Science.gov

Sample records for local government involvement

  1. 36 CFR 219.14 - Involvement of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Involvement of State and local governments. 219.14 Section 219.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning...

  2. 36 CFR 219.14 - Involvement of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land and Resource Management Planning Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.14 Involvement of State and local governments. The responsible official... the planning process, including the identification of issues; and (b) Contribute to the...

  3. Local Governments Reimbursement Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the event of a release (or threatened release) of hazardous substances, EPA may provide a safety net of up to $25,000 per incident to local governments for expenses related to the release and associated emergency response measures.

  4. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  5. Local Government: The Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Service-Learning Network" looks at the ways that service learning can transform local government into a learning laboratory for civic education. The first article, "Creating the Missing Link: Local Government, Service Learning, and Civic Education" (Todd Clark), introduces the issue. "Service Learning and Local Government" (Ann…

  6. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  7. Spanning the Local Government Information Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrance, Joan C.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of implications of highly decentralized nature of local government for collection of local documents highlights meaning of access, effect of local government environment on access to local government information, library responses, and tools that can assist libraries in increasing citizen and government access to local government…

  8. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. 2 CFR 200.64 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 200.64 Section 200.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.64 Local government. Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a: (a) County; (b) Borough; (c) Municipality;...

  10. State and Local Government Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Alexander; Rinebold, Joel; Aresta, Paul

    2012-03-30

    The State and Local Government Partnership project has built relationships between the Department of Energy (DOE), regional states, and municipalities. CCAT implemented this project using a structure that included leadership by the DOE. Outreach was undertaken through collaborative meetings, workshops, and briefings; the development of technical models and local energy plans; support for state stakeholder groups; and implementation of strategies to facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The final guidance documents provided to stakeholders consisted of individual strategic state “Roadmaps” to serve as development plans. These “Roadmaps” confirm economic impacts, identify deployment targets, and compare policies and incentives for facility development in each of the regional states. The partnerships developed through this project have improved the exchange of knowledge between state and local government stakeholders and is expected to increase the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in early market applications, consistent with the DOE’s market transformation efforts. Technically accurate and objective information was, and continues to be, provided to improve public and stakeholder perceptions regarding the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Based on the “Roadmaps” and studies conducted for this project, there is the potential to generate approximately 10.75 million megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annually from hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the Northeast regional states, through the development of 1,364 to 1,818 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell electric generation capacity. Currently, the region has approximately 1,180 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the region. These companies are estimated to have over $1 billion in annual revenue and investment, contribute more than $51 million in annual state and local tax revenue

  11. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  12. State and Local Government Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    This report concerns public purchasing at all levels of government and brings into focus the role of the purchasing official in government management. Covered in the report are essential elements of the purchasing process, including the assessment of needs; written specifications; advertising, evaluating, and awarding bids; and inspection and…

  13. Key Objectives for State and Local Governments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page discusses key objectives for state and local governments when developing Clean Energy Financing Programs, including generating demand, encouraging private lenders, and long-term program sustainability.

  14. All Holdings Are Local: Archivists and Local Government Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell D.

    2004-01-01

    Archivists working in repositories that contain local government records play an integral role within the local community. Unlike their colleagues in state, regional, or national repositories, the local government archivist concentrates on a small geographic region and demonstrates knowledge of the politics, history, and socio-economics of the…

  15. Local Governments (Executive Offices) Sector (NAICS 921110)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulatory information for government executive offices, including state implementation plans (SIPs), local emergency planning under EPCRA, drinking water treatment, water supply security, and compliance assistance for boiler & combustion regulations.

  16. Green Power Partnership Top 30 Local Government

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page lists the largest green power users among local government partners within the GPP.

  17. Intersectoral action: local governments promoting health.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Riikka; Bortz, Martin; Armada, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Many local governments around the world promote health through intersectoral action, but to date there has been little systematic evidence of these experiences. To bridge this gap, the World Health Organization Centre for Health Development conducted a study in 2011-2013 on intersectoral action for health (ISA) at local government level. A total of 25 cases were included in the final review. Various approaches were used to carry out ISA by local governments in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Several common facilitating factors and challenges were identified: national and international influences, the local political context, public participation and use of support mechanisms such as coordination structures, funding mechanisms and mandates, engaging sectors through vertical and horizontal collaboration, information sharing, monitoring and evaluation, and equity considerations. The literature on certain aspects of ISA, such as monitoring and evaluation and health equity, was found to be relatively thin. Also, the articles used for the study varied as regards their depth of information and often focused on the point of view of one sector. More in-depth studies of these issues covering multiple angles and different ISA mechanisms could be useful. Local governments can offer a unique arena for implementing intersectoral activities, especially because of their proximity to the people, but more practical guidance to better facilitate local government ISA processes is still needed.

