. Usefulness of daily +2Gz load as a countermeasure against physiological problems during weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Hirayanagi, Kaname; Yajima, Kazuyoshi

    2001-08-01

    Adaptation to head-down-tilt bed rest as a simulated microgravity leads to an abnormality of reflex control of circulation, hypovolemia and reduction of exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this cardiovascular deconditioning and reduction of exercise capacity could be prevented by a daily 1 hr centrifugation at +2Gz. To test this hypothesis, twenty healthy male subjects underwent 4 day of 6° head-down-tilt bed rest. Ten of them were exposed to a +2Gz load for up to 30 min twice per day (the Gz group). The remaining 10 were not exposed to a Gz load (the no-Gz group). We estimated autonomic cardiovascular control by power spectral analysis of blood pressure and R-R interval variability, and baroreflex regulation by the transfer function analysis and the sequence method, before and after bed rest. Further, we measured hematocrit as an index of changes in plasma volume and maximal oxygen consumption as an index of exercise capacity, before and after bed rest. Result: In the no-Gz group, heart rate increased after bed rest. The high frequency power of R-R interval variability as an index of cardiac parasympathetic nervous activity, baroreflex gains estimated by transfer function analysis and the sequence method as index of the integrated arterial-cardiac baroreflex function decreased significantly. Associated with these changes, the ratio of low to high frequency power of R-R as an indicator of cardiac sympathovagal balance tended to increase after bed rest in the no-Gz group. However, those showed no significant changes after bed rest in the Gz group. Hematocrit increased after bed rest in the no-Gz group. It also tended to increase in the Gz group, however it did not achieve statistical significance. Maximal oxygen consumption decreased significantly to similar extent in both the groups. Conclusion: This result suggested that 1) a daily 1hr +2Gz load produced by a centrifuge might eliminate the changes in autonomic cardiovascular control during simulated

  2. A comparison of physiological and transcriptome responses to water deprivation and salt loading in the rat supraoptic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Michael P.; Mecawi, Andre S.; Hoe, See Ziau; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Johnson, Kory R.; Al-Mahmoud, Ghada A.; Elias, Lucila L. K.; Paton, Julian F. R.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Gainer, Harold; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    Salt loading (SL) and water deprivation (WD) are experimental challenges that are often used to study the osmotic circuitry of the brain. Central to this circuit is the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the hormones, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), and their transport to terminals that reside in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. On osmotic challenge evoked by a change in blood volume or osmolality, the SON undergoes a function-related plasticity that creates an environment that allows for an appropriate hormone response. Here, we have described the impact of SL and WD compared with euhydrated (EU) controls in terms of drinking and eating behavior, body weight, and recorded physiological data including circulating hormone data and plasma and urine osmolality. We have also used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the SON following SL and remined data from the SON that describes the transcriptome response to WD. From a list of 2,783 commonly regulated transcripts, we selected 20 genes for validation by qPCR. All of the 9 genes that have already been described as expressed or regulated in the SON by osmotic stimuli were confirmed in our models. Of the 11 novel genes, 5 were successfully validated while 6 were false discoveries. PMID:25632023

  3. A comparison of physiological and transcriptome responses to water deprivation and salt loading in the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael P; Mecawi, Andre S; Hoe, See Ziau; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Johnson, Kory R; Al-Mahmoud, Ghada A; Elias, Lucila L K; Paton, Julian F R; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Gainer, Harold; Murphy, David; Hindmarch, Charles C T

    2015-04-01

    Salt loading (SL) and water deprivation (WD) are experimental challenges that are often used to study the osmotic circuitry of the brain. Central to this circuit is the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of the hormones, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), and their transport to terminals that reside in the posterior lobe of the pituitary. On osmotic challenge evoked by a change in blood volume or osmolality, the SON undergoes a function-related plasticity that creates an environment that allows for an appropriate hormone response. Here, we have described the impact of SL and WD compared with euhydrated (EU) controls in terms of drinking and eating behavior, body weight, and recorded physiological data including circulating hormone data and plasma and urine osmolality. We have also used microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the SON following SL and remined data from the SON that describes the transcriptome response to WD. From a list of 2,783 commonly regulated transcripts, we selected 20 genes for validation by qPCR. All of the 9 genes that have already been described as expressed or regulated in the SON by osmotic stimuli were confirmed in our models. Of the 11 novel genes, 5 were successfully validated while 6 were false discoveries.

  4. Transient Thermoelectric Generator: An Active Load Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockholm, J. G.; Goupil, C.; Maussion, P.; Ouerdane, H.

    2015-06-01

    Under stationary conditions, the optimization of maximum power output and efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is a well-known subject. Use of a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) approach to the description of TEGs has demonstrated that there exists a closed feedback effect between the output electrical load value and the entering heat current. From the practical point of view, this effect is strongly evidenced by the use of direct current (DC-to-DC) converters as active loads. Both transient conditions and FTT contribute to a complex landscape of the optimization of the power and efficiencies of a TEG. It has been claimed that the use of inductive load may lead to a strong enhancement of the efficiency, and the frequency response of a TEG as a band-pass filter has also been recently reported. We consider these results using a classical linear Onsager approach of a TEG operating under transient conditions. We show that a trans-admittance may be defined as a coupling element between the input and the output, leading to the observed electric-to-thermal feedback. We discuss recent experiments on a TEG connected to an active load, which is reported to boast an efficiency exceeding the usual stationary DC thermoelectric efficiency.

  5. Curved bones: An adaptation to habitual loading.

    PubMed

    Milne, Nick

    2016-10-21

    Why are long bones curved? It has long been considered a paradox that many long bones supporting mammalian bodies are curved, since this curvature results in the bone undergoing greater bending, with higher strains and so greater fracture risk under load. This study develops a theoretical model wherein the curvature is a response to bending strains imposed by the requirements of locomotion. In particular the radioulna of obligate quadrupeds is a lever operated by the triceps muscle, and the bending strains induced by the triceps muscle counter the bending resulting from longitudinal loads acting on the curved bone. Indeed the theoretical model reverses this logic and suggests that the curvature is itself a response to the predictable bending strains induced by the triceps muscle. This, in turn, results in anatomical arrangements of bone, muscle and tendon that create a simple physiological mechanism whereby the bone can resist the bending due to the action of triceps in supporting and moving the body. The model is illustrated by contrasting the behaviour of a finite element model of a llama radioulna to that of a straightened version of the same bone. The results show that longitudinal and flexor muscle forces produce bending strains that effectively counter strains due to the pull of the triceps muscle in the curved but not in the straightened model. It is concluded that the curvature of these and other curved bones adds resilience to the skeleton by acting as pre-stressed beams or strainable pre-buckled struts. It is also proposed that the cranial bending strains that result from triceps, acting on the lever that is the radioulna, can explain the development of the curvature of such bones. PMID:27444401

  6. Naturally occurring organic osmolytes: from cell physiology to disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shagufta H; Ahmad, Nihal; Ahmad, Faizan; Kumar, Raj

    2010-12-01

    Osmolytes are naturally occurring organic compounds, which represent different chemical classes including amino acids, methylamines, and polyols. By accumulating high concentrations of osmolytes, organisms adapt to perturbations that can cause structural changes in their cellular proteins. Osmolytes shift equilibrium toward natively-folded conformations by raising the free energy of the unfolded state. As osmolytes predominantly affect the protein backbone, the balance between osmolyte-backbone interactions and amino acid side chain-solvent interactions determines protein folding. Abnormal cell volume regulation significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of several disorders, and cells respond to these changes by importing, exporting, or synthesizing osmolytes to maintain volume homeostasis. In recent years, it has become quite evident that cells regulate many biological processes such as protein folding, protein disaggregation, and protein-protein interactions via accumulation of specific osmolytes. Many genetic diseases are attributed to the problems associated with protein misfolding/aggregation, and it has been shown that certain osmolytes can protect these proteins from misfolding. Thus, osmolytes can be utilized as therapeutic targets for such diseases. In this review article, we discuss the role of naturally occurring osmolytes in protein stability, underlying mechanisms, and their potential use as therapeutic molecules. PMID:21190292

  7. Physiology, structure, and regulation of the cloned organic anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    SRIMAROENG, C.; PERRY, J. L.; PRITCHARD, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    1. The transport of negatively charged drugs, xenobiotics, and metabolites by epithelial tissues, particularly the kidney, plays critical roles in controlling their distribution, concentration, and retention in the body. Thus, organic anion transporters (OATs) impact both their therapeutic efficacy and potential toxicity. 2. This review summarizes current knowledge of the properties and functional roles of the cloned OATs, the relationships between transporter structure and function, and those factors that determine the efficacy of transport. Such factors include plasma protein binding of substrates, genetic polymorphisms among the transporters, and regulation of transporter expression. 3. Clearly, much progress has been made in the decade since the first OAT was cloned. However, unresolved questions remain. Several of these issues — drug–drug interactions, functional characterization of newly cloned OATs, tissue differences in expression and function, and details of the nature and consequences of transporter regulation at genomic and intracellular sites — are discussed in the concluding Perspectives section. PMID:18668434

  8. [Effect of different backpack loads on physiological parame ters in walking].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meiya; Tian, Shan; Tang, Qiaohong; Ni, Yikun; Wang, Lizhen; Fan, Yubo

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of prolonged walking with load carriage on body posture, muscle fatigue, heart rate and blood pressure of the tested subjects. Ten healthy volunteers performed 30 min walking trials on treadmill (speed = 1.1 m/s) with different backpack loads [0% body weight (BW), 10% BW, 15% BW and 20% BW]. The change of body posture, muscle fatigue, heart rate and blood pressure before and after walking and the recovery of muscle fatigue during the rest time (0, 5, 10 and 15 min) were collected using the Bortec AMT-8 and the NDI Optotrak Certus. Results showed that the forward trunk and head angle, muscle fatigue, heart rate and blood pressure increased with the increasing backpack loads and bearing time. With the 20% BW load, the forward angle, muscle fatigue and systolic pressure were significantly higher than with lighter weights. No significantly increased heart rate and diastolic pressure were found. Decreased muscle fatigue was found after removing the backpack in each load trial. But the recovery of the person with 20% BW load was slower than that of 0% BW, 10% BW and 15% BW. These findings indicated that the upper limit of backpack loads for college-aged students should be between 15% BW and 20% BW according to muscle fatigue and forward angle. It is suggested that backpack loads should be restricted to no more than 15% BW for walks of up to 30 min duration to avoid irreversible muscle fatigue. PMID:25764707

  9. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  10. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus (EPA test method 100.3) effects of feeding and organism loading rate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methodology of USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specifies that the Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry weight of no less than 50:1. It ...

  11. Effects of high organic load on amoA and nirS gene diversity of an intermittently aerated and fed membrane bioreactor treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Remmas, Nikolaos; Melidis, Paraschos; Katsioupi, Efthymia; Ntougias, Spyridon

    2016-11-01

    The effects of external carbon source addition on the nitrification and denitrification process were investigated in an intermittently aerated and fed membrane bioreactor treating landfill leachate by recording system performance, and amoA and nirS diversity dynamics using pyrosequencing. By adding 950mg/L glycerol, denitrification was optimized, resulting in total nitrogen removal efficiency of 81.0±2.4%. Under these conditions, amoA diversity was dominated by genotypes related to Nitrosomonas europaea, while increase in leachate's content and in glycerol addition by 50% led to irreversible inhibition of nitrification and enhanced ammonia accumulation, causing a severe suppression of Nitrosomonas and an increase in the relative abundance of Nitrosospira. However, this increase not only affected ammonia oxidizers, but also caused a massive shift in denitrifying community structure, resulting in the suppression of Arenimonas metalli-, Candidatus Accumulibacter- and Sulfuritalea hydrogenivorans-nirS related genotypes and the predominance of nirS-associated with Acidovorax and Thaurea sp. PMID:27614578

  12. Comparing the performance and operation stability of an SBR and MBBR for single-stage nitritation-anammox treating wastewater with high organic load.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Susanne; Horn, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Single stage nitritation-anammox reactors have gained increasing attention for their application in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The most commonly used system in municipal reject water treatment is at present the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is the second most common. However, little is known about their applicability to industrial wastewaters with high C/N ratios. This study presents a comparative approach to evaluate the performance of these two systems by changing the influent from reject water (C:N ratio 1:1) stepwise to an industrial wastewater (C:N ratio 3:1). An intentionally induced temperature drop that led to nitrite accumulation was also tested. The results showed that the MBBR (1.9 kg-N m(-3) d(-1)) was superior to the SBR (0.5 kg-N m(-3) d(-1)) with at maximum up to four times higher volumetric nitrogen removal rates. Both systems accumulated nitrite (> 100 mg-N L(-1)) during the temperature drop from 30 degrees C to as low as 18 degrees C (MBBR) and 20 degrees C (SBR), which subsequently resulted in almost complete loss in the removal capacities. However, the previous removal rates could be re-established in both systems within approximately 40 days. In comparison, the MBBR showed the more stable and higher performance even though higher nitrite concentrations (up to 500 mg-N L(-1)) were encountered. Overall, MBBR operation and handling was also easier and the system was more robust to disturbances compared to the SBR. PMID:24191464

  13. On-demand droplet loading for automated organic chemistry on digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gaurav J; Ding, Huijiang; Sadeghi, Saman; Chen, Supin; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-07-21

    Organic chemistry applications on digital microfluidic devices often involve reagents that are volatile or sensitive and must be introduced to the chip immediately before use. We present a new technique for automated, on-demand loading of ~1 μL droplets from large (~1 mL), sealed, off-chip reservoirs to a digital microfluidic chip in order to address this challenge. Unlike aqueous liquids which generally are non-wetting to the hydrophobic surface and must be actively drawn into the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) chip by electrode activation, organic liquids tend to be wetting and can spontaneously flood the chip, and hence require a retracting force for controlled liquid delivery. Using a combination of compressed inert gas and gravity to exert driving and retracting forces on the liquid, the simple loading technique enables precise loading of droplets of both wetting and non-wetting liquids in a reliable manner. A key feature from a practical point of view is that all of the wetted parts are inexpensive and potentially disposable, thus avoiding cross-contamination in chemical and biochemical applications. We provide a theoretical treatment of the underlying physics, discuss the effect of geometry and liquid properties on its performance, and show repeatable reagent loading using the technique. Its versatility is demonstrated with the loading of several aqueous and non-aqueous liquids on an EWOD digital microfluidic device.

  14. Organizing an Intramural Triathlon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Suggestions for developing an intramural triathlon consisting of a 1000-yard swim, 15-mile bike ride, and 5-mile run are presented in this article. Topics to consider when organizing this event include course selection, publicity, personnel, equipment, and awards. (DF)

  15. Sensitivity of Physiological and Psychological Markers to Training Load Intensification in Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Victor H.; Nakamura, Fabio Y.; Miloski, Bernardo; Samulski, Dietmar; Bara-Filho, Mauricio G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the sensitivity of; performance in the countermovement vertical Jump (CMJ); the Recovery and Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport); the Total Quality Recovery Scale (TQR) and the creatine kinase (CK) to the deliberate intensification of volleyball training loads. For this purpose 8 athletes underwent a training period (FP) of 11 days of deliberate training load (TL) intensification followed by a second period (SP) of 14 days of reduction of loads (IT group). A further 8 athletes continued training with normal TL (NT group). Both groups were tested before the FP (baseline), after the FP and after the SP. The TL evaluated using the session rating of perceived exertion method (session-RPE) was higher after the FP compared to the SP, and higher in the IT group, compared to the NT group. The CMJ did not change in either group (p > 0.05). In the IT group, the RESTQ-Sport was altered after the FP compared to both the baseline and the SP (p < 0.05), while no change was observed in the NT group. In the IT group, the CK increased and the TQR decreased after the FP compared to both the baseline and after the SP and were higher and lower, respectively, than the NT group (p < 0.05). The results suggest that performance in the CMJ is not a sensitive variable to the fatigue caused by intensification of training loads during a pre-competitive period in volleyball, whereas CK, TQR and RESTQ-Sport were shown to be sensitive measures. Key Points The RESTQ-Sport and the TQR scales were sensitive to deliberate intensification of training loads during the pre-competitive period in volleyball athletes; The CK can be used to complement this monitoring; The CMJ performance was not sensitive to deliberate intensification of training loads in volleyball athletes. PMID:25177184

  16. The Dynamics of Speed Selection and Psycho-Physiological Load during a Mountain Ultramarathon

    PubMed Central

    Kerhervé, Hugo A.; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Solomon, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise intensity during ultramarathons (UM) is expected to be regulated as a result of the development of psycho-physiological strain and in anticipation of perceived difficulties (duration, topography). The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of speed, heart rate and perceived exertion during a long trail UM in a mountainous setting. Methods Fifteen participants were recruited from competitors in a 106 km trail mountain UM with a total elevation gain and loss of 5870 m. Speed and gradient, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (dissociated between the general [RPEGEN] and knee extensor fatigue [RPEKE] and collected using a voice recorder) were measured during the UM. Self-selected speed at three gradients (level, negative, positive), HR, RPEGEN and RPEKE were determined for each 10% section of total event duration (TED). Results The participants completed the event in 18.3 ± 3.0 h, for a total calculated distance of 105.6 ± 1.8 km. Speed at all gradients decreased, and HR at all gradients significantly decreased from 10% to 70%, 80% and 90%, but not 100% of TED. RPEGEN and RPEKE increased throughout the event. Speed increased from 90% to 100% of TED at all gradients. Average speed was significantly correlated with total time stopped (r = -.772; p = .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.15, -0.39) and the magnitude of speed loss (r = .540; p = .038; 95% CI = -1.04, -0.03), but not with the variability of speed (r = -.475; p = .073; 95% CI = -1.00, 0.05). Conclusions Participants in a mountain UM event combined positive pacing strategies (speed decreased until 70–90% of TED), an increased speed in the last 10% of the event, a decrease in HR at 70–90% of TED, and an increase in RPEGEN and RPEKE in the last 30% of the event. A greater speed loss and less total time stopped were the factors associated with increased total performance. These results could be explained by theoretical perspectives of a complex regulatory

  17. A highly sensitive near-infrared luminescent metal-organic framework thermometer in the physiological range.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dian; Zhang, Jun; Yue, Dan; Lian, Xiusheng; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2016-07-01

    A near-infrared luminescent metal-organic framework Nd0.866Yb0.134BTB was developed as a self-calibrated thermometer in the physiological range. Its features include high sensitivity and resolution, and good biocompatibility, making such a material useful for biomedical applications. PMID:27284589

  18. An adjustable RF coil loading device.

    PubMed

    Hayes, C E

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an adjustable loading device that can substitute for the tissue losses of various sized patients in a whole-body MR imager. It resembles a lowpass birdcage resonator but with resistors replacing the capacitors on the cylindrical surface. Power dissipated is a monotonic function of the total surface conductance of the loader. The loader can be used in conjunction with a low loss water filled phantom to measure signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The impact on measured SNR due to screening by the loader and changing the phantom size or composition are also briefly discussed.

  19. Spinal loads during cycling on an ergometer.

    PubMed

    Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Graichen, Friedmar; Schmidt, Hendrik; Bergmann, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Cycling on an ergometer is an effective exercise for improving fitness. However, people with back problems or previous spinal surgery are often not aware of whether cycling could be harmful for them. To date, little information exists about spinal loads during cycling. A telemeterized vertebral body replacement allows in vivo measurement of implant loads during the activities of daily living. Five patients with a severe compression fracture of a lumbar vertebral body received these implants. During one measurement session, four of the participants exercised on a bicycle ergometer at various power levels. As the power level increased, the maximum resultant force and the difference between the maximum and minimum force (force range) during each pedal revolution increased. The average maximum-force increases between the two power levels 25 and 85 W were 73, 84, 225 and 75 N for the four patients. The corresponding increases in the force range during a pedal revolution were 84, 98, 166 and 101 N. There were large variations in the measured forces between the patients and also within the same patient, especially for high power levels. In two patients, the maximum forces during high-power cycling were higher than the forces during walking measured on the same day. Therefore, the authors conclude that patients with back problems should not cycle at high power levels shortly after surgery as a precaution.

  20. An Advanced Buffet Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, Jay K.; Pitt, Dale M.; White, Edward V.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced buffet load alleviation (BLA) system that utilizes distributed piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with an active rudder to reduce the structural dynamic response of the F/A-18 aircraft vertical tails to buffet loads. The BLA system was defined analytically with a detailed finite-element-model of the tail structure and piezoelectric actuators. Oscillatory aerodynamics were included along with a buffet forcing function to complete the aeroservoelastic model of the tail with rudder control surface. Two single-input-single-output (SISO) controllers were designed, one for the active rudder and one for the active piezoelectric actuators. The results from the analytical open and closed loop simulations were used to predict the system performance. The objective of this BLA system is to extend the life of vertical tail structures and decrease their life-cycle costs. This system can be applied to other aircraft designs to address suppression of structural vibrations on military and commercial aircraft.

  1. Finite element analysis on the biomechanical stability of open porous titanium scaffolds for large segmental bone defects under physiological load conditions.

    PubMed

    Wieding, Jan; Souffrant, Robert; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Repairing large segmental defects in long bones caused by fracture, tumour or infection is still a challenging problem in orthopaedic surgery. Artificial materials, i.e. titanium and its alloys performed well in clinical applications, are plenary available, and can be manufactured in a wide range of scaffold designs. Although the mechanical properties are determined, studies about the biomechanical behaviour under physiological loading conditions are rare. The goal of our numerical study was to determine the suitability of open-porous titanium scaffolds to act as bone scaffolds. Hence, the mechanical stability of fourteen different scaffold designs was characterized under both axial compression and biomechanical loading within a large segmental distal femoral defect of 30mm. This defect was stabilized with an osteosynthesis plate and physiological hip reaction forces as well as additional muscle forces were implemented to the femoral bone. Material properties of titanium scaffolds were evaluated from experimental testing. Scaffold porosity was varied between 64 and 80%. Furthermore, the amount of material was reduced up to 50%. Uniaxial compression testing revealed a structural modulus for the scaffolds between 3.5GPa and 19.1GPa depending on porosity and material consumption. The biomechanical testing showed defect gap alterations between 0.03mm and 0.22mm for the applied scaffolds and 0.09mm for the intact bone. Our results revealed that minimizing the amount of material of the inner core has a smaller influence than increasing the porosity when the scaffolds are loaded under biomechanical loading. Furthermore, an advanced scaffold design was found acting similar as the intact bone.

  2. An Investigative Laboratory Course in Human Physiology Using Computer Technology and Collaborative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.

    2004-01-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65…

  3. Calcification, a physiological process to be considered in the context of the whole organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, H. S.; Wood, H. L.; Kendall, M. A.; Spicer, J. I.; Twitchett, R. J.; Widdicombe, S.

    2009-02-01

    Marine organisms that produce calcium carbonate structures are predicted to be most vulnerable to a decline in oceanic pH (ocean acidification) based on the understanding that calcification rates will decrease as a result of changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry thereby reducing carbonate ion concentration (and associated saturation states). Coastal seas are critical components of the global carbon cycle yet little research has been conducted on acidification impacts on coastal benthic organisms. Here, a critical appraisal of calcification in six benthic species showed, contrary to popular predictions, calcification can increase, and not decrease, in acidified seawater. Measuring the changes in calcium in isolated calcium carbonate structure as well as structures from live animals exposed to acidified seawater allowed a comparison between a species' ability to calcify and the dissolution affects across decreasing levels of pH. Calcium carbonate production is dependant on the ability to increase calcification thus counteracting an increase in dissolution. Comparison with paleoecological studies of past high carbon dioxide (CO2) events presents a similar picture. This conclusion implies that calcification may not be the critical process impacted by ocean acidification; particularly as all species investigated displayed physiological trade offs including reduced metabolism, health, and behavioural responses, in association with this calcification upregulation, which possess as great a threat to survival as an inability to calcify.

  4. A self organizing map approach to physiological data analysis for enhanced group performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Doser, Adele Beatrice; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2004-10-01

    A Self Organizing Map (SOM) approach was used to analyze physiological data taken from a group of subjects participating in a cooperative video shooting game. The ultimate aim was to discover signatures of group cooperation, conflict, leadership, and performance. Such information could be fed back to participants in a meaningful way, and ultimately increase group performance in national security applications, where the consequences of a poor group decision can be devastating. Results demonstrated that a SOM can be a useful tool in revealing individual and group signatures from physiological data, and could ultimately be used to heighten group performance.

  5. General physiology, experimental psychology, and evolutionism. Unicellular organisms as objects of psychophysiological research, 1877-1918.

    PubMed

    Schloegel, Judy Johns; Schmidgen, Henning

    2002-12-01

    This essay aims to shed new light on the relations between physiology and psychology in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by focusing on the use of unicellular organisms as research objects during that period. Within the frameworks of evolutionism and monism advocated by Ernst Haeckel, protozoa were perceived as objects situated at the borders between organism and cell and individual and society. Scholars such as Max Verworn, Alfred Binet, and Herbert Spencer Jennings were provoked by these organisms to undertake experimental investigations situated between general physiology and psychology that differed from the physiological psychology advocated by Wilhelm Wundt. Some of these investigations sought to locate psychological properties in the molecular structure of protoplasm; others stressed the existence of organic and psychological individuality in protozoa. In the following decades, leading philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Henri Bergson, as well as psychological researchers like Sigmund Freud, integrated the results of these investigations into their reflections on such problems as the nature of the will, the structure of the ego, and the holistic nature of the reactions of organisms to their environment.

  6. General physiology, experimental psychology, and evolutionism. Unicellular organisms as objects of psychophysiological research, 1877-1918.

    PubMed

    Schloegel, Judy Johns; Schmidgen, Henning

    2002-12-01

    This essay aims to shed new light on the relations between physiology and psychology in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by focusing on the use of unicellular organisms as research objects during that period. Within the frameworks of evolutionism and monism advocated by Ernst Haeckel, protozoa were perceived as objects situated at the borders between organism and cell and individual and society. Scholars such as Max Verworn, Alfred Binet, and Herbert Spencer Jennings were provoked by these organisms to undertake experimental investigations situated between general physiology and psychology that differed from the physiological psychology advocated by Wilhelm Wundt. Some of these investigations sought to locate psychological properties in the molecular structure of protoplasm; others stressed the existence of organic and psychological individuality in protozoa. In the following decades, leading philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Henri Bergson, as well as psychological researchers like Sigmund Freud, integrated the results of these investigations into their reflections on such problems as the nature of the will, the structure of the ego, and the holistic nature of the reactions of organisms to their environment. PMID:12664793

  7. Physiological Effects of an Ultra-Cycle Ride in an Amateur Athlete - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Neumayr, Günther; Gänzer, Hannes; Sturm, Wolfgang; Pfister, Rudolf; Mitterbauer, Günther; Hörtnagl, Helmut

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of ultraendurance exercise are poorly investigated. The present case report describes the exercise intensity of ultraendurance cycling and its physiological impacts on various organ functions in an amateur cyclist performing the Ötztal Radmarathon twice en bloque in a circuit of 2 identical laps (distance 460 km; cumulative altitude difference 11,000 m). In a pre-race laboratory test the athlete's performance capacity was measured as the maximal aerobic power (VO2max= 70 ml.kg-1.min-1), a maximal power output (5.7 W.kg-1) and lactate threshold of 89%. The overall intensity during the ride was moderate (HRmean = 131 b.min-1; %HRmax = 0.71) and significantly declined during the course of the race. Extensive biochemical laboratory testing performed pre- and post-race excluded major exercise-induced organ disturbances. For further confirmation and better understanding of the physiological effects of ultra-cycle events future studies of larger athlete populations are required. PMID:24672268

  8. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates

    PubMed Central

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage ΦX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

  9. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal.

  10. Novel and potential physiological roles of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-07-15

    The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (VHA) is a multi-subunit enzyme that uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport H(+) across biological membranes. VHA plays a universal role in essential cellular functions, such as the acidification of lysosomes and endosomes. In addition, the VHA-generated H(+)-motive force can drive the transport of diverse molecules across cell membranes and epithelia for specialized physiological functions. Here, I discuss diverse physiological functions of VHA in marine animals, focusing on recent discoveries about base secretion in shark gills, potential bone dissolution by Osedax bone-eating worms and its participation in a carbon-concentrating mechanism that promotes coral photosynthesis. Because VHA is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes, it is likely to play many other essential physiological roles in diverse marine organisms. Elucidating and characterizing basic VHA-dependent mechanisms could help to determine species responses to environmental stress, including (but not limited to) that resulting from climate change. PMID:27445397

  11. Iron deficiency and bioavailability in anaerobic batch and submerged membrane bioreactors (SAMBR) during organic shock loads.

    PubMed

    Ketheesan, Balachandran; Thanh, Pham Minh; Stuckey, David C

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effects of Fe(2+) and its bioavailability for controlling VFAs during organic shock loads in batch reactors and a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). When seed grown under Fe-sufficient conditions (7.95±0.05mgFe/g-TSS), an organic shock resulted in leaching of Fe from the residual to organically bound and soluble forms. Under Fe-deficient seed conditions (0.1±0.002mgFe/gTSS), Fe(2+) supplementation (3.34mgFe(2+)/g-TSS) with acetate resulted in a 2.1-3.9 fold increase in the rate of methane production, while with propionate it increased by 1.2-1.5 fold compared to non-Fe(2+) supplemented reactors. Precipitation of Fe(2+) as sulphides and organically bound Fe were bioavailable to methanogens for acetate assimilation. The results confirmed that the transitory/long term limitations of Fe play a significant role in controlling the degradation of VFAs during organic shock loads due to their varying physical/chemical states, and bioavailability. PMID:27015020

  12. An organic thyristor.

    PubMed

    Sawano, F; Terasaki, I; Mori, H; Mori, T; Watanabe, M; Ikeda, N; Nogami, Y; Noda, Y

    2005-09-22

    Thyristors are a class of nonlinear electronic device that exhibit bistable resistance--that is, they can be switched between two different conductance states. Thyristors are widely used as inverters (direct to alternating current converters) and for the smooth control of power in a variety of applications such as motors and refrigerators. Materials and structures that exhibit nonlinear resistance of this sort are not only useful for practical applications: they also provide systems for exploring fundamental aspects of solid-state and statistical physics. Here we report the discovery of a giant nonlinear resistance effect in the conducting organic salt theta-(BEDT-TTF)2CsCo(SCN)4, the voltage-current characteristics of which are essentially the same as those of a conventional thyristor. This intrinsic organic thyristor works as an inverter, generating an alternating current when a static direct-current voltage is applied. Whereas conventional thyristors consist of a series of diodes (their nonlinearity comes from interface effects at the p-n junctions), the present salt exhibits giant nonlinear resistance as a bulk phenomenon. We attribute the origin of this effect to the current-induced melting of insulating charge-order domains, an intrinsically non-equilibrium phenomenon in the sense that ordered domains are melted by a steady flow.

  13. Physiological and biochemical leaf and tree responses to crop load in apple.

    PubMed

    Wünsche, Jens N; Greer, Dennis H; Laing, William A; Palmer, John W

    2005-10-01

    Seven-year-old apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees cv. 'Braeburn' on rootstock M.26 were flower-thinned to establish four crop loads, resulting in final mean fruit numbers per tree of 0, 100, 225 and 400. Mean fruit mass decreased by about 35% with each decrease in cropping density. Fruit from light-cropping trees had significantly advanced maturity as indicated by the harvest management criteria of background color and starch/iodine score, and other fruit quality characteristics such as soluble solids. Flesh firmness and dry matter also increased with decreasing crop load. Compared with fruiting trees, mean leaf photosynthetic rates of non-cropping trees were significantly lower (40%) between 75 days after full bloom (dafb) and fruit harvest, with a maximum reduction of almost 60% at 118 dafb. Photosynthetic activity decreased linearly with increasing concentration of leaf starch, but was positively and significantly related to stomatal conductance. Consequently, the accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates in leaves of light-cropping or non-cropping trees may have led to end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. Increases in xanthophyll cycle carotenoids mediated non-radiative thermal energy dissipation in non-cropping trees, providing increased capacity for photoprotection but reducing photochemical efficiency.

  14. The Cartesian Diver as an Aid for Teaching Respiratory Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Greg K.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism by which air enters the mammalian lung is difficult for many students of physiology. In particular, some students have trouble seeing how pressure can be transmitted through a fluid such as the intrapleural fluid and how the magnitude of that pressure can change. A Cartesian diver, an old-time child's toy, may be used as a visual aid…

  15. Load-dependent extracellular matrix organization in atrioventricular heart valves: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Alavi, S Hamed; Sinha, Aditi; Steward, Earl; Milliken, Jeffrey C; Kheradvar, Arash

    2015-07-15

    The extracellular matrix of the atrioventricular (AV) valves' leaflets has a key role in the ability of these valves to properly remodel in response to constantly varying physiological loads. While the loading on mitral and tricuspid valves is significantly different, no information is available on how collagen fibers change their orientation in response to these loads. This study delineates the effect of physiological loading on AV valves' leaflets microstructures using Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. Fresh natural porcine tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets (n = 12/valve type) were cut and prepared for the experiments. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to compare the microstructural differences between the valves. The specimens were imaged live during the relaxed, loading, and unloading phases using SHG microscopy. The images were analyzed with Fourier decomposition to mathematically seek changes in collagen fiber orientation. Despite the similarities in both AV valves as seen in the histology and immunohistochemistry data, the microstructural arrangement, especially the collagen fiber distribution and orientation in the stress-free condition, were found to be different. Uniaxial loading was dependent on the arrangement of the fibers in their relaxed mode, which led the fibers to reorient in-line with the load throughout the depth of the mitral leaflet but only to reorient in-line with the load in deeper layers of the tricuspid leaflet. Biaxial loading arranged the fibers in between the two principal axes of the stresses independently from their relaxed states. Unlike previous findings, this study concludes that the AV valves' three-dimensional extracellular fiber arrangement is significantly different in their stress-free and uniaxially loaded states; however, fiber rearrangement in response to the biaxial loading remains similar.

  16. [Development and validation of a CO-T1 three-dimensional finite element model of a healthy person under physiologic loads].

    PubMed

    Wang, Huihao; Zhan, Hongsheng; Chen, Bo; Shi, Yinyu; Li, Linghui; Du, Guoqing

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive, geometrically accurate, nonlinear C0-T1 three-dimensional finite element (FE) model was developed for the biomechanical study of human cervical spine and related disorders. The model was developed with anatomic detail from the computed tomography (CT) images of a 46-year-old female healthy volunteer, and applied the finite element model processing softwares such as MIMICS13.1, Hypermesh11.0, Abaqus 6.12-1, etc., for developing, preprocessing, calculating and analysing sequentially. The stress concentration region and the range of motion (ROM) of each vertebral level under axial rotation, flexion, extension, and lateral bending under physiologic static loadings were observed and recorded. The model was proven reliable, which was validated with the range of motion in previous published literatures. The model predicted the front and side parts of the foramen magnum and contralateral pedicle and facet was the stress concentration region under physiological loads of the upper spine and the lower spine, respectively. The development of this comprehensive, geometrically accurate, nonlinear cervical spine FE model could provide an ideal platform for theoretical biomechanical study of human cervical spine and related disorders. PMID:25868237

  17. An Earth-Based Model of Microgravity Pulmonary Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschl, Ronald B.; Bull, Joseph L.; Grothberg, James B.

    2004-01-01

    There are currently only two practical methods of achieving micro G for experimentation: parabolic flight in an aircraft or space flight, both of which have limitations. As a result, there are many important aspects of pulmonary physiology that have not been investigated in micro G. We propose to develop an earth-based animal model of micro G by using liquid ventilation, which will allow us to fill the lungs with perfluorocarbon, and submersing the animal in water such that the density of the lungs is the same as the surrounding environment. By so doing, we will eliminate the effects of gravity on respiration. We will first validate the model by comparing measures of pulmonary physiology, including cardiac output, central venous pressures, lung volumes, and pulmonary mechanics, to previous space flight and parabolic flight measurements. After validating the model, we will investigate the impact of micro G on aspects of lung physiology that have not been previously measured. These will include pulmonary blood flow distribution, ventilation distribution, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, ventilation-perfusion matching, and pleural pressures and flows. We expect that this earth-based model of micro G will enhance our knowledge and understanding of lung physiology in space which will increase in importance as space flights increase in time and distance.

  18. An overview of estrogen-associated endocrine disruption in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Simply and perhaps intuitively defined, endocrine disruption is the abnormal modulation of normal hormonal physiology by exogenous chemicals. In fish, endocrine disruption of the reproductive system has been observed worldwide in numerous species and is known to affect both males and females. Observations of biologically relevant endocrine disruption most commonly occurs near waste water treatment plant outfalls, pulp and paper mills, and areas of high organic loading sometimes associated with agricultural practices. Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received an overwhelmingly disproportionate amount of scientific attention compared to other EDCs in recent years. In male fishes, exposure to EEDCs can lead to the induction of testicular oocytes (intersex), measurable plasma vitellogenin protein, altered sex steroid profiles, abnormal spawning behavior, skewed population sex ratios, and lessened reproductive success. Interestingly, contemporary research purports that EDCs modulate aspects of non-reproductive physiology including immune function. Here we present an overview of endocrine disruption in fishes associated with estrogenic compounds, implications of this phenomenon, and examples of EDC related research findings by our group in the Potomac River Watershed, USA.

  19. Dietary salt loading and ion-poor water exposure provide insight into the molecular physiology of the rainbow trout gill epithelium tight junction complex.

    PubMed

    Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2016-08-01

    This study utilized dietary salt loading and ion-poor water (IPW) exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to further understand the role of fish gill epithelium tight junction (TJ) physiology in salt and water balance. Gill morphology, biochemistry and molecular physiology were examined, with an emphasis on genes encoding TJ proteins. Fish were either fed a control or salt-enriched diet (~10 % NaCl) for 4 weeks prior to IPW exposure for 24 h. Serum [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle moisture content were unaltered by salt feeding, but changed in response to IPW irrespective of diet. Dietary salt loading altered the morphology (reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-immunoreactive cell numbers and surface exposure of mitochondrion-rich cells), biochemistry (decreased vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase activity) and molecular physiology (decreased nkaα1a and cftrII mRNA abundance) of the gill in a manner indicative of reduced active ion uptake activity. But in control fish and not salt-fed fish, gill mRNA abundance of nkaα1c increased and nbc decreased after IPW exposure. Genes encoding TJ proteins were typically either responsive to salt feeding or IPW, but select genes responded to combined experimental treatment (e.g. IPW responsive but only if fish were salt-fed). Therefore, using salt feeding and IPW exposure, new insights into what factors influence gill TJ proteins and the role that specific TJ proteins might play in regulating the barrier properties of the gill epithelium have been acquired. In particular, evidence suggests that TJ proteins in the gill epithelium, or the regulatory networks that control them, respond independently to external or internal stimuli. PMID:27083431

  20. Physiological characterization of formyl peptide receptor expressing cells in the mouse vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Ackels, Tobias; von der Weid, Benoît; Rodriguez, Ivan; Spehr, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs/V2Rs) or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. While various neurophysiological properties of both V1R- and V2R-expressing neurons have been described using genetically engineered mouse models, the basic biophysical characteristics of the more recently identified FPR-expressing vomeronasal neurons have not been studied. Here, we employ a transgenic mouse strain that coexpresses an enhanced variant of yellow fluorescent protein together with FPR-rs3 allowing to identify and analyze FPR-rs3-expressing neurons in acute VNO tissue slices. Single neuron electrophysiological recordings allow comparative characterization of the biophysical properties inherent to a prototypical member of the FPR-expressing subpopulation of VNO neurons. In this study, we provide an in-depth analysis of both passive and active membrane properties, including detailed characterization of several types of voltage-activated conductances and action potential discharge patterns, in fluorescently labeled vs. unmarked vomeronasal neurons. Our results reveal striking similarities in the basic (electro) physiological architecture of both transgene-expressing and non-expressing neurons, confirming the suitability of this genetically engineered mouse model for future studies addressing more specialized issues in vomeronasal FPR neurobiology. PMID:25484858

  1. Gastrointestinal Tract Commensal Bacteria and Probiotics: Influence on End-Organ Physiology.

    PubMed

    Vitetta, Luis; Palacios, Talia; Hall, Sean; Coulson, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria represent the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included cooperative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). It is generally agreed upon that the fusion of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryotic cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryotes. This is expressed by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells (an alpha-proteobacteria input), a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. As such, the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activities. Hence, microbial colonization of mammals has been a progressively driven process. The interactions between the human host and the microbiome inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for example, afford the human host the necessary cues for the development of regulated signals that in part are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). This regulated activity then promotes immunological tolerance and metabolic regulation and stability, which then helps establish control of local and extraintestinal end-organ (e.g., kidneys) physiology. Pharmacobiotics, the targeted administration of live probiotic cultures, is an advancing area of potential therapeutics, either directly or as adjuvants. Hence the continued scientific understanding of the human microbiome in health and disease may further lead to fine tuning the targeted delivery of probiotics for a therapeutic gain. PMID:26462363

  2. Maximum organic loading rate for the single-stage wet anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Minako; Niwa, Chiaki; Kurosawa, Norio; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted at high OLR from 3.7 to 12.9 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) for 225 days. Periods without organic loading were arranged between the each loading period. Stable operation at an OLR of 9.2 kg-VS (15.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was achieved with a high VS reduction (91.8%) and high methane yield (455 mL g-VS-1). The cell density increased in the periods without organic loading, and reached to 10.9×10(10) cells mL(-1) on day 187, which was around 15 times higher than that of the seed sludge. There was a significant correlation between OLR and saturated TSS in the sludge (y=17.3e(0.1679×), r(2)=0.996, P<0.05). A theoretical maximum OLR of 10.5 kg-VS (17.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was obtained for mesophilic single-stage wet anaerobic digestion that is able to maintain a stable operation with high methane yield and VS reduction.

  3. Fate of aerobic bacterial granules with fungal contamination under different organic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, An-jie; Zhang, Tong; Li, Xiao-yan

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic sludge granulation is an attractive new technology for biological wastewater treatment. However, the instability of aerobic granules caused by fungal growth is still one of the main problems encountered in granular bioreactors. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the fate and transformation of aerobic granules under different organic loading conditions. Bacterial granules (2-3mm) in a poor condition with fungi-like black filamentous growth were seeded into two 1L batch reactors. After more than 100d of cultivation, the small seed granules in the two reactors had grown into two different types of large granules (>20mm) with different and unique morphological features. In reactor R1 with a high organic loading rate of 2.0g COD L(-1)d(-1), the black filaments mostly disappeared from the granules, and the dominance of rod-shaped bacteria was recovered. In contrast, at a low loading of 0.5g COD L(-1)d(-1) in reactor R2, the filaments eventually became dominant in the black fungal granules. The bacteria in R1 granules had a unique web-like structure with large pores of a few hundred microm in size, which would allow for effective substrate and oxygen transport into the interior of the granules. DNA-based molecular analysis indicated the evolution of the bacterial population in R1 and that of the eukaryal community in R2. The experimental results suggest that a high loading rate can be an effective means of helping to control fungal bloom, recover bacterial domination and restore the stability of aerobic granules that suffer from fungal contamination.

  4. Bridging Between Proline Structure, Functions, Metabolism, and Involvement in Organism Physiology.

    PubMed

    Saibi, Walid; Feki, Kaouthar; Yacoubi, Ines; Brini, Faiçal

    2015-08-01

    Much is now known about proline multifunctionality and metabolism; some aspects of its biological functions are still unclear. Here, we discuss some cases in the proline, structure, definition, metabolism, compartmentalization, accumulation, plausible functions and also its implication in homeostasis and organism physiology. Indeed, we report the role of proline in cellular homeostasis, including redox balance and energy status and their implication as biocatalyst for aldolase activity. Proline can act as a signaling molecule to modulate mitochondrial functions, influence cell proliferation or cell death, and trigger specific gene expression, which can be essential for plant recovery from stresses. Although, the regulation and the function of proline accumulation, during abiotic stresses, are not yet completely understood. The engineering of proline metabolism could lead to new opportunities to improve plant tolerance against environmental stresses. This atypical amino acid has a potential role in the toxicity during growth of some microorganism, vegetal, and mammalian species. Furthermore, we note that the purpose through the work is to provide a rich, concise, and mostly cohesive source on proline, considered as a platform and an anchor between several disciplines and biological functions.

  5. Quasi-Static Viscoelasticity Loading Measurements of an Aircraft Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Angela J.; Tanner, John A.; Johnson, Arthur R.

    1997-01-01

    Stair-step loading, cyclic loading, and long-term relaxation tests were performed on an aircraft tire to observe the quasi-static viscoelastic response of the tire. The data indicate that the tire continues to respond viscoelastically even after it has been softened by deformation. Load relaxation data from the stair-step test at the 15,000-lb loading was fit to a monotonically decreasing Prony series.

