Science.gov

Sample records for local government energy

  1. Energy Efficiency in Local Government Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide describes how local governments can lead by example and achieve multiple benefits by improving the energy efficiency of their new, existing, and renovated facilities and their day-to-day operations.

  2. Energy Resources for State and Local Governments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hosts capacity building and decision-support tools and data, best practice policy and program implementation information, and technical information tailored to the needs of state, local, and tribal governments, and to help them reduce their air emissions.

  3. Climate and Energy Resources for State, Local and Tribal Governments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's State and Local Climate and Energy Program helps state, local and tribal governments develop and implement policies and programs that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality and public health.

  4. Selected Energy Management Options for Small Business and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.; Worthington, Barry K.

    This document is a checklist of 257 energy management options for small business and local government. The energy management options are categorized under: (1) Energy management strategies; (2) Buildings; (3) Lighting; (4) Water; (5) Waste operations; (6) Equipment; (7) Transportation; and (8) Food preparation. To select options for…

  5. Role of local governments in promoting energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the incentives which influence the decisions by local governments to adopt energy-efficiency programs, either unilaterally or in partnership with the Federal government. It is found that there is significant potential for improved energy efficiency in urban residential, commercial, and industrial buildings and that exploiting these opportunities is in the interest of both Federal and local governments. Unless there is a unique combination of strong local leadership, a tradition of resource management, and external energy shocks, communities are unlikely to realize this potential. Conflicting demands, traditional perceptions, and lack of funding pose a major barrier to a strong unilateral commitment by local governments. A Federal-local partnership built upon and complementary to existing efforts in areas such as housing, social welfare, and economic development offers an excellent opportunity to realize the inherent potential of local energy-efficiency programs. At the local level, energy is not perceived as an isolated issue, but one which is part of a number of problems arising from the continuing increase in energy prices.

  6. Energy Conservation: A Management Report for State and Local Governments and A Technical Guide for State and Local Governments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Technology, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This technical guide is part of a packet of tools designed to assist state or local government practitioners in organizing and managing an energy conservation program. It gives information on adapting energy conservation methods to existing public buildings and on designing new public buildings with energy conservation in mind. It also discusses…

  7. Regional Circuit Rider for Energy Efficiency in Local Government Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replication community-based greenhouse gas red

  8. Energy efficient building design. A transfer guide for local governments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  9. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  10. Circuit Rider Program - Energy Efficiency in Local Government Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This project works with four of the nine counties within the DVRPC region and focuses on the 228 small municipalities that are too small to qualify for Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program

  11. Local government use of thermography for energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, Dr., I. M.; Bolno, Jim

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented on the capabilities of various thermal infrared sensing technologies and equipment. Examples of their use in inventories of energy loss from both individual buildings and community-wide perspectives are included. Discussions cover both ground and aerial surveys and include procedures for program evaluation. Two case studies of cities that have used these technologies are presented. A tabular comparison of equipment specifications is presented and listings of experts, organizations, and reference sources for further detailed information are given.

  12. Local, state governments get serious about energy audits

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-15

    In June, the city of Austin, Texas, joined San Francisco and Berkeley, Calif., in requiring an energy audit before an owner can sell an existing home. The Austin ordinance, costing some $200-300 on average, applies to any single-family home older than 10 years and requires an audit of its air conditioning and heating system, insulation and air-tightness, among other things. The seller is obliged to provide the findings to potential buyers but is not obliged to necessarily fix any identified deficiencies. In contrast, the California cities, which pioneered a similar requirement in the 1980s, require sellers to fix recommended upgrades prior to selling the unit to a prospective buyer. Many cities around the country are looking into similar ordinances as an effective means of fixing leaking ducts, poorly installed and operating heating and cooling systems, and inadequate insulation that are prevalent in older homes.

  13. Report to the Legislature on the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Development Grant Program for Local Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report documents the California Energy Commission's administration of its Geothermal Development Grant Program for Local Governments. The Energy Commission established this program as a result of the passage of Assembly Bill 1905 (Bosco) in 1980. This legislation established the mechanism to distribute the state's share of revenues received from the leasing of federal mineral reserves for geothermal development. The federal government deposits these revenues in the Geothermal Resources Development Account (GRDA) created by AB 1905. The state allocates funds from the GRDA to the California Parklands and Renewable Resources Investment Fund, the counties of origin where the federal leases are located, and the Energy Commission. The legislation further directs the Energy Commission to disburse its share as grants to local governments to assist with the planning and development of geothermal resources. Activities which are eligible for funding under the Energy Commission's grant program include resource development projects, planning and feasibility studies, and activities to mitigate the impacts of existing geothermal development.

  14. Energy Management Workbook for Local Governments : Workbook 1, Electrical Energy, 1981.

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    Descriptions are presented for 20 major categories of energy actions providing background information needed for communities to implement energy management programs and explaining where financial and technical help may be available. Chapter 1 provides background on the energy problem, discusses Federal, state and local roles, and outlines the planning process. Chapter 2 is a list of 20 questions to help identify a range of potential actions that could become part of the energy management plan. Chapter 3 will help evaluate each of the twenty potential activities, and chapters 4 and 5 discuss implementing and monitoring the energy management plan. (MCW)

  15. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.

    1998-07-01

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc.

  16. Local Governments Reimbursement Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the event of a release (or threatened release) of hazardous substances, EPA may provide a safety net of up to $25,000 per incident to local governments for expenses related to the release and associated emergency response measures.

  17. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  18. Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Schools: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Saving energy through energy efficiency improvements can cost less than generating, transmitting, and distributing energy from power plants, and provides multiple economic and environmental benefits. Local governments can promote energy efficiency in their jurisdictions by developing and implementing strategies that improve the efficiency of…

  19. Key Objectives for State and Local Governments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discusses key objectives for state and local governments when developing Clean Energy Financing Programs, including generating demand, encouraging private lenders, and long-term program sustainability.

  20. Local government guide to the emerging technologies of energy-efficient motors and heat pumps. Energy technology report of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented to provide a local government manager with a basic background in energy efficient motors and heat pump technologies. An overview of each technology and the issues and considerations associated with their application are presented. Discussions cover installation and maintenance requirements, equipment availability, costs and risks/benefits. Data describing demonstration sites for solar assisted heat pump systems and contacts for further information are provided.

  1. Local Government: The Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Service-Learning Network" looks at the ways that service learning can transform local government into a learning laboratory for civic education. The first article, "Creating the Missing Link: Local Government, Service Learning, and Civic Education" (Todd Clark), introduces the issue. "Service Learning and Local Government" (Ann…

  2. Green Power Partnership Top 30 Local Government

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page lists the largest green power users among local government partners within the GPP.

  3. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  4. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems. Demand side management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  5. State and Local Government Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Alexander; Rinebold, Joel; Aresta, Paul

    2012-03-30

    The State and Local Government Partnership project has built relationships between the Department of Energy (DOE), regional states, and municipalities. CCAT implemented this project using a structure that included leadership by the DOE. Outreach was undertaken through collaborative meetings, workshops, and briefings; the development of technical models and local energy plans; support for state stakeholder groups; and implementation of strategies to facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The final guidance documents provided to stakeholders consisted of individual strategic state “Roadmaps” to serve as development plans. These “Roadmaps” confirm economic impacts, identify deployment targets, and compare policies and incentives for facility development in each of the regional states. The partnerships developed through this project have improved the exchange of knowledge between state and local government stakeholders and is expected to increase the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in early market applications, consistent with the DOE’s market transformation efforts. Technically accurate and objective information was, and continues to be, provided to improve public and stakeholder perceptions regarding the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Based on the “Roadmaps” and studies conducted for this project, there is the potential to generate approximately 10.75 million megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annually from hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the Northeast regional states, through the development of 1,364 to 1,818 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell electric generation capacity. Currently, the region has approximately 1,180 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the region. These companies are estimated to have over $1 billion in annual revenue and investment, contribute more than $51 million in annual state and local tax revenue

  6. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  7. Spanning the Local Government Information Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrance, Joan C.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of implications of highly decentralized nature of local government for collection of local documents highlights meaning of access, effect of local government environment on access to local government information, library responses, and tools that can assist libraries in increasing citizen and government access to local government…

  8. 48 CFR 942.705-4 - State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... governments. 942.705-4 Section 942.705-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT... governments. A list of cognizant agencies for State/local government organizations is periodically published... notified of such assignments. The current negotiated rates for State/local government activities...

  9. 48 CFR 942.705-4 - State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... governments. 942.705-4 Section 942.705-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT... governments. A list of cognizant agencies for State/local government organizations is periodically published... notified of such assignments. The current negotiated rates for State/local government activities...

  10. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. 2 CFR 200.64 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 200.64 Section 200.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.64 Local government. Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a: (a) County; (b) Borough; (c) Municipality;...

  12. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  13. Local government guide to the emerging technologies of cogeneration and photovoltaics. Energy technology report of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    An overview of cogeneration and photovoltaics systems is presented to provide local government managers a basic understanding of the technologies. Issues and considerations associated with applications are presented. Discussions cover installation and maintenance requirements, equipment availability, costs, and risks/benefits. Data describing demonstration sites and contacts for further information are provided. (MCW)

  14. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  15. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  16. State and Local Government Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    This report concerns public purchasing at all levels of government and brings into focus the role of the purchasing official in government management. Covered in the report are essential elements of the purchasing process, including the assessment of needs; written specifications; advertising, evaluating, and awarding bids; and inspection and…

  17. Local Governments Reimbursement Program - More Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Local Governments Reimbursement (LGR) Program provides a safety net of up to $25,000 per incident to local governments that do not have funds available to pay for response actions. This is a collection of answers to frequent questions about LGR.

  18. All Holdings Are Local: Archivists and Local Government Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell D.

    2004-01-01

    Archivists working in repositories that contain local government records play an integral role within the local community. Unlike their colleagues in state, regional, or national repositories, the local government archivist concentrates on a small geographic region and demonstrates knowledge of the politics, history, and socio-economics of the…

  19. Local Governments (Executive Offices) Sector (NAICS 921110)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulatory information for government executive offices, including state implementation plans (SIPs), local emergency planning under EPCRA, drinking water treatment, water supply security, and compliance assistance for boiler & combustion regulations.

  20. Searching LOGIN, the Local Government Information Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Robert F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer-based information retrieval and electronic messaging system produced by Control Data Corporation now being used by government agencies and other organizations. Background of Local Government Information Network (LOGIN), database structure, types of LOGIN units, searching LOGIN (intersect, display, and list commands), and how…

  1. Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Trevor

    Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation

  2. Intersectoral action: local governments promoting health.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Riikka; Bortz, Martin; Armada, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Many local governments around the world promote health through intersectoral action, but to date there has been little systematic evidence of these experiences. To bridge this gap, the World Health Organization Centre for Health Development conducted a study in 2011-2013 on intersectoral action for health (ISA) at local government level. A total of 25 cases were included in the final review. Various approaches were used to carry out ISA by local governments in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Several common facilitating factors and challenges were identified: national and international influences, the local political context, public participation and use of support mechanisms such as coordination structures, funding mechanisms and mandates, engaging sectors through vertical and horizontal collaboration, information sharing, monitoring and evaluation, and equity considerations. The literature on certain aspects of ISA, such as monitoring and evaluation and health equity, was found to be relatively thin. Also, the articles used for the study varied as regards their depth of information and often focused on the point of view of one sector. More in-depth studies of these issues covering multiple angles and different ISA mechanisms could be useful. Local governments can offer a unique arena for implementing intersectoral activities, especially because of their proximity to the people, but more practical guidance to better facilitate local government ISA processes is still needed.

  3. Integrated program designed for local governments.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Local Philippine governments are required under the 1991 Local Government Code to plan and manage their own health and nutrition programs. In response to their requests, the Municipal Integrated Nutrition Program (MINP) is being developed. This program will integrate the local efforts of the following national nutrition programs: the Teacher-Child-Parent Approach of the Department of Education, Culture, and Sports; the Community-Based Planning and Management of Nutrition Programs of the Department of Health; the Early Childhood Enrichment Program of the Department of Social welfare and Development; and the Bio-Intensive Gardening for Home/Community Food Security of the Department of Agriculture. The Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP) has assisted in the development, testing, and evaluation of the MINP. In 1993, MINP models will begin in 1 or 2 barangays in Carmen, Cebu; Hilongos, Leyte; and Dapitan City in Zamboanga del Norte. NCP will provide program materials and technical assistance. Modeling activities will include advocating to local government units; designing and installing nutrition planning capability via planning workshops; packaging of program requirements and costs; designing a strategy to mobilize resources; facilitating purchase, delivery, and payment of program requirements; facilitating and coordinating training; designing and installing a monitoring and evaluation system; and documenting and disseminating. Local government officials, technical government agencies, nongovernment organizations, and private entities will work together.

  4. Workplace Industrial Relations in Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Ian

    1991-01-01

    Development of the personnel function of local government in the United Kingdom has resulted in a managerial process reflecting key features of the human resource management model. However, employee commitment and organizational flexibility are less evident, and the collectivist nature of employee relations remains well entrenched. (SK)

  5. Workplace Industrial Relations in Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Ian

    1991-01-01

    Development of the personnel function of local government in the United Kingdom has resulted in a managerial process reflecting key features of the human resource management model. However, employee commitment and organizational flexibility are less evident, and the collectivist nature of employee relations remains well entrenched. (SK)

  6. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL...

  7. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities UNIVERSAL...

  8. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES UNIVERSAL...

  9. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER AND...

  10. Local Government Health Services in Interwar England:

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article provides a critical discussion of recent work on local government health care and health services in interwar England. A literature review examines case study approaches and comparative quantitative surveys, highlighting conventional and revisionist interpretations. Noting the differing selection criteria evident in some works, it argues that studies based upon a limited number of personal health services provide an insufficient basis for assessing local health activity and policy. There follows a regional study demonstrating various discrepancies between health financing data in local sources and those in nationally collated returns. These in turn give rise to various problems of assessment and interpretation in works relying on the latter, particularly with respect to services for schoolchildren and long-stay patients. The case study points to the importance of integrating poor law medical services in evaluations, and of learning more about the role of government subsidy in supporting expanding services. PMID:22080797

  11. 48 CFR 942.705-4 - State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State and local governments. 942.705-4 Section 942.705-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT... distributed to each CDO by the Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy, within the...

  12. 40 CFR 280.106 - Local government guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local government guarantee. 280.106... STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.106 Local government guarantee. (a) A local government... requirements of this section. The guarantor must be either the state in which the local government owner...

  13. 40 CFR 280.107 - Local government fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local government fund. 280.107 Section... (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.107 Local government fund. A local government owner or operator... local government statute, charter, ordinance, or order to pay for taking corrective action and...

  14. 40 CFR 280.106 - Local government guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local government guarantee. 280.106... STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.106 Local government guarantee. (a) A local government... requirements of this section. The guarantor must be either the state in which the local government owner...

  15. 24 CFR 570.486 - Local government requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Local government requirements. 570... Development Block Grant Program § 570.486 Local government requirements. (a) Citizen participation requirements of a unit of general local government. Each unit of general local government shall meet...

  16. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section... Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local government are eligible to receive subgrants from a participating state. Unit of local government means...

  17. 40 CFR 280.106 - Local government guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local government guarantee. 280.106... STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.106 Local government guarantee. (a) A local government... requirements of this section. The guarantor must be either the state in which the local government owner...

  18. Power Purchase Agreement Checklist for State and Local Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Canavan, B.; Koenig, R.

    2009-10-01

    This fact sheet provides information and guidance on the solar photovoltaic (PV) power purchase agreement (PPA), which is a financing mechanism that state and local government entities can use to acquire clean, renewable energy. It addressed the financial, logistical, and legal questions relevant to implementing a PPA, but we do not examine the technical details?those can be discussed later with the developer/contractor. This fact sheet is written to support decision makers in U.S. state and local governments who are aware of solar PPAs and may have a cursory knowledge of their structure but they still require further information before committing to a particular project.

  19. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide—Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments—to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  20. EERE's State & Local Energy Data Tool

    ScienceCinema

    Shambarger, Erick; DeCesaro, Jennifer

    2016-07-12

    EERE's State and Local Energy Data (SLED) Tool provides basic energy market information that can help state and local governments plan and implement clean energy projects, including electricity generation; fuel sources and costs; applicable policies, regulations, and financial incentives; and renewable energy resource potential. Watch this video to learn more about the tool and hear testimonials from real users about the benefits of using this tool.

  1. EERE's State & Local Energy Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Shambarger, Erick; DeCesaro, Jennifer

    2014-06-23

    EERE's State and Local Energy Data (SLED) Tool provides basic energy market information that can help state and local governments plan and implement clean energy projects, including electricity generation; fuel sources and costs; applicable policies, regulations, and financial incentives; and renewable energy resource potential. Watch this video to learn more about the tool and hear testimonials from real users about the benefits of using this tool.

  2. Applying Best Practices to Florida Local Government Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, J.; Sutherland, K.

    2013-12-01

    In some communities, local government and non-profit entities have funds to purchase and renovate distressed, foreclosed homes for resale in the affordable housing market. Numerous opportunities to improve whole house energy efficiency are inherent in these comprehensive renovations. BA-PIRC worked together in a multi-year field study making recommendations in individual homes, meanwhile compiling improvement costs, projected energy savings, practical challenges, and labor force factors surrounding common energy-related renovation measures. The field study, Phase 1 of this research, resulted in a set of best practices appropriate to the current labor pool and market conditions in central Florida to achieve projected annual energy savings of 15-30% and higher. This report describes Phase 2 of the work where researchers worked with a local government partner to implement and refine the 'current best practices.' A simulation study was conducted to characterize savings potential under three sets of conditions representing varying replacement needs for energy-related equipment and envelope components. The three scenarios apply readily to the general remodeling industry as for renovation of foreclosed homes for the affordable housing market. Our new local government partner, the City of Melbourne, implemented the best practices in a community-scale renovation program that included ten homes in 2012.

  3. Applying Best Practices to Florida Local Government Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, J.; Sutherland, K.

    2013-12-01

    In some communities, local government and non-profit entities have funds to purchase and renovate distressed, foreclosed homes for resale in the affordable housing market. Numerous opportunities to improve whole house energy efficiency are inherent in these comprehensive renovations. BA-PIRC worked together in a multiyear field study making recommendations in individual homes, meanwhile compiling improvement costs, projected energy savings, practical challenges, and labor force factors surrounding common energy-related renovation measures. The field study, Phase 1 of this research, resulted in a set of best practices appropriate to the current labor pool and market conditions in central Florida to achieve projected annual energy savings of 15%-30% and higher. This report describes Phase 2 of the work where researchers worked with a local government partner to implement and refine the "current best practices". A simulation study was conducted to characterize savings potential under three sets of conditions representing varying replacement needs for energy-related equipment and envelope components. The three scenarios apply readily to the general remodeling industry as for renovation of foreclosed homes for the affordable housing market. The new local government partner, the City of Melbourne, implemented the best practices in a community-scale renovation program that included ten homes in 2012.

  4. Grant programs for schools and hospitals and for buildings owned by units of local government and public care institutions--Department of Energy. Notice of proposed rulemaking and public hearings.

    PubMed

    1980-12-29

    The Department of Energy proposes to issue revised regulations for administration of the grant programs providing financial assistance for schools, hospitals, buildings owned by units of local government, and public care institutions for the purpose of reducing energy consumption through technical assistance and energy conservation measure projects. In so doing, the Department proposes to amend 10 CFR 455 by making revisions to regulations published in the Federal Register on April 2, 1979 (44 FR 19340) and April 17, 1979 (44 FR 22940). Written comments are requested with respect to these proposed regulations, and public hearings will be held on the dates and in the locations specified below.

  5. Developing the Governance Capacity of Local Elected Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelsang-Coombs, Vera; Miller, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a study of the necessity of leadership training for local elected officials (LEOs). Shows why local governments cannot exist without competent LEOs and suggests how public-administration educators can help prepare elected officials for municipal governance. (JOW)

  6. Democracy and Governance in the Local School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Labour government showed no interest in extending local democracy in the school system, in spite of a policy rhetoric of local democratic renewal. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government's localism agenda promotes the autonomy of schools from local authorities without proposing alternative forms of local democracy in the school…

  7. Democracy and Governance in the Local School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Labour government showed no interest in extending local democracy in the school system, in spite of a policy rhetoric of local democratic renewal. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government's localism agenda promotes the autonomy of schools from local authorities without proposing alternative forms of local democracy in the school…

  8. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany )

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  9. Reconstituting Local Government for Well-Being and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L.

    This speech advocates substantial change in the structure and management of local governments and school districts. The discussion focuses on a reconstitution of mission, philosophy, broad goals, and features of local school governance and management. The speaker asserts that the focus of local government around the nation should individually and…

  10. 36 CFR 61.6 - Certified local government programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certified local government... INTERIOR PROCEDURES FOR STATE, TRIBAL, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROGRAMS § 61.6 Certified local government programs. (a) Each approved State program must provide a mechanism for certification...

  11. 36 CFR 61.6 - Certified local government programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certified local government... INTERIOR PROCEDURES FOR STATE, TRIBAL, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROGRAMS § 61.6 Certified local government programs. (a) Each approved State program must provide a mechanism for certification...

  12. 36 CFR 61.6 - Certified local government programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certified local government... INTERIOR PROCEDURES FOR STATE, TRIBAL, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT HISTORIC PRESERVATION PROGRAMS § 61.6 Certified local government programs. (a) Each approved State program must provide a mechanism for certification...

  13. 48 CFR 42.705-4 - State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approving state and local government indirect costs associated with federally-funded programs and activities... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.705-4 State and local governments. OMB Circular No. A-87 concerning cost principles for state and local governments (see subpart 31...

  14. Native Americans and state and local governments

    SciTech Connect

    Rusco, E.R.

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans` concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain.

  15. Working with Grassroots Government. A Report from The Local Government Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Local Government Center.

    The Local Government Center of Montana State University provides professional education and technical assistance programs to enhance the governance capacities of local governments throughout Montana. The Center offers certification workshops for municipal and county officials focusing on practical and theoretical aspects of government, and a broad…

  16. Energy Development: Initial Effects on Government Revenues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Thomas F.; Voelker, Stanley W.

    Although energy development ultimately produces some additional tax revenues, these revenues are usually much lower during early development stages than after the energy-producing operation begins, thus creating an early shortrun imbalance between government revenues and expenditures. State and federal loans, impact aid for operating expenses, and…

  17. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section 33.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local...

  18. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section 33.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local...

  19. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section 33.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local...

  20. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section 33.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local...

  1. State Aid to Local Government. A Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC.

    This report studies the proper allocation of responsibility for financing the high cost of intergovernmental programs among the three major levels of government. The local property tax, which is the primary underwriter of the local school system, of local general government, and of half the nation's $10 billion public welfare bill, is outmoded.…

  2. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments; Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide "Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments" to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  3. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments, Second Edition (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet describes the details of the Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments. This report has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as a comprehensive resource to assist local governments and stakeholders in designing and implementing a strategic local solar plan. The guide presents helpful information on a wide array of topics that are of particular interest to cities and local communities.

  4. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  5. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  6. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  7. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  8. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  9. 12 CFR 160.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State and local government obligations. 160.42 Section 160.42 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.42 State and local government obligations. (a) Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(1)(H), a...

  10. 12 CFR 160.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State and local government obligations. 160.42 Section 160.42 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.42 State and local government obligations. (a) What limitations apply? Pursuant to HOLA...

  11. 12 CFR 160.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State and local government obligations. 160.42 Section 160.42 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT § 160.42 State and local government obligations. (a) Pursuant to HOLA section 5(c)(1)(H), a...

  12. USER-ORIENTED INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Potential state and local government users of information systems are classified in terms of categories of activities and levels of organizational...situation in state and local government information systems is then described, indicating a need for more advanced, user-oriented techniques. Such methods and

  13. 12 CFR 560.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and local government obligations. 560.42 Section 560.42 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING AND INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.42 State and local government...

  14. Wellhead protection programs: Tools for local governments

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.; Linquiti, P.

    1989-04-01

    The Technical Assistance Document (TAD) describes how localities can, as a part of a State Wellhead Protection Program, develop and implement effective techniques for the protection of ground water. The document emphasizes innovative wellhead protection methods that have been used by local communities, discusses combinations of programs that have worked well, and presents several factors that affect the success of local wellhead protection programs, such as budgetary constraints and legal issues.

  15. Performance Contracting and Energy Efficiency in the State Government Market

    SciTech Connect

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry E.; Birr, David; Donahue, Patricia; Serota, Scott

    2008-11-14

    There is growing interest in energy efficiency (EE) among state policymakers as a result of increasing environmental concerns, rising electricity and natural gas prices, and lean economic times that motivate states to look more aggressively for cost-saving opportunities in public sector buildings. One logical place for state policymakers to demonstrate their commitment to energy efficiency is to 'lead by example' by developing and implementing strategies to reduce the energy consumption of state government facilities through investments in energy efficient technologies. Traditionally, energy efficiency improvements at state government facilities are viewed as a subset in the general category of building maintenance and construction. These projects are typically funded through direct appropriations. However, energy efficiency projects are often delayed or reduced in scope whereby not all cost-effective measures are implemented because many states have tight capital budgets. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a potentially useful strategy for state program and facility managers to proactively finance and develop energy efficiency projects. In an ESPC project, Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) typically guarantee that the energy and cost savings produced by the project will equal or exceed all costs associated with implementing the project over the term of the contract. ESCOs typically provide turnkey design, installation, and maintenance services and also help arrange project financing. Between 1990 and 2006, U.S. ESCOs reported market activity of {approx}$28 Billion, with about {approx}75-80% of that activity concentrated in the institutional markets (K-12 schools, colleges/universities, state/local/federal government and hospitals). In this study, we review the magnitude of energy efficiency investment in state facilities and identify 'best practices' while employing performance contracting in the state government sector. The state government

  16. Are local governments in Indonesia really aware of disaster risks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartanto, Teguh; Bastiyan, Dian Fajarini; Sofiyandi, Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    In 2007, Indonesia enacted Law No. 24/2007 to promote disaster mitigation at the local/sub-national government level. This study aims at measuring local governmental behavior and awareness in promoting disaster mitigation as a response to disaster risks. Our theoretical model shows that the relationship between local government awareness of disaster mitigation and disaster risk forms an inverted U shape. Local governments will allocate more resources to disaster mitigation as a response to increased disaster risk; their budget allocation for disaster mitigation will decrease, however, when the disaster risk goes beyond a certain level. By observing 486 sub-national governments and applying an econometric model, this study confirms that local governments in Indonesia have considered disaster risks to be an important factor in allocating budgets for disaster mitigation. Unfortunately, because they have different priorities as well as budget constraints, more than 50 percent of local governments in Indonesia allocate less than the required amount. This study suggests that local governments should rigorously estimate the amount of budget allocation necessary for disasters in order to minimize damage and losses.

  17. Gateways to State and Local Government Information on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Describes some of the most useful gateways that can be used to access state and local government information on the Internet, including StateSearch, Council of State Governments, U.S. House of Representatives Internet Law Library, LC MARVEL, CityNet, California Home Page, and New York State Library Gopher. (LRW)

  18. Nuclear materials transportation workshops: USDOE outreach to local governments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-28

    To provide direct outreach to local governments, the Transportation Management Division of the United States Department of Energy asked the Urban Consortium and its Energy Task Force to assemble representatives for two workshops focusing on the transport of nuclear materials. The first session, for jurisdictions east of the Mississippi River, was held in New Orleans on May 5--6, 1988; the second was conducted on June 6--7, 1988 in Denver for jurisdictions to the west. Twenty local government professionals with management or operational responsibility for hazardous materials transportation within their jurisdictions were selected to attend each workshop. The discussions identified five major areas of concern to local government professionals; coordination; training; information resources; marking and placarding; and responder resources. Integrated federal, state, and local levels of government emerged as a priority coordination issue along with the need for expanded availability of training and training resources for first-reponders.

  19. The role of local government in physical activity: employee perceptions.

    PubMed

    Steele, Rebekah; Caperchione, Cristina

    2005-04-01

    A key component in the promotion of health-related physical activity at the community level is the formation of key partnerships with traditional and nontraditional providers of physical activity. Local government, in particular, has a significant investment in the health and well-being of the community through their contribution to the development of infrastructure and the build environment. However, local government perceptions of how this investment, commitment, and partnership translate to the promotion of physical activity is less known. To identify the role and perceptions of local government in the promotion of physical activity, a series of focus groups were conducted within six key departments of the Rockhampton City Council. The findings show that although physical activity is not considered the core business of local government, there was a clear understanding of the role that local government has in the provision of facilities and infrastructure that support that community's ability to be active. The focus groups identified emerging patterns concerning physical infrastructure, liability and safety, responsibility within the organizational structure, and community partnerships. These results inform physical activity community initiatives and enhance future collaboration between the community and local government in Rockhampton.

  20. Warning System Re-Evaluation and Local Government Guidance Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-07

    Provide an alerting and warning system for government activities and the general public who will be housed in the eastern El Paso County area. C. 6...LEVEI WARNING SYSTEM RE-EVALUATION eAND C) LOCAL GOVERNMENT GUIDANCE UPDATE FINAL REPORT AUGUST 1979 DCPA 01-78-C-0229 DCPA WORK UNIT 2234D CSC-4527...at seCUltivy CLA854PCATW Op Tol PA56mb" D b WARNING SYSTEM RE-EVALUATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT GUIDANCE UPDATE FINAL REPORT AUGUST 1979 Prepared for

  1. State Enabling Legislation for Commercial-Scale Wind Power Siting and the Local Government Role

    SciTech Connect

    McElfish, J.M.; Gersen, S.