  18. Integrated program designed for local governments.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Local Philippine governments are required under the 1991 Local Government Code to plan and manage their own health and nutrition programs. In response to their requests, the Municipal Integrated Nutrition Program (MINP) is being developed. This program will integrate the local efforts of the following national nutrition programs: the Teacher-Child-Parent Approach of the Department of Education, Culture, and Sports; the Community-Based Planning and Management of Nutrition Programs of the Department of Health; the Early Childhood Enrichment Program of the Department of Social welfare and Development; and the Bio-Intensive Gardening for Home/Community Food Security of the Department of Agriculture. The Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP) has assisted in the development, testing, and evaluation of the MINP. In 1993, MINP models will begin in 1 or 2 barangays in Carmen, Cebu; Hilongos, Leyte; and Dapitan City in Zamboanga del Norte. NCP will provide program materials and technical assistance. Modeling activities will include advocating to local government units; designing and installing nutrition planning capability via planning workshops; packaging of program requirements and costs; designing a strategy to mobilize resources; facilitating purchase, delivery, and payment of program requirements; facilitating and coordinating training; designing and installing a monitoring and evaluation system; and documenting and disseminating. Local government officials, technical government agencies, nongovernment organizations, and private entities will work together.

  19. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES...

  20. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved UNIVERSAL IDENTIFIER...

  1. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS PRE-AWARD RESPONSIBILITIES...

  2. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Pre-award responsibilities...

  3. Workplace Industrial Relations in Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Ian

    1991-01-01

    Development of the personnel function of local government in the United Kingdom has resulted in a managerial process reflecting key features of the human resource management model. However, employee commitment and organizational flexibility are less evident, and the collectivist nature of employee relations remains well entrenched. (SK)

  4. Local Government Health Services in Interwar England:

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article provides a critical discussion of recent work on local government health care and health services in interwar England. A literature review examines case study approaches and comparative quantitative surveys, highlighting conventional and revisionist interpretations. Noting the differing selection criteria evident in some works, it argues that studies based upon a limited number of personal health services provide an insufficient basis for assessing local health activity and policy. There follows a regional study demonstrating various discrepancies between health financing data in local sources and those in nationally collated returns. These in turn give rise to various problems of assessment and interpretation in works relying on the latter, particularly with respect to services for schoolchildren and long-stay patients. The case study points to the importance of integrating poor law medical services in evaluations, and of learning more about the role of government subsidy in supporting expanding services. PMID:22080797

  5. 40 CFR 280.106 - Local government guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local government guarantee. 280.106... STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.106 Local government guarantee. (a) A local government... requirements of this section. The guarantor must be either the state in which the local government owner...

  6. 40 CFR 280.107 - Local government fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local government fund. 280.107 Section... (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.107 Local government fund. A local government owner or operator... local government statute, charter, ordinance, or order to pay for taking corrective action and...

  7. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section... Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local government are eligible to receive subgrants from a participating state. Unit of local government means...

  8. 40 CFR 280.106 - Local government guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local government guarantee. 280.106... STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.106 Local government guarantee. (a) A local government... requirements of this section. The guarantor must be either the state in which the local government owner...

  9. 24 CFR 570.486 - Local government requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Local government requirements. 570... Development Block Grant Program § 570.486 Local government requirements. (a) Citizen participation requirements of a unit of general local government. Each unit of general local government shall meet...

  10. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section... Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local government are eligible to receive subgrants from a participating state. Unit of local government means...

  11. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section... Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of local government are eligible to receive subgrants from a participating state. Unit of local government means...

  12. 40 CFR 280.106 - Local government guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local government guarantee. 280.106... STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.106 Local government guarantee. (a) A local government... requirements of this section. The guarantor must be either the state in which the local government owner...

  13. Democratic Involvement of Students in High School Governance in Lesotho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsepe, Mokone W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is premised on the thesis that there is importance and necessity of involving high school students in school governance in Lesotho as well as consideration of cultural values' impact on this issue. The possibilities and limits of involving the high school students in school governance in Lesotho are examined. There are two opposing…

  14. 48 CFR 942.705-4 - State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... governments. 942.705-4 Section 942.705-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT... governments. A list of cognizant agencies for State/local government organizations is periodically published... notified of such assignments. The current negotiated rates for State/local government activities...

  15. 48 CFR 942.705-4 - State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... governments. 942.705-4 Section 942.705-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT... governments. A list of cognizant agencies for State/local government organizations is periodically published... notified of such assignments. The current negotiated rates for State/local government activities...

  16. Parent Involvement in Local Chapter 1 Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, E. Deborah; Shields, Patrick M.

    This report focuses on the involvement of parents in local projects funded under Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act. It researches the kind and extent of involvement, the impact of state and local factors on it, and the effect of the change from Title I to Chapter…

  17. Democracy and Governance in the Local School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Labour government showed no interest in extending local democracy in the school system, in spite of a policy rhetoric of local democratic renewal. The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government's localism agenda promotes the autonomy of schools from local authorities without proposing alternative forms of local democracy in the school…

  18. Reconstituting Local Government for Well-Being and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Luvern L.

    This speech advocates substantial change in the structure and management of local governments and school districts. The discussion focuses on a reconstitution of mission, philosophy, broad goals, and features of local school governance and management. The speaker asserts that the focus of local government around the nation should individually and…

  19. Native Americans and state and local governments

    SciTech Connect

    Rusco, E.R.

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans` concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain.

  20. Working with Grassroots Government. A Report from The Local Government Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Local Government Center.