  6. Post-wildfire physiological ecology of an Australian microbat.

    PubMed

    Doty, Anna C; Stawski, Clare; Law, Brad S; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Historical patterns of wildfires are being altered as a result of changing climate and therefore are becoming an increasingly pressing global issue. How small mammals deal physiologically with changes in landscape and food availability due to fire remains largely unknown, although recent studies on small heterothermic terrestrial mammals have shown an increase in post-fire torpor use to reduce energy and foraging requirements. However, data on the behavioural and physiological responses of bats after fires are scarce, although potentially these volant species may differ from terrestrial mammals. Therefore, we investigated the post-fire thermal biology and activity of lesser long-eared bats (Nyctophilus geoffroyi) using temperature-telemetry in Warrumbungle National Park, NSW, which experienced a devastating wildfire in 2013. The study comprised two field seasons, one in 2013 within 4 months after the fire, and one in 2015 two years after the fire to identify potential changes in behaviour and physiology. Interestingly, soon after the fire, bats showed significantly shorter torpor bout duration (11.8 ± 12.5 h) and longer normothermia duration (8.7 ± 4.6 h) in comparison to those in 2015 (torpor bout duration: 24.1 ± 23.5 h; normothermia duration: 2.5 ± 1.5 h). Insect availability was significantly (20-fold) higher in 2013 than in 2015, which was likely an important factor resulting in the short average torpor bout duration by N. geoffroyi after the fire. Our data indicate that volant bats appear to show the opposite post-fire behavioural and physiological responses to small terrestrial mammals, showing longer normothermic and active periods and shorter torpor bouts to capitalise on an increase in available post-fire resources. PMID:27245066

  7. Organic micropollutants in the Yangtze River: seasonal occurrence and annual loads.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weixiao; Müller, Beat; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoit; Singer, Heinz; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Berg, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Twenty percent of the water run-off from China's land surface drains into the Yangtze River and carries the sewage of approximately 400 million people out to sea. The lower stretch of the Yangtze therefore offers the opportunity to assess the pollutant discharge of a huge population. To establish a comprehensive assessment of micropollutants, river water samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 along a cross-section at the lowermost hydrological station of the Yangtze River not influenced by the tide (Datong Station, Anhui province). Following a prescreening of 268 target compounds, we examined the occurrence, seasonal variation, and annual loads of 117 organic micropollutants, including 51 pesticides, 43 pharmaceuticals, 7 household and industrial chemicals, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the 14-month study, the maximum concentrations of particulate PAHs (1-5 μg/g), pesticides (11-284 ng/L), pharmaceuticals (5-224 ng/L), and household and industrial chemicals (4-430 ng/L) were generally lower than in other Chinese rivers due to the dilution caused of the Yangtze River's average water discharge of approximately 30,000 m(3)/s. The loads of most pesticides, anti-infectives, and PAHs were higher in the wet season compared to the dry season, which was attributed to the increased agricultural application of chemicals in the summer, an elevated water discharge through the sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of high hydraulic loads and the related lower treatment efficiency, and seasonally increased deposition from the atmosphere and runoff from the catchment. The estimated annual load of PAHs in the river accounted for some 4% of the total emission of PAHs in the whole Yangtze Basin. Furthermore, by using sucralose as a tracer for domestic wastewater, we estimate a daily disposal of approximately 47 million m(3) of sewage into the river, corresponding to 1.8% of its average hydraulic load. In summary

  8. Organic micropollutants in the Yangtze River: seasonal occurrence and annual loads.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weixiao; Müller, Beat; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoit; Singer, Heinz; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Berg, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Twenty percent of the water run-off from China's land surface drains into the Yangtze River and carries the sewage of approximately 400 million people out to sea. The lower stretch of the Yangtze therefore offers the opportunity to assess the pollutant discharge of a huge population. To establish a comprehensive assessment of micropollutants, river water samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 along a cross-section at the lowermost hydrological station of the Yangtze River not influenced by the tide (Datong Station, Anhui province). Following a prescreening of 268 target compounds, we examined the occurrence, seasonal variation, and annual loads of 117 organic micropollutants, including 51 pesticides, 43 pharmaceuticals, 7 household and industrial chemicals, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the 14-month study, the maximum concentrations of particulate PAHs (1-5 μg/g), pesticides (11-284 ng/L), pharmaceuticals (5-224 ng/L), and household and industrial chemicals (4-430 ng/L) were generally lower than in other Chinese rivers due to the dilution caused of the Yangtze River's average water discharge of approximately 30,000 m(3)/s. The loads of most pesticides, anti-infectives, and PAHs were higher in the wet season compared to the dry season, which was attributed to the increased agricultural application of chemicals in the summer, an elevated water discharge through the sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of high hydraulic loads and the related lower treatment efficiency, and seasonally increased deposition from the atmosphere and runoff from the catchment. The estimated annual load of PAHs in the river accounted for some 4% of the total emission of PAHs in the whole Yangtze Basin. Furthermore, by using sucralose as a tracer for domestic wastewater, we estimate a daily disposal of approximately 47 million m(3) of sewage into the river, corresponding to 1.8% of its average hydraulic load. In summary

  9. Ammonium removal in constructed wetland microcosms as influenced by season and organic carbon load.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kate A; Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated ammonium nitrogen removal and nitrogen transformations in three-year-old, batch-operated, subsurface wetland microcosms. Treatments included replicates of Typha latifolia, Carex rostrata, and unplanted controls when influent carbon was excluded, and C. rostrata with an influent containing organic carbon. A series of 10-day batch incubations were conducted over a simulated yearlong cycle of seasons. The presence of plants significantly enhanced ammonium removal during both summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) conditions, but significant differences between plant species were evident only in summer when C. rostrata outperformed T. latifolia. The effect of organic carbon load was distinctly seasonal, enhancing C. rostrata ammonium removal in winter but having an inhibitory effect in summer. Season did not influence ammonium removal in T. latifolia or unplanted columns. Net production of organic carbon was evident year-round in units without an influent organic carbon source, but was enhanced in summer, especially for C. rostrata, which produced significantly more than T. latifolia and unplanted controls. No differences in production were evident between species in winter. COD values for C. rostrata microcosms with and without influent organic carbon converged within 24 hours in winter and 7 days in summer. Gravel sorption, microbial immobilization and sequential nitrification/denitrification appear to be the major nitrogen removal mechanisms. All evidence suggests differences between season and species are due to differences in seasonal variation of root-zone oxidation.

  10. Virtual Organizations: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nami, Mohammad Reza

    The need to remain competitive in the open market forces companies to concentrate on their core competencies while searching for alliances when additional skills or resources are needed to fulfill business opportunities. The changing business situation of companies and customer needs have motivated researchers to introduce Virtual Organization (VO) idea. A Virtual Organization is always a form of partnership and managing partners and handling partnerships are crucial. Virtual organizations are defined as a temporary collection of enterprises that cooperate and share resources, knowledge, and competencies to better respond to business opportunities. This paper presents base concepts of virtual organizations including properties, management concepts, operational concepts, and main issues in collaboration such as security and authentication.

  11. An Earth-based Model of Microgravity Pulmonary Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschl, Ronald B.; Bull, Joseph L.; Grotberg, James B.

    2004-01-01

    There are currently only two practical methods of achieving microgravity for experimentation: parabolic flight in an aircraft or space flight, both of which have limitations. As a result, there are many important aspects of pulmonary physiology that have not been investigated in microgravity. We propose to develop an earth-based animal model of microgravity by using liquid ventilation, which will allow us to fill the lungs with perfluorocarbon, and submersing the animal in water such that the density of the lungs is the same as the surrounding environment. By so doing, we will eliminate the effects of gravity on respiration. We will first validate the model by comparing measures of pulmonary mechanics, to previous space flight and parabolic flight measurements. After validating the model, we will investigate the impact of microgravity on aspects of lung physiology that have not been previously measured. These will include pulmonary blood flow distribution, ventillation distribution, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, ventilation-perfusion matching and pleural pressures and flows. We expect that this earth-based model of microgravity will enhance our knowledge and understanding of lung physiology in space which will increase in importance as space flights increase in time and distance.

  12. Biological treatment of mining wastewaters by fixed-bed bioreactors at high organic loading.

    PubMed

    Bratkova, Svetlana; Koumanova, Bogdana; Beschkov, Venko

    2013-06-01

    Acid wastewaters contaminated with Fe - 1000 mg L(-1) and Cu - 100 mg L(-1) were remediated by microbial sulfate-reduction at high organic loading (theoretical TOC/SO4(2-) ratio 1.1) in a laboratory installation. The installation design includes a fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor for sulfate-reduction, a chemical reactor, a settler and a three-sectional bioreactor for residual organic compounds and hydrogen sulfide removal. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are immobilized on saturated zeolite in the fixed-bed bioreactor. The source of carbon and energy for bacteria was concentrated solution, containing ethanol, glycerol, lactate and citrate. Heavy metals removal was achieved by produced H2S at sulfate loading rate 88 mg L(-1)h(-1). The effluent of the anaerobic bioreactor was characterized with high concentrations of acetate and ethanol. The design of the second bioreactor (presence of two aerobic and an anoxic zones) makes possible the occurrence of nitrification and denitrification as well as the efficiently removal of residual organic compounds and H2S.

  13. What is conservation physiology? Perspectives on an increasingly integrated and essential science(†).

    PubMed

    Cooke, Steven J; Sack, Lawren; Franklin, Craig E; Farrell, Anthony P; Beardall, John; Wikelski, Martin; Chown, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Globally, ecosystems and their constituent flora and fauna face the localized and broad-scale influence of human activities. Conservation practitioners and environmental managers struggle to identify and mitigate threats, reverse species declines, restore degraded ecosystems, and manage natural resources sustainably. Scientific research and evidence are increasingly regarded as the foundation for new regulations, conservation actions, and management interventions. Conservation biologists and managers have traditionally focused on the characteristics (e.g. abundance, structure, trends) of populations, species, communities, and ecosystems, and simple indicators of the responses to environmental perturbations and other human activities. However, an understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying conservation problems is becoming increasingly important for decision-making, in part because physiological tools and knowledge are especially useful for developing cause-and-effect relationships, and for identifying the optimal range of habitats and stressor thresholds for different organisms. When physiological knowledge is incorporated into ecological models, it can improve predictions of organism responses to environmental change and provide tools to support management decisions. Without such knowledge, we may be left with simple associations. 'Conservation physiology' has been defined previously with a focus on vertebrates, but here we redefine the concept universally, for application to the diversity of taxa from microbes to plants, to animals, and to natural resources. We also consider 'physiology' in the broadest possible terms; i.e. how an organism functions, and any associated mechanisms, from development to bioenergetics, to environmental interactions, through to fitness. Moreover, we consider conservation physiology to include a wide range of applications beyond assisting imperiled populations, and include, for example, the eradication of invasive species

  14. Physiological load associated with a Zumba(®) fitness workout: a comparison pilot study between classes and a DVD.

    PubMed

    Delextrat, Anne; Neupert, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to compare the metabolic load elicited by Zumba(®) classes and DVD workouts and link the physiological responses to participants' psychological characteristics. Fifteen women (25.4 ± 4.3 years old; 164.9 ± 5.1 cm; 56.9 ± 5.8 kg; 23.9 ± 4.9% body fat) performed three Zumba(®) classes and three Zumba(®) DVD workouts using a repeated measure design. Energy expenditure was assessed by extrapolating oxygen cost from heart rate (HR) using regressions from a preliminary incremental running test. Differences between Zumba(®) classes and Zumba(®) DVD workouts were assessed by Student's T tests and repeated measures analysis of variance and correlations between physiological and psychological variables by the Pearson's coefficient. Results showed that Zumba(®) classes allowed greater energy expenditure compared to Zumba(®) DVD workouts (6.8 ± 0.9 vs 5.6 ± 0.9 kcal · min(-1), 95% confidence interval (CI) limits: 0.3-2.1, P = 0.016), with significant differences in the time spent with a HR above 85% of HR reserve (14.7 vs 1.7%, 95% CI: 5.6-20.4, P = 0.021). Furthermore, women with a greater autonomy score showed a smaller difference between DVD and class (r = 0.511, P = 0.048), while greater differences were shown in women with greater interpersonal skills (r = -0.563, P = 0.028). The results suggest that while both types of workouts are suitable to maintain fitness Zumba(®) classes allow greater energy expenditure. PMID:25854638

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LYMPH VESSELS OF UPPER AERO DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND CERVICAL SATELLITE LYMPH NODE GROUP.

    PubMed

    Ciupilan, Corina; Stan, C I

    2016-01-01

    The almost constant local regional development of the cancers of upper aero digestive organs requires the same special attention to cervical lymph node metastases, as well as to the primary neoplastic burning point. The surgical therapy alone or associated has a mutilating, damaging character, resulting in loss of an organ and function, most of the times with social implications, involving physical distortions with aesthetic consequences, which make the reintegration of the individual into society questionable. The problem of cervical lymph node metastases is vast and complex, reason why we approached several anatomical and physiological aspects of lymph vessels of the aero digestive organs. Among the available elements during treatment, the headquarters of the tumour, its histologic degree, and its infiltrative nature, each of them significantly influences the possibility of developing metastases.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LYMPH VESSELS OF UPPER AERO DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND CERVICAL SATELLITE LYMPH NODE GROUP.

    PubMed

    Ciupilan, Corina; Stan, C I

    2016-01-01

    The almost constant local regional development of the cancers of upper aero digestive organs requires the same special attention to cervical lymph node metastases, as well as to the primary neoplastic burning point. The surgical therapy alone or associated has a mutilating, damaging character, resulting in loss of an organ and function, most of the times with social implications, involving physical distortions with aesthetic consequences, which make the reintegration of the individual into society questionable. The problem of cervical lymph node metastases is vast and complex, reason why we approached several anatomical and physiological aspects of lymph vessels of the aero digestive organs. Among the available elements during treatment, the headquarters of the tumour, its histologic degree, and its infiltrative nature, each of them significantly influences the possibility of developing metastases. PMID:27483727

  17. Dynamic OCT for physiological functions of micro organs in human fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ohmi, Masato; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Fuji, Toshie; Yamada, Akihiro; Saigusa, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Mitsuo

    2007-11-01

    OCT is a powerful tool for detection of physiological functions of micro organs underneath the human skin surface, besides the clinical application to ophthalmology, as recently demonstrated by the authors' group. In particular, dynamics of peripheral vessels and eccrin sweat glands can be observed clearly in the time-sequential OCT images. The physiological functions of these micro organs, sweating and blood circulation, are controlled by the skin sympathetic nerve in response to externally applied stress. In this paper, we present microscopically analytical results based on the dynamic OCT of the micro organs in human fingers. In sweating dynamics, it is found that a spiral sweat duct is expanded by abrupt increase of sweat due to application of stress to a volunteer, resulting in remarkable increase of the reflection light intensity of the spiral duct in OCT. Mental-stress-induced sweating in each eccrin sweat gland, therefore, is analyzed quantitatively. Furthermore, dynamic OCT observation of peripheral vessels is interesting. A small vein of a human finger is observed clearly by the TD-OCT, where the vein expands and contracts repeatedly even in the resting state for temperature control on the fingertip. A change in the cross-sectional area of the vein exceeds 80 % for a young volunteer. The dynamic OCT will allow us to propose novel diagnoses of excessive sweating and diseases related to the sympathetic nerve.

  18. Size control: the developmental physiology of body and organ size regulation.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Rewatee H; Shingleton, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    The developmental regulation of final body and organ size is fundamental to generating a functional and correctly proportioned adult. Research over the last two decades has identified a long list of genes and signaling pathways that, when perturbed, influence final body size. However, body and organ size are ultimately a characteristic of the whole organism, and how these myriad genes and pathways function within a physiological context to control size remains largely unknown. In this review, we first describe the major size-regulatory signaling pathways: the Insulin/IGF-, RAS/RAF/MAPK-, TOR-, Hippo-, and JNK-signaling pathways. We then explore what is known of how these pathways regulate five major aspects of size regulation: growth rate, growth duration, target size, negative growth and growth coordination. While this review is by no means exhaustive, our goal is to provide a conceptual framework for integrating the mechanisms of size control at a molecular-genetic level with the mechanisms of size control at a physiological level.

  19. An Organic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adshead, Mary Lois Timbes

    2001-01-01

    A former student reminisces about attending the Organic School in Fairhope, Alabama, in the 1950s. Founded in 1903, the school pioneered child-centered education; had multigraded classes; incorporated dance, pottery, weaving, and art into the curriculum; and was guided generally by the philosophy that education is not preparation for life, but…

  20. Physiological roles for the subfornical organ: a dynamic transcriptome shaped by autonomic state.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, Charles Colin Thomas; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2016-03-15

    The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular organ recognized for its ability to sense and integrate hydromineral and hormonal circulating fluid balance signals, information which is transmitted to central autonomic nuclei to which SFO neurons project. While the role of SFO was once synonymous with physiological responses to osmotic, volumetric and cardiovascular challenge, recent data suggest that SFO neurons also sense and integrate information from circulating signals of metabolic status. Using microarrays, we have confirmed the expression of receptors already described in the SFO, and identified many novel transcripts expressed in this circumventricular organ including receptors for many of the critical circulating energy balance signals such as adiponectin, apelin, endocannabinoids, leptin, insulin and peptide YY. This transcriptome analysis also identified SFO transcripts, the expressions of which are significantly changed by either 72 h dehydration, or 48 h starvation, compared to fed and euhydrated controls. Expression and potential roles for many of these targets are yet to be confirmed and elucidated. Subsequent validation of data for adiponectin and leptin receptors confirmed that receptors for both are expressed in the SFO, that discrete populations of neurons in this tissue are functionally responsive to these adipokines, and that such responsiveness is regulated by physiological state. Thus, transcriptomic analysis offers great promise for understanding the integrative complexity of these physiological systems, especially with development of technologies allowing description of the entire transcriptome of single, carefully phenotyped, SFO neurons. These data will ultimately elucidate mechanisms through which these uniquely positioned neurons respond to and integrate complex circulating signals.

  1. MODELLING THE UPTAKE AND DISPOSITION OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN FISH USING A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models for hydrophobic chemicals in fish requires: 1) an understanding of chemical efflux at fish gills; 2) knowledge of the factors that limit chemical exchange between blood and tissues; and, 3) a mechanistic descrip...

  2. Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-02-01

    Microplastics have the potential to uptake and release persistent organic pollutants (POPs); however, subsequent transfer to marine organisms is poorly understood. Some models estimating transfer of sorbed contaminants to organisms neglect the role of gut surfactants under differing physiological conditions in the gut (varying pH and temperature), examined here. We investigated the potential for polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) to sorb and desorb (14)C-DDT, (14)C-phenanthrene (Phe), (14)C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and (14)C-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Desorption rates of POPs were quantified in seawater and under simulated gut conditions. Influence of pH and temperature was examined in order to represent cold and warm blooded organisms. Desorption rates were faster with gut surfactant, with a further substantial increase under conditions simulating warm blooded organisms. Desorption under gut conditions could be up to 30 times greater than in seawater alone. Of the POP/plastic combinations examined Phe with PE gave the highest potential for transport to organisms.

  3. Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-02-01

    Microplastics have the potential to uptake and release persistent organic pollutants (POPs); however, subsequent transfer to marine organisms is poorly understood. Some models estimating transfer of sorbed contaminants to organisms neglect the role of gut surfactants under differing physiological conditions in the gut (varying pH and temperature), examined here. We investigated the potential for polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) to sorb and desorb (14)C-DDT, (14)C-phenanthrene (Phe), (14)C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and (14)C-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Desorption rates of POPs were quantified in seawater and under simulated gut conditions. Influence of pH and temperature was examined in order to represent cold and warm blooded organisms. Desorption rates were faster with gut surfactant, with a further substantial increase under conditions simulating warm blooded organisms. Desorption under gut conditions could be up to 30 times greater than in seawater alone. Of the POP/plastic combinations examined Phe with PE gave the highest potential for transport to organisms. PMID:24212067

  4. Load Carriage: An Integrated Risk Management Approach.

    PubMed

    Orr, Robin M; Pope, Rodney R

    2015-11-01

    Military load carriage (LC) gives rise to substantial risks to soldier health, tactical performance, and mission success. The aim of this article was to extract and synthesize the key findings of a series of LC research reports previously published by the authors. Five reviews and 6 studies were included, with key findings extracted and synthesized in tabulated and critical narrative form. The weight of a soldier's load is a source of risk for soldier's injuries and tactical task performance. The resulting level of risk is influenced by risk modifiers (like speed of march, terrain grade, and task type and duration) and risk controls (like administrative controls and physical conditioning). In the Australian context, these risk controls were limited, with soldiers carrying heavier loads than those mandated by doctrine and policy, and LC conditioning not meeting best practice. The diversity of LC contexts, combined with the influence of risk modifiers and risk controls, means that levels of risk associated with LC are not consistent and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Load weight and marching routes (terrains, gradients), distances, speed, and duration are all potentially treatable sources of LC-related risk. Potential risk treatments include not only commanders directly addressing these specific sources of risk to the extent feasible, on a case-by-case basis, when planning or conducting LC tasks but also improving administration controls (i.e., doctrine and policies) and personal protection (i.e., the physical conditioning of the soldier) as part of the hierarchy of controls. Practical application would involve commanders developing and implementing dedicated LC doctrine and policies and implementing and enforcing LC conditioning programs that meets best practice. PMID:26506174

  5. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  6. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, George R.

    1986-01-01

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  7. Increased cloud activation potential of secondary organic aerosol for atmospheric mass loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. M.; Rosenoern, T.; Shilling, J. E.; Chen, Q.; Martin, S. T.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m-3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate) Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m-3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m-3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. A sensitivity analysis suggests that a drop in surface tension must be invoked to explain quantitatively the CCN observations at low SOA particle mass loadings. Other factors, such as decreased molecular weight, increased density, or increased van't Hoff factor, can contribute to the explanation but are quantitatively insufficient as the full explanation.

  8. Increased Cloud Activation Potential of Secondary Organic Aerosol for Atmospheric Mass Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    King, Stephanie M.; Rosenoern, Thomas; Shilling, John E.; Chen, Qi; Martin, Scot T.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of organic particle mass loading from 1 to ≥100 μg m-3 on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties of mixed organic-sulfate particles was investigated in the Harvard Environmental Chamber. Mixed particles were produced by the condensation of organic molecules onto ammonium sulfate particles during the dark ozonolysis of α-pinene. A continuous-flow mode of the chamber provided stable conditions over long time periods, allowing for signal integration and hence increased measurement precision at low organic mass loadings representative of atmospheric conditions. CCN activity was measured at eight mass loadings for 80- and 100-nm particles grown on 50-nm sulfate seeds. A two-component (organic/sulfate) Köhler model, which included the particle heterogeneity arising from DMA size selection and from organic volume fraction for the selected 80- and 100-nm particles, was used to predict CCN activity. For organic mass loadings of 2.9 μg m-3 and greater, the observed activation curves were well predicted using a single set of physicochemical parameters for the organic component. For mass loadings of 1.74 μg m-3 and less, the observed CCN activity increased beyond predicted values using the same parameters, implying changed physicochemical properties of the organic component. Of possible changes in surface tension, effective molecular weight, and effective density, a sensitivity analysis implicated a decrease of up to 10% in surface tension at low mass loadings as the plausible dominant mechanism for the observed increase in CCN activity.

  9. Measuring Dynamic Kidney Function in an Undergraduate Physiology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medler, Scott; Harrington, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Most undergraduate physiology laboratories are very limited in how they treat renal physiology. It is common to find teaching laboratories equipped with the capability for high-resolution digital recordings of physiological functions (muscle twitches, ECG, action potentials, respiratory responses, etc.), but most urinary laboratories still rely on…

  10. Blended learning within an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Steven J; Carter, Kathryn R; Armga, Austin J; Carter, Jason R

    2016-03-01

    In physiological education, blended course formats (integration of face-to-face and online instruction) can facilitate increased student learning, performance, and satisfaction in classroom settings. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of using blending course formats in laboratory settings. We evaluated the impact of blended learning on student performance and perceptions in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory. Using a randomized, crossover design, four laboratory topics were delivered in either a blended or traditional format. For blended laboratories, content was offloaded to self-paced video demonstrations (∼15 min). Laboratory section 1 (n = 16) completed blended laboratories for 1) neuromuscular power and 2) blood lactate, whereas section 2 (n = 17) completed blended laboratories for 1) maximal O2 consumption and 2) muscle electromyography. Both sections completed the same assignments (scored in a blinded manner using a standardized rubric) and practicum exams (evaluated by two independent investigators). Pre- and postcourse surveys were used to assess student perceptions. Most students (∼79%) watched videos for both blended laboratories. Assignment scores did not differ between blended and traditional laboratories (P = 0.62) or between sections (P = 0.91). Practicum scores did not differ between sections (both P > 0.05). At the end of the course, students' perceived value of the blended format increased (P < 0.01) and a greater percentage of students agreed that learning key foundational content through video demonstrations before class greatly enhanced their learning of course material compared with a preassigned reading (94% vs. 78%, P < 0.01). Blended exercise physiology laboratories provided an alternative method for delivering content that was favorably perceived by students and did not compromise student performance. PMID:26847259

  11. Blended learning within an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Steven J; Carter, Kathryn R; Armga, Austin J; Carter, Jason R

    2016-03-01

    In physiological education, blended course formats (integration of face-to-face and online instruction) can facilitate increased student learning, performance, and satisfaction in classroom settings. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of using blending course formats in laboratory settings. We evaluated the impact of blended learning on student performance and perceptions in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory. Using a randomized, crossover design, four laboratory topics were delivered in either a blended or traditional format. For blended laboratories, content was offloaded to self-paced video demonstrations (∼15 min). Laboratory section 1 (n = 16) completed blended laboratories for 1) neuromuscular power and 2) blood lactate, whereas section 2 (n = 17) completed blended laboratories for 1) maximal O2 consumption and 2) muscle electromyography. Both sections completed the same assignments (scored in a blinded manner using a standardized rubric) and practicum exams (evaluated by two independent investigators). Pre- and postcourse surveys were used to assess student perceptions. Most students (∼79%) watched videos for both blended laboratories. Assignment scores did not differ between blended and traditional laboratories (P = 0.62) or between sections (P = 0.91). Practicum scores did not differ between sections (both P > 0.05). At the end of the course, students' perceived value of the blended format increased (P < 0.01) and a greater percentage of students agreed that learning key foundational content through video demonstrations before class greatly enhanced their learning of course material compared with a preassigned reading (94% vs. 78%, P < 0.01). Blended exercise physiology laboratories provided an alternative method for delivering content that was favorably perceived by students and did not compromise student performance.

  12. Effect of organic loading rate and feedstock composition on foaming in manure-based biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Angelidaki, I

    2013-09-01

    Foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. In the present study, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock composition on foaming was elucidated in continuous reactor experiments. By stepwise increasing the OLR and the concentration of proteins or lipids in the substrate, foaming in biogas reactors was investigated. No foam formation was observed at the OLR of 3.5 g volatile solids/(L-reactor·day). Organic loading was the main factor affecting foam formation in manure digester, while the organic composition, such as content of proteins or lipids were factors that in combination with the organic loading were triggering foaming. More specifically, gelatine could initiate foam formation at a lower OLR than sodium oleate. Moreover, the volume of foam produced by gelatine was relatively stable and was not increased when further increasing either OLR or gelatine concentration in the feed. PMID:23850819

  13. The influence of mechanical loading on osseointegration: an animal study.

    PubMed

    FAN, YuBo; XIU, KaiHua; DONG, Xiang; ZHANG, Ming

    2009-06-01

    Osseointegration of implant provides a stable support for the prosthesis under functional loads. The timing of loading is a critical parameter that can govern the success of the osseointegration of implant. However, it is not clear whether the early loading can affect the success of osseointegration, or whether the no-loading healing period can be shortened. This paper presents an animal study conducted to investigate how external loads influence the osseointegration at the initial stage of healing. Titanium implants were inserted into the goat tibia laterally, and different axial loadings were applied to the implants in 4 weeks after surgery. After the 2 weeks period of early loading, animals were sacrificed and the tibia bones with the implants were cut off from the bodies. Then mechanical test was employed to find out the differences in the pull-out force, and shear strength at the bone-implant interface between the non-loaded and the loaded implants. The implant-bone interfaces were analyzed by histomorphometric method, SEM (scanning electron micrograph) and EDS (energy density spectrum). The results indicated that the bone-implant interface did not well integrate 4 weeks after surgery, and the fibrous tissue could be found at the interfaces of the specimens without loadings. While the results of loaded specimens with 10 N axial force showed that that parts of the interface were well integrated, indicating that the early mild loading may play a positive role in the process of the osseointegration. The results support that a certain range of external loading would influence the process of osseointegration, and appropriate mechanical loading can be applied to shorten the osseointegration period after surgery.

  14. Linking CDOM spectral absorption to dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loadings in boreal estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmala, Eero; Stedmon, Colin A.; Thomas, David N.

    2012-10-01

    The quantity of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three Finnish estuaries (Karjaanjoki, Kyrönjoki and Kiiminkijoki) was investigated, with respect to predicting DOC concentrations and loadings from spectral CDOM absorption measurements. Altogether 87 samples were collected from three estuarine transects which were studied in three seasons, covering a salinity range between 0 and 6.8, and DOC concentrations from 1572 μmol l-1 in freshwater to 222 μmol l-1 in coastal waters. CDOM absorption coefficient, aCDOM(375) values followed the trend in DOC concentrations across the salinity gradient and ranged from 1.67 to 33.4 m-1. The link between DOC and CDOM was studied using a range of wavelengths and algorithms. Wavelengths between 250 and 270 nm gave the best predictions with single linear regression. Total dissolved iron was found to influence the prediction in wavelengths above 520 nm. Despite significant seasonal and spatial differences in DOC-CDOM models, a universal relationship was tested with an independent data set and found to be robust. DOC and CDOM yields (loading/catchment area) from the catchments ranged from 1.98 to 5.44 g C m-2 yr-1, and 1.67 to 11.5 aCDOM(375) yr-1, respectively.

  15. Concentrations, loads, and yields of organic carbon in streams of agricultural watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kronholm, Scott; Capel, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Carbon is cycled to and from large reservoirs in the atmosphere, on land, and in the ocean. Movement of organic carbon from the terrestrial reservoir to the ocean plays an important role in the global cycling of carbon. The transition from natural to agricultural vegetation can change the storage and movement of organic carbon in and from a watershed. Samples were collected from 13 streams located in hydrologically and agriculturally diverse watersheds, to better understand the variability in the concentrations and loads of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in the streams, and the variability in watershed yields. The overall annual median concentrations of DOC and POC were 4.9 (range: 2.1–6.8) and 1.1 (range: 0.4–3.8) mg C L−1, respectively. The mean DOC watershed yield (± SE) was 25 ± 6.8 kg C ha−1 yr−1. The yields of DOC from these agricultural watersheds were not substantially different than the DOC yield from naturally vegetated watersheds in equivalent biomes, but were at the low end of the range for most biomes. Total organic carbon (DOC + POC) annually exported from the agricultural watersheds was found to average 0.03% of the organic carbon that is contained in the labile plant matter and top 1 m of soil in the watershed. Since the total organic carbon exported from agricultural watersheds is a relatively small portion of the sequestered carbon within the watershed, there is the great potential to store additional carbon in plants and soils of the watershed, offsetting some anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  16. Facilitating the transition from physiology to hospital wards through an interdisciplinary case study of septic shock

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to develop clinical reasoning, medical students must be able to integrate knowledge across traditional subject boundaries and multiple disciplines. At least two dimensions of integration have been identified: horizontal integration, bringing together different disciplines in considering a topic; and vertical integration, bridging basic science and clinical practice. Much attention has been focused on curriculum overhauls, but our approach is to facilitate horizontal and vertical integration on a smaller scale through an interdisciplinary case study discussion and then to assess its utility. Methods An interdisciplinary case study discussion about a critically ill patient was implemented at the end of an organ system-based, basic sciences module at New York University School of Medicine. Three clinical specialists—a cardiologist, a pulmonologist, and a nephrologist—jointly led a discussion about a complex patient in the intensive care unit with multiple medical problems secondary to septic shock. The discussion emphasized the physiologic underpinnings behind the patient’s presentation and the physiologic considerations across the various systems in determining proper treatment. The discussion also highlighted the interdependence between the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems, which were initially presented in separate units. After the session students were given a brief, anonymous three-question free-response questionnaire in which they were asked to evaluate and freely comment on the exercise. Results Students not only took away physiological principles but also gained an appreciation for various thematic lessons for bringing basic science to the bedside, especially horizontal and vertical integration. The response of the participants was overwhelmingly positive with many indicating that the exercise integrated the material across organ systems, and strengthened their appreciation of the role of physiology in understanding

  17. Ocean warming and acidification: Unifying physiological principles linking organism response to ecosystem change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Bock, C.; Lannig, G.; Lucassen, M.; Mark, F. C.; Stark, A.; Walther, K.; Wittmann, A.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 levels. Furthermore, a decrease in the efficiency of energy production may occur and affect growth and fitness as well as larval development. Different sensitivities of life history stages indicate physiologically sensitive bottlenecks during the life cycle of marine organisms. Available evidence suggests that the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) provides access to the physiological mechanisms closely defining the sensitivities and responses of species to various stressors. It provides causality and quantifies the levels and changes of performance and resistance, and supports more realistic estimates of species and ecosystem sensitivities to environmental change. The emerging picture of differential sensitivities across animal phyla is in line with existing categorizations of sensitivities from palaeo-observations during the Permian-Triassic mass extinctions (A.H. Knoll et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256, 295-313, 2007).

  18. Physiological and behavioral effects of an antivertigo antihistamine in adults.

    PubMed

    Lauter, J L; Lynch, O; Wood, S B; Schoeffler, L

    1999-06-01

    12 neurologically normal adults were tested before and after administration of meclizine, an over-the-counter medication for motion sickness. A battery of four tests was used: (1) distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, (2) the Repeated Evoked Potentials version of the Auditory Brainstem Response, (3) quantitative electroencephalography measured over the left and right sides of the auditory cortex, and (4) a hand-eye coordination task. The battery required approximately 1.5 hr. to complete. Each subject was tested with the battery in each of eight longitudinal sessions: three times on a control day (9 am, 1 pm, 3 pm--no medication); the same times on a second day one week later (medication at approximately 11:30 am), and 24- and 48-hr. check-up sessions following the medication day. Analysis indicated changes in all components, with details suggesting the site(s) of action of this type of antihistamine. The cross-section of the auditory system yielded by this battery makes it possible to observe effects at the periphery, in the brainstem, and in the cortex, including evidence linking otoacoustic emissions with central auditory physiology. Implications range from cautions regarding the use of antihistamines to physiological support for employing such medications to enhance patients' response to vestibular rehabilitation as well as to improve performance in learning-disordered children. PMID:10407877

  19. Natural selection on plant physiological traits in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, Susan C.; Mahieu, Stephanie; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Current rates of urbanization are creating new opportunities for studying urban plant ecology, but our knowledge of urban plant physiology lags behind that of other ecosystems. Moreover, higher temperatures, elevated CO2, and increased inorganic nitrogen deposition along with altered moisture regimes of urban as compared to rural areas creates a compelling analog for studying adaptations of plants to climate change. We grew plants under common conditions in a greenhouse to determine whether populations of Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) differed in phenological, morphological, and physiological traits. We also used a field experiment to test for natural selection on these traits in urban Montpellier, France. Urban plants flowered and senesced later than rural plants, and natural selection favored later phenology in the urban habitat. Natural selection also favored larger plants with more leaves, and increased photosynthesis and leaf nitrogen concentration. Ours is the first study to document selection on plant functional traits in an urban habitat and, as such, advances our understanding of urban plant ecology and possible adaptations to climate change.

  20. Creating an Innovative Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to create an innovative learning (iLearning) organization. It begins by discussing the life cycle of knowledge in an organization, followed by a description of the theoretical foundation for iLearning. Next, the article presents an example of iLearning, followed by a description of the distributed nature of work, the…

  1. Preslaughter diet management in sheep and goats: effects on physiological responses and microbial loads on skin and carcass.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Govind; Gutta, Venkat R; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kouakou, Brou; Getz, Will R; McCommon, George W

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen crossbred buck goats (Kiko x Spanish; BW = 32.8 kg) and wether sheep (Dorset x Suffolk; BW = 39.9 kg) were used to determine the effect of preslaughter diet and feed deprivation time (FDT) on physiological responses and microbial loads on skin and carcasses. Experimental animals were fed either a concentrate (CD) or a hay diet (HD) for 4 d and then deprived of feed for either 12-h or 24-h before slaughter. Blood samples were collected for plasma cortisol and blood metabolite analyses. Longisimus muscle (LM) pH was measured. Skin and carcass swabs were obtained to assess microbial loads. Plasma creatine kinase activity (863.9 and 571.7 ± 95.21 IU) and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (1,056.1 and 589.8 ± 105.01 mEq/L) were different (P < 0.05) between sheep and goats. Species and diet treatments had significant effects on the ultimate pH of LM. Pre-holding total coliform (TCC) and aerobic plate counts (APC) of skin were significantly different between species. Goats had lower (P < 0.05) TCC (2.1 vs. 3.0 log10 CFU/cm(2)) and APC (8.2 vs. 8.5 log10 CFU/cm(2)) counts in the skin compared to sheep. Preslaughter skin E. coli counts and TCC were different (P < 0.05) between species. Goats had lower (P < 0.05) counts of E. coli (2.2 vs. 2.9 log10 CFU/cm(2)) and TCC (2.3 vs. 3.0 log10 CFU/cm(2)) in the skin compared with those in sheep. Diet, species, and FDT had no effect (P > 0.05) on E. coli and TCC in carcass swab samples. The APC of carcass swab samples were only affected (P < 0.05) by the FDT. The results indicated that preslaughter dietary management had no significant changes on hormone and blood metabolite concentrations and sheep might be more prone for fecal contamination than goats in the holding pens at abattoir.

  2. Further studies of postural load and musculo-skeletal injuries of workers at an electro-mechanical assembly plant.

    PubMed

    Aarås, A; Westgaard, R H

    1987-09-01

    Following two previous papers, a further analysis of epidemiological and physiological data collected at a small electro-mechanical assembly plant in Norway is presented. Data on trapezius load might allow argument of a causal relationship between the level of postural load and the risk of developing musculo-skeletal injury. The second part of the paper provides an epidemiological analysis of sick-leave statistics of workers at old and more recent work systems.

  3. Effect of organic load on phosphorus and bacteria removal from wastewater using alkaline filter materials.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Charlotte; Renman, Gunno; Westholm, Lena Johansson; Renman, Agnieszka; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2013-10-15

    The organic matter released from septic tanks can disturb the subsequent step in on-site wastewater treatment such as the innovative filters for phosphorus removal. This study investigated the effect of organic load on phosphorus (P) and bacteria removal by reactive filter materials under real-life treatment conditions. Two long-term column experiments were conducted at very short hydraulic residence times (average ~5.5 h), using wastewater with high (mean ~120 mg L(-1)) and low (mean ~20 mg L(-1)) BOD7 values. Two alkaline filter materials, the calcium-silicate material Polonite and blast furnace slag (BFS), were tested for the removal capacity of total P, total organic carbon (TOC) and Enterococci. Both experiments showed that Polonite removed P significantly (p < 0.01) better than BFS. An increase in P removal efficiency of 29.3% was observed for the Polonite filter at the lower concentration of BOD7 (p < 0.05). Polonite was also better than BFS with regard to removal of TOC, but there were no significant differences between the two filter materials with regard to removal of Enterococci. The reduction in Enterococci was greater in the experiment using wastewater with high BOD7, an effect attributable to the higher concentration of bacteria in that wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of extensive pre-treatment of wastewater to achieve good phosphorus removal in reactive bed filters and prolonged filter life. PMID:24001604

  4. Effect of organic load on phosphorus and bacteria removal from wastewater using alkaline filter materials.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Charlotte; Renman, Gunno; Westholm, Lena Johansson; Renman, Agnieszka; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2013-10-15

    The organic matter released from septic tanks can disturb the subsequent step in on-site wastewater treatment such as the innovative filters for phosphorus removal. This study investigated the effect of organic load on phosphorus (P) and bacteria removal by reactive filter materials under real-life treatment conditions. Two long-term column experiments were conducted at very short hydraulic residence times (average ~5.5 h), using wastewater with high (mean ~120 mg L(-1)) and low (mean ~20 mg L(-1)) BOD7 values. Two alkaline filter materials, the calcium-silicate material Polonite and blast furnace slag (BFS), were tested for the removal capacity of total P, total organic carbon (TOC) and Enterococci. Both experiments showed that Polonite removed P significantly (p < 0.01) better than BFS. An increase in P removal efficiency of 29.3% was observed for the Polonite filter at the lower concentration of BOD7 (p < 0.05). Polonite was also better than BFS with regard to removal of TOC, but there were no significant differences between the two filter materials with regard to removal of Enterococci. The reduction in Enterococci was greater in the experiment using wastewater with high BOD7, an effect attributable to the higher concentration of bacteria in that wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of extensive pre-treatment of wastewater to achieve good phosphorus removal in reactive bed filters and prolonged filter life.

  5. What does germane load mean? An empirical contribution to the cognitive load theory.

    PubMed

    Debue, Nicolas; van de Leemput, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    While over the last decades, much attention has been paid to the mental workload in the field of human computer interactions, there is still a lack of consensus concerning the factors that generate it as well as the measurement methods that could reflect workload variations. Based on the multifactorial Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), our study aims to provide some food for thought about the subjective and objective measurement that can be used to disentangle the intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. The purpose is to provide insight into the way cognitive load can explain how users' cognitive resources are allocated in the use of hypermedia, such as an online newspaper. A two-phase experiment has been conducted on the information retention from online news stories. Phase 1 (92 participants) examined the influence of multimedia content on performance as well as the relationships between cognitive loads and cognitive absorption. In Phase 2 (36 participants), eye-tracking data were collected in order to provide reliable and objective measures. Results confirmed that performance in information retention was impacted by the presence of multimedia content such as animations and pictures. The higher number of fixations on these animations suggests that users' attention could have been attracted by them. Results showed the expected opposite relationships between germane and extraneous load, a positive association between germane load and cognitive absorption and a non-linear association between intrinsic and germane load. The trends based on eye-tracking data analysis provide some interesting findings about the relationship between longer fixations, shorter saccades and cognitive load. Some issues are raised about the respective contribution of mean pupil diameter and Index of Cognitive Activity.

  6. What does germane load mean? An empirical contribution to the cognitive load theory

    PubMed Central

    Debue, Nicolas; van de Leemput, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    While over the last decades, much attention has been paid to the mental workload in the field of human computer interactions, there is still a lack of consensus concerning the factors that generate it as well as the measurement methods that could reflect workload variations. Based on the multifactorial Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), our study aims to provide some food for thought about the subjective and objective measurement that can be used to disentangle the intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. The purpose is to provide insight into the way cognitive load can explain how users' cognitive resources are allocated in the use of hypermedia, such as an online newspaper. A two-phase experiment has been conducted on the information retention from online news stories. Phase 1 (92 participants) examined the influence of multimedia content on performance as well as the relationships between cognitive loads and cognitive absorption. In Phase 2 (36 participants), eye-tracking data were collected in order to provide reliable and objective measures. Results confirmed that performance in information retention was impacted by the presence of multimedia content such as animations and pictures. The higher number of fixations on these animations suggests that users' attention could have been attracted by them. Results showed the expected opposite relationships between germane and extraneous load, a positive association between germane load and cognitive absorption and a non-linear association between intrinsic and germane load. The trends based on eye-tracking data analysis provide some interesting findings about the relationship between longer fixations, shorter saccades and cognitive load. Some issues are raised about the respective contribution of mean pupil diameter and Index of Cognitive Activity. PMID:25324806

  7. An automated dynamic load for power system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Norma Dugal; Kapustka, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic load which is computer-controlled and has an increased bandwidth of more than 10 times that commercially available at the time the development of the project began. The load is 3 kW with a bandwidth of 35 kHz. The hardware and software are described, and the control circuitry is shown.

  8. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Tahira M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  9. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  10. Organic Carbon Trends, Loads, and Yields to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, Water Years 1980 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saleh, Dina K.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    concentrations of DOC is released from reservoirs and used for irrigation. On the other hand, during the nonirrigation season, streamflow results from surface water runoff and has higher concentrations of organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended sediment. The 1986 and 1987 water years were selected to describe loads in the San Joaquin River Basin. Organic carbon, nutrient, and suspended sediment loads in the San Joaquin River near Vernalis included transported loads from upstream sites, such as the Mud and Salt Sloughs, the Merced River at River Roads Bridge near Newman, the Tuolumne River at Modesto, and the Stanislaus River at Ripon. Loads at the San Joaquin River near Vernalis also were analyzed for the two seasons. The DOC load for the San Joaquin River at Vernalis is slightly higher during the irrigation season. Yields were calculated in an attempt to rank the subbasins in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins. Five sites delivered streamflow from agricultural and urban sources that had relatively high yields of organic carbon: Sacramento Slough near Knights Landing, Arcade Creek near Del Paso Heights, Salt Slough, Mud Slough, and Colusa Basin Drain at Road 99E near Knights Landing.