    2011-05-31

    Siting of commercial-scale wind facilities (>5MW) is determined primarily by state laws. State laws either leave siting regulation to local governments, prescribe and constrain the role for local governments, establish state standards, or preempt local governance by having state institutions govern siting. Siting regulation is extremely important to the advancement of wind generation in the United States. Major siting decisions lie ahead for state and local governments as the nation diversifies its energy portfolio. An increase in the number of new wind facilities, siting in more locations and in more heavily populated areas, will require attention to the laws and regulations that govern siting. Local governments exercise some authority over commercial-scale wind facility siting in 48 of the 50 states. In 34 states, local governments have substantial autonomy to regulate the siting of most or all commercial-scale wind facilities. A few states authorize local governments to regulate wind facility siting, but make the scope of local regulation subject to limitations defined by state law. Eleven states set size thresholds for state regulatory involvement with local governments in these states regulating smaller facilities and state boards regulating larger ones (either exclusively or concurrently with local governments). In just under a third of the states, siting of most or all commercial-scale wind facilities requires approval by both state and local government bodies. Only a few states reserve the regulation of siting of all or virtually all commercial-scale wind facilities to state boards and commissions. The content of the applicable regulations is more important, in general, than the level of government responsible for the decision. Several states that assign siting responsibilities to local governments have specified some of the content and the limits of local regulation. About 1/5 of the states have directed boards and commissions to develop statewide

  2. Communicating the Urgency of Climate Change to Local Government Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A.

    2004-12-01

    What are the challenges and obstacles in conveying scientific research and uncertainties about climate change to local government policy makers? What information do scientists need from local government practitioners to guide research efforts into producing more relevant information for the local government audience? What works and what doesn't in terms of communicating climate change science to non-technical audiences? Based on over a decade of experience working with local governments around the world on greenhouse gas mitigation, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability has developed a unique perspective and valuable insight into effective communication on climate science that motivates policy action. In the United States practical actions necessary to mitigate global climate change occur largely at the local level. As the level of government closest to individual energy consumers, local governments play a large role in determining the energy intensity of communities. How can local governments be persuaded to make greenhouse gas mitigation a policy priority over the long-term? Access to relevant information is critical to achieving that commitment. Information that will persuade local officials to pursue climate protection commitments includes specific impacts of global warming to communities, the costs of adaptation versus mitigation, and the potential benefits of implementing greenhouse gas-reducing initiatives. The manner in which information is conveyed is also critically important. The scientific community is loath to advocate for specific policies, or to make determinate statements on topics for which research is ongoing. These communication hurdles can be overcome if the needs of local policy practitioners can be understood by the scientific community, and research goals can be cooperatively defined.

  3. Local government techniques for inland wetlands protection. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.

    1988-01-01

    A fair amount of progress has been made in the area of coastal wetlands protection, but inland wetlands have been given less attention until recently. Except where non-tidal wetlands are large and associated with navigable waters, they have usually been afforded little protection. Since many areas are still in the early stages of inland wetland protection, this report concentrates on examples and techniques for inland circumstances. Most of the strategies discussed, however, could also be applied to coastal wetlands. The report also focuses on the role that local governments can play in the wetland-protection process. The federal and state governments have numerous wetlands-related programs in place, some of which may explicitly involve local governments, and other of which may affect the way the local decision maker chooses to approach the problem. A brief look at all three levels of government may help set the stage for the discussion of the local role, as well as pointing out opportunities for cooperative efforts between the Federal, State, and local levels of government.

  4. Local government: The sleeping giant in electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, S.

    1997-11-01

    Public power has long been a cornerstone of consumer leverage in the electric industry. But its foundation consists of a much broader and deeper consumer authority. Understanding that authority - and present threats to it - is critical to restructuring of the electric industry as well as to the future of public power. The country has largely forgotten the role that local governments have played and continue to play in the development of the electric industry. Moreover, we risk losing sight of the options local governments may offer to protect consumers, to advance competition in the marketplace, and to enhance opportunities for technology and economic development. The future role of local government is one of the most important issues in the restructuring discussion. The basic authority of consumers rests at the local level. The resulting options consumers have to act as more than just respondents to private brokers and telemarketing calls are at the local level. And the ability for consumers to shape the marketplace and standards for what it will offer exists at the local level as well.

  5. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  6. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  7. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  8. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  9. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  10. 40 CFR 280.107 - Local government fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS... local government statute, charter, ordinance, or order to pay for taking corrective action and for... mechanism(s) that provide the remaining coverage; or (b) The fund is dedicated by state...

  11. 36 CFR 61.6 - Certified local government programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... local government programs. (a) Each approved State program must provide a mechanism for certification... for proposed demolitions of, changes to, or other action that may affect historic properties as... CLG with appropriate guidance on mechanisms to ensure adequate public participation in the...

  12. State and Local Government Employee Relations after "Garcia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Leo

    1986-01-01

    In "Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority" (1985), the United States Supreme Court ruled that the Tenth Amendment does not preclude application of the federal minimum wage act and the Fair Labor Standards Act to state and local government employees. This paper explains "Garcia" history and implications for…

  13. Local Democracy, Rural Community, and Participatory School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvind, Gaysu R.

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the indigenization of democracy in India by conceptualizing participatory deliberative decision-making practice as a tool to strengthen the functioning of local schools and to enhance democratic responsiveness within communities. Drawing on case-studies of bottom-up approaches to school governance, this study examines an…

  14. 76 FR 61696 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Committee (LGAC) at (202) 564-3115 or e-mail at Eargle.frances@epa.gov . Information on Services for Those... contact Frances Eargle at (202) 564-3115 or eargle.frances@epa.gov. To request accommodation of a... your request. Dated: September 28, 2011. Frances Eargle, Designated Federal Officer, Local Government...

  15. Managing Information Systems in State and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Patricia D.; Foy, Deborah Otis

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the literature from 1980-93 that discusses information technologies use by state and local governments. Highlights include public sector organizations; a history of information technology management; current information technologies, including information architectures and information resources management; geographic information systems;…

  16. Application of University Resources to Local Government Problems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblin, James E.; And Others

    The report details the results of a unique experimental demonstration of applying university resources to local government problems. Faculty-student teams worked with city and county personnel on projects chosen by mutual agreement, including work in areas of traffic management, law enforcement, waste heat utilization, solid waste conversion, and…

  17. Using the Storypath Approach to Make Local Government Understandable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Margit E.; Cole, Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Learning about local government seems boring and irrelevant to most young people, particularly to students from high-poverty backgrounds. The authors explore a promising approach for solving this problem, Storypath, which engages students in authentic learning and active citizenship. The Storypath approach is based on a narrative in which students…

  18. Application of University Resources to Local Government Problems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblin, James E.; And Others

    The report details the results of a unique experimental demonstration of applying university resources to local government problems. Faculty-student teams worked with city and county personnel on projects chosen by mutual agreement, including work in areas of traffic management, law enforcement, waste heat utilization, solid waste conversion, and…

  19. 24 CFR 91.105 - Citizen participation plan; local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Citizen participation plan; local governments. 91.105 Section 91.105 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

  20. 24 CFR 91.105 - Citizen participation plan; local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Citizen participation plan; local governments. 91.105 Section 91.105 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

  1. 24 CFR 91.105 - Citizen participation plan; local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Citizen participation plan; local governments. 91.105 Section 91.105 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

  2. 24 CFR 91.105 - Citizen participation plan; local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Citizen participation plan; local governments. 91.105 Section 91.105 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development CONSOLIDATED SUBMISSIONS FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS...

  3. 12 CFR 560.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.42 State and local government... nationally recognized rating agency or that are nonrated but of investment quality None 10% of total capital... subdivision that has the power to tax. Indirect payments, such as through a special fund, may qualify as...

  4. State and Local Government Employee Relations after "Garcia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Leo

    1986-01-01

    In "Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority" (1985), the United States Supreme Court ruled that the Tenth Amendment does not preclude application of the federal minimum wage act and the Fair Labor Standards Act to state and local government employees. This paper explains "Garcia" history and implications for…

  5. 12 CFR 560.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INVESTMENT Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.42 State and local government... governmental entity (e.g., revenue bonds) that hold one of the four highest investment grade ratings by a nationally recognized rating agency or that are nonrated but of investment quality None 10% of total...

  6. 75 FR 67718 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... submitted electronically to Eargle.Frances@epa.gov . Please contact the Designated Federal Officer (DFO) at... written request to the DFO. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Frances Eargle, DFO for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) at (202) 564-3115 or e-mail at Eargle.frances@epa.gov. INFORMATION ON...

  7. 76 FR 6785 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ..., written comments should be submitted electronically to eargle.frances@epa.gov . Please contact the... written request to the DFO. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Frances Eargle, the Designated Federal Officer for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) at (202) 564-3115 or e-mail at...

  8. 76 FR 68439 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... should be submitted electronically to eargle.frances@epa.gov . Please contact the Designated Federal...: Frances Eargle, the Designated Federal Officer for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) at (202) 564-3115 or email at eargle.frances@epa.gov . Information on Services for Those With Disabilities:...

  9. The Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative: Climate Resilient Local Governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Local governments, the first responders to public health, safety and environmental hazards, must act now to lessen vulnerabilities to climate change. They must plan for and invest in "adapting" to inevitable impacts such as flood, fire, and draught that will occur notwithstanding best efforts to mitigate climate change. CCAP's Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative is developing a framework for informed decision making on climate adaptation. Looking ahead to projected climate impacts and 'back casting' can identify what is needed now to both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build local resiliency to climate change. CCAP's partnership with King County (WA), Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami-Dade County (FL), Milwaukee, Nassau County (NY), Phoenix, San Francisco, and Toronto is advancing policy discussions to ensure that state and local governments consider climate change when making decisions about infrastructure, transportation, land use, and resource management. Through the Initiative, local leaders will incorporate climate change into daily urban management and planning activities, proactively engage city and county managers and the public in developing solutions, and build community resilience. One goal is to change both institutional and public attitudes and behaviors. Determining appropriate adaptation strategies for each jurisdiction requires Asking the Climate Question: "How does what we are doing increase our resilience to climate change?" Over the next three years, the Initiative will design and implement specific adaptation plans, policies and 'catalytic' projects, collect and disseminate "best practices," and participate in framing national climate policy discussions. In the coming years, policy-makers will have to consider climate change in major infrastructure development decisions. If they are to be successful and have the resources they need, national climate change policy and emerging legislation will have to support these communities. The Urban Leaders

  10. Geothermal Development and Resource Management in the Yakima Valley : A Guidebook for Local Governments.

    SciTech Connect

    Creager, Kurt

    1984-03-01

    The guidebook defines the barriers to geothermal energy development at all levels of government and proposes ways to overcome these various barriers. In recognition that wholesale development of the region's geothermal resources could create a series of environmental problems and possible conflicts between groundwater users, resource management options are identified as possible ways to ensure the quality and quantity of the resource for future generations. It is important for local governments to get beyond the discussion of the merits of geothermal energy and take positive actions to develop or to encourage the development of the resource. To this end, several sources of technical and financial assistance are described. These sources of assistance can enable local governments and others to take action should they choose to do so. Even though the Yakima Valley is the setting for the analysis of local issues that could hamper geothermal development, this guidebook could be used by any locale with geothermal energy resources. The guidebook is not a scientific manual, but rather a policy document written especially for local government staff and officials who do not have technical backgrounds in geology or hydrology.

  11. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by State and Local Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Coggeshall, C.

    2008-05-01

    State and local governments have grown increasingly aware of the economic, environmental, and societal benefits of taking a lead role in U.S. implementation of renewable energy, particularly distributed photovoltaic (PV) installations. Recently, solar energy's cost premium has declined as a result of technology improvements and an increase in the cost of traditional energy generation. At the same time, a nationwide public policy focus on carbon-free, renewable energy has created a wide range of financial incentives to lower the costs of deploying PV even further. These changes have led to exponential increases in the availability of capital for solar projects, and tremendous creativity in the development of third-party ownership structures. As significant users of electricity, state and local governments can be an excellent example for solar PV system deployment on a national scale. Many public entities are not only considering deployment on public building rooftops, but also large-scale applications on available public lands. The changing marketplace requires that state and local governments be financially sophisticated to capture as much of the economic potential of a PV system as possible. This report examines ways that state and local governments can optimize the financial structure of deploying solar PV for public uses.

  12. 76 FR 18757 - Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory... Advisory Committee Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Local Government Advisory...

  13. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  14. An intermediary's perspective of online databases for local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous public administration studies have indicated that local government agencies for a variety of reasons lack access to comprehensive information resources; furthermore, such entities are often unwilling or unable to share information regarding their own problem-solving innovations. The NASA/University of Kentucky Technology Applications Program devotes a considerable effort to providing scientific and technical information and assistance to local agencies, relying on its access to over 500 distinct online databases offered by 20 hosts. The author presents a subjective assessment, based on his own experiences, of several databases which may prove useful in obtaining information for this particular end-user community.

  15. An intermediary's perspective of online databases for local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous public administration studies have indicated that local government agencies for a variety of reasons lack access to comprehensive information resources; furthermore, such entities are often unwilling or unable to share information regarding their own problem-solving innovations. The NASA/University of Kentucky Technology Applications Program devotes a considerable effort to providing scientific and technical information and assistance to local agencies, relying on its access to over 500 distinct online databases offered by 20 hosts. The author presents a subjective assessment, based on his own experiences, of several databases which may prove useful in obtaining information for this particular end-user community.

  16. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    PubMed

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    PubMed

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy.

  18. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of the..., and tribal government records or databases of the government records and local government records and databases of the records should include— (1) Records of reported oil discharges present, including...

  19. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of the..., and tribal government records or databases of the government records and local government records and databases of the records should include— (1) Records of reported oil discharges present, including...

  20. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of the..., and tribal government records or databases of the government records and local government records and databases of the records should include— (1) Records of reported oil discharges present, including...

  1. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of the..., and tribal government records or databases of the government records and local government records and databases of the records should include— (1) Records of reported oil discharges present, including...

  2. Applying Best Practices to Florida Local Government Retrofit Programs, Central Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    In some communities, local government and non-profit entities have funds to purchase and renovate distressed, foreclosed homes for resale in the affordable housing market. Numerous opportunities to improve whole house energy efficiency are inherent in these comprehensive renovations. BA-PIRC worked together in a multi-year field study making recommendations in individual homes, meanwhile compiling improvement costs, projected energy savings, practical challenges, and labor force factors surrounding common energy-related renovation measures. The field study, Phase 1 of this research, resulted in a set of best practices appropriate to the current labor pool and market conditions in central Florida to achieve projected annual energy savings of 15-30% and higher. This report describes Phase 2 of the work where researchers worked with a local government partner to implement and refine the "current best practices". A simulation study was conducted to characterize savings potential under three sets of conditions representing varying replacement needs for energy-related equipment and envelope components. The three scenarios apply readily to the general remodeling industry as for renovation of foreclosed homes for the affordable housing market. Our new local government partner, the City of Melbourne, implemented the best practices in a community-scale renovation program that included ten homes in 2012. ​

  3. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  4. Improving Building Construction Specifications in State and Local Governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    State and local governments can benefit from master specifications systems that centralize data on all types of building materials, products, and processes. Most of these systems are organized according to the MASTERFORMAT system, which, along with guide specifications that require the insertion or deletion of standardized information, resulted from the specific needs of users and providers. For jurisdictions preparing their own specifications, staff time and cost are reduced. For those subcontracting the preparation, master specifications provide a means of evaluating the specifications submitted. Current management specification systems described include SPECINTACT, OMSPEC, MASTERPEC, and the NAVFAC, Corps of Engineers, and GSA guide specifications.

  5. 31 CFR 13.6 - Reimbursement of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reimbursement of State and local... FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS § 13.6 Reimbursement of State and local governments. (a) State and local governments providing services...

  6. 31 CFR 13.6 - Reimbursement of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement of State and local... FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS § 13.6 Reimbursement of State and local governments. (a) State and local governments providing services...

  7. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie

    2011-05-01

    Local level actions are crucial for achieving energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Yet it is challenging to implement new policies and actions due to a lack of information, funding, and capacity. This is particularly the case in developing countries such as China. Even though national energy intensity and carbon intensity targets have been set, most local governments do not have the knowledge regarding actions to achieve the targets, the cost-effectiveness of policies, the possible impact of policies, or how to design and implement a climate action plan. This paper describes a guidebook that was developed to motivate and provide local governments in China with information to create an action plan to tackle climate change and increase energy efficiency. It provides a simple step-by-step description of how action plans can be established and essential elements to be included - from preparing a GHG emission inventory to implementation of the plan. The guidebook also provides a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices found internationally and in China to encourage low carbon development in industry, buildings, transportation, electric power generation, agriculture and forestry. This paper also presents indicators that can be used to define low-carbon development, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken at an aggregated (city) level, and at a sectoral or end use level. The guidebook can also be used for low carbon development by local governments in other developing countries.

  8. 18 CFR 401.116 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special government employees... Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special... Commission consultants, advisory committees, state and local government officials, and other special...

  9. 18 CFR 401.116 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special government employees... Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special... Commission consultants, advisory committees, state and local government officials, and other special...

  10. 18 CFR 401.116 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special government employees... Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special... Commission consultants, advisory committees, state and local government officials, and other special...

  11. 18 CFR 401.116 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special government employees... Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special... Commission consultants, advisory committees, state and local government officials, and other special...

  12. Fragmented local governance and water resource management outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hong; Keane, Timothy D; Bernard, Eric A

    2015-03-01

    Fragmented jurisdictions and decision making structures can result in destructive competition and/or a lack of systematic cooperation that can hamper effective resource management and environmental planning, although the value of local autonomy and stakeholder participations should not be underestimated. This study empirically examines if political fragmentation in local governance is a significant barrier to successful resource management. To test this hypothesis, the authors quantify the degree of political fragmentation at two different geographical scales - 1) site-level: 12-digit watersheds and 2) regional: metropolitan statistical areas or equivalent regions - and analyze how water resource management outcomes vary with the level of political fragmentation using nationwide land cover and stream gauge information in the U.S. Regression analysis shows water quality declines (or slower quality improvements), measured in terms of total suspended solids, are associated with both site-level and regional political fragmentation indicators, suggesting that political fragmentation can make resource management more challenging.

  13. Local government pollution prevention Toolkit: Tools and models to help local governments implement pollution prevention (p2) and protect the Chesapeake Bay, its rivers and streams

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program`s Toxic Subcommittee, in coordination with the Chesapeake Bay Local Government Advisory Committee, developed Toolkit to help local governments implement pollution prevention programs. The first goal of the Toolkit is to raise awareness of the local government audience regarding pollution prevention opportunities that exist at the local level. Beyond raising awareness at the local level, the Toolkit seeks to help local governments implement pollution prevention activities. Practical step-by-step information, supported by case study examples, help to achieve this objective. The document examines strategies local governments can take to enlist their business community and citizen in pollution prevention activities. Again, case study examples underscore how these strategies have been successfully applied in a locality.

  14. Energy Conservation: Guidelines for Action. Suggested Guidelines for Local School District Development of Energy Conservation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Association of School Administrators, East Lansing.

    Curriculum guidelines for the local development of energy conservation programs in public schools reflect an interdisciplinary educational approach--the result of a coordinated effort by industry, commerce, education, and government agencies concerned with the energy crisis. The scope and nature of the problem, with its implications for education…

  15. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching Elementary School Children about Water Management and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araboglou, Argy

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that students have little knowledge about the operation of local government. Discusses a three-day interdisciplinary lesson about water management and local government for the elementary grades. Includes descriptions of laboratory exercises, homework assignments, and class discussions. (CFR)

  16. Reimbursement To Local Governments For Emergency Response To Hazardous Substance Releases Regulation Overview

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the Local Governments Reimbursement (LGR) program is to provide funds, in the form of reimbursements for expenses, to local, county, and tribal governments that respond to a hazardous substance release in their jurisdiction.

  17. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching Elementary School Children about Water Management and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araboglou, Argy

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that students have little knowledge about the operation of local government. Discusses a three-day interdisciplinary lesson about water management and local government for the elementary grades. Includes descriptions of laboratory exercises, homework assignments, and class discussions. (CFR)

  18. Lesson 1: What Are the Compliance Dates for States, Tribes, and Local Governments' Authorized Programs?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation (CROMERR) 101: Fundamentals for States, Tribes, and Local Governments is designed for States, Tribes, and Local Governments that administer EPA-authorized programs under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation

  19. Shake the Helping Hand: Tips on How Independent Schools Can Influence Local and State Government Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkran, John R.

    1980-01-01

    State or local governments are seen as helping hands for independent schools. In the state or local governments funding programs are available and issues of government regulation, tax exemptions, and civil rights are extensively debated. Some suggestions for developing good government relations are provided. (MLW)

  20. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments... § 170.902 What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? State, tribal, and local governments..., enforce traffic laws, and perform highway construction and maintenance. These activities must not...

  1. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments... § 170.902 What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? State, tribal, and local governments..., enforce traffic laws, and perform highway construction and maintenance. These activities must not...

  2. Disseminating Landslide Hazard Information for California Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Since 1969, the California Geological Survey has produced numerous maps showing landslide features and delineating potential slope-stability problem areas. These maps have been provided to local governments to encourage consideration of landslide hazards in planning and development decisions. Maps produced from 1986 through 1995 under the Landslide Hazard Mapping Act were advisory only, and their use by local government was never consistent. By contrast, maps of Zones of Required Investigation for seismically induced landslides produced under the Seismic Hazard Zoning Act since 1997 come with detailed guidelines and legal requirements. A legislative act that required landslide hazards be mapped and hazard maps disseminated to local government proved ineffective in landslide hazard mitigation. A later act with requirements that the hazard zone maps be used by local government proved more effective. Planning scenarios have proven to be an effective way of transmitting scientific information about natural hazards to emergency response professionals. Numerous earthquake planning scenarios have been prepared and used as the basis for emergency response exercises. An advantage of scenarios that include loss estimates is that the effects can be put in units of measure that everyone understands, principally deaths and dollars. HAZUS software available from FEMA allows calculation of losses for earthquake scenarios, but similar methods for landslides have not been developed. As part of the USGS Multi-Hazard Demonstration Project, we have estimated the landslide losses for a major west-coast winter storm scenario by developing a system based loosely on HAZUS. Data on landslide damage in past storms has been sparse and inconsistent, but a few data sets are available. The most detailed and complete available data on landslide damage was gathered by the City of Los Angeles following the 1978 storms. We extrapolate from that data to the entire state by first generalizing a

  3. Empirical knowledge engine of local governance Senegalese artisanal fisheries Empirical knowledge engine of local governance Senegalese artisanal fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbaye, A.

    2016-02-01

    Fishery resources has always been an administrative management faced with the supposed irrationality of artisanal fishermen and the state has always had a monopoly over such management. The state rules well established, synonyms of denial local populations knowledge on management, and expropriation of their fisheries territories, came into conflict with the existing rules thus weakening the traditional management system.However, aware of the threats to their survival because of the limitations of state rules and technicist perception of management, some populations of fishermen tried to organize and implement management measures.These measures are implemented on the basis of their own knowledge of the environmentsThis is the case in Kayar, Nianing, Bétenty, where local management initiatives began to bear fruit despite some difficulties.These examples of successful local management have prompted the Senegalese administration to have more consideration for the knowledge and know-how of fishermen and to be open to co-management of the fisheries resource. his communication shows how this is implemented new co-management approach in the governance of the Senegalese artisanal fisheries through the consideration of empirical knowledge of fishermen.

  4. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States. Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; Cochran, Jaquelin; Vorum, Martin

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  5. Energy Efficiency Policy in the United States: Overview of Trends at Different Levels of Government

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Cochran, J.; Vorum, M.

    2009-12-01

    This report catalogs by sector--buildings, transportation, industrial, and power--energy efficiency policies at the federal, state, and local levels, and identifies some prominent policy trends. Four key findings emerged from this report: 1) leadership on energy efficiency is necessary--and is found--at each level of government; 2) there is no widely accepted methodology for evaluating energy efficiency policies; 3) coordination among the three levels of government--and across sectors--is increasingly important, and there are opportunities to significantly improve policy performance through a unified strategy; and 4) there are efficiencies to be gained by informing policies in one sector with experience from others.

  6. Joined-Up E-Government - Needs and Options in Local Governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Anders; Goldkuhl, Göran

    In this paper a study on the pre-requisites for joined-up eGovernment in municipalities is reported. The purpose of the paper is to explore possibilities and restrictions of ICT for promoting joined-up government. The need for eGovernment and joined-up government research to merge is discussed as is the needs and options of government change in relation to eGovernment and joined-up government. Four themes concerning change is identified in the paper and related to information systems (IS) and organizational change.

  7. Local leadership for solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, E.R.; Hedgecock, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    San Diego County is the first governmental unit in the US to mandate the use of solar energy. An ordinance requires the use of solar water heating in new housing. The process by which the ordinance was enacted is reviewed, including a Solar Ordinance Feasibility Analysis whose conclusions are reported. Arguments for and against the ordinance are reviewed. (LEW)

  8. Governing energy while neglecting health - The case of Poland.

    PubMed

    Vasev, Nikolay

    2017-09-21

    The present article discusses Poland's continued reliance on coal power and the consequent impacts on public health. Concrete aspects of the energy infrastructure and political priorities are shown to compromise as compromising public governance and leading to deteriorated health standards among the general population. To make this case, this study juxtaposes the most recent developments in the Polish energy sector with current measures in EU energy policy and reforms in other EU Member States. Special attention is paid to developments in Poland following the political shift in October 2015, when a new government came to power. The ruling conservative party's direct involvement in the management of the mining and utility companies and its strong political ties to miners' unions are particularly discussed. Theoretically, the article relies on the TAPIC framework for governance. The framework rests on five integral principles of good governance: Transparency, Accountability, Participation, Integrity and Capacity; TAPIC allows scholars to study the impact of governance on public health in any policy area. Methodologically, this study relies on secondary sources, including academic publications, national and international reports, and statistical data on a range of energy and health factors in Poland and Europe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Government to Government Program in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Olascoaga, M.T.

    1996-10-01

    The US-Russian Government-to-Government Program of Cooperation on Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) evolved from the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. In 1995, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assumed responsibility as the executive agent for implementation of the Government-to-Government MPC&A Program, followed by the programmatic responsibility for funding. The Russian Program initially emphasized limited exchanges, demonstrations, and upgrades at low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication facility at Elektrostal in 1994. The program has expanded to include upgrades at nuclear facilities across Russia, development of the Russian Methodological Training Center (RMTC) in Obninsk; and cooperation with Gosatomnadzor, the Russian Federal Nuclear Radiation and Safety Authority. This paper describes the overall program including program objectives, approach, and US-Russian participation, with an emphasis on DOE-GAN cooperation.

  10. 50 CFR 216.22 - Taking by State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.22 Taking by State or local government officials. (a) A State or local government official or employee may take a marine mammal in the normal...

  11. 50 CFR 216.22 - Taking by State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.22 Taking by State or local government officials. (a) A State or local government official or employee may take a marine mammal in the normal...

  12. Local optimization of energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, M.A.; Valero, A.; Serra, L.

    1996-12-31

    Many thermal systems are very complex due to the number of components and/or its strong interdependence. This complexity makes difficult the optimization of the system design and operation. The theory of Exergetic Cost is based on concepts such as resources, structure, efficiency and purpose (belonging to any theory of production) and on the Second Law. This paper will show how it is possible to obtain from the theory of exergetic cost the marginal costs (Lagrange multipliers) of local resources being consumed by a component. This paper also shows the advantage of the proposed Theory of Perturbations when describing the complexity of structural interactions in a straightforward way. This theory allows to formulate simple procedures for local optimization of components in a plant. Finally, strategies for optimization of complex systems are shown. They are based in the sequential optimization from component to component. This clear and efficient method comes form the fact that the authors have now an operative application of the Thermoeconomic Isolation Principle. This is applied here to thermal power plants.

  13. Collaboration between local health and local government agencies for health improvement.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sara L; Mann, Mala K; Morgan, Fiona M; Kitcher, Hilary; Kelly, Mark J; Weightman, Alison L

    2011-06-15

    In many countries, national, regional and local inter- and intra-agency collaborations have been introduced in order to improve health outcomes. Evidence is needed on the effectiveness of locally-developed partnerships which target changes in individual health outcomes and behaviours. To evaluate the effects of interagency collaboration between local health and local government agencies on health outcomes. Twenty-five databases were searched using a highly sensitive search strategy. 'Snowballing' methods were also used, including expert contact, website searching and reference list follow up. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) where the study reported on interagency collaboration between health and local government agencies. Studies were selected independently in duplicate by two of five authors. From the team of five review authors, two authors independently conducted data extraction and assessed risk of bias for each study. Eleven studies were identified, presenting information on a total of 26,686 participants. Owing to the heterogeneity between studies a narrative synthesis was undertaken. The included studies covered a range of topics. Six studies examined mental health initiatives, of which one study showed health benefit; four showed modest improvement in one or more of the outcomes measured, but no clear overall health gain; and one study showed no evidence of health gain. Two studies were related to lifestyle improvements of which one failed to show health gains for the intervention population, while the other showed more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours persisting in the intervention population. Three studies were related to chronic disease management and all three failed to demonstrate health gains. Collaboration between local health and local government is commonly considered best practice. However, the review did not identify any reliable

  14. Employee-Retirement Systems of State and Local Governments: 2002 Census of Governments. Volume 4, Number 6, Government Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A census of governments is taken at 5-year intervals as required by law under title 13, United States Codes, Section 161. This 2002 census, similar to those taken since 1957, covers three major subject fields: government organization; public employment; and government finances. This document contains six parts that cover the entire range of state…

  15. Rethinking the Changing Structures of Rural Local Government--State Power, Rural Politics and Local Political Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Simon; Goodwin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    There is a notable absence in contemporary rural studies--of both a theoretical and empirical nature--concerning the changing nature of rural local government. Despite the scale and significance of successive rounds of local government reorganisation in the UK, very little has been written on this topic from a rural perspective. Instead research…

  16. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  17. Issues and Concerns for Local Government: Virginia in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Mark

    Many challenges face local governments in Virginia and nationwide in the 1990s. As federal funding has decreased, local governments have been forced to take on greater responsibilities. This increased workload has created a greater demand for resources and forced many localities to raise taxes. Citizens have often voiced opposition to these tax…

  18. 41 CFR 105-50.001-3 - Unit of general local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF SPECIAL OR TECHNICAL SERVICES TO STATE AND LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT § 105-50.001-3 Unit of general local government... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unit of general local...