    The Local Government Center of Montana State University provides professional education and technical assistance programs to enhance the governance capacities of local governments throughout Montana. The Center offers certification workshops for municipal and county officials focusing on practical and theoretical aspects of government, and a broad…

  1. Local government conservation and management of native vegetation in urban Australia.

    PubMed

    Stenhouse, Renae N

    2004-08-01

    Reflecting a worldwide trend of devolution of power and responsibilities to local authorities, metropolitan local governments in Australia now have a role in protecting and managing native vegetation (bushland). Reporting on questionnaire and interview results for Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, and Adelaide, this research examines the main disturbances in local government bushlands, local governments' efforts in bushland conservation, and universality of issues and responses among the cities and between urban and urban-rural local authorities. A number of disturbances in bushlands are common among the cities, with weeds, development impacts, and urban run off perceived to be the most threatening. Management efforts focus on weed control, whereas other main disturbances are receiving less attention. Community involvement in management is prevalent, although regional coordination among local governments is limited. Local governments are willing to be involved in biodiversity conservation and their capacity would be enhanced with increased funding, staffing, and regional coordination.

  2. Parental Involvement in School Governance and Decision Making in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam E.; Bogler, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    A review of the memorandums set by the Israeli Ministry of Education reveals that they stress the importance of parental involvement for schools and children. A review of studies that focused on parental involvement in Israeli school governance suggests that parents' participation is usually confined to the provision of funds, equipment, or other…

  3. State Aid to Local Government. A Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington, DC.

    This report studies the proper allocation of responsibility for financing the high cost of intergovernmental programs among the three major levels of government. The local property tax, which is the primary underwriter of the local school system, of local general government, and of half the nation's $10 billion public welfare bill, is outmoded.…

  4. Climate and Energy Resources for State, Local and Tribal Governments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's State and Local Climate and Energy Program helps state, local and tribal governments develop and implement policies and programs that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality and public health.

  5. 28 CFR 33.11 - Units of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units of local government. 33.11 Section 33.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Eligible Applicants § 33.11 Units of local government. (a) Units of...

  6. USER-ORIENTED INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Potential state and local government users of information systems are classified in terms of categories of activities and levels of organizational...situation in state and local government information systems is then described, indicating a need for more advanced, user-oriented techniques. Such methods and

  7. School Governance and Teachers' Attitudes to Parents' Involvement in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addi-Raccah, Audrey; Ainhoren, Ronit

    2009-01-01

    This study probes teachers' attitudes toward parental involvement in schools as a function of four types of school governance as suggested by Bauch and Goldring. Participants of the study included headteachers, chairpersons of parents' committees, and teachers of 11 primary schools in a medium-sized town in Israel. A discriminant analysis found…

  8. Wellhead protection programs: Tools for local governments

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, R.; Linquiti, P.

    1989-04-01

    The Technical Assistance Document (TAD) describes how localities can, as a part of a State Wellhead Protection Program, develop and implement effective techniques for the protection of ground water. The document emphasizes innovative wellhead protection methods that have been used by local communities, discusses combinations of programs that have worked well, and presents several factors that affect the success of local wellhead protection programs, such as budgetary constraints and legal issues.

  9. Regional Circuit Rider for Energy Efficiency in Local Government Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replication community-based greenhouse gas red

  10. Warning System Re-Evaluation and Local Government Guidance Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-07

    Provide an alerting and warning system for government activities and the general public who will be housed in the eastern El Paso County area. C. 6...LEVEI WARNING SYSTEM RE-EVALUATION eAND C) LOCAL GOVERNMENT GUIDANCE UPDATE FINAL REPORT AUGUST 1979 DCPA 01-78-C-0229 DCPA WORK UNIT 2234D CSC-4527...at seCUltivy CLA854PCATW Op Tol PA56mb" D b WARNING SYSTEM RE-EVALUATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT GUIDANCE UPDATE FINAL REPORT AUGUST 1979 Prepared for

  11. State Enabling Legislation for Commercial-Scale Wind Power Siting and the Local Government Role

    SciTech Connect

    McElfish, J.M.; Gersen, S.

    2011-05-31

    Siting of commercial-scale wind facilities (>5MW) is determined primarily by state laws. State laws either leave siting regulation to local governments, prescribe and constrain the role for local governments, establish state standards, or preempt local governance by having state institutions govern siting. Siting regulation is extremely important to the advancement of wind generation in the United States. Major siting decisions lie ahead for state and local governments as the nation diversifies its energy portfolio. An increase in the number of new wind facilities, siting in more locations and in more heavily populated areas, will require attention to the laws and regulations that govern siting. Local governments exercise some authority over commercial-scale wind facility siting in 48 of the 50 states. In 34 states, local governments have substantial autonomy to regulate the siting of most or all commercial-scale wind facilities. A few states authorize local governments to regulate wind facility siting, but make the scope of local regulation subject to limitations defined by state law. Eleven states set size thresholds for state regulatory involvement with local governments in these states regulating smaller facilities and state boards regulating larger ones (either exclusively or concurrently with local governments). In just under a third of the states, siting of most or all commercial-scale wind facilities requires approval by both state and local government bodies. Only a few states reserve the regulation of siting of all or virtually all commercial-scale wind facilities to state boards and commissions. The content of the applicable regulations is more important, in general, than the level of government responsible for the decision. Several states that assign siting responsibilities to local governments have specified some of the content and the limits of local regulation. About 1/5 of the states have directed boards and commissions to develop statewide