  11. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  12. Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score versus Simplified Acute Physiology score to analyze multiple organ dysfunction in infectious diseases in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Remyasri; Bhandary, Nithish M.; D’Souza, Ashton D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). Materials and Methods: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included. Patients with history of chronic illness (renal/hepatic/pulmonary/  cardiovascular), diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, those on immunosuppressive therapy/chemoradiotherapy for malignancy and patients in immunocompromised state were excluded. Blood investigations were obtained. Six organ dysfunctions were assessed using initial SOFA score and graded from 0 to 4. SAPS was calculated as the sum of points assigned to each of the 17 variables (12 physiological, age, type of admission, and three underlying diseases). The outcome measure was survival status at ICU discharge. Results: We categorized infectious diseases into dengue fever, leptospirosis, malaria, respiratory tract infections, and others which included undiagnosed febrile illness, meningitis, urinary tract infection and gastroenteritis. Initial SOFA score was both sensitive and specific; SAPS lacked sensitivity. We found no significant association between age and survival status. Both SAPS and initial SOFA score were found to be statistically significant as mortality predictors. There is significant association of initial SOFA score in analyzing organ dysfunction in infectious diseases (P < 0.001). SAPS showed no statistical significance. There was statistically significant (P = 0.015) percentage of nonsurvivors with moderate and severe dysfunction, based on SOFA score. Nonsurvivors had higher SAPS but was not statistically significant (P

  13. What is conservation physiology? Perspectives on an increasingly integrated and essential science†

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Steven J.; Sack, Lawren; Franklin, Craig E.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Beardall, John; Wikelski, Martin; Chown, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, ecosystems and their constituent flora and fauna face the localized and broad-scale influence of human activities. Conservation practitioners and environmental managers struggle to identify and mitigate threats, reverse species declines, restore degraded ecosystems, and manage natural resources sustainably. Scientific research and evidence are increasingly regarded as the foundation for new regulations, conservation actions, and management interventions. Conservation biologists and managers have traditionally focused on the characteristics (e.g. abundance, structure, trends) of populations, species, communities, and ecosystems, and simple indicators of the responses to environmental perturbations and other human activities. However, an understanding of the specific mechanisms underlying conservation problems is becoming increasingly important for decision-making, in part because physiological tools and knowledge are especially useful for developing cause-and-effect relationships, and for identifying the optimal range of habitats and stressor thresholds for different organisms. When physiological knowledge is incorporated into ecological models, it can improve predictions of organism responses to environmental change and provide tools to support management decisions. Without such knowledge, we may be left with simple associations. ‘Conservation physiology’ has been defined previously with a focus on vertebrates, but here we redefine the concept universally, for application to the diversity of taxa from microbes to plants, to animals, and to natural resources. We also consider ‘physiology’ in the broadest possible terms; i.e. how an organism functions, and any associated mechanisms, from development to bioenergetics, to environmental interactions, through to fitness. Moreover, we consider conservation physiology to include a wide range of applications beyond assisting imperiled populations, and include, for example, the eradication of invasive

  14. Growth, physiological and molecular traits in Salicaceae trees investigated for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organics.

    PubMed

    Marmiroli, Marta; Pietrini, Fabrizio; Maestri, Elena; Zacchini, Massimo; Marmiroli, Nelson; Massacci, Angelo

    2011-12-01

    Worldwide, there are many large areas moderately contaminated with heavy metals and/or organics that have not been remediated due to the high cost and technical drawbacks of currently available technologies. Methods with a good potential for coping with these limitations are emerging from phytoremediation techniques, using, for example, specific amendments and/or plants selected from various candidates proven in several investigations to be reasonably efficient in extracting heavy metals from soil or water, or in co-metabolizing organics with bacteria flourishing or inoculated in their rhizospheres. Populus and Salix spp., two genera belonging to the Salicaceae family, include genotypes that can be considered among the candidates for this phytoremediation approach. This review shows the recent improvements in analytical tools based on the identification of useful genetic diversity associated with classical growth, physiological and biochemical traits, and the importance of plant genotype selection for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Particularly interesting are studies on the application of the phytoremediation of heavy metals and of chlorinated organics, in which microorganisms selected for their degradation capabilities were bioaugmented in the rhizosphere of Salicaceae planted at a high density for biomass and bioenergy production.

  15. Growth, physiological and molecular traits in Salicaceae trees investigated for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organics.

    PubMed

    Marmiroli, Marta; Pietrini, Fabrizio; Maestri, Elena; Zacchini, Massimo; Marmiroli, Nelson; Massacci, Angelo

    2011-12-01

    Worldwide, there are many large areas moderately contaminated with heavy metals and/or organics that have not been remediated due to the high cost and technical drawbacks of currently available technologies. Methods with a good potential for coping with these limitations are emerging from phytoremediation techniques, using, for example, specific amendments and/or plants selected from various candidates proven in several investigations to be reasonably efficient in extracting heavy metals from soil or water, or in co-metabolizing organics with bacteria flourishing or inoculated in their rhizospheres. Populus and Salix spp., two genera belonging to the Salicaceae family, include genotypes that can be considered among the candidates for this phytoremediation approach. This review shows the recent improvements in analytical tools based on the identification of useful genetic diversity associated with classical growth, physiological and biochemical traits, and the importance of plant genotype selection for enhancing phytoremediation efficiency. Particularly interesting are studies on the application of the phytoremediation of heavy metals and of chlorinated organics, in which microorganisms selected for their degradation capabilities were bioaugmented in the rhizosphere of Salicaceae planted at a high density for biomass and bioenergy production. PMID:22052656

  16. Physiology and tonotopic organization of auditory receptors in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, B P; Kleindienst, H U; Huber, F

    1986-10-01

    Physiological recordings were obtained from identified receptors in the tympanal organ of Gryllus bimaculatus. By immersing the prothoracic leg in Ringer solution and removing the anterior tympanic membrane the auditory receptors were exposed without significantly altering the frequency response of the auditory organ (Fig. 1). Each receptor was tuned to a specific sound frequency. For sound frequencies below this characteristic frequency the roll-off in sensitivity decreased from 20-30 dB/octave to 10-15 dB/octave as the characteristic frequency of receptors increased from 3-11 kHz (Fig. 4A). For each individual receptor the slope, dynamic range and maximum spike response were similar for different sound frequencies (Fig. 9A). The receptors were tonotopically organized with the characteristic frequency of the receptors increasing from the proximal to the distal end of the array (Figs. 5, 6). Several receptors had characteristic frequencies of 5 kHz. These receptors were divided into two groups on the basis of their maximum spike response produced in response to pure tones of increasing intensity (Fig. 7). Independent of the tuning of the receptor no two-tone inhibition was observed in the periphery, thus confirming that such interactions are a property of central integration.

  17. Myosin VI as a transporter and an anchor: A model for kinetics of the motor under load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Peiying; Spudich, James; Dunn, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Myosin VI is an actin-based motor that is thought to function both as a transporter and an anchor in vivo. In an earlier study (Altman et al, Cell 2004), inhibition of myosin VI stepping kinetics by load applied using an optical trap was observed at saturating ATP and low ADP concentrations (< 2.5 μM). A simple mechanism whereby the rate of ADP binding increases exponentially with load was proposed. This model predicts that myosin VI functions primarily as an anchor at loads greater than ˜0.5 pN under physiological nucleotide conditions, which is potentially inconsistent with its roles in vivo. Here we present myosin VI stepping data taken at a variety of applied loads and ADP concentrations, and show that the Altman model only holds at low ADP concentrations. At higher, physiologically relevant ADP concentrations under load we observe dwell times that are an order of magnitude smaller than predicted by the Altman model. We present a modified model in which applied load alters the equilibrium between two myosin VI states with different nucleotide affinities. This new kinetic scheme accurately describes myosin VI behavior at various nucleotide conditions under a large range of loads, and explains how the motor is able to carry out its roles in vivo, both as a force-generating transporter and as an anchor.

  18. Characterization of Pseudomonas monteilii CCM 3423 and its physiological potential for biodegradation of selected organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Vojtková, Hana; Kosina, Marcel; Sedláček, Ivo; Mašlaňová, Ivana; Harwotová, Markéta; Molinková, Veronika

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas monteilii CCM 3423 bacterial strain, deposited at the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, was originally isolated by Haľama and Augustín (1980) as a bacterium degrading aromatic hydrocarbons and derivates. A detailed study supported by a molecular genetics method of sequence analyses of rrs and rpoD genes was used to reclassify the strain, originally stored as 'Pseudomonas putida'. The physiological characteristics of the strain are complemented with research in the capacity to utilize selected organic pollutants (anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene). The obtained results point at very good biodegradation properties of the strain. Already after 7 days of the bacterial strain's action, there was a decrease in all the organic contaminants to 79.8 ± 2.6 %. In 14 days, the amount of organic contaminants dropped to 59.3 ± 2.8 %. After 21 days of biodegradation experiments, the overall quantity of the observed organic substances fell below the half limit to 45.7 ± 2.5 % of residuals. Finally, after 28 days, the residue was 35.4 ± 2.2 %, and after 35 days of the action of P. monteilii, the tested samples contained mere 27.8 ± 2.8 % of organic pollutants. The results imply that Pseudomonas monteilii CCM 3423 is a prospective strain in terms of further biotechnological application in contaminated environment.

  19. Soil organic matter influences cerium translocation and physiological processes in kidney bean plants exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Sun, Youping; Barrios, Ana C; Niu, Genhua; Margez, Juan P Flores-; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter plays a major role in determining the fate of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil matrix and effects on the residing plants. In this study, kidney bean plants were grown in soils varying in organic matter content and amended with 0-500mg/kg cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) under greenhouse condition. After 52days of exposure, cerium accumulation in tissues, plant growth and physiological parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded. Additionally, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the tissues. The translocation factor of cerium in the nano-CeO2 exposed plants grown in organic matter enriched soil (OMES) was twice as the plants grown in low organic matter soil (LOMS). Although the leaf cover area increased by 65-111% with increasing nano-CeO2 concentration in LOMS, the effect on the physiological processes were inconsequential. In OMES leaves, exposure to 62.5-250mg/kg nano-CeO2 led to an enhancement in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but to a simultaneous decrease in carotenoid contents by 25-28%. Chlorophyll a in the OMES leaves also decreased by 27 and 18% on exposure to 125 and 250mg/kg nano-CeO2. In addition, catalase activity increased in LOMS stems, and ascorbate peroxidase increased in OMES leaves of nano-CeO2 exposed plants, with respect to control. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that the properties of the complex soil matrix play decisive roles in determining the fate, bioavailability, and biological transport of ENMs in the environment.

  20. Soil organic matter influences cerium translocation and physiological processes in kidney bean plants exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Sun, Youping; Barrios, Ana C; Niu, Genhua; Margez, Juan P Flores-; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter plays a major role in determining the fate of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the soil matrix and effects on the residing plants. In this study, kidney bean plants were grown in soils varying in organic matter content and amended with 0-500mg/kg cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) under greenhouse condition. After 52days of exposure, cerium accumulation in tissues, plant growth and physiological parameters including photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were recorded. Additionally, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in the tissues. The translocation factor of cerium in the nano-CeO2 exposed plants grown in organic matter enriched soil (OMES) was twice as the plants grown in low organic matter soil (LOMS). Although the leaf cover area increased by 65-111% with increasing nano-CeO2 concentration in LOMS, the effect on the physiological processes were inconsequential. In OMES leaves, exposure to 62.5-250mg/kg nano-CeO2 led to an enhancement in the transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, but to a simultaneous decrease in carotenoid contents by 25-28%. Chlorophyll a in the OMES leaves also decreased by 27 and 18% on exposure to 125 and 250mg/kg nano-CeO2. In addition, catalase activity increased in LOMS stems, and ascorbate peroxidase increased in OMES leaves of nano-CeO2 exposed plants, with respect to control. Thus, this study provides clear evidence that the properties of the complex soil matrix play decisive roles in determining the fate, bioavailability, and biological transport of ENMs in the environment. PMID:27343939

  1. Tolerance to hydraulic and organic load fluctuations in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Masi, F; Martinuzzi, N; Bresciani, R; Giovannelli, L; Conte, G

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a two-year performance evaluation of four different constructed wetland (CW) treatment systems designed by IRIDRA Srl, located in central Italy. All four CW systems were established to treat wastewater effluent from different tourist activities: (1) one single-stage CW for secondary treatment of domestic wastewater (30 p.e.) at a holiday farm site; (2) a hybrid compact system consisting of two stages, a horizontal flow (HF) system followed by a vertical flow (VF) system for the secondary treatment of effluent from a 140 p.e. tourist resort; (3) a single-stage vertical flow (VF) CW for a 100 p.e. mountain shelter; and (4) a pair of single-stage, HF CWs for the secondary treatment of segregated grey and black water produced by an 80 p.e. camping site. These tourism facilities are located in remote areas and share some common characteristics concerning their water management: they have high variability of water consumption and wastewater flow, depending on the season, weather and weekly regularities; they have no connection to a public sewer and most sites are located in a sensitive environment. Total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonium (N-NH4+), nitrate (N-NOx), total nitrogen (Ntot), total phosphorus (Ptot), total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), E. coli removal efficiencies for all four CW systems are presented. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of CWs as a suitable technology for treating wastewater from tourism facilities in remote areas. A very efficient COD reduction (83-95%) and pathogen elimination (3-5 logs) have been achieved. Furthermore, the CWs are easily maintained, robust (not sensitive to peak flows), constructed with local materials, and operate with relatively low cost.

  2. Ascidians as a vertebrate-like model organism for physiological studies of Rho GTPase signaling.

    PubMed

    Philips, Alexandre; Blein, Marion; Robert, Agnès; Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Weill, Mylène; Fort, Philippe

    2003-07-01

    GTPases of the Rho family are evolutionarily conserved proteins that control cell shape dynamics during physiological processes as diverse as cell migration and polarity, axon outgrowth and guidance, apoptosis and phagocytosis. In mammals, 18 Rho proteins are distributed in 7 subfamilies. Rho, Rac and Cdc42 are the best-characterized ones, benefiting from the use of worm and drosophila, which only express these 3 subfamilies. An additional model would therefore help understand the physiological role of other mammalian subfamilies. We identified in genome databases the complete Rho family of two ascidians, Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi, and showed that these families contain single ancestors of most mammalian Rho subfamilies. In Ciona intestinalis, all Rho genes are expressed and display specific developmental variations of mRNA expression during tadpole formation. Although C. intestinalis expresses five additional Rac compared to the closely related Ciona savignyi, only two appeared fully active in functional assays. Last, we identified in Ciona intestinalis database more than 50 Rho regulators (RhoGEFs and RhoGAPs) and 20 effector targets, whose analysis further supports the notion that Rho signaling components are of comparable complexity in mammals and ascidians. Since the tadpole of ascidians combines vertebrate-like developmental features with reduced cell number, particularly adapted to evolutionary and developmental biology studies, our data advocate this model for physiological studies of Rho signaling pathways.

  3. Nitric oxide, an iceberg in cardiovascular physiology: far beyond vessel tone control.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Armando Rojas; Morales-Segura, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    The endothelium is now recognized not only as a physical barrier between blood and vascular wall, but also as an important and strategically located organ with multiple endocrine and paracrine functions. By releasing vasoactive substances, the endothelium acts as an inhibitory regulator of vascular contraction, leukocyte adhesion, vascular smooth muscle cell growth, and platelet aggregation. This review intends to demonstrate how much the picture of the biological functions of nitric oxide has changed in cardiovascular physiology, extending beyond its vessel-relaxing activity, as well as to highlight new insights into the factors affecting its bioavailability and regulation in relation with many cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Exploration of PBPK Model-Calculation of Drug Time Course in Tissue Using IV Bolus Drug Plasma Concentration-Time Profile and the Physiological Parameters of the Organ.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2016-08-01

    An uncommon innovative consideration of the well-stirred linear physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the drug plasma concentration-time profile, which is measured in routine intravenous bolus pharmacokinetic study, was applied for the calculation of the drug time course in human tissues. This cannot be obtained in the in vivo pharmacokinetic study. The physiological parameters of the organ such as organ tissue volume, organ blood flow rate, and its vascular volume were used in the calculation. The considered method was applied to calculate the time course of midazolam, alprazolam, quinidine, and diclofenac in human organs or tissues. The suggested method might be applied for the prediction of drug concentration-time profile in tissues and consequently the drug concentration level in the targeted tissue, as well as the possible undesirable toxic levels in other tissues. PMID:27290628

  5. An untuned MA-loaded cavity for HIRFL-CSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Li-Rong; Xu, Zhe; Yuan, You-Jin; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Zhang, Zhou-Li; Zhang, Cong; Sun, Lie-Peng; Jin, Peng; Yue, Wei-Ming

    2010-08-01

    In order to realize high energy density physics and plasma physics research at HIRFL-CSR, a magnetic alloy (MA)-loaded cavity has been studied. According to the theoretical calculation and simulation for the MA-loaded cavity, we achieved a better result. The MA-loaded cavity had a higher μQf value, with a higher shunt impedance and a higher accelerating gradient. The accelerating gradient was about 95 kV/m at 1.8003 MHz, 130 kV/m at 0.9000 MHz. Compared with the ferrite-loaded cavities that are used at HIRFL-CSR, with about 10 kV/m accelerating gradient, the MA-loaded cavity obviously has an advantage. The results of the theoretical calculation and the simulation, which meet the design requirements are in good agreement.

  6. LabVIEW Serial Driver Software for an Electronic Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scullin, Vincent; Garcia, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A LabVIEW-language computer program enables monitoring and control of a Transistor Devices, Inc., Dynaload WCL232 (or equivalent) electronic load via an RS-232 serial communication link between the electronic load and a remote personal computer. (The electronic load can operate at constant voltage, current, power consumption, or resistance.) The program generates a graphical user interface (GUI) at the computer that looks and acts like the front panel of the electronic load. Once the electronic load has been placed in remote-control mode, this program first queries the electronic load for the present values of all its operational and limit settings, and then drops into a cycle in which it reports the instantaneous voltage, current, and power values in displays that resemble those on the electronic load while monitoring the GUI images of pushbuttons for control actions by the user. By means of the pushbutton images and associated prompts, the user can perform such operations as changing limit values, the operating mode, or the set point. The benefit of this software is that it relieves the user of the need to learn one method for operating the electronic load locally and another method for operating it remotely via a personal computer.

  7. Physiological responses of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) to organic and inorganic amended heavy-metal contaminated chat tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Youngman, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    Study plots established at the Galena subsite of the Cherokee County Superfund Site in Southeastern Kansas by the US Bureau of Mines in 1990 were examined during the summer of 1996 to determine whether physiological criteria could be used to determine suitability of switchgrass for remediation of heavy-metal contaminated substrates. Switchgrass was chosen because it was the most frequently encountered species on these plots. Treatment plots included a treatment control, an organic residue treatment of 89.6 Mg Ha{sup {minus}1} composted cattle manure, and two inorganic fertilizer treatments recommended for either native grass or grass/legume mixtures. Plant response variables were photosynthetic rate, leaf conductance to water vapor, internal concentration of carbon dioxide in leaves, foliar transpiration rate, leaf water-use-efficiency, predawn leaf xylem water potential, and midday leaf xylem water potential. Predawn and midday xylem water potentials were higher for grass/legume inorganic treatment than for the other inorganic treatments. Leaf conductances were lower for organically treated plots than those plots not organically amended and both photosynthesis and transpiration were lower for organically treated plots. Leaf conductances and transpiration were higher for grass/legume treated plots than for plots lacking inorganic treatment. Water-use-efficiency was higher for native grass inorganically treated plots than for other inorganic treatments.

  8. Response of removal rates to various organic carbon and ammonium loads in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating artificial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Kuschk, Peter; Wiessner, Arndt; Kästner, Matthias; Pang, Changle; Dong, Renjie

    2013-01-01

    High levels (92 and 91%) of organic carbon were successfully removed from artificial wastewater by a laboratory-scale constructed wetland under inflow loads of 670 mg/m2 x d (100 mg/d) and 1600 mg/m2d (240 mg/d), respectively. Acidification to pH 3.0 was observed at the low organic carbon load, which further inhibited the denitrification process. An increase in carbon load, however, was associated with a significant elevation of pH to 6.0. In general, sulfate and nitrate reduction were relatively high, with mean levels of 87 and 90%, respectively. However, inhibition of nitrification was initiated with an increase in carbon loads. This effect was probably a result of competition for oxygen by heterotrophic bacteria and an inhibitory effect of sulfide (S2) toxicity (concentration approximately 3 mg/L). In addition, numbers of healthy stalks of Juncus effusus (common rush) decreased from 14 000 to 10 000/m2 with an increase of sulfide concentration, indicating the negative effect of sulfide toxicity on the wetland plants.

  9. Effects of manufactured nanomaterials on fishes: a target organ and body systems physiology approach.

    PubMed

    Handy, R D; Al-Bairuty, G; Al-Jubory, A; Ramsden, C S; Boyle, D; Shaw, B J; Henry, T B

    2011-10-01

    Manufactured nanomaterials (NM) are already used in consumer products and exposure modelling predicts releases of ng to low µg l(-1) levels of NMs into surface waters. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems, and therefore fishes, to manufactured NMs is inevitable. This review uses a physiological approach to describe the known effects of NMs on the body systems of fishes and to identify the internal target organs, as well as outline aspects of colloid chemistry relevant to fish biology. The acute toxicity data, suggest that the lethal concentration for many NMs is in the mg l(-1) range, and a number of sublethal effects have been reported at concentrations from c. 100 µg to 1 mg l(-1). Exposure to NMs in the water column can cause respiratory toxicity involving altered ventilation, mucus secretion and gill pathology. This may not lead, however, to overt haematological disturbances in the short term. The internal target organs include the liver, spleen and haematopoietic system, kidney, gut and brain; with toxic effects involving oxidative stress, ionoregulatory disturbances and organ pathologies. Some pathology appears to be novel for NMs, such as vascular injury in the brain of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with carbon nanotubes. A lack of analytical methods, however, has prevented the reporting of NM concentrations in fish tissues, and the precise uptake mechanisms across the gill or gut are yet to be elucidated. The few dietary exposure studies conducted show no effects on growth or food intake at 10-100 mg kg(-1) inclusions of NMs in the diet of O. mykiss, but there are biochemical disturbances. Early life stages are sensitive to NMs with reports of lethal toxicity and developmental defects. There are many data gaps, however, including how water quality alters physiological responses, effects on immunity and chronic exposure data at environmentally relevant concentrations. Overall, the data so far suggest that the manufactured NMs are not as toxic as some

  10. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  11. Measuring dynamic kidney function in an undergraduate physiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Medler, Scott; Harrington, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Most undergraduate physiology laboratories are very limited in how they treat renal physiology. It is common to find teaching laboratories equipped with the capability for high-resolution digital recordings of physiological functions (muscle twitches, ECG, action potentials, respiratory responses, etc.), but most urinary laboratories still rely on a "dipstick" approach of urinalysis. Although this technique can provide some basic insights into the functioning of the kidneys, it overlooks the dynamic processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. In the present article, we provide a straightforward approach of using renal clearance measurements to estimate glomerular filtration rate, fractional water reabsorption, glucose clearance, and other physiologically relevant parameters. The estimated values from our measurements in laboratory are in close agreement with those anticipated based on textbook parameters. For example, we found glomerular filtration rate to average 124 ± 45 ml/min, serum creatinine to be 1.23 ± 0.4 mg/dl, and fractional water reabsorption to be ∼96.8%. Furthermore, analyses for the class data revealed significant correlations between parameters like fractional water reabsorption and urine concentration, providing opportunities to discuss urine concentrating mechanisms and other physiological processes. The procedures outlined here are general enough that most undergraduate physiology laboratory courses should be able to implement them without difficulty. PMID:24292917

  12. Dynamic digestive physiology of a female reproductive organ in a polyandrous butterfly.

    PubMed

    Plakke, Melissa S; Deutsch, Aaron B; Meslin, Camille; Clark, Nathan L; Morehouse, Nathan I

    2015-05-15

    Reproductive traits experience high levels of selection because of their direct ties to fitness, often resulting in rapid adaptive evolution. Much of the work in this area has focused on male reproductive traits. However, a more comprehensive understanding of female reproductive adaptations and their relationship to male characters is crucial to uncover the relative roles of sexual cooperation and conflict in driving co-evolutionary dynamics between the sexes. We focus on the physiology of a complex female reproductive adaptation in butterflies and moths: a stomach-like organ in the female reproductive tract called the bursa copulatrix that digests the male ejaculate (spermatophore). Little is known about how the bursa digests the spermatophore. We characterized bursa proteolytic capacity in relation to female state in the polyandrous butterfly Pieris rapae. We found that the virgin bursa exhibits extremely high levels of proteolytic activity. Furthermore, in virgin females, bursal proteolytic capacity increases with time since eclosion and ambient temperature, but is not sensitive to the pre-mating social environment. Post copulation, bursal proteolytic activity decreases rapidly before rebounding toward the end of a mating cycle, suggesting active female regulation of proteolysis and/or potential quenching of proteolysis by male ejaculate constituents. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we report identities for nine proteases actively transcribed by bursal tissue and/or expressed in the bursal lumen that may contribute to observed bursal proteolysis. We discuss how these dynamic physiological characteristics may function as female adaptations resulting from sexual conflict over female remating rate in this polyandrous butterfly.

  13. Dynamic digestive physiology of a female reproductive organ in a polyandrous butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Meslin, Camille; Clark, Nathan L.; Morehouse, Nathan I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reproductive traits experience high levels of selection because of their direct ties to fitness, often resulting in rapid adaptive evolution. Much of the work in this area has focused on male reproductive traits. However, a more comprehensive understanding of female reproductive adaptations and their relationship to male characters is crucial to uncover the relative roles of sexual cooperation and conflict in driving co-evolutionary dynamics between the sexes. We focus on the physiology of a complex female reproductive adaptation in butterflies and moths: a stomach-like organ in the female reproductive tract called the bursa copulatrix that digests the male ejaculate (spermatophore). Little is known about how the bursa digests the spermatophore. We characterized bursa proteolytic capacity in relation to female state in the polyandrous butterfly Pieris rapae. We found that the virgin bursa exhibits extremely high levels of proteolytic activity. Furthermore, in virgin females, bursal proteolytic capacity increases with time since eclosion and ambient temperature, but is not sensitive to the pre-mating social environment. Post copulation, bursal proteolytic activity decreases rapidly before rebounding toward the end of a mating cycle, suggesting active female regulation of proteolysis and/or potential quenching of proteolysis by male ejaculate constituents. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we report identities for nine proteases actively transcribed by bursal tissue and/or expressed in the bursal lumen that may contribute to observed bursal proteolysis. We discuss how these dynamic physiological characteristics may function as female adaptations resulting from sexual conflict over female remating rate in this polyandrous butterfly. PMID:25994634

  14. Physiological responses to an acute bout of sprint interval cycling.

    PubMed

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-10-01

    Sprint interval training has been shown to improve skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and health outcomes. However, the acute physiological responses to 4-7 maximal effort intervals have not been determined. To determine the V[Combining Dot Above]O2, cardiorespiratory responses, and energy expenditure during an acute bout of sprint interval cycling (SIC), health, college-aged subjects, 6 men and 6 women, completed 2 SIC sessions with at least 7 days between trials. Sprint interval cycling was performed on a cycle ergometer and involved a 5-minute warm-up followed by four 30-second all-out sprints with 4-minute active recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg·min) during the 4 sprints were 35.3 ± 8.2, 38.8 ± 10.1, 38.8 ± 10.6, and 36.8 ± 9.3, and peak heart rate (b·min) were 164 ± 17, 172 ± 10, 177 ± 12, and 175 ± 22. We conclude that an acute bout of SIC elicits submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses during each interval that are above 80% of estimated maximal values. Although the duration of exercise in SIC is very short, the high level of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and cardiorespiratory responses are sufficient to potentially elicit adaptations to training associated with elevated aerobic energy demand.

  15. A comparison of rating scale, secondary-task, physiological, and primary-task workload estimation techniques in a simulated flight task emphasizing communications load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casali, J. G.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    Sixteen potential metrics of pilot mental workload were investigated regarding their sensitivity to communication load and their intrusion on primary-task performance. A moving-base flight simulator was used to present three cross-country flights. The flights varied only in the difficulty of the communications requirements. Rating scale measures were obtained immediately postflight; all others were taken over a 7-min segment of the flight task. The results indicated that both the Modified Cooper-Harper Scale and the workload Multi-descriptor Scale were sensitive to changes in communications load. The secondary-task measure of time estimation and the physiological measure of pupil diameter were also sensitive. As expected, those primary-task measures that were direct measures of communicative performance were also sensitive to load, whereas aicraft control primary-task measures were not, attesting to the task specificity of such measures. Finally, the intrusion analysis revealed no differential interference between workload measures.

  16. Cyclic mechanical loading enables solute transport and oxygen supply in bone healing: an in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Witt, Florian; Duda, Georg N; Bergmann, Camilla; Petersen, Ansgar

    2014-02-01

    Bone healing is a complex process with an increased metabolic activity and consequently high demand for oxygen. In the hematoma phase, inflammatory cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are initially cut off from direct nutritional supply via blood vessels. Cyclic mechanical loading that occurs, for example, during walking is expected to have an impact on the biophysical environment of the cells but meaningful quantitative experimental data are still missing. In this study, the hypothesis that cyclic mechanical loading within a physiological range significantly contributes to oxygen transport into the fracture hematoma was investigated by an in vitro approach. MSCs were embedded in a fibrin matrix to mimic the hematoma phase during bone healing. Construct geometry, culture conditions, and parameters of mechanical loading in a bioreactor system were chosen to resemble the in vivo situation based on data from human studies and a well-characterized large animal model. Oxygen tension was measured before and after mechanical loading intervals by a chemical optical microsensor. The increase in oxygen tension at the center of the constructs was significant and depended on loading time with maximal values of 9.9%±5.1%, 14.8%±4.9%, and 25.3%±7.2% of normal atmospheric oxygen tension for 5, 15, and 30 min of cyclic loading respectively. Histological staining of hypoxic cells after 48 h of incubation confirmed sensor measurements by showing an increased number of normoxic cells with intermittent cyclic compression compared with unloaded controls. The present study demonstrates that moderate cyclic mechanical loading leads to an increased oxygen transport and thus to substantially enhanced supply conditions for cells entrapped in the hematoma. This link between mechanical conditions and nutrition supply in the early regenerative phases could be employed to improve the environmental conditions for cell metabolism and consequently prevent necrosis.

  17. Static versus dynamic loads as an influence on bone remodelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyon, L. E.; Rubin, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    Bone remodelling activity in the avian ulna was assessed under conditions of disuse alone, disuse with a superimposed continuous compressive load, and disuse interrupted by a short daily period of intermittent loading. The ulna preparation is made by two submetaphyseal osteotomies, the cut ends of the bone being covered with stainless steel caps which, together with the bone they enclosed, are pierced by pins emerging transcutaneously on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the wing. The 110 mm long undisturbed section of the bone shaft can be protected from functional loading, loaded continuously in compression by joining the pins with springs, or loaded intermittently in compression by engaging the pins in an Instron machine. Similar loads (525 n) were used in both static and dynamic cases engendering similar peak strains at the bone's midshaft (-2000 x 10-6). The intermitent load was applied at a frequency of 1 Hz during a single 100 second period per day as a ramped square wave, with a rate of change of strain during the ramp of 0.01 per second.

  18. Evaluation of load management as an electric system resource

    SciTech Connect

    Geier, D.L.; Samaniego, G.M.

    1986-08-01

    Load Management is currently being evaluated by many utilities, including San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG and E), as a demand-side alternative to conventional electric system resources. The industry has identified improved load factors, capacity benefits, and lowering system costs as major operational benefits of load management, but there are still many uncertainties associated with its use as an electric system resource. This paper will address two specific areas. The first area is intended to establish general resource requirements, from the operating standpoint, that can be applied to all resources, Conventional and Alternate. The second will address the potential of load management as an electric system resource. The SDG and E air conditioner control program will be evaluated in detail utilizing the established resource requirements.

  19. Migration impact on load balancing - an experience on Amoeba

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W.; Socko, P.

    1996-12-31

    Load balancing has been extensive study by simulation, positive results were received in most of the researches. With the increase of the availability oftlistributed systems, a few experiments have been carried out on different systems. These experimental studies either depend on task initiation or task initiation plus task migration. In this paper, we present the results of an 0 study of load balancing using a centralizedpolicy to manage the load on a set of processors, which was carried out on an Amoeba system which consists of a set of 386s and linked by 10 Mbps Ethernet. The results on one hand indicate the necessity of a load balancing facility for a distributed system. On the other hand, the results question the impact of using process migration to increase system performance under the configuration used in our experiments.

  20. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants. PMID:27214000

  1. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  2. Fate of alkylphenolic compounds during activated sludge treatment: impact of loading and organic composition.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Ewan J; Bagnall, John P; Soares, Ana; Koh, Yoong K K; Chiu, Tze Y; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N; Cartmell, Elise

    2011-01-01

    The impact of loading and organic composition on the fate of alkylphenolic compounds in the activated sludge plant (ASP) has been studied. Three ASP designs comprising carbonaceous, carbonaceous/nitrification, and carbonaceous/nitrification/denitrification treatment were examined to demonstrate the impact of increasing levels of process complexity and to incorporate a spectrum of loading conditions. Based on mass balance, overall biodegradation efficiencies for nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), short chain carboxylates (NP(1-3)EC) and nonylphenol (NP) were 37%, 59%, and 27% for the carbonaceous, carbonaceous/nitrification, and carbonaceous/nitrification/denitrification ASP, respectively. The presence of a rich community of ammonia oxidizing bacteria does not necessarily facilitate effective alkylphenolic compound degradation. However, a clear correlation between alkylphenolic compound loading and long chain ethoxylate compound biodegradation was determined at the three ASPs, indicating that at higher initial alkylphenolic compound concentrations (or load), greater ethoxylate biotransformation can occur. In addition, the impact of settled sewage organic composition on alkylphenolic compound removal was evaluated. A correlation between the ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to alkylphenolic compound concentration and biomass activity was determined, demonstrating the inhibiting effect of bulk organic matter on alkylphenol polyethoxylate transformation activity. At all three ASPs the biodegradation pathway proposed involves the preferential biodegradation of the amphiphilic ethoxylated compounds, after which the preferential attack of the lipophilic akylphenol moiety occurs. The extent of ethoxylate biodegradation is driven by the initial alkylphenolic compound concentration and the proportion of COD constituted by the alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) and their metabolites relative to the bulk organic concentration of the sewage composed of proteins, acids, fats

  3. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  4. An Elementary Organic Review Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Darrell H.

    1980-01-01

    An elementary organic review exercise is described which can be given to a secondary school student who has completed an elementary unit on the chemistry of carbon. This is recommended as an exercise, not a test, but can be utilized for evaluative purposes. The format includes both multiple-choice and essay questions. (DS)

  5. Physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rich D; Gibson, Neil V; Twist, Craig; Gabbett, Tim J; MacNay, Sophie A; MacFarlane, Niall G

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the physiological responses to an intensified period of rugby league competition and the subsequent impact on match performance. The participants were 7 rugby league players competing in an international student tournament. The tournament involved three 80-minute games over a 5-day period, with 48 hours between each match. Baseline measures of upper and lower body neuromuscular functions via a plyometric press-up (PP) and countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively (peak power and peak force were measured), blood creatine kinase (CK), and perceptions of well-being were assessed with a questionnaire. These measures were repeated every morning of the competition; neuromuscular fatigue and CK were additionally assessed within 2 hours after the cessation of each game. During each match, player movements were recorded via global positioning system units. There were meaningful reductions in upper (effect size [ES] = -0.55) and lower body (ES = -0.73) neuromuscular functions, and perceptual well-being (ES = -1.56) and increases in blood CK (ES = 2.32) after game 1. These changes increased in magnitude as the competition progressed. There were large reductions in the relative distance covered in high-speed running (ES = -1.49) and maximal accelerations (ES = -0.85) during game 3. Additionally, moderate reductions in the percentage of successful tackles completed were observed during game 3 (ES = -0.59). Collectively, these results demonstrate that during an intensified period of rugby league competition, characterized by only 48 hours between matches, fatigue will accumulate. This cumulative fatigue may compromise high-intensity match activities such as high-speed running, accelerations, and tackling. Furthermore, CMJs and PPs appear to be sensitive measures for monitoring neuromuscular function in rugby league players.

  6. Controlled Loading of Building Blocks into Temporary Self-Assembled Scaffolds for Directed Assembly of Organic Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Banner, L. Todd; Danila, Delia C.; Sharpe, Katie; Durkin, Melissa; Clayton, Benjamin; Anderson, Ben; Richter, Andrew; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2008-12-08

    Using temporary self-assembled scaffolds to preorganize building blocks is a potentially powerful method for the synthesis of organic nanostructures with programmed shapes. We examined the underlying phenomena governing the loading of hydrophobic monomers into lipid bilayer interior and demonstrated successful control of the amount and ratio of loaded monomers. When excess styrene derivatives or acrylates were added to the aqueous solution of unilamellar liposomes made from saturated phospholipids, most loading occurs within the first few hours. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence of aggregation caused by monomers. Bilayers appeared to have a certain capacity for accommodating monomers. The total volume of loaded monomers is independent of monomer structure. X-ray scattering showed the increase in bilayer thickness consistent with loading monomers into bilayer interior. Loading kinetics is inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and size of monomers. Loading and extraction kinetic data suggest that crossing the polar heads region is the rate limiting step. Consideration of loading kinetics and multiple equilibria are important for achieving reproducible monomer loading. The total amount of monomers loaded into the bilayer can be controlled by the loading time or length of hydrophobic lipid tails. The ratio of loaded monomers can be varied by changing the ratio of monomers used for loading or by the time-controlled replacement of a preloaded monomer. Understanding and controlling the loading of monomers into bilayers contributes to the directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

  7. Controlled loading of building blocks into temporary self-assembled scaffolds for directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Banner, L Todd; Danila, Delia C; Sharpe, Katie; Durkin, Melissa; Clayton, Benjamin; Anderson, Ben; Richter, Andrew; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2008-10-21

    Using temporary self-assembled scaffolds to preorganize building blocks is a potentially powerful method for the synthesis of organic nanostructures with programmed shapes. We examined the underlying phenomena governing the loading of hydrophobic monomers into lipid bilayer interior and demonstrated successful control of the amount and ratio of loaded monomers. When excess styrene derivatives or acrylates were added to the aqueous solution of unilamellar liposomes made from saturated phospholipids, most loading occurs within the first few hours. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence of aggregation caused by monomers. Bilayers appeared to have a certain capacity for accommodating monomers. The total volume of loaded monomers is independent of monomer structure. X-ray scattering showed the increase in bilayer thickness consistent with loading monomers into bilayer interior. Loading kinetics is inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and size of monomers. Loading and extraction kinetic data suggest that crossing the polar heads region is the rate limiting step. Consideration of loading kinetics and multiple equilibria are important for achieving reproducible monomer loading. The total amount of monomers loaded into the bilayer can be controlled by the loading time or length of hydrophobic lipid tails. The ratio of loaded monomers can be varied by changing the ratio of monomers used for loading or by the time-controlled replacement of a preloaded monomer. Understanding and controlling the loading of monomers into bilayers contributes to the directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

  8. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion.

  9. Chewing over physiology integration.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion. PMID:15718383

  10. Removal of high organic loads from winery wastewater by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Zimmels, Y; Kirzhner, F; Schreiber, J

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory- and field-scale purification tests of raw and diluted winery wastewater (WWW) were carried out using aquatic plants at high organic loads. The laboratory tests were performed using artificial light at 1800 to 1900 lux. The objective of the current study was to define the potential of floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes and the microorganisms attached to their roots, to reduce high organic loads that characterize WWW, thereby providing, for these effluents, an effective treatment and management system. These microorganisms are believed to have a major role in the treatment process. In this context, the potential of floating and emergent macrophytes to improve the water quality of raw compared with diluted WWW was evaluated. In raw WWW (chemical oxygen demand [COD] 5.6 g/L),growth inhibition of both water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) was observed. A 1:1 dilution of WWW with fresh (tap) water facilitated growth of these plants. At this dilution level, growth of pennywort was limited, while that of water hyacinth was robust. In terms of reductions in biochemical oxygen demand, COD, and total suspended solids, both water hyacinth and pennywort performed better in diluted compared with raw WWW. At 1:1 and 1:3 dilution, 95.9 to 97% of the COD was removed after 23 days, in the presence of Hydrocotyle and Eichhornia plants and aeration. The capacity of new emergent plants to remove high organic loads from WWW, at enhanced kinetics, was demonstrated. This unique property was tested and compared with the role of the gravel media that support growth of the high-capacity emergent plants. In the presence of reed and salt marsh plants, 83 to 99% of the COD was removed within a period of 24 to 29 days, at 1.5:1 dilution. The new emergent plants proved to be effective, even at record high levels of COD. At an initial level of 16,460 mg/L, the COD was brought down to 2870 mg/L after 24 days (82.6% removal), while 12

  11. An approach to distribution short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Gaustad, K.L.

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports on the developments and findings of the Distribution Short-Term Load Forecaster (DSTLF) research activity. The objective of this research is to develop a distribution short-term load forecasting technology consisting of a forecasting method, development methodology, theories necessary to support required technical components, and the hardware and software tools required to perform the forecast The DSTLF consists of four major components: monitored endpoint load forecaster (MELF), nonmonitored endpoint load forecaster (NELF), topological integration forecaster (TIF), and a dynamic tuner. These components interact to provide short-term forecasts at various points in the, distribution system, eg., feeder, line section, and endpoint. This paper discusses the DSTLF methodology and MELF component MELF, based on artificial neural network technology, predicts distribution endpoint loads for an hour, a day, and a week in advance. Predictions are developed using time, calendar, historical load, and weather data. The overall DSTLF architecture and a prototype MELF module for retail endpoints have been developed. Future work will be focused on refining and extending MELF and developing NELF and TIF capabilities.

  12. Blended Learning within an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, Steven J.; Carter, Kathryn R.; Armga, Austin J.; Carter, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    In physiological education, blended course formats (integration of face-to-face and online instruction) can facilitate increased student learning, performance, and satisfaction in classroom settings. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of using blending course formats in laboratory settings. We evaluated the impact of blended learning…

  13. An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation of the Arabic /E/.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Salman H.

    Using acoustical evidence from spectrograms and physiological evidence from X-ray sound films, it appears that the most common allophone for the Arabic voiced pharyngeal fricative, at least in Iraqi, is a voiceless stop, and not a voiced fricative, as many believe. The author considers the phoneme in different environments and describes its…

  14. Bingo!: An Engaging Activity for Learning Physiological Terms in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanags, Thea; George, Amanda M.; Grace, Diana M.; Brown, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain Bingo is a tutorial activity for helping undergraduate psychology students learn complex physiological terms. In two experiments, the authors tested pretest and posttest knowledge, and in Experiment 2, the authors tested retention after 5 weeks. In Experiment 1 (n = 41), the experimental group (Brain Bingo) recalled more terms than the…

  15. Kinetics of xylem loading, membrane potential maintenance, and sensitivity of K(+) -permeable channels to reactive oxygen species: physiological traits that differentiate salinity tolerance between pea and barley.

    PubMed

    Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Pottosin, Igor; Zeng, Fanrong; Velarde-Buendía, Ana-Maria; Massart, Amandine; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Hariadi, Yuda; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Salt sensitive (pea) and salt tolerant (barley) species were used to understand the physiological basis of differential salinity tolerance in crops. Pea plants were much more efficient in restoring otherwise depolarized membrane potential thereby effectively decreasing K(+) efflux through depolarization-activated outward rectifying potassium channels. At the same time, pea root apex was 10-fold more sensitive to physiologically relevant H2 O2 concentration and accumulated larger amounts of H2 O2 under saline conditions. This resulted in a rapid loss of cell viability in the pea root apex. Barley plants rapidly loaded Na(+) into the xylem; this increase was only transient, and xylem and leaf Na(+) concentration remained at a steady level for weeks. On the contrary, pea plants restricted xylem Na(+) loading during the first few days of treatment but failed to prevent shoot Na(+) elevation in the long term. It is concluded that superior salinity tolerance of barley plants compared with pea is conferred by at least three different mechanisms: (1) efficient control of xylem Na(+) loading; (2) efficient control of H2 O2 accumulation and reduced sensitivity of non-selective cation channels to H2 O2 in the root apex; and (3) higher energy saving efficiency, with less ATP spent to maintain membrane potential under saline conditions.

  16. Loadings of atmospheric trace elements and organic contaminants to the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.; Leister, D.L.; Church, T.M.; Scudlark, J.R.; Ondov, J.M.; Dickhut, R.M.; Cutter, G.