  19. Lucid Provides Energy Reduction Software to DC Government

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Earlier this year, Lucid, a 2014 U.S. EPA SBIR award recipient, announced that the D.C. government was using Lucid's BuildingOS® software in order to reach an an energy reduction target of 20 percent in 20 months

  20. Supportive environments for physical activity and the local government agenda: a South Australian example.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, Colin; Wright, Cheryl; Atkinson, Rick

    2002-01-01

    In the promotion of moderate physical activity it is increasingly argued that a supportive physical environment is a key factor, and that local government is ideally placed to play an important role. This study reports on the factors that led one local government to take such a leading role. A semi-structured interview was conducted to find out why a chief executive officer of a local government decided that the creation of supportive environments for physical activity was the core business of council. The results show that key ingredients were that local government should take a strategic rather than an operational focus on the issue, that there should be open organisational structures to allow the various functions of local government to work together, and that there must be appropriate leadership. The findings suggest ways for engaging local government as a key partner in promoting supportive environments that are consistent with literature on policy, organisational structure and leadership theory.

  1. On Localized Vapor Pressure Gradients Governing Condensation and Frost Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2016-08-23

    Interdroplet vapor pressure gradients are the driving mechanism for several phase-change phenomena such as condensation dry zones, interdroplet ice bridging, dry zones around ice, and frost halos. Despite the fundamental nature of the underlying pressure gradients, the majority of studies on these emerging phenomena have been primarily empirical. Using classical nucleation theory and Becker-Döring embryo formation kinetics, here we calculate the pressure field for all possible modes of condensation and desublimation in order to gain fundamental insight into how pressure gradients govern the behavior of dry zones, condensation frosting, and frost halos. Our findings reveal that in a variety of phase-change systems the thermodynamically favorable mode of nucleation can switch between condensation and desublimation depending upon the temperature and wettability of the surface. The calculated pressure field is used to model the length of a dry zone around liquid or ice droplets over a broad parameter space. The long-standing question of whether the vapor pressure at the interface of growing frost is saturated or supersaturated is resolved by considering the kinetics of interdroplet ice bridging. Finally, on the basis of theoretical calculations, we propose that there exists a new mode of frost halo that is yet to be experimentally observed; a bimodal phase map is developed, demonstrating its dependence on the temperature and wettability of the underlying substrate. We hope that the model and predictions contained herein will assist future efforts to exploit localized vapor pressure gradients for the design of spatially controlled or antifrosting phase-change systems.

  2. Instructional Time Loss and Local-Level Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abadzi, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that the amount of time students spend engaged in learning tasks is related to learning outcomes. However, schools often offer to the students only a fraction of the time that governments pay for, and schools in lower-income areas often offer less time than governments plan for students. Instructional time ought to be an…

  3. [Regulating factors of intention and experience with co-production related to local government administration].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoya

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the regulating factors of intention and experience with co-production related to local government administration. The result of a survey for 211 adults showed that their intention to participate in co-production was determined by "contact/information disclosure expectations" for local government employees, dissatisfaction with local government, communication with the neighborhood, and the number of organizational affiliations in the community. Of these factors, the number of organizational affiliations also determined experiences with co-production. Co-production was promoted by increased affiliative expectations for local government employees and ties in the community for action.

  4. Combined Loadings and Cross-Dimensional Loadings Timeliness of Presentation of Financial Statements of Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muda, I.; Dharsuky, A.; Siregar, H. S.; Sadalia, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the pattern of readiness dimensional accuracy of financial statements of local government in North Sumatra with a routine pattern of two (2) months after the fiscal year ends and patterns of at least 3 (three) months after the fiscal year ends. This type of research is explanatory survey with quantitative methods. The population and the sample used is of local government officials serving local government financial reports. Combined Analysis And Cross-Loadings Loadings are used with statistical tools WarpPLS. The results showed that there was a pattern that varies above dimensional accuracy of the financial statements of local government in North Sumatra.

  5. Local government conservation and management of native vegetation in urban Australia.

    PubMed

    Stenhouse, Renae N

    2004-08-01

    Reflecting a worldwide trend of devolution of power and responsibilities to local authorities, metropolitan local governments in Australia now have a role in protecting and managing native vegetation (bushland). Reporting on questionnaire and interview results for Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, and Adelaide, this research examines the main disturbances in local government bushlands, local governments' efforts in bushland conservation, and universality of issues and responses among the cities and between urban and urban-rural local authorities. A number of disturbances in bushlands are common among the cities, with weeds, development impacts, and urban run off perceived to be the most threatening. Management efforts focus on weed control, whereas other main disturbances are receiving less attention. Community involvement in management is prevalent, although regional coordination among local governments is limited. Local governments are willing to be involved in biodiversity conservation and their capacity would be enhanced with increased funding, staffing, and regional coordination.

  6. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  7. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments, (Revised) August 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-08-01

    DOE has developed this guide to help local governments design and implement local solar plans. This guide includes examples and models tested in cities. Many of the examples are results of DOE's Solar America Cities Program.

  8. 48 CFR 29.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transaction from a sales or use tax may not rest on the Government's immunity from direct taxation by States and localities. It may rest instead on provisions of the particular State or local law involved, or...

  9. 32 CFR 700.835 - Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other Government departments, State or local governments, foreign governments, private parties and... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED....835 Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or...

  10. 32 CFR 700.835 - Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other Government departments, State or local governments, foreign governments, private parties and... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED....835 Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or...

  11. 32 CFR 700.835 - Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other Government departments, State or local governments, foreign governments, private parties and... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED....835 Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or...

  12. A taxonomic framework for assessing governance challenges and environmental effects of integrated food-energy systems.

    PubMed

    Gerst, Michael D; Cox, Michael E; Locke, Kim A; Laser, Mark; Kapuscinski, Anne R

    2015-01-20

    Predominant forms of food and energy systems pose multiple challenges to the environment as current configurations tend to be structured around centralized one-way through-put of materials and energy. In addition, these configurations can introduce vulnerability to input material price and supply shocks as well as contribute to localized food insecurity and lost opportunities for less environmentally harmful forms of local economic development. One proposed form of system transformation involves locally integrating “unclosed” material and energy loops from food and energy systems. Such systems, which have been termed integrated food-energy systems (IFES), have existed in diverse niche forms but have not been systematically studied with respect to technological, governance, and environmental differences. As a first step in this process, we have constructed a taxonomy of IFES archetypes by using exploratory data analysis on a collection of IFES cases. We find that IFES may be classified hierarchically first by their primary purpose—food or energy production—and subsequently by degree and direction of vertical supply chain coordination. We then use this taxonomy to delineate potential governance challenges and pose a research agenda aimed at understanding what role IFES may play in food and energy system transformation and ultimately what policies may encourage IFES adoption.

  13. The Need for Participation of Women in Local Governance: A Nigerian Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Ihemeje

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine studies on participation of women in governance as applicable to the local government levels in Nigeria. Again, it sets out to identify what propelled the quest for more women participation in governance. Examination of treatments given to women by both male and female counterparts is critically explored. The paper…

  14. 76 FR 3610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Survey of State and Local Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Government Finances AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce..., Chief, Local Government Finance and Statistics Branch, Governments Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census... public finance program which consists of an annual collection of information and a quinquennial...

  15. 40 CFR 312.26 - Reviews of Federal, State, Tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... records or data bases of government records of the subject property and adjoining properties must be... data bases of such government records and local government records and data bases of such records... registered, or state-permitted or registered waste management activities. Such records or data bases that...

  16. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Glenn D.; Gibson, Clark C.; Evans, Tom P.

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff. PMID:27956644

  17. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government.

    PubMed

    Wright, Glenn D; Andersson, Krister P; Gibson, Clark C; Evans, Tom P

    2016-12-27

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff.

  18. Black Plane Solutions and Localized Gravitational Energy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explore the issue of gravitational energy localization for static plane-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 3+1 dimensions with asymptotic anti-de Sitter behavior. We apply three different energy-momentum complexes, the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, and Møller prescriptions, to the metric representing this category of solutions and determine the energy distribution for each. We find that the three prescriptions offer identical energy distributions, suggesting their utility for this type of model. PMID:27347499

  19. Local Government Implementation of Long-Term Stewardship at Two DOE Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    John Pendergrass; Roman Czebiniak; Kelly Mott; Seth Kirshenberg; Audrey Eidelman; Zachary Lamb; Erica Pencak; Wendy Sandoz

    2003-08-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleaning up the radioactive and chemical contamination that resulted from the production of nuclear weapons. At more than one hundred sites throughout the country DOE will leave some contamination in place after the cleanup is complete. In order to protect human health and the environment from the remaining contamination DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state environmental regulatory agencies, local governments, citizens and other entities will need to undertake long-term stewardship of such sites. Long-term stewardship includes a wide range of actions needed to protect human health in the environment for as long as the risk from the contamination remains above acceptable levels, such as barriers, caps, and other engineering controls and land use controls, signs, notices, records, and other institutional controls. In this report the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) and the Energy Communities Alliance (ECA) examine how local governments, state environmental agencies, and real property professionals implement long-term stewardship at two DOE facilities, Losa Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Reservation.

  20. Systems Reform and Local Government: Improving Outcomes for Children, Families, and Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potapchuk, William R.; Crocker, Jarle P.; Schechter, William H.

    Local governments play a central role in improving the lives of children and families and in piecing together solutions to other major social, economic, environmental, and political challenges. Some ways to nurture and support systems reform activities in local governments, including those of educational systems, are explored. Systems reform can…

  1. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is immune...

  2. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is immune...

  3. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is immune...

  4. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is immune...

  5. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is immune...

  6. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? 170.110 Section 170.110 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments prevent...

  7. Mapping the Context: Insights and Issues from Local Government Development of Music Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Ailbhe

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have revealed local government to be a fundamental stakeholder in the development of arts and music communities. This article provides a context for an exploration and study of the issues, themes and dilemmas that surround local government and music communities. In particular the article provides this examination from an Irish…

  8. Local Government Information Systems--A Study of USAC and the Future Application of Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report addressed to policy making officials in local government deals with the role of federal assistance in future developments of information systems by local governments through an assessment of the Urban Information Systems Inter-Agency Committee (USAC) Program, which, beginning in 1970, provided grants to five municipalities--Charlotte,…

  9. 41 CFR 105-50.001-2 - Political subdivision or local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... local government. 105-50.001-2 Section 105-50.001-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF SPECIAL OR TECHNICAL SERVICES TO STATE AND LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT § 105-50.001-2 Political subdivision or...

  10. 41 CFR 105-50.001-4 - Special-purpose unit of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... local government. 105-50.001-4 Section 105-50.001-4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF SPECIAL OR TECHNICAL SERVICES TO STATE AND LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT § 105-50.001-4 Special-purpose unit of...

  11. How State and Local Governments Regulate Economic Activities: A Consumer Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Helen E.

    This paper depicts some of the ways State and local governments define, regulate, and police the communities and markets where consumers convert their income into a way of life. Explained are how regulatory processes are developed in State and local government, what the underlying concepts are, and some of the access points for fruitful citizen…

  12. Mapping the Context: Insights and Issues from Local Government Development of Music Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Ailbhe

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have revealed local government to be a fundamental stakeholder in the development of arts and music communities. This article provides a context for an exploration and study of the issues, themes and dilemmas that surround local government and music communities. In particular the article provides this examination from an Irish…

  13. The Restructuring of Local Government in Rural Regions: A Rural Development Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, D.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Rural development is a multidimensional phenomenon. The political dimension, relating as it does to power, resources, accountability, priorities and choice, is a pivotal aspect of rural development. Local government is often the centrepiece of rural political systems. Interventions to reconfigure local government are therefore quintessentially…

  14. 49 CFR 174.2 - Limitation on actions by states, local governments, and Indian tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitation on actions by states, local governments... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL General Requirements § 174.2 Limitation on actions by states, local governments, and Indian tribes. Sections 5125 and 20106 of Title 49, United States Code, limit the authority of...

  15. Providing Access to Local Government Information: The Nature of Public Library Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrance, Joan C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of public libraries that examined problems associated with access to local government information. Findings are reported on the nature of requests received, the types of responses given and sources used, and reasons given by librarians for providing access to local government information. (14 notes with references) (CLB)

  16. Localization of energy on the molecular scale

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenberg, K.; Brown, D.W.

    1997-12-31

    We discuss the spontaneous localization of vibrational energy in translationally invariant anharmonic chains at finite temperatures. In addition to the familiar energy-driven coherent mechanisms, which are rapidly degraded by thermal fluctuations, we identify the entropy-driven phenomenon we call {open_quotes}stochastic localization{close_quotes}, within which we include a number of characteristics of soft anharmonic oscillators in thermal equilibrium. Principal among these are a tendency for soft oscillators to spend more time at higher energies than comparable harmonic oscillators, and for high-energy fluctuations in soft oscillators to persist for longer times than lower-energy fluctuations, leading to a tendency for energy fluctuations to be organized into {open_quotes}bursts{close_quotes} separated by intervals of relative quiet. We illustrate the effects of stochastic localization on a bistable impurity embedded in a chain of soft oscillators by comparing it to an impurity embedded in a harmonic chain. Effects on transition rates at a given system energy can be quite dramatic.

  17. Cities & counties - back to the basics: Creating a local energy program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Outlined in this brochure are steps that local governments, or communities at large, can follow to devise an energy efficiency program. In general, an energy efficiency policy is first legislated by the local governing body. Then, an energy program is created to support the policy by developing and executing an action plan. The steps are: Determine how much you spend on energy; Designate or create a lead office; Link energy programs with community goals; Build grassroots community support; Don`t reinvent the wheel; Prioritize actions and develop a draft plan; Implement the plan; Evaluate success and update the plan; and, Publicize the benefits.

  18. Diffusion and utilization of scientific and technological knowledge within state and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, I.; Flanary, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art is reviewed concerning current knowledge of processes by which technological innovation and scientific information are disseminated among state and local governments. The effectiveness of various mechanisms, strategies, and approaches by which federal agencies have sought to transfer technology to state, regional, and city governments are assessed. It is concluded that the existing relationships between the state and local governments, and the scientific communities are not adequate.

  19. Manifestly Local Theory of Vacuum Energy Sequestering.

    PubMed

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio; Stefanyszyn, David; Zahariade, George

    2016-02-05

    We present a manifestly local, diffeomorphism invariant, and locally Poincaré invariant formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In this theory, quantum vacuum energy generated by matter loops is canceled by auxiliary fields. The auxiliary fields decouple from gravity almost completely. Their only residual effect is an a priori arbitrary, finite contribution to the curvature of the background geometry, which is radiatively stable. Its value is to be determined by a measurement, like the finite part of any radiatively stable UV-sensitive quantity in quantum field theory.

  20. Politics, Programs, and Local Governments: The Case of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy Haffron

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on two aspects of governance and policy: the electoral process by which community college trustees are selected and the responsiveness of colleges to their communities as manifested by their programs. Available from Journal of Politics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. (Author/IRT)

  1. Consequences of Local Government Under the Klieg Lights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Elaine B.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with an open-government innovation that many cities are adopting: television coverage of city council meetings. Survey data show that less-educated, lower-income, and minority individuals watch the coverage at least as much as the more-advantaged segments of the community. Reasons for television viewing are explored. (PD)

  2. Politics, Programs, and Local Governments: The Case of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy Haffron

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on two aspects of governance and policy: the electoral process by which community college trustees are selected and the responsiveness of colleges to their communities as manifested by their programs. Available from Journal of Politics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. (Author/IRT)

  3. Government`s role in energy technology R&D: A proposed model for strategic guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.; Shelton, R.B.

    1996-04-01

    There is very little argument that the federal government has a role in the funding of basic research. There is also consensus that the federal government should not fund research that the private sector would do on its own volition. In this paper, we examine the role of government in the ``grey`` area between these extremes. This area includes generic, crosscutting, and applied technology development and deployment. We first present some general trends in US R&D investment and make international comparisons. These trends clearly show that the amount the US spends on R&D has fallen precipitously since the 1980s. The R&D expenditure data also reveal striking differences in the shares of government R&D allocated to different social objectives between the US and other major industrialized countries. We then review the linear model--the model that characterizes much of the postwar paradigm for US technology policy-- and evaluate alternatives to it. These alternative models allow for different types of innovation and explicitly account for feedback from the marketplace and linkages to the private sector, universities, national laboratories. Based on the nonlinear model of innovation, we outline a structure for an R&D technology council that would provide guidance to DOE on energy technology R&D. The energy technology R&D council would advise DOE on funding priorities for different types of research. Basic research would be conducted at universities and national laboratories as appropriate. Generic technology development would be conducted by teams consisting of national laboratories, the private sector, and universities. The private sector would participate directly in the generic technology development by supplying information and funding. For those activities requiring the development of applied technology, the private sector would cost share in much the same way as is done in the current system with cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs).

  4. Tapping the Potential: CETA and Local Government Joint Ventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Edward L.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes some of the uses that local Private Industry Councils (PICs) have found for their employment generating resources from the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. Includes suggestions on how local leaders can involve PICs in the solution of employment and development problems. (SK)

  5. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  6. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  7. For debate. Local government and the National Health Service: the new agenda.

    PubMed

    Clarke, M; Hunter, D J; Wistow, G

    1997-03-01

    There are some interesting paradoxes in the relationship between local government and the National Health Service (NHS). Local government is responsible for a range of major services, many of which relate to health broadly defined. The NHS provides many services which are often popularly thought to be part of local government (and, indeed, in many countries are). Local government prides itself on its 'localness'; the NHS, with its services delivered in a very local fashion for the most part, cannot quite decide whether it is a national service or a local one. Yet these two major agencies of governance and public service provision often seem unable to work very well together. In the interests of good government, both agencies need to work together where their interests coincide or abut one another. Differences of perspective, priority, culture and style need to be recognized but resolved. Opportunities for joint working need to be grasped and the experience built on. The paper looks at a series of issues and opportunities which bring local government and the NHS together. They create an incentive to improve working relationships; at the same time they suggest an agenda of future possibilities.

  8. RNA self-splicing and energy localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    1991-02-01

    We establish a mechanism for energy localization in regions of the sugar-phosphate RNA backbone which leads to the formation of transesterification or hydrolysis hot spots. In particular, our results account for the site specificity of the covalent cyclization and cycle reopening in the catalytic intervening sequence (IVS) of a ribosomal RNA.

  9. Public sentiment towards alcohol and local government alcohol policies in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Langley, John; Room, Robin

    2012-01-01

    In many countries, including New Zealand, alcohol availability and promotion have increased markedly in the last three decades as a result of liberalised central and/or state government alcohol policies. Accordingly, communities are increasingly relying on local government to manage alcohol-related problems. New Zealand's Local Government Act (2002) states the purpose of local government as facilitating public decision-making and promoting community well-being. We sought to describe public sentiment towards alcohol and local government alcohol policies. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2007 with a sample of 2337 residents aged 18 years and over in a diverse set of New Zealand communities. Data were collected via a self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire. There were responses from 1372 individuals (response: 59%). Problem drinking amongst youth (<25 years of age) was considered the leading problem by the majority of respondents in six of seven areas. Alcohol was considered to play a major role in incidents of violence, vandalism, dangerous driving and traffic crashes. Fifty-eight percent of respondents agreed that "it is up to local government to make sure alcohol does not become a problem in the community". There was strong support for local governments to restrict the hours of operation of on-licenced premises, to use liquor bans to control drinking in public places, and for local governments and police to be stricter in their enforcement of drinking laws. There is strong support for local government alcohol policies that restrict the availability and promotion of alcohol. The study findings are important in light of the stated purpose of local government in New Zealand and the recently completed "once in a generation" review of alcohol laws and policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy management study: A proposed case of government building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Mohd Faizal

    2015-05-01

    Align with the current needs of the sustainable and green technology in Malaysian construction industry, this research is conducted to seek and identify opportunities to better manage energy use including the process of understand when, where, and how energy is used in a building. The purpose of this research is to provide a best practice guideline as a practical tool to assist construction industry in Malaysia to improve the energy efficiency of the office building during the post-production by reviewing the current practice of the building operation and maintenance in order to optimum the usage and reduce the amount of energy input into the building. Therefore, this paper will review the concept of maintenance management, current issue in energy management, and on how the research process will be conducted. There are several process involves and focuses on technical and management techniques such as energy metering, tracing, harvesting, and auditing based on the case study that will be accomplish soon. Accordingly, a case study is appropriate to be selected as a strategic research approach in which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence for the data collection process. A Government office building will be selected as an appropriate case study for this research. In the end of this research, it will recommend a strategic approach or model in a specific guideline for enabling energy-efficient operation and maintenance in the office building.

  11. Energy management study: A proposed case of government building

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Mohd Faizal

    2015-05-15

    Align with the current needs of the sustainable and green technology in Malaysian construction industry, this research is conducted to seek and identify opportunities to better manage energy use including the process of understand when, where, and how energy is used in a building. The purpose of this research is to provide a best practice guideline as a practical tool to assist construction industry in Malaysia to improve the energy efficiency of the office building during the post-production by reviewing the current practice of the building operation and maintenance in order to optimum the usage and reduce the amount of energy input into the building. Therefore, this paper will review the concept of maintenance management, current issue in energy management, and on how the research process will be conducted. There are several process involves and focuses on technical and management techniques such as energy metering, tracing, harvesting, and auditing based on the case study that will be accomplish soon. Accordingly, a case study is appropriate to be selected as a strategic research approach in which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence for the data collection process. A Government office building will be selected as an appropriate case study for this research. In the end of this research, it will recommend a strategic approach or model in a specific guideline for enabling energy-efficient operation and maintenance in the office building.

  12. 75 FR 67965 - Announcement of Local Government Advisory Committee Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    .... Environmental Protection Agency announces that Administrator Lisa P. Jackson has appointed 29 local, State, and... Peterson, Mayor, Ithaca, New York. Lisa A.Wong, Mayor, Fitchburg, Massachusetts. David W. Smith,...

  13. Diffraction of quantum dots reveals nanoscale ultrafast energy localization.

    PubMed

    Vanacore, Giovanni M; Hu, Jianbo; Liang, Wenxi; Bietti, Sergio; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2014-11-12

    Unlike in bulk materials, energy transport in low-dimensional and nanoscale systems may be governed by a coherent "ballistic" behavior of lattice vibrations, the phonons. If dominant, such behavior would determine the mechanism for transport and relaxation in various energy-conversion applications. In order to study this coherent limit, both the spatial and temporal resolutions must be sufficient for the length-time scales involved. Here, we report observation of the lattice dynamics in nanoscale quantum dots of gallium arsenide using ultrafast electron diffraction. By varying the dot size from h = 11 to 46 nm, the length scale effect was examined, together with the temporal change. When the dot size is smaller than the inelastic phonon mean-free path, the energy remains localized in high-energy acoustic modes that travel coherently within the dot. As the dot size increases, an energy dissipation toward low-energy phonons takes place, and the transport becomes diffusive. Because ultrafast diffraction provides the atomic-scale resolution and a sufficiently high time resolution, other nanostructured materials can be studied similarly to elucidate the nature of dynamical energy localization.

  14. Protecting coastal and wetlands resources: A guide for local governments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The contents include the following: introduction (what is growth management); the problem; the need for local action; formulating a local plan; the use of zoning and other regulatory measures to protect coastal and wetlands resources; the acquisition of wetlands and coastal areas; using taxes, fees, and other economic tools to finance and encourage the protection of coastal and wetlands resources; and selecting appropriate techniques to protect coastal and wetlands resources.

  15. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Applying Best Practices to Florida Local Government Retrofit Programs - Central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    In some communities, local government and non-profit entities have funds to purchase and renovate distressed, foreclosed homes for resale in the affordable housing market. Numerous opportunities to improve whole house energy efficiency are inherent in these comprehensive renovations. BA-PIRC worked together in a multiyear field study making recommendations in individual homes, meanwhile compiling improvement costs, projected energy savings, practical challenges, and labor force factors surrounding common energy-related renovation measures. The field study, Phase 1 of this research, resulted in a set of best practices appropriate to the current labor pool and market conditions in central Florida to achieve projected annual energy savings of 15%-30% and higher. This case study describes Phase 2 of the work where researchers worked with a local government partner to implement and refine the "current best practices". A simulation study was conducted to characterize savings potential under three sets of conditions representing varying replacement needs for energy-related equipment and envelope components. The three scenarios apply readily to the general remodeling industry as for renovation of foreclosed homes for the affordable housing market. The new local government partner, the City of Melbourne, implemented the best practices in a community-scale renovation program that included ten homes in 2012.

  16. Financing State and Local Governments. Third Edition. Studies of Government Finance Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, James A.; Aronson, J. Richard

    This book provides a nontechnical analysis of state and local finances that is intended to provide educators, lawmakers, students, and voters with the background necessary to form intelligent opinions and make effective decisions. The authors summarize current theories of the incidence of the major state and local taxes, assess the capacity of…

  17. Financing State and Local Governments. Third Edition. Studies of Government Finance Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, James A.; Aronson, J. Richard

    This book provides a nontechnical analysis of state and local finances that is intended to provide educators, lawmakers, students, and voters with the background necessary to form intelligent opinions and make effective decisions. The authors summarize current theories of the incidence of the major state and local taxes, assess the capacity of…

  18. Governance of energy: problems, prospects, and underlying issues

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    There are fundamental problems connected with the conception and realization of democracy and governance in a post-industrial society such as that of the United States. The definition, organization, and allocation of energy as a basic resource provides a case study of these dilemmas, as well as a crucial entry point for general questions about social organization and social design. In this book, Dr. Burton formulates a political perspective on energy. He raises important questions, suggests alternative possibilities, and criticizes historic beliefs and patterns of action in an attempt to open a national dialogue on his unique approach to energy analysis. He urges that we rethink some rather basic views about nature, society, and politics within the context of the energy problem. The study discusses energy issues in terms of analysis, planning, allocation of resources, and behavior change as they affect both a variety of special social actors and the public at large. Energy from this perspective becomes a political problem at every possible level - from the interpersonal to the global. The book is intended for a general, but knowledgeable audience. 224 references, 40 figures.