  12. Role of local governments in promoting energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the incentives which influence the decisions by local governments to adopt energy-efficiency programs, either unilaterally or in partnership with the Federal government. It is found that there is significant potential for improved energy efficiency in urban residential, commercial, and industrial buildings and that exploiting these opportunities is in the interest of both Federal and local governments. Unless there is a unique combination of strong local leadership, a tradition of resource management, and external energy shocks, communities are unlikely to realize this potential. Conflicting demands, traditional perceptions, and lack of funding pose a major barrier to a strong unilateral commitment by local governments. A Federal-local partnership built upon and complementary to existing efforts in areas such as housing, social welfare, and economic development offers an excellent opportunity to realize the inherent potential of local energy-efficiency programs. At the local level, energy is not perceived as an isolated issue, but one which is part of a number of problems arising from the continuing increase in energy prices.

  13. Power Purchase Agreement Checklist for State and Local Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Canavan, B.; Koenig, R.

    2009-10-01

    This fact sheet provides information and guidance on the solar photovoltaic (PV) power purchase agreement (PPA), which is a financing mechanism that state and local government entities can use to acquire clean, renewable energy. It addressed the financial, logistical, and legal questions relevant to implementing a PPA, but we do not examine the technical details?those can be discussed later with the developer/contractor. This fact sheet is written to support decision makers in U.S. state and local governments who are aware of solar PPAs and may have a cursory knowledge of their structure but they still require further information before committing to a particular project.

  14. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide—Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments—to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  15. Local government: The sleeping giant in electric industry restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, S.

    1997-11-01

    Public power has long been a cornerstone of consumer leverage in the electric industry. But its foundation consists of a much broader and deeper consumer authority. Understanding that authority - and present threats to it - is critical to restructuring of the electric industry as well as to the future of public power. The country has largely forgotten the role that local governments have played and continue to play in the development of the electric industry. Moreover, we risk losing sight of the options local governments may offer to protect consumers, to advance competition in the marketplace, and to enhance opportunities for technology and economic development. The future role of local government is one of the most important issues in the restructuring discussion. The basic authority of consumers rests at the local level. The resulting options consumers have to act as more than just respondents to private brokers and telemarketing calls are at the local level. And the ability for consumers to shape the marketplace and standards for what it will offer exists at the local level as well.

  16. Using the Storypath Approach to Make Local Government Understandable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Margit E.; Cole, Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Learning about local government seems boring and irrelevant to most young people, particularly to students from high-poverty backgrounds. The authors explore a promising approach for solving this problem, Storypath, which engages students in authentic learning and active citizenship. The Storypath approach is based on a narrative in which students…

  17. 12 CFR 560.42 - State and local government obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., credit, liquidity, price, transaction, and other risks associated with the investment activity and... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and local government obligations. 560.42 Section 560.42 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING...

  18. Application of University Resources to Local Government Problems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblin, James E.; And Others

    The report details the results of a unique experimental demonstration of applying university resources to local government problems. Faculty-student teams worked with city and county personnel on projects chosen by mutual agreement, including work in areas of traffic management, law enforcement, waste heat utilization, solid waste conversion, and…

  19. State and Local Government Employee Relations after "Garcia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Leo

    1986-01-01

    In "Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority" (1985), the United States Supreme Court ruled that the Tenth Amendment does not preclude application of the federal minimum wage act and the Fair Labor Standards Act to state and local government employees. This paper explains "Garcia" history and implications for…

  20. Local Democracy, Rural Community, and Participatory School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvind, Gaysu R.

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the indigenization of democracy in India by conceptualizing participatory deliberative decision-making practice as a tool to strengthen the functioning of local schools and to enhance democratic responsiveness within communities. Drawing on case-studies of bottom-up approaches to school governance, this study examines an…

  1. Managing Information Systems in State and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Patricia D.; Foy, Deborah Otis

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the literature from 1980-93 that discusses information technologies use by state and local governments. Highlights include public sector organizations; a history of information technology management; current information technologies, including information architectures and information resources management; geographic information systems;…

  2. Selected Energy Management Options for Small Business and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.; Worthington, Barry K.

    This document is a checklist of 257 energy management options for small business and local government. The energy management options are categorized under: (1) Energy management strategies; (2) Buildings; (3) Lighting; (4) Water; (5) Waste operations; (6) Equipment; (7) Transportation; and (8) Food preparation. To select options for…

  3. 40 CFR 280.107 - Local government fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS... local government statute, charter, ordinance, or order to pay for taking corrective action and for... mechanism(s) that provide the remaining coverage; or (b) The fund is dedicated by state...

  4. 36 CFR 61.6 - Certified local government programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... local government programs. (a) Each approved State program must provide a mechanism for certification... for proposed demolitions of, changes to, or other action that may affect historic properties as... CLG with appropriate guidance on mechanisms to ensure adequate public participation in the...

  5. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  6. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  7. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  8. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  9. 36 CFR 61.7 - Subgrants to certified local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subgrants to certified local governments. 61.7 Section 61.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National Park Service issues. The SHPO may require specific uses of funds subgranted to CLGs. CLGs may...

  10. 48 CFR 942.705-4 - State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State and local governments. 942.705-4 Section 942.705-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT... distributed to each CDO by the Office of Procurement and Assistance Policy, within the...