    1994-12-31

    To assess the absolute magnitude of atmospheric deposition loadings to the chesapeake Bay, a three-station network of integrated precipitation and air samplers was established in mid-1990 and maintained through September 1993. The objectives of the Chesapeake Bay Atmospheric Deposition Study (CBADS) were to document spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric inventories and wet and dry depositional fluxes of a variety of trace elements (Al, As, CD, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PCB congeners) in the chesapeake Bay region. Monthly wet depositional fluxes were calculated as the product of the volume-weighted mean concentration and the monthly precipitation amount, and annual dry deposition fluxes estimated as the product of particle-associated chemical inventories in the atmosphere and a size dependent deposition velocity. Total loadings to the surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay were estimated by spatially integrating fluxes from the three sites. PAH loadings (wet + dry) range from 19 {+-} 4 kg/year (anthracene) to 330 {+-} 86 kg/year (pyrene) and total PCB loadings were 40 {+-} 9 kg/year. Trace element loadings in 1991 ranged from 1,200 {+-} 130 kg/year for cadmium to 41,000 {+-} 14,000 kg/year for zinc. Results from the CBADS study will be compared and contrasted with those from the Great Lakes Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network.

  17. Hydropedological hotspots for dissolved organic carbon loading to streams along the perhumid temperate rainforest coastal margin of Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, D. V.; Edwards, R.; Herendeen, P. A.; Fellman, J.; Hood, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Integrating terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical research is essential for understanding the amount of material exported from terrestrial systems to streams and coastal margins. Integrated models are needed to elucidate how shifts in vegetation communities driven by soil moisture can predict plant community composition and biomass changes that alter the balance of carbon cycling and export to aquatic systems. Soil saturation has long been recognized as an important control on many ecological and biogeochemical relationships in coastal rainforests. However, the lack of working models for soil drainage with enough precision to provide accurate site assessments has limited interpretations of biogeochemical fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to coastal zones. We have established a hydropedological model that can be used to identify the spatial distribution and seasonal fluctuations of soil saturation and associated anaerobic conditions in soils. Periods of critical DOC loading and peak export associated with these conditions highlight the ability of rainforest soils to produce copious quantities of dissolved organic carbon export to streams. The loading of dissolved organic carbon to streams is closely coupled to seasonal temperature cycles, but constrained by the flow of water through the soil matrix. Episodic storm surges produce varying amounts of dissolved organic carbon flow depending on antecedent conditions. The largest amount of dissolved organic carbon loading to streams occurs after peak temperature and coincident with higher storm surges. Dissolved organic carbon flows more frequently and in higher quantities from wetland soils, but is also produced in large quantities from upland soils. These advances in modeling hydropedologic functions and dissolved organic carbon export establish a framework for climate change vulnerability assessments in rainforest soils.

  18. Nearshore Satellite Data as Relative Indicators of Intertidal Organism Physiological Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzelle, A.; Helmuth, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2011-12-01

    The physiological performance of intertidal and shallow subtidal invertebrates and algae is significantly affected by water temperature, and so the ability to measure and model onshore water temperatures is critical for ecological and biogeographic studies. Because of the localized influences of processes such as upwelling, mixing, and surface heating from solar radiation, nearshore water temperatures can differ from those measured directly offshore by buoys and satellites. It remains an open question what the magnitude of the differences in these temperatures are, and whether "large pixel" measurements can serve as an effective proxy for onshore processes, particularly when extrapolating from laboratory physiological studies to field conditions. We compared 9 years of nearshore (~10km) MODIS (Terra and Aqua overpasses) SST data against in situ measurements of water temperature conducted at two intertidal sites in central Oregon- Boiler Bay and Strawberry Hill. We collapsed data into increasingly longer temporal averages to address the correlation and absolute differences between onshore and nearshore temperatures over daily, weekly and monthly timescales. Results indicate that nearshore SST is a reasonable proxy for onshore water temperature, and that the strength of the correlation increases with decreasing temporal resolution. Correlations between differences in maxima are highest, followed by average and minima, and were lower at a site with regular upwelling. While average differences ranged from ~0.199-1.353°C, absolute differences across time scales were ~0.446-6.906°C, and were highest for cold temperatures. The results suggest that, at least at these two sites, SST can be used as a relative proxy for general trends only, especially over longer time scales.

  19. Nonenzymatic amperometric organic peroxide sensor based on nano-cobalt phthalocyanine loaded functionalized graphene film.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Chen, Lijian; Xu, Minrong; Su, Haichao; Ai, Shiyun

    2012-01-27

    An enzyme-free amperometric method was established for the electrochemical reduction tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) on the utilization of nano-cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) loaded functionalized graphene (FGR) and to create a highly responsive organic peroxide sensor. FGR was synthesized with a simple and fast method of electrolysis with potassium hexafluorophosphate (KPF(6)) solution as electrolyte under the static current of 0.2A. In the present work, FGR was dispersed in the solution of CoPc to fabricate chemical modified electrode to detect TBHP. The electro-reduction of TBHP can be catalyzed by FGR-CoPc, which has an excellent electrocatalytical activity due to the synergistic effect of the FGR with CoPc. The sensor can be applied to the quantification of TBHP with a linear range covering from 0.0260 to 4.81 mM, a high sensitivity of 13.64 A M(-1), and a low detection limit of 5 μM. This proposed sensor was designed as a simple, robust, and cheap analytical device for the determination of TBHP in body lotion.

  20. Load and distribution of organic matter and nutrients in a separated household wastewater stream.

    PubMed

    Todt, Daniel; Heistad, Arve; Jenssen, Petter D

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater from a source-separated sanitation system connected to 24 residential flats was analysed for the content of organic matter and nutrients and other key parameters for microbiological processes used in the treatment and reuse of wastewater. Black water (BW) was the major contributor to the total load of organic matter and nutrients in the wastewater, accounting for 69% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 83% of total nitrogen (N) and 87% of phosphorus (P). With a low COD/N ratio and high content of free ammonia, treating BW alone is a challenge in traditional biological nitrogen removal approaches. However, its high nitrogen concentration (1.4-1.7 g L(-1)) open up for nutrient reuse as well as for novel, more energy efficient N-removal technologies. Grey water (GW) contained low amounts of nutrients relative to organic matter, and this may limit biological treatment processes under certain conditions. GW contains a higher proportion of soluble, readily degradable organic substances compared with BW, which facilitates simple, decentralized treatment approaches. The concentration of organic matter and nutrients varied considerably between our study and other studies, which could be related to different toilet flushing volumes and water use habits. The daily load per capita, on the other hand, was found to be in line with most of the reported studies.

  1. Load and distribution of organic matter and nutrients in a separated household wastewater stream.

    PubMed

    Todt, Daniel; Heistad, Arve; Jenssen, Petter D

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater from a source-separated sanitation system connected to 24 residential flats was analysed for the content of organic matter and nutrients and other key parameters for microbiological processes used in the treatment and reuse of wastewater. Black water (BW) was the major contributor to the total load of organic matter and nutrients in the wastewater, accounting for 69% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 83% of total nitrogen (N) and 87% of phosphorus (P). With a low COD/N ratio and high content of free ammonia, treating BW alone is a challenge in traditional biological nitrogen removal approaches. However, its high nitrogen concentration (1.4-1.7 g L(-1)) open up for nutrient reuse as well as for novel, more energy efficient N-removal technologies. Grey water (GW) contained low amounts of nutrients relative to organic matter, and this may limit biological treatment processes under certain conditions. GW contains a higher proportion of soluble, readily degradable organic substances compared with BW, which facilitates simple, decentralized treatment approaches. The concentration of organic matter and nutrients varied considerably between our study and other studies, which could be related to different toilet flushing volumes and water use habits. The daily load per capita, on the other hand, was found to be in line with most of the reported studies. PMID:25495947

  2. Cortical networks for visual reaching: physiological and anatomical organization of frontal and parietal lobe arm regions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P B; Ferraina, S; Bianchi, L; Caminiti, R

    1996-01-01

    The functional and structural properties of the dorsolateral frontal lobe and posterior parietal proximal arm representations were studied in macaque monkeys. Physiological mapping of primary motor (MI), dorsal premotor (PMd), and posterior parietal (area 5) cortices was performed in behaving monkeys trained in an instructed-delay reaching task. The parietofrontal corticocortical connectivities of these same areas were subsequently examined anatomically by means of retrograde tracing techniques. Signal-, set-, movement-, and position-related directional neuronal activities were distributed nonuniformly within the task-related areas in both frontal and parietal cortices. Within the frontal lobe, moving caudally from PMd to the MI, the activity that signals for the visuo-spatial events leading to target localization decreased, while the activity more directly linked to movement generation increased. Physiological recordings in the superior parietal lobule revealed a gradient-like distribution of functional properties similar to that observed in the frontal lobe. Signal- and set-related activities were encountered more frequently in the intermediate and ventral part of the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), in area MIP. Movement-and position-related activities were distributed more uniformly within the superior parietal lobule (SPL), in both dorsal area 5 and in MIP. Frontal and parietal regions sharing similar functional properties were preferentially connected through their association pathways. As a result of this study, area MIP, and possibly areas MDP and 7m as well, emerge as the parietal nodes by which visual information may be relayed to the frontal lobe arm region. These parietal and frontal areas, along with their association connections, represent a potential cortical network for visual reaching. The architecture of this network is ideal for coding reaching as the result of a combination between visual and somatic information.

  3. Anaerobic slurry co-digestion of poultry manure and straw: effect of organic loading and temperature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digestion of a mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw, the effects of different temperatures and organic loading rates on the biogas yield and methane contents were evaluated. Since poultry manure is a poor substrate, in term of the availability of the nutrients, external supplementation of carbon has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and efficient process. The complete-mix, pilot-scale digester with working volume of 70 L was used. The digestion operated at 25°C, 30°C and 35°C with organic loading rates of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 kg Volatile solid/m3d and a HRT of 15 days. At a temperature of 35°C, the methane yield was increased by 43% compared to 25°C. Anaerobic co-digestion appeared feasible with a loading rate of 3.0 kg VS/m3d at 35°C. At this state, the specific methane yield was calculated about 0.12 m3/kg VS with a methane content of 53–70.2% in the biogas. The volatile solid (VS) removal was 72%. As a result of volatile fatty acid accumulation and decrease in pH, when the loading rate was less than 1 or greater than 4 kg VS/m3d, the process was inhibited or overloaded, respectively. Both the lower and higher loading rates resulted in a decline in the methane yield. PMID:24502409

  4. Physiological Evaluation of Childcare-Associated Muscle Load on the Neck and Shoulder Region in Japanese Women.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Saori; Kiyokawa, Takuma; Kuramoto, Eriko; Kinoshita, Hiroe; Nemoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The awkward movements and postures associated with childcare activities can lead to musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders. "Dakko" is a method for carrying a child in Japan, and recently it has been reported to cause shoulder stiffness. To our knowledge, the relationship between childcare activities and the physical load on the neck and shoulders is poorly understood. The present study aims to clarify the muscle load on the neck and shoulder region through dakko simulations. First, the association between dakko movements and trapezius muscle activity is clarified by image and electromyogram analyses. Based on this clarification, the distributions and intensity of the muscle load from repetitive dakko movements are clarified using myogenic potential topography. During dakko movements, trapezius muscle activity was observed when lifting up and setting down the child, but not when holding the child. For the repetitive movements, myogenic electrical potentials were observed in the trapezius region after movement load, and individual characteristics of participants were revealed in both the load distributions and the recovery process. Repetitive dakko movements likely induced sustained muscle tonus in the trapezius, which may be a factor related to shoulder stiffness. PMID:27064421

  5. Physiological Evaluation of Childcare-Associated Muscle Load on the Neck and Shoulder Region in Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Saori; Kiyokawa, Takuma; Kuramoto, Eriko; Kinoshita, Hiroe; Nemoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The awkward movements and postures associated with childcare activities can lead to musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulders. “Dakko” is a method for carrying a child in Japan, and recently it has been reported to cause shoulder stiffness. To our knowledge, the relationship between childcare activities and the physical load on the neck and shoulders is poorly understood. The present study aims to clarify the muscle load on the neck and shoulder region through dakko simulations. First, the association between dakko movements and trapezius muscle activity is clarified by image and electromyogram analyses. Based on this clarification, the distributions and intensity of the muscle load from repetitive dakko movements are clarified using myogenic potential topography. During dakko movements, trapezius muscle activity was observed when lifting up and setting down the child, but not when holding the child. For the repetitive movements, myogenic electrical potentials were observed in the trapezius region after movement load, and individual characteristics of participants were revealed in both the load distributions and the recovery process. Repetitive dakko movements likely induced sustained muscle tonus in the trapezius, which may be a factor related to shoulder stiffness. PMID:27064421

  6. A dynamic multibody model of the physiological knee to predict internal loads during movement in gravitational field.

    PubMed

    Bersini, Simone; Sansone, Valerio; Frigo, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining tibio-femoral (TF) contact forces, ligament deformations and loads during daily life motor tasks would be useful to better understand the aetiopathogenesis of knee joint diseases or the effects of ligament reconstruction and knee arthroplasty. However, methods to obtain this information are either too simplified or too computationally demanding to be used for clinical application. A multibody dynamic model of the lower limb reproducing knee joint contact surfaces and ligaments was developed on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging. Several clinically relevant conditions were simulated, including resistance to hyperextension, varus-valgus stability, anterior-posterior drawer, loaded squat movement. Quadriceps force, ligament deformations and loads, and TF contact forces were computed. During anterior drawer test the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was maximally loaded when the knee was extended (392 N) while the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) was much more stressed during posterior drawer when the knee was flexed (319 N). The simulated loaded squat revealed that the anterior fibres of ACL become inactive after 60° of flexion in conjunction with PCL anterior bundle activation, while most components of the collateral ligaments exhibit limited length changes. Maximum quadriceps and TF forces achieved 3.2 and 4.2 body weight, respectively. The possibility to easily manage model parameters and the low computational cost of each simulation represent key points of the present project. The obtained results are consistent with in vivo measurements, suggesting that the model can be used to simulate complex and clinically relevant exercises.

  7. Ecological correlates of variable organ sizes and fat loads in the most northerly-wintering shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, R.E.; Summers, R.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds at northern latitudes during the nonbreeding season typically carry relatively large lipid stores and exhibit an up-regulation of lean tissues associated with digestion and thermogenesis. Intraspecific variation in these tissues across sites primarily reflects differences in environmental conditions. Rock (Calidris ptilocnemis (Coues, 1873)) and Purple (Calidris maritima (Brünnich, 1764)) sandpipers are closely related species having the most northerly nonbreeding distributions among shorebirds, living at latitudes up to 61°N in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and up to 71°N in northern Norway, respectively. Cook Inlet is the coldest known site used by nonbreeding shorebirds, and the region’s mudflats annually experience extensive coverage of foraging sites by sea and shore-fast ice. Accordingly, Rock Sandpipers increase their fat stores to nearly 20% of body mass during winter. In contrast, Purple Sandpipers exploit predictably ice-free rocky intertidal foraging sites and maintain low (<6.5%) fat stores. Rock Sandpipers increase the mass of lean tissues from fall to winter, including contour feathers, stomach, and liver components. They also have greater lean pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle and liver and kidney tissues compared with Purple Sandpipers in winter. This demonstrates a combined emphasis on digestive processes and thermogenesis, whereas Purple Sandpipers primarily augment organs associated with digestive processes. The high winter fat loads and increased lean tissues of Rock Sandpipers in Cook Inlet reflect the region’s persistent cold and abundant but sporadically unavailable food resources.

  8. The effect of organic loading rate and retention time on hydrogen production from a methanogenic CSTR.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, O; Kaparaju, P; Rintala, J

    2011-10-01

    The possibility of shifting a methanogenic process for hydrogen production by changing the process parameters viz., organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) was evaluated. At first, two parallel semi-continuously fed continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were operated as methanogenic reactors (M1 and M2) for 78 days. Results showed that a methane yield of 198-218 L/kg volatile solids fed (VS(fed)) was obtained when fed with grass silage at an OLR of 2 kgVS/m³/d and HRT of 30 days. After 78 days of operation, hydrogen production was induced in M2 by increasing the OLR from 2 to 10 kgVS/m³/d and shortening the HRT from 30 to 6 days. The highest H₂ yield of 42 L/kgVS(fed) was obtained with a maximum H₂ content of 24%. The present results thus demonstrate that methanogenic process can be shifted towards hydrogen production by increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT.

  9. Experimental and Analytic Studies of an RF Load Resistor

    SciTech Connect

    Borovina, D.L.; Humphries, S.; Gahl, J.M.; Rees, D.

    1999-03-29

    The pulsed output of an 850-MHz klystron was directed into a load assembly containing a water-cooled, 50-ohm resistor. The load was systematically subjected to high peak-power pulses from the klystron. Several thin-film resistors were tested and exhibited various damage patterns for different combinations of peak microwave power (33 kW - 500 kW) and heat input. In order to better understand the phenomena observed, the electromagnetic field distribution inside the resistor housing was studied with WaveSim, a two-dimensional, finite-element scattering code. The conformal mesh of the program allowed accurate representations of the complex assembly geometry.

  10. An effective loading method of americium targets in fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ohki, Shigeo; Sato, Isamu; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kenya

    2007-07-01

    Recently, the development of target fuel with high americium (Am) content has been launched for the reduction of the overall fuel fabrication cost of the minor actinide (MA) recycling. In the framework of the development, this study proposes an effective loading method of Am targets in fast reactors. As a result of parametric survey calculations, we have found the ring-shaped target loading pattern between inner and outer core regions. This loading method is satisfactory both in core characteristics and in MA transmutation property. It should be noted that the Am targets can contribute to the suppression of the core power distribution change due to burnup. The major drawback of Am target is the production of helium gas. A target design modification by increasing the cladding thickness is found to be the most feasible measure to cope with the helium production. (authors)

  11. Accumulated span loadings of an arrow wing having vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. Subba

    1989-01-01

    The vortex flow over an arrow wing is theoretically investigated using the free-vortex-sheet method. The sectional lift coefficient and accumulated span loadings, which are important in determining the root bending moment, are calculated. The longitudinal stability variation is also estimated.

  12. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes. PMID:25214490

  13. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-11-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes. PMID:25214490

  14. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-11-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes.

  15. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Klotho: Physiology and Pathophysiology of an Endocrine Network of Mineral Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming Chang; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolically active and perpetually remodeling calcium phosphate–based endoskeleton in terrestrial vertebrates sets the demands on whole-organism calcium and phosphate homeostasis that involves multiple organs in terms of mineral flux and endocrine cross talk. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-Klotho endocrine networks epitomize the complexity of systems biology, and specifically, the FGF23-αKlotho axis highlights the concept of the skeleton holding the master switch of homeostasis rather than a passive target organ as hitherto conceived. Other than serving as a coreceptor for FGF23, αKlotho circulates as an endocrine substance with a multitude of effects. This review covers recent data on the physiological regulation and function of the complex FGF23-αKlotho network. Chronic kidney disease is a common pathophysiological state in which FGF23-αKlotho, a multiorgan endocrine network, is deranged in a self-amplifying vortex resulting in organ dysfunction of the utmost severity that contributes to its morbidity and mortality. PMID:23398153

  16. Phragmites australis response to Cu in terms of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) exudation: Influence of the physiological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2014-06-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere for several purposes, including in response to metal contamination. Despite this, little is yet known about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots in response to metal exposure. This work aimed at assessing the influence of the physiological cycle of marsh plants on the exudation of ALMWOAs in response to Cu contamination. In vitro experiments were carried out with Phragmites australis specimens, collected in different seasons. Plant roots were exposed to freshwater contaminated with two different Cu concentrations (67 μg/L and 6.9 mg/L), being the ALMWOAs released by the roots measured. Significant differences (both qualitative and quantitative) were observed during the Phragmites australis life cycle. At growing stage, Cu stimulated the exudation of oxalic and formic acids but no significant stimulation was observed for citric acid. At developing stage, exposure to Cu caused inhibition of oxalic acid exudation whereas citric acid liberation was stimulated but only in the media spiked with the lowest Cu concentration tested. At the decaying stage, no significant variation on oxalic acid was observed, whereas the citric and formic acids release increased as a consequence of the plant exposure to Cu. The physiological cycle of Phragmites australis, and probably also of other marsh plants, is therefore an important feature conditioning plants response to Cu contamination, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation. Hence this aspect should be considered when conducting studies on rhizodeposition involving marsh plants exposed to metals and in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  17. Sparing of muscle mass and function by passive loading in an experimental intensive care unit model.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Guillaume; Llano-Diez, Monica; Ravara, Barbara; Gorza, Luisa; Feng, Han-Zhong; Jin, Jian-Ping; Cacciani, Nicola; Gustafson, Ann-Marie; Ochala, Julien; Corpeno, Rebeca; Li, Meishan; Hedström, Yvette; Ford, G Charles; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Larsson, Lars

    2013-03-01

    The response to mechanical stimuli, i.e., tensegrity, plays an important role in regulating cell physiological and pathophysiological function, and the mechanical silencing observed in intensive care unit (ICU) patients leads to a severe and specific muscle wasting condition. This study aims to unravel the underlying mechanisms and the effects of passive mechanical loading on skeletal muscle mass and function at the gene, protein and cellular levels. A unique experimental rat ICU model has been used allowing long-term (weeks) time-resolved analyses of the effects of standardized unilateral passive mechanical loading on skeletal muscle size and function and underlying mechanisms. Results show that passive mechanical loading alleviated the muscle wasting and the loss of force-generation associated with the ICU intervention, resulting in a doubling of the functional capacity of the loaded versus the unloaded muscles after a 2-week ICU intervention. We demonstrate that the improved maintenance of muscle mass and function is probably a consequence of a reduced oxidative stress revealed by lower levels of carbonylated proteins, and a reduced loss of the molecular motor protein myosin. A complex temporal gene expression pattern, delineated by microarray analysis, was observed with loading-induced changes in transcript levels of sarcomeric proteins, muscle developmental processes, stress response, extracellular matrix/cell adhesion proteins and metabolism. Thus, the results from this study show that passive mechanical loading alleviates the severe negative consequences on muscle size and function associated with the mechanical silencing in ICU patients, strongly supporting early and intense physical therapy in immobilized ICU patients. PMID:23266938

  18. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  19. Effect of organic loading rate on the performance of two-stage anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pimentel, Reyna I; Rodríguez-Pérez, Suyen; Monroy-Hermosillo, Oscar; Ramírez-Vives, Florina

    2015-01-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was carried out: hydrolysis and acidogenesis in a continuous anaerobic hydrolytic leach bed (AHLB) reactor loaded at different rates (Bv = 3.8-7 gVSSL⁻¹d⁻¹) and methanogenesis of leachates, diluted with municipal wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at organic loading rates of 6.6-13 gCODLr⁻¹d⁻¹. In the AHLB reactor, 51-76% and 58-71% volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were obtained. During the hydrolysis and acidogenesis phases, the effluents were at pH 4.93, the leachate had a volatile fatty acids concentration of 35 g/L and the biogas was composed only of CO₂. The average methane production in the UASB in the load of 4.4 gVS L⁻¹ d⁻¹ in the AHLB was 3.32 LCH4Lr⁻¹d⁻¹ (yCH4 = 80%), with COD removal efficiency of 95% and methane yield 279 LCH4KgVS⁻¹OFMSW degraded.

  20. Fate of tetracycline resistant bacteria as a function of activated sludge process organic loading and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Jensen, J N; Aga, D S; Weber, A S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to elucidate the fate of tetracycline resistant bacteria as a function of activated sludge organic loading rate and growth rate. Techniques employed to evaluate the effect of these factors on the fate of tetracycline resistant bacteria were: (1) resistant bacteria concentrations in the SBR biomass; (2) production of tetracycline resistant bacteria as measured by a combination of effluent efflux and intentional solids wasting; (3) net specific growth rates as determined by an SBR population balance; and (4) percentage of resistance as determined by normalising resistant concentrations to total concentrations. Based on these evaluation parameters, increases in organic loading and growth rate both resulted in amplification of tetracycline resistance. These trends were observed for activated sludge reactors loaded with typical municipal background tetracycline concentrations (approximately 1 microg/L) and those receiving influent augmented with 250 microg/L tetracycline. Accordingly, biological wastewater treatment plants, such as the activated sludge process, may be significant sources of antibiotic resistance to the environment.

  1. An instrument to monitor physiological and environmental parameters associated with heat stress on an ambulatory subject.

    PubMed

    Cassels, B M

    1991-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and construction of an instrument for use on an ambulatory subject which monitors selected physiological and environmental parameters that are a reflection of the degree of physiological strain associated with heat stress. The resulting instrument is rugged, reliable, and uses existing practical technology for in-the-field ambulatory monitoring, and provides minimal restriction to subject movement. The physiological parameters monitored (heart rate and skin temperature) were selected following examination of systemic, skin, and psychoneurotic heat disorders, with the environmental parameters (wind velocity, ambient temperature and relative humidity) based on existing heat stress indices' correlation with physiological parameters. A microprocessor is utilized for data acquisition, mathematical computation and long term storage, and software for downloading the data to a large mainframe computer is provided. Following calibration of the transduction circuits, the instrument was assembled and tested. Improvements are required to obtain the reliability originally envisaged. Additional field trials would see the collection of data to establish criteria to determine the values of the parameters monitored enabling prediction of the onset of heat stress in hot, humid environments.

  2. An investigative laboratory course in human physiology using computer technology and collaborative writing.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A

    2004-12-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65 second-year students in sports medicine and biology at a small private comprehensive college. The course builds on skills and abilities first introduced in an introductory investigations course and introduces additional higher-level skills and more complex human experimental models. In four multiweek experimental modules, involving neuromuscular, reflex, and cardiovascular physiology, by use of computerized hardware/software with a variety of transducers, students carry out self-designed experiments with human subjects and perform data collection and analysis, collaborative writing, and peer editing. In assessments, including standard course evaluations and the Salgains Web-based evaluation, student responses to this approach are enthusiastic, and gains in their skills and abilities are evident in their comments and in improved performance. PMID:15319194

  3. An investigative laboratory course in human physiology using computer technology and collaborative writing.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A

    2004-12-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65 second-year students in sports medicine and biology at a small private comprehensive college. The course builds on skills and abilities first introduced in an introductory investigations course and introduces additional higher-level skills and more complex human experimental models. In four multiweek experimental modules, involving neuromuscular, reflex, and cardiovascular physiology, by use of computerized hardware/software with a variety of transducers, students carry out self-designed experiments with human subjects and perform data collection and analysis, collaborative writing, and peer editing. In assessments, including standard course evaluations and the Salgains Web-based evaluation, student responses to this approach are enthusiastic, and gains in their skills and abilities are evident in their comments and in improved performance.

  4. Loaded Ce-Ag organic-inorganic hybrids and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Truffault, Laurianne; Rodrigues, Danilo Fernando; Salgado, Hérida Regida Nunes; Santilli, Celso Valentim; Pulcinelli, Sandra Helena

    2016-11-01

    There are requirements for surfaces with antibacterial properties in various technological fields. U-PEO hybrids with antibacterial properties were synthesized by the sol-gel process, incorporating combinations of cerium and silver salts at different silver molar fractions (0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, and 1) relative to the total amount of doped cations. The loaded hybrids were characterized by TGA, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Release tests were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy, and the antibacterial properties of the hybrids were studied in agar tests and turbidimetry assays. The nanostructural evolution of the hybrids during the release of the antibacterial agents was investigated by in situ SAXS. XRD results showed the presence of the AgCl crystalline phase in the loaded hybrids from a silver molar fraction of 0.05. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the interaction of silver cations with the polymeric part of the hybrid. SAXS results confirmed these interactions and showed that cerium species interacted with both organic and inorganic parts of the hybrids. The loaded U-PEO hybrids were found to release all the incorporated cerium in 1h, while the hybrid containing 100% of silver released only 78% of the incorporated silver. All the loaded hybrids displayed antibacterial activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium. The antibacterial activity was found to increase with silver molar fraction. Due to its high antibacterial activity and low silver molar fraction, the loaded hybrid with silver molar fraction of 0.10 seemed to be a good compromise between efficiency, esthetic transparency, and photostability. PMID:27500358

  5. Nitrogen removal from high organic loading wastewater in modified Ludzack-Ettinger configuration MBBR system.

    PubMed

    Torkaman, Mojtaba; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Tahmasebian, Sepehr; Andalibi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    A moving bed biofilm reactor with pre-denitrification configuration was fed with a synthetic wastewater containing high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia. By changing different variables including ammonium and COD loading, nitrification rate in the aerobic reactor and denitrification rate in the anoxic reactor were monitored. Changing the influent loading was achieved via adjusting the inlet COD (956-2,096 mg/L), inlet ammonium (183-438 mg/L), and hydraulic retention time of the aerobic reactor (8, 12, and 18 hours). The overall organic loading rate was in the range of 3.60-17.37 gCOD/m2·day, of which 18.5-91% was removed in the anoxic reactor depending on the operational conditions. Considering the complementary role of the aerobic reactor, the overall COD removal was in the range 87.3-98.8%. In addition, nitrification rate increased with influent ammonium loading, the maximum rate reaching 3.05 gNH4/m2·day. One of the most important factors affecting nitrification rate was influent C:N entering the aerobic reactor, by increasing which nitrification rate decreased asymptotically. Nitrate removal efficiency in the anoxic reactor was also controlled by the inlet nitrate level entering the anoxic reactor. Furthermore, by increasing the nitrate loading rate from 0.91 to 3.49 gNO/m3·day, denitrification rate increased from 0.496 to 2.47 gNO/m3·day. PMID:26465296

  6. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-11-01

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

  7. Toxic effects of increased sediment nutrient and organic matter loading on the seagrass Zostera noltii.

    PubMed

    Govers, Laura L; de Brouwer, Jan H F; Suykerbuyk, Wouter; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Lamers, Leon P M; Smolders, Alfons J P; van Katwijk, Marieke M

    2014-10-01

    As a result of anthropogenic disturbances and natural stressors, seagrass beds are often patchy and heterogeneous. The effects of high loads of nutrients and organic matter in patch development and expansion in heterogeneous seagrass beds have, however, poorly been studied. We experimentally assessed the in situ effects of sediment quality on seagrass (Zostera noltii) patch dynamics by studying patch (0.35 m diameter) development and expansion for 4 sediment treatments: control, nutrient addition (NPK), organic matter addition (OM) and a combination (NPK+OM). OM addition strongly increased porewater sulfide concentrations whereas NPK increased porewater ammonium, nitrate and phosphate concentrations. As high nitrate concentrations suppressed sulfide production in NPK+OM, this treatment was biogeochemically comparable to NPK. Sulfide and ammonium concentrations differed within treatments, but over a 77 days period, seagrass patch survival and expansion were impaired by all additions compared to the control treatment. Expansion decreased at porewater ammonium concentrations >2,000 μmol L(-1). Mother patch biomass was not affected by high porewater ammonium concentrations as a result of its detoxification by higher seagrass densities. Sulfide concentrations >1,000 μmol L(-1) were toxic to both patch expansion and mother patch. We conclude that patch survival and expansion are constrained at high loads of nutrients or organic matter as a result of porewater ammonium or sulfide toxicity. PMID:25064458

  8. Using Electroencephalography to Measure Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonenko, Pavlo; Paas, Fred; Grabner, Roland; van Gog, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Application of physiological methods, in particular electroencephalography (EEG), offers new and promising approaches to educational psychology research. EEG is identified as a physiological index that can serve as an online, continuous measure of cognitive load detecting subtle fluctuations in instantaneous load, which can help explain effects of…

  9. A high-resolution conceptual model for diffuse organic micropollutant loads in streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Christian; Honti, Mark; Ghielmetti, Nico

    2013-04-01

    The ecological state of surface waters has become the dominant aspect in water quality assessments. Toxicity is a key determinant of the ecological state, but organic micropollutants (OMP) are seldom monitored with the same spatial and temporal frequency as for example nutrients, mainly due the demanding analytical methods and costs. However, diffuse transport pathways are at least equally complex for OMPs as for nutrients and there are still significant knowledge gaps. Moreover, concentrations of the different compounds would need to be known with fairly high temporal resolution because acute toxicity can be as important as the chronic one. Fully detailed mechanistic models of diffuse OMP loads require an immense set of site-specific knowledge and are rarely applicable for catchments lacking an exceptional monitoring coverage. Simple empirical methods are less demanding but usually work with more temporal aggregation and that's why they have limited possibilities to support the estimation of the ecological state. This study presents a simple conceptual model that aims to simulate the concentrations of selected organic micropollutants with daily resolution at 11 locations in the stream network of a small catchment (46 km2). The prerequisite is a known hydrological and meteorological background (daily discharge, precipitation and air temperature time series), a land use map and some historic measurements of the desired compounds. The model is conceptual in the sense that all important diffuse transport pathways are simulated separately, but each with a simple empirical process rate. Consequently, some site-specific observations are required to calibrate the model, but afterwards the model can be used for forecasting and scenario analysis as the calibrated process rates typically describe invariant properties of the catchment. We simulated 6 different OMPs from the categories of agricultural and urban pesticides and urban biocides. The application of agricultural

  10. Toward an Organic Chemist's Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, H. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analogy between electron transfer reactions of the elements and those of organic molecules is offered. Examples of organic electron transfer reactions are presented. The rationale of constructing an organic chemists' periodic table is also discussed. (HM)

  11. Effects of Organic-Loading-Rate Reduction on Sludge Biomass and Microbial Community in a Deteriorated Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-09-29

    The effects of a precipitous decrease in the inlet organic loading rate on sludge reductions and the microbial community in a membrane bioreactor were investigated. The sludge biomass was markedly reduced to 47.4% of the initial concentration (approximately 15,000 mg L(-1)) within 7 d after the organic loading rate was decreased by half (450 to 225 mg chemical oxygen demand L(-1) d(-1)). An analysis of the microbial community structure using high-throughput sequencing revealed an increase in the abundance of facultative predatory bacteria-related operational taxonomic units as well as microorganisms tolerant to environmental stress belonging to the classes Deinococci and Betaproteobacteria.

  12. Effects of Organic-Loading-Rate Reduction on Sludge Biomass and Microbial Community in a Deteriorated Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R.; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a precipitous decrease in the inlet organic loading rate on sludge reductions and the microbial community in a membrane bioreactor were investigated. The sludge biomass was markedly reduced to 47.4% of the initial concentration (approximately 15,000 mg L−1) within 7 d after the organic loading rate was decreased by half (450 to 225 mg chemical oxygen demand L−1 d−1). An analysis of the microbial community structure using high-throughput sequencing revealed an increase in the abundance of facultative predatory bacteria-related operational taxonomic units as well as microorganisms tolerant to environmental stress belonging to the classes Deinococci and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:27431196

  13. Corti's organ physiology-based cochlear model: a microelectronic prosthetic implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, Francisco; Fernandez-Ramos, Raquel; Romero-Sanchez, Jorge; Martin, Jose Francisco

    2003-04-01

    Corti"s Organ is an Electro-Mechanical transducer that allows the energy coupling between acoustical stimuli and auditory nerve. Although the structure and funtionality of this organ are complex, state of the art models have been currently developed and tested. Cochlea model presented in this paper is based on the theories of Bekesy and others and concerns on the behaviour of auditory system on frequency-place domain and mechanisms of lateral inhibition. At the same time, present state of technology will permit us developing a microsystem that reproduce this phenomena applied to hearing aid prosthesis. Corti"s Organ is composed of more than 20.000 cilia excited by mean of travelling waves. These waves produce relative pressures distributed along the cochlea, exciting an specific number of cilia in a local way. Nonlinear mechanisms of local adaptation to the intensity (external cilia cells) and lateral inhibition (internal cilia cells) allow the selection of very few elements excited. These transmit a very precise intensity and frequency information. These signals are the only ones coupled to the auditory nerve. Distribution of pressure waves matches a quasilogaritmic law due to Cochlea morphology. Microsystem presented in this paper takes Bark"s law as an approximation to this behaviour consisting on grouped arbitrary elements composed of a set of selective coupled exciters (bank of filters according to Patterson"s model).These sets apply the intensity adaptation principles and lateral inhibition. Elements excited during the process generate a bioelectric signal in the same way than cilia cell. A microelectronic solution is presented for the development of an implantable prosthesis device.

  14. The application of mass and energy conservation laws in physiologically structured population models of heterotrophic organisms

    PubMed

    Kooijman; Kooi; Hallam

    1999-04-01

    Rules for energy uptake, and subsequent utilization, form the basis of population dynamics and, therefore, explain the dynamics of the ecosystem structure in terms of changes in standing crops and size distributions of individuals. Mass fluxes are concomitant with energy flows and delineate functional aspects of ecosystems by defining the roles of individuals and populations. The assumption of homeostasis of body components, and an assumption about the general structure of energy budgets, imply that mass fluxes can be written as weighted sums of three organizing energy fluxes with the weight coefficients determined by the conservation law of mass. These energy fluxes are assimilation, maintenance and growth, and provide a theoretical underpinning of the widely applied empirical method of indirect calorimetry, which relates dissipating heat linearly to three mass fluxes: carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption and N-waste production. A generic approach to the stoichiometry of population energetics from the perspective of the individual organism is proposed and illustrated for heterotrophic organisms. This approach indicates that mass transformations can be identified by accounting for maintenance requirements and overhead costs for the various metabolic processes at the population level. The theoretical background for coupling the dynamics of the structure of communities to nutrient cycles, including the water balance, as well as explicit expressions for the dissipating heat at the population level are obtained based on the conservation law of energy. Specifications of the general theory employ the Dynamic Energy Budget model for individuals. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Design and Synthesis of an MOF Thermometer with High Sensitivity in the Physiological Temperature Range.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dian; Rao, Xingtang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2015-12-01

    An important result of research on mixed-lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (M'LnMOFs) is the realization of highly sensitive ratiometric luminescent thermometers. Here, we report the design and synthesis of the new M'LnMOF Tb0.80Eu0.20BPDA with high relative sensitivity in the physiological temperature regime (298-318 K). The emission intensity and luminescence lifetime were investigated and compared to those of existing materials. It was found that the temperature-dependent luminescence properties of Tb0.80Eu0.20BPDA are strongly associated with the distribution of the energy levels of the ligand. Such a property can be useful in the design of highly sensitive M'LnMOF thermometers.

  16. An Autoregulatory Mechanism Governing Mucociliary Transport Is Sensitive to Mucus Load

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Linbo; Shastry, Suresh; Byan-Parker, Suzanne; Houser, Grace; K. Chu, Kengyeh; Birket, Susan E.; Fernandez, Courtney M.; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Grizzle, William E.; Wilsterman, Eric J.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance, characterized by mucus secretion and its conveyance by ciliary action, is a fundamental physiological process that plays an important role in host defense. Although it is known that ciliary activity changes with chemical and mechanical stimuli, the autoregulatory mechanisms that govern ciliary activity and mucus transport in response to normal and pathophysiological variations in mucus are not clear. We have developed a high-speed, 1-μm-resolution, cross-sectional imaging modality, termed micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT), which provides the first integrated view of the functional microanatomy of the epithelial surface. We monitored invasion of the periciliary liquid (PCL) layer by mucus in fully differentiated human bronchial epithelial cultures and full thickness swine trachea using μOCT. We further monitored mucociliary transport (MCT) and intracellular calcium concentration simultaneously during invasion of the PCL layer by mucus using colocalized μOCT and confocal fluorescence microscopy in cell cultures. Ciliary beating and mucus transport are up-regulated via a calcium-dependent pathway when mucus causes a reduction in the PCL layer and cilia height. When the load exceeds a physiological limit of approximately 2 μm, this gravity-independent autoregulatory mechanism can no longer compensate, resulting in diminished ciliary motion and abrogation of stimulated MCT. A fundamental integrated mechanism with specific operating limits governs MCT in the lung and fails when periciliary layer compression and mucus viscosity exceeds normal physiologic limits. PMID:24937762

  17. Organic loading rate: A promising microbial management tool in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Robert M W; Coulon, Frédéric; Villa, Raffaella

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of changes in organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock on the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and their potential use as a bioengineering management tool to improve stability of anaerobic digesters. Digesters were exposed to one or two changes in OLR using the same or different co-substrates (Fat Oil and Grease waste (FOG) and/or glycerol). Although all the OLR fluctuations produced a decrease in biogas and methane production, the digesters exposed twice to glycerol showed faster recovery towards stable conditions after the second OLR change. This was correlated with the composition of the VFAs produced and their mode of production, from parallel to sequential, resulting in a more efficient recovery from inhibition of methanogenesis. The change in acids processing after the first OLR increase induced a shift in the microbial community responsible of the process optimisation when the digesters were exposed to a subsequent OLR increase with the same feedstock. When the digesters were exposed to an OLR change with a different feedstock (FOG), the recovery took 7d longer than with the same one (glycerol). However, the microbial community showed functional resilience and was able to perform similarly to pre-exposure conditions. Thus, changes in operational conditions can be used to influence microbial community structure for anaerobic digestion (AD) optimisation. Finally, shorter recovery times and increased resilience of digesters were linked to higher numbers of Clostridia incertae sedis XV, suggesting that this group may be a good candidate for AD bioaugmentation to speed up recovery after process instability or OLR increase. PMID:27214347

  18. Organic loading rate: A promising microbial management tool in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Robert M W; Coulon, Frédéric; Villa, Raffaella

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of changes in organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock on the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and their potential use as a bioengineering management tool to improve stability of anaerobic digesters. Digesters were exposed to one or two changes in OLR using the same or different co-substrates (Fat Oil and Grease waste (FOG) and/or glycerol). Although all the OLR fluctuations produced a decrease in biogas and methane production, the digesters exposed twice to glycerol showed faster recovery towards stable conditions after the second OLR change. This was correlated with the composition of the VFAs produced and their mode of production, from parallel to sequential, resulting in a more efficient recovery from inhibition of methanogenesis. The change in acids processing after the first OLR increase induced a shift in the microbial community responsible of the process optimisation when the digesters were exposed to a subsequent OLR increase with the same feedstock. When the digesters were exposed to an OLR change with a different feedstock (FOG), the recovery took 7d longer than with the same one (glycerol). However, the microbial community showed functional resilience and was able to perform similarly to pre-exposure conditions. Thus, changes in operational conditions can be used to influence microbial community structure for anaerobic digestion (AD) optimisation. Finally, shorter recovery times and increased resilience of digesters were linked to higher numbers of Clostridia incertae sedis XV, suggesting that this group may be a good candidate for AD bioaugmentation to speed up recovery after process instability or OLR increase.

  19. Concept Analysis: An Approach to Teaching Physiologic Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goosen, Geraldine M.

    1989-01-01

    A concept analysis approach for didactic nursing instruction, currently being used for organizing and synthesizing pathophysiological data in literature, is presented and illustrated with excerpts from the concept "inflammation." Advantages and disadvantages for its use identified by graduate students are also included. (Author/MSE)

  20. An antibacterial coating based on a polymer/sol-gel hybrid matrix loaded with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Pedro José; Urrutia, Aitor; Goicoechea, Javier; Zamarreño, Carlos Ruiz; Arregui, Francisco Javier; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2011-12-01

    In this work a novel antibacterial surface composed of an organic-inorganic hybrid matrix of tetraorthosilicate and a polyelectrolyte is presented. A precursor solution of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and poly(acrylic acid sodium salt) (PAA) was prepared and subsequently thin films were fabricated by the dip-coating technique using glass slides as substrates. This hybrid matrix coating is further loaded with silver nanoparticles using an in situ synthesis route. The morphology and composition of the coatings have been studied using UV-VIS spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) was also used to confirm the presence of the resulting silver nanoparticles within the thin films. Finally the coatings have been tested in bacterial cultures of genus Lactobacillus plantarum to observe their antibacterial properties. It has been experimentally demonstrated that these silver loaded organic-inorganic hybrid films have a very good antimicrobial behavior against this type of bacteria.

  1. 6. An "A" class buoy tender loads cargo alongside a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. An "A" class buoy tender loads cargo alongside a dock. The cargo carrying capacity of the 180s made them useful in supplying out-of-the-way settlements and installations. Note the A-frame support for the cargo boom. This system was found only on "A" class tenders. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  3. An Evaluation of the Use of Continuous Assessment in the Teaching of Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    A study of 30 first-year medical students in a physiology course found that frequent evaluation had a profound negative effect on learning, with students adopting a surface reproductive approach geared to passing exams rather than integrating knowledge. Lectures and curriculum organization failed to affect student use and structure of knowledge.…

  4. Locating Gases in Porous Materials: Cryogenic Loading of Fuel-Related Gases Into a Sc-based Metal-Organic Framework under Extreme Pressures.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Jorge; Woodall, Christopher H; Allan, Dave R; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Howie, Ross T; Kamenev, Konstantin V; Probert, Michael R; Wright, Paul A; Moggach, Stephen A

    2015-11-01

    An alternative approach to loading metal organic frameworks with gas molecules at high (kbar) pressures is reported. The technique, which uses liquefied gases as pressure transmitting media within a diamond anvil cell along with a single-crystal of a porous metal-organic framework, is demonstrated to have considerable advantages over other gas-loading methods when investigating host-guest interactions. Specifically, loading the metal-organic framework Sc2BDC3 with liquefied CO2 at 2 kbar reveals the presence of three adsorption sites, one previously unreported, and resolves previous inconsistencies between structural data and adsorption isotherms. A further study with supercritical CH4 at 3-25 kbar demonstrates hyperfilling of the Sc2 BDC3 and two high-pressure displacive and reversible phase transitions are induced as the filled MOF adapts to reduce the volume of the system.