  19. Local health and social services expenditures: An empirical typology of local government spending.

    PubMed

    McCullough, J Mac

    2017-09-04

    The conceptual importance of social services to health outcomes is well known and recent empirical evidence has linked social services spending to better population health outcomes. Yet little research has been devoted to what social services spending actually entails as it relates to population health and whether broadly similar spending patterns may exist across communities. The purpose of this study was to identify empirical patterns in spending, and explore health status and outcome correlates with social services spending. Spending data come from the 2012 U.S. Census Bureau's Census of Governments, which includes spending data for 14 social services within 3129 U.S. counties. Additional 2012 demographic, socioeconomic, and population health data were obtained and analyzed at the county-level in 2017. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed 5 clusters of counties according to local government spending. One group had significantly lower income, social services spending, health indicators, and health outcomes than other counties. Two other groups had relatively high income, high social services spending, and strong health outcomes and indicators. Yet these latter two groups invested differently, with one spreading spending across a larger number of social services and the other concentrating spending in a smaller number of services such as education. Determining the extent to which spending approaches contribute to population health may offer communities guidance for maximizing population health. While it cannot establish causality, this study adds to the literature regarding the ways in which communities invest in both health care and social services to prevent disease and promote population health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Collaboration between local health and local government agencies for health improvement.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sara L; Mann, Mala K; Morgan, Fiona M; Kelly, Mark J; Weightman, Alison L

    2012-10-17

    In many countries, national, regional and local inter- and intra-agency collaborations have been introduced to improve health outcomes. Evidence is needed on the effectiveness of locally developed partnerships which target changes in health outcomes and behaviours. To evaluate the effects of interagency collaboration between local health and local government agencies on health outcomes in any population or age group. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, AMED, ASSIA, CENTRAL, CINAHL, DoPHER, EMBASE, ERIC, HMIC, IBSS, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, OpenGrey, PsycINFO, Rehabdata, Social Care Online, Social Services Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, TRoPHI and Web of Science from 1966 through to January 2012. 'Snowballing' methods were used, including expert contact, citation tracking, website searching and reference list follow-up. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) where the study reported individual health outcomes arising from interagency collaboration between health and local government agencies compared to standard care. Studies were selected independently in duplicate, with no restriction on population subgroup or disease. Two authors independently conducted data extraction and assessed risk of bias for each study. Sixteen studies were identified (28,212 participants). Only two were considered to be at low risk of bias. Eleven studies contributed data to the meta-analyses but a narrative synthesis was undertaken for all 16 studies. Six studies examined mental health initiatives, of which one showed health benefit, four showed modest improvement in one or more of the outcomes measured but no clear overall health gain, and one showed no evidence of health gain. Four studies considered lifestyle improvements, of which one showed some limited short-term improvements, two failed to show health gains for the intervention

  1. Local energy landscape in a simple liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Iwashita, T.; Egami, Takeshi

    2014-11-26

    It is difficult to relate the properties of liquids and glasses directly to their structure because of complexity in the structure that defies precise definition. The potential energy landscape (PEL) approach is a very insightful way to conceptualize the structure-property relationship in liquids and glasses, particularly the effect of temperature and history. However, because of the highly multidimensional nature of the PEL it is hard to determine, or even visualize, the actual details of the energy landscape. In this article we introduce a modified concept of the local energy landscape (LEL), which is limited in phase space, and demonstrate itsmore » usefulness using molecular dynamics simulation on a simple liquid at high temperatures. The local energy landscape is given as a function of the local coordination number, the number of the nearest-neighbor atoms. The excitation in the LEL corresponds to the so-called β-relaxation process. The LEL offers a simple but useful starting point to discuss complex phenomena in liquids and glasses.« less

  2. Local energy landscape in a simple liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Iwashita, T.; Egami, Takeshi

    2014-11-26

    It is difficult to relate the properties of liquids and glasses directly to their structure because of complexity in the structure that defies precise definition. The potential energy landscape (PEL) approach is a very insightful way to conceptualize the structure-property relationship in liquids and glasses, particularly the effect of temperature and history. However, because of the highly multidimensional nature of the PEL it is hard to determine, or even visualize, the actual details of the energy landscape. In this article we introduce a modified concept of the local energy landscape (LEL), which is limited in phase space, and demonstrate its usefulness using molecular dynamics simulation on a simple liquid at high temperatures. The local energy landscape is given as a function of the local coordination number, the number of the nearest-neighbor atoms. The excitation in the LEL corresponds to the so-called β-relaxation process. The LEL offers a simple but useful starting point to discuss complex phenomena in liquids and glasses.

  3. "Dark energy" in the Local Void

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villata, M.

    2012-05-01

    The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter (˜5×1015 M ⊙) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require void evacuation and structure formation much faster than expected from the standard model. At the global cosmological level, gravitational repulsion from antimatter hidden in voids can provide more than enough potential energy to drive both the cosmic expansion and its acceleration, with no need for an initial "explosion" and dark energy. Moreover, the discrete distribution of these dark repulsors, in contrast to the uniformly permeating dark energy, can also explain dark flows and other recently observed excessive inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the Universe.

  4. Local Submodularization for Binary Pairwise Energies.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Lena; Boykov, Yuri; Veksler, Olga; Ayed, Ismail Ben; Delong, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Many computer vision problems require optimization of binary non-submodular energies. We propose a general optimization framework based on local submodular approximations (LSA). Unlike standard LP relaxation methods that linearize the whole energy globally, our approach iteratively approximates the energy locally. On the other hand, unlike standard local optimization methods (e.g., gradient descent or projection techniques) we use non-linear submodular approximations and optimize them without leaving the domain of integer solutions. We discuss two specific LSA algorithms based on trust region and auxiliary function principles, LSA-TR and LSA-AUX. The proposed methods obtain state-of-the-art results on a wide range of applications such as binary deconvolution, curvature regularization, inpainting, segmentation with repulsion and two types of shape priors. Finally, we discuss a move-making extension to the LSA-TR approach. While our paper is focused on pairwise energies, our ideas extend to higher-order problems. The code is available online.

  5. Learning molecular energies using localized graph kernels.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Grégoire; Haut, Terry; Barros, Kipton

    2017-03-21

    Recent machine learning methods make it possible to model potential energy of atomic configurations with chemical-level accuracy (as calculated from ab initio calculations) and at speeds suitable for molecular dynamics simulation. Best performance is achieved when the known physical constraints are encoded in the machine learning models. For example, the atomic energy is invariant under global translations and rotations; it is also invariant to permutations of same-species atoms. Although simple to state, these symmetries are complicated to encode into machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach based on graph theory that naturally incorporates translation, rotation, and permutation symmetries. Specifically, we use a random walk graph kernel to measure the similarity of two adjacency matrices, each of which represents a local atomic environment. This Graph Approximated Energy (GRAPE) approach is flexible and admits many possible extensions. We benchmark a simple version of GRAPE by predicting atomization energies on a standard dataset of organic molecules.

  6. Learning molecular energies using localized graph kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Grégoire; Haut, Terry; Barros, Kipton

    2017-03-01

    Recent machine learning methods make it possible to model potential energy of atomic configurations with chemical-level accuracy (as calculated from ab initio calculations) and at speeds suitable for molecular dynamics simulation. Best performance is achieved when the known physical constraints are encoded in the machine learning models. For example, the atomic energy is invariant under global translations and rotations; it is also invariant to permutations of same-species atoms. Although simple to state, these symmetries are complicated to encode into machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach based on graph theory that naturally incorporates translation, rotation, and permutation symmetries. Specifically, we use a random walk graph kernel to measure the similarity of two adjacency matrices, each of which represents a local atomic environment. This Graph Approximated Energy (GRAPE) approach is flexible and admits many possible extensions. We benchmark a simple version of GRAPE by predicting atomization energies on a standard dataset of organic molecules.

  7. Guidelines for Local Governments on Solid Waste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Counties, Washington, DC. Research Foundation.

    This document consists of ten guides on Solid Waste Management to assist local elected and appointed policy-making officials. They are entitled: Areawide Approaches; Legal Authority, Planning, Organization Design and Operation, Financing, Technical and Financial Assistance, Citizen Support, Personnel, and Action Plan and Bibliography. The guides…

  8. Financing State and Local Government: Future Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildasin, David E.; Childress, Michael T.; Hackbart, Merl; Lynch, Lawrence K.; Martie, Charles W.

    This report focuses on state and local taxation in the state of Kentucky. It looks into what "the ideal" tax system looks like and how Kentucky's system compares, whether the current system will provide adequate revenue for the long-term, whether the tax system is efficient, how fair and equitable the tax system is, and whether the state…

  9. Preventive Maintenance for Local Government Buildings: A Best Practices Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Jody; Bombach, Valerie; Mohr, Caryn; Masse, Ann

    This report identifies seven strategic practices for effectively managing preventive maintenance of Minnesota school district, city, and county buildings; and profiles local jurisdictions currently using them. The following best practices for preventive maintenance are recommended: (1) inventory building components and assess their conditions; (2)…

  10. 40 CFR 280.107 - Local government fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meets one of the following requirements: (a) The fund is dedicated by state constitutional provision, or... mechanism(s) that provide the remaining coverage; or (b) The fund is dedicated by state constitutional... amount in the fund; or (c) The fund is dedicated by state constitutional provision, or local...

  11. Is Aboriginal nutrition a priority for local government? A policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Helson, Catherine; Walker, Ruth; Palermo, Claire; Rounsefell, Kim; Aron, Yudit; MacDonald, Catherine; Atkinson, Petah; Browne, Jennifer

    2017-08-14

    The present study aimed to explore how Australian local governments prioritise the health and well-being of Aboriginal populations and the extent to which nutrition is addressed by local government health policy. In the state of Victoria, Australia, all seventy-nine local governments' public health policy documents were retrieved. Inclusion of Aboriginal health and nutrition in policy documents was analysed using quantitative content analysis. Representation of Aboriginal nutrition 'problems' and 'solutions' was examined using qualitative framing analysis. The socio-ecological framework was used to classify the types of Aboriginal nutrition issues and strategies within policy documents. Victoria, Australia. Local governments' public health policy documents (n 79). A small proportion (14 %, n 11) of local governments addressed Aboriginal health and well-being in terms of nutrition. Where strategies aimed at nutrition existed, they mostly focused on individual factors rather than the broader macroenvironment. A limited number of Victorian local governments address nutrition as a health issue for their Aboriginal populations in policy documents. Nutrition needs to be addressed as a community and social responsibility rather than merely an individual 'behaviour'. Partnerships are required to ensure Aboriginal people lead government policy development.

  12. North Carolina State Plan for Technical Assistance and Energy Conservation Measures: Grant Programs for Schools and Hospitals and for Buildings Owned by Units of Local Government and Public Care Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Commerce, Raleigh. Energy Div.

    State guidelines for grant applications that follow the regulations of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 are presented for North Carolina institutions. Among the 17 procedures spelled out in detail are several that concern eligible institutions' involvement in the development of the state plan, notification of the plan, and…

  13. North Carolina State Plan for Technical Assistance and Energy Conservation Measures: Grant Programs for Schools and Hospitals and for Buildings Owned by Units of Local Government and Public Care Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Commerce, Raleigh. Energy Div.

    State guidelines for grant applications that follow the regulations of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 are presented for North Carolina institutions. Among the 17 procedures spelled out in detail are several that concern eligible institutions' involvement in the development of the state plan, notification of the plan, and…

  14. Critical length scales and strain localization govern the mechanical performance of multi-layer graphene assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wenjie; Ruiz, Luis; Pugno, Nicola M.; Keten, Sinan

    2016-03-01

    Multi-layer graphene assemblies (MLGs) or fibers with a staggered architecture exhibit high toughness and failure strain that surpass those of the constituent single sheets. However, how the architectural parameters such as the sheet overlap length affect these mechanical properties remains unknown due in part to the limitations of mechanical continuum models. By exploring the mechanics of MLG assemblies under tensile deformation using our established coarse-grained molecular modeling framework, we have identified three different critical interlayer overlap lengths controlling the strength, plastic stress, and toughness of MLGs, respectively. The shortest critical length scale Lsc governs the strength of the assembly as predicted by the shear-lag model. The intermediate critical length Lpc is associated with a dynamic frictional process that governs the strain localization propensity of the assembly, and hence the failure strain. The largest critical length scale LTc corresponds to the overlap length necessary to achieve 90% of the maximum theoretical toughness of the material. Our analyses provide the general guidelines for tuning the constitutive properties and toughness of multilayer 2D nanomaterials using elasticity, interlayer adhesion energy and geometry as molecular design parameters.Multi-layer graphene assemblies (MLGs) or fibers with a staggered architecture exhibit high toughness and failure strain that surpass those of the constituent single sheets. However, how the architectural parameters such as the sheet overlap length affect these mechanical properties remains unknown due in part to the limitations of mechanical continuum models. By exploring the mechanics of MLG assemblies under tensile deformation using our established coarse-grained molecular modeling framework, we have identified three different critical interlayer overlap lengths controlling the strength, plastic stress, and toughness of MLGs, respectively. The shortest critical length scale

  15. Public participation in local government review of development proposals in hazardous locations: does it matter, and what do local government planners have to do with it?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Mark R; Berke, Philip R; Song, Yan

    2010-02-01

    Natural hazard investigators recommend that local governments adopt mitigation plans to help reduce hazard losses. However, such plans are unlikely to be effective unless a wide range of public stakeholders is involved in their creation. Previous research shows that stakeholder participation levels in hazard mitigation planning tend to be low, though there may be particular choices that local government planners can make to foster participation. We examine the importance of planners' choices and role orientations (i.e., beliefs regarding appropriate behavior in the workplace) for participation levels in site plan review, wherein local governments review site plans for proposed development projects to ensure compliance between project design and applicable plans and policies. Using a national sample of 65 development projects located in areas subject to natural hazards, and bivariate and multivariate analyses, we examine whether participation levels during site plan review depend upon planners' choices and role orientations, and whether participation levels are correlated with the incorporation of hazard mitigation techniques into development projects. We find significant correlations between participation levels and planners' choices, between participation levels and planner's role orientations, and between participation levels and the incorporation of hazard-mitigation techniques. We encourage local government planners to revisit their beliefs, choices, and behaviors regarding public participation in site plan review.

  16. Optical Storage Systems for Records and Information Management: Overview, Recommendations and Guidelines for Local Governments. Local Government Records Technical Information Series. Number 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stanley F.

    This publication discusses optical storage, a term encompassing technologies that use laser-produced light to record and store information in digital form. The booklet also discusses how optical storage systems relate to records management, in particular to the management of local government records in New York State. It describes components of…

  17. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling governs aquaporin-4 localization in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Rossi, Andrea; Mola, Maria Grazia; Procino, Giuseppe; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria

    2008-12-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is constitutively concentrated in the plasma membrane of the perivascular glial processes, and its expression is altered in certain pathological conditions associated with brain edema or altered glial migration. When astrocytes are grown in culture, they lose their characteristic star-like shape and AQP4 continuous plasma membrane localization observed in vivo. In this study, we differentiated primary astrocyte cultures with cAMP and lovastatin, both able to induce glial stellation through a reorganization of F-actin cytoskeleton, and obtained AQP4 selectively localized on the cell plasma membrane associated with an increase in the plasma membrane water transport level, but only cAMP induced an increase in AQP4 total protein expression. Phosphorylation experiments indicated that AQP4 in astrocytes is neither phosphorylated nor a substrate of PKA. Depolymerization of F-actin cytoskeleton performed by cytochalasin-D suggested that F-actin cytoskeleton plays a primary role for AQP4 plasma membrane localization and during cell adhesion. Finally, AQP4 knockdown does not compromise the ability of astrocytes to stellate in the presence of cAMP, indicating that astrocyte stellation is independent of AQP4.

  18. Specifying energy to stimulate the market - the Canadian Federal Government

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, I.

    1995-12-01

    Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) is the equivalent to the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). The Central Procurement Agency purchases all goods and services for the federal public sector-$1.5 billion per annum expenditure for information technology. The personal computer (PC) group buys about 300 million PCs per annum. All requirements are fulfilled through a competitive process, which involves a Request for Proposal. The lowest compliant bidder always wins. All requirements are computed under GATT and NAFTA. PWGSC and GSA purchase the same office technology. PWGSC has a standing offer method of supply, much like a GSA schedule. Only the least expensive vendors are allowed on the standing offer after a Request for Standing Offer. The price is determined by a mean plus one standard deviation, so 68% of the bidders make it on to the standing offer. Multiple vendors offer multiple platforms, and a wide variety are from the United States and the Canadian Pacific Rim. New PC technology introduced through categories is where the `green` issue comes in. Those categories reflect new PC technology, usually models with Intel CPUs. A green PC category was created in parallel with other nongreen categories. All the testing - not necessarily green testing - was done by the Philadelphia based National Software Testing Laboratory. Again, the lowest compliant bidder is always used. This laboratory does a good job of performance, usability, and compatibility studies. The green category, one category out of a possible six, specifies Energy Star. All the suppliers to the Canadian Government also supply to the U.S. Government. Canadian PC manufacturers essentially repackage Taiwanese or U.S. components, and through the insight of GSA, it is very easy for a vendor to become an Energy Star partner. An in-house test methodology with a watt meter was developed.

  19. A New Education Model as a Collaborative Work of Industry, Local Government and College of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himuro, Shozo

    A new educational program was introduced to our college in 2000. This program based on the extensive knowledge in the engineering and high culture, originally intended to foster young engineers with creativity, diversity, interdisciplinarity, internationality and high practical skills. It also aimed to nourish engineers who would be engaged in developing user-friendly technologies that can coexist with nature and who can flexibly cope with current global issues such as environmental problems, food shortages and energy efficiency. Regrettably, great numbers of students don't seem to be interested in studying. We feel that there is an urgent need to improve the educational program to attract students to learn and encourage their motivations. In this paper, We would like to propose a new education model that is the Collaborative Work of Industry, Local Government and College of Technology.

  20. Local Government Planning Tool to Calculate Institutional and Engineering Control Costs for Brownfield Properties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This cost calculator is designed as a guide for municipal or local governments to assist in calculating their expected costs of implementing and conducting long-term stewardship of institutional controls and engineering controls at brownfield properties.

  1. 48 CFR 29.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... claiming immunity from State or local sales or use taxes. Before any activity contends that a contractor is... transaction from a sales or use tax may not rest on the Government's immunity from direct taxation by...

  2. 48 CFR 970.2903-2 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exemptions from state and local taxes to which it is entitled under the Federal Constitution or state laws... acquisition will result in substantial savings to the Government, taking into consideration any...

  3. Diffusion and utilization of scientific and technological knowledge within state and local governments: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, I.; Flanary, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The requirements for technology transfer among the state and local governments are analyzed. Topics discussed include: information systems, federal funding, delivery channels, state executive programs, and state legislature requirements for scientific information.

  4. Use of Local Health Department Websites: A Study of E-Government Adoption and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaltonen, Pamela Massie

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct but converging activities have the potential to alter the way local public health departments conduct business. These activities are the emergence of e-government and the addition of preparedness as a basic function of the public health system. Preparedness implies timely collaboration with government entities, community partners and…

  5. Government Initiatives to Encourage Employer-Supported Child Care: The State and Local Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E.

    A study was conducted to identify a range of strategies that New York State government could adopt to stimulate business and industry to provide supportive family benefits, services, and work policies. The investigation included a national survey of state and local government initiatives and a special analysis of policies appropriate for New York…

  6. The Added Dimension. State and Land-Grant Universities Serving State and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ione

    Responses to a survey of university public service programs of benefit to state and local governments were received from 70 individual campuses, and one systemwide office, representing 79 of the 133 NASULGC member institutions and 41 of the 50 states. The survey asked for (1) information on institutes of government and on technical service units…

  7. 40 CFR 312.26 - Reviews of Federal, State, Tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... properties, the review of federal, tribal, state, and local government records or databases of government... records of reported releases or threatened releases. Such records or databases containing such records and... at the property. Such records or databases containing such records and the associated distances from...

  8. Unsettling the Gendered Power Paradigm: Discomfort, Dissonance and Dissention among Women in Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Catherine; Clover, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to achieve gender equity in political life, women remain underrepresented in nearly all levels of government. In this paper, we explore the experiences offered by women who have been elected to local government in the province of British Columbia, Canada, to illustrate the persistence of gendered discourses and…

  9. Use of Local Health Department Websites: A Study of E-Government Adoption and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaltonen, Pamela Massie

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct but converging activities have the potential to alter the way local public health departments conduct business. These activities are the emergence of e-government and the addition of preparedness as a basic function of the public health system. Preparedness implies timely collaboration with government entities, community partners and…

  10. The role of nurses and midwives in the governance of local health networks.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Current health reforms in Australia will establish local health networks of public hospitals each with a governing body. The establishment of these governing bodies, particularly in states like NSW where these entities do not currently exist within the public hospital system, provides opportunities for nurses, midwives and other clinicians to seek appointment to them. The policy and discussion papers on the establishment of the local health networks promise that local clinicians will be appointed to these governing bodies. Debate within the nursing and midwifery profession seems focused on the management of nursing and midwifery services within the new local health networks and not on the role of nurses and midwives on governing bodies. Nurses and midwives undoubtedly have a role to play on these governing councils, however there are a range of issues that should be considered on the role that nurses, midwives (and other clinicians) will play when appointed to the governing councils to ensure that they can appropriately undertake the role of a council member. The role of governance differs from that of management and clinicians who aspire to appointment of these governing bodies should be aware of the difference in these roles.

  11. Taking local ownership: government and household contribution to indoor residual spraying in Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Zainab; Colaco, Rajeev; Ali, Abdullah S; Mcha, Juma H; Mwalimu, Charles D; Thawer, Narjis G; Lalji, Shabbir; Mutagahywa, Joshua; Ramsan, Mahdi M; Kafuko, Jessica M; Kaspar, Naomi; Magesa, Stephen M; Reithinger, Richard; Ngondi, Jeremiah M

    2016-07-01

    While donor funding is instrumental in initiation and implementation of malaria control efforts, national government contributions are key to local ownership and sustainability. This study explored in-kind contributions of local government and households towards the cost of indoor residual spraying (IRS) interventions in Tanzania. Data were collected through interviews with local government officials and technical teams in the IRS project. Household contribution was based on provision of water for IRS. Government contributions included government-provided warehouse and office space, vehicles, and staff labour. In-kind contributions were aggregated at the district, regional and national level. Calculations were based on proportion of total costs of IRS from 2010 to 2012. The mainland government provided larger amounts of in-kind contribution in absolute value (mean of US$454 200) compared to Zanzibar (US$89 163). On average, in-kind contribution was 5.5% of total costs in Zanzibar and 2.9% in mainland. The proportion of government in-kind contribution was higher in Zanzibar versus the mainland (86% vs 50%) while household contribution was higher in mainland compared to Zanzibar (50% vs 14%). Government involvement, particularly through budgetary allocations and increased in-kind contribution, needs to be encouraged for malaria control efforts to be locally owned, managed and sustained. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Gene regulatory mechanisms governing energy metabolism during cardiac hypertrophic growth.

    PubMed

    Lehman, John J; Kelly, Daniel P

    2002-04-01

    Studies in a variety of mammalian species, including humans, have demonstrated a reduction in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increased glucose utilization in pathologic cardiac hypertrophy, consistent with reinduction of the fetal energy metabolic program. This review describes results of recent molecular studies aimed at delineating the gene regulatory events which facilitate myocardial energy substrate switches during hypertrophic growth of the heart. Studies aimed at the characterization of transcriptional control mechanisms governing FAO enzyme gene expression in the cardiac myocyte have defined a central role for the fatty acid-activated nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR(alpha)). Cardiac FAO enzyme gene expression was shown to be coordinately downregulated in murine models of ventricular pressure overload, consistent with the energy substrate switch away from fatty acid utilization in the hypertrophied heart. Nuclear protein levels of PPAR(alpha) decline in the ventricle in response to pressure overload, while several Sp and nuclear receptor transcription factors are induced to fetal levels, consistent with their binding to DNA as transcriptional repressors of rate-limiting FAO enzyme genes with hypertrophy. Knowledge of key components of this transcriptional regulatory pathway will allow for the development of genetic engineering strategies in mice that will modulate fatty acid oxidative flux and assist in defining whether energy metabolic derangements play a primary role in the development of pathologic cardiac hypertrophy and eventual progression to heart failure.

  13. Minority business bidding for local government contracts: the complexity of availability.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Ralph L; Murrell, Audrey; Constance-Huggins, Monique

    2007-01-01

    While minority-business enterprises (MBEs) have gained some access to local government contracts during the last three decades, these firms continue to receive a small share of local government contract spending relative to the number of available firms. Researchers have suggested two general explanations for the low representation of MBEs in contract awards: (1) lack of qualifications and capacity among MBEs, and (2) public and private discrimination against MBEs in contracting processes. This study on prime contract opportunities in a Northern central city and county with a large minority population finds that low bid rates greatly contribute to the low MBE shares of prime contracts and that bidding is reduced by both local government processes and characteristics of the firms. Some implications of these findings are that local governments need to: (1) monitor MBE shares of prime contract bids by size of contract and use share of bids as one measure of program and organizational effectiveness; (2) identify MBEs that are qualified for prime contracts and encourage and help interested firms to submit competitive bids; and (3) ensure that local government policies and practices do not diminish access to information about prime contract opportunities for qualified and interested minority firms. Another implication is that bidders lists should not be a primary basis for determining MBE availability, since many qualified and interested MBEs do not bid because of perceived barriers in local government.

  14. Critical length scales and strain localization govern the mechanical performance of multi-layer graphene assemblies.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenjie; Ruiz, Luis; Pugno, Nicola M; Keten, Sinan

    2016-03-28

    Multi-layer graphene assemblies (MLGs) or fibers with a staggered architecture exhibit high toughness and failure strain that surpass those of the constituent single sheets. However, how the architectural parameters such as the sheet overlap length affect these mechanical properties remains unknown due in part to the limitations of mechanical continuum models. By exploring the mechanics of MLG assemblies under tensile deformation using our established coarse-grained molecular modeling framework, we have identified three different critical interlayer overlap lengths controlling the strength, plastic stress, and toughness of MLGs, respectively. The shortest critical length scale L(C)(S) governs the strength of the assembly as predicted by the shear-lag model. The intermediate critical length L(C)(P) is associated with a dynamic frictional process that governs the strain localization propensity of the assembly, and hence the failure strain. The largest critical length scale L(C)(T) corresponds to the overlap length necessary to achieve 90% of the maximum theoretical toughness of the material. Our analyses provide the general guidelines for tuning the constitutive properties and toughness of multilayer 2D nanomaterials using elasticity, interlayer adhesion energy and geometry as molecular design parameters.

  15. A Historical Perspective on Local Environmental Movements in Japan: Lessons for the Transdisciplinary Approach on Water Resource Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, T.

    2014-12-01

    Typical studies on natural resources from a social science perspective tend to choose one type of resource—water, for example— and ask what factors contribute to the sustainable use or wasteful exploitation of that resource. However, climate change and economic development, which are causing increased pressure on local resources and presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts, force us to consider the trade-offs between options for using a particular resource. Therefore, the transdisciplinary approach that accurately captures the advantages and disadvantages of various possible resource uses is particularly important in the complex social-ecological systems, where concerns about inequality with respect to resource use and access have become unavoidable. Needless to say, resource management and policy require sound scientific understanding of the complex interconnections between nature and society, however, in contrast to typical international discussions, I discuss Japan not as an "advanced" case where various dilemmas have been successfully addressed by the government through the optimal use of technology, but rather as a nation seeing an emerging trend that is based on a awareness of the connections between local resources and the environment. Furthermore, from a historical viewpoint, the nexus of local resources is not a brand-new idea in the experience of environmental governance in Japan. There exist the local environment movements, which emphasized the interconnection of local resources and succeeded in urging the governmental action and policymaking. For this reason, local movements and local knowledge for the resource governance warrant attention. This study focuses on the historical cases relevant to water resource management including groundwater, and considers the contexts and conditions to holistically address local resource problems, paying particular attention to interactions between science and society. I

  16. Local government alcohol policy development: case studies in three New Zealand communities

    PubMed Central

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Room, Robin; Langley, John

    2013-01-01

    Aims Local alcohol policies can be effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. The aim of this study was to examine local government responses to alcohol-related problems and identify factors influencing their development and adoption of alcohol policy. Designsettings and participants Case studies were used to examine local government responses to alcohol problems in three New Zealand communities: a rural town, a provincial city and a metropolitan city. Newspaper reports, local government documents and key informant interviews were used to collect data which were analysed using two conceptual frameworks: Kingdon's Streams model and the Stakeholder model of policy development. Measurements Key informant narratives were categorized according to the concepts of the Streams and Stakeholder models. Findings Kingdon's theoretical concepts associated with increased likelihood of policy change seemed to apply in the rural and metropolitan communities. The political environment in the provincial city, however, was not favourable to the adoption of alcohol restrictions. The Stakeholder model highlighted differences between the communities in terms of power over agenda-setting and conflict between politicians and bureaucrats over policy solutions to alcohol-related harm. These differences were reflected in the ratio of policies considered versus adopted in each location. Decisions on local alcohol policies lie ultimately with local politicians, although the policies that can be adopted by local government are restricted by central government legislation. Conclusions The adoption of policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm may be better facilitated by an agenda-setting process where no ‘gate-keepers’ determine what is included into the agenda, and community mobilization efforts to create competitive local government elections around alcohol issues. Policy adoption would also be facilitated by more enabling central government legislation. PMID:23130762

  17. Local government alcohol policy development: case studies in three New Zealand communities.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Room, Robin; Langley, John

    2013-05-01

    Local alcohol policies can be effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. The aim of this study was to examine local government responses to alcohol-related problems and identify factors influencing their development and adoption of alcohol policy. DESIGNSETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Case studies were used to examine local government responses to alcohol problems in three New Zealand communities: a rural town, a provincial city and a metropolitan city. Newspaper reports, local government documents and key informant interviews were used to collect data which were analysed using two conceptual frameworks: Kingdon's Streams model and the Stakeholder model of policy development. Key informant narratives were categorized according to the concepts of the Streams and Stakeholder models. Kingdon's theoretical concepts associated with increased likelihood of policy change seemed to apply in the rural and metropolitan communities. The political environment in the provincial city, however, was not favourable to the adoption of alcohol restrictions. The Stakeholder model highlighted differences between the communities in terms of power over agenda-setting and conflict between politicians and bureaucrats over policy solutions to alcohol-related harm. These differences were reflected in the ratio of policies considered versus adopted in each location. Decisions on local alcohol policies lie ultimately with local politicians, although the policies that can be adopted by local government are restricted by central government legislation. The adoption of policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm may be better facilitated by an agenda-setting process where no 'gate-keepers' determine what is included into the agenda, and community mobilization efforts to create competitive local government elections around alcohol issues. Policy adoption would also be facilitated by more enabling central government legislation. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of

  18. Reality of using a model from local governments' perspective-How science community can help?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzazad, S.

    2016-12-01

    Local governments across the US use historic data to approve capital improvement projects and update comprehensive/zoning plans. Due to the effects of climate change, historic data sets are no longer suitable, which requires communities to use climate models to project the future. However, the use of climate models also presents challenges for local governments such as: Variations between models: Because model-development methodologies vary, different climate models provide different end results. A local governments' decision concerning which climate model to use is tricky because the model drives policy direction and infrastructure investments that can be both expensive and controversial. Communicating the gaps of a model: There are always uncertainties associated with modeling. These gaps may range from the scale of a model to the type of data used in modeling. Effectively communicating this to a community is crucial to gain political support. Managing politics associated with using a model: In many cases, models project changes to the built environment that will detrimentally affect private property owners. This can result in strong push back from the community and could threaten the local tax base. Scientists have important roles; from development to delivery of models to assisting local governments navigate through these challenges. Bringing in entities with experience of working with local governments can contribute to a successful outcome. In this proposed session, ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability will use the USGS CoSMoS as a case study for lessons learned in establishing a framework for effective collaboration between local governments and the science community.