  11. 75 FR 67718 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... submitted electronically to Eargle.Frances@epa.gov . Please contact the Designated Federal Officer (DFO) at... written request to the DFO. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Frances Eargle, DFO for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) at (202) 564-3115 or e-mail at Eargle.frances@epa.gov. INFORMATION ON...

  12. 76 FR 6785 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ..., written comments should be submitted electronically to eargle.frances@epa.gov . Please contact the... written request to the DFO. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Frances Eargle, the Designated Federal Officer for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) at (202) 564-3115 or e-mail at...

  13. 76 FR 68439 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... should be submitted electronically to eargle.frances@epa.gov . Please contact the Designated Federal...: Frances Eargle, the Designated Federal Officer for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) at (202) 564-3115 or email at eargle.frances@epa.gov . Information on Services for Those With Disabilities:...

  14. Localized Pemphigus Vegetans without Mucosal Involvement.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vk; Jindal, N; Imchen, S

    2014-03-01

    Pemphigus vegetans is a rare variant of pemphigus vulgaris. A 62-year-old woman presented with erythematous moist vegetative plaque on the left breast and left groin. There was no mucosal involvement. Histopathological and direct immunofluorescence findings were suggestive of pemphigus vegetans. She showed excellent response to oral steroids. Literature is scarcely available on the limited involvement with pemphigus vegetans without mucosal involvement.

  15. The Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative: Climate Resilient Local Governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Local governments, the first responders to public health, safety and environmental hazards, must act now to lessen vulnerabilities to climate change. They must plan for and invest in "adapting" to inevitable impacts such as flood, fire, and draught that will occur notwithstanding best efforts to mitigate climate change. CCAP's Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative is developing a framework for informed decision making on climate adaptation. Looking ahead to projected climate impacts and 'back casting' can identify what is needed now to both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build local resiliency to climate change. CCAP's partnership with King County (WA), Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami-Dade County (FL), Milwaukee, Nassau County (NY), Phoenix, San Francisco, and Toronto is advancing policy discussions to ensure that state and local governments consider climate change when making decisions about infrastructure, transportation, land use, and resource management. Through the Initiative, local leaders will incorporate climate change into daily urban management and planning activities, proactively engage city and county managers and the public in developing solutions, and build community resilience. One goal is to change both institutional and public attitudes and behaviors. Determining appropriate adaptation strategies for each jurisdiction requires Asking the Climate Question: "How does what we are doing increase our resilience to climate change?" Over the next three years, the Initiative will design and implement specific adaptation plans, policies and 'catalytic' projects, collect and disseminate "best practices," and participate in framing national climate policy discussions. In the coming years, policy-makers will have to consider climate change in major infrastructure development decisions. If they are to be successful and have the resources they need, national climate change policy and emerging legislation will have to support these communities. The Urban Leaders

  16. Energy Conservation: A Management Report for State and Local Governments and A Technical Guide for State and Local Governments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Technology, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This technical guide is part of a packet of tools designed to assist state or local government practitioners in organizing and managing an energy conservation program. It gives information on adapting energy conservation methods to existing public buildings and on designing new public buildings with energy conservation in mind. It also discusses…

  17. Localized pemphigus foliaceus with unilateral facial involvement.

    PubMed

    Maderal, A D; Miner, A; Nousari, C; Alonso-Llamazares, J

    2014-05-01

    Pemphigus foliaceus is a superficial vesiculobullous disease that typically presents with widespread lesions. Localized presentations are less frequent, and they typically occur in middle-aged patients, following exposure to topical medications, and later on, become more disseminated. We present a case of a 19-year-old female with a localized presentation of pemphigus foliaceus unrelated to previous topical medications, that was a diagnostic and therapeutically challenging case. We also discuss the literature on localized cases, differences in presentations and responses to various treatment modalities.

  18. Tapping the Potential: CETA and Local Government Joint Ventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Edward L.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes some of the uses that local Private Industry Councils (PICs) have found for their employment generating resources from the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. Includes suggestions on how local leaders can involve PICs in the solution of employment and development problems. (SK)

  19. 76 FR 18757 - Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory... Advisory Committee Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Local Government Advisory...

  20. Governance of environmental risk: new approaches to managing stakeholder involvement.

    PubMed

    Benn, Suzanne; Dunphy, Dexter; Martin, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Disputes concerning industrial legacies such as the disposal of toxic wastes illustrate changing pressures on corporations and governments. Business and governments are now confronted with managing the expectations of a society increasingly aware of the social and environmental impacts and risks associated with economic development and demanding more equitable distribution and democratic management of such risks. The closed managerialist decision-making of the powerful bureaucracies and corporations of the industrial era is informed by traditional management theory which cannot provide a framework for the adequate governance of these risks. Recent socio-political theories have conceptualised some key themes that must be addressed in a more fitting approach to governance. We identify more recent management and governance theory which addresses these themes and develop a process-based approach to governance of environmental disputes that allows for the evolving nature of stakeholder relations in a highly complex multiple stakeholder arena.