  5. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for dietary uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds by fish: II. simulation of chronic exposure scenarios.

    PubMed

    Nichols, John W; Fitzsimmons, Patrick N; Whiteman, Frank W

    2004-02-01

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for dietary uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds by fish was used to simulate dosing scenarios commonly encountered in experimental and field studies. Simulations were initially generated for the model compound [UL-(14)C] 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl ([(14)C] PCB 52). Steady-state exposures were simulated by calculating chemical concentrations in tissues of the predator corresponding to an equilibrium distribution between the fish and water (termed the bioconcentration or BCF residue data set). This residue data set was then varied in a proportional manner until whole-body chemical concentrations exhibited no net change for each set of exposure conditions. For [(14)C] PCB 52, the proportional increase in BCF residues (termed the biomagnification factor or BMF) required to achieve steady state in a food-only exposure was 2.24, while in a combined food and water exposure the BMF was 3.11. Additional simulations for the food and water exposure scenario were obtained for a set of hypothetical organic compounds with increasing log K(OW) values. Using gut permeability coefficients determined for [(14)C] PCB 52, predicted BMFs increased with chemical log K(OW), achieving levels much higher than those reported in field sampling efforts. BMFs comparable to measured values were obtained by reducing permeability coefficients within each gut segment in a log K(OW)-dependent manner. This predicted decrease in chemical permeability is consistent with earlier work, suggesting that dietary absorption of hydrophobic compounds by fish is controlled in part by factors that vary with chemical log K(OW). Relatively low rates of metabolism or growth were shown to have a substantial impact on steady-state biomagnification of chemical residues. PMID:14657516

  6. Team work load in an English general practice. I.

    PubMed

    Marsh, G N; McNay, R A

    1974-02-23

    A survey of the total care provided by a general practitioner and his paramedical team for 3,137 patients in Teesside in 1972 showed that even in this area of high morbidity and mortality the work load was very small. The doctor held an average of 2.3 consultations per patient per year, and the overall average for the team of doctor, nurse, and health visitor was only 3.1. By delegating work to a team of trained paramedical workers, by increasing the proportion of personal medicine, and by engaging the co-operation of his patients, the general practitioner reduced his work load considerably, without any apparent reduction in standard of care.

  7. Physiological characteristics of the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: an efficient hydrogen cell factory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Global concerns about climate changes and their association with the use of fossil fuels have accelerated research on biological fuel production. Biological hydrogen production from hemicellulose-containing waste is considered one of the promising avenues. A major economical issue for such a process, however, is the low substrate conversion efficiency. Interestingly, the extreme thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus can produce hydrogen from carbohydrate-rich substrates at yields close to the theoretical maximum of the dark fermentation process (i.e., 4 mol H2/mol hexose). The organism is able to ferment an array of mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and is relatively tolerant to high partial hydrogen pressures, making it a promising candidate for exploitation in a biohydrogen process. The behaviour of this Gram-positive bacterium bears all hallmarks of being adapted to an environment sparse in free sugars, which is further reflected in its low volumetric hydrogen productivity and low osmotolerance. These two properties need to be improved by at least a factor of 10 and 5, respectively, for a cost-effective industrial process. In this review, the physiological characteristics of C. saccharolyticus are analyzed in view of the requirements for an efficient hydrogen cell factory. A special emphasis is put on the tight regulation of hydrogen production in C. saccharolyticus by both redox and energy metabolism. Suggestions for strategies to overcome the current challenges facing the potential use of the organism in hydrogen production are also discussed. PMID:21092203

  8. [Indices of immune reactivity of sportsmen organism after one time physical load of different intensity and duration].

    PubMed

    Iashvili, G; Chkhikvishvili, M; Kobelashvili, D; Kakiashvili, L; Chkhartishvili, M

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this research was to determine and to compare the indices of immune reactivity of sportsmen during one time physical load of different intensity and duration. Observation was carried out on 15 wrestlers of average qualification during the annual cycle after three one time physical loadings of different intensity and duration (15 sec.-maximum intensity; 60 sec.-maximum intensity; stepped growth loading), spontaneous rosette-formation, G.A.M.- concentration of immunoglobulin, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were determined. Immune reactivity of organism was decreasing after one time physical load. Expressed dependence of the sportsmen organism upon the duration and intensity of one time physical loadings was not revealed. PMID:20234062

  9. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  10. Physiological effects of two different postactivation potentiation training loads on power profiles generated during high intensity cycle ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Parry, Sian; Hancock, Stuart; Shiells, Matthew; Passfield, Louis; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether postactivation potentiation (PAP) would have any effect on high intensity cycle ergometer performance. Two different squatting exercises of different loads were presented in a random fashion prior to ergometric exercise. Seven male rugby players volunteered to participate in the study. There were no significant differences observed between peak power output (PPO) measurements for all three testing conditions (P > 0.05). There were also no differences recorded between mean power outputs (MPOs) and end power outputs (EPOs) (P > 0.05). The decrease in power output (FI %) also was found to be nonsignificant for all conditions (P > 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that performance of repeated heavy squats prior to a 30-second maximal cycle ergometer exercise did not improve the power profiles recorded and did not induce PAP at the time of testing.

  11. Alteration of plant physiology by glyphosate and its by-product aminomethylphosphonic acid: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo P; Smedbol, Elise; Chalifour, Annie; Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    It is generally claimed that glyphosate kills undesired plants by affecting the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, disturbing the shikimate pathway. However, the mechanisms leading to plant death may also be related to secondary or indirect effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. Moreover, some plants can metabolize glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) or be exposed to AMPA from different environmental matrices. AMPA is a recognized phytotoxin, and its co-occurrence with glyphosate could modify the effects of glyphosate on plant physiology. The present review provides an overall picture of alterations of plant physiology caused by environmental exposure to glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA, and summarizes their effects on several physiological processes. It particularly focuses on photosynthesis, from photochemical events to C assimilation and translocation, as well as oxidative stress. The effects of glyphosate and AMPA on several plant physiological processes have been linked, with the aim of better understanding their phytotoxicity and glyphosate herbicidal effects. PMID:25039071

  12. Indole-3-acetic acid: A widespread physiological code in interactions of fungi with other organisms

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Chen, Hung-Wei; Liu, Yen-Yu; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Plants as well as microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi, produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). IAA is the most common plant hormone of the auxin class and it regulates various aspects of plant growth and development. Thus, research is underway globally to exploit the potential for developing IAA-producing fungi for promoting plant growth and protection for sustainable agriculture. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that IAA biosynthesis evolved independently in bacteria, microalgae, fungi, and plants. Present studies show that IAA regulates the physiological response and gene expression in these microorganisms. The convergent evolution of IAA production leads to the hypothesis that natural selection might have favored IAA as a widespread physiological code in these microorganisms and their interactions. We summarize recent studies of IAA biosynthetic pathways and discuss the role of IAA in fungal ecology. PMID:26179718

  13. A generic organ based ontology system, applied to vertebrate heart anatomy, development and physiology.

    PubMed

    Bertens, Laura M F; Slob, Joris; Verbeek, Fons J

    2011-09-08

    We present a novel approach to modelling biological information using ontologies. The system interlinks three ontologies, comprising anatomical, developmental and taxonomical information, and includes instances of structures for different species. The framework is constructed for comparative analyses in the field of evolutionary development. We have applied the approach to the vertebrate heart and present four case studies of the functionality of the system, focusing on cross-species comparisons, developmental studies, physiological studies and 3D visualisation.

  14. Load on Trough Bellows Following an Argon Spill

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, K.; /Fermilab

    1988-07-12

    In the case of a gross argon spill from the DO detector, the liquid argon is caught in three plenums. These plenums are to be connected by bellows to make a horizontal trough open at one end for removing the argon. The design of these bellows is dependent on the maximum argon load they must carry. Bellows to connect the three argon-catching plenums in the DO detector must be able to carry at least 92 lbs of argon when closed and 231 lbs when open, plus the load due to argon in the convolutions. Examples of such loads and the method for their calculations are contained in the Discussion. It should be noted that a set of assumptions was used in these calculations. First, we considered a uniform channel and uniform flow. Second, we used a value for Manning's n meant for a similar, but not exactly the same, case. Finally, we were forced to define an average depth, d, to be used to state the hydraulic radius, R, and area of flow, A. These facts may warrant consideration in future calculations.

  15. Short-term load forecasting using an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.Y.; Cha, Y.T. ); Park, J.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Method is applied to forecast the short-term load for a large power system. The load has two distinct patterns: weekday and weekend-day patterns. The weekend-day pattern include Saturday, Sunday, and Monday loads. In this paper a nonlinear load model is proposed and several structures of ANN for short-term load forecasting are tested. Inputs to the ANN are past loads and the output of the ANN is the load forecast for a given day. The network with one or two hidden layers are tested with various combination of neurons, and results are compared in terms of forecasting error. The neural network, when grouped into different load patterns, gives good load forecast.

  16. Collectively loading an application in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Miller, Samuel J.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2016-01-05

    Collectively loading an application in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: identifying, by a parallel computer control system, a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute a job; selecting, by the parallel computer control system, one of the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; retrieving, by the job leader compute node from computer memory, an application for executing the job; and broadcasting, by the job leader to the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer, the application for executing the job.

  17. Land Cover and Nutrient Loads Explain Changes in Enzymatic Processing of Stream Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosen, J. D.; Febria, C.; McDonough, O.; Palmer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use has been shown to alter organic matter composition as well as its processing, export, and retention in headwater streams. Human activities also increase stream nutrient loading and in turn organic matter processing by heterotrophic microbial communities. Using microbial extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) assays combined with dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence spectroscopy, we investigated the interaction between catchment land use, nutrient limitation, heterotrophic microbial communities, and carbon processing in five forested and three urbanized Coastal Plain headwater streams (Maryland, USA). EEA measures microbial production of heterotrophic extracellular enzymes, including aminopeptidase, which facilitates the breakdown of organic nitrogen and phosphatase which facilitates breakdown of organic phosphate. DOM fluorescence spectroscopy enables rapid quantification of different organic matter fluorophores (e.g., amino acid-, humic acid-, and fulvic acid-like). Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of DOM fluorescence can be coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) for detailed quantitative analysis. Samples were collected quarterly from May 2011 to July 2012 and characterized using both EEA and EEM. We show that significant differences in stream EEA are explained by DOM fluorescence, land cover, and inorganic nutrient inputs. Specifically, urbanized sites were characterized by relatively low ortho-phosphate concentrations, high inorganic nitrogen concentrations, high phosphatase EEA, and greater amino acid-like DOM fluorescence. Aminopeptidase activity increased with increasing amino acid-like DOM fluorescence (i.e., a labile form of DOM for microbes) in forested streams. By contrast aminopeptidase activity did not respond to increasing amino acid-like fluorescence in urbanized streams. This points to a difference in limitation in inorganic nutrients between stream types. Thus, we hypothesize that stream microbial communities

  18. REPRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AQUATIC EXPOSURE TO TRENBOLONE, AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive and Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exposure to Trenbolone, an Environmental Androgen (Abstract). To be presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: Changing Environmental Awareness: Societal Concerns and Scientific...

  19. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  20. Effect of organic loading rate on anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated Scenedesmus sp. biomass.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, C; Sialve, B; Bernet, N; Steyer, J P

    2013-02-01

    Biogas production is one of the means to produce a biofuel from microalgae. Biomass consisting mainly of Scenedesmus sp. was thermally pretreated and optimum pretreatment length (1 h) and temperature (90 °C) was selected. Different chemical composition among batches stored at 4 °C for different lengths of time resulted in organic matter hydrolysis percentages ranging from 3% to 7%. The lower percentages were attributed to cell wall thickening observed during storage for 45 days. The different hydrolysis percentages did not cause differences in anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment of Scenedesmus sp. at 90 °C for 1h increased methane production 2.9 and 3.4-fold at organic loading rates (OLR) of 1 and 2.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), respectively. Regardless the OLR, inhibition caused by organic overloading or ammonia toxicity were not detected. Despite enhanced methane production, anaerobic biodegradability of this biomass remained low (32%). Therefore, this microalga is not a suitable feedstock for biogas production unless a more suitable pretreatment can be found. PMID:23247149

  1. Motor, Sleep/Wake and Physiological Organization in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Given Developmental Care. Conference Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patricia T.; And Others

    This study examined the effect of a modification of nursing care on stressors associated with care procedures for low birth weight infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); and on infants' physiological, motor, and behavioral development. The nursing staff of an NICU received training to reduce environmental and procedural stress, support…

  2. Skeletal muscle: an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, Alessandra; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Bari, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and efficiency of skeletal muscle depend on the complex balance between anabolic and catabolic factors. This balance gradually deteriorates with aging, leading to an age-related decline in muscle quantity and quality, called sarcopenia: this condition plays a central role in physical and functional impairment in late life. The knowledge of the mechanisms that induce sarcopenia and the ability to prevent or counteract them, therefore, can greatly contribute to the prevention of disability and probably also mortality in the elderly. It is well known that skeletal muscle is the target of numerous hormones, but only in recent years studies have shown a role of skeletal muscle as a secretory organ of cytokines and other peptides, denominated myokines (IL6, IL8, IL15, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and leukaemia inhibitory factor), which have autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions and are deeply involved in inflammatory processes. Physical inactivity promotes an unbalance between these substances towards a pro-inflammatory status, thus favoring the vicious circle of sarcopenia, accumulation of fat - especially visceral - and development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, dementia and depression, according to what has been called "the diseasome of physical inactivity". PMID:23858303

  3. An overview of current approaches and future challenges in physiological monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horst, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Sufficient evidence exists from laboratory studies to suggest that physiological measures can be useful as an adjunct to behavioral and subjective measures of human performance and capabilities. Thus it is reasonable to address the conceptual and engineering challenges that arise in applying this technology in operational settings. Issues reviewed include the advantages and disadvantages of constructs such as mental states, the need for physiological measures of performance, areas of application for physiological measures in operational settings, which measures appear to be most useful, problem areas that arise in the use of these measures in operational settings, and directions for future development.

  4. Permissible radionuclide loading for organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Lin, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-10-01

    A questionnaire on the use of ion exchange resins in nuclear power plants was sent to all operating reactors in the US. Responses were received from 23 of the 48 utilities approached. Information was sought concerning the amounts of radionuclides held by the resins, and the effects of its radiation on the resins both during operation and after removal from service. Relevant information from the questionnaires is summarized and discussed. Available literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on organic ion exchange resins has been reviewed. On the basis of published data on damage to resins by radiation, the technical rationale is given to support NRC's draft branch technical position on a maximum permissible radionuclide loading. It is considered advisable to formulate the rule in terms of a delivered dose rather than a curie loading. A maximum permissible dose of 10/sup 8/ rad is chosen because, while it is large enough that a measurable amount of damage will be done to the resin, it is small enough that the damage will be negligible at a power plant or disposal site. A test procedure has been written which a generator could use to qualify a specific resin for service at a higher dose than permitted by the general rule.

  5. Improving the Loading Capacity of Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films Using Optimized Linkers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Zha, Meiqin; Wang, Zhengbang; Redel, Engelbert; Xu, Zhengtao; Wöll, Christof

    2016-09-21

    The large surface area of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) sparks great interest for their use in storage applications. While the bulk of MOF applications focuses on incorporation of gases, we demonstrate that these highly porous frameworks are also well-suited for metal ion storage. For well-defined, highly oriented surface-anchored MOF thin films grown on modified gold surfaces using liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE), also referred to as SURMOFs, we determined the loading of two different types of MOF materials with a total of seven types of metal ions (Zn(2+), Ag(+), Pd(2+), Fe(3+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), and Co(2+)). Measurements using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) allowed determination of loading capacities as well as diffusion constants in a quantitative fashion. The adsorption capacities were observed to be highly ion specific; the largest uptake was for Fe(3+) and Pd(2+) ions with six and four metal ions per MOF pore, respectively. By comparing results for SURMOFs fabricated from different types of linkers, we demonstrate that S-containing functionalities in particular drastically improve the storage capacity of MOFs for metal ions. PMID:27575655

  6. Human control of an inverted pendulum: is continuous control necessary? Is intermittent control effective? Is intermittent control physiological?

    PubMed

    Loram, Ian D; Gollee, Henrik; Lakie, Martin; Gawthrop, Peter J

    2011-01-15

    Human motor control is often explained in terms of engineering 'servo' theory. Recently, continuous, optimal control using internal models has emerged as a leading paradigm for voluntary movement. However, these engineering paradigms are designed for high band-width, inflexible, consistent systems whereas human control is low bandwidth and flexible using noisy sensors and actuators. By contrast, engineering intermittent control was designed for bandwidth-limited applications. Our general interest is whether intermittent rather than continuous control is generic to human motor control. Currently, it would be assumed that continuous control is the superior and physiologically natural choice for controlling unstable loads, for example as required for maintaining human balance. Using visuo-manual tracking of an unstable load, we show that control using gentle, intermittent taps is entirely natural and effective. The gentle tapping method resulted in slightly superior position control and velocity minimisation, a reduced feedback time delay, greater robustness to changing actuator gain and equal or greater linearity with respect to the external disturbance. Control was possible with a median contact rate of 0.8±0.3 s(-1). However, when optimising position or velocity regulation, a modal contact rate of 2 s(-1) was observed. This modal rate was consistent with insignificant disturbance-joystick coherence beyond 1-2 Hz in both tapping and continuous contact methods. For this load, these results demonstrate a motor control process of serial ballistic trajectories limited to an optimum rate of 2 s(-1). Consistent with theoretical reasoning, our results suggest that intermittent open loop action is a natural consequence of human physiology.

  7. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED TOXICOKINETIC MODEL FOR DIETARY UPTAKE OF HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY FISH: I. FEEDING STUDIES WITH 2,2',5,5'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to describe dietary uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds by fish. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract was modeled using four compartments corresponding to the stomach, pyloric ceca, upper intestine, and lower intesti...

  8. Bioaugmentation of potent acidogenic isolates: a strategy for enhancing biohydrogen production at elevated organic load.

    PubMed

    Goud, R Kannaiah; Sarkar, Omprakash; Chiranjeevi, P; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of bioaugmentation strategy for enhancing biohydrogenesis at elevated organic load was successfully evaluated by augmenting native acidogenic microflora with three acidogenic bacterial isolates viz., Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Lysinibacillus fusiformis related to phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria separately. Hydrogen production ceased at 50g COD/l operation due to feed-back inhibition. B. subtilis augmented system showed higher H2 production followed by L. fusiformis, P. stutzeri and control operations, indicating the efficacy of Firmicutes as bioaugmentation biocatalyst. Higher VFA production with acetic acid as a major fraction was specifically observed with B. subtilis augmented system. Shift in metabolic pathway towards acidogenesis favoured higher H2 production. FISH analysis confirmed survivability and persistence of augmented strains apart from improvement in process performance. Bio-electrochemical analysis depicted specific changes in the metabolic activity after augmentation which also facilitated enhanced electron transfer. P. stutzeri augmented system documented relatively higher COD removal.

  9. Organ protective mechanisms common to extremes of physiology: a window through hibernation biology.

    PubMed

    Quinones, Quintin J; Ma, Qing; Zhang, Zhiquan; Barnes, Brian M; Podgoreanu, Mihai V

    2014-09-01

    Supply and demand relationships govern survival of animals in the wild and are also key determinants of clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. Most animals' survival strategies focus on the supply side of the equation by pursuing territory and resources, but hibernators are able to anticipate declining availability of nutrients by reducing their energetic needs through the seasonal use of torpor, a reversible state of suppressed metabolic demand and decreased body temperature. Similarly, in clinical medicine the majority of therapeutic interventions to care for critically ill or trauma patients remain focused on elevating physiologic supply above critical thresholds by increasing the main determinants of delivery of oxygen to the tissues (cardiac output, perfusion pressure, hemoglobin concentrations, and oxygen saturation), as well as increasing nutritional support, maintaining euthermia, and other general supportive measures. Techniques, such as induced hypothermia and preconditioning, aimed at diminishing a patient's physiologic requirements as a short-term strategy to match reduced supply and to stabilize their condition, are few and underutilized in clinical settings. Consequently, comparative approaches to understand the mechanistic adaptations that suppress metabolic demand and alter metabolic use of fuel as well as the application of concepts gleaned from studies of hibernation, to the care of critically ill and injured patients could create novel opportunities to improve outcomes in intensive care and perioperative medicine.

  10. Organ Protective Mechanisms Common to Extremes of Physiology: A Window through Hibernation Biology

    PubMed Central

    Quinones, Quintin J.; Ma, Qing; Zhang, Zhiquan; Barnes, Brian M.; Podgoreanu, Mihai V.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand relationships govern survival of animals in the wild and are also key determinants of clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. Most animals’ survival strategies focus on the supply side of the equation by pursuing territory and resources, but hibernators are able to anticipate declining availability of nutrients by reducing their energetic needs through the seasonal use of torpor, a reversible state of suppressed metabolic demand and decreased body temperature. Similarly, in clinical medicine the majority of therapeutic interventions to care for critically ill or trauma patients remain focused on elevating physiologic supply above critical thresholds by increasing the main determinants of delivery of oxygen to the tissues (cardiac output, perfusion pressure, hemoglobin concentrations, and oxygen saturation), as well as increasing nutritional support, maintaining euthermia, and other general supportive measures. Techniques, such as induced hypothermia and preconditioning, aimed at diminishing a patient’s physiologic requirements as a short-term strategy to match reduced supply and to stabilize their condition, are few and underutilized in clinical settings. Consequently, comparative approaches to understand the mechanistic adaptations that suppress metabolic demand and alter metabolic use of fuel as well as the application of concepts gleaned from studies of hibernation, to the care of critically ill and injured patients could create novel opportunities to improve outcomes in intensive care and perioperative medicine. PMID:24848803

  11. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  12. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor in barrier organ physiology, immunology, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Esser, Charlotte; Rannug, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an evolutionarily old transcription factor belonging to the Per-ARNT-Sim-basic helix-loop-helix protein family. AhR translocates into the nucleus upon binding of various small molecules into the pocket of its single-ligand binding domain. AhR binding to both xenobiotic and endogenous ligands results in highly cell-specific transcriptome changes and in changes in cellular functions. We discuss here the role of AhR for immune cells of the barrier organs: skin, gut, and lung. Both adaptive and innate immune cells require AhR signaling at critical checkpoints. We also discuss the current two prevailing views-namely, 1) AhR as a promiscuous sensor for small chemicals and 2) a role for AhR as a balancing factor for cell differentiation and function, which is controlled by levels of endogenous high-affinity ligands. AhR signaling is considered a promising drug and preventive target, particularly for cancer, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, understanding its biology is of great importance.

  13. Fear load: The psychophysiological over-expression of fear as an intermediate phenotype associated with trauma reactions.

    PubMed

    Norrholm, Seth Davin; Glover, Ebony M; Stevens, Jennifer S; Fani, Negar; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Psychophysiological measures of fear expression provide observable intermediate phenotypes of fear-related symptoms. Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) advocate using neurobiological intermediate phenotypes that provide dimensional correlates of psychopathology. Negative Valence Systems in the RDoC matrix include the construct of acute threat, which can be measured on a physiological level using potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex assessed via electromyography recordings of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Impairments in extinction of fear-potentiated startle due to high levels of fear (termed fear load) during the early phases of extinction have been observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The goals of the current work were to examine dimensional associations between fear-related symptoms of PTSD and fear load variables to test their validity as an intermediate phenotype. We examined extinction of fear-potentiated startle in a cohort (n=269) of individuals with a broad range of civilian trauma exposure (range 0-13 traumatic events per person, mean=3.5). Based on previously reported findings, we hypothesized that fear load would be significantly associated with intrusion and fear memories of an index traumatic event. The results indicated that early extinction was correlated with intrusive thoughts (p=0.0007) and intense physiological reactions to trauma reminders (p=0.036). Degree of adult or childhood trauma exposure, and depression severity were not associated with fear load. After controlling for age, sex, race, income, level of prior trauma, and level of fear conditioning, fear load during extinction was still significantly predictive of intrusive thoughts (p=0.004). The significance of these findings is that they support dimensional associations with symptom severity rather than diagnostic category and, as such, fear load may emerge as a transdiagnostic intermediate phenotype expressed across fear-related disorders (e.g., specific phobia, social

  14. An Experimental Study of Applied Ground Loads in Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milwitzky, Benjamin; Lindquist, Dean C; Potter, Dexter M

    1955-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation made of the applied ground loads and the coefficient of friction between the tire and the ground during the wheel spin-up process in impacts of a small landing gear under controlled conditions on a concrete landing strip in the Langley impact basin. The basic investigation included three major phases: impacts with forward speed at horizontal velocities up to approximately 86 feet per second, impacts with forward speed and reverse wheel rotation to simulate horizontal velocities up to about 273 feet per second, and spin-up drop tests for comparison with the other tests. In addition to the basic investigation, supplementary tests were made to evaluate the drag-load alleviating effects of prerotating the wheel before impact so as to reduce the relative velocity between the tire and ground. In the presentation of the results, an attempt has been made to interpret the experimental data so as to obtain some insight into the physical phenomena involved in the wheel spin-up process.

  15. Effect of loading on the organization of the collagen fibril network in juvenile equine articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Brama, Pieter A J; Holopainen, Jaakko; van Weeren, P René; Firth, Elwyn C; Helminen, Heikki J; Hyttinen, Mika M

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the effects of exercise-induced loading on the collagen network of equine articular cartilage. Collagen fibril architecture at a site (1) subjected to intermittent high-intensity loading was compared with that of an adjacent site (2) sustaining continuous low-level load. From horses exposed to forced exercise (CONDEX group) or not (PASTEX group), the spatial parallelism of fibrils and the orientation angle between fibrils and the surface at depths 9 microm apart through cartilage from surface to tidemark were determined using polarized light microscopy, and expressed as parallelism index (PI) and orientation index (OI). PI was significantly higher in site 2 than 1 in CONDEX and PASTEX groups. PI was significantly higher in forced exercised horses at site 2 but not site 1. OI was significantly greater (more perpendicular to the surface) in the superficial and deep cartilage of site 2 than 1 in both CONDEX and PASTEX groups. Superficial zone OI was higher in exercised horses at site 1 but not at site 2. Exercise increased collagen parallelism and affected orientation. The site differences in OI indicate that Benninghoff's classic predominantly perpendicular arcades appear not to be a consistent architectural feature, but adapt to local forces sustained.

  16. Ergovaline, an endophytic alkaloid. 1. Animal physiology and metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid found in some endophyte-infected ryegrasses and has been implicated in the expression of ergotism-like symptoms of grazing livestock, as well as in the protection of the plant against invertebrate predation and abiotic stresses. These selection pressures have resulted...

  17. Development of a new neutron monitor using a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasolonjatovo, A. H. D.; Shiomi, T.; Kim, E.; Nakamura, T.; Nunomiya, T.; Endo, A.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.

    2002-10-01

    A new type of neutron dose monitor was developed by using a 12.7 cm diameter×12.7 cm long boron-loaded organic liquid scintillation detector BC523A. This detector aims to have a response in the wide energy range of thermal energy to 100 MeV by using the H and C reactions to the fast neutrons of organic liquid and the 10B(n, α) reaction to thermalized neutrons in the liquid. The response functions of this detector were determined by the Monte Carlo simulation in the energy region from thermal energy to 100 MeV. Using these response functions, the spectrum-weighted dose function, G-function, to get the neutron dose from the light output spectrum of the detector was also determined by the unfolding technique. The calculated G-function was applied to determine the neutron dose in real neutron fields having energies ranging from thermal energy to several tens of MeV, where the light output spectra were measured with the BC523A detector. The thus-obtained ambient doses and effective doses show rather good agreement with the fluence-to-dose conversion factor given by ICRP 74. This detector will be useful as a wide-energy range neutron monitor.

  18. The effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates. Two continuous reactors were compared. The first mono-digested grass silage whilst the second operated in co-digestion, 80% grass silage with 20% dairy slurry (VS basis). The reactors were run for 65weeks with a further 5weeks taken for trace element supplementation for the mono-digestion of grass silage. The co-digestion reactor reported a higher biomethane efficiency (1.01) than mono-digestion (0.90) at an OLR of 4.0kgVSm(-3)d(-1) prior to addition of trace elements. Addition of cobalt, iron and nickel, led to an increase in the SMY in mono-digestion of grass silage by 12% to 404LCH4kg(-1)VS and attained a biomethane efficiency of 1.01.

  19. Analysis of musculoskeletal loading in an index finger during tapping.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; An, Kai-Nan; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine; Welcome, Daniel; Dong, Ren G

    2008-01-01

    Since musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities are believed to be associated with repetitive excessive muscle force production in the hands, understanding the time-dependent muscle forces during key tapping is essential for exploring the mechanisms of disease initiation and development. In the current study, we have simulated the time-dependent dynamic loading in the muscle/tendons in an index finger during tapping. The index finger model is developed using a commercial software package AnyBody, and it contains seven muscle/tendons that connect the three phalangeal finger sections. Our simulations indicate that the ratios of the maximal forces in flexor digitorum superficialis (FS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FP) tendons to the maximal force at the fingertip are 0.95 and 2.9, respectively, which agree well with recently published experimental data. The time sequence of the finger muscle activation predicted in the current study is consistent with the EMG data in the literature. The proposed model will be useful for bioengineers and ergonomic designers to improve keyboard design minimizing musculoskeletal loadings in the fingers.

  20. Physiological changes induced by chromium stress in plants: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Shamsul; Khalique, Gulshan; Irfan, Mohammad; Wani, Arif Shafi; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the mechanism of chromium (Cr) stress in plants. Toxic effects of Cr on plant growth and development depend primarily on its valence state. Cr(VI) is highly toxic and mobile whereas Cr(III) is less toxic. Cr-induced oxidative stress involves induction of lipid peroxidation in plants that cause severe damage to cell membranes which includes degradation of photosynthetic pigments causing deterioration in growth. The potential of plants with the adequacy to accumulate or to stabilize Cr compounds for bioremediation of Cr contamination has gained engrossment in recent years.

  1. Effects of changing hydraulic and organic loading rates on pollutant reduction in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Pell, Mikael; Hylander, Lars D; Lalander, Cecilia; Vinnerås, Björn; Jönsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Greywater flows and concentrations vary greatly, thus evaluation and prediction of the response of on-site treatment filters to variable loading regimes is challenging. The performance of 0.6 m × 0.2 m (height × diameter) filters of bark, activated charcoal and sand in reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (Tot-N) and total phosphorus (Tot-P) under variable loading regimes was investigated and modelled. During seven runs, the filters were fed with synthetic greywater at hydraulic loading rates (HLR) of 32-128 L m(-2) day(-1) and organic loading rates (OLR) of 13-76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1). Based on the changes in HLR and OLR, the reduction in pollutants was modelled using multiple linear regression. The models showed that increasing the HLR from 32 to 128 L m(-2) day(-1) decreased COD reduction in the bark filters from 74 to 40%, but increased COD reduction in the charcoal and sand filters from 76 to 90% and 65 to 83%, respectively. Moreover, the models showed that increasing the OLR from 13 to 76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters except for Tot-P in the bark filters, which decreased slightly from 81 to 73%. Decreasing the HLR from 128 to 32 L m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters, but decreasing the OLR from 76 to 14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) detached biofilm and decreased the Tot-N and Tot-P reduction in the bark and sand filters. Overall, the bark filters had the capacity to treat high OLR, while the charcoal filters had the capacity to treat high HLR and high OLR. Both bark and charcoal filters had higher capacity than sand filters in dealing with high and variable loads. Bark seems to be an attractive substitute for sand filters in settings short in water and its effluent would be valuable for irrigation, while charcoal filters should be an attractive alternative for settings both rich and short in water supply and when

  2. Abnormal lung gallium-67 uptake preceding pulmonary physiologic impairment in an asymptomatic patient with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, T.F.; Golden, J. )

    1990-05-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was suggested by a diffuse, bilateral pulmonary uptake of gallium-67 in an asymptomatic, homosexual male with the antibody to the immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who was undergoing staging evaluation for lymphoma clinically localized to a left inguinal lymph node. Chest radiograph and pulmonary function evaluation, including lung volumes, diffusing capacity and arterial blood gases, were within normal limits. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed Pneumocystis carinii organisms. In this asymptomatic, HIV-positive patient, active alveolar infection, evidenced by abnormal gallium-67 scanning, predated pulmonary physiologic abnormalities. This observation raises questions concerning the natural history of this disease process and the specificity of physiologic tests for excluding disease. It also has implications for the treatment of neoplasia in the HIV-positive patient population.

  3. Physiological ecology of Mougeotia (Zygnemataceae) from an experimentally acidified lake

    SciTech Connect

    Arancibia-Avila, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    Filamentous green algae were collected in July, 1989, from metaphytic blooms that occurred in the acidified (pH 5.2) basin, but not an unacidified reference basin (pH 6.1) of Little Rock Lake, Vilas Co., WI. Isolates of a Mougeotia species and Spirogyra reflexa were cultured at pH 5.5, with aeration. Measurements Of O[sub 2] production in a factorial experiment revealed optimal irradiance and temperature for photosynthesis in Mougeotia were 2500 [mu]E[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]l] and 25[degrees]C. Additional O[sub 2] evolution measurements showed that the optimal pH for Mougeotia photosynthesis was 8, but that net photosynthesis was positive from pH 8 to 3. Further studies indicated that Mougeotia was tolerant to concentrations of zinc and aluminum that were greater than levels observed in the acidified basin of the lake. Since inorganic carbon (C[sub i]) is known to limit Mougeotia photosynthesis and growth in acidified lakes, the occurrence of carbonic anhydrase (CA) as a mechanism for uptake and concentration of C[sub i] was investigated. No CA activity was detected in S. reflexa. In contrast, both external and internal CA were measured in Mougeotia at pH 3.7 and at pH 8. By comparison to pH 8, at pH 3.7 external CA activity increased by a factor of about 2. An antibody to Chlamydomonas external CA was used to localize CA in the plasma membrane and cell wall of both Chlamydomonas and Mougeotia. When unaerated (DIC-limited) Mougeotia was grown in SD11 medium supplemented with 1% glucose, chlorophyll a levels were significantly higher than for cultures grown without sugar. Chloroplast morphology was also judged superior for sugar-supplemented cultures. The data suggest that Mougeotia possesses a DIC-concentrating system, and may also be able to import DOC (glucose).

  4. The University as an Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, James A., Ed.

    This collection of studies by men and women who understand universities and have the experience and ability to view them in perspectives of history and international experience demonstrates that universities constitute a genus of institution that is unique in its totality and comparable to other organizations only in certain of its…

  5. An Insulin-to-Insulin Regulatory Network Orchestrates Phenotypic Specificity in Development and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Fardel, Pascal; Stroustrup, Nicholas; Chen, Zhunan; Lee, KyungHwa; Keyes, William D.; Nash, Zachary M.; López-Moyado, Isaac F.; Vaggi, Federico; Cornils, Astrid; Regenass, Martin; Neagu, Anca; Ostojic, Ivan; Liu, Chang; Cho, Yongmin; Sifoglu, Deniz; Shen, Yu; Fontana, Walter; Lu, Hang; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Murphy, Coleen T.; Antebi, Adam; Blanc, Eric; Apfeld, Javier; Zhang, Yun; Alcedo, Joy; Ch'ng, QueeLim

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) play highly conserved roles in development and physiology. Most animal genomes encode multiple ILPs. Here we identify mechanisms for how the forty Caenorhabditis elegans ILPs coordinate diverse processes, including development, reproduction, longevity and several specific stress responses. Our systematic studies identify an ILP-based combinatorial code for these phenotypes characterized by substantial functional specificity and diversity rather than global redundancy. Notably, we show that ILPs regulate each other transcriptionally, uncovering an ILP-to-ILP regulatory network that underlies the combinatorial phenotypic coding by the ILP family. Extensive analyses of genetic interactions among ILPs reveal how their signals are integrated. A combined analysis of these functional and regulatory ILP interactions identifies local genetic circuits that act in parallel and interact by crosstalk, feedback and compensation. This organization provides emergent mechanisms for phenotypic specificity and graded regulation for the combinatorial phenotypic coding we observe. Our findings also provide insights into how large hormonal networks regulate diverse traits. PMID:24675767

  6. Evaluation of the toxicity of superfine materials to change the physiological functions of aquatic organisms of different trophic levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgalev, S.; Morgaleva, T.; Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, Yu

    2015-11-01

    We assessed ecological and biological effects caused by the physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials on the basis of the laboratory researches into water test-organisms of different trophic levels. We studied the physiological functions of water organisms on adding into the environment superfine materials of various chemical nature and structural characteristics: metallic nanoparticles of nikel (nNi), argentum (nAg), platinum (nPt), aurum (nAu), binary NPs (powder of titanium dioxide - nTiO2, aluminum oxide - nAl2O3, zink oxide - nZnO, silicon nitride - nSi3N4, silicon carbide (nSiC) and carbon nanotubes (BT-50, MCD- material). We observed the dependence of developing the complex of unfavourable biological effects in water plants and entomostracans’ organisms on the physical and chemical properties of superfine materials. We determined the values of NOEC, L(E)C20 and L(E)C50 for aquatic organisms of various regular groups. We found out the most vulnerable elements of the communities’ trophic structure and the possibility of a breakdown in the water ecosystem food pyramid.

  7. Selection for a red tide organism: physiological responses to the physical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, M.A.; Seliger, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum mariae-lebouriae has specific physiological characteristics that allow it to participate in a subsurface transport from the southern Chesapeak Bay to the northern bay, where it upwells and forms red tides. A particular growth rate dependence both on temperature and salinity restricts its year-round distribution to the high-salinty southern bay. At summer temperatures, increased tolerance to low salinities allows rapid growth in the low-salinity waters of the northern bay. Positive phototaxis is proposed to act in conjunction with downwelling convergence at a frontal region to form the initial subsurface concentration maximum or lens. Repression of positive phototaxis at a salinity interface appears to prevent the subsurface concentrations from crossing the sharp halocline, retaining the lens population in northward-flowing bottom waters. Prorocentrum increases its pigment concentration and retains its photosynthetic capacity at the extremely low light intensities encountered during the 200-km northward transport. In nutrient-poor surface waters in summer, Prorocentrum migrates at night to the higher nutrient pycnocline region. The winter-spring phasing of the streamflows in both northern and southern bays may be used to predict the degree of Prorocentrum blooming in the northern bay in summer.

  8. Bioremediation of high organic load lagoon sediments: compost addition and priming effects.

    PubMed

    d'Errico, G; Giovannelli, D; Montano, C; Milanovic, V; Ciani, M; Manini, E

    2013-03-01

    Lagoons are often affected by eutrophication phenomena, due to their shallow nature, high productivity, weak hydrodynamism and anthropic exploitation. Bioremediation techniques have been widely used in the treatment of chemical pollution; however, no information is available on the use of bioremediation of organic-rich sediments. In the present study, we investigated the priming effects following compost addition to organic-rich lagoon sediments, and the effects of this compost addition on degradation and cycling of organic detritus, transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels, and in situ prokaryotic community structure. There was a positive response to treatment, particularly during the first days after compost addition. The compost had a stimulating effect on degradation activity of the prokaryotic community. This occurred despite an increase in available organic matter, as the community was more efficient at removing it. These data are supported by the prokaryotic community structure analysis, which revealed no changes in the in situ community following compost addition. This priming effect enhancement through compost addition represents an efficient method to treat organic-rich sediments. PMID:23273326

  9. Cyclic Plasticity under Shock Loading in an HCP Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Prime, Michael B.; Hunter, Abigail; Canfield, Thomas R.; Adams, Chris D.

    2012-06-08

    Plate impact experiments with pressures from 2 to 20 GPa, including one shock-partial release-reshock experiment, were performed on vacuum hot-pressed S-200F Beryllium. This hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metal shows significant plasticity effects in such conditions. The experiments were modeled in a Lagrangian hydrocode using an experimentally calibrated Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) constitutive model. By using the shock data to constrain a high rate portion of PTW, the model was able to generally match plasticity effects on the measured wave profile (surface velocity) during the shock loading, but not unloading. A backstress-based cyclic plasticity model to capture the quasi-elastic release (Bauschinger-type effect) was explored in order to match the unloading and reloading portions of the measured wave profiles. A comparison is made with other approaches in the literature to capture the cyclic plasticity in shock conditions.

  10. Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Liz

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At -20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load. PMID:24082400

  11. Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Liz

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At -20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load.

  12. Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Liz

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At −20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load. PMID:24082400

  13. Mitochondrial physiology and pathology; concepts of programmed death of organelles, cells and organisms.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, V P

    1999-06-01

    The review summarizes the present state of our knowledge concerning alternative functions of mitochondria, namely energy conservation in forms of protonic potential and ATP, thermoregulatory energy dissipation as heat, production of useful substances, decomposition of harmful substances, control of cellular processes. The recent progress in understanding of some mitochondrion-linked pathologies is described. The role of reactive oxygen species in these processes is stressed. Possible mechanisms of programmed death of mitochondrion (mitoptosis), cell (apoptosis) and organism (phenoptosis) are considered. A concept is put forward assuming that mitoptosis is involved in some types of apoptosis whereas apoptosis can be a part of a phenoptotic cascade. It is hypothesized that septic shock, as well as the stress-induced brain and heart ischemic diseases and cancer, exemplify mechanisms of phenoptosis purifying population, community of organisms or kin from dangerous or useless individuals. PMID:10626278

  14. The physiology and biophysics of an aluminum tolerance mechanism based on root citrate exudation in maize.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Carvalho Alves, Vera M; Kochian, Leon V

    2002-07-01

    Al-induced release of Al-chelating ligands (primarily organic acids) into the rhizosphere from the root apex has been identified as a major Al tolerance mechanism in a number of plant species. In the present study, we conducted physiological investigations to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of Al-activated root organic acid exudation, as well as changes in root organic acid content and Al accumulation, in an Al-tolerant maize (Zea mays) single cross (SLP 181/71 x Cateto Colombia 96/71). These investigations were integrated with biophysical studies using the patch-clamp technique to examine Al-activated anion channel activity in protoplasts isolated from different regions of the maize root. Exposure to Al nearly instantaneously activated a concentration-dependent citrate release, which saturated at rates close to 0.5 nmol citrate h(-1) root(-1), with the half-maximal rates of citrate release occurring at about 20 microM Al(3+) activity. Comparison of citrate exudation rates between decapped and capped roots indicated the root cap does not play a major role in perceiving the Al signal or in the exudation process. Spatial analysis indicated that the predominant citrate exudation is not confined to the root apex, but could be found as far as 5 cm beyond the root cap, involving cortex and stelar cells. Patch clamp recordings obtained in whole-cell and outside-out patches confirmed the presence of an Al-inducible plasma membrane anion channel in protoplasts isolated from stelar or cortical tissues. The unitary conductance of this channel was 23 to 55 pS. Our results suggest that this transporter mediates the Al-induced citrate release observed in the intact tissue. In addition to the rapid Al activation of citrate release, a slower, Al-inducible increase in root citrate content was also observed. These findings led us to speculate that in addition to the Al exclusion mechanism based on root citrate exudation, a second internal Al tolerance mechanism may be

  15. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  16. Circulation and metabolic rates in a natural hibernator: an integrative physiological model

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Bethany T.; Andrews, Matthew T.