  19. 25 CFR 36.111 - Can a tribe, tribal governing body, or local school board waive the homeliving standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a tribe, tribal governing body, or local school board... tribe, tribal governing body, or local school board waive the homeliving standards? A tribal governing body or local school board may waive some or all of the standards established by this part if the body...

  20. 25 CFR 36.111 - Can a tribe, tribal governing body, or local school board waive the homeliving standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a tribe, tribal governing body, or local school board... tribe, tribal governing body, or local school board waive the homeliving standards? A tribal governing body or local school board may waive some or all of the standards established by this part if the body...

  1. Changing Framework of Local Governance and Community Participation in Elementary Education in India. Research Monograph No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govinda, R; Bandyopadhyay, Madhumita

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, strengthening and better functioning of local governance have become prime concerns of educational reform agenda. Establishment of effective local governance has been part of overall changes in educational governance for several years in many countries including India. It is now widely recognized that effective local governance…

  2. 27 CFR 53.135 - Tax-free sale of articles to State and local governments for their exclusive use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... not be sold tax free to a State or local government for resale to its police officers. See section... exclusive use by the State or local government (such as pistols or revolvers that are resold by a police department to its police officers), the parties responsible in the State or local government are required to...

  3. Reversing the pipeline? Implementing public health evidence-based guidance in english local government.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Lou; Kelly, Michael P; Littleford, Clare; Leng, Gillian; Michie, Susan

    2017-05-12

    In the UK, responsibility for many public health functions was transferred in 2013 from the National Health Service (NHS) to local government; a very different political context and one without the NHS history of policy and practice being informed by evidence-based guidelines. A problem this move presented was whether evidence-based guidelines would be seen as relevant, useful and implementable within local government. This study investigates three aspects of implementing national evidence-based recommendations for public health within a local government context: influences on implementation, how useful guidelines are perceived to be and whether the linear evidence-guidelines-practice model is considered relevant. Thirty-one councillors, public health directors and deputy directors and officers and other local government employees were interviewed about their experiences implementing evidence-based guidelines. Interviews were informed and analysed using a theoretical model of behaviour (COM-B; Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour). Contextual issues such as budget, capacity and political influence were important influences on implementation. Guidelines were perceived to be of limited use, with concerns expressed about recommendations being presented in the abstract, lacking specificity and not addressing the complexity of situations or local variations. Local evidence was seen as the best starting point, rather than evidence-based guidance produced by the traditional linear 'evidence-guidelines-practice' model. Local evidence was used to not only provide context for recommendations but also replace recommendations when they conflicted with local evidence. Local government users do not necessarily consider national guidelines to be fit for purpose at local level, with the consequence that local evidence tends to trump evidence-based guidelines. There is thus a tension between the traditional model of guideline development and the needs of public health

  4. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    PubMed

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  5. A Multi-Media Approach to Teaching Local Government on the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTeer, J. Hugh; Jackson, Barry N.

    The document offers numerous examples of using the media in teaching local government and explains how to create appropriate materials. Suggestions are to collect news from newspapers and to record news and forum discussions on local radio stations. Forms and pamphlets can be collected from offices of the court clerk, probate judge, tax…

  6. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... immunity from State and local sales and use taxes, the matter will be referred to the AAG/A for review, and... support the contention that a contractor is an agent of the Government for the purpose of immunity from a... immunity from State and local sales or use taxes. Any referral to the AAG/A for approval under this...

  7. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... immunity from State and local sales and use taxes, the matter will be referred to the AAG/A for review, and... support the contention that a contractor is an agent of the Government for the purpose of immunity from a... immunity from State and local sales or use taxes. Any referral to the AAG/A for approval under this...

  8. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... immunity from State and local sales and use taxes, the matter will be referred to the AAG/A for review, and... support the contention that a contractor is an agent of the Government for the purpose of immunity from a... immunity from State and local sales or use taxes. Any referral to the AAG/A for approval under this...

  9. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors. 2829.303 Section 2829.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES State and Local Taxes 2829.303...

  10. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors. 2829.303 Section 2829.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES State and Local Taxes 2829.303...

  11. Reconstructed Task Orientation and Local Time Governance in Compulsory Schools: The Swedish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westlund, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a five-year trial period without a set timetable for compulsory school education in 79 municipalities was concluded in Sweden. The overall idea of the trial was to facilitate local participation, local time governance and flexible learning. Within the pilot trial, each individual pupil's school activities were supposed to be designed to…

  12. Reconstructed Task Orientation and Local Time Governance in Compulsory Schools: The Swedish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westlund, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a five-year trial period without a set timetable for compulsory school education in 79 municipalities was concluded in Sweden. The overall idea of the trial was to facilitate local participation, local time governance and flexible learning. Within the pilot trial, each individual pupil's school activities were supposed to be designed to…

  13. 48 CFR 42.705-5 - Nonprofit organizations other than educational and state and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.705-5 Nonprofit organizations other than educational and state and local... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonprofit organizations other than educational and state and local governments. 42.705-5 Section 42.705-5 Federal Acquisition...

  14. 21 CFR 20.84 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees... consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 372... disclosure may be disclosed to Food and Drug Administration consultants, advisory committees, State and local...

  15. 21 CFR 20.84 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees... consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 372... disclosure may be disclosed to Food and Drug Administration consultants, advisory committees, State and local...

  16. 21 CFR 20.84 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees... consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 372... disclosure may be disclosed to Food and Drug Administration consultants, advisory committees, State and local...

  17. 21 CFR 20.84 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees... consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 372... disclosure may be disclosed to Food and Drug Administration consultants, advisory committees, State and local...

  18. 21 CFR 20.84 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees... consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials commissioned pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 372... disclosure may be disclosed to Food and Drug Administration consultants, advisory committees, State and local...

  19. 20 CFR 1001.123 - Performance standards governing the assignment and role of Local Veterans' Employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assignment and role of Local Veterans' Employment Representatives (LVERs). 1001.123 Section 1001.123 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE... Veterans and Eligible Persons § 1001.123 Performance standards governing the assignment and role of Local...

  20. Local government policies toward environmentally sensitive areas in British Columbia, Canada; Washington and Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Michael D.; Reganold, John P.

    1989-07-01

    While there has been sustained debate on the issue of provincial and state versus local government environmental planning, maintaining privately owned natural resources in the public interest is increasingly viewed as beyond the scope of local governments alone. This paper describes and compares province- and state-level mandates and options for local governments (i.e., city, county, or district) to regulate land uses of environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) in British Columbia in Canada and in Washington and Oregon in the United States. We define ESAs as landscape elements or places that are vital to the long-term maintenance of biological diversity, soil, water, and other natural resources, especially as they relate to human health, safety, and welfare, both on-site and in a regional context. Underlying similarities are that all three jurisdictions legally express the need for land-use planning by local governments in managing ESAs. Although all three jurisdictions exhibit similar problems in their attempt to accomplish this, ESA planning by local governments is an optional process in British Columbia and Washington but mandatory in Oregon. Furthermore, actual processes prescribed by each of the three jurisdictions are quite different. The information base upon which local regulation of privately held ESAs depends is variable, both within and between the province- and statelevel jurisdictions. Other than for some specific water-related resources, standard definitions and inventory methods for ESAs are lacking, as is coordination among local governments or among the province- and state-level governments. This study concludes that there is a need for a regional environmental information system in the Pacific Northwest based upon an integrated and scientific approach toward ESA structures and functions.

  1. Learning molecular energies using localized graph kernels

    DOE PAGES

    Ferré, Grégoire; Haut, Terry Scot; Barros, Kipton Marcos

    2017-03-21

    We report that recent machine learning methods make it possible to model potential energy of atomic configurations with chemical-level accuracy (as calculated from ab initio calculations) and at speeds suitable for molecular dynamics simulation. Best performance is achieved when the known physical constraints are encoded in the machine learning models. For example, the atomic energy is invariant under global translations and rotations; it is also invariant to permutations of same-species atoms. Although simple to state, these symmetries are complicated to encode into machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach based on graph theory that naturallymore » incorporates translation, rotation, and permutation symmetries. Specifically, we use a random walk graph kernel to measure the similarity of two adjacency matrices, each of which represents a local atomic environment. This Graph Approximated Energy (GRAPE) approach is flexible and admits many possible extensions. Finally, we benchmark a simple version of GRAPE by predicting atomization energies on a standard dataset of organic molecules.« less

  2. Guidelines for Groundwater Governance in California: A Framework for Evaluation of Local Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiparsky, M.; Owen, D.; Green Nylen, N. M.; Doremus, H.; Christian-Smith, J.; Fisher, A.; Milman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of California's historic Sustainable Groundwater Management Act for the future of California's water is difficult to overstate, but its implementation raises new questions. Governance refers to structures and processes that enable policy decisions to be made and implemented, and is one key unresolved topic. Local governments will need to decide, quickly and with great latitude, how to create novel agencies with novel structures and challenging mandates. Sustainability is defined in physical terms in the Act, but because governance plays such a critical role in the potential for GSAs to achieve their goals, we argue that governance itself should also be viewed as an essential element of sustainability, and that it needs to be considered with nuance and rigor. We propose a framework to inform decisions about local groundwater governance. We suggest that local stakeholders and state agencies should evaluate plans and proposals from GSAs based on specific criteria that are necessary for the effective governance of such a complex, interconnected resource. These criteria include scale, capacity, funding, authority, independence, representation, participation, accountability, and transparency, each of which supports the overarching themes of fairness and efficacy. We discuss these concepts within the legal, regulatory, and geophysical contexts in which they must be explicitly situated for effective governance.

  3. Governance typology: a consensus classification of state-local health department relationships.

    PubMed

    Meit, Michael; Sellers, Katie; Kronstadt, Jessica; Lawhorn, Nikki; Brown, Alexa; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Pearsol, Jim; Jarris, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    Public health practitioners and researchers often refer to state public health systems as being centralized, decentralized, shared, or mixed. These categories refer to governance of the local public health units within the state and whether they operate under the authority of the state government, local government, shared state and local governance, or a mix of governance structures within the state. This article describes the development of an objective method of classifying states as centralized, decentralized, shared, or mixed. We also discuss some initial analyses that have been conducted to identify how public health resources and activities vary across states with different classifications. Cross-sectional study. State health agencies. Survey respondents were organizational leaders from all 50 state health agencies. Total full-time equivalent employees, total health agency expenditures, expenditures on clinical services, and provision of clinical services. Centralized state health agencies employ more full-time equivalent employees, have higher total expenditures, and provide more clinical services than decentralized state health agencies. Although higher expenditures on clinical services were observed, these differences were not statistically significant. It is important to take governance classification into account when investigating variation in services, resources, or performance of governmental public health systems. As public health systems and services researchers seek to identify best practices in the organization of public health systems, consistent definition of different types of organization is critical. This system provides an objective and reliable system for classifying governance relationships that allows for comparisons that are meaningful to both practitioners and researchers.

  4. Delivering on a gendered definition of health needs in local government budgeting: experiences and concepts.

    PubMed

    Buyana, K

    2009-10-01

    Local governments are granted budgetary power in the Local Governments Act of the Republic of Uganda, which allows for local-level participation and flexibility in the allocation of financial grants channelled annually from central to local governments. The act prescribes a legal mandate to allocate public resources based on local priorities including the health needs of women compared with men. This study investigated the responsiveness of local government budgeting to the health needs of women as compared to men. A qualitative study was conducted in Mpigi district using a set of data collection methods including: a) three (3) focus group discussions with 8 female and 8 male respondents in each group; b) face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 120 households, 75% of which were male-headed and 25% female-headed ; c) key informant interviews with a sample of 10 administrative officers in Mpigi district ; and d) desk-review of the Mpigi district Budget Framework Paper. Health needs consist of the daily requirements, which, arise out of common disease infections and the socioeconomic constraints that affect the well-being of women and men. However, the primary concern of the district health sector is disease control measures, without emphasis on the differing socio-economic interests of women as compared to men. Local government budgeting, therefore, does not reflect the broad community-wide understanding of health needs. Local government budgeting should be informed by a two-fold framework for the gendered definition of health needs. The two-fold framework combines both disease-based health needs and socio-economic needs of women as compared to men.

  5. Sell Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide to Selling to the U.S. Government

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Government spends $500 billion on goods and services every year and $20 billion on energy. For many product types, the U.S. Government is the single largest purchaser. Manufacturers and vendors can increase their sales potential by helping Federal purchasers meet their energy-efficient product purchasing requirements. This guide explains how to sell products to the government.

  6. Massachusetts Clean Energy Partnership Project Recognized As an Innovation in Government Finalist

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ash Center for Democratic Governance & Innovation at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, has recognized the MA Clean Energy Partnership for Wastewater & Drinking Water Facilities project as one of five finalists...

  7. TAP Helps States and Local Governments Reach Their Wind Power Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    Technical Assistance Project: Wind and Hydropower Program provides information to state and local officials regarding the U.S. Department of Energy's Technical Assistance Project (TAP). The TAP program provides access to wind energy experts at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, including the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  8. A critical friend: monitoring and evaluation systems, development cooperation and local government. The case of Tuscany.

    PubMed

    Rossignoli, Serena; Coticchia, Fabrizio; Mezzasalma, Annarosa

    2015-06-01

    The role of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems in the field of development cooperation has globally increased in last decades. International and regional organizations, as well as states, local governments and NGOs have largely adopted the tools provided by M&E in order to enhance transparency, effectiveness and efficiency. The paper aims at verifying how and to what extent the implementation of M&E systems has affected the overall quality of international cooperation projects financed by a local government. After a literature review on M&E in development cooperation, the research analyzes the wide range of activities (evaluation ex-ante, mid-term, final, monitoring, consultancy) carried out by the Evaluation Team of the XY in the last eight years in behalf of an Italian local government: the Region of Tuscany. The paper reveals the strategic significance of adopting M&E systems in the medium-long term.

  9. [The role of local governments in the fight against the scourge of AIDS. 2003].

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    The challenges imposed by HIV/AIDS in urban areas make it imperative to act at the local level. Local government agencies (LGAs) are closer to the victims of HIV/AIDS and are thus better able to undertake the needed actions. However, LGAs can succeed in the fight against HIV/AIDS only if they work closely with all levels of government and other local representatives of civil society that take part in the struggle against HIV/AIDS at the community level. In fact, the most obvious comparative advantage of LGAs may be their capacity for creating an atmosphere that is conducive to coordinating, directing, and undertaking local measures - both new and preexisting - against HIV/AIDS. Even with reduced support (financial or political), LGAs can achieve significant results in the fight against HIV/ AIDS by incorporating response measures against these conditions in the municipal agenda. It is precisely in order to help solve this complex situation that the World Bank has just published a book entitled Local Government Responses to HIV/AIDS: A Handbook. This text is intended for officials working for the mayor and members of local legislative bodies in charge of implementing sustainable and responsible measures against HIV/AIDS at the municipal level. Though it is hoped that each local government office will creatively follow the suggestions given in this manual, the theoretical framework and practical approach in it are a guarantee that applying them will lead to an improved ability to respond against HIV/AIDS on the part of local government agencies.

  10. Social determinants of health and local government: understanding and uptake of ideas in two Australian states.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Angela; Lane, Anna; Lewis, Felicity-Ann; Baum, Fran; Harris, Patrick

    2016-10-23

    To examine the awareness and perceptions of local government staff about the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequity and use of these ideas to shape policy and practice. 96 staff at 17 councils in South Australia or New South Wales responded to questions in a pilot online survey concerning: sources of knowledge about, familiarity with the evidence on, attitudes towards, and uses of ideas about the social determinants of health. Eight of 68 SA councils and 16 of 152 NSW councils were randomly selected stratified by state and metropolitan status. Differences between states and metropolitan/non-metropolitan status were explored. The majority of respondents (88.4%) reported some familiarity with ideas about the broad determinants of health and 90% agreed that the impact of policy action on health determinants should be considered in all major government policy and planning initiatives. Research articles, government/professional reports, and professional contacts were rated as important sources of knowledge about the social determinants of health. Resources need to be dedicated to systematic research on practical implementation of interventions on social determinants of health inequities and towards providing staff with more practical information about interventions and tools to evaluate those interventions. The findings suggest there is support for action addressing the social determinants of health in local government. The findings extend similar research regarding SDoH and government in NZ and Canada to Australian local government. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Fiscal competition in health spending among local governments in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Kelekar, Uma

    2013-01-01

    The Philippines is one of several Asian countries that has decentralized the provision of health care to its local governments in recent decades. In the context of decentralization, a few studies have previously examined the issue of fiscal competition among local governments in the developing world. This report presents a summary of a published study that examined the existence of inter-jurisdictional competition in health-care spending in the Philippines. The results indicate the presence of positive fiscal "spillovers" in health spending, consistent with municipalities/cities competing to outspend their neighbours. Several potential explanations forthis finding are discussed.

  12. DAMAGE AND CORRESPOBDENCE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENTS FOR Mt. SHINMOE 2011 ERUPTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kohji; Nakano, Susumu; Kasubuchi, Yoshio

    On Jan. 27, 2011, Mt. Shinmoe in the Kirishima mountain range on the border between Kagoshima and Miyazaki Prefectures began erupting for the first time in 52 years. In this study, to clarify the damage and correspondence of local governments and business establishments for a series of volcanic hazards of Mt. Shinmoe in 2011, we conducted interview research and document investigation. For endless volcanic hazard, not only the serious and sustained effots of disaster-affected area, but also the broad-based supoorts from neighboring local governments and business establishments are required.

  13. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... local government official in electronic form, unless the official specifically requests the information... analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of... Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence...

  14. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  15. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  16. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  17. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  18. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  19. 25 CFR 170.107 - Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consult with tribes when planning for transportation projects? 170.107 Section 170.107 Indians BUREAU OF... planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation projects..., planning organizations and local governments should consult with tribal governments when planning for...

  20. Quantum reading under a local energy constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spedalieri, Gaetana; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    Nonclassical states of light play a central role in many quantum information protocols. Very recently, their quantum features have been exploited to improve the readout of information from digital memories, modeled as arrays of microscopic beam splitters [Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.090504 106, 090504 (2011)]. In this model of “quantum reading,” a nonclassical source of light with Einstein-Podolski-Rosen correlations has been proven to retrieve more information than any classical source. In particular, the quantum-classical comparison has been performed under a global energy constraint, i.e., by fixing the mean total number of photons irradiated over each memory cell. In this paper we provide an alternative analysis which is based on a local energy constraint, meaning that we fix the mean number of photons per signal mode irradiated over the memory cell. Under this assumption, we investigate the critical number of signal modes after which a nonclassical source of light is able to beat any classical source irradiating the same number of signals.

  1. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  2. A Balance Between Two Nuclear Localization Sequences and a Nuclear Export Sequence Governs Extradenticle Subcellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Katherine E.; Mann, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    During animal development, transcription factor activities are modulated by several means, including subcellular localization. The Hox cofactor Extradenticle (Exd) has a dynamic subcellular localization, such that Exd is cytoplasmic by default, but is nuclear when complexed with another homeodomain protein, Homothorax (Hth). These observations raise the question of whether dimerization with Hth simply induces Exd's nuclear localization or, alternatively, if Hth is also necessary for Exd activity. To address this question, we analyzed the nuclear transport signals in Exd, including a divergent nuclear export signal (NES) and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs). We show that, although these signals are weak compared to canonical signals, they balance each other in Exd. We also provide evidence that Exd contains an NLS mask that contributes to its cytoplasmic localization. With these signals characterized, we generated forms of Exd that are nuclear localized in the absence of Hth. Surprisingly, although these Exd forms are functional, they do not phenocopy Hth overexpression. These findings suggest that Hth is required for Exd activity, not simply for inducing its nuclear localization. PMID:17277370

  3. Local groundwater governance in Yemen: building on traditions and enabling communities to craft new rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, Taha; Bruns, Bryan; Bamaga, Omar; Al-Weshali, Adel; van Steenbergen, Frank

    2012-09-01

    Local groundwater management in Yemen and the means by which stakeholders can work together to improve water governance are discussed. In the last few decades the discourse on groundwater management in Yemen has increasingly been cast in terms of crisis, triggered by rapidly declining water tables around cities and in the main agricultural areas. However, in some places in Yemen, communities have responded by implementing local rules that have reduced conflict and provided more reliable and equitable access to water. This trend towards development of local groundwater governance is described, and could make a major contribution in realizing the goals of national water-sector policies and strategies. Twenty-four cases have been identified from different parts of the country and five cases are presented in detail. The article discusses how the process of local management could be nurtured and how it could contribute to rebalancing water use in several parts of Yemen.

  4. Health and equity in all policies in local government: processes and outcomes in two Norwegian municipalities.

    PubMed

    Von Heimburg, Dina; Hakkebo, Berit

    2017-08-01

    To identify key factors in implementing Health and Equity in All Policies (HEiAP) at the local level in two Norwegian municipalities in order to accelerate the progress of promoting health, well-being and equity in other local governments. This case study is presented as a narrative from policy-making processes in two Norwegian municipalities. The story is told from an insider perspective, with a focus on HEiAP policy makers in these two municipalities. The narrative identified key learning from implementing HEiAP at the local level, i.e. the importance of strengthening system and human capacities. System capacity is strengthened by governing HEiAP according to national legislation and a holistic governance system at the local level. Municipal plans are based on theory, evidence and local data. A 'main story' is developed to support the vision, defining joint societal goals and co-creation strategies. Policies are anchored by measuring and monitoring outcomes, sharing accountability and continuous dialogue to ensure political commitment. Human capacity is strengthened through participatory leadership, soft skills and health promotion competences across sectors. Health promotion competence at a strategic level in the organization, participation in professional networks, crowd sourcing toward common goals, and commitment through winning hearts and minds of politicians and other stakeholders are vital aspects. Our experience pinpoints the importance of strengthening system and human capacity in local governments. Further, we found it important to focus on the two strategic objectives in the European strategy 'Health 2020': (1) Improving health for all and reducing health inequalities; (2) improving leadership and participatory governance for health.

  5. CHP and Local Governments: Case Studies and EPA’s New Guide (Webinar) – September 30, 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar presents two case studies of CHP development projects undertaken through cooperation between private companies and government entities, and introduces an EPA guide to assist local governments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

  6. Science-practice nexus for landslide surveying: technical training for local government units in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, A. L.; Hespiantoro, S.; Dyar, D.; Balzer, D.; Kuhn, D.; Torizin, J.; Fuchs, M.; Kastl, S.; Anhorn, J.

    2017-02-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is prone to various geological hazards on an almost day to day basis. In order to mitigate disaster risk and reduce losses, the government uses its unique setup of ministerial training institutions. The Centre for Development of Human Resources in Geology, Mineral and Coal offers different level of technical training to local governments in order to provide them with the necessary means to understand geological hazards, mitigate risks, and hence close the gap between local and national governments. One key factor has been the continuous incorporation of new scientific knowledge into their training curricula. The paper presents benefits and challenges of this science-practice nexus using the standardised landslide survey as one example where mobile technology has been introduced to the training just recently.

  7. 76 FR 61597 - Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments: DOT Amendments on Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR part 230, Appendix C, as not standards that... organization or a Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR... agreements to State and Local governments. In addition, this rule updates references to applicable...

  8. 76 FR 28224 - Cancellation of the Local Government Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... later date. Further information regarding this meeting can be obtained by contacting Paula Zampieri, DFO for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) at (202) 566-2496 or Zampieri.Paula@epa.gov... or any future meetings should contact Ms. Paula Zampieri, Designated Federal Officer (DFO) for...

  9. 76 FR 35891 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee and Small Community Advisory Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... their point of view. Also, written comments should be submitted electronically to Zampieri.Paula@epa.gov... CONTACT: Paula Zampieri, DFO for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) and Small Community Advisory Subcommittee (SCAS) at (202) 566-2496 or e-mail at Zampieri.Paula@epa.gov . INFORMATION...

  10. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? 170.902 Section 170.902 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER..., develop emergency response plans, perform emergency response, issue permits, conduct vehicle...

  11. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  12. 41 CFR 105-50.001-2 - Political subdivision or local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision or local government. 105-50.001-2 Section 105-50.001-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF...

  13. 41 CFR 105-50.001-3 - Unit of general local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit of general local government. 105-50.001-3 Section 105-50.001-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF SPECIAL...

  14. 41 CFR 105-50.001-4 - Special-purpose unit of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special-purpose unit of local government. 105-50.001-4 Section 105-50.001-4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF...

  15. "Critical Friends": Exploring Arm's Length Actor Relationships to Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Discussions charting the changing role of local government in education have often focused extensively on "concrete" policy changes over time, but have provided less detail on the contribution to changing power relations of less tangible shifts. Drawing on Foucauldian notions of discourse and governmentality, in this paper, detailed…

  16. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for State and Local Government/Solid Waste Planners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by state and local government/solid waste planners. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  17. Funding for Local Government and Schools in Rural Oklahoma. ERS Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloggett, Gordon; Doeksen, Gerald

    Oil, gas, and agriculture are the bases of rural Oklahoma's economy, and income from these sectors varied widely during the 1980s. This study investigated revenue sources and the effects of changing revenues for county and town governments and school systems in 36 rural Oklahoma counties. Major sources of local revenue were sales taxes, property…

  18. Sustainable Development and African Local Government: Can Electronic Training Help Build Capacities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hazel; Thomas, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A recent study carried out by European and African organizations into the potential for electronic distance training (EDT) on sustainability in African local governments concluded that EDT was both "useful and feasible". This article reflects on some of the theoretical and practical implications of that study. It focuses on the…

  19. Index of Training Programs and Services Offered to Local Units of Government in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chuck

    The document is intended as ready compilation of services and training programs available to local units of government, their officials and employees. It is organized into functional areas with subcategories of services and training offered by State agencies, educational institutions, and private entities. Agency contact personnel, substate…

  20. Autonomy and Governance in Local Authority Provision for Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth; Donkin, Arnet; Waite, Sue; Lawson, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    The role of local government in addressing issues of social equity is undergoing significant reconstruction in current educational policy reforms in England. The current conceptualisation of social provision places individual rights at the centre of policy, and social responsibility is represented as the work of individuals. Drawing upon a…

  1. An Extension Education Program to Help Local Governments with Flood Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Gretchen; Allred, Shorna; LoGiudice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Education is an important tool to increase the capacity of local government officials for community flood adaptation. To address flood adaptation and post-flood stream management in municipalities, Cornell Cooperative Extension and collaborators developed an educational program to increase municipal officials' knowledge about how to work…

  2. 24 CFR 597.200 - Nominations by State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Nomination Procedure § 597.200 Nominations by State and local governments. (a... mothers and their children; (2) Establishing programs that provide activities after school hours, including keeping school buildings open during evenings and weekends for mentor and study programs. (iii...

  3. 24 CFR 597.200 - Nominations by State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Nomination Procedure § 597.200 Nominations by State and local governments. (a... mothers and their children; (2) Establishing programs that provide activities after school hours, including keeping school buildings open during evenings and weekends for mentor and study programs. (iii...

  4. 24 CFR 597.200 - Nominations by State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Nomination Procedure § 597.200 Nominations by State and local governments. (a... mothers and their children; (2) Establishing programs that provide activities after school hours, including keeping school buildings open during evenings and weekends for mentor and study programs. (iii...

  5. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT...

  6. 36 CFR 219.14 - Involvement of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.14 Involvement of State and local governments. The responsible official... the planning process, including the identification of issues; and (b) Contribute to the streamlined...

  7. Urban Poverty and Access to Information Technology: A Role for Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servon, Lisa J.; Horrigan, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the intersection between access to information technology and urban poverty and the role of the local government through a case study of Austin (Texas). The examples of the Austin Free-Net, which provides access sites and user training, and other Austin programs show the large degree of citizen interest and the recognition by policymakers…

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 31 - Audit Requirements for State and Local Government Recipients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Local Government Recipients EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Office of Management and Budget... 7505 of the Act requires the Director of the Office of Management and Budget to prescribe policies... by the Office of Management and Budget to carry out the responsibilities described in paragraph 11 of...

  9. 48 CFR 970.2903-2 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Application of State and local taxes to the Government. It is DOE policy to secure those immunities or... to preclude payment of any taxes for which any of the immunities or exemptions cited in this subpart are available. Advice of Counsel should be sought as to the availability of such immunities...

  10. Index of Training Programs and Services Offered to Local Units of Government in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chuck

    The document is intended as ready compilation of services and training programs available to local units of government, their officials and employees. It is organized into functional areas with subcategories of services and training offered by State agencies, educational institutions, and private entities. Agency contact personnel, substate…

  11. Local Government Manpower Requirements for Community Development in South Carolina. Memorandum No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Research and Management, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    Local government manpower requirements and training needs as related to the process of community development in South Carolina are discussed in this preparatory report. The process of community development is defined in terms of the responsibilities of major public, quasi-public, and private participants with an emphasis on the role of local…

  12. State and Local Government Finance and Financial Management: A Compendium of Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, John E., Ed.; And Others

    This volume is a compendium of current research in the field of state and local government finance and financial management. It was created in response to the need of both users and researchers in the area for a comprehensive picture of research work that has been undertaken since 1974 and the results of which are now, or will be soon, available.…

  13. Autonomy and Governance in Local Authority Provision for Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth; Donkin, Arnet; Waite, Sue; Lawson, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    The role of local government in addressing issues of social equity is undergoing significant reconstruction in current educational policy reforms in England. The current conceptualisation of social provision places individual rights at the centre of policy, and social responsibility is represented as the work of individuals. Drawing upon a…

  14. Aerospace Employment Project: Finding New Careers in Local Government for Unemployed Engineers and Scientists. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.