  1. An intermediary's perspective of online databases for local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous public administration studies have indicated that local government agencies for a variety of reasons lack access to comprehensive information resources; furthermore, such entities are often unwilling or unable to share information regarding their own problem-solving innovations. The NASA/University of Kentucky Technology Applications Program devotes a considerable effort to providing scientific and technical information and assistance to local agencies, relying on its access to over 500 distinct online databases offered by 20 hosts. The author presents a subjective assessment, based on his own experiences, of several databases which may prove useful in obtaining information for this particular end-user community.

  2. Applying Best Practices to Florida Local Government Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, J.; Sutherland, K.

    2013-12-01

    In some communities, local government and non-profit entities have funds to purchase and renovate distressed, foreclosed homes for resale in the affordable housing market. Numerous opportunities to improve whole house energy efficiency are inherent in these comprehensive renovations. BA-PIRC worked together in a multi-year field study making recommendations in individual homes, meanwhile compiling improvement costs, projected energy savings, practical challenges, and labor force factors surrounding common energy-related renovation measures. The field study, Phase 1 of this research, resulted in a set of best practices appropriate to the current labor pool and market conditions in central Florida to achieve projected annual energy savings of 15-30% and higher. This report describes Phase 2 of the work where researchers worked with a local government partner to implement and refine the 'current best practices.' A simulation study was conducted to characterize savings potential under three sets of conditions representing varying replacement needs for energy-related equipment and envelope components. The three scenarios apply readily to the general remodeling industry as for renovation of foreclosed homes for the affordable housing market. Our new local government partner, the City of Melbourne, implemented the best practices in a community-scale renovation program that included ten homes in 2012.

  3. Applying Best Practices to Florida Local Government Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, J.; Sutherland, K.

    2013-12-01

    In some communities, local government and non-profit entities have funds to purchase and renovate distressed, foreclosed homes for resale in the affordable housing market. Numerous opportunities to improve whole house energy efficiency are inherent in these comprehensive renovations. BA-PIRC worked together in a multiyear field study making recommendations in individual homes, meanwhile compiling improvement costs, projected energy savings, practical challenges, and labor force factors surrounding common energy-related renovation measures. The field study, Phase 1 of this research, resulted in a set of best practices appropriate to the current labor pool and market conditions in central Florida to achieve projected annual energy savings of 15%-30% and higher. This report describes Phase 2 of the work where researchers worked with a local government partner to implement and refine the "current best practices". A simulation study was conducted to characterize savings potential under three sets of conditions representing varying replacement needs for energy-related equipment and envelope components. The three scenarios apply readily to the general remodeling industry as for renovation of foreclosed homes for the affordable housing market. The new local government partner, the City of Melbourne, implemented the best practices in a community-scale renovation program that included ten homes in 2012.

  4. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    PubMed

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy.

  5. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tribal-permitted or -registered waste management activities. The records or databases that may contain.... (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of the..., and tribal government records or databases of the government records and local government records...

  6. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tribal-permitted or -registered waste management activities. The records or databases that may contain.... (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of the..., and tribal government records or databases of the government records and local government records...

  7. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tribal-permitted or -registered waste management activities. The records or databases that may contain.... (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of the..., and tribal government records or databases of the government records and local government records...

  8. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tribal-permitted or -registered waste management activities. The records or databases that may contain.... (a) Federal, State, tribal, and local government records or databases of government records of the..., and tribal government records or databases of the government records and local government records...

  9. Improving Building Construction Specifications in State and Local Governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    State and local governments can benefit from master specifications systems that centralize data on all types of building materials, products, and processes. Most of these systems are organized according to the MASTERFORMAT system, which, along with guide specifications that require the insertion or deletion of standardized information, resulted from the specific needs of users and providers. For jurisdictions preparing their own specifications, staff time and cost are reduced. For those subcontracting the preparation, master specifications provide a means of evaluating the specifications submitted. Current management specification systems described include SPECINTACT, OMSPEC, MASTERPEC, and the NAVFAC, Corps of Engineers, and GSA guide specifications.

  10. PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN COOPERATION BETWEEN UNIVERSITIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHIRLEY, JOHN W.

    THE UNRESOLVED PURPOSE OF EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY--WHETHER ACADEMIC OR PRAGMATIC GOALS SHOULD PREVAIL--IS IDENTIFIED AS THE BASIC CAUSE OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION. SINCE WORLD WAR II, FEDERAL SUPPORT HAS BEEN INCREASINGLY DIRECTED TOWARD ACTION PROGRAMS, INCLUDING SPECIAL…

  11. Fragmented local governance and water resource management outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hong; Keane, Timothy D; Bernard, Eric A

    2015-03-01

    Fragmented jurisdictions and decision making structures can result in destructive competition and/or a lack of systematic cooperation that can hamper effective resource management and environmental planning, although the value of local autonomy and stakeholder participations should not be underestimated. This study empirically examines if political fragmentation in local governance is a significant barrier to successful resource management. To test this hypothesis, the authors quantify the degree of political fragmentation at two different geographical scales - 1) site-level: 12-digit watersheds and 2) regional: metropolitan statistical areas or equivalent regions - and analyze how water resource management outcomes vary with the level of political fragmentation using nationwide land cover and stream gauge information in the U.S. Regression analysis shows water quality declines (or slower quality improvements), measured in terms of total suspended solids, are associated with both site-level and regional political fragmentation indicators, suggesting that political fragmentation can make resource management more challenging.