    2010-01-01

    Small hibernating mammals show regular oscillations in their heart rate and body temperature throughout the winter. Long periods of torpor are abruptly interrupted by arousals with heart rates that rapidly increase from 5 beats/min to over 400 beats/min and body temperatures that increase by ∼30°C only to drop back into the hypothermic torpid state within hours. Surgically implanted transmitters were used to obtain high-resolution electrocardiogram and body temperature data from hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). These data were used to construct a model of the circulatory system to gain greater understanding of these rapid and extreme changes in physiology. Our model provides estimates of metabolic rates during the torpor-arousal cycles in different model compartments that would be difficult to measure directly. In the compartment that models the more metabolically active tissues and organs (heart, brain, liver, and brown adipose tissue) the peak metabolic rate occurs at a core body temperature of 19°C approximately midway through an arousal. The peak metabolic rate of the active tissues is nine times the normothermic rate after the arousal is complete. For the overall metabolic rate in all tissues, the peak-to-resting ratio is five. This value is high for a rodent, which provides evidence for the hypothesis that the arousal from torpor is limited by the capabilities of the cardiovascular system. PMID:20844258

  17. Effect of Static Load on the Nucleus Pulposus of Rabbit Intervertebral Disc Motion Segment in Ex vivo Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Guo; Feng, Min-Shan; Zhan, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Ping; Yu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of mechanically active culture systems helps increase the understanding of the role of mechanical stress in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Motion segment cultures allow for preservation of the native IVD structure, and adjacent vertebral bodies facilitate the application and control of mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to establish loading and organ culture methods for rabbit IVD motion segments to study the effect of static load on the whole disc organ. Methods: IVD motion segments were harvested from rabbit lumbar spines and cultured in no-loading 6-well plates (control conditions) or custom-made apparatuses under a constant, compressive load (3 kg, 0.5 MPa) for up to 14 days. Tissue integrity, matrix synthesis, and the matrix gene expression profile were assessed after 3, 7, and 14 days of culturing and compared with those of fresh tissues. Results: The results showed that ex vivo culturing of motion segments preserved tissue integrity under no-loading conditions for 14 days whereas the static load gradually destroyed the morphology after 3 days. Proteoglycan contents were decreased under both conditions, with a more obvious decrease under static load, and proteoglycan gene expression was also downregulated. However, under static load, immunohistochemical staining intensity and collagen Type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) gene expression were significantly enhanced (61.54 ± 5.91, P = 0.035) and upregulated (1.195 ± 0.040, P = 0.000), respectively, compared with those in the controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, under constant compression, these trends were reversed. Our initial results indicated that short-term static load stimulated the synthesis of collagen Type II alpha 1; however, sustained constant compression led to progressive degeneration and specifically to a decreased proteoglycan content. Conclusions: A loading and organ culture system for ex vivo rabbit IVD motion segments was developed. Using this system, we

  18. An Integrated Analysis of the Physiological Effects of Space Flight: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    A large array of models were applied in a unified manner to solve problems in space flight physiology. Mathematical simulation was used as an alternative way of looking at physiological systems and maximizing the yield from previous space flight experiments. A medical data analysis system was created which consist of an automated data base, a computerized biostatistical and data analysis system, and a set of simulation models of physiological systems. Five basic models were employed: (1) a pulsatile cardiovascular model; (2) a respiratory model; (3) a thermoregulatory model; (4) a circulatory, fluid, and electrolyte balance model; and (5) an erythropoiesis regulatory model. Algorithms were provided to perform routine statistical tests, multivariate analysis, nonlinear regression analysis, and autocorrelation analysis. Special purpose programs were prepared for rank correlation, factor analysis, and the integration of the metabolic balance data.

  19. In-depth Physiological Analysis of Defined Cell Populations in Acute Tissue Slices of the Mouse Vomeronasal Organ.

    PubMed

    Ackels, Tobias; Drose, Daniela R; Spehr, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In most mammals, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs) express a specific type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) from at least three different chemoreceptor gene families allowing sensitive and specific detection of chemosensory cues. These families comprise the V1r and V2r gene families as well as the formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-related sequence (Fpr-rs) family of putative chemoreceptor genes. In order to understand the physiology of vomeronasal receptor-ligand interactions and downstream signaling, it is essential to identify the biophysical properties inherent to each specific class of VSNs. The physiological approach described here allows identification and in-depth analysis of a defined population of sensory neurons using a transgenic mouse line (Fpr-rs3-i-Venus). The use of this protocol, however, is not restricted to this specific line and thus can easily be extended to other genetically modified lines or wild type animals. PMID:27684435

  20. Wet deposition loadings of organic contaminants to Lake Ontario: Assessing the influence of precipitation from urban and rural sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melymuk, Lisa; Robson, Matthew; Diamond, Miriam L.; Bradley, Lisa E.; Backus, Sean

    2011-09-01

    Wet deposition to Lake Ontario has been examined through a comparison of concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in precipitation at three sites on the north shore of Lake Ontario: one rural, one suburban, and one urban site. Concentrations of ΣPAHs, BFRs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes and γ-HCH in precipitation are highest at the urban site, while concentrations of other OCPs were similar across all three sites. Loadings via wet deposition range from 0.42 kg year -1 for Σchlordanes to 1900 kg year -1 for ΣPAHs. The distribution of concentrations reflects the use/emission pattern of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and indicates that concentrations in precipitation are predominantly the result of local sources rather than long-range transport from other regions. While elevated urban concentrations increase wet deposition in the urban region itself, this influence decreases rapidly downwind of the urban area. Chemical loads in precipitation from the highly urbanized regions bordering the Great Lakes are estimated to increase wet deposition loadings to lake areas adjacent to the urban areas. Estimates of annual wet deposition loadings of POPs to Lake Ontario indicate that when considering the influence of elevated loadings from Toronto, loadings via precipitation are 2.5%-42% higher depending on the compound, with the greatest relative increase in loadings resulting from PCBs and Σchlordanes.

  1. The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms in a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Li, Jixiang; He, Shuying; Xie, Kang; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhang, Yanhao; Duan, Liang; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2010-09-01

    The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms was investigated using a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor. The low and high loadings were set at 0.33 and 0.52 gCOD/(gVSSd), respectively. The results showed that membrane fouling occurred earlier and faster under the high loading conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the similarity of bacterial community in the membrane biofilms between the two loadings was 0.67, higher than that in the mixed liquors (0.52-0.55), which indicated that some specific bacteria were selected preferentially on the membranes. Clone library analysis of the membrane biofilms indicated that Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes under the high loading were 54.72% and 19.81%, respectively. Microarray results further confirmed that the two bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in the high loading biofilm. The severe membrane fouling may be aroused mainly by the enrichment of the two bacteria under the high loading.

  2. Tubular biofilter for toluene removal under various organic loading rates and gas empty bed residence times.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Luo, Shenglian; Yu, Guanlong

    2012-10-01

    A tubular biofilter (TBF) which consisted of a closed chamber, a polyurethane sponge tube and a nutrient solution distributor was developed and evaluated under organic loading rates (OL) ranging from 18.7 to 149.3 gm(-3)h(-1) and gas empty bed residence times (EBRTs) of 30-5.0 s. Using toluene as model VOC, the startup of the TBF lasted approximately 7 weeks. The removal efficiency decreased from 99% to 52.2% when OL was increased from 18.7 to 149.3g toluene m(-3)h(-1) at 15s, but did not decline significantly when the EBRT was reduced from 30 to 5.0 s at 18.7 gm(-3)h(-1). Biomass concentration did not increase significantly within the sponge tube during the 391 days' operation as observed through the Plexiglas pipe of the TBF. The TBF is suitable for treating waste gases with low toluene concentrations even at high gas flow and over long periods.

  3. Biodegradable polymersomes with an ionizable membrane: facile preparation, superior protein loading, and endosomal pH-responsive protein release.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoke; Meng, Fenghua; Wang, Zhongjuan; Zhong, Yinan; Zheng, Meng; Liu, Haiyan; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2012-09-01

    Novel biodegradable polymersomes containing an ionizable membrane were developed for efficient loading and rapid intracellular release of proteins. The polymersomes were prepared from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PEG-PTMC) block copolymer derivatives containing acrylate, carboxylic acid, and amine groups along PTMC block, which are denoted as PEG-PTMC(AC), PEG-PTMC(COOH), and PEG-PTMC(NH(2)), respectively. Notably, nano-sized polymersomes (95.1-111.6nm) were formed by directly dispersing these copolymers in phosphate buffer at room temperature. Both FITC-labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and cytochrome C (FITC-CC) were readily loaded into PEG-PTMC(COOH) and PEG-PTMC(NH(2)) polymersomes with remarkably high loading levels. Interestingly, in vitro release studies showed that PEG-PTMC(COOH) and PEG-PTMC(NH(2)) polymersomes had pH-responsive protein release behaviors in which significantly faster protein release was observed at endosomal pH than at physiological pH. MTT assays indicated that these polymersomes had low cytotoxicity. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) observations revealed that FITC-CC loaded polymersomes efficiently delivered proteins into MCF-7 cells following 24h incubation. Importantly, flow cytometry showed that CC-loaded polymersomes induced markedly enhanced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as compared to free CC. These novel membrane ionizable biodegradable polymersomes have appeared as highly promising nanocarriers for efficient intracellular protein delivery.

  4. Characterization of an Autotrophic Nitrogen-Removing Biofilm from a Highly Loaded Lab-Scale Rotating Biological Contactor

    PubMed Central

    Pynaert, Kris; Smets, Barth F.; Wyffels, Stijn; Beheydt, Daan; Siciliano, Steven D.; Verstraete, Willy

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a lab-scale rotating biological contactor (RBC) treating a synthetic NH4+ wastewater devoid of organic carbon and showing high N losses was examined for several important physiological and microbial characteristics. The RBC biofilm removed 89% ± 5% of the influent N at the highest surface load of approximately 8.3 g of N m−2 day−1, with N2 as the main end product. In batch tests, the RBC biomass showed good aerobic and anoxic ammonium oxidation (147.8 ± 7.6 and 76.5 ± 6.4 mg of NH4+-N g of volatile suspended solids [VSS]−1 day−1, respectively) and almost no nitrite oxidation (< 1 mg of N g of VSS−1 day−1). The diversity of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) and planctomycetes in the biofilm was characterized by cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the clones revealed that the AAOB community was fairly homogeneous and was dominated by Nitrosomonas-like species. Close relatives of the known anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AnAOB) Kuenenia stuttgartiensis dominated the planctomycete community and were most probably responsible for anoxic ammonium oxidation in the RBC. Use of a less specific planctomycete primer set, not amplifying the AnAOB, showed a high diversity among other planctomycetes, with representatives of all known groups present in the biofilm. The spatial organization of the biofilm was characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The latter showed that AAOB occurred side by side with putative AnAOB (cells hybridizing with probe PLA46 and AMX820/KST1275) throughout the biofilm, while other planctomycetes hybridizing with probe PLA886 (not detecting the known AnAOB) were present as very conspicuous spherical structures. This study reveals that long-term operation of a lab-scale RBC on a synthetic NH4+ wastewater devoid of organic carbon yields a stable biofilm in which two bacterial groups, thought

  5. Toward Onboard Estimation of Physiological Phase for an Epicardial Crawling Robot.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nathan A; Schwartzman, David; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2012-12-31

    HeartLander is a miniature mobile robot which adheres to and crawls over the surface of the beating heart to provide therapies in a minimally invasive manner. Although HeartLander inherently provides a stable operating platform, the motion of the surface of the heart remains an important factor in the operation of the robot. The quasi-periodic motion of the heart due to physiological cycles, respiration and the heartbeat, affects the ability of the robot to move, as well as localize accurately. In order to improve locomotion efficiency, as well as register different locations on the heart in physiological phase, two methods of identifying physiological phases are presented: sliding-window-based and model-based. In the sliding-window-based approach a vector of previous measurements is compared to previously learned motion templates to determine the current physiological phases, while the model-based approach learns a Fourier series model of the motion, and uses this model to estimate the current physiological phases using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The two methods, while differing in approach, produce similarly accurate results on data recorded from animal experiments in vivo.

  6. Toward Onboard Estimation of Physiological Phase for an Epicardial Crawling Robot.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nathan A; Schwartzman, David; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2012-12-31

    HeartLander is a miniature mobile robot which adheres to and crawls over the surface of the beating heart to provide therapies in a minimally invasive manner. Although HeartLander inherently provides a stable operating platform, the motion of the surface of the heart remains an important factor in the operation of the robot. The quasi-periodic motion of the heart due to physiological cycles, respiration and the heartbeat, affects the ability of the robot to move, as well as localize accurately. In order to improve locomotion efficiency, as well as register different locations on the heart in physiological phase, two methods of identifying physiological phases are presented: sliding-window-based and model-based. In the sliding-window-based approach a vector of previous measurements is compared to previously learned motion templates to determine the current physiological phases, while the model-based approach learns a Fourier series model of the motion, and uses this model to estimate the current physiological phases using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The two methods, while differing in approach, produce similarly accurate results on data recorded from animal experiments in vivo. PMID:24634894

  7. Retrospective Correction of Physiological Noise in DTI Using an Extended Tensor Model and Peripheral Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Hutton, Chloe; Nagy, Zoltan; Josephs, Oliver; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is widely used in research and clinical applications, but this modality is highly sensitive to artefacts. We developed an easy-to-implement extension of the original diffusion tensor model to account for physiological noise in diffusion tensor imaging using measures of peripheral physiology (pulse and respiration), the so-called extended tensor model. Within the framework of the extended tensor model two types of regressors, which respectively modeled small (linear) and strong (nonlinear) variations in the diffusion signal, were derived from peripheral measures. We tested the performance of four extended tensor models with different physiological noise regressors on nongated and gated diffusion tensor imaging data, and compared it to an established data-driven robust fitting method. In the brainstem and cerebellum the extended tensor models reduced the noise in the tensor-fit by up to 23% in accordance with previous studies on physiological noise. The extended tensor model addresses both large-amplitude outliers and small-amplitude signal-changes. The framework of the extended tensor model also facilitates further investigation into physiological noise in diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed extended tensor model can be readily combined with other artefact correction methods such as robust fitting and eddy current correction. PMID:22936599

  8. Assessing interactions among multiple physiological systems during walking outside a laboratory: An Android based gait monitor.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, E; Millecamps, A; Teoli, J; Rothfuss, M A; Franconi, N G; Perera, S; Jones, A K; Brach, J S; Mickle, M H

    2015-12-01

    Gait function is traditionally assessed using well-lit, unobstructed walkways with minimal distractions. In patients with subclinical physiological abnormalities, these conditions may not provide enough stress on their ability to adapt to walking. The introduction of challenging walking conditions in gait can induce responses in physiological systems in addition to the locomotor system. There is a need for a device that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological systems in various walking conditions. To address this need, an Android-based gait-monitoring device was developed that enabled the recording of a patient's physiological systems during walking. The gait-monitoring device was tested during self-regulated overground walking sessions of fifteen healthy subjects that included 6 females and 9 males aged 18-35 years. The gait-monitoring device measures the patient's stride interval, acceleration, electrocardiogram, skin conductance and respiratory rate. The data is stored on an Android phone and is analyzed offline through the extraction of features in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. The analysis of the data depicted multisystem physiological interactions during overground walking in healthy subjects. These interactions included locomotion-electrodermal, locomotion-respiratory and cardiolocomotion couplings. The current results depicting strong interactions between the locomotion system and the other considered systems (i.e., electrodermal, respiratory and cardiovascular systems) warrant further investigation into multisystem interactions during walking, particularly in challenging walking conditions with older adults.

  9. Effect of diatomaceous earth on parasite load, egg production, and egg quality of free-range organic laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bennett, D C; Yee, A; Rhee, Y-J; Cheng, K M

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as a treatment against parasites and to increase feed efficiency and egg production of organically raised free-range layer hens was evaluated in 2 breeds of commercial egg layers [Bovan Brown (BB) and Lowmann Brown (LB)] that differ in their resistance to internal parasitic infections. Half the hens of each breed were fed diets supplemented with DE (2%). Their internal parasite loads were assessed by biweekly fecal egg counts (FEC) and by postmortem examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementing DE in diets of LB hens, the more parasite-resistant breed, did not significantly affect their FEC and adult parasite load. However, BB hens treated with dietary DE had significantly lower Capillaria FEC, slightly lower Eimeria FEC, fewer birds infected with Heterakis, and significantly lower Heterakis worm burden than control BB hens. Both BB and LB hens fed the diet containing DE were significantly heavier, laid more eggs, and consumed more feed than hens fed the control diet, but feed efficiency did not differ between the 2 dietary treatments. Additionally, BB hens consuming the DE diet laid larger eggs containing more albumen and yolk than hens consuming the control diet. In a subsequent experiment, the effectiveness of DE to treat a Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) infestation was tested. Relative to controls, both breeds of hens that were dusted with DE had reduced number of mites. The results of this study indicate the DE has the potential to be an effective treatment to help control parasites and improve production of organically raised, free-range layer hens.

  10. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  11. A novel noninvasive all optical technique to monitor physiology of an exercising muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Vishal; Marcu, Laura; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2008-11-01

    An all optical technique based on near-infrared spectroscopy and mid-infrared imaging (MIRI) is applied as a noninvasive, in vivo tool to monitor the vascular status of skeletal muscle and the physiological changes that occur during exercise. A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique, namely, steady state diffuse optical spectroscopy (SSDOS) along with MIRI is applied for monitoring the changes in the values of tissue oxygenation and thermometry of an exercising muscle. The NIRS measurements are performed at five discrete wavelengths in a spectral window of 650-850 nm and MIRI is performed in a spectral window of 8-12 µm. The understanding of tissue oxygenation status and the behavior of the physiological parameters derived from thermometry may provide a useful insight into muscle physiology, therapeutic response and treatment.

  12. An integrative approach to space-flight physiology using systems analysis and mathematical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.; White, R. J.; Rummel, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    An approach was developed to aid in the integration of many of the biomedical findings of space flight, using systems analysis. The mathematical tools used in accomplishing this task include an automated data base, a biostatistical and data analysis system, and a wide variety of mathematical simulation models of physiological systems. A keystone of this effort was the evaluation of physiological hypotheses using the simulation models and the prediction of the consequences of these hypotheses on many physiological quantities, some of which were not amenable to direct measurement. This approach led to improvements in the model, refinements of the hypotheses, a tentative integrated hypothesis for adaptation to weightlessness, and specific recommendations for new flight experiments.

  13. Exercise in Inquiry: Critical Thinking in an Inquiry-Based Exercise Physiology Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPasquale, Dana M.; Mason, Cheryl L.; Kolkhorst, Fred W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an inquiry-based teaching method implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Indicates students' strong, positive feelings about the inquiry-based teaching method and shows that inquiry-based learning results in a higher order of learning not typically observed in traditional style classes. This teaching method…

  14. A Multi-Level Dynamic Instructional Planner for an Intelligent Physiology Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Chong W.

    This paper describes the design and development of an instructional planner for an intelligent tutoring system for cardiovascular physiology that assists medical students to learn the causal relationships between the parameters of the circulatory system, to understand how a negative feedback system works, and to solve problems involving…

  15. Evaluating an Experimental Audio-Visual Module Programmed to Teach a Basic Anatomical and Physiological System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    The learning efficiency and effectiveness of teaching an anatomical and physiological system to Air Force enlisted trainees utilizing an experimental audiovisual programed module was compared to that of a commercial linear programed text. It was demonstrated that the audiovisual programed approach to training was more efficient than and equally as…

  16. An Alternative Technique for Fabrication of Frameworks in an Immediate Loading Implant Fixed Mandibular Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Paleari, André Gustavo; Presoto, Cristina Dupim; Vasconcelos, Juliano Alencar; Nunes Reis, José Maurício dos Santos; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira; Tavares da Silva, Regina Helena Barbosa; Quishida, Cristiane Campos Costa

    2015-01-01

    The oral rehabilitation of edentulous patients with immediate loading has become a safe procedure with high predictability. The success is related to immediate fabrication of a passive fit framework to attach the implants. Based on these considerations, this case report shows an alternative technique for mandibular rehabilitation using implants immediately loaded, where the framework was fabricated using cylinders with internal reinforcement and precast pieces, electrowelding, and conventional welding providing esthetics and function to the patient in a short period of time. PMID:25628899

  17. Self-organization of gliadin in aqueous media under physiological digestive pHs.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María G; Veuthey, Tania V; Dodero, Verónica I

    2016-05-01

    Here we showed that gliadin, a complex protein system related to celiac disease and other human diseases, is spontaneously self-organized in a very dilute solution at pH 3.0 and 7.0 in water under low ionic strength (10mM NaCl). The spontaneous self-organization at pH 3.0 increases the apparent solubility due to the formation of finite sized aggregates, such as those formed in the micellization of amphiphilic molecules. Switching the pH from 3.0 to 7.0 lead to a phase separation, however part of the nano-particles are stable remaining disperse in water after centrifugation. Also, beside the pH change led to changes in protein composition and concentration, we determined that the secondary structure of both system is the same. Moreover, Tyrs are slightly more buried and Trps are slightly more exposed to water at pH 7.0 than those at pH 3.0. Electron microscopy techniques showed that both gliadin systems are composed of nanostructures and in the case of pH 7.0 amorphous microaggregates were found, too. Only nanostructures at pH 3.0 showed a micromolar binding affinity to Nile red probe, suggesting the presence of accessible hydrophobic patches which are not more accessible at pH 7.0. All our results suggest that gliadin is able to self-organized at pH 3.0 forming protein micelles type nanostructures (ζ=+13, 42 ± 1.55 mV), meanwhile at 7.0 the decrease of superficial charge to ζ of +4, 78 ± 0.48 mV led to the formation of stable colloidal nanoparticles, unable to interact with Nile red probe. Our findings may open new perspectives for the understanding of gliadin ability to avoid proteolysis, to reach and cross the intestinal lumen and to trigger different immunological disorders.

  18. Acclimation of thermal physiology in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster : a test of an optimality model.

    PubMed

    Cooper, B S; Czarnoleski, M; Angilletta, M J

    2010-11-01

    Many organisms modify their physiological functions by acclimating to changes in their environment. Recent studies of thermal physiology have been influenced by verbal models that fail to consider the selective advantage of acclimation and thus make no predictions about variation in acclimation capacity. We used a quantitative model of optimal plasticity to generate predictions about the capacity of Drosophila melanogaster to acclimate to developmental temperature. This model predicts that the ability to acclimate thermal sensitivity should evolve when temperature varies greatly among generations. Based on the model, we expected that flies from the highly seasonal environment of New Jersey would acclimate thermal sensitivity more than would flies from the less seasonal environment of Florida. When raised at constant and fluctuating temperatures, flies from these populations failed to adjust their thermal optima in the way predicted by the model, suggesting that current assumptions about functional and genetic constraints should be reconsidered.

  19. Internal loading of an inhomogeneous compressible Earth with phase boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defraigne, P.; Dehant, V.; Wahr, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The geoid and the boundary topography caused by mass loads inside the earth were estimated. It is shown that the estimates are affected by compressibility, by a radially varying density distribution, and by the presence of phase boundaries with density discontinuities. The geoid predicted in the chemical boundary case is 30 to 40 percent smaller than that predicted in the phase case. The effects of compressibility and radially varying density are likely to be small. The inner core-outer core topography for loading inside the mantle and for loading inside the inner core were computed.

  20. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis.

    PubMed

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-03-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity. PMID:26729798

  1. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis.

    PubMed

    Dudits, Dénes; Török, Katalin; Cseri, András; Paul, Kenny; Nagy, Anna V; Nagy, Bettina; Sass, László; Ferenc, Györgyi; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, Imre; Ayaydin, Ferhan

    2016-03-01

    The biomass productivity of the energy willow Salix viminalis as a short-rotation woody crop depends on organ structure and functions that are under the control of genome size. Colchicine treatment of axillary buds resulted in a set of autotetraploid S. viminalis var. Energo genotypes (polyploid Energo [PP-E]; 2n = 4x = 76) with variation in the green pixel-based shoot surface area. In cases where increased shoot biomass was observed, it was primarily derived from larger leaf size and wider stem diameter. Autotetraploidy slowed primary growth and increased shoot diameter (a parameter of secondary growth). The duplicated genome size enlarged bark and wood layers in twigs sampled in the field. The PP-E plants developed wider leaves with thicker midrib and enlarged palisade parenchyma cells. Autotetraploid leaves contained significantly increased amounts of active gibberellins, cytokinins, salicylic acid, and jasmonate compared with diploid individuals. Greater net photosynthetic CO2 uptake was detected in leaves of PP-E plants with increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Improved photosynthetic functions in tetraploids were also shown by more efficient electron transport rates of photosystems I and II. Autotetraploidization increased the biomass of the root system of PP-E plants relative to diploids. Sections of tetraploid roots showed thickening with enlarged cortex cells. Elevated amounts of indole acetic acid, active cytokinins, active gibberellin, and salicylic acid were detected in the root tips of these plants. The presented variation in traits of tetraploid willow genotypes provides a basis to use autopolyploidization as a chromosome engineering technique to alter the organ development of energy plants in order to improve biomass productivity.

  2. Organic Matter Loading Modifies the Microbial Community Responsible for Nitrogen Loss in Estuarine Sediments.

    PubMed

    Babbin, Andrew R; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine sediments, as locations of substantial fixed nitrogen loss, are very important to the nitrogen budget and to the primary productivity of the oceans. Coastal sediment systems are also highly dynamic and subject to periodic natural and anthropogenic organic substrate additions. The response to organic matter by the microbial community involved in nitrogen loss processes was evaluated using mesocosms of Chesapeake Bay sediments. Over the course of a 50-day incubation, rates of anammox and denitrification were measured weekly using (15)N tracer incubations, and samples were collected for genetic analysis. Rates of both nitrogen loss processes and gene abundances associated with them corresponded loosely, probably because heterogeneities in sediments obscured a clear relationship. The rates of denitrification were stimulated more, and the fraction of nitrogen loss attributed to anammox slightly reduced, by the higher organic matter addition. Furthermore, the large organic matter pulse drove a significant and rapid shift in the denitrifier community composition as determined using a nirS microarray, indicating that the diversity of these organisms plays an essential role in responding to anthropogenic inputs. We also suggest that the proportion of nitrogen loss due to anammox in these coastal estuarine sediments may be underestimated due to temporal dynamics as well as from methodological artifacts related to conventional sediment slurry incubation approaches. PMID:26520832

  3. The physiology analysis system: an integrated approach for warehousing, management and analysis of time-series physiology data.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Thomas M; Bawa, Gagandeep; Kumar, Kamal; Reifman, Jaques

    2007-04-01

    The physiology analysis system (PAS) was developed as a resource to support the efficient warehousing, management, and analysis of physiology data, particularly, continuous time-series data that may be extensive, of variable quality, and distributed across many files. The PAS incorporates time-series data collected by many types of data-acquisition devices, and it is designed to free users from data management burdens. This Web-based system allows both discrete (attribute) and time-series (ordered) data to be manipulated, visualized, and analyzed via a client's Web browser. All processes occur on a server, so that the client does not have to download data or any application programs, and the PAS is independent of the client's computer operating system. The PAS contains a library of functions, written in different computer languages that the client can add to and use to perform specific data operations. Functions from the library are sequentially inserted into a function chain-based logical structure to construct sophisticated data operators from simple function building blocks, affording ad hoc query and analysis of time-series data. These features support advanced mining of physiology data.

  4. Position Estimation of an Epicardial Crawling Robot on the Beating Heart by Modeling of Physiological Motion

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nathan A.; del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described. PMID:23066511

  5. Position Estimation of an Epicardial Crawling Robot on the Beating Heart by Modeling of Physiological Motion.

    PubMed

    Wood, Nathan A; Del Agua, Diego Moral; Zenati, Marco A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2011-12-01

    HeartLander, a small mobile robot designed to provide treatments to the surface of the beating heart, overcomes a major difficulty of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, providing a stable operating platform. This is achieved inherently in the way the robot adheres to and crawls over the surface of the heart. This mode of operation does not require physiological motion compensation to provide this stable environment; however, modeling of physiological motion is advantageous in providing more accurate position estimation as well as synchronization of motion to the physiological cycles. The work presented uses an Extended Kalman Filter framework to estimate parameters of non-stationary Fourier series models of the motion of the heart due to the respiratory and cardiac cycles as well as the position of the robot as it moves over the surface of the heart. The proposed method is demonstrated in the laboratory with HeartLander operating on a physiological motion simulator. Improved performance is demonstrated in comparison to the filtering methods previously used with HeartLander. The use of detected physiological cycle phases to synchronize locomotion of HeartLander is also described.

  6. Fine-scale monitoring of shifts in microbial community composition after high organic loading in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater sometimes undergoes unexpected changes in physicochemical parameters, such as organic carbon concentration. The aim of this study was to understand how microbial communities in activated sludge in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) adapt to high organic loading and maintain their degradation ability during reactor operation. A pilot-scale MBR was operated for 19 days. On day 8, the concentration of organic matter in the synthetic wastewater increased from 450 to 900 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. Even under conditions of high organic loading, COD removal rates were high, ranging from 85.3 to 91.4%. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that microbial communities changed drastically with increased organic loading. After day 8, Aquabacterium- and Azospira-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the class β-proteobacteria became dominant; this potentially enhanced the degradation of organic substances and decreased activated sludge microbial diversity. Due to the use of dissolved oxygen (DO) for degradation of organic substances, DO levels in the reactor decreased. This led to an increase in a subset of OTUs related to not only aerobic but also anaerobic bacteria, e.g., those in the class Clostridia. During this period, anaerobic microorganisms may have contributed to the degradation of organic substances to maintain MBR performance. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing also made it possible to identify yet-to-be cultured or minor microorganisms affiliated with the candidate phylogenetic division SR1 and ammonia-oxidizing archaea in activated sludge.

  7. Vertical flow constructed wetlands subject to load variations: an improved design methodology connected to outlet quality objectives.

    PubMed

    Boutin, C; Prost-Boucle, S

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed four campsites and four rural villages of major tourist interest, called tourist-interest or ti-villages, that were monitored for several years, generating over 70 performance balances for vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) that were intentionally scaled down for experimental trials. The wastewater effectively qualifies as domestic sewage, although relatively concentrated, with the campsites presenting particularly high nitrogen concentrations (122 gTKN L(-1)) (TKN: total Kjeldahl nitrogen). The applied daily loads were also particularly high, with some combinations of load parameters (hydraulic load, organic matter, TKN) leading to 400% overloading. Even under those drastic conditions, the quality of effluent remained excellent on the characteristic organic matter parameters, with removal performances always over 85%. Analysis of the dataset points to two major design thresholds: for campsites, in order to maintain a 73% nitrification rate even at the height of the summer season, the load applied onto the first stage filter in operation could achieve up to 600 gCOD m(-2) day(-1) (COD: chemical oxygen demand). For tourist-interest villages, in order to maintain an 85% nitrification rate, the load applied onto the second stage filter in operation could achieve up to 22 gTKN m(-2).day(-1). Here, VFCWs were demonstrated to robustly handle a massive increase in loads applied, providing the construction and operation stringently follow design standards and practices. PMID:26287842

  8. Aggrecan, an Unusual Polyelectrolyte: Review of Solution Behavior and Physiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Preethi L.; Horkay, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Aggrecan is a high molecular weight, bottlebrush-shaped, negative-charged biopolymer that forms supermolecular complexes with hyaluronic acid. In the extracellular matrix of cartilage, aggrecan-hyaluronic acid complexes are interspersed in the collagen matrix and provide the osmotic properties required to resist deswelling under compressive load. In this review we compile aggrecan solution behavior from different experimental techniques, and discuss them in the context of concentration regimes that were identified in osmotic pressure experiments. At low concentration, aggrecan exhibits microgel-like behavior. With increasing concentration, the bottlebrushes self assemble into large complexes. In the physiological concentration range (2 < caggrecan < 8 % w/w), the physical properties of the solution are dominated by repulsive electrostatic interactions between aggrecan complexes. We discuss the consequences of the bottlebrush architecture on the polyelectrolyte characteristics of the aggrecan molecule, and its implications for cartilage properties and function. PMID:21884828

  9. Emission of short chained organic acids, aldehydes and monoterpenes from Quercus ilex L. and Pinus pinea L. in relation to physiological activities, carbon budget and emission algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Bode, K.; Hofmann, U.; Müller, H.; Schäfer, L.; Wolf, A.; Ciccioli, P.; Brancaleoni, E.; Cecinato, A.; Frattoni, M.; Foster, P.; Ferrari, C.; Jacob, V.; Fugit, J. L.; Dutaur, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    We report on the emission of monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes from Mediterranean oak ( Quercus ilex L.) and pine (Pinus pinea L.). All studies were done with dynamic cuvettes enclosing intact branches at the top of the canopy flushed with ambient air. Daily trends are compared with the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature and the physiological activities of the enclosed branches, i.e. assimilation and transpiration, with special attention on the carbon budget. Oak emits monoterpenes in high amounts, up to 2% of the assimilated carbon. As compared with monoterpenes, short-chained organic acids and aldehydes are of minor importance for oak. However, on a leaf dry-weight basis equal amounts of acids and aldehydes are released from oak and pine. As pine emitted only low amounts of terpenes (below 0.2% of the assimilated carbon) the release of terpenes and oxygenated compounds is of equal importance for this species. A comparison of a modelled light and temperature driven emission with the observed volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions showed good agreement for monoterpenes as well as for organic acids emitted in the case of oak. For pine only the release of acids showed an adequate relation to the algorithm data, whereas the terpene emissions seemed to be dominated by temperature effects.

  10. Student Perceptions and Use of an Assessment Rubric for a Group Concept Map in Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Moni, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported how the opinions of second-year dentistry students and faculty members can be used to construct an assessment rubric to grade group-based concept maps in physiology (14). This article describes the second phase of this study of the subsequent year's cohort. A case study approach was used to investigate how groups of students…

  11. Designing an Interactive Activity to Integrate Animal Physiology in the Context of Different Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escribano, Begona M.; Aguera, Estrella I.; Tovar, Pura

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an activity which revolves around three elements (interactivity, team learning, and peer-to-peer instruction) and consists of the drafting of a "newspaper." The different characteristics of each of its sections permits the approach to the teaching/learning process, in the context of physiological adaptations,…

  12. Effectiveness of Inquiry-Based Learning in an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews)…

  13. Battling Obesity in K-12 Learners from an Exercise Physiology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattigan, Peter; Biren, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Physical education practitioners and programs have the opportunity and obligation to help children become physically educated, healthy, and active adults. This article discusses the battle against obesity in K-12 learners from an exercise physiology perspective and focuses on the fact that practitioners have all the tools they need to battle this…

  14. The Effects of Mechanical Loading on Tendons - An In Vivo and In Vitro Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading constantly acts on tendons, and a better understanding of its effects on the tendons is essential to gain more insights into tendon patho-physiology. This study aims to investigate tendon mechanobiological responses through the use of mouse treadmill running as an in vivo model and mechanical stretching of tendon cells as an in vitro model. In the in vivo study, mice underwent moderate treadmill running (MTR) and intensive treadmill running (ITR) regimens. Treadmill running elevated the expression of mechanical growth factors (MGF) and enhanced the proliferative potential of tendon stem cells (TSCs) in both patellar and Achilles tendons. In both tendons, MTR upregulated tenocyte-related genes: collagen type I (Coll. I ∼10 fold) and tenomodulin (∼3–4 fold), but did not affect non-tenocyte-related genes: LPL (adipocyte), Sox9 (chondrocyte), Runx2 and Osterix (both osteocyte). However, ITR upregulated both tenocyte (Coll. I ∼7–11 fold; tenomodulin ∼4–5 fold) and non-tenocyte-related genes (∼3–8 fold). In the in vitro study, TSCs and tenocytes were stretched to 4% and 8% using a custom made mechanical loading system. Low mechanical stretching (4%) of TSCs from both patellar and Achilles tendons increased the expression of only the tenocyte-related genes (Coll. I ∼5–6 fold; tenomodulin ∼6–13 fold), but high mechanical stretching (8%) increased the expression of both tenocyte (Coll. I ∼28–50 fold; tenomodulin ∼14–48 fold) and non-tenocyte-related genes (2–5-fold). However, in tenocytes, non-tenocyte related gene expression was not altered by the application of either low or high mechanical stretching. These findings indicate that appropriate mechanical loading could be beneficial to tendons because of their potential to induce anabolic changes in tendon cells. However, while excessive mechanical loading caused anabolic changes in tendons, it also induced differentiation of TSCs into non-tenocytes, which may lead to

  15. The effects of mechanical loading on tendons--an in vivo and in vitro model study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading constantly acts on tendons, and a better understanding of its effects on the tendons is essential to gain more insights into tendon patho-physiology. This study aims to investigate tendon mechanobiological responses through the use of mouse treadmill running as an in vivo model and mechanical stretching of tendon cells as an in vitro model. In the in vivo study, mice underwent moderate treadmill running (MTR) and intensive treadmill running (ITR) regimens. Treadmill running elevated the expression of mechanical growth factors (MGF) and enhanced the proliferative potential of tendon stem cells (TSCs) in both patellar and Achilles tendons. In both tendons, MTR upregulated tenocyte-related genes: collagen type I (Coll. I ∼10 fold) and tenomodulin (∼3-4 fold), but did not affect non-tenocyte-related genes: LPL (adipocyte), Sox9 (chondrocyte), Runx2 and Osterix (both osteocyte). However, ITR upregulated both tenocyte (Coll. I ∼7-11 fold; tenomodulin ∼4-5 fold) and non-tenocyte-related genes (∼3-8 fold). In the in vitro study, TSCs and tenocytes were stretched to 4% and 8% using a custom made mechanical loading system. Low mechanical stretching (4%) of TSCs from both patellar and Achilles tendons increased the expression of only the tenocyte-related genes (Coll. I ∼5-6 fold; tenomodulin ∼6-13 fold), but high mechanical stretching (8%) increased the expression of both tenocyte (Coll. I ∼28-50 fold; tenomodulin ∼14-48 fold) and non-tenocyte-related genes (2-5-fold). However, in tenocytes, non-tenocyte related gene expression was not altered by the application of either low or high mechanical stretching. These findings indicate that appropriate mechanical loading could be beneficial to tendons because of their potential to induce anabolic changes in tendon cells. However, while excessive mechanical loading caused anabolic changes in tendons, it also induced differentiation of TSCs into non-tenocytes, which may lead to the development of

  16. [The effect of the territorial loads of pesticides and mineral and organic fertilizers on morbidity in children up to 14 years old in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Vashkulat, N P

    1998-01-01

    Under conditions of farming intensification mineral and organic fertilizers, apart from pesticides, are recognized as an important source of environmental pollution in rural localities and of harmful impact on the health of paediatric population (especially of children during their first year of life), with the territorial loads of the above substances exceeding the critical level. Morbidity among children under 14 years of age increases predominantly at the expense of common unspecific kinds of pathology.

  17. Oceanic loading of wildfire-derived organic compounds from a small mountainous river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunsinger, G.B.; Mitra, Siddhartha; Warrick, J.A.; Alexander, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs) export substantial amounts of sediment into the world's oceans. The concomitant yield of organic carbon (OC) associated with this class of rivers has also been shown to be significant and compositionally unique. We report here excessively high loadings of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lignin, and levoglucosan, discharged from the Santa Clara River into the Santa Barbara Channel. The abundance of PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin in Santa Barbara Channel sediments ranged from 201.7 to 1232.3 ng gdw-1, 1.3 to 6.9 ??g gdw-1, and 0.3 to 2.2 mg per 100 mg of the sedimentary OC, respectively. Assuming a constant rate of sediment accumulation, the annual fluxes of PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin, to the Santa Barbara Channel were respectively, 885.5 ?? 170.2 ng cm-2 a-1, 3.5 ?? 1.9 ??g cm-2 a-1 and 1.4 ?? 0.3 mg per 100 mg OC cm-2 a-1, over ???30 years. The close agreement between PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin abundance suggests that the depositional flux of these compounds is largely biomass combustion-derived. To that end, use of the Santa Clara River as a model for SMRs suggests this class of rivers may be one of the largest contributors of pyrolyzed carbon to coastal systems and the open ocean. Wildfire associated carbon discharged from other high yield fluvial systems, when considered collectively, may be a significant source of lignin, pyrolytic PAHs, and other pyrogenic compounds to the ocean. Extrapolating these methods over geologic time may offer useful historical information about carbon sequestration and burial in coastal sediments and affect coastal carbon budgets. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for moderately hydrophobic organic chemicals in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Freese, Marko; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Kammann, Ulrike; Preuss, Thomas G; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Beiermeister, Anne; Hanel, Reinhold; Hollert, Henner

    2015-12-01

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a facultatively catadromous fish species with a complex life cycle. Its current population status is alarming: recruitment has decreased drastically since the 1980s and its stock is still considered to be outside safe biological limits. Although there is no consensus on the reasons for this situation, it is currently thought to have resulted from a combination of different stressors, including anthropogenic contaminants. To deepen our understanding of the processes leading to the accumulation of lipophilic organic contaminants in yellow eels (i.e. the feeding, continental growth stage), we developed a physiologically based toxicokinetic model using our own data and values from the literature. Such models can predict the uptake and distribution of water-borne organic chemicals in the whole fish and in different tissues at any time during exposure. The predictive power of the model was tested against experimental data for six chemicals with n-octanol-water partitioning coefficient (log Kow) values ranging from 2.13-4.29. Model performance was excellent, with a root mean squared error of 0.28 log units. This model has the potential to help identify suitable habitats for restocking under eel management plans.

  19. A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for moderately hydrophobic organic chemicals in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Freese, Marko; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Kammann, Ulrike; Preuss, Thomas G; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Beiermeister, Anne; Hanel, Reinhold; Hollert, Henner

    2015-12-01

    The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a facultatively catadromous fish species with a complex life cycle. Its current population status is alarming: recruitment has decreased drastically since the 1980s and its stock is still considered to be outside safe biological limits. Although there is no consensus on the reasons for this situation, it is currently thought to have resulted from a combination of different stressors, including anthropogenic contaminants. To deepen our understanding of the processes leading to the accumulation of lipophilic organic contaminants in yellow eels (i.e. the feeding, continental growth stage), we developed a physiologically based toxicokinetic model using our own data and values from the literature. Such models can predict the uptake and distribution of water-borne organic chemicals in the whole fish and in different tissues at any time during exposure. The predictive power of the model was tested against experimental data for six chemicals with n-octanol-water partitioning coefficient (log Kow) values ranging from 2.13-4.29. Model performance was excellent, with a root mean squared error of 0.28 log units. This model has the potential to help identify suitable habitats for restocking under eel management plans. PMID:26218567

  20. Physiological adaptation of an Antarctic Na+/K+-ATPase to the cold

    PubMed Central

    Galarza-Muñoz, Gaddiel; Soto-Morales, Sonia I.; Holmgren, Miguel; Rosenthal, Joshua J. C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Because enzymatic activity is strongly suppressed by the cold, polar poikilotherms face significant adaptive challenges. For example, at 0°C the catalytic activity of a typical enzyme from a temperate organism is reduced by more than 90%. Enzymes embedded in the plasma membrane, such as the Na+/K+-ATPase, may be even more susceptible to the cold because of thermal effects on the lipid bilayer. Accordingly, adaptive changes in response to the cold may include adjustments to the enzyme or the surrounding lipid environment, or synergistic changes to both. To assess the contribution of the enzyme itself, we cloned orthologous Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunits from an Antarctic (Pareledone sp.; –1.8°C) and a temperate octopus (Octopus bimaculatus; ∼18°C), and compared their turnover rates and temperature sensitivities in a heterologous expression system. The primary sequences of the two pumps were found to be highly similar (97% identity), with most differences being conservative changes involving hydrophobic residues. The physiology of the pumps was studied using an electrophysiological approach in intact Xenopus oocytes. The voltage dependence of the pumps was equivalent. However, at room temperature the maximum turnover rate of the Antarctic pump was found to be 25% higher than that of the temperate pump. In addition, the Antarctic pump exhibited a lower temperature sensitivity, leading to significantly higher relative activity at lower temperatures. Orthologous Na+/K+ pumps were then isolated from two tropical and two Arctic octopus. The temperature sensitivities of these pumps closely matched those of the temperate and Antarctic pumps, respectively. Thus, reduced thermal sensitivity appears to be a common mechanism driving cold adaptation in the Na+/K+-ATPase. PMID:21653810

  1. Concentrations and Loads of Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Tributaries to Newark and Raritan Bays, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Timothy P.; Bonin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the concentrations and loads of sediment and chemicals delivered to Newark and Raritan Bays by five major tributaries: the Raritan, Passaic, Rahway, Elizabeth, and Hackensack Rivers. This study was initiated by the State of New Jersey as Study I-C of the New Jersey Toxics Reduction Workplan for the New York-New Jersey Harbor, working under the NY-NJ Harbor Estuary Program (HEP) Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Program (CARP). The CARP is a comprehensive effort to evaluate the levels and sources of toxic contaminants to the tributaries and estuarine areas of the NY-NJ Harbor, including Newark and Raritan Bays. The Raritan and Passaic Rivers are large rivers (mean daily discharges of 1,189 and 1,132 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively), that drain large, mixed rural/urban basins. The Elizabeth and Rahway Rivers are small rivers (mean daily discharges of 25.9 and 49.1 ft3/s, respectively) that drain small, highly urbanized and industrialized basins. The Hackensack River drains a small, mixed rural/urban basin, and its flow is highly controlled by an upstream reservoir (mean daily discharge of 90.4 ft3/s). These rivers flow into urbanized estuaries and ultimately, to the Atlantic Ocean. Each of these tributaries were sampled during two to four storm events, and twice each during low-flow discharge conditions. Samples were collected using automated equipment installed at stations adjacent to U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations near the heads-of-tide of these rivers. Large-volume (greater than 50 liters of water and a target of 1 gram of sediment), flow-weighted composite samples were collected for chemical analysis using filtration to collect suspended particulates and exchange resin (XAD-2) to sequester dissolved contaminants. Composite whole-water samples were collected for dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and for trace element analysis. Additional discrete grab samples were collected

  2. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  3. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  4. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  5. T.H. Huxley's criticism of German cell theory: an epigenetic and physiological interpretation of cell structure.