    "If we can put a man on the moon, why can't we solve the problems of our cities?" The demand for urban services and the manpower needs of local governments were increasing dramatically. Skilled professional personnel were unemployed. The Aerospace Employment Project was set up as a special pilot project to test whether unemployed professional…

  15. Creating Synergies: Local Government Facilitating Learning and Development through Partnerships--Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Peter; Virgona, Crina; Brown, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This research sought to document and better understand four evolving learning communities in Victoria. It was based upon an earlier study by the Victorian Local Governance Association (VLGA) (Snelling, 2003). The study was qualitative in nature, based on face-to-face interviews and case studies. This supporting document provides the literature…

  16. Does Support for VET Reduce Employee Churn? A Case Study in Local Government. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kath

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do local governments use vocational education and training as a staff retention strategy? Human resources personnel from a selection of councils around Australia believed that a lack of career development or training opportunities might cause an employee to leave their organisation. They had some reservations about the quality and…

  17. Innovation Attributes, Policy Intervention, and the Diffusion of Computer Applications Among Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, James L.; Kraemer, Kenneth L.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that innovation attributes, together with policies associated with the diffusion on an innovation, account for significant differences in diffusion patterns. An empirical analysis of this thesis focuses on the diffusion of computer applications software in local government. Available from Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Box 211,…

  18. Innovation Attributes, Policy Intervention, and the Diffusion of Computer Applications Among Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, James L.; Kraemer, Kenneth L.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that innovation attributes, together with policies associated with the diffusion on an innovation, account for significant differences in diffusion patterns. An empirical analysis of this thesis focuses on the diffusion of computer applications software in local government. Available from Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Box 211,…

  19. Urban Poverty and Access to Information Technology: A Role for Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servon, Lisa J.; Horrigan, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the intersection between access to information technology and urban poverty and the role of the local government through a case study of Austin (Texas). The examples of the Austin Free-Net, which provides access sites and user training, and other Austin programs show the large degree of citizen interest and the recognition by policymakers…

  20. Generic Behavioural Criteria of Managerial Effectiveness: An Empirical and Comparative Case Study of UK Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Serventi, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a "partnership-research" study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour within the "local government" setting of the Wolverhampton City Council Social Care Department, and to describe how the research supports and challenges the organisation's existing…

  1. 36 CFR 219.14 - Involvement of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.14 Involvement of State and local governments. The responsible official... the planning process, including the identification of issues; and (b) Contribute to the...

  2. Growing Up Healthy: What Local Governments Can Do to Support Young Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakian, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The first five years of life are a period of profound growth and change as children begin to speak, think, reason, and feel. Brain research has found that both children's experiences and their relationships with others influence this early development in important and lasting ways. For local governments, the first five years represent a critical…

  3. "Critical Friends": Exploring Arm's Length Actor Relationships to Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Discussions charting the changing role of local government in education have often focused extensively on "concrete" policy changes over time, but have provided less detail on the contribution to changing power relations of less tangible shifts. Drawing on Foucauldian notions of discourse and governmentality, in this paper, detailed…

  4. 24 CFR 291.505 - Definition of “unit of general local government.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of âunit of general local government.â 291.505 Section 291.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  5. 24 CFR 291.505 - Definition of “unit of general local government.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of âunit of general local government.â 291.505 Section 291.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  6. 24 CFR 291.505 - Definition of “unit of general local government.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of âunit of general local government.â 291.505 Section 291.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  7. 24 CFR 291.505 - Definition of “unit of general local government.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âunit of general local government.â 291.505 Section 291.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  8. 24 CFR 291.505 - Definition of “unit of general local government.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of âunit of general local government.â 291.505 Section 291.505 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING...

  9. The Impact of the Centralization of Educational Funding and Control on State and Local Organizational Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John W.

    American education is distinctive in the decentralization of its funding and control. Despite recent expansion, the role of the federal government is still restricted to funding and authority in special programs and situations, while both states and localities have authority to define educational purposes, programs, and policies. At all levels of…

  10. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7)...

  11. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7)...

  12. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7)...

  13. Industry/Government Teleconference on Pollution Control. Proceedings National Telecast and Local Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY.

    Proceedings of the closed-circuit Teleconference on Pollution Control conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers on May 26, 1971 are supplied in this compendium. Edited transcripts are provided for the national programs and local panel sessions. Seeking to bring business and government together for cooperative problem solving, the…

  14. 48 CFR 970.2903-2 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Application of State and local taxes to the Government. It is DOE policy to secure those immunities or... to preclude payment of any taxes for which any of the immunities or exemptions cited in this subpart are available. Advice of Counsel should be sought as to the availability of such immunities...

  15. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  16. An Extension Education Program to Help Local Governments with Flood Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Gretchen; Allred, Shorna; LoGiudice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Education is an important tool to increase the capacity of local government officials for community flood adaptation. To address flood adaptation and post-flood stream management in municipalities, Cornell Cooperative Extension and collaborators developed an educational program to increase municipal officials' knowledge about how to work…

  17. 48 CFR 702.170-8 - Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions. 702.170-8 Section 702.170-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions...

  18. 77 FR 2539 - Meetings of the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee and the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... should be submitted electronically to eargle.frances@epa.gov . Please contact the Designated Federal... at davis.catherinem@epa.gov . For the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) contact Frances Eargle at (202) 564-3115 or email at eargle.frances@epa.gov . Information on Services for Those...

  19. 77 FR 15751 - Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... should be submitted electronically to eargle.frances@epa.gov . Please contact the Designated Federal...: Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) contact Frances Eargle at (202) 564-3115 or email at eargle.frances@epa.gov . For the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee (SCAS), contact Cathy Davis,...

  20. Industry/Government Teleconference on Pollution Control. Proceedings National Telecast and Local Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY.

    Proceedings of the closed-circuit Teleconference on Pollution Control conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers on May 26, 1971 are supplied in this compendium. Edited transcripts are provided for the national programs and local panel sessions. Seeking to bring business and government together for cooperative problem solving, the…

  1. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? 170.902 Section 170.902 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  2. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? 170.902 Section 170.902 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  3. The Role of Local Government in the Provision of Training for Volunteer Grassroots Sport Administrators in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jak; Skinner, James; Arthur, Dave; Booker, Ray

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 32 Australian local government officials and interviews held with 18 administrators responsible for sports and recreation. They recognized the importance of training for volunteer sports administrators and believed local government's role included identifying local needs and facilitating training. (Contains 20…

  4. Mineral Resource Dilemma: How to Balance the Interests of Government, Local Communities and Abiotic Nature

    PubMed Central

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights. PMID:25158138

  5. Mineral resource dilemma: how to balance the interests of government, local communities and abiotic nature.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-08-25

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights.

  6. Public health and English local government: historical perspectives on the impact of ‘returning home’

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Martin; Lock, Karen; Hogarth, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers’ allusions to ‘a long and proud history’ and ‘returning public health home’ there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it developed for environmental, preventive and health services by the mid-twentieth century. The main section discusses the early NHS, explaining why historians see the era as one of decline for the speciality of public health, leading to the reform of 1974, which saw the removal from local government and the abolition of the Medical Officer of Health role. Our discussion focuses on challenges faced before 1974 which raise organizational and political issues relevant to local councils today as they embed new public health teams. These include the themes of leadership, funding, integrated service delivery, communication and above all the need for a coherent vision and rationale for public health action in local authorities. PMID:24472776

  7. Public health and English local government: historical perspectives on the impact of 'returning home'.

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin; Lock, Karen; Hogarth, Sue

    2014-12-01

    This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers' allusions to 'a long and proud history' and 'returning public health home' there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it developed for environmental, preventive and health services by the mid-twentieth century. The main section discusses the early NHS, explaining why historians see the era as one of decline for the speciality of public health, leading to the reform of 1974, which saw the removal from local government and the abolition of the Medical Officer of Health role. Our discussion focuses on challenges faced before 1974 which raise organizational and political issues relevant to local councils today as they embed new public health teams. These include the themes of leadership, funding, integrated service delivery, communication and above all the need for a coherent vision and rationale for public health action in local authorities.

  8. The place and practices of well-being in local governance

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Sarah; Joyce, Kerry E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of well-being has become prominent within national policy goals in the UK since the end of the 1990s. However, the concept of well-being remains ill defined, an instability that is increasingly understood as problematic to policy making. We engage with this terminological instability through an exploration of how the concept of well-being is practised discursively in local governance and critically examine the place of the concept in local policy making. In contrast to the current enthusiasm to define and measure well-being, we argue that the conceptual instability has inherent value for local governance. The concept of well-being is practised through a number of potentially conflicting discourses, but it is exactly this conceptual instability that enables a local negotiation and combination of alternative policy frameworks for local place-shaping strategies. As such, well-being not only is an overarching goal of governance but also contributes to the dynamics of the policy process. PMID:25729122

  9. Local government health services in interwar England: problems of quantification and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a critical discussion of recent work on local government health care and health services in interwar England. A literature review examines case study approaches and comparative quantitative surveys, highlighting conventional and revisionist interpretations. Noting the differing selection criteria evident in some works, it argues that studies based upon a limited number of personal health services provide an insufficient basis for assessing local health activity and policy. There follows a regional study demonstrating various discrepancies between health financing data in local sources and those in nationally collated returns. These in turn give rise to various problems of assessment and interpretation in works relying on the latter, particularly with respect to services for schoolchildren and long-stay patients. The case study points to the importance of integrating poor law medical services in evaluations, and of learning more about the role of government subsidy in supporting expanding services.

  10. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  11. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    This chapter summarized and analyzes all state supreme court and federal court decisions as well as other significant court decisions affecting the realm of school governance. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1974 and reported in the General Digest on or before March 1, 1975. Because of its unusual significance,…

  12. Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Planning: Goals and Strategies of Local Governments.

    PubMed

    LOEW

    2000-07-01

    Drawing from experiences gained from the development and implementation of four approved habitat conservation plans (HCPs), I describe the goals and strategies used by the nine local government members of the Riverside County Habitat Conservation Agency (RCHCA) to reconcile conflicts among a rapidly growing population and the need to conserve the habitat of a number of declining wildlife species in western Riverside County, California. Several important goals have been pursued by RCHCA member governments in their sponsorship of multiple-species habitat conservation plans (MSHCPs), including (1) establishing certainty and control over future uses of land; (2) eliminating project-by-project negotiations with federal and state wildlife agencies; (3) coordinating mitigation obligations under the Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act, California Environmental Quality Act, and other federal and state laws; (4) reducing conflict and litigation resulting from land development activities; and (5) ensuring that wildlife conservation activities are conducted in a manner that permits local governments to perform those functions necessary to maintain public health, safety, and welfare. I also describe the emergence of strategies by local governments to achieve MSHCP goals, including (1) use of an inclusive planning process that seeks to build consensus among affected interests; (2) extensive involvement of federal and state wildlife agencies in the preparation of MSHCP documents; (3) management of public lands to support MSHCP conservation objectives; (4) encouragement of voluntary conservation by private property owners through incentive programs; and (5) active solicitation of federal and state funding for MSHCP implementation activities.

  13. Local Government Capacity to Respond to Environmental Change: Insights from Towns in New York State.

    PubMed

    Larson, Lincoln R; Lauber, T Bruce; Kay, David L; Cutts, Bethany B

    2017-07-01

    Local governments attempting to respond to environmental change face an array of challenges. To better understand policy responses and factors influencing local government capacity to respond to environmental change, we studied three environmental issues affecting rural or peri-urban towns in different regions of New York State: climate change in the Adirondacks (n = 63 towns), loss of open space due to residential/commercial development in the Hudson Valley (n = 50), and natural gas development in the Southern Tier (n = 62). Our analysis focused on towns' progression through three key stages of the environmental policy process (issue awareness and salience, common goals and agenda setting, policy development and implementation) and the factors that affect this progression and overall capacity for environmental governance. We found that-when compared to towns addressing open space development and natural gas development-towns confronted with climate change were at a much earlier stage in the policy process and were generally less likely to display the essential resources, social support, and political legitimacy needed for an effective policy response. Social capital cultivated through collaboration and networking was strongly associated with towns' policy response across all regions and could help municipalities overcome omnipresent resource constraints. By comparing and contrasting municipal responses to each issue, this study highlights the processes and factors influencing local government capacity to address a range of environmental changes across diverse management contexts.

  14. Blaming the Government for Environmental Problems: A Multilevel and Cross-National Analysis of the Relationship between Trust in Government and Local and Global Environmental Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cin, Cigdem Kentmen

    2013-01-01

    Although the determinants of trust in governments have received significant attention in the literature on political trust, there has been no attention paid to whether environmental concerns affect governmental trust. Yet, if individuals are worried about local and global environmental degradation, they may think that the government has failed in…

  15. Soft landings: encouraging compliance with safety standards in Local Government Authority playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Sherker, Shauna; Ritchie, Jan; Eager, David; Dennis, Rebecca

    2009-04-01

    Consistent with health promotion principles of good practice, addressing playground injury necessitates the creation of a supportive environment for the enhancement of wellbeing and the prevention of injuries. This study aims to survey local governments to: determine compliance with playground safety standards; establish frequency of playground inspections and maintenance; and identify motivators and barriers to compliance with safety standards. A survey of key informants for playground safety in all 152 local government councils in New South Wales (NSW) was undertaken. Of 152 local councils in NSW (43 metropolitan and 109 non-metropolitan), 71.7% (n=109) completed the survey, 12.5% (n=19) refused to participate and no response was received by 15.8% (n=24). Self-reported compliance with key aspects of the standard was generally high. However, only 55% of councils complied with surface impact attenuation <200 gmax and <1,000 HIC. Further, only 14.7% of councils reported impact testing the playground surface during inspections. The main motivators to compliance included: reducing risk of litigation or liability; enhancing community and child safety, and minimising the risk of injury. The main barriers included a lack of: time; personnel, and a lack of adequate and appropriate funding. Local Government Authorities have a duty of care to ensure the safety of playgrounds in their jurisdiction. They require time, personnel and adequate and appropriate funding in order to achieve this aim.

  16. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mullane, Monica

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  17. Local self governance in health - a study of it's functioning in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Panda, Bhuputra; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Thakur, Harshad P

    2016-10-31

    Local decision making is linked to several service quality improvement parameters. Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) at peripheral decision making health units (DMHU) are composite bodies that are mandated to ensure accountability and transparency in governance, improve quality of services, and facilitate local responsiveness. There is scant literature on the nature of functioning of these institutions in Odisha. This study aimed to assess the perception of RKS members about their roles, involvement and practices with respect to local decision making and management of DMHUs; it further examined perceptual and functional differences between priority and non-priority district set-ups; and identified predictors of involvement of RKS members in local governance of health units. As members of RKS, health service providers, officials in administrative/managerial role, elected representatives, and officials from other departments (including independent members) constituted our study sample. A total of 112 respondents were interviewed across 6 districts, through a multi-stage stratified random sampling; we used a semi-structured interview schedule that comprised mainly of close-ended and some open-ended questions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare 3 priority (PD) and 3 non-priority districts (NPD), categorized on the basis of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) estimates of 2011 as proxy of population health. Governance, human resource management, financial management and quality improvement functions were studied in detail. Opinion about various individual and organizational factors in local self-governance and predictors of involvement were identified. The socio-demographic profile and composition of respondents were comparable between PD and NPD. Majority of respondents were 'satisfied' with their current roles in the governance of local health institutions. About one-fourth opined that the amount of funds allocated to RKS under National Health Mission (NHM

  18. The 9/21 earthquake in Taiwan: a local government disaster rescue system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yungnane

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a three-element model to examine how the disaster rescue system of the government of Nantou County in Middle Taiwan functioned following the earthquake of 21 September 1999. The three elements are information gathering, local government mobilisation, and inter-organisational cooperation. The paper finds that the Nantou County government needs to address many problems associated with these three elements. Disaster information, for example, was not processed instantly because of the destruction of the electricity and telephone systems in the earthquake. Insufficient information caused ineffectiveness in the realms of mobilisation and inter-organisational cooperation. As for mobilisation, while the Nantou County magistrate successfully used specific information to encourage flows of huge resources in the county, he did not successfully mobilise human resources there. With regard to inter-organisational cooperation, myriad voluntary actors and international rescue teams travelled to Nantou County, but the fire and police services experienced cooperation and coordination problems.

  19. Non-locality, adiabaticity, thermodynamics and electron energy probability functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, Roderick; Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties are revisited for electrons that are governed by nonlocal electron energy probability functions in a plasma of low collisionality. Measurements in a laboratory helicon double layer experiment have shown that the effective electron temperature and density show a polytropic correlation with an index of γe = 1 . 17 +/- 0 . 02 along the divergent magnetic field, implying a nearly isothermal plasma (γe = 1) with heat being brought into the system. However, the evolution of electrons along the divergent magnetic field is essentially an adiabatic process, which should have a γe = 5 / 3 . The reason for this apparent contradiction is that the nearly collisionless plasma is very far from local thermodynamic equilibrium and the electrons behave nonlocally. The corresponding effective electron enthalpy has a conservation relation with the potential energy, which verifies that there is no heat transferred into the system during the electron evolution. The electrons are shown in nonlocal momentum equilibrium under the electric field and the gradient of the effective electron pressure. The convective momentum of ions, which can be assumed as a cold species, is determined by the effective electron pressure and the effective electron enthalpy is shown to be the source for ion acceleration. For these nearly collisionless plasmas, the use of traditional thermodynamic concepts can lead to very erroneous conclusions regarding the thermal conductivity.

  20. Non-local dynamics governing the self-induced motion of a planar vortex filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2015-06-01

    While the Hasimoto planar vortex filament is one of the few exact solutions to the local induction approximation (LIA) approximating the self-induced motion of a vortex filament, it is natural to wonder whether such a vortex filament solution would exist for the non-local Biot-Savart dynamics exactly governing the filament motion, and if so, whether the non-local effects would drastically modify the solution properties. Both helical vortex filaments and vortex rings are known to exist under both the LIA and non-local Biot-Savart dynamics; however, the planar filament is a bit more complicated. In the present paper, we demonstrate that a planar vortex filament solution does exist for the non-local Biot-Savart formulation, provided that a specific non-linear integral equation (governing the spatial structure of such a filament) has a non-trivial solution. By using the Poincaré-Lindstedt method, we are able to obtain an accurate analytical approximation to the solution of this integral equation under physically reasonable assumptions. To obtain these solutions, we approximate local effects near the singularity of the integral equation using the LIA and non-local effects using the Biot-Savart formulation. Mathematically, the results constitute an analytical solution to an interesting nonlinear singular integro-differential equation in space and time variables. Physically, these results show that planar vortex filaments exist and maintain their forms under the non-local Biot-Savart formulation, as one would hope. Due to the regularization approach utilized, we are able to compare the structure of the planar filaments obtained under both LIA and Biot-Savart formulations in a rather straightforward manner, in order to determine the role of the non-locality on the structure of the planar filament.

  1. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the

  2. A procurement-based pathway for promoting public health: innovative purchasing approaches for state and local government agencies.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kathleen; Miller, Dorothy; Sell, Katherine; Rubin, David

    2013-11-01

    Through their purchasing powers, government agencies can play a critical role in leveraging markets to create healthier foods. In the United States, state and local governments are implementing creative approaches to procuring healthier foods, moving beyond the traditional regulatory relationship between government and vendors. They are forging new partnerships between government, non-profits, and researchers to increase healthier purchasing. On the basis of case examples, this article proposes a pathway in which state and local government agencies can use the procurement cycle to improve healthy eating.

  3. [Health economic evaluation in a local level government health care system].

    PubMed

    Sancho, Leyla Gomes; Vargens, José Muniz Costa

    2009-10-01

    This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the possibility of applying health economic evaluations at local level government healthcare system, and consequently use the results of this study into decision making. In order to subside this reflexion, it was analyzed the SAMU/192 Program costs evaluation in the city of Belo Horizonte, as well as data concerning effectiveness of the program and a review on electronic databases (SciELO and Medline) about the application of studies in decision making. The analysis showed that even for a simple evaluation on expenditure, there are still unsolved problems of data availability as well as of data effectiveness on information systems definition and association. It showed that decision makers do not use the result of studies for decision making either. So, we conclude that there is no possibility to apply a health economic evaluation research and have the results used in a local level government health care system.

  4. Options for state and local governments to regulate non-cigarette tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Most tobacco control laws were written to address the scourge of smoking--particularly smoking cigarettes. As a result, these laws frequently exclude non-cigarette tobacco products, which are becoming more prevalent on the market. These regulatory gaps jeopardize public health by increasing the possibility that these products will be used--particularly by minors and young adults. This article examines gaps in regulation using five products as case studies: dissolvable tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, little cigars, snus, and water pipes. In addition, this article presents policy options that state and local governments can adopt to regulate these products more effectively, including regulations relating to price, flavors, youth access, use in public places, point-of-sale warnings, and marketing. Furthermore, this article contains extensive discussion of the recently adopted federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which both limits and expands the power of state and local governments.

  5. Guarding against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs): Practical evidence from China's local governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Shukui; Wang, Siliang

    2017-04-01

    China is faced with serious challenges brought by large-scale social protests in the period of rapid urbanization and profound social transition. In rural areas, the vast majority of mass incidents were related with land expropriation. In this paper, we intend to show how China's local governments guard against land-expropriation-related mass incidents (LERMIs) at the practical level. We first construct a comprehensive three-dimensional theoretic framework to define the boundary, to uncover the incentives, and to recognize the features of involved practices, then, on the basis of description evidenced by detailed data and/or cases, break various local practices down into two categories, the common local practices which refer to the nationwide top-down responses to the unified deployment by the central authority that aims to mitigate discontentment of land-deprived peasants and reduce the probabilities of conflicts through regulating land expropriation behavior and safeguarding economic interests and participation rights of affected peasants, and the specific local practices which point to the innovative local government behaviors with heterogeneity, in general, the tactical approaches to reduce the probabilities of disputes or conflicts evolving into group actions. We further argue that both of them follow a central tenet of instrumental orientation. As to the former, it is corroborated by local governments' paying more attention to promote the stylization and quantification in the aspects of regulating procedure, formulating and renewing compensation standards, resolving disputes, and evaluating risks, while the latter is mainly reflected from the outcome-orientation organization strategies to maintain overall stability in a relatively short term.

  6. Strained local and state government finances among current realities that threaten public hospitals' profitability.

    PubMed

    Kane, Nancy M; Singer, Sara J; Clark, Jonathan R; Eeckloo, Kristof; Valentine, Melissa

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates that some safety-net hospitals--those that provide a large share of the care to low-income, uninsured, and Medicaid populations--survived and even thrived before the recent recession. We analyzed the financial performance and governance of 150 hospitals during 2003-07. We found, counterintuitively, that those directly governed by elected officials and in highly competitive markets were more profitable than other safety-net hospitals. They were financially healthy primarily because they obtained subsidies from state and local governments, such as property tax transfers or supplemental Medicaid payments, including disproportionate share payments. However, safety-net hospitals now face a new market reality. The economic downturn, slow recovery, and politics of deficit reduction have eroded the ability of local governments to support the safety net. Many safety-net hospitals have not focused on effective management, cost control, quality improvement, or services that attract insured patients. As a result, and coupled with new uncertainties regarding Medicaid expansion stemming from the recent Supreme Court decision on the Affordable Care Act, many are likely to face increasing financial and competitive pressures that may threaten their survival.

  7. Insiders and outsiders: local government and NGO engagement in disaster response in Guimaras, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Espia, Juhn Chris P; Fernandez, Pepito

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines local government and non-governmental organisation (NGO) engagement in disaster response in the wake of the M/T Solar 1 oil spill in Guimaras, Western Visayas, Philippines, on 11 August 2006. It assesses the response activities of these two entities as well as the institutional factors that affected their interaction on the ground. Local government and NGO engagement was shaped by multi-layered, overlapping, and oftentimes contending government-designed response frameworks. Within these frameworks, government actors played the role of primary implementer and provider of relief, allowing them to determine who could be involved and the extent of their involvement. The absence of formal roles for NGOs in these frameworks not only undermines their ability to work in a setting where such institutional set-ups are operational but also it reaffirms their 'outsider' status. This study of the Guimaras oil spill illustrates the complexity and the institutional difficulties inherent in disaster response and coordination in the Philippines. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  8. Local Energy Monitoring and Control Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-28

    Convert system entirely or in part to variable volume by adding terminal units and pressure bypass and/or add fan coil units in specific areas requiring...adjustments, modification to existing procedures. (f) SDecialized - air-conditioned area for central con- trol system, power line voltage filtering for micro...of these federal buildings, which accounted for 84% of the total gross floor area of all government buildings. 1 This group represents the single

  9. Factors Associated With Occupational Sun-Protection Policies in Local Government Organizations in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Walkosz, Barbara J.; Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Wallis, Allan; Buller, Mary Klein; Scott, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Skin cancer prevention remains a national priority. Reducing chronic UV radiation exposure for outdoor workers through sun-safety practices is an important step to help reduce the incidence of skin cancer. OBJECTIVE To determine the presence of occupational sun-safety policies at local government organizations in a single state. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Of 571 potentially eligible local government organizations of Colorado cities, counties, and special tax districts, we enrolled 98 in a randomized pretest-posttest controlled experiment starting August 15, 2010, that evaluated an intervention to promote the adoption of sun-safety policies. We used a policy-coding protocol to evaluate personal sun-protection practices, environmental and administrative controls, and policy directives for sun safety starting February 10, 2011. We report the baseline assessment of the occupational sun-protection policies of these organizations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The presence of an occupational sun-safety policy. RESULTS Overall, 85 local government organizations (87%) had policies that required personal sun-protection practices, including the use of eyewear, hats, and protective clothing. However, of the 98 responding organizations, only 8 hat policies (8%), 10 eyewear policies (10%), and 7 clothing policies (7%) mentioned sun protection as the intent of the policy. Only cosmopoliteness, operationalized as proximity to an urban area, was associated with the presence of a sun-safety policy (odds ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.98–1.00]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Outdoor workers are at increased risk for skin cancer because of long-term exposure to solar UV radiation. Although organizational policies have the potential to increase sun protection in occupational settings, occupational sun-safety policies were uncommon among local governments. Opportunities exist for dermatologists and other physicians to influence occupational sun-safety practices and

  10. Factors Associated With Occupational Sun-Protection Policies in Local Government Organizations in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Wallis, Allan; Buller, Mary Klein; Scott, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Skin cancer prevention remains a national priority. Reducing chronic UV radiation exposure for outdoor workers through sun-safety practices is an important step to help reduce the incidence of skin cancer. To determine the presence of occupational sun-safety policies at local government organizations in a single state. Of 571 potentially eligible local government organizations of Colorado cities, counties, and special tax districts, we enrolled 98 in a randomized pretest-posttest controlled experiment starting August 15, 2010, that evaluated an intervention to promote the adoption of sun-safety policies. We used a policy-coding protocol to evaluate personal sun-protection practices, environmental and administrative controls, and policy directives for sun safety starting February 10, 2011. We report the baseline assessment of the occupational sun-protection policies of these organizations. The presence of an occupational sun-safety policy. Overall, 85 local government organizations (87%) had policies that required personal sun-protection practices, including the use of eyewear, hats, and protective clothing. However, of the 98 responding organizations, only 8 hat policies (8%), 10 eyewear policies (10%), and 7 clothing policies (7%) mentioned sun protection as the intent of the policy. Only cosmopoliteness, operationalized as proximity to an urban area, was associated with the presence of a sun-safety policy (odds ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.98-1.00]; P = .02). Outdoor workers are at increased risk for skin cancer because of long-term exposure to solar UV radiation. Although organizational policies have the potential to increase sun protection in occupational settings, occupational sun-safety policies were uncommon among local governments. Opportunities exist for dermatologists and other physicians to influence occupational sun-safety practices and policies, which are consistent with other safety procedures and could easily be integrated into existing workplace

  11. 25 CFR 170.108 - Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' planning organizations and local governments in the development of their IRRTIP? 170.108 Section 170.108... § 170.108 Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments in the development of their IRRTIP? Yes. (a) All regionally significant IRR Program projects must...

  12. Federal Funding Sources Available to Local Governments for Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynnells, M. Louise, Comp.

    This publication contains information on 101 federal programs that provide funding to rural projects initiated by local governments, public agencies, tribal governments, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, citizen groups, and individuals. Eligible local project categories include conservation, farm ownership and operation, housing,…

  13. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec. 123 III Appendix III to Part 310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec....

  14. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec. 123 III Appendix III to Part 310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec....

  15. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec. 123 III Appendix III to Part 310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec....

  16. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec. 123 III Appendix III to Part 310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec....

  17. 41 CFR 102-38.340 - How may we sell personal property to State and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... property to State and local governments? 102-38.340 Section 102-38.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Provisions for State and Local Governments § 102-38.340 How may...

  18. 25 CFR 170.107 - Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation projects? 170.107 Section 170.107 Indians BUREAU OF... planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation...