  12. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching Elementary School Children about Water Management and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araboglou, Argy

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that students have little knowledge about the operation of local government. Discusses a three-day interdisciplinary lesson about water management and local government for the elementary grades. Includes descriptions of laboratory exercises, homework assignments, and class discussions. (CFR)

  13. Reimbursement To Local Governments For Emergency Response To Hazardous Substance Releases Regulation Overview

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the Local Governments Reimbursement (LGR) program is to provide funds, in the form of reimbursements for expenses, to local, county, and tribal governments that respond to a hazardous substance release in their jurisdiction.

  14. Lesson 1: What Are the Compliance Dates for States, Tribes, and Local Governments' Authorized Programs?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation (CROMERR) 101: Fundamentals for States, Tribes, and Local Governments is designed for States, Tribes, and Local Governments that administer EPA-authorized programs under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation

  15. Shake the Helping Hand: Tips on How Independent Schools Can Influence Local and State Government Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkran, John R.

    1980-01-01

    State or local governments are seen as helping hands for independent schools. In the state or local governments funding programs are available and issues of government regulation, tax exemptions, and civil rights are extensively debated. Some suggestions for developing good government relations are provided. (MLW)

  16. 75 FR 66054 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services, Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Disability in State and Local Government Services, Public Accommodations and in Commercial Facilities... Web Information and Services of State and Local Government Entities and Public Accommodations... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by State and Local Governments and Places of Public...

  17. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments... § 170.902 What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? State, tribal, and local governments..., enforce traffic laws, and perform highway construction and maintenance. These activities must not...

  18. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments... § 170.902 What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? State, tribal, and local governments..., enforce traffic laws, and perform highway construction and maintenance. These activities must not...

  19. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, F.P.; Graff, H.; Mitchell, C.; Lock, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Methods Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Results Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives—for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions—can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. Conclusions By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. PMID:23933915

  20. Disseminating Landslide Hazard Information for California Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Since 1969, the California Geological Survey has produced numerous maps showing landslide features and delineating potential slope-stability problem areas. These maps have been provided to local governments to encourage consideration of landslide hazards in planning and development decisions. Maps produced from 1986 through 1995 under the Landslide Hazard Mapping Act were advisory only, and their use by local government was never consistent. By contrast, maps of Zones of Required Investigation for seismically induced landslides produced under the Seismic Hazard Zoning Act since 1997 come with detailed guidelines and legal requirements. A legislative act that required landslide hazards be mapped and hazard maps disseminated to local government proved ineffective in landslide hazard mitigation. A later act with requirements that the hazard zone maps be used by local government proved more effective. Planning scenarios have proven to be an effective way of transmitting scientific information about natural hazards to emergency response professionals. Numerous earthquake planning scenarios have been prepared and used as the basis for emergency response exercises. An advantage of scenarios that include loss estimates is that the effects can be put in units of measure that everyone understands, principally deaths and dollars. HAZUS software available from FEMA allows calculation of losses for earthquake scenarios, but similar methods for landslides have not been developed. As part of the USGS Multi-Hazard Demonstration Project, we have estimated the landslide losses for a major west-coast winter storm scenario by developing a system based loosely on HAZUS. Data on landslide damage in past storms has been sparse and inconsistent, but a few data sets are available. The most detailed and complete available data on landslide damage was gathered by the City of Los Angeles following the 1978 storms. We extrapolate from that data to the entire state by first generalizing a

  1. Involving Teachers in Charter School Governance: A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This guide for state policymakers examines teacher involvement in charter school governance. Teacher involvement is defined to include the gamut of decision-making roles not typically afforded teachers in traditional public schools, including founding schools, serving on governing boards, and engaging in site-based collective bargaining. Different…

  2. Insiders and outsiders: local government and NGO engagement in disaster response in Guimaras, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Espia, Juhn Chris P; Fernandez, Pepito

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines local government and non-governmental organisation (NGO) engagement in disaster response in the wake of the M/T Solar 1 oil spill in Guimaras, Western Visayas, Philippines, on 11 August 2006. It assesses the response activities of these two entities as well as the institutional factors that affected their interaction on the ground. Local government and NGO engagement was shaped by multi-layered, overlapping, and oftentimes contending government-designed response frameworks. Within these frameworks, government actors played the role of primary implementer and provider of relief, allowing them to determine who could be involved and the extent of their involvement. The absence of formal roles for NGOs in these frameworks not only undermines their ability to work in a setting where such institutional set-ups are operational but also it reaffirms their 'outsider' status. This study of the Guimaras oil spill illustrates the complexity and the institutional difficulties inherent in disaster response and coordination in the Philippines.

  3. Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Planning: Goals and Strategies of Local Governments.