    PubMed

    Richmond, M L

    2000-01-01

    In 1853, the young Thomas Henry Huxley published a long review of German cell theory in which he roundly criticized the basic tenets of the Schleiden-Schwann model of the cell. Although historians of cytology have dismissed Huxley's criticism as based on an erroneous interpretation of cell physiology, the review is better understood as a contribution to embryology. "The Cell-theory" presents Huxley's "epigenetic" interpretation of histological organization emerging from changes in the protoplasm to replace the "preformationist" cell theory of Schleiden and Schwann (as modified by Albert von Kolliker), which posited the nucleus as the seat of organic vitality. Huxley's views influenced a number of British biologists, who continued to oppose German cell theory well into the twentieth century. Yet Huxley was pivotal in introducing the new German program of "scientific zoology" to Britain in the early 1850s, championing its empiricist methodology as a means to enact broad disciplinary and institutional reforms in British natural history. PMID:11640226

  6. AN ORGANIZATION GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Pollution Prevention (P2) Guide provides information to help organizations get P2 programs started on t re-evaluate existing P2 programs. It presents an alternative method for working on P2 projects and four approaches to implementing a P2 program in an organization. The int...

  7. Effect of loading rate on performance of constructed wetlands treating an anaerobic supernatant.

    PubMed

    Chazarenc, F; Maltais-Landry, G; Troesch, S; Comeau, Y; Brisson, J

    2007-01-01

    The effect of organic loading, season and plant species on the treatment of fish farm effluent was tested using three-year old mesocosm wetland systems. During one year, nine 1 m2 mesocosms (horizontal subsurface flow), located in a controlled greenhouse environment, were fed with a reconstituted fish farm effluent containing a high fraction of soluble components (1,600 microS/cm and in mg/L: 230 +/- 80 COD, 179 +/- 60 sCOD, 100 +/- 40 TSS, 37 +/- 7 TKN, 14 +/- 2 TP). Combinations of three hydraulic loading rates (30, 60 and 90 L.m(-2) d(-1)) and two plant species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia) and an unplanted control were tested for treatment performance and hydraulic behaviour. Loadings higher than 15 g COD m(-2) d(-1) resulted in a net decrease of hydraulic performances (generation of short circuiting) coupled with low TKN removal. Maximal TKN removal rates (summer: 1.2, winter: 0.6 g.m(-2) d(-1)) were reached in planted units. In all mesocosms, phosphorus was removed during summer (maximal removal rate: 0.3 g TP m(-2) d(-1)) and was released in winter (release rate = approximately half of summer removal rate). This study confirmed that constructed wetlands are susceptible to clogging when treating anaerobic storage tank supernatant rich in highly biodegradable compounds. Contributions of plants to hydraulic efficiency were mainly observed in summer, associated with high evapotranspiration rates. Both plant species gave a similar removal efficiency for all pollutants.

  8. Cartilage surface characterization by frictional dissipated energy during axially loaded knee flexion--an in vitro sheep model.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Andrea; Rothstock, Stephan; Bobrowitsch, Evgenij; Beck, Alexander; Gruhler, Gerhard; Ipach, Ingmar; Leichtle, Ulf G; Wülker, Nikolaus; Walter, Christian

    2013-05-31

    Cartilage defects and osteoarthritis (OA) have an increasing incidence in the aging population. A wide range of treatment options are available. The introduction of each new treatment requires controlled, evidence based, histological and biomechanical studies to identify potential benefits. Especially for the biomechanical testing there is a lack of established methods which combine a physiologic testing environment of complete joints with the possibility of body-weight simulation. The current in-vitro study presents a new method for the measurement of friction properties of cartilage on cartilage in its individual joint environment including the synovial fluid. Seven sheep knee joints were cyclically flexed and extended under constant axial load with intact joint capsule using a 6° of freedom robotic system. During the cyclic motion, the flexion angle and the respective torque were recorded and the dissipated energy was calculated. Different mechanically induced cartilage defect sizes (16 mm², 50 mm², 200 mm²) were examined and compared to the intact situation at varying levels of the axial load. The introduced setup could significantly distinguish between most of the defect sizes for all load levels above 200 N. For these higher load levels, a high reproducibility was achieved (coefficient of variation between 4% and 17%). The proposed method simulates a natural environment for the analysis of cartilage on cartilage friction properties and is able to differentiate between different cartilage defect sizes. Therefore, it is considered as an innovative method for the testing of new treatment options for cartilage defects.

  9. The skeleton as an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J; Clemens, Thomas L; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2012-11-01

    Surprising new discoveries in the field of skeletal biology show that bone cells produce endocrine hormones that regulate phosphate and glucose homeostasis. In this Review, we examine the features of these new endocrine pathways and discuss their physiological importance in the context of our current understanding of energy metabolism and mineral homeostasis. Consideration of evolutionary and comparative biology provides clues that a key driving force for the emergence of these hormonal pathways was the development of a large, energy-expensive musculoskeletal system. Specialized bone cells also evolved and produced endocrine hormones to integrate the skeleton in global mineral and nutrient homeostasis. The recognition of bone as a true endocrine organ represents a fertile area for further research and should improve the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus.

  10. Ammonia threshold for inhibition of anaerobic digestion of thin stillage and the importance of organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Moestedt, Jan; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Biogas production from nitrogen-rich feedstock results in release of ammonia (NH3), causing inhibition of the microbial process. The reported threshold ammonia value for stable biogas production varies greatly between studies, probably because of differences in operating conditions. Moreover, it is often difficult to separate the effect of ammonia inhibition from that of organic loading rate (OLR), as these two factors are often interrelated. This study attempted to distinguish the effects of ammonia and OLR by analysis of two laboratory-scale biogas reactors operating with thin stillage and subjected to an increase in free ammonia (from 0.30 to 1.1 g L(-1)) either by addition of an external nitrogen source (urea) or by increasing the OLR (3.2-6.0 g volatile solids L(-1) d(-1)). The results showed that ammonia concentration was detrimental for process performance, with the threshold for stability in both processes identified as being about 1 g NH3-N L(-1), irrespective of OLR. Analysis of the methanogenic community showed limited differences between the two reactors on order level and a clear increase in the abundance of Methanomicrobiales, particularly Methanoculleus sp., in response to increasing ammonia concentration. Further comprehensive molecular analysis revealed that diverse Methanoculleus species dominated in the reactors at a given ammonia level at different OLR. The acetogenic community was clearly affected by both ammonia concentration and OLR, suggesting that the volatile fatty acid load in relation to the higher OLR was important for the dynamics of this community. PMID:26686366

  11. Effect of organic loading on nitrification and denitrification in a marine sediment microcosm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caffrey, J.M.; Sloth, N.P.; Kaspar, H.F.; Blackburn, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of organic additions on nitrification and denitrification were examined in sediment microcosms. The organic material, heat killed yeast, had a C/N ratio of 7.5 and was added to sieved, homogenized sediments. Four treatments were compared: no addition (control, 30 g dry weight (dw) m-2 mixed throughout the 10 cm sediment column (30 M), 100 g dw m-2 mixed throughout sediments (100M), and 100 g dw m-2 mixed into top 1 cm (100S). After the microcosms had been established for 7-11 days, depth of O2 penetration, sediment-water fluxes and nitrification rates were measured. Nitrification rates were measured using three different techniques: N-serve and acetylene inhibition in intact cores, and nitrification potentials in slurries. Increased organic additions decreased O2 penetration from 2.7 to 0.2 mm while increasing both O2 consumption, from 30 to 70 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, and NO3- flux into sediments. Nitrification rates in intact cores were similar for the two methods. Highest rates occurred in the 30 M treatment, while the lowest rate was measured in the 100S treatment. Total denitrification rates (estimated from nitrification and nitrate fluxes) increased with increased organic addition, because of the high concentrations of NO3- (40 ??M) in the overlying water. The ratio of nitrification: denitrification was used as an indication of the importance of nitrification as the NO3- supply for denitrification. This ratio decreased from 1.55 to 0.05 with increased organic addition.

  12. An Efficient Approach to Obtain Optimal Load Factors for Structural Design

    PubMed Central

    Bojórquez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    An efficient optimization approach is described to calibrate load factors used for designing of structures. The load factors are calibrated so that the structural reliability index is as close as possible to a target reliability value. The optimization procedure is applied to find optimal load factors for designing of structures in accordance with the new version of the Mexico City Building Code (RCDF). For this aim, the combination of factors corresponding to dead load plus live load is considered. The optimal combination is based on a parametric numerical analysis of several reinforced concrete elements, which are designed using different load factor values. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is used. The formulation is applied to different failure modes: flexure, shear, torsion, and compression plus bending of short and slender reinforced concrete elements. Finally, the structural reliability corresponding to the optimal load combination proposed here is compared with that corresponding to the load combination recommended by the current Mexico City Building Code. PMID:25133232

  13. Amborella trichopoda, plasmodesmata, and the evolution of phloem loading.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Robert; Medville, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Phloem loading is the process by which photoassimilates synthesized in the mesophyll cells of leaves enter the sieve elements and companion cells of minor veins in preparation for long distance transport to sink organs. Three loading strategies have been described: active loading from the apoplast, passive loading via the symplast, and passive symplastic transfer followed by polymer trapping of raffinose and stachyose. We studied phloem loading in Amborella trichopoda, a premontane shrub that may be sister to all other flowering plants. The minor veins of A. trichopoda contain intermediary cells, indicative of the polymer trap mechanism, forming an arc on the abaxial side and subtending a cluster of ordinary companion cells in the interior of the veins. Intermediary cells are linked to bundle sheath cells by highly abundant plasmodesmata whereas ordinary companion cells have few plasmodesmata, characteristic of phloem that loads from the apoplast. Intermediary cells, ordinary companion cells, and sieve elements form symplastically connected complexes. Leaves provided with (14)CO(2) translocate radiolabeled sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose. Therefore, structural and physiological evidence suggests that both apoplastic and polymer trapping mechanisms of phloem loading operate in A. trichopoda. The evolution of phloem loading strategies is complex and may be difficult to resolve. PMID:21080011

  14. An Experimental Study of Incremental Surface Loading of an Elastic Plate: Application to Volcano Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, K. K.; Zuber, M. T.

    1995-01-01

    Models of surface fractures due to volcanic loading an elastic plate are commonly used to constrain thickness of planetary lithospheres, but discrepancies exist in predictions of the style of initial failure and in the nature of subsequent fracture evolution. In this study, we perform an experiment to determine the mode of initial failure due to the incremental addition of a conical load to the surface of an elastic plate and compare the location of initial failure with that predicted by elastic theory. In all experiments, the mode of initial failure was tension cracking at the surface of the plate, with cracks oriented circumferential to the load. The cracks nucleated at a distance from load center that corresponds the maximum radial stress predicted by analytical solutions, so a tensile failure criterion is appropriate for predictions of initial failure. With continued loading of the plate, migration of tensional cracks was observed. In the same azimuthal direction as the initial crack, subsequent cracks formed at a smaller radial distance than the initial crack. When forming in a different azimuthal direction, the subsequent cracks formed at a distance greater than the radial distance of the initial crack. The observed fracture pattern may explain the distribution of extensional structures in annular bands around many large scale, circular volcanic features.

  15. An intensive combined training program modulates physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical parameters in women basketball players.

    PubMed

    Kilinç, Fatih

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the investigation of the effects of an intensive combined training program based on the pretest scores of a university women's basketball team on their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. Twenty-four university volunteers were equally divided into two groups: an experiment group (intensive combined training group) and a control (technical training) group. The 10-week intensive combined training program was performed on the experiment group according to their pretest outcomes. Before and at the end of each period of training, which was scheduled four times a week, the physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical performance of each subject were determined. With respect to the pre- and posttest measurements, the basketball group showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in girth measurements (shoulder, waist, hip, arm, thigh, and calf), in skinfold measurements (percent body fat), in physiological measurements (vital capacity and forced vital capacity), in biomotoric tests (right-left hand grip, dynamic and countermovement jump, sit-up, push-up, 1500-m endurance), and in technique tests (free and inside shooting). It can be concluded that a 10-week intensive combined training program performed on university women basketball players had a significant effect on improving their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. It proved to be highly recommendable for female basketball players who are preparing for short-term tournaments; the basketball group in this study won a championship.

  16. Vertical canopy gradient in photosynthesis and monoterpenoid emissions: An insight into the chemistry and physiology behind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimpraga, M.; Verbeeck, H.; Bloemen, J.; Vanhaecke, L.; Demarcke, M.; Joó, E.; Pokorska, O.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Dewulf, J.; Van Langenhove, H.; Heinesch, B.; Aubinet, M.; Steppe, K.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that vertical canopy gradients and varying sky conditions influence photosynthesis (Pn), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf thickness (LT) and leaf pigments (lutein, â-carotene and chlorophyll). In contrast, little is known about these effects on monoterpenoid (MT) emissions. Our study examines simultaneously measured Pn, MT emissions and the MT/Pn ratio along the canopy of an adult European beech tree (Fagus sylvatica L.) in natural forest conditions. Dynamic branch enclosure systems were used at four heights in the canopy (7, 14, 21 and 25 m) in order to establish relationships and better understand the interaction between Pn and MT emissions under both sunny and cloudy sky conditions. Clear differences in Pn, MT emissions and the MT/Pn ratio were detected within the canopy. The highest Pn rates were observed in the sun leaves at 25 m due to the higher intercepted light levels, whereas MT emissions (and the MT/Pn ratio) were unexpectedly highest in the semi-shaded leaves at 21 m. The higher Pn rates and, apparently contradictory, lower MT emissions in the sun leaves may be explained by the hypothesis of Owen and Peñuelas (2005), stating synthesis of more photo-protective carotenoids may decrease the emissions of volatile isoprenoids (including MTs) because they both share the same biochemical precursors. In addition, leaf traits like SLA, LT and leaf pigments clearly differed with height in the canopy, suggesting that the leaf's physiological status cannot be neglected in future research on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) when aiming at developing new and/or improved emission algorithms.

  17. Arctic River Discharge and Sediment Loads --- an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Hudson, B.; Cohen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that river discharge has been increasing (+10%) over the last 30 years (1977-2007) for most arctic rivers. The peak melt month occurs earlier in the season in 66% of the studied rivers. Cold season flow is also increasing. Satellite discharge estimates, daily, based on microwave radiometry, are now possible from 1998 onwards. Daily river discharge hindcasts over the last 60 years using the water balance model WBMsed at a 10km spatial resolution are now available. The WBMsed model can be used in forecast mode assuming valid input climatology. The challenge here has been the accuracy of sub-polar precipitation grids. While each of these three methods (gauging, orbital sensing, modeling) has temporal and spatial coverage limitations, the combination of all three methods provides for a realistic way forward for estimating local discharge across the pan arctic. Flood inundation products are routinely produced for the pan-arctic using automated mapping algorithms developed by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The determination of artic river sediment loads is less than ideal. Some rivers have only been monitored for a short number of years, and many have not been monitored at all. The WBMsed model is perhaps the best method of estimating the daily sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean, at least for rivers where the mean discharge is greater than 30 m3/s. Additionally there is limited-duration field monitoring by national surveys. New methods are being explored, including back calculating the delivery of sediment to the coastal ocean by plume dimensions observed from space (MODIS, LandSat). These methods have had moderate success when applied to plumes extending in the Greenland fjords. Canada maintains an active circa 7-y satellite program (ArcticNet) to track the Mackenzie discharge during the spring-summer runoff period when turbid river water is apt to flow under and over marginal sea ice in the Beaufort Sea.

  18. What can an ecophysiological approach tell us about the physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia?

    PubMed

    Spicer, John I

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia (low O2) is a common and natural feature of many marine environments. However, human-induced hypoxia has been on the rise over the past half century and is now recognised as a major problem in the world's seas and oceans. Whilst we have information on how marine invertebrates respond physiologically to hypoxia in the laboratory, we still lack understanding of how they respond to such stress in the wild (now and in the future). Consequently, here the question 'what can an ecophysiological approach tell us about physiological responses of marine invertebrates to hypoxia' is addressed. How marine invertebrates work in the wild when challenged with hypoxia is explored using four case studies centred on different hypoxic environments. The recent integration of the various -omics into ecophysiology is discussed, and a number of advantages of, and challenges to, successful integration are suggested. The case studies and -omic/physiology integration data are used to inform the concluding part of the review, where it is suggested that physiological responses to hypoxia in the wild are not always the same as those predicted from laboratory experiments. This is due to behaviour in the wild modifying responses, and therefore more than one type of 'experimental' approach is essential to reliably determine the actual response. It is also suggested that assuming it is known what a measured response is 'for' can be misleading and that taking parodies of ecophysiology seriously may impede research progress. This review finishes with the suggestion that an -omics approach is, and is becoming, a powerful method of understanding the response of marine invertebrates to environmental hypoxia and may be an ideal way of studying hypoxic responses in the wild. Despite centring on physiological responses to hypoxia, the review hopefully serves as a contribution to the discussion of what (animal) ecophysiology looks like (or should look like) in the 21st century.

  19. An Injectable and Drug-loaded Supramolecular Hydrogel for Local Catheter Injection into the Pig Heart

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Cheyenne C. S.; Bastings, Maartje M. C.; Koudstaal, Stefan; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.; Dankers, Patricia Y. W.

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of lost myocardium is an important goal for future therapies because of the increasing occurrence of chronic ischemic heart failure and the limited access to donor hearts. An example of a treatment to recover the function of the heart consists of the local delivery of drugs and bioactives from a hydrogel. In this paper a method is introduced to formulate and inject a drug-loaded hydrogel non-invasively and side-specific into the pig heart using a long, flexible catheter. The use of 3-D electromechanical mapping and injection via a catheter allows side-specific treatment of the myocardium. To provide a hydrogel compatible with this catheter, a supramolecular hydrogel is used because of the convenient switching from a gel to a solution state using environmental triggers. At basic pH this ureido-pyrimidinone modified poly(ethylene glycol) acts as a Newtonian fluid which can be easily injected, but at physiological pH the solution rapidly switches into a gel. These mild switching conditions allow for the incorporation of bioactive drugs and bioactive species, such as growth factors and exosomes as we present here in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro experiments give an on forehand indication of the gel stability and drug release, which allows for tuning of the gel and release properties before the subsequent application in vivo. This combination allows for the optimal tuning of the gel to the used bioactive compounds and species, and the injection system. PMID:26132631

  20. [The 2004 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for research into smell receptors and the organization of the olfactory system].

    PubMed

    Burbach, J P H

    2004-12-25

    The 2004 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck, for their discovery of smell receptors and the organisation of the olfactory system. Their original discovery concerned the identification of some 1000 genes that code for smell receptors in the olfactory epithelium of the rat. They also demonstrated that each receptor can only be activated by a limited number of odourants and that there is some overlap in specificity with other smell receptors. Odourants in inhaled air are specifically recognized and bound by the smell receptors on the olfactory neurones in the nasal epithelium. The activated neurones send an electrical signal to the mitral cells, the dendrites of which lie in the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. In each olfactory neuron only one smell receptor gene is expressed. Neurones with the same type of receptor are spread throughout the epithelium but converge in the same glomerulus. An olfactory map is formed by means of mitral-cell projections which run to the cerebral cortex as well as to other parts of the brain. Possibly the information gained about odourants will be applied in the areas of physiology and pathophysiology; in the field of pharmacology for example where odourants may be used in the treatment of disorders of fertility, behaviour or mood.

  1. Nonpoint source pollution loading from an undistributed tropic forest area.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hua; Wen, Ching-Gung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Shui-Ping; Lee, Chih-Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Water quality and unit nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution load from a forest area were studied in a mountainous watershed in Taiwan. The flow rates were measured with rectangular weirs and samples taken for water quality analysis in both non-rainy and rainy days for 2 years. The subroutine of the Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN was used to simulate runoff for additional 3 years. Total annual loads of various water quality parameters were then estimated by a regression model. Most of the parameter concentrations are higher during the rainy days; their values are typically higher as compared to data from other undisturbed forest areas. Nevertheless, the concentration ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to TN or PO4(3-) -P to TP shows TN or TP no correlations with the flow rates, whereas the concentrations of SS and TP are positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed is significant. For example, six major events of the entire year, for which the total duration is merely 6.4 days, contribute 42% of the annual precipitation and at least 40% of the annual NPS loads. The management for controlling the NPS pollution from this forest watershed is discussed.

  2. Osteoarthrotic changes after acute transarticular load. An animal model.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C; Oegema, T R; Lewis, J L; Wallace, L

    1991-08-01

    The canine patellofemoral joint was subjected to a standardized transarticular load of 2170 newtons for two milliseconds, and the gross and histological changes were examined at two, twelve, and twenty-four weeks after injury. Initially, the load creates fractures in the zone of calcified cartilage, with minimum damage to the articular cartilage surface. Surface fissures were visible in all patellae only after staining with India ink. Histologically, these surface clefts extended into the transitional or superficial radial zone, and they did not communicate with the subchondral bone except in two patellae. However, there were reproducible clefts in the region of the subchondral bone and the zone of calcified cartilage in all patellae. Six months after loading, there was a loss of safranin-O staining above the deep clefts, and there was new-bone formation in the subchondral region and fibrillation of the cartilaginous surface. Thus, the initial changes had progressed to osteoarthrotic-like conditions at six months. In this animal model, the joint is not invaded and the changes that result from loading are reproducible. The injury to the joint creates superficial disruption of the cartilage and subchondral changes that lead to arthritic-like degeneration of the cartilage within six months. PMID:1714911

  3. Preparation of lutein-loaded particles for improving solubility and stability by Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as an emulsion-stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changdong; Cheng, Hui; Jiang, Pengfei; Yao, Yijing; Han, Jing

    2014-08-01

    Lutein, a non-provitamin A carotenoid, possesses multiple valuable physiological functions. Unfortunately, its application is limited due to its poor water solubility and instability under adverse conditions. To expand the applied range of lutein, we developed lutein-loaded particles and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and investigated the encapsulation efficiency, aqueous saturation solubility and stability. The results showed that the lutein-loaded particles possessed high encapsulation efficiency (93.8±0.35%) and good water solubility (158μg/ml). Compared with free lutein, the stability of the lutein-loaded particles against heat, light and oxygen was improved by 1.7 times, 3.3 times and 4.0 times, respectively. The results also indicated that lutein was embedded in PVP matrix in an amorphous state, and intermolecular hydrogen bonding was in existence between PVP, lutein and Tween 80, forming the main force assembling the lutein-loaded particles.

  4. Is Physiological Performance a Good Predictor for Fitness? Insights from an Invasive Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Montenegro, Marco A.; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Oses, Rómulo; Torres-Díaz, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Is physiological performance a suitable proxy of fitness in plants? Although, several studies have been conducted to measure some fitness-related traits and physiological performance, direct assessments are seldom found in the literature. Here, we assessed the physiology-fitness relationship using second-generation individuals of the invasive plant species Taraxacum officinale from 17 localities distributed in five continents. Specifically, we tested if i) the maximum quantum yield is a good predictor for seed-output ii) whether this physiology-fitness relationship can be modified by environmental heterogeneity, and iii) if this relationship has an adaptive consequence for T. officinale individuals from different localities. Overall, we found a significant positive relationship between the maximum quantum yield and fitness for all localities evaluated, but this relationship decreased in T. officinale individuals from localities with greater environmental heterogeneity. Finally, we found that those individuals from localities where environmental conditions are highly seasonal performed better under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Contrarily, under homogeneous controlled conditions, those individuals from localities with low environmental seasonality performed much better. In conclusion, our results suggest that the maximum quantum yield seem to be good predictors for plant fitness. We suggest that rapid measurements, such as those obtained from the maximum quantum yield, could provide a straightforward proxy of individual’s fitness in changing environments. PMID:24204626

  5. Removal of volatile organic compounds at extreme shock-loading using a scaled-up pilot rotating drum biofilter.

    PubMed

    Sawvel, Russell A; Kim, Byung; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2008-11-01

    A pilot-scale rotating drum biofilter (RDB), which is a novel biofilter design that offers flexible flow-through configurations, was used to treat complex and variable volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, including shock loadings, emanating from paint drying operations at an Army ammunition plant. The RDB was seeded with municipal wastewater activated sludge. Removal efficiencies up to 86% and an elimination capacity of 5.3 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) hr(-1) were achieved at a filter-medium contact time of 60 sec. Efficiency increased at higher temperatures that promote higher biological activity, and decreased at lower pH, which dropped down to pH 5.5 possibly as a result of carbon dioxide and volatile fatty acid production and ammonia consumption during VOC degradation. In comparison, other studies have shown that a bench-scale RDB could achieve a removal efficiency of 95% and elimination capacity of 331 g COD m(-3) hr(-1). Sustainable performance of the pilot-scale RDB was challenged by the intermittent nature of painting operations, which typically resulted in 3-day long shutdown periods when bacteria were not fed. This challenge was overcome by adding sucrose (2 g/L weekly) as an auxiliary substrate to sustain metabolic activity during shutdown periods. PMID:19044156

  6. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-Hai; Harb, Moustapha; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying; Leiknes, TorOve

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10 gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50 mg/L for general reuse was 6 gCOD/L/d and 0.63 gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6 gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300 ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382 ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026 gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m(2)/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area.

  7. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity.

  8. Anaerobic Mesophilic Codigestion of Rice Straw and Chicken Manure: Effects of Organic Loading Rate on Process Stability and Performance.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zili; Liu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xianbo; Li, Dong; Yan, Zhiying; Yuan, Yuexiang; Huang, Yajun

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) on performance and stability of mesophilic co-digestion of rice straw (RS) and chicken manure (CM), benchtop experiments (40 L) were carried out at OLRs of 3.0, 3.6, 4.2, 4.8, 6.0, 8.0, and 12.0 kg volatile solid (VS)/(m(3)·day) with volatile solid (VS) ratio of 1:1 (RS/CM) which was based on batch tests. Anaerobic co-digestion was slightly and severely inhibited by the accumulation of ammonia when the digester was overloaded at an OLR of 6 and 12 kg VS/(m(3)·day), respectively. The recommended OLR for co-digestion is 4.8 kg VS/(m(3)·day), which corresponds to average specific biogas production (SBP) of 380 L/kg VS and volumetric biogas production rate (VBPR) of 1.8 m(3)/(m(3)·day). An OLR of 6-8 kg VS/(m(3)·d) with SBP of 360-440 L/kg VS and VBPR of 2.1-3.5 m(3)/(m(3)·day) could be considered, if an Anaerobic digestion (AD) system assisted by in situ removal of ammonia was adopted. PMID:26940572

  9. What is an organ? Heidegger and the phenomenology of organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Svenaeus, Fredrik

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates the question of what an organ is from a phenomenological perspective. Proceeding from the phenomenology of being-in-the-world developed by Heidegger in Being and Time and subsequent works, it compares the being of the organ with the being of the tool. It attempts to display similarities and differences between the embodied nature of the organs and the way tools of the world are handled. It explicates the way tools belong to the totalities of things of the world that are ready to use and the way organs belong to the totality of a bodily being able to be in this very world. In so doing, the paper argues that while the organ is in some respects similar to a bodily tool, this tool is nonetheless different from the tools of the world in being tied to the organism as a whole, which offers the founding ground of the being of the person. However, from a phenomenological point of view, the line between organs and tools cannot simply be drawn by determining what is inside and outside the physiological borders of the organism. We have, from the beginning of history, integrated technological devices (tools) in our being-in-the-world in ways that make them parts of ourselves rather than parts of the world (more organ- than tool-like), and also, more recently, have started to make our organs more tool-like by visualising, moving, manipulating, and controlling them through medical technology. In this paper, Heidegger's analysis of organ, tool, and world-making is confronted with this development brought about by contemporary medical technology. It is argued that this development has, to a large extent, changed the phenomenology of the organ in making our bodies more similar to machines with parts that have certain functions and that can be exchanged. This development harbours the threat of instrumentalising our bodily being but also the possibility of curing or alleviating suffering brought about by diseases which disturb and destroy the normal functioning

  10. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  11. Fast formation of aerobic granules by combining strong hydraulic selection pressure with overstressed organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2015-09-01

    The combined strong hydraulic selection pressure (HSP) with overstressed organic loading rate (OLR) as a fast granulation strategy was used to enhance aerobic granulation. To investigate the wide applicability of this strategy to different scenarios and its relevant mechanism, different settling times, different inoculums, different exchange ratios, different reactor configurations, and different shear force were used in this study. It was found that clear granules were formed within 24 h and steady state reached within three days when the fast granulation strategy was used in a lab-scale reactor seeded with well settled activated sludge (Reactor 2). However, granules appeared after 2-week operation and reached steady state after one month at the traditional step-wise decreased settling time from 20 to 2 min with OLR of 6 g COD/L·d (Reactor 1). With the fast granulation strategy, granules appeared within 24 h even with bulking sludge as seed to start up Reactor 3, but 6-day lag phase was observed compared with Reactor 2. Both Reactor 2 and Reactor 3 experienced sigmoidal growth curve in terms of biomass accumulation and granule size increase after granulation. In addition, the reproducible results in pilot-scale reactors (Reactor 5 and Reactor 6) with diameter of 20 cm and height/diameter ratio (H/D) of 4 further proved that reactor configuration and fluid flow pattern had no effect on the aerobic granulation when the fast granulation strategy was employed, but biomass accumulation experienced a short lag phase too in Reactor 5 and Reactor 6. Although overstressed OLR was favorable for fast granulation, it also led to the fluffy granules after around two-week operation. However, the stable 6-month operation of Reactor 3 demonstrated that the rapidly formed granules were able to maintain long-term stability by reducing OLR from 12 g COD/L·d to 6 g COD/L·d. A mechanism of fast granulation with the strategy of combined strong HSP and OLR was proposed to explain

  12. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55–79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, metabolic, endocrine and cognitive functions, bone strength, and health and well-being. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption ( showed the closest association with age (r = −0.443 to −0.664; P < 0.001), but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that even when many confounding variables are removed the relationship between function and healthy ageing is complex and likely to be highly individualistic and that physical activity levels must be taken into account in ageing studies. Key Points The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding

  13. An analysis of representative heating load lines for residential HSPF ratings

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C. Keith; Shen, Bo; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-07-01

    This report describes an analysis to investigate representative heating loads for single-family detached homes using current EnergyPlus simulations (DOE 2014a). Hourly delivered load results are used to determine binned load lines using US Department of Energy (DOE) residential prototype building models (DOE 2014b) developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The selected residential single-family prototype buildings are based on the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2006) in the DOE climate regions. The resulting load lines are compared with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 210/240 (AHRI 2008) minimum and maximum design heating requirement (DHR) load lines of the heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) ratings procedure for each region. The results indicate that a heating load line closer to the maximum DHR load line, and with a lower zero load ambient temperature, is more representative of heating loads predicted for EnergyPlus prototype residential buildings than the minimum DHR load line presently used to determine HSPF ratings. An alternative heating load line equation was developed and compared to binned load lines obtained from the EnergyPlus simulation results. The effect on HSPF of the alternative heating load line was evaluated for single-speed and two-capacity heat pumps, and an average HSPF reduction of 16% was found. The alternative heating load line relationship is tied to the rated cooling capacity of the heat pump based on EnergyPlus autosizing, which is more representative of the house load characteristics than the rated heating capacity. The alternative heating load line equation was found to be independent of climate for the six DOE climate regions investigated, provided an adjustable zero load ambient temperature is used. For Region IV, the default DOE climate region used for HSPF ratings, the higher load line results in an ~28

  14. Conservation physiology for applied management of marine fish: an overview with perspectives on the role and value of telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, J. D.; Le Quesne, W. J. F.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Righton, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological studies focus on the responses of cells, tissues and individuals to stressors, usually in laboratory situations. Conservation and management, on the other hand, focus on populations. The field of conservation physiology addresses the question of how abiotic drivers of physiological responses at the level of the individual alter requirements for successful conservation and management of populations. To achieve this, impacts of physiological effects at the individual level need to be scaled to impacts on population dynamics, which requires consideration of ecology. Successfully realizing the potential of conservation physiology requires interdisciplinary studies incorporating physiology and ecology, and requires that a constructive dialogue develops between these traditionally disparate fields. To encourage this dialogue, we consider the increasingly explicit incorporation of physiology into ecological models applied to marine fish conservation and management. Conservation physiology is further challenged as the physiology of an individual revealed under laboratory conditions is unlikely to reflect realized responses to the complex variable stressors to which it is exposed in the wild. Telemetry technology offers the capability to record an animal's behaviour while simultaneously recording environmental variables to which it is exposed. We consider how the emerging insights from telemetry can strengthen the incorporation of physiology into ecology. PMID:22566680

  15. Retrieval practice is an efficient method of enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology information.

    PubMed

    Dobson, John L

    2013-06-01

    Although a great deal of empirical evidence has indicated that retrieval practice is an effective means of promoting learning and memory, very few studies have investigated the strategy in the context of an actual class. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a series of very brief retrieval quizzes could significantly improve the retention of previously tested information throughout an anatomy and physiology course. A second purpose was to determine if there were any significant differences between expanding and uniform patterns of retrieval that followed a standardized initial retrieval delay. Anatomy and physiology students were assigned to either a control group or groups that were repeatedly prompted to retrieve a subset of previously tested course information via a series of quizzes that were administered on either an expanding or a uniform schedule. Each retrieval group completed a total of 10 retrieval quizzes, and the series of quizzes required (only) a total of 2 h to complete. Final retention of the exam subset material was assessed during the last week of the semester. There were no significant differences between the expanding and uniform retrieval groups, but both retained an average of 41% more of the subset material than did the control group (ANOVA, F = 129.8, P = 0.00, ηp(2) = 0.36). In conclusion, retrieval practice is a highly efficient and effective strategy for enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology material.

  16. Influence of organic loading rate on methane production in a CSTR from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    López-Escobar, Luis A; Martínez-Hernández, Sergio; Corte-Cano, Grisel; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) on methane production in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse was evaluated. Total solid (TS) to obtain OLR of 1, 5, 10 and 15 g VS L(-1) day(-1), with hydraulic retention times of 29, 6, 6 and 4, respectively, were conditioned. The results showed a decrease in pH levels and an increase in the theoretical volatile fatty acids (VFA). While the yield of methane production decreased from 0.48 to 0.10 LCH4/g VSremoved, respectively, the OLR-10 managed on average 38% removal of volatile solids (VS) and a yield biogas production of 0.81 Lbiogas g(-1) VSremoved and 1.35 L day(-1). This suggests that the OLR increases in an anaerobic system from physicochemical sludge only inhibits the methanogenic metabolism, because there is still substrate consumption and biogas production.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced.

  18. An Efficient Targeted Drug Delivery through Apotransferrin Loaded Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Golla; Kondapi, Anand Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancerous state is a highly stimulated environment of metabolically active cells. The cells under these conditions over express selective receptors for assimilation of factors essential for growth and transformation. Such receptors would serve as potential targets for the specific ligand mediated transport of pharmaceutically active molecules. The present study demonstrates the specificity and efficacy of protein nanoparticle of apotransferrin for targeted delivery of doxorubicin. Methodology/Principal Findings Apotransferrin nanoparticles were developed by sol-oil chemistry. A comparative analysis of efficiency of drug delivery in conjugated and non-conjugated forms of doxorubicin to apotransferrin nanoparticle is presented. The spherical shaped apotransferrin nanoparticles (nano) have diameters of 25–50 ηm, which increase to 60–80 ηm upon direct loading of drug (direct-nano), and showed further increase in dimension (75–95 ηm) in conjugated nanoparticles (conj-nano). The competitive experiments with the transferrin receptor specific antibody showed the entry of both conj-nano and direct-nano into the cells through transferrin receptor mediated endocytosis. Results of various studies conducted clearly establish the superiority of the direct-nano over conj-nano viz. (a) localization studies showed complete release of drug very early, even as early as 30 min after treatment, with the drug localizing in the target organelle (nucleus) (b) pharmacokinetic studies showed enhanced drug concentrations, in circulation with sustainable half-life (c) the studies also demonstrated efficient drug delivery, and an enhanced inhibition of proliferation in cancer cells. Tissue distribution analysis showed intravenous administration of direct nano lead to higher drug localization in liver, and blood as compared to relatively lesser localization in heart, kidney and spleen. Experiments using rat cancer model confirmed the efficacy of the formulation in regression

  19. Effects of organic loading rate on reactor performance and archaeal community structure in mesophilic anaerobic digesters treating municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eddie; Martin, Jay; Michel, Frederick C

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the organic loading rate (OLR) of a high-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) system was increased from 3.4 to 5.0 gVS L(-1) day(-1) and reactor stability, performance and microbial community structure were determined. Laboratory simulations (3.5 L) of the full-scale process (500 dry ton year(-1)) were conducted using continuously stirred-tank mesophilic reactors. OLRs of 3.4 gVS L(-1)day(-1) (equal to the full-scale HSAD), 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 gVS L(-1)day(-1) were evaluated. Biochemical parameters and archaeal community dynamics were measured over 42 days of steady state operation. Results showed that increasing OLR increased the amount of organic matter conversion and resulted in higher organic matter removal and volumetric methane (CH₄) production (VMP) rates. The highest volatile solids (VS) removal and VMP results of 54 ± 2% and 1.4 ± 0.1 L CH₄ L(-1)day(-1) were observed for 5.0 gVS L(-1) day(-1). The efficiency of reactor conversion of organic matter to CH(4) was found to be similar in all the treatments with an average value of 0.57 ± 0.07 LCH(4) gVS(-1) (removed). 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses revealed that archaeal TRFs remained stable during the experiment accounting for an average relative abundance (RA) of 81 ± 1%. Archaea consistent with multiple terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) included members of the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota phyla, including acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic groups. In conclusion, this laboratory-scale study suggests that performance and stability as well as the archaeal community structure in this HSAD system was unaffected by increasing the OLR by nearly 50% and that this increase resulted in a similar increase in the amount of CH(4) gas generated.

  20. Diffusion-Limited Cargo Loading of an Engineered Protein Container.

    PubMed

    Zschoche, Reinhard; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-12-30

    The engineered bacterial nanocompartment AaLS-13 is a promising artificial encapsulation system that exploits electrostatic interactions for cargo loading. In order to study its ability to take up and retain guests, a pair of fluorescent proteins was developed which allows spectroscopic determination of the extent of encapsulation by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The encapsulation process is generally complete within a second, suggesting low energetic barriers for proteins to cross the capsid shell. Formation of intermediate aggregates upon mixing host and guest in vitro complicates capsid loading at low ionic strength, but can be sidestepped by increasing salt concentrations or diluting the components. Encapsulation of guests is completely reversible, and the position of the equilibrium is easily tuned by varying the ionic strength. These results, which challenge the notion that AaLS-13 is a continuous rigid shell, provide valuable information about cargo loading that will guide ongoing efforts to engineer functional host-guest complexes. Moreover, it should be possible to adapt the protein FRET pair described in this report to characterize functional capsid-cargo complexes generated by other encapsulation systems.

  1. Conservation Physiology of an Uncatchable Animal: The North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis).

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Rolland, Rosalind M; Kraus, Scott D

    2015-10-01

    The North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis (NARW), a critically endangered species that has been under intensive study for nearly four decades, provides an excellent case study for applying modern methods of conservation physiology to large whales. By combining long-term sighting histories of known individuals with physiological data from newer techniques (e.g., body condition estimated from photographs; endocrine status derived from fecal samples), physiological state and levels of stress can be estimated despite the lack of any method for nonlethal capture of large whales. Since traditional techniques for validating blood assays cannot be used in large whales, assays of fecal hormones have been validated using information on age, sex, and reproductive state derived from an extensive NARW photo-identification catalog. Using this approach, fecal glucocorticoids have been found to vary dramatically with reproductive state. It is therefore essential that glucocorticoid data be interpreted in conjunction with reproductive data. A case study correlating glucocorticoids with chronic noise is presented as an example. Keys to a successful research program for this uncatchable species have included: consistent population monitoring over decades, data-sharing across institutions, an extensive photo-identification catalog that documents individual histories, and consistent efforts at noninvasive collection of samples over years. Future research will require flexibility to adjust to changing distributions of populations.

  2. A systematic approach to an organization's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Robert L; Verdugo, Miguel; Lee, Tim

    2016-06-01

    This article integrates the concepts of sustainability and quality improvement into a systematic approach to an organization's sustainability. The article: (a) presents a literature-based model that incorporates the factors that drive an organization's sustainability; (b) describes how sustainability is operationalized through a systematic approach to quality improvement; (c) discusses the advantages of a systematic approach to sustainability; and (d) shares with the reader literature and experientially-based lessons learned about the approach. PMID:27058776

  3. A systematic approach to an organization's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Robert L; Verdugo, Miguel; Lee, Tim

    2016-06-01

    This article integrates the concepts of sustainability and quality improvement into a systematic approach to an organization's sustainability. The article: (a) presents a literature-based model that incorporates the factors that drive an organization's sustainability; (b) describes how sustainability is operationalized through a systematic approach to quality improvement; (c) discusses the advantages of a systematic approach to sustainability; and (d) shares with the reader literature and experientially-based lessons learned about the approach.

  4. Covalently Bound Nitroxyl Radicals in an Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Barbara K; Braunecker, Wade A; Bobela, David C; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Reid, Obadiah G; Johnson, Justin C

    2016-09-15

    A series of covalent organic framework (COF) structures is synthesized that possesses a tunable density of covalently bound nitroxyl radicals within the COF pores. The highest density of organic radicals produces an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal that suggests the majority of radicals strongly interact with other radicals, whereas for smaller loadings the EPR signals indicate the radicals are primarily isolated but with restricted motion. The dielectric loss as determined from microwave absorption of the framework structures compared with an amorphous control suggests that free motion of the radicals is inhibited when more than 25% of available sites are occupied. The ability to tune the mode of radical interactions and the subsequent effect on redox, electrical, and optical characteristics in a porous framework may lead to a class of structures with properties ideal for photoelectrochemistry or energy storage.

  5. Covalently Bound Nitroxyl Radicals in an Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Barbara K; Braunecker, Wade A; Bobela, David C; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Reid, Obadiah G; Johnson, Justin C

    2016-09-15

    A series of covalent organic framework (COF) structures is synthesized that possesses a tunable density of covalently bound nitroxyl radicals within the COF pores. The highest density of organic radicals produces an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal that suggests the majority of radicals strongly interact with other radicals, whereas for smaller loadings the EPR signals indicate the radicals are primarily isolated but with restricted motion. The dielectric loss as determined from microwave absorption of the framework structures compared with an amorphous control suggests that free motion of the radicals is inhibited when more than 25% of available sites are occupied. The ability to tune the mode of radical interactions and the subsequent effect on redox, electrical, and optical characteristics in a porous framework may lead to a class of structures with properties ideal for photoelectrochemistry or energy storage. PMID:27583443

  6. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of an In Silico Cell Physiology lab for Bio Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, A. ul; Rokkam, M.; DeCarlo, A. R.; Wereley, S. T.; Wells, H. W.; McLamb, W. T.; Roux, S. J.; Irazoqui, P. P.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we report the design, fabrication and characterization of an In Silico cell physiology biochip for measuring Ca2+ ion concentrations and currents around single cells. This device has been designed around specific science objectives of measuring real time multidimensional calcium flux patterns around sixteen Ceratopteris richardii fern spores in microgravity flight experiments and ground studies. The sixteen microfluidic cell holding pores are 150 by 150 µm each and have 4 Ag/AgCl electrodes leading into them. An SU-8 structural layer is used for insulation and packaging purposes. The In Silico cell physiology lab is wire bonded on to a custom PCB for easy interface with a state of the art data acquisition system. The electrodes are coated with a Ca2+ ion selective membrane based on ETH-5234 ionophore and operated against an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Initial characterization results have shown Nernst slopes of 30mv/decade that were stable over a number of measurement cycles. While this work is focused on technology to enable basic research on the Ceratopteris richardii spores, we anticipate that this type of cell physiology lab-on-a-chip will be broadly applied in biomedical and pharmacological research by making minor modifications to the electrode material and the measurement technique. Future applications include detection of glucose, hormones such as plant auxin, as well as multiple analyte detection on the same chip.

  7. Online load measurement in combined sewer systems--possibilities of an integrated management of waste water transportation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Häck, M; Lorenz, U

    2002-01-01

    To obtain a further appreciable reduction of discharges in the area of sewage disposal, besides waste water purification at our treatment plants, discharge of wastewater through the sewer system has to be taken into account. Today, control strategies pursuing this aim are mainly based on hydraulic conditions like level or flow rate. They all neglect the wastewater organic load as an essential parameter. The main reasons are the expensive methods used to continuously measure traditional organic sum parameters like COD or TOC. A meaningful alternative to those parameters is the spectral absorption coefficient at lambda = 254 nm (SAC), defined in DIN 38402 by the German Institute for Standardisation. As a purely physical parameter, the SAC shows a good correlation to organic sum parameters like COD and TOC, especially if municipal wastewater is considered. By using an UV-process probe, it is possible to measure the SAC and infer the organic load of raw wastewater continuously without any sample pre-treatment. By the use of this instrument numerous possibilities arise, in order to control the sewers discharge load depend.