  19. Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  20. Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  1. Si segregation at Fe grain boundaries analyzed by ab initio local energy and local stress.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Somesh Kr; Kohyama, Masanori; Tanaka, Shingo; Shiihara, Yoshinori

    2014-09-03

    Using density-functional theory calculations combined with recent local-energy and local-stress schemes, we studied the effects of Si segregation on the structural, mechanical and magnetic properties of the Σ3(1 1 1) and Σ11(3 3 2) Fe GBs formed by rotation around the [1 1 0] axis. The segregation mechanism was analyzed by the local-energy decomposition of the segregation energy, where the segregation energy is expressed as a sum of the following four terms: the local-energy change of Si atoms from the isolated state in bulk Fe to the GB segregated state, the stabilization of replaced Fe atoms from the GB to the bulk, the local-energy change of neighboring Fe atoms from the pure GB to the segregated GB and the local-energy change of neighboring Fe atoms from the system of an isolated Si atom in the bulk Fe to the pure bulk Fe. The segregation energy and value of each term greatly depends on the segregation site and Si concentration. The segregation at interface Fe sites with higher local energies in the original GB configurations naturally leads to higher segregation-energy gains, while interface sites with lower local energies can lead to larger energy gains if stronger Si-Fe interactions occur locally in the final segregated configurations. The high Si concentration reduces the segregation-energy gain per Si atom due to the local-energy increases of Si atoms neighboring to each other or through the reduction in the number of stabilized Fe atoms per Si atom as observed in a Si dimer in bulk Fe. In the Si-segregated GBs, Si-Fe bonds enhance local Young's moduli and tend to suppress the interface weakening, while the GB adhesion is slightly reduced. And Fe atoms contacting Si atoms have reduced magnetic moments, due to Si-Fe sp-d hybridization interactions.

  2. Optimize Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies for Government Agencies, Industrial Facilities, and Military Installations: NREL Offers Proven Tools and Resources to Reduce Energy Use and Improve Efficiency (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Lab provides expertise, facilities, and technical assistance to campuses, facilities, and government agencies to apply renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies.

  3. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Xiao, Wendong

    2017-02-15

    Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS) methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions.

  4. Energy-Based Acoustic Source Localization Methods: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wei; Xiao, Wendong

    2017-01-01

    Energy-based source localization is an important problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has been studied actively in the literature. Numerous localization algorithms, e.g., maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and nonlinear-least-squares (NLS) methods, have been reported. In the literature, there are relevant review papers for localization in WSNs, e.g., for distance-based localization. However, not much work related to energy-based source localization is covered in the existing review papers. Energy-based methods are proposed and specially designed for a WSN due to its limited sensor capabilities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of these different algorithms for energy-based single and multiple source localization problems, their merits and demerits and to point out possible future research directions. PMID:28212281

  5. DOE Voluntary Partnership Program with Utilities and Local Governments Supports the Design of New Data Access Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Monisha; Burr, Andrew; Schulte, Andrew; Field-Macumber, Kristin; Cochran-Hameen, Erica; Marion, Flore

    2016-08-26

    The Better Buildings Energy Data Accelerator (BBEDA) is a unique effort that has supported 22 pairs of local governments and their utility companies to help building owners gain access to their whole-building energy data. Municipal and Utility BBEDA Partners committed to develop streamlined and easy-to-use solutions to provide whole-building energy data, especially for multitenant commercial buildings, by the end of 2015. As a result, building owners would be able to make data-driven decisions about their buildings by utilizing readily available energy consumption data for entire buildings. Traditionally, data access was difficult to implement due to technical barriers and the lack of clear value propositions for the utilities. During the past two years, BBEDA has taken a hands-on approach to overcome these barriers by offering a platform for the partners to discuss their challenges and solutions. Customized support was also provided to Partners building their local strategies. Based on the lessons learned from the partners, BBEDA developed a final toolkit with guiding documents that addressed key barriers and served as a resource for the other cities and utilities attempting to establish whole-building data access, including an exploration of opportunities to apply the whole-building data to various aspects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. BBEDA has been a catalyst for market transformation by addressing the upstream (to efficiency implementation) barrier of data access, demonstrated through the success of the BBEDA partners to address policy, engagement, and technical hurdles and arrive at replicable solutions to make data access a standard practice nationwide. As a result of best practices identified by the BBEDA, 18 utilities serving more than 2.6 million commercial customers nationwide will provide whole-building energy data access to building owners by 2017. This historic expansion of data accessibility will increase building energy

  6. Optical Activity Governed by Local Chiral Structures in Two-Dimensional Curved Metallic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Narushima, Tetsuya; Hashiyada, Shun; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    Chiral nanostructures show macroscopic optical activity. Local optical activity and its handedness are not uniform in the nanostructure, and are spatially distributed depending on the shape of the nanostructure. In this study we fabricated curved chain nanostructures made of gold by connecting linearly two or more arc structures in a two-dimensional plane. Spatial features of local optical activity in the chain structures were evaluated with near-field circular dichroism (CD) imaging, and analyzed with the aid of classical electromagnetic simulation. The electromagnetic simulation predicted that local optical activity appears at inflection points where arc structures are connected. The handedness of the local optical activity was dependent on the handedness of the local chirality at the inflection point. Chiral chain structures have odd inflection points and the local optical activity distributed symmetrically with respect to structural centers. In contrast, achiral chain structures have even inflection points and showed antisymmetric distribution. In the near-field CD images of fabricated chain nanostructures, the symmetric and antisymmetric distributions of local CD were observed for chiral and achiral chain structures, respectively, consistent with the simulated results. The handedness of the local optical activity was found to be determined by the handedness of the inflection point, for the fabricated chain structures having two or more inflection points. The local optical activity was thus governed primarily by the local chirality of the inflection points for the gold chain structures. The total effect of all the inflection points in the chain structure is considered to be a predominant factor that determines the macroscopic optical activity. Chirality 28:540-544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government.

    PubMed

    Martineau, F P; Graff, H; Mitchell, C; Lock, K

    2014-09-01

    The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives-for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions-can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  8. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

  9. Energy and Charge Localization in Irradiated DNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    suggested that fast heavy ions with lar stopping power result in Eawy god ap Loadhnou in DNXA (00)19 transient localized hewaid relion around the io tracks...isolated pair of oppositely charged geminae particles can be considered as an isolated system, was developed in the late 1930’s by Onsager /49,W0 and...refinement of replacing the original Onsager assumption of a point sink at the origin by a recombination sphere of finite radius and recombination velocity

  10. Localized overlap algorithm for unexpanded dispersion energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rob, Fazle; Misquitta, Alston J.; Podeszwa, Rafał; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    First-principles-based, linearly scaling algorithm has been developed for calculations of dispersion energies from frequency-dependent density susceptibility (FDDS) functions with account of charge-overlap effects. The transition densities in FDDSs are fitted by a set of auxiliary atom-centered functions. The terms in the dispersion energy expression involving products of such functions are computed using either the unexpanded (exact) formula or from inexpensive asymptotic expansions, depending on the location of these functions relative to the dimer configuration. This approach leads to significant savings of computational resources. In particular, for a dimer consisting of two elongated monomers with 81 atoms each in a head-to-head configuration, the most favorable case for our algorithm, a 43-fold speedup has been achieved while the approximate dispersion energy differs by less than 1% from that computed using the standard unexpanded approach. In contrast, the dispersion energy computed from the distributed asymptotic expansion differs by dozens of percent in the van der Waals minimum region. A further increase of the size of each monomer would result in only small increased costs since all the additional terms would be computed from the asymptotic expansion.

  11. Local governance responses to social inclusion for older rural Victorians: building resources, opportunities and capabilities.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Rachel; Clune, Samantha; Warburton, Jeni; Martin, John

    2014-09-01

    To explore how local governance enables access to resources, creates opportunities and increases capability for older people in rural communities to experience social inclusion. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were undertaken with community stakeholders across two rural communities in north-east Victoria. Stakeholders were drawn from local government, and a range of community groups and organisations, as identified in a scoping study. Through the provision of community resources (e.g. physical and human infrastructure, organisational partnerships), local services and supports offer social and productive environments for participation. They also build individual resources (e.g. health, skills, finances, networks) to enable older people to participate within these environments, and provide assistance to allow older people to use individual and community resources. Community resources are integral in facilitating the development of older people's individual resources, and opportunities and capabilities for participation. These enable greater choice in participation, and contribute to the sustainability of community resources serving ageing populations. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  12. Note: Localization based on estimated source energy homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Eriksen, Fredrik Kvalheim; Lengliné, Olivier; Daniel, Guillaume; Flekkøy, Eirik G.; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Acoustic signal localization is a complex problem with a wide range of industrial and academic applications. Herein, we propose a localization method based on energy attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison (termed estimated source energy homogeneity, or ESEH). This inversion is tested on both synthetic (numerical) data using a Lamb wave propagation model and experimental 2D plate data (recorded with 4 accelerometers sensitive up to 26 kHz). We compare the performance of this technique with classic source localization algorithms: arrival time localization, time reversal localization, and localization based on energy amplitude. Our technique is highly versatile and out-performs the conventional techniques in terms of error minimization and cost (both computational and financial).

  13. Note: Localization based on estimated source energy homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Eriksen, Fredrik Kvalheim; Lengliné, Olivier; Daniel, Guillaume; Flekkøy, Eirik G; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Acoustic signal localization is a complex problem with a wide range of industrial and academic applications. Herein, we propose a localization method based on energy attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison (termed estimated source energy homogeneity, or ESEH). This inversion is tested on both synthetic (numerical) data using a Lamb wave propagation model and experimental 2D plate data (recorded with 4 accelerometers sensitive up to 26 kHz). We compare the performance of this technique with classic source localization algorithms: arrival time localization, time reversal localization, and localization based on energy amplitude. Our technique is highly versatile and out-performs the conventional techniques in terms of error minimization and cost (both computational and financial).

  14. Academic Governance and Academic Reform: Legitimacy and Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Kenneth B.; Bain, Linda L.

    1998-01-01

    A thorough review and revision of curriculum at San Jose State University (California) illustrates that the modern university can achieve major internal academic reforms when two important conditions are met: legitimacy and energy. These two concepts are defined and practical illustrations are drawn from the institution's recent experience in…

  15. Local correlation energies of atoms, ions and model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umrigar, Cyrus; Huang, Chien-Jung

    1997-03-01

    We present nearly local definitions of the correlation energy density, and its potential and kinetic components, and evaluate them for several atoms, ions and model systems. This information provides valuable guidance in constructing better correlation functionals than those in common use, such as the local density approximation (LDA) and the various generalized gradient approximations (GGAs). The true local correlation energy per electron has oscillations, reflecting the shell-structure, whereas the LDA approximation to it is monotonic. In addition we demonstrate that, for two-electron systems, the quantum chemistry and the density functional definitions of the correlation energy approach each other with increasing atomic number as 1/Z^3.

  16. Diffusion in energy materials: Governing dynamics from atomistic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfitt, D.; Kordatos, A.; Filippatos, P. P.; Chroneos, A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding diffusion in energy materials is critical to optimising the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and batteries both of which are of great technological interest as they offer high efficiency for cleaner energy conversion and storage. In the present review, we highlight the insights offered by atomistic modelling of the ionic diffusion mechanisms in SOFCs and batteries and how the growing predictive capability of high-throughput modelling, together with our new ability to control compositions and microstructures, will produce advanced materials that are designed rather than chosen for a given application. The first part of the review focuses on the oxygen diffusion mechanisms in cathode and electrolyte materials for SOFCs and in particular, doped ceria and perovskite-related phases with anisotropic structures. The second part focuses on disordered oxides and two-dimensional materials as these are very promising systems for battery applications.

  17. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government energy management and conservation programs, Fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-06

    This report provides sinformation on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet statutory requirements of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. It also describes energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Implementation activities undertaken during FY94 by the Federal agencies under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Orders 12759 and 12902 are also described. During FY94, total (gross) energy consumption of the US Government, including energy consued to produce, process, and transport energy, was 1.72 quadrillion Btu. This represents {similar_to}2.0% of the total 85.34 quads used in US.

  18. Selection of energy source and evolutionary stable strategies for power plants under financial intervention of government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-03-01

    Currently, many socially responsible governments adopt economic incentives and deterrents to manage environmental impacts of electricity suppliers. Considering the Stackelberg leadership of the government, the government's role in the competition of power plants in an electricity market is investigated. A one-population evolutionary game model of power plants is developed to study how their production strategy depends on tariffs levied by the government. We establish that a unique evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) for the population exists. Numerical examples demonstrate that revenue maximization and environment protection policies of the government significantly affect the production ESS of competitive power plants. The results reveal that the government can introduce a green energy source as an ESS of the competitive power plants by imposing appropriate tariffs.

  19. Selection of energy source and evolutionary stable strategies for power plants under financial intervention of government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-03-01

    Currently, many socially responsible governments adopt economic incentives and deterrents to manage environmental impacts of electricity suppliers. Considering the Stackelberg leadership of the government, the government's role in the competition of power plants in an electricity market is investigated. A one-population evolutionary game model of power plants is developed to study how their production strategy depends on tariffs levied by the government. We establish that a unique evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) for the population exists. Numerical examples demonstrate that revenue maximization and environment protection policies of the government significantly affect the production ESS of competitive power plants. The results reveal that the government can introduce a green energy source as an ESS of the competitive power plants by imposing appropriate tariffs.

  20. Creating and sustaining community capacity for ecosystem-based management: Is local government the key?

    PubMed

    Fleeger, William E; Becker, Mimi L

    2008-09-01

    Recently, collaborative approaches to natural resource management have been widely promoted as ways to broaden participation and community involvement in furthering the goals of ecosystem management. The language of collaboration has even been incorporated into controversial legislation, such as the US Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003. This research examines collaboration and sharing management responsibility for federal public land with local communities through a case study of the Ashland Municipal Watershed in southern Oregon. A policy sciences approach is used to analyze community participation and institutional relationships between the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and local city government in the planning processes of five land management actions occurring over a 7-year period. The knowledge gained from examining differing approaches to planning and decision making in the Ashland watershed is used to suggest future planning processes to develop and sustain the community capacity necessary to support implementation of community-based ecosystem management.

  1. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  2. Energy/Environment/Economy. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected U.S. Government Publications Concerning United States Energy Policy, Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    This annotated bibliography supplements ED 077 704. It provides a selective listing of 93 U.S. Federal Government publications germane to the energy crisis and its attendant environmental and economic implications. Primary emphasis is placed upon documents presenting energy policy issues which have emerged, plus statistical reportage which…

  3. Miscellaneous agreements between the U.S. Department of Energy and Federal, State, and local agencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Meincke, Carol L.

    2010-08-01

    This document identifies and provides access to source documentation for the Site- Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Specifically, it lists agreements between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE/NNSA/Sandia Site Office (SSO), Sandia Corporation, and local and state government agencies, Department of Defense, Kirtland Air Force Base, and other federal agencies.

  4. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  5. Status of emergency obstetric care in a local government area in south-south Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mezie-Okoye, Margaret M; Adeniji, Foluke O; Tobin-West, Charles I; Babatunde, Seye

    2012-09-01

    This study assessed the status of the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in 12 functional public health facilities out of the existing 19 in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State in south-south Nigeria, prior to the midwives service scheme (MSS) launch in 2009. No facility qualified as basic EmOC, while one had comprehensive EmOC status. Signal functions that required supply of medical consumables were performed by more facilities than services that required special training, equipment and maintenance. Only two facilities (16.67%) had the minimum requirement of > or =4 midwives for 24-hour EmOC service; while only 2.2% of expected births occurred at the facilities. The poor state of maternal health resources in the study area requires urgent interventions by Local and State Governments for infrastructure upgrade and deployment and training of staff towards attainment of MDG-5. A follow-up evaluation would be required since the commencement of the MSS.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the applicant or other unit of local government. RC Utilities RC1: Utilities—for power, water... durable equipment declared a total loss as a result of contamination during the responseEQ2: Rents—for...

  7. The Local Turn: an Introductory Essay Revisiting Leadership, Elite Capture and Good Governance in Indonesian Conservation and Development Programs.

    PubMed

    Warren, Carol; Visser, Leontine

    The local turn in good governance theory and practice responded to critiques of the ineffectiveness of state management and the inequity of privatization alternatives in natural resource management. Confounding expectations of greater effectiveness from decentralised governance, including community-based natural resource management, however, critics argue that expanded opportunities for elite capture have become widely associated with program failures. This overview of theoretical controversies on leadership, patronage and elite capture is part of a themed section in this issue that challenges assumptions across a wide range of current policy literature. It introduces a set of Indonesian case studies that examine practices of local leaders and elites and seek to account in structural terms for appropriations both by ('elite capture') and of ('captured elites') these key figures. These studies explore the structural factors and co-governance practices most likely to promote effective participation of the full spectrum of local interests in pursuit of better local natural resource governance.

  8. 18 CFR 401.116 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special government employees. 401.116 Section 401.116 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  9. Technical assistance and incentives to local governments. An agreement commitment report from the Chesapeake Executive Council. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report discusses fragile natural areas and ways in which governments can help protect them, presents in matrix form a listing of technical assistance and incentive programs currently available to local governments, and outlines a strategy for developing a more complete and more fully integrated set of technical assistance and incentive programs.

  10. Energy localization in nonlinear fiber arrays: Collapse-effect compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, A.B.; Luther, G.G.; De Angelis, C.; Turitsyn, S.K.

    1995-07-03

    We analyze a collapse mechanism of energy localization in nonlinear fiber arrays. The nonlinear fiber array is suggested as a device to amplify and compress optical pulses. Pulse propagation in one-dimensional fiber arrays has features of collapse (self-focusing) dynamics. Collapse-type compression leads to the localization of all energy initially dispersed in array into a few fibers. Numerical simulations demonstrate the robustness of the suggested compression mechanism.

  11. Enhancing the Motivation for Rural Career: The Collaboration between the Local Government and Medical School.

    PubMed

    Seguchi, Masaru; Furuta, Noriko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Kouji; Hori, Hiroki; Okuno, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    The shortage of medical workforce in rural areas is a global long-standing problem. Due to the severity of shortages in the medical workforce, Mie prefectural government has collaborated with a medical school and the municipal governments to increase the rural medical workforce. Since 2010, this collaboration has led to an annual lecture series on rural practice for medical students. We distributed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the lecture series to examine the effect of this program. The questionnaire consisted of two parts that included an understanding of rural practice and the motivation to work in rural areas. The lecture series significantly improved the responses to the following questions "Rural practice is interesting" (p < 0.001), "Rural practitioners can deliver adequate medical care" (p < 0.01), "Rural practitioners cannot go back to urban areas" (p < 0.001), "I want to be a rural practitioner" (p < 0.001), "Healthcare facilities in rural areas have been developed" (p < 0.001), "Rural practitioners can be a specialist" (p < 0.001), and "Rural residents can be served adequate healthcare service" (p < 0.01). The percentage of students who desired to work in rural areas increased significantly (11.1% vs. 23.9%, p = 0.04). A lecture series on rural practice enhanced the motivation of medical students and their interest in a rural career. While collaboration between the local government and medical school rarely occurs in planning medical education programs, this approach may offer a promising way to foster local health professionals.

  12. Governance's role in local health departments' information system and technology usage.

    PubMed

    Vest, Joshua R; Menachemi, Nir; Ford, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between local health departments' (LHDs') governance structures and their use of information systems (IS) and information technologies (IT). As the US health system moves toward more integrated models of delivering care, LHDs have been identified as key nexus for information exchange. Therefore, understanding how LHDs' governance facilitates or inhibits the adoption and use of such IS and IT tools is critical. The 2008 survey of the National Association of County and City Health Officials' members included a set of questions dedicated to the use of IS/IT and its relationship to governance structures. Ordinal logistic and Poisson regressions are used to identify significant relationships among the variables. The survey sample's results (n = 473) are extended to the national sample (N = 2794) using the variable weightings included in the study design. The 2 dependent variables examined are IS and IT use. The IS variable captures the software and analytic tools used in LHDs. The IT measure primarily captures hardware and infrastructure capabilities. Overall, the use of IS/IT by LHDs is low. Generally, LHDs that have shared governance structures with other state and community bodies tended to have greater IS/IT use. Similarly, larger LHDs with leaders that have higher educational levels used IS/IT in greater amounts. With their current IS/IT capability levels, LHDs will struggle to play a meaningful role in the integration and exchange of health information. Given that LHD also serve at-risk populations in disproportionate numbers, this digital divide may become a real divide in the access to high quality care for some communities.

  13. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  14. The Governance and Organizational Affiliation of Regional Educational Service Agencies: Arms of the State Education Agency, Pure Creatures of Constituent Local Districts, or Pure Special District Governments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    Focusing on one of the most critical and complex aspects of the concept of the regional educational service agency (RESA), the paper questions whether RESA's should be an arm of the state educational agency, pure creatures of constituent local school districts, or pure special district governments. The critical dimensions of the issue being…

  15. Improving government regulations: a guidebook for conservation and renewable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, R. J.; Scheer, R. M.; Marasco, A. L.

    1981-04-01

    An integrated view of the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) policy making encompassing both administrative procedures and policy analysis is presented. Chapter One very briefly sketches each step in the development of a significant regulation, noting important requirements and participants. Chapter Two expands upon the Overview, providing the details of the process, the rationale and source of requirements, concurrence procedures, and advice on the timing and synchronization of steps. Chapter Three explains the types of analysis documents that may be required for a program. Regulatory Analyses, Environmental Impact Statements, Urban and Community Impact Analyses, and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses are all discussed. Specific information to be included in the documents and the circumstances under which the documents need to be prepared are explained. Chapter Four is a step-by-step discussion of how to do good analysis. Use of models and data bases is discussed. Policy objectives, alternatives, and decision making are explained. In Chapter five guidance is provided on identifying the public that would most likely be interested in the regulation, involving its constituents in a dialogue with CS, evaluating and handling comments, and engineering the final response. Chapter Six provides direction on planning the evaluation, monitoring the regulation's success once it has been promulgated, and allowing for constructive support or criticism from outside DOE. (MCW)

  16. Assessing the options for local government to use legal approaches to combat obesity in the UK: putting theory into practice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C; Cowburn, G; Foster, C

    2011-08-01

    The law is recognized as a powerful tool to address some of the structural determinants of chronic disease, including 'obesogenic' environments which are a major factor in the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. However, it is often local - as opposed to national - government that has responsibility for an environment, including the built environment, and their role in reducing obesity using law remains relatively unexplored. With the English government shifting emphasis for improvement of public health from central to local government, this paper reviews the potential for regulatory action by local government to reduce obesity. We took a novel approach to assess the evidence and to identify legal options for implementation by local government: conducting reviews of literature, media reports and case law. Our results provide a clear rational for regulatory intervention that encourages a real choice of behaviour. They highlight strategic legal areas for reduction of obesity through restriction of traffic and promotion of active travel, promotion of access to healthy food and construction of a sustainable and active environment. Importantly, we identify current legal mechanisms for adoption by UK local government including the use of planning, licensing and transport legislation to develop local obesity prevention policy. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Local Casimir energies for a thin spherical shell

    SciTech Connect

    Cavero-Pelaez, Ines; Milton, Kimball A.; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2006-04-15

    The local Casimir energy density for a massless scalar field associated with step-function potentials in a 3+1 dimensional spherical geometry is considered. The potential is chosen to be zero except in a shell of thickness {delta}, where it has height h, with the constraint h{delta}=1. In the limit of zero thickness, an ideal {delta}-function shell is recovered. In this limit, the behavior of the energy density as the surface of the shell is approached is studied in both the strong and weak coupling regimes. The former case corresponds to the well-known Dirichlet shell limit. New results, which shed light on the nature of surface divergences and on the energy contained within the shell, are obtained in the weak coupling limit, and for a shell of finite thickness. In the case of zero thickness, the energy has a contribution not only from the local energy density, but from an energy term residing entirely on the surface. It is shown that the latter coincides with the integrated local energy density within the shell. We also study the dependence of local and global quantities on the conformal parameter. In particular new insight is provided on the reason for the divergence in the global Casimir energy in third order in the coupling.

  18. Energy-efficient and cost-effective equipment should be installed in new government housing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-16

    This report discusses the efforts being made and the actions that could be taken to make Government housing more energy efficient. For the purpose of this report, Government housing is defined as that which is either entirely owned or assisted through direct subsidies, such as below-market interest rates, and housing financed by Government guaranteed or insured loans. Residential energy consumption accounts for about 20 percent of the Nation's energy use. Studies have shown that heating and cooling equipment, including water heaters, account for as much as 70 percent of the energy consumed in a house. Conservation efforts have concentrated on the thermal envelope (e.g., insulation, storm windows and doors, and infiltration) of new houses with little attention focused on the energy efficiency of equipment that provides needed space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. although most housing is privately financed and developed without Federal assistance in developing and financing new housing, can have a significant influence on reducing residential energy consumption. Under programs administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the Veterans Administration (VA), the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA), and the Department of Defense (DOD), energy conservation practices can be fostered in Government owned, subsidized, and insured housing. HUD administers a variety of programs to help meet the Nation's need for decent housing for all Americans. During the last few years, HUD's single-family home mortgage programs have averaged approximately 100,000 new home starts each year.

  19. Local governments' dependence on tobacco tax revenue: a deterrent to tobacco control in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Young Kyung; Park, Kidong

    2009-09-01

    To investigate, in the Republic of Korea, whether local governments' participation in an anti-smoking programme supported by the National Health Promotion Fund in 2002-2003 was related to the percentage of local tax revenue comprised by the tobacco consumption tax (TCT). Using financial and administrative data on 163 municipalities, the authors estimated logit models of local governments' participation in the anti-smoking programme as a function of the proportion of local tax revenue that came from the TCT and a set of control variables, namely local socioeconomic characteristics and the size of the staff in the local public health centre (PHC). Local governments that derived a greater percentage of their local tax revenue from the TCT, particularly those that ranked in the upper fourth in terms of this percentage, were less likely to participate in the anti-smoking programme. Insufficient staff in the PHC was also found to be associated with lower participation in the anti-smoking programme. Local governments' dependence on revenue from the TCT may be a deterrent to tobacco control in the Republic of Korea.

  20. Processes governing phytoplankton blooms in estuaries. I: The local production-loss balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, L.V.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Cloern, J.E.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The formation and spatial distribution of phytoplankton blooms in estuaries are controlled by (1) local mechanisms, which determine the production-loss balance for a water column at a particular spatial location (i.e. control if a bloom is possible), and (2) transport-related mechanisms, which govern biomass distribution (i.e. control if and where a bloom actually occurs). In this study, the first of a 2-paper series, we use a depth-averaged numerical model as a theoretical tool to describe how interacting local conditions (water column height, light availability, benthic grazing) influence the local balance between phytoplankton sources and sinks. We also explore trends in the spatial variability of the production-loss balance across the topographic gradients between deep channels and lateral shoals which are characteristic of shallow estuaries. For example, under conditions of high turbidity and slow benthic grazing the highest rates of phytoplankton population growth are found in the shallowest regions. On the other hand, with low turbidity and rapid benthic grazing the highest growth rates occur in the deeper areas. We also explore the effects of semidiurnal tidal variation in water column height, as well as spring-neap variability. Local population growth in the shallowest regions is very sensitive to tidal-scale shallowing and deepening of the water column, especially in the presence of benthic grazing. A spring-neap signal in population growth rate is also prominent in the shallow areas. Population growth in deeper regions is less sensitive to temporal variations in tidal elevation. These results show that both shallow and deep regions of estuaries can act as sources or sinks for phytoplankton biomass, depending on the local conditions of mean water column height, tidal amplitude, light-limited growth rate, and consumption by grazers.

  1. Energy localization and frequency analysis in the locust ear.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Robert; McDonagh, Thomas R; Mhatre, Natasha; Scott, Thomas S; Robert, Daniel

    2014-01-06

    Animal ears are exquisitely adapted to capture sound energy and perform signal analysis. Studying the ear of the locust, we show how frequency signal analysis can be performed solely by using the structural features of the tympanum. Incident sound waves generate mechanical vibrational waves that travel across the tympanum. These waves shoal in a tsunami-like fashion, resulting in energy localization that focuses vibrations onto the mechanosensory neurons in a frequency-dependent manner. Using finite element analysis, we demonstrate that two mechanical properties of the locust tympanum, distributed thickness and tension, are necessary and sufficient to generate frequency-dependent energy localization.

  2. Chen-Nester-Tung quasi-local energy and Wang-Yau quasi-local mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Liang; Yu, Chengjie

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we show that the Chen-Nester-Tung (CNT) quasi-local energy with 4D isometric matching references is closely related to the Wang-Yau (WY) quasi-local energy. As a particular example, we compute the second variation of the CNT quasi-local energy for axially symmetric Kerr-like spacetimes with axially symmetric embeddings at the obvious critical point (0 , 0) and find that it is a saddle critical point in most of the cases. Also, as a byproduct, we generalize a previous result about the coincidence of the CNT quasi-local energy and Brown-York mass for axially symmetric Kerr-like spacetimes by Tam and the first author Liu and Tam (2016) to general spacetimes.