    PubMed

    LOEW

    2000-07-01

    Drawing from experiences gained from the development and implementation of four approved habitat conservation plans (HCPs), I describe the goals and strategies used by the nine local government members of the Riverside County Habitat Conservation Agency (RCHCA) to reconcile conflicts among a rapidly growing population and the need to conserve the habitat of a number of declining wildlife species in western Riverside County, California. Several important goals have been pursued by RCHCA member governments in their sponsorship of multiple-species habitat conservation plans (MSHCPs), including (1) establishing certainty and control over future uses of land; (2) eliminating project-by-project negotiations with federal and state wildlife agencies; (3) coordinating mitigation obligations under the Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act, California Environmental Quality Act, and other federal and state laws; (4) reducing conflict and litigation resulting from land development activities; and (5) ensuring that wildlife conservation activities are conducted in a manner that permits local governments to perform those functions necessary to maintain public health, safety, and welfare. I also describe the emergence of strategies by local governments to achieve MSHCP goals, including (1) use of an inclusive planning process that seeks to build consensus among affected interests; (2) extensive involvement of federal and state wildlife agencies in the preparation of MSHCP documents; (3) management of public lands to support MSHCP conservation objectives; (4) encouragement of voluntary conservation by private property owners through incentive programs; and (5) active solicitation of federal and state funding for MSHCP implementation activities.

  4. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland and the role of local government

    SciTech Connect

    O'Mullane, Monica

    2012-01-15

    Background: Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in Ireland has developed significantly since its endorsement in the health strategies of the Republic of Ireland (2001) and Northern Ireland (2002). Throughout 2007 and 2008, research was conducted to examine HIA as a policy-informing tool throughout both jurisdictions. One aspect of this research investigated the role of local government and its relationship in advancing HIA practise and use in Ireland. Methods: A case study research design was used which employed qualitative research methods, including semistructured interviewing and participant observation. In total 48 interviews were conducted with members of the HIA steering committees and individuals closely involved in the HIAs. Results: The relationship between local government and HIA in Northern Ireland is a positive one given the strong tradition of local government in the jurisdiction. The Review of Public Administration (RPA) negatively influenced the integration of HIA into local authority procedures. In the Republic of Ireland, the influence of social values and political will was found to be negatively present with the HIA on Traveller accommodation. Evidence from the HIA conducted on traffic and transport in Dublin was used to plan further health promotion and community planning activities in the area. Conclusion: Local government plays a vital role in HIA practise and development in both jurisdictions. The willingness to work with external partners (such as the health care services) was an important enabler or barrier to HIA operation. This will remain the case in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated influences on the use of HIA knowledge of four cases from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The engagement of the public authorities assists implementation of the findings of the HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tension continues between positivist and incrementalist

  5. Governing Boards & Community Councils: Building Successful Partnerships. Keys to Community Involvement Series: 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane

    This booklet is intended to help school boards, city councils, and other governing boards establish an effective working relationship with local community councils. In the approach described in this booklet, the community council is created as a legitimate problem-solving group and works with a governing board in continuously identifying and…

  6. Parent Involvement in Public School Governance: The United States and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Colditz, Paul; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    This article explores parent involvement in decision making in the United States and in postapartheid South Africa and highlights similarities and differences in how parents in these two countries participate in public school governance and decision making. Parents' role in public school governance in South Africa is significant and entrenched in…

  7. Rethinking the Changing Structures of Rural Local Government--State Power, Rural Politics and Local Political Strategies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Simon; Goodwin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    There is a notable absence in contemporary rural studies--of both a theoretical and empirical nature--concerning the changing nature of rural local government. Despite the scale and significance of successive rounds of local government reorganisation in the UK, very little has been written on this topic from a rural perspective. Instead research…

  8. Issues and Concerns for Local Government: Virginia in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Mark

    Many challenges face local governments in Virginia and nationwide in the 1990s. As federal funding has decreased, local governments have been forced to take on greater responsibilities. This increased workload has created a greater demand for resources and forced many localities to raise taxes. Citizens have often voiced opposition to these tax…

  9. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  10. On Localized Vapor Pressure Gradients Governing Condensation and Frost Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2016-08-23

    Interdroplet vapor pressure gradients are the driving mechanism for several phase-change phenomena such as condensation dry zones, interdroplet ice bridging, dry zones around ice, and frost halos. Despite the fundamental nature of the underlying pressure gradients, the majority of studies on these emerging phenomena have been primarily empirical. Using classical nucleation theory and Becker-Döring embryo formation kinetics, here we calculate the pressure field for all possible modes of condensation and desublimation in order to gain fundamental insight into how pressure gradients govern the behavior of dry zones, condensation frosting, and frost halos. Our findings reveal that in a variety of phase-change systems the thermodynamically favorable mode of nucleation can switch between condensation and desublimation depending upon the temperature and wettability of the surface. The calculated pressure field is used to model the length of a dry zone around liquid or ice droplets over a broad parameter space. The long-standing question of whether the vapor pressure at the interface of growing frost is saturated or supersaturated is resolved by considering the kinetics of interdroplet ice bridging. Finally, on the basis of theoretical calculations, we propose that there exists a new mode of frost halo that is yet to be experimentally observed; a bimodal phase map is developed, demonstrating its dependence on the temperature and wettability of the underlying substrate. We hope that the model and predictions contained herein will assist future efforts to exploit localized vapor pressure gradients for the design of spatially controlled or antifrosting phase-change systems.

  11. Instructional Time Loss and Local-Level Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abadzi, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that the amount of time students spend engaged in learning tasks is related to learning outcomes. However, schools often offer to the students only a fraction of the time that governments pay for, and schools in lower-income areas often offer less time than governments plan for students. Instructional time ought to be an…

  12. Combined Loadings and Cross-Dimensional Loadings Timeliness of Presentation of Financial