  8. An organic electronic biomimetic neuron enables auto-regulated neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Daniel T; Larsson, Karin C; Nilsson, David; Burström, Gustav; Galter, Dagmar; Berggren, Magnus; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta

    2015-09-15

    Current therapies for neurological disorders are based on traditional medication and electric stimulation. Here, we present an organic electronic biomimetic neuron, with the capacity to precisely intervene with the underlying malfunctioning signalling pathway using endogenous substances. The fundamental function of neurons, defined as chemical-to-electrical-to-chemical signal transduction, is achieved by connecting enzyme-based amperometric biosensors and organic electronic ion pumps. Selective biosensors transduce chemical signals into an electric current, which regulates electrophoretic delivery of chemical substances without necessitating liquid flow. Biosensors detected neurotransmitters in physiologically relevant ranges of 5-80 µM, showing linear response above 20 µm with approx. 0.1 nA/µM slope. When exceeding defined threshold concentrations, biosensor output signals, connected via custom hardware/software, activated local or distant neurotransmitter delivery from the organic electronic ion pump. Changes of 20 µM glutamate or acetylcholine triggered diffusive delivery of acetylcholine, which activated cells via receptor-mediated signalling. This was observed in real-time by single-cell ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging. The results demonstrate the potential of the organic electronic biomimetic neuron in therapies involving long-range neuronal signalling by mimicking the function of projection neurons. Alternatively, conversion of glutamate-induced descending neuromuscular signals into acetylcholine-mediated muscular activation signals may be obtained, applicable for bridging injured sites and active prosthetics.

  9. An organic electronic biomimetic neuron enables auto-regulated neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Daniel T; Larsson, Karin C; Nilsson, David; Burström, Gustav; Galter, Dagmar; Berggren, Magnus; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta

    2015-09-15

    Current therapies for neurological disorders are based on traditional medication and electric stimulation. Here, we present an organic electronic biomimetic neuron, with the capacity to precisely intervene with the underlying malfunctioning signalling pathway using endogenous substances. The fundamental function of neurons, defined as chemical-to-electrical-to-chemical signal transduction, is achieved by connecting enzyme-based amperometric biosensors and organic electronic ion pumps. Selective biosensors transduce chemical signals into an electric current, which regulates electrophoretic delivery of chemical substances without necessitating liquid flow. Biosensors detected neurotransmitters in physiologically relevant ranges of 5-80 µM, showing linear response above 20 µm with approx. 0.1 nA/µM slope. When exceeding defined threshold concentrations, biosensor output signals, connected via custom hardware/software, activated local or distant neurotransmitter delivery from the organic electronic ion pump. Changes of 20 µM glutamate or acetylcholine triggered diffusive delivery of acetylcholine, which activated cells via receptor-mediated signalling. This was observed in real-time by single-cell ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging. The results demonstrate the potential of the organic electronic biomimetic neuron in therapies involving long-range neuronal signalling by mimicking the function of projection neurons. Alternatively, conversion of glutamate-induced descending neuromuscular signals into acetylcholine-mediated muscular activation signals may be obtained, applicable for bridging injured sites and active prosthetics. PMID:25932795

  10. Biomusic: An Auditory Interface for Detecting Physiological Indicators of Anxiety in Children.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Stephanie; Han, Elizabeth; Kushki, Azadeh; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Biddiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    For children with profound disabilities affecting communication, it can be extremely challenging to identify salient emotions such as anxiety. If left unmanaged, anxiety can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other psychological diagnoses. Physiological signals of the autonomic nervous system are indicative of anxiety, but can be difficult to interpret for non-specialist caregivers. This paper evaluates an auditory interface for intuitive detection of anxiety from physiological signals. The interface, called "Biomusic," maps physiological signals to music (i.e., electrodermal activity to melody; skin temperature to musical key; heart rate to drum beat; respiration to a "whooshing" embellishment resembling the sound of an exhalation). The Biomusic interface was tested in two experiments. Biomusic samples were generated from physiological recordings of typically developing children (n = 10) and children with autism spectrum disorders (n = 5) during relaxing and anxiety-provoking conditions. Adult participants (n = 16) were then asked to identify "anxious" or "relaxed" states by listening to the samples. In a classification task with 30 Biomusic samples (1 relaxed state, 1 anxious state per child), classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 80.8% [standard error (SE) = 2.3], 84.9% (SE = 3.0), and 76.8% (SE = 3.9), respectively. Participants were able to form an early and accurate impression of the anxiety state within 12.1 (SE = 0.7) seconds of hearing the Biomusic with very little training (i.e., < 10 min) and no contextual information. Biomusic holds promise for monitoring, communication, and biofeedback systems for anxiety management. PMID:27625593

  11. Effectiveness of inquiry-based learning in an undergraduate exercise physiology course.

    PubMed

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews) were performed for a laboratory course in cardiorespiratory exercise physiology that was conducted in one year with a traditional step-by-step guided manual (traditional course) and the next year completed with an inquiry-based structure (I-based course). The I-based course was a guided inquiry course where students had to design the experimental protocol and conduct their own study on the basis of certain predefined criteria (i.e., they should evaluate respiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise and provide indirect and direct measures of aerobic exercise capacity). The results indicated that the overall time spent on the experimental course as well as self-evaluated learning outcomes were similar across groups. However, students in the I-based course used more time in preparation (102 ± 5 min) than students in the traditional course (42 ± 3 min, P < 0.05), and 65 ± 5% students in the I-based course searched for additional literature before experimentation compared with only 2 ± 1% students in the traditional course. Furthermore, students in the I-based course achieved a higher (P < 0.05) average score on the quantitative test (45 ± 3%) compared with students in the traditional course (31 ± 4%). Although students were unfamiliar with cardiorespiratory exercise physiology and the experimental methods before the course, it appears that an inquiry-based approach rather than one that provides students with step-by-step instructions may benefit learning outcomes in a laboratory physiology course.

  12. Bed Rest is an Analog to Study the Physiological Changes of Spaceflight and to Evaluate Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfannenstiel, P.; Ottenbacher, M.; Inniss, A.; Ware, D.; Anderson, K.; Stranges, S.; Keith, K.; Cromwell, R.; Neigut. J.; Powell, D.

    2012-01-01

    The UTMB/NASA Flight Analog Research Unit is an inpatient unit with a bionutrition kitchen and unique testing areas for studying subjects subjected to 6 degree head-down complete bed rest for prolonged periods as an analog for zero gravity. Bed rest allows study of physiological changes and performance of functional tasks representative of critical interplanetary mission operations and measures of the efficacy of countermeasures designed to protect against the resulting deleterious effects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Subjects are healthy adults 24-55 years old; 60 75 in tall; body mass index 18.5-30; and bone mineral density normal by DXA scan. Over 100 subjects have been studied in 7 campaigns since 2004. The iRAT countermeasure combines high intensity interval aerobic exercises on alternating days with continuous aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise is performed 3 days per week. Subjects are tested on an integrated suite of functional and interdisciplinary physiological tests before and after 70 days of total bed rest. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is anticipated that post-bed rest functional performance will be predicted by a weighted combination of sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscle physiological factors. Control subjects who do not participate in the exercise countermeasure will have significantly greater decreases in these parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity, leading to disruption in the ability to perform functional tasks after reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Current flight exercise countermeasures are not fully protective of cardiovascular, muscle and bone health. There is a need to refine and optimize countermeasures to mitigate health risks associated with long-term space missions.

  13. Biomusic: An Auditory Interface for Detecting Physiological Indicators of Anxiety in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Stephanie; Han, Elizabeth; Kushki, Azadeh; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Biddiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    For children with profound disabilities affecting communication, it can be extremely challenging to identify salient emotions such as anxiety. If left unmanaged, anxiety can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other psychological diagnoses. Physiological signals of the autonomic nervous system are indicative of anxiety, but can be difficult to interpret for non-specialist caregivers. This paper evaluates an auditory interface for intuitive detection of anxiety from physiological signals. The interface, called “Biomusic,” maps physiological signals to music (i.e., electrodermal activity to melody; skin temperature to musical key; heart rate to drum beat; respiration to a “whooshing” embellishment resembling the sound of an exhalation). The Biomusic interface was tested in two experiments. Biomusic samples were generated from physiological recordings of typically developing children (n = 10) and children with autism spectrum disorders (n = 5) during relaxing and anxiety-provoking conditions. Adult participants (n = 16) were then asked to identify “anxious” or “relaxed” states by listening to the samples. In a classification task with 30 Biomusic samples (1 relaxed state, 1 anxious state per child), classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 80.8% [standard error (SE) = 2.3], 84.9% (SE = 3.0), and 76.8% (SE = 3.9), respectively. Participants were able to form an early and accurate impression of the anxiety state within 12.1 (SE = 0.7) seconds of hearing the Biomusic with very little training (i.e., < 10 min) and no contextual information. Biomusic holds promise for monitoring, communication, and biofeedback systems for anxiety management.

  14. Biomusic: An Auditory Interface for Detecting Physiological Indicators of Anxiety in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Stephanie; Han, Elizabeth; Kushki, Azadeh; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Biddiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    For children with profound disabilities affecting communication, it can be extremely challenging to identify salient emotions such as anxiety. If left unmanaged, anxiety can lead to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and other psychological diagnoses. Physiological signals of the autonomic nervous system are indicative of anxiety, but can be difficult to interpret for non-specialist caregivers. This paper evaluates an auditory interface for intuitive detection of anxiety from physiological signals. The interface, called “Biomusic,” maps physiological signals to music (i.e., electrodermal activity to melody; skin temperature to musical key; heart rate to drum beat; respiration to a “whooshing” embellishment resembling the sound of an exhalation). The Biomusic interface was tested in two experiments. Biomusic samples were generated from physiological recordings of typically developing children (n = 10) and children with autism spectrum disorders (n = 5) during relaxing and anxiety-provoking conditions. Adult participants (n = 16) were then asked to identify “anxious” or “relaxed” states by listening to the samples. In a classification task with 30 Biomusic samples (1 relaxed state, 1 anxious state per child), classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 80.8% [standard error (SE) = 2.3], 84.9% (SE = 3.0), and 76.8% (SE = 3.9), respectively. Participants were able to form an early and accurate impression of the anxiety state within 12.1 (SE = 0.7) seconds of hearing the Biomusic with very little training (i.e., < 10 min) and no contextual information. Biomusic holds promise for monitoring, communication, and biofeedback systems for anxiety management. PMID:27625593

  15. Effectiveness of inquiry-based learning in an undergraduate exercise physiology course.

    PubMed

    Nybo, Lars; May, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of changing a laboratory physiology course for undergraduate students from a traditional step-by-step guided structure to an inquiry-based approach. With this aim in mind, quantitative and qualitative evaluations of learning outcomes (individual subject-specific tests and group interviews) were performed for a laboratory course in cardiorespiratory exercise physiology that was conducted in one year with a traditional step-by-step guided manual (traditional course) and the next year completed with an inquiry-based structure (I-based course). The I-based course was a guided inquiry course where students had to design the experimental protocol and conduct their own study on the basis of certain predefined criteria (i.e., they should evaluate respiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise and provide indirect and direct measures of aerobic exercise capacity). The results indicated that the overall time spent on the experimental course as well as self-evaluated learning outcomes were similar across groups. However, students in the I-based course used more time in preparation (102 ± 5 min) than students in the traditional course (42 ± 3 min, P < 0.05), and 65 ± 5% students in the I-based course searched for additional literature before experimentation compared with only 2 ± 1% students in the traditional course. Furthermore, students in the I-based course achieved a higher (P < 0.05) average score on the quantitative test (45 ± 3%) compared with students in the traditional course (31 ± 4%). Although students were unfamiliar with cardiorespiratory exercise physiology and the experimental methods before the course, it appears that an inquiry-based approach rather than one that provides students with step-by-step instructions may benefit learning outcomes in a laboratory physiology course. PMID:26031722

  16. Effects of Extensive Beetle-Induced Forest Mortality on Aromatic Organic Carbon Loading and Disinfection Byproduct Formation Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouillard, B.; Mikkelson, K. M.; Dickenson, E.; Sharp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent drought and warmer temperatures associated with climate change have caused increased pest-induced forest mortality with impacts on biogeochemical and hydrologic processes. To better understand the seasonal impacts of bark beetle infestation on water quality, samples were collected regularly over two overlapping snow free seasons at surface water intakes of six water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado displaying varying levels of bark beetle infestation (high >40%, moderate 20-40%, and low <20%). Organic carbon concentrations were typically 3 to 6 times higher in waters sourced from high beetle-impacted watersheds compared to moderate and low impact watersheds, revealing elevated specific ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence, and humic-like intensity indicative of elevated aromatic carbon signatures. Accordingly, an increase in disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential of 400 to 600% was quantified when contrasted with watersheds containing less tree mortality. Beetle impact exasperated seasonal increases in carbon loading and DBP formation potential following both runoff and precipitation events indicating windows when enhanced water treatment may be utilized by water providers in highly infested regions. Additionally, elevated carbon concentrations throughout the summer and fall along with peaks following precipitation events provide evidence of shifting hydrologic flow paths in areas experiencing high forest mortality from decreased tree water uptake and interception. Collectively, these results demonstrate the need for continued watershed protection and monitoring with a changing climate as the resultant perturbations can have adverse effects on biogeochemistry and water quality in heavily impacted areas.

  17. Limitation of sludge biotic index application for control of a wastewater treatment plant working with shock organic and ammonium loadings.

    PubMed

    Drzewicki, Adam; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between activated sludge microfauna, the sludge biotic index (SBI) and the effluent quality of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) working with shock organic and ammonium loadings caused by periodic wastewater delivery from septic tanks. Irrespective of high/low effluent quality in terms of COD, BOD5, ammonium and suspended solids, high SBI values (8-10), which correspond to the first quality class of sludge, were observed. High SBI values were connected with abundant taxonomic composition and the domination of crawling ciliates with shelled amoebae and attached ciliates. High SBI values, even at a low effluent quality, limit the usefulness of the index for monitoring the status of an activated sludge system and the effluent quality in municipal WWTP-treated wastewater from septic tanks. It was shown that a more sensitive indicator of effluent quality was a change in the abundance of attached ciliates with a narrow peristome (Vorticella infusionum and Opercularia coarctata), small flagellates and crawling ciliates (Acineria uncinata) feeding on flagellates. PMID:21802913

  18. [Squirrel monkey--an ideal primate (correction of prmate) model of space physiology].

    PubMed

    Matsunami, K

    1997-06-01

    to elucidate functions of the peripheral vestibular system. A transfer function was proposed to explain the behaviors of regular and irregular unit activity of vestibular nerve fibers. The physiologic characteristics of the second order vestibular neuron was investigated in combination of electrophysiological and micro-morphological way, with using WGA-HRP methods, in relation to somato-motor and eye movements. Interconnections between vestibular neurons and cerebellum, interstitial nucleus of Cajal, oculomotor nuclear complex, superior colliculus and cervical spinal cord were elucidated. In physiological field of the vestibular system, the vestibulo-ocular reflex is well studied and results obtained from the squirrel monkey experiments were reviewed. The squirrel monkey, particularly the Bolivian, is a unique animal in that it is vulnerable to motion sickness induced by visual-motion stimulation with phase mismatch of the two stimuli. Experimental results of labyrinthectomy or bilateral ablation of the maculae staticae led to the conclusion that both semicircular and otolith organs are involved in the genesis of space motion sickness. On the other hand, destruction of the area postrema, acknowledged as the vomiting center to chemical stimulants, produced controversial results. However, it must be pointed out that the a human subject underwent to resection of the area postrema, became insensitive to administration of apomorphine, a well known chemical stimulant of vomiting. Finally the experiments in space revealed the presence of at least two origins of caloric nystagmus, that is, attributable to convection and non-convection current of the endolymphatic fluid.

  19. [Squirrel monkey--an ideal primate (correction of prmate) model of space physiology].

    PubMed

    Matsunami, K

    1997-06-01

    to elucidate functions of the peripheral vestibular system. A transfer function was proposed to explain the behaviors of regular and irregular unit activity of vestibular nerve fibers. The physiologic characteristics of the second order vestibular neuron was investigated in combination of electrophysiological and micro-morphological way, with using WGA-HRP methods, in relation to somato-motor and eye movements. Interconnections between vestibular neurons and cerebellum, interstitial nucleus of Cajal, oculomotor nuclear complex, superior colliculus and cervical spinal cord were elucidated. In physiological field of the vestibular system, the vestibulo-ocular reflex is well studied and results obtained from the squirrel monkey experiments were reviewed. The squirrel monkey, particularly the Bolivian, is a unique animal in that it is vulnerable to motion sickness induced by visual-motion stimulation with phase mismatch of the two stimuli. Experimental results of labyrinthectomy or bilateral ablation of the maculae staticae led to the conclusion that both semicircular and otolith organs are involved in the genesis of space motion sickness. On the other hand, destruction of the area postrema, acknowledged as the vomiting center to chemical stimulants, produced controversial results. However, it must be pointed out that the a human subject underwent to resection of the area postrema, became insensitive to administration of apomorphine, a well known chemical stimulant of vomiting. Finally the experiments in space revealed the presence of at least two origins of caloric nystagmus, that is, attributable to convection and non-convection current of the endolymphatic fluid. PMID:11540548

  20. An overview of artificial gravity. [effects on human performance and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The unique characteristics of artificial gravity that affect human performance and physiology in an artificial gravity environment are reviewed. The rate at which these unique characteristics change decreases very rapidly with increasing radius of a rotating vehicle used to produce artificial gravity. Reducing their influence on human performance or physiology by increasing radius becomes a situation of very rapidly diminishing returns. A review of several elements of human performance has developed criteria relative to the sundry characteristics of artificial gravity. A compilation of these criteria indicates that the maximum acceptable rate of rotation, leg heaviness while walking, and material handling are the factors that define the minimum acceptable radius. The ratio of Coriolis force to artificial weight may also be significant. Based on current knowledge and assumptions for the various criteria, a minimum radius between 15.2 and 16.8 m seems desirable.

  1. An inflight recorder prototype for the inflight physiological data acquisition system 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, R. E.

    1982-02-01

    A prototype for the Inflight Recorder component of the Inflight Physiological Data Acquisition System was built. The Inflight Recorder is a remote data acquisition computer for sampling physiological data. Characteristics of the recorder's design were solid-state, microprocessor controlled, expandability, 16 sensor inputs, and 122 samples per second. Demonstration of battery operation for four hours and unobstructive size characteristics awaits further testing. Following a hardware requirements analysis, the prototype was built using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. Components featured in the design were a CMOS microprocessor; Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memories (EEPROM); a monolithic, 16 channel, analog to digital converter; and Magnetic Bubble Memories (MBM). In addition to building the IR prototype, several development tools have been constructed. One was a EEPROM Programmer. Another was an MBM Interactive Development System. A third was a hardware front panel for debugging IR software. User's manuals for these tools appear in appendices to the thesis.

  2. Putting "Organizations" into an Organization Theory Course: A Hybrid CAO Model for Teaching Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannah, David R.; Venkatachary, Ranga

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a retrospective analysis of an instructor's multiyear redesign of a course on organization theory into what is called a hybrid Classroom-as-Organization model. It is suggested that this new course design served to apprentice students to function in quasi-real organizational structures. The authors further argue…

  3. Growth and physiology of Clostridium perfringens wild-type and ΔazoC knockout: an azo dye exposure study.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jessica M; John, Gilbert H

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens, a strictly anaerobic micro-organism and inhabitant of the human intestine, has been shown to produce the azoreductase enzyme AzoC, an NAD(P)H-dependent flavin oxidoreductase. This enzyme reduces azo dyes to aromatic amines, which are carcinogenic in nature. A significant amount of work has been completed that focuses on the activity of this enzyme; however, few studies have been completed that focus on the physiology of azo dye reduction. Dye reduction studies coupled with C. perfringens growth studies in the presence of ten different azo dyes and in media of varying complexities were completed to compare the growth rates and dye-reducing activity of C. perfringens WT cells, a C. perfringens ΔazoC knockout, and Bifidobacterium infantis, a non-azoreductase-producing control bacterium. The presence of azo dyes significantly increased the generation time of C. perfringens in rich medium, an effect that was not seen in minimal medium. In addition, azo dye reduction studies with the ΔazoC knockout suggested the presence of additional functional azoreductases in this medically important bacterium. Overall, this study addresses a major gap in the literature by providing the first look, to our knowledge, at the complex physiology of C. perfringens upon azo dye exposure and the effect that both azo dyes and the azoreductase enzyme have on growth. PMID:26566621

  4. Semantic integration of physiology phenotypes with an application to the Cellular Phenotype Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Harris, Midori A.; Herre, Heinrich; Rustici, Gabriella; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: The systematic observation of phenotypes has become a crucial tool of functional genomics, and several large international projects are currently underway to identify and characterize the phenotypes that are associated with genotypes in several species. To integrate phenotype descriptions within and across species, phenotype ontologies have been developed. Applying ontologies to unify phenotype descriptions in the domain of physiology has been a particular challenge due to the high complexity of the underlying domain. Results: In this study, we present the outline of a theory and its implementation for an ontology of physiology-related phenotypes. We provide a formal description of process attributes and relate them to the attributes of their temporal parts and participants. We apply our theory to create the Cellular Phenotype Ontology (CPO). The CPO is an ontology of morphological and physiological phenotypic characteristics of cells, cell components and cellular processes. Its prime application is to provide terms and uniform definition patterns for the annotation of cellular phenotypes. The CPO can be used for the annotation of observed abnormalities in domains, such as systems microscopy, in which cellular abnormalities are observed and for which no phenotype ontology has been created. Availability and implementation: The CPO and the source code we generated to create the CPO are freely available on http://cell-phenotype.googlecode.com. Contact: rh497@cam.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22539675

  5. An assessment of landscape characteristics affecting estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojun

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the quantitative association between landscape characteristics and the ecological conditions of receiving waters has recently become an emerging area for eco-environmental research. While the landscape-water relationship research has largely targeted on inland aquatic systems, there has been an increasing need to develop methods and techniques that can better work with coastal and estuarine ecosystems. In this paper, we present a geospatial approach to examine the quantitative relationship between landscape characteristics and estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed. The case study site is in the Pensacola estuarine drainage area, home of the city of Pensacola, Florida, USA, where vigorous urban sprawling has prompted growing concerns on the estuarine ecological health. Central to this research is a remote sensor image that has been used to extract land use/cover information and derive landscape metrics. Several significant landscape metrics are selected and spatially linked with the nitrogen loading data for the Pensacola bay area. Landscape metrics and nitrogen loading are summarized by equal overland flow-length rings, and their association is examined by using multivariate statistical analysis. And a stepwise model-building protocol is used for regression designs to help identify significant variables that can explain much of the variance in the nitrogen loading dataset. It is found that using landscape composition or spatial configuration alone can explain most of the nitrogen loading variability. Of all the regression models using metrics derived from a single land use/cover class as the independent variables, the one from the low density urban gives the highest adjusted R-square score, suggesting the impact of the watershed-wide urban sprawl upon this sensitive estuarine ecosystem. Measures towards the reduction of non-point source pollution from urban development are necessary in the area to protect the Pensacola bay ecosystem and its

  6. An assessment of landscape characteristics affecting estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojun

    2012-02-01

    Exploring the quantitative association between landscape characteristics and the ecological conditions of receiving waters has recently become an emerging area for eco-environmental research. While the landscape-water relationship research has largely targeted on inland aquatic systems, there has been an increasing need to develop methods and techniques that can better work with coastal and estuarine ecosystems. In this paper, we present a geospatial approach to examine the quantitative relationship between landscape characteristics and estuarine nitrogen loading in an urban watershed. The case study site is in the Pensacola estuarine drainage area, home of the city of Pensacola, Florida, USA, where vigorous urban sprawling has prompted growing concerns on the estuarine ecological health. Central to this research is a remote sensor image that has been used to extract land use/cover information and derive landscape metrics. Several significant landscape metrics are selected and spatially linked with the nitrogen loading data for the Pensacola bay area. Landscape metrics and nitrogen loading are summarized by equal overland flow-length rings, and their association is examined by using multivariate statistical analysis. And a stepwise model-building protocol is used for regression designs to help identify significant variables that can explain much of the variance in the nitrogen loading dataset. It is found that using landscape composition or spatial configuration alone can explain most of the nitrogen loading variability. Of all the regression models using metrics derived from a single land use/cover class as the independent variables, the one from the low density urban gives the highest adjusted R-square score, suggesting the impact of the watershed-wide urban sprawl upon this sensitive estuarine ecosystem. Measures towards the reduction of non-point source pollution from urban development are necessary in the area to protect the Pensacola bay ecosystem and its

  7. Metabolomics of Ramadan fasting: an opportunity for the controlled study of physiological responses to food intake.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sweety; Krug, Susanne; Skurk, Thomas; Halama, Anna; Stank, Antonia; Artati, Anna; Prehn, Cornelia; Malek, Joel A; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Adamski, Jerzy; Hauner, Hans; Suhre, Karsten

    2014-06-06

    High-throughput screening techniques that analyze the metabolic endpoints of biological processes can identify the contributions of genetic predisposition and environmental factors to the development of common diseases. Studies applying controlled physiological challenges can reveal dysregulation in metabolic responses that may be predictive for or associated with these diseases. However, large-scale epidemiological studies with well controlled physiological challenge conditions, such as extended fasting periods and defined food intake, pose logistic challenges. Culturally and religiously motivated behavioral patterns of life style changes provide a natural setting that can be used to enroll a large number of study volunteers. Here we report a proof of principle study conducted within a Muslim community, showing that a metabolomics study during the Holy Month of Ramadan can provide a unique opportunity to explore the pre-prandial and postprandial response of human metabolism to nutritional challenges. Up to five blood samples were obtained from eleven healthy male volunteers, taken directly before and two hours after consumption of a controlled meal in the evening on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan, and after an over-night fast several weeks after Ramadan. The observed increases in glucose, insulin and lactate levels at the postprandial time point confirm the expected physiological response to food intake. Targeted metabolomics further revealed significant and physiologically plausible responses to food intake by an increase in bile acid and amino acid levels and a decrease in long-chain acyl-carnitine and polyamine levels. A decrease in the concentrations of a number of phospholipids between samples taken on days 7 and 26 of Ramadan shows that the long-term response to extended fasting may differ from the response to short-term fasting. The present study design is scalable to larger populations and may be extended to the study of the metabolic response in defined patient

  8. Physiological effects of nitrogen starvation in an anaerobic batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Schulze, U; Lidén, G; Nielsen, J; Villadsen, J

    1996-08-01

    The effects of nitrogen starvation on the anaerobic physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied in cells cultivated in a bioreactor. The composition of the mineral medium was designed such that the nitrogen source became depleted while there was still ample glucose left in the medium. The culture was characterized by acoustic gas analysis, flow injection analysis and HPLC analysis of extracellular substrates and metabolites. During the cultivation, the macromolecular composition of the cells was analysed with respect to the cellular content of RNA, protein, trehalose and glycogen. During exponential growth under anaerobic conditions, the maximum specific growth rate conditions. Depletion of ammonium in the medium led to an abrupt decrease (mumax) of S. cerevisiae CBS 8066 (0.46 h-1) was identical to the mumax determined under aerobic in the flux through glycolysis. Subsequently, a continuous decrease in the carbon dioxide evolution rate, caused by catabolite inactivation of the hexose-transport system, was observed. The apparent half-life of the transport system under nitrogen starvation was 13 h. During the exponential growth phase, the cellular content of RNA and protein was 15% (w/w) and 60% (w/w), respectively. At the end of the cultivation where the cells had been starved of nitrogen for 18 h, the cellular content of RNA and protein had decreased to 4% (w/w) and 22% (w/w), respectively. The intracellular carbohydrate content increased dramatically as trehalose and glycogen accumulated to final concentrations of 7% (w/w) and 25% (w/w), respectively. Glycerol formation during nitrogen starvation was higher than that accounted for by the formation of organic acids, suggesting a protein turnover of approximately 6% h-1. The growth energetics of S. cerevisiae CBS 8066 also changed as a result of nitrogen starvation, and YxATP was observed to increase from 80 mmol g-1 during the exponential growth phase to more than 130 mmol g-1 towards the end of the

  9. Physiological effects of indomethacin and celecobix: an S-transform laser Doppler flowmetry signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assous, S.; Humeau, A.; Tartas, M.; Abraham, P.; L'Huillier, J. P.

    2005-05-01

    Conventional signal processing typically involves frequency selective techniques which are highly inadequate for nonstationary signals. In this paper, we present an approach to perform time-frequency selective processing of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals using the S-transform. The approach is motivated by the excellent localization, in both time and frequency, afforded by the wavelet basis functions. Suitably chosen Gaussian wavelet functions are used to characterize the subspace of signals that have a given localized time-frequency support, thus enabling a time-frequency partitioning of signals. In this paper, the goal is to study the influence of various pharmacological substances taken by the oral way (celecobix (Celebrex®), indomethacin (Indocid®) and placebo) on the physiological activity behaviour. The results show that no statistical differences are observed in the energy computed from the time-frequency representation of LDF signals, for the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities between Celebrex and placebo, and Indocid and placebo. The work therefore proves that these drugs do not affect these physiological activities. For future physiological studies, there will therefore be no need to exclude patients having taken cyclo-oxygenase 1 inhibitions.

  10. The Power of an Infant's Smile: Maternal Physiological Responses to Infant Emotional Expressions.

    PubMed

    Mizugaki, Sanae; Maehara, Yukio; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2015-01-01

    Infant emotional expressions, such as distress cries, evoke maternal physiological reactions. Most of which involve accelerated sympathetic nervous activity. Comparatively little is known about effects of positive infant expressions, such as happy smiles, on maternal physiological responses. This study investigated how physiological and psychological maternal states change in response to infants' emotional expressions. Thirty first-time mothers viewed films of their own 6- to 7-month-old infants' affective behavior. Each observed a video of a distress cry followed by a video showing one of two expressions (randomly assigned): a happy smiling face (smile condition) or a calm neutral face (neutral condition). Both before and after the session, participants completed a self-report inventory assessing their emotional states. The results of the self-report inventory revealed no effects of exposure to the infant videos. However, the mothers in the smile condition, but not in the neutral condition, showed deceleration of skin conductance. These findings demonstrate that the mothers who observed their infants smiling showed decreased sympathetic activity. We propose that an infant's positive emotional expression may affect the branch of the maternal stress-response system that modulates the homeostatic balance of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

  11. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  12. An easily-automated assay for the physiological state quantification of Pseudomonas sp. M18.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dexian; Zhou, Kejun; Zhou, Quan; Huang, Xianqing; Xu, Yuquan; Li, Rongxiu

    2008-12-01

    In order to foreknow poorly performing cultures before wasting energy to scale them to large cultures, industrial microbial fermentation can greatly benefit from knowledge of the physiological state of cells. The method currently proposed is an easily automated physiological state determination method. We have designed one universal rRNA-specific probe for bacteria and developed novel signal probe hybridization (SPH) assay featuring no RNA extraction and no PCR amplification steps necessary to quantify the physiological state of microbial cells. The microbial cell was lysed with sonication and SDS. Signal probes were applied to hybridize and protect the rRNA target. S1 nuclease was then applied to remove the excessive signal probes, the single-stranded RNA and the mismatch RNA/DNA hybrids. The remaining signal probe was captured with a corresponding capture probe immobilized on a microplate and quantified with a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated color reaction. We then systemically optimized our assay. Results showed that the cell limit of detection (LOD) and the cell limit of quantification (LOQ) were 2.64 x 10(4) cells and 9.86 x 10(4) cells per well of microplate, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of signal probe were 49.0 fM and 344.0 fM respectively. Using this technique, we quantified the 16S rRNA levels during the fermentation process of Pseudomonas sp. M18. Our results indicate that the 16S rRNA levels can directly inform us about the physiological state of microbial cells. This technique has great potential for application to the microbial fermentation industry.

  13. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  14. Epigenetic Control of the Vasopressin Promoter Explains Physiological Ability to Regulate Vasopressin Transcription in Dehydration and Salt Loading States in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M P; Greenwood, M; Gillard, B T; Loh, S Y; Paton, J F R; Murphy, D

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is sensitive to increased plasma osmolality and a decreased blood volume, and thus is robustly increased by both dehydration (increased plasma osmolality and decreased blood volume) and salt loading (increased plasma osmolality). Both stimuli result in functional remodelling of the SON and PVN, a process referred to as functional-related plasticity. Such plastic changes in the brain have recently been associated with altered patterns of DNA methylation at CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) residues, a process considered to be important for the regulation of gene transcription. In this regard, the proximal Avp promoter contains a number of CpG sites and is recognised as one of four CpG islands for the Avp gene, suggesting that methylation may be regulating Avp transcription. In the present study, we show that, in an immortalised hypothalamic cell line 4B, the proximal Avp promoter is highly methylated, and treatment of these cells with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine to demethylate DNA dramatically increases basal and stimulated Avp biosynthesis. We report no changes in the expression of DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a, whereas there is decreased expression of the demethylating enzyme ten-eleven-translocation 2, Tet2, in the SON by dehydration and salt loading. We found higher methylation of the SON Avp promoter in dehydrated but not salt-loaded rats. By analysis of individual CpG sites, we observed hypomethylation, hypermethylation and no change in methylation of specific CpGs in the SON Avp promoter of the dehydrated rat. Using reporter gene assays, we show that mutation of individual CpGs can result in altered Avp promoter activity. We propose that methylation of the SON Avp promoter is necessary to co-ordinate the duel inputs of increased plasma osmolality and decreased blood volume on Avp

  15. An effect of inhibitory load in children while keeping working memory load constant

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Andy; Diamond, Adele

    2014-01-01

    Children are slower and more error-prone when the correct response is counter to their initial inclination (incongruent trials) than when they just need to do what comes naturally (congruent trials). Children are almost always tested on a congruent-trial block and then on an incongruent-trial block. That order of testing makes it impossible to determine whether worse performance on incongruent trials is due to the need to inhibit a pre-potent response, the need to clear the rule for Block 1 from working memory, some other demand of task-switching, or some combination of these. However, if the congruent block and incongruent blocks each have only one rule (e.g., “press on the same side as the stimulus” for congruent trials and “press on the side opposite the stimulus” for incongruent trials, as on the hearts and flowers task) and children’s performance when the incongruent block is presented first is fully comparable to their performance when it is presented second, the only possible explanation for their worse performance on incongruent versus congruent trials would seem to be the added inhibitory demand on incongruent trials. Certainly, worse performance on Block 1 would not be due to inefficient clearing of working memory or task-switching demands. We tested 96 children (49 girls) 6–10 years of age on the hearts and flowers test with order of congruent and incongruent blocks counterbalanced across children. Children were slower and made more errors on incongruent trials regardless of task order. We expected task-switching demands to account for some of the variance, but to our surprise, performance was fully comparable on the incongruent block whether it came first or second. These results indicate that increasing inhibitory demands alone is sufficient to impair children’s performance in the face of no change in working memory demands, suggesting that inhibition is a separate mental function from working memory. PMID:24672502

  16. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Uptake and Disposition of Neutral Organic Chemicals in Fish Using a Multispecies Physiologically-Based Toxicokinetic Model Framework.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Schlechtriem, Christian; Reininghaus, Mathias; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hollert, Henner; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-02-16

    The potential to bioconcentrate is generally considered to be an unwanted property of a substance. Consequently, chemical legislation, including the European REACH regulations, requires the chemical industry to provide bioconcentration data for chemicals that are produced or imported at volumes exceeding 100 tons per annum or if there is a concern that a substance is persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. For the filling of the existing data gap for chemicals produced or imported at levels that are below this stipulated volume, without the need for additional animal experiments, physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models can be used to predict whole-body and tissue concentrations of neutral organic chemicals in fish. PBTK models have been developed for many different fish species with promising results. In this study, we developed PBTK models for zebrafish (Danio rerio) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) and combined them with existing models for rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The resulting multispecies model framework allows for cross-species extrapolation of the bioaccumulative potential of neutral organic compounds. Predictions were compared with experimental data and were accurate for most substances. Our model can be used for probabilistic risk assessment of chemical bioaccumulation, with particular emphasis on cross-species evaluations. PMID:26794144

  17. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Uptake and Disposition of Neutral Organic Chemicals in Fish Using a Multispecies Physiologically-Based Toxicokinetic Model Framework.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Schlechtriem, Christian; Reininghaus, Mathias; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hollert, Henner; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-02-16

    The potential to bioconcentrate is generally considered to be an unwanted property of a substance. Consequently, chemical legislation, including the European REACH regulations, requires the chemical industry to provide bioconcentration data for chemicals that are produced or imported at volumes exceeding 100 tons per annum or if there is a concern that a substance is persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. For the filling of the existing data gap for chemicals produced or imported at levels that are below this stipulated volume, without the need for additional animal experiments, physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models can be used to predict whole-body and tissue concentrations of neutral organic chemicals in fish. PBTK models have been developed for many different fish species with promising results. In this study, we developed PBTK models for zebrafish (Danio rerio) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) and combined them with existing models for rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The resulting multispecies model framework allows for cross-species extrapolation of the bioaccumulative potential of neutral organic compounds. Predictions were compared with experimental data and were accurate for most substances. Our model can be used for probabilistic risk assessment of chemical bioaccumulation, with particular emphasis on cross-species evaluations.

  18. Developing brain as an endocrine organ: secretion of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Ugrumov, Michael V; Saifetyarova, Julia Y; Lavrentieva, Antonina V; Sapronova, Anna Y

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to test our hypothesis that the developing brain operates as an endocrine organ before the establishment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in rats up to the first postnatal week. Dopamine (DA) was selected as a marker of the brain endocrine activity. The hypothesis was supported by the observations in rats of: (i) the physiological concentration of DA in peripheral blood of fetuses and neonates, before the BBB establishment, and its drop by prepubertal period, after the BBB development; (ii) a drop of the DA concentration in the brain for 54% and in blood for 74% on the 3rd postnatal day after the intraventricular administration of 50 μg of α-methyl-p-tyrosine, an inhibitor of DA synthesis, with no changes in the DA metabolism in peripheral DA-producing organs. Thus, the developing brain is a principal source of circulating DA which is capable of providing an endocrine regulation of peripheral organs and the brain.

  19. Modelling thermal parasitic load lines for an optical refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, K. W.; Shomacker, J.; Fraser, T.; Dodson, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optical refrigeration is currently the only completely solid state cooling method capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures from room temperature. Optical cooling utilizing Yb:YLF as the refrigerant crystal has resulted in temperatures lower than 123K measured via a fluorescence thermometry technique. However, to be useful as a refrigerator this cooling crystal must be attached to a sensor or other payload. The phenomenology behind laser cooling, known as anti-Stokes fluorescence, has a relatively low efficiency which makes the system level optimization and limitation of parasitic losses imperative. We propose and model a variety of potential designs for a final optical refrigerator, enclosure and thermal link; calculate conductive and radiative losses, and estimate direct fluorescence reabsorption. We generate parasitic load-lines; these curves define temperature-dependent minimum heat lift thresholds that must be achieved to generate cooling for detectors.

  20. Speed And Power Control Of An Engine By Modulation Of The Load Torque

    DOEpatents

    Ziph, Benjamin; Strodtman, Scott; Rose, Thomas K

    1999-01-26

    A system and method of speed and power control for an engine in which speed and power of the engine is controlled by modulation of the load torque. The load torque is manipulated in order to cause engine speed, and hence power to be changed. To accomplish such control, the load torque undergoes a temporary excursion in the opposite direction of the desired speed and power change. The engine and the driven equipment will accelerate or decelerate accordingly as the load torque is decreased or increased, relative to the essentially fixed or constant engine torque. As the engine accelerates or decelerates, its power increases or decreases in proportion.

  1. Multiple Stressors in a Changing World: The Need for an Improved Perspective on Physiological Responses to the Dynamic Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunderson, Alex R.; Armstrong, Eric J.; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature and pH) fluctuate through time in most marine environments, sometimes passing intensity thresholds that induce physiological stress. Depending on habitat and season, the peak intensity of different abiotic stressors can occur in or out of phase with one another. Thus, some organisms are exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously, whereas others experience them sequentially. Understanding these physicochemical dynamics is critical because how organisms respond to multiple stressors depends on the magnitude and relative timing of each stressor. Here, we first discuss broad patterns of covariation between stressors in marine systems at various temporal scales. We then describe how these dynamics will influence physiological responses to multi-stressor exposures. Finally, we summarize how multi-stressor effects are currently assessed. We find that multi-stressor experiments have rarely incorporated naturalistic physicochemical variation into their designs, and emphasize the importance of doing so to make ecologically relevant inferences about physiological responses to global change.

  2. Multiple Stressors in a Changing World: The Need for an Improved Perspective on Physiological Responses to the Dynamic Marine Environment.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Alex R; Armstrong, Eric J; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature and pH) fluctuate through time in most marine environments, sometimes passing intensity thresholds that induce physiological stress. Depending on habitat and season, the peak intensity of different abiotic stressors can occur in or out of phase with one another. Thus, some organisms are exposed to multiple stressors simultaneously, whereas others experience them sequentially. Understanding these physicochemical dynamics is critical because how organisms respond to multiple stressors depends on the magnitude and relative timing of each stressor. Here, we first discuss broad patterns of covariation between stressors in marine systems at various temporal scales. We then describe how these dynamics will influence physiological responses to multi-stressor exposures. Finally, we summarize how multi-stressor effects are currently assessed. We find that multi-stressor experiments have rarely incorporated naturalistic physicochemical variation into their designs, and emphasize the importance of doing so to make ecologically relevant inferences about physiological responses to global change.

  3. Applying Knowledge Management to an Organization's Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Shannon; Gill, Tracy; Fritsche, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Although workers in the information age have more information at their fingertips than ever before, the ability to effectively capture and reuse actual knowledge is still a surmounting challenge for many organizations. As high tech organizations transform from providing complex products and services in an established domain to providing them in new domains, knowledge remains an increasingly valuable commodity. This paper explores the supply and demand elements of the "knowledge market" within the International Space Station and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (ISSSPD) of NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It examines how knowledge supply and knowledge demand determine the success of an organization's knowledge management (KM) activities, and how the elements of a KM infrastructure (tools, culture, and training), can be used to create and sustain knowledge supply and demand

  4. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  5. Transplanting an organization: how does culture matter.

    PubMed

    Munich, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences are often cited as a major obstacle to the successful transition/integration into new situations of organizations. In this contribution, the author details the changing cultural factors impacting the operation and move of the Menninger Clinic from autonomous status to an affiliation with and first year of operation in the Baylor College of Medicine and Methodist Hospital Health Care System. Both functional and dysfunctional consequences are outlined, and specific examples illustrate how the organization's leadership and staff struggled to adapt during this complicated process. Based on the experience within the Clinic, general recommendations for managing such an acculturation are provided.

  6. Dispersion and treatment performance analysis of an UASB reactor under different hydraulic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Peña, M R; Mara, D D; Avella, G P

    2006-02-01

    Mixing and transport phenomena affect the efficiency of all bioreactor configurations. An even mixing pattern at the macro-level is desirable to provide good conditions for substrate transport to, and from, the microbial aggregates. The state of segregation of particulate material in the reactor is also important. The production of biogas in anaerobic reactors is another factor that affects mixing intensity and hence the interactions between the liquid, solid and gaseous phases. The CSTR model with some degree of short-circuiting, dead zones and bypassing flows seems to describe the overall hydrodynamics of UASBs. However, few data are available in the literature for full-scale reactors that relate process performance to mixing characteristics. Dispersion studies using LiCl were done for four hydraulic loading rates on a full-scale UASB treating domestic wastewater in Ginebra, Valle del Cauca, southwest Colombia. COD, TSS, and Settleable Solids were used to evaluate the performance of organic matter removal. The UASB showed a complete mixing pattern for hydraulic loading rates close to the design value (i.e. Q = 10-13l s(-1) and HRT=8-6 h). Gross mixing distortions and localised stagnant zones, short-circuiting and bypass flows were found in the sludge bed and blanket zones for both extreme conditions (underloading and overloading). The liquid volume contained below the gas-liquid-solid separator was found to contribute to the overall stagnant volume, particularly when the reactor was underloaded. The removal of organic matter showed a log-linear correlation with the dispersion number. PMID:16405944

  7. AN EXAMPLE OF MODEL STRUCTURE DIFFERENCES USING SENSITIVITY ANALYSES IN PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial chemical and an environmental contaminant. TCE and its metabolites may be carcinogenic and affect human health. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that differ in compartmentalization are developed for TCE metabo...