  3. Local health systems in 21st century: who cares?-An exploratory study on health system governance in Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Plochg, T; Delnoij, D M J; Hogervorst, W V G; van Dijk, P; Belleman, S; Klazinga, N S

    2006-10-01

    There is a growing awareness that there should be a public health perspective to health system governance. Its intrinsic population health orientation provides the ultimate ground for determining the health needs and governing collaborative care arrangements within which these needs can be met. Notwithstanding differences across countries, population health concerns are not central to European health reforms. Governments currently withdraw leaving governance roles to care providers and/or financiers. Thereby, incentives that trigger the uptake of a public health perspective are often ignored. In this study we addressed this issue in the city of Amsterdam. Using a qualitative study design, we explored whether there is a public health perspective to the governance practices of the municipality and the major sickness fund in Amsterdam. And if so, what the scope of this perspective is. And if not, why not. Findings indicate that the municipality has a public health perspective to local health system governance, but its scope is limited. The municipality facilitates rather than governs health care provision in Amsterdam. Furthermore, the sickness fund runs major financial risks when adapting a public health perspective. It covers an insured population that partly overlaps the Amsterdam population. Returns on investments in population health are therefore uncertain, as competitors would also profit from the sickness fund's investments. The local health system in Amsterdam is not consistently aligned to the health needs of the Amsterdam population. The Amsterdam case is not unique and general consequences for local health system governance are discussed.

  4. Average local ionization energy generalized to correlated wavefunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G.; Staroverov, Viktor N.

    2014-08-28

    The average local ionization energy function introduced by Politzer and co-workers [Can. J. Chem. 68, 1440 (1990)] as a descriptor of chemical reactivity has a limited utility because it is defined only for one-determinantal self-consistent-field methods such as the Hartree–Fock theory and the Kohn–Sham density-functional scheme. We reinterpret the negative of the average local ionization energy as the average total energy of an electron at a given point and, by rewriting this quantity in terms of reduced density matrices, arrive at its natural generalization to correlated wavefunctions. The generalized average local electron energy turns out to be the diagonal part of the coordinate representation of the generalized Fock operator divided by the electron density; it reduces to the original definition in terms of canonical orbitals and their eigenvalues for one-determinantal wavefunctions. The discussion is illustrated with calculations on selected atoms and molecules at various levels of theory.

  5. Quantum energy inequalities and local covariance II: categorical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewster, Christopher J.

    2007-11-01

    We formulate quantum energy inequalities (QEIs) in the framework of locally covariant quantum field theory developed by Brunetti, Fredenhagen and Verch, which is based on notions taken from category theory. This leads to a new viewpoint on the QEIs, and also to the identification of a new structural property of locally covariant quantum field theory, which we call local physical equivalence. Covariant formulations of the numerical range and spectrum of locally covariant fields are given and investigated, and a new algebra of fields is identified, in which fields are treated independently of their realisation on particular spacetimes and manifestly covariant versions of the functional calculus may be formulated.

  6. State government leadership: California as a model of sound energy practice. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The current status of California's energy programs is reported. The potential for future energy and dollar savings that can be achieved by carrying out their conservation programs are evaluated and additional legislative and program options for a stronger, more aggressive state government leadership role are recommended. A historical perspective of the comprehensive state program is presented. Specific options for maximum reduction in state facility energy use include: incentives to encourage state agency conservation efforts, required energy audits of state buildings and facilities, and mandatory energy conservation and management programs. (MCW)

  7. 75 FR 56163 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...This final rule revises the regulation of the Department of Justice (Department) that implements title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), relating to nondiscrimination on the basis of disability in State and local government services. The Department is issuing this final rule in order to adopt enforceable accessibility standards under the ADA that are consistent with the minimum guidelines and requirements issued by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board), and to update or amend certain provisions of the title II regulation so that they comport with the Department's legal and practical experiences in enforcing the ADA since 1991. Concurrently with the publication of this final rule for title II, the Department is publishing a final rule amending its ADA title III regulation, which covers nondiscrimination on the basis of disability by public accommodations and in commercial facilities.

  8. Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level.

  9. Local thermal energy as a structural indicator in glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylberg, Jacques; Lerner, Edan; Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2017-07-01

    Identifying heterogeneous structures in glasses—such as localized soft spots—and understanding structure-dynamics relations in these systems remain major scientific challenges. Here, we derive an exact expression for the local thermal energy of interacting particles (the mean local potential energy change caused by thermal fluctuations) in glassy systems by a systematic low-temperature expansion. We show that the local thermal energy can attain anomalously large values, inversely related to the degree of softness of localized structures in a glass, determined by a coupling between internal stresses—an intrinsic signature of glassy frustration—anharmonicity and low-frequency vibrational modes. These anomalously large values follow a fat-tailed distribution, with a universal exponent related to the recently observed universal ω4ω4 density of states of quasilocalized low-frequency vibrational modes. When the spatial thermal energy field—a “softness field”—is considered, this power law tail manifests itself by highly localized spots, which are significantly softer than their surroundings. These soft spots are shown to be susceptible to plastic rearrangements under external driving forces, having predictive powers that surpass those of the normal modes-based approach. These results offer a general, system/model-independent, physical/observable-based approach to identify structural properties of quiescent glasses and relate them to glassy dynamics.

  10. Local thermal energy as a structural indicator in glasses.

    PubMed

    Zylberg, Jacques; Lerner, Edan; Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2017-07-11

    Identifying heterogeneous structures in glasses-such as localized soft spots-and understanding structure-dynamics relations in these systems remain major scientific challenges. Here, we derive an exact expression for the local thermal energy of interacting particles (the mean local potential energy change caused by thermal fluctuations) in glassy systems by a systematic low-temperature expansion. We show that the local thermal energy can attain anomalously large values, inversely related to the degree of softness of localized structures in a glass, determined by a coupling between internal stresses-an intrinsic signature of glassy frustration-anharmonicity and low-frequency vibrational modes. These anomalously large values follow a fat-tailed distribution, with a universal exponent related to the recently observed universal [Formula: see text] density of states of quasilocalized low-frequency vibrational modes. When the spatial thermal energy field-a "softness field"-is considered, this power law tail manifests itself by highly localized spots, which are significantly softer than their surroundings. These soft spots are shown to be susceptible to plastic rearrangements under external driving forces, having predictive powers that surpass those of the normal modes-based approach. These results offer a general, system/model-independent, physical/observable-based approach to identify structural properties of quiescent glasses and relate them to glassy dynamics.

  11. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  12. Systemic and Local Infection Routes Govern Different Cellular Dissemination Pathways during Gammaherpesvirus Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vidy, Aurore; Sacher, Torsten; Adler, Heiko; Jordan, Stefan; Koszinowski, Ulrich H.

    2013-01-01

    Human gammaherpesviruses cause morbidity and mortality associated with infection and transformation of lymphoid and endothelial cells. Knowledge of cell types involved in virus dissemination from primary virus entry to virus latency is fundamental for the understanding of gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis. However, the inability to directly trace cell types with respect to virus dissemination pathways has prevented definitive conclusions regarding the relative contribution of individual cell types. Here, we describe that the route of infection affects gammaherpesvirus dissemination pathways. We constructed a recombinant murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) variant harboring a cassette which switches fluorescent markers in a Cre-dependent manner. Since the recombinant virus which was constructed on the wild-type background was attenuated, in this study we used an M1-deleted version, which infected mice with normal kinetics. Infection of Cre-transgenic mice with this convertible virus was used to estimate the quantitative contribution of defined cell types to virus productivity and dissemination during the acute phase of MHV-68 infection. In systemic infection, we found splenic vascular endothelial cells (EC) among the first and main cells to produce virus. After local infection, the contribution of EC to splenic virus production did not represent such early kinetics. However, at later time points, B cell-derived viruses dominated splenic productivity independently of systemic or local infection. Systemic versus local infection also governed the cell types involved in loading peritoneal exudate cells, leading to latency in F4/80- and CD11b-positive target cells. Systemic infection supported EC-driven dissemination, whereas local infection supported B cell-driven dissemination. PMID:23408606

  13. Using evidence in health promotion in local government: contextual realities and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Pettman, Tahna Lee; Armstrong, Rebecca; Pollard, Ben; Evans, Rachel; Stirrat, Amanda; Scott, Isha; Davies-Jackson, Georgia; Waters, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    New national and state preventive health investments have provided significant funding for local governments (LGs) to be involved in planning and implementing health promotion interventions. There is an expectation that this work is evidence based; however, inadequate support and systems exist for evidence-informed planning and decision making in LGs. Previous initiatives have aimed to build capacity and leadership in LG health promotion, but the training, support and infrastructure have been sporadic. Across 2009-11 we implemented a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC)-funded university-LG research project to explore the feasibility, usefulness and outcomes of a knowledge translation (KT) intervention to increase the use of evidence in LGs. Within this exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial, one strategy being evaluated was workforce capacity building, during which group discussions revealed contextual challenges in delivering evidence-informed health promotion within the current funding context. Discussion was recorded. The group acknowledged the need to identify barriers and realistic practical solutions, and to communicate these more broadly. Barriers to sourcing and applying evidence to inform health promotion emerged from discussions with LG representatives. System-level contextual factors affecting decisions were also discussed, namely concerns about organisational capacity and 'culture' to plan, implement and evaluate effective initiatives in LGs. Possible solutions suggested included: systems for access to academic literature; processes that make it easier to use evidence; training in evidence-informed health promotion to build organisational culture and capacity; and research-practice partnerships and mentoring. Targeted strategies with individuals (LG staff) and organisations (leadership, systems) are needed to realise the potential of current health promotion investments. Research-practice partnerships are likely to

  14. IRM National Reference Series: Japan: An evaluation of government-sponsored energy conservation research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, C.D.

    1987-07-01

    Despite the recent drop in world oil prices, the Japanese government is continuing to stress energy conservation, because Japan relies on imports for 85% of its total energy requirements and virtually 100% of its petroleum. Japan stresses long-term developments and sees conservation as an integral part of its 50- to 100-year transition from fossil fuels to nuclear and renewable sources of energy. The Japanese government is targeting new materials, biotechnology, and electronics technologies as the foundation of Japan's economy in the 21st century. Most government research programs in Japan are governed by aggressive timetables and fixed technical goals and are usually guaranteed funding over a 5- to 10-year period. Of the major energy conservation research programs, the best known is the Moonlight Project, administered by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), and oriented towards end-use technologies such as Stirling engines and advanced heat pumps. Parts of MITI's Basic Technologies for Future Industries Program involve research in new materials and bioreactors. The Science and Technology Agency's Exploratory Research in Advanced Technologies (ERATO) Program is also investigating these technologies while emphasizing basic research. Other ministries supporting research related to energy conservation are the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture and the Ministry of Construction. For 1985, government spending for energy conservation research was at least $50 million. Private sector funding of energy conservation research was $500 million in 1984. A brief outline of major programs and key participants is included for several of the most relevant technologies. An overview of Japan's experience in international scientific collaboration is also included.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Energy Access on Households in Kyrgyzstan: Government Rhetoric Versus Daily Realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Alyssa

    While significant literature enumerates the impacts of electrification on development, the impact of energy insecurity on daily life and governance is comparatively poorly understood. In post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan, I will argue that this question is of critical importance for two reasons. First, if one were to only study state rhetoric on the subject, one might believe it to be self-evident that Kyrgyzstan is energy secure and even exporting excess hydroelectric production to its neighbors. In actuality, as I will illustrate by comparing household accounts of the impact of energy supply intermittencies on daily life to government rhetoric on energy, the sector's exports are only indicative of the government's lack of concern for domestic demand and desperate need for revenue. Yet, given that a similar mismatch in the resource allocation priorities of Kyrgyzstani citizens and those of their government created context for revolution in 2010, this finding has serious implications for the political stability of the country. Second, with the progression of global climate change, the population's struggle to access already restricted resource bases will only be further complicated by climate-induced vulnerabilities and resource degradation. Particularly in the short-term, while such a mismatch persists, consumer-driven, community-level interventions must play a key role in improving the energy access, capacity to adapt to climate change, and economic well-being of Kyrgyzstani citizens.

  16. Using Participatory Approach to Improve Availability of Spatial Data for Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, T.; Cetl, V.; Tomič, H.; Lisiak, J.; Kliment, M.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, the availability of authoritative geospatial features of various data themes is becoming wider on global, regional and national levels. The reason is existence of legislative frameworks for public sector information and related spatial data infrastructure implementations, emergence of support for initiatives as open data, big data ensuring that online geospatial information are made available to digital single market, entrepreneurs and public bodies on both national and local level. However, the availability of authoritative reference spatial data linking the geographic representation of the properties and their owners are still missing in an appropriate quantity and quality level, even though this data represent fundamental input for local governments regarding the register of buildings used for property tax calculations, identification of illegal buildings, etc. We propose a methodology to improve this situation by applying the principles of participatory GIS and VGI used to collect observations, update authoritative datasets and verify the newly developed datasets of areas of buildings used to calculate property tax rates issued to their owners. The case study was performed within the district of the City of Požega in eastern Croatia in the summer 2015 and resulted in a total number of 16072 updated and newly identified objects made available online for quality verification by citizens using open source geospatial technologies.

  17. Radial behavior of the average local ionization energies of atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Politzer, P.; Murray, J.S.; Grice, M.E.; Brinck, T.; Ranganathan, S. )

    1991-11-01

    The radial behavior of the average local ionization energy {ital {bar I}}({bold r}) has been investigated for the atoms He--Kr, using {ital ab} {ital initio} Hartree--Fock atomic wave functions. {ital {bar I}}({bold r}) is found to decrease in a stepwise manner with the inflection points serving effectively to define boundaries between electronic shells. There is a good inverse correlation between polarizability and the ionization energy in the outermost region of the atom, suggesting that {ital {bar I}}({bold r}) may be a meaningful measure of local polarizabilities in atoms and molecules.

  18. Health promotion activities in annual reports of local governments: 'Health for All' targets as a tool for content analysis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Camilla M; Bjärås, Gunilla E M; Tillgren, Per; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2003-09-01

    This article presents an instrument to study the annual reporting of health promotion activities in local governments within the three intervention municipalities of the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP). The content of health promotion activities are described and the strengths, weaknesses and relevance of the method to health promotion discussed. A content analysis of local governmental reports from 1995-2000 in three Swedish municipalities. A matrix with WHO's 38 'Health for All' (HFA) targets from 1991 was used when coding the local health promotion activities. There are many public health initiatives within the local governmental structure even if they are not always addressed as health promotion. The main focuses in the local governmental reports were environmental issues, unemployment, social care and welfare. Local governmental reports were found to be a useful source of information that could provide knowledge about the priorities and organizational capacities for health promotion within local authorities. Additionally the HFA targets were an effective tool to identify and categorize systematically local health promotion activities in the annual reports of local governments. Identifying local health promotion initiatives by local authorities may ease the development of a health perspective and joint actions within the existing political and administrative structure. This paper provides a complementary method of attaining and structuring information about the local community for developments in health promotion.

  19. Dark energy and the quietness of the local Hubble flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axenides, M.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2002-06-01

    The linearity and quietness of the local (<10 Mpc) Hubble flow (LHF) in view of the very clumpy local universe is a long standing puzzle in standard and in open CDM (cold dark matter) cosmogony. The question addressed in this paper is whether the antigravity component of the recently discovered dark energy can cool the velocity flow enough to provide a solution to this puzzle. We calculate the growth of matter fluctuations in a flat universe containing a fraction ΩX(t0) of dark energy obeying the time independent equation of state pX=wρX. We find that dark energy can indeed cool the LHF. However the dark energy parameter values required to make the predicted velocity dispersion consistent with the observed value vrms~=40 km/s have been ruled out by other observational tests constraining the dark energy parameters w and ΩX. Therefore despite the claims of recent qualitative studies, dark energy with time independent equation of state cannot by itself explain the quietness and linearity of the local Hubble flow.

  20. The Quality of Community Governance and the Impact of Energy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, James H.

    Communities with a flexible, open leadership structure may weather energy booms better than communities with old-guard leadership cliques, according to a study of community governance in two small Texas towns. Although similar in location, ethnic composition, population, access to transportation, economic base, and importance in the county,…

  1. The Quality of Community Governance and the Impact of Energy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, James H.

    Communities with a flexible, open leadership structure may weather energy booms better than communities with old-guard leadership cliques, according to a study of community governance in two small Texas towns. Although similar in location, ethnic composition, population, access to transportation, economic base, and importance in the county,…

  2. An audit of local government planning tools for their potential use in addressing community food and nutrition issues.

    PubMed

    Good, Elizabeth; Hammond, Melinda; Martin, Caroline; Burns, Catherine; Groos, Anita

    2010-04-01

    This project aimed to identify how local government planning tools could be used to influence physical and policy environments to support healthy eating behaviours in communities. An audit of Queensland's legislative and non-legislative local government planning tools was conducted by a public health nutritionist to assess their potential use in addressing strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes. Ten strategies were identified and covered the following themes: improving access to healthy foods and drinks; increasing access to breastfeeding facilities; decreasing fast food outlet density; and unhealthy food advertising. The audit found that all of the 10 strategies to achieve positive nutrition outcomes could be considered through three or more of the planning tools. Based on the findings of this audit, local government planning tools provide opportunities to address food and nutrition issues and contribute toward creating physical and policy environments that support healthy eating behaviours.

  3. Earthquake Drill for Effective Emergency Response and Quick Collection of Damage Information by Collaboration between Local Government and Residents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisada, Yoshiaki; Murakami, Masahiro; Zama, Shinsaku; Endo, Makoto; Shibayama, Akihiro; Ichii, Tsuguyuki; Sekizawa, Ai; Suematsu, Takashi; Yamada, Takeshi; Noda, Itsuki; Matsui, Hiroki; Kubo, Tomohiro; Ohgai, Akira

    An earthquake drill for collecting quickly earthquake damage information and conducting effective emergency response was developed and carried out by collaboration between a local government and residents. The methodology for the drill consists of two stages; at the first stage, workshops by local communities' associations and government officers are held to make disaster prevention maps, which indicate strong and weak points of the local area, such as the locations of fire distinguishers, fire hydrants, storages of rescue equipments, weak walls and buildings, open spaces, and so on. During the workshop, the participants also discuss about what happens during a large earthquake, and how to cope with the disaster. At second stage, an emergency drill is carried out by collaboration between the local government and the community residents, as follows. First, the panels are suspended at electric poles just before the drill, which show the information about earthquake damage, such as a fire breaking, a collapsed building, and a blocked road, starts. Second, when the drill starts under the assumption of the occurrence of a large earthquake, the local residents check the area to collect the damage information, and to conduct emergency response. For example, when a resident finds a panel of fire breaking, he/she is expected to gather people, fire distinguishers, and buckets with water as many as possible within 10 minutes. Third, the residents get together at the local evacuation center, and make a map indicating the locations of the damage and their information. Local government officials at the evacuation center collect those damage maps, and immediately sent them to the emergency operation center of the government. Fourth, the operation center gathers and analyzes all the data, and informs the residents about important information, such as the evacuation order from the local center to other safe areas due to a possible massive fire. The proposed methodology was applied

  4. Localization of negative energy and the Bekenstein bound.

    PubMed

    Blanco, David D; Casini, Horacio

    2013-11-27

    A simple argument shows that negative energy cannot be isolated far away from positive energy in a conformal field theory and strongly constrains its possible dispersal. This is also required by consistency with the Bekenstein bound written in terms of the positivity of relative entropy. We prove a new form of the Bekenstein bound based on the monotonicity of the relative entropy, involving a "free" entropy enclosed in a region which is highly insensitive to space-time entanglement, and show that it further improves the negative energy localization bound.

  5. A Habermasian Analysis of Local Renewable Energy Deliberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This study pursues a Habermasian analysis of citizen discussions and of the local public sphere to shed light on renewable energy futures in rural east-central Canada. Using data from group discussions, it pursues an investigation of utterances, validity claims and of discourses. The analysis is supplemented by participant observation of publicly…

  6. A Habermasian Analysis of Local Renewable Energy Deliberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This study pursues a Habermasian analysis of citizen discussions and of the local public sphere to shed light on renewable energy futures in rural east-central Canada. Using data from group discussions, it pursues an investigation of utterances, validity claims and of discourses. The analysis is supplemented by participant observation of publicly…

  7. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... requires the visiting State government scientist to sign a written commitment to protect the confidentiality of the information, and the visiting State government scientist provides a written assurance that...

  8. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... requires the visiting State government scientist to sign a written commitment to protect the confidentiality of the information, and the visiting State government scientist provides a written assurance that...

  9. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... requires the visiting State government scientist to sign a written commitment to protect the confidentiality of the information, and the visiting State government scientist provides a written assurance that...

  10. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... requires the visiting State government scientist to sign a written commitment to protect the confidentiality of the information, and the visiting State government scientist provides a written assurance that...

  11. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... requires the visiting State government scientist to sign a written commitment to protect the confidentiality of the information, and the visiting State government scientist provides a written assurance that...

  12. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    While there are as yet no wind energy facilities in New England coastal waters, a number of wind turbine projects are now operating on land adjacent to the coast. In the Gulf of Maine region (from Maine to Massachusetts), at least two such projects, one in Falmouth, Massachusetts, and another on the island of Vinalhaven, Maine, began operation with public backing only to face subsequent opposition from some who were initially project supporters. I investigate the reasons for this dynamic using content analysis of documents related to wind energy facility development in three case study communities. For comparison and contrast with the Vinalhaven and Falmouth case studies, I examine materials from Hull, Massachusetts, where wind turbine construction and operation has received steady public support and acceptance. My research addresses the central question: What does case study analysis of the siting and initial operation of three wind energy projects in the Gulf of Maine region reveal that can inform future governance of wind energy in Massachusetts state coastal waters? I consider the question with specific attention to governance of wind energy in Massachusetts, then explore ways in which the research results may be broadly transferable in the U.S. coastal context. I determine that the change in local response noted in Vinalhaven and Falmouth may have arisen from a failure of consistent inclusion of stakeholders throughout the entire scoping-to-siting process, especially around the reporting of environmental impact studies. I find that, consistent with the principles of ecosystem-based and adaptive management, design of governance systems may require on-going cycles of review and adjustment before the implementation of such systems as intended is achieved in practice. I conclude that evolving collaborative processes must underlie science and policy in our approach to complex environmental and wind energy projects; indeed, collaborative process is fundamental to

  13. Many-body energy localization transition in periodically driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    D’Alessio, Luca; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

    2013-06-15

    According to the second law of thermodynamics the total entropy of a system is increased during almost any dynamical process. The positivity of the specific heat implies that the entropy increase is associated with heating. This is generally true both at the single particle level, like in the Fermi acceleration mechanism of charged particles reflected by magnetic mirrors, and for complex systems in everyday devices. Notable exceptions are known in noninteracting systems of particles moving in periodic potentials. Here the phenomenon of dynamical localization can prevent heating beyond certain threshold. The dynamical localization is known to occur both at classical (Fermi–Ulam model) and at quantum levels (kicked rotor). However, it was believed that driven ergodic systems will always heat without bound. Here, on the contrary, we report strong evidence of dynamical localization transition in both classical and quantum periodically driven ergodic systems in the thermodynamic limit. This phenomenon is reminiscent of many-body localization in energy space. -- Highlights: •A dynamical localization transition in periodically driven ergodic systems is found. •This phenomenon is reminiscent of many-body localization in energy space. •Our results are valid for classical and quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit. •At critical frequency, the short time expansion for the evolution operator breaks down. •The transition is associated to a divergent time scale.

  14. Coal Development in the Northern Great Plains. The Impact on Revenues of State and Local Governments. Agricultural Economic Report No. 394.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Thomas F.; Voelker, Stanley W.

    Development of Northern Great Plains coal resources will create new demands for state and local government services. Development will also produce increased government revenues. Special taxes on coal production have been enacted in Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming in order to ensure that state and local governments receive sufficient revenues to…

  15. Tobacco use amongst out of school adolescents in a Local Government Area in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Out-of-school adolescents are often neglected when planning for tobacco prevention programmes whereas they are more vulnerable. Few studies exist in Nigeria about their pattern of tobacco use to serve as the basis for effective policy formulation. Method A sub sample of 215 out of school adolescents was analyzed from a descriptive cross sectional study on psychoactive substance use amongst youths in two communities in a Local Government Area in Nigeria which used a multi-stage sampling technique. Results Males were 53% and females 47%. Only 20.5% had ever used tobacco while 11.6% were current users. Males accounted for 60% of current users compared to 40% amongst females. Of current users, 84% believed that tobacco is not harmful to health. In addition, the two important sources of introduction to tobacco use were friends 72% and relatives 20%. Use of tobacco amongst significant others were: friends 27%, fathers 8.0%, relatives 4.2% and mothers 0.5%. The most common sources of supply were motor parks 52% and friends 16%. Conclusion The study showed that peer influence is an important source of introduction to tobacco use while selling of tobacco to adolescents in youth aggregation areas is common. We advocate for a theory based approach to designing an appropriate health education intervention targeted at assisting adolescents in appreciating the harmful nature of tobacco use in this locality. A point-of-sale restriction to prevent adolescent access to tobacco in youth aggregation areas within the context of a comprehensive tobacco control policy is also suggested. However, more research would be needed for an in-depth understanding of the tobacco use vulnerability of this group of adolescents. PMID:20955555

  16. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report on Federal Energy Management for Fiscal year (FY) 1992 provides information on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet the statutory requirements of Title V, Part 3, of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 8251-8261, and Title VIII of NECPA, 42 U.S.C. 8287-8287b. This report also describes the energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under the authorization of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6361. Implementation activities undertaken during FY 1992 by the Federal agencies under Executive Order 12759 on Federal Energy Management are also described in this report.

  17. Evidence-based medicine meets democracy: the role of evidence-based public health guidelines in local government.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M P; Atkins, L; Littleford, C; Leng, G; Michie, S

    2017-02-10

    In 2013, many public health functions transferred from the National Health Service to local government in England. From 2006 NICE had produced public health guidelines based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. This study explores how the guidelines were received in the new environment in local government and related issues raised relating to the use of evidence in local authoritites. In depth, interviews with 31 elected members and officers, including Directors of Public Health, from four very different local government organizations ('local authorities'). Participants reported that (i) there were tensions between evidence-based, and political decision-making; (ii) there were differences in views about what constituted 'good' evidence and (iii) that organizational life is an important mediator in the way evidence is used. Democratic political decision-making does not necessarily naturally align with decision-making based on evidence from the international scientific literature, and local knowledge and local evidence are very important in the ways that public health decisions are made.

  18. Using Revolving Loan Funds to Finance Energy Savings Performance Contracts in State and Local Agency Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Doris, E.; Knutson, D.; Regenthal, S.

    2011-05-01

    Numerous pre-existing and newly emerging state- and locally-managed revolving loan funds (RLFs) are being used in conjunction with energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) as an option for financing of energy efficiency projects. This document presents an overview of ESPCs and how they fit within the RLF framework. There are a variety of options available to state and local governments to catalyze the disbursement of available capital from RLFs and increase the number of ESPC projects within their jurisdictions. To demonstrate the implementation of this type of financing program in action, this report concludes with four program case studies of state-sponsored RLFs where ESPCs are an allowed use of funds.

  19. Forest protected areas governance in Zimbabwe: Shift needed away from a long history of local community exclusion.

    PubMed

    Mutekwa, V T; Gambiza, J

    2017-08-01

    In this literature review based paper we explored the concept of exclusion of local communities from accessing resources in forest protected areas (FPAs) in Zimbabwe. We discussed the colonial and post-colonial forms, causes and mechanisms of exclusion and their social, economic and ecological outcomes. We examined the range of powers embodied in and exercised through various mechanisms, processes and social relations and their impact on local communities' access to FPA resources and associated benefits along the historical trajectory of forest governance in Zimbabwe. Results showed that the forms and extent of exclusion changed over time in tandem with the shifting political and economic landscape. During the colonial period, it was total exclusion whereby people were evicted from forest land as well as being denied access to basic resources for their livelihoods. Local communities' access to low value FPA resources improved during the post-colonial period but access to high value resources like commercial timber as well as sharing income benefits derived from FPA commercial activities remained a pipe dream. Regulation, legitimation, force and markets constituted the mixture of the power elements that FPA governing authorities used to exclude local communities. These powers remained intact despite attempts at collaborative governance in the 1990s. However, from the year 2000, local communities expressed their dissatisfaction with the centralised exclusionary governance system by invading the FPAs rendering them ungovernable. There is therefore a need for policy reform within the FPA sector to improve the current dire situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unavailability of Essential Obstetric Care Services in a Local Government Area of South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fatusi, Adesegun O.; Orji, Ernest O.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Owolabi, Olabimpe O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Omideyi, Adekunbi K.; Adewuyi, Alfred A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the findings at baseline in a multi-phase project that aimed at reducing maternal mortality in a local government area (LGA) of South-West Nigeria. The objectives were to determine the availability of essential obstetric care (EOC) services in the LGA and to assess the quality of existing services. The first phase of this interventional study, which is the focus of this paper, consisted of a baseline health facility and needs assessment survey using instruments adapted from the United Nations guidelines. Twenty-one of 26 health facilities surveyed were public facilities, and five were privately owned. None of the facilities met the criteria for a basic EOC facility, while only one private facility met the criteria for a comprehensive EOC facility. Three facilities employed a nurse and/or a midwife, while unskilled health attendants manned 46% of the facilities. No health worker in the LGA had ever been trained in lifesaving skills. There was a widespread lack of basic EOC equipment and supplies. The study concluded that there were major deficiencies in the supply side of obstetric care services in the LGA, and EOC was almost non-existent. This result has implications for interventions for the reduction of maternal mortality in the LGA and in Nigeria. PMID:17615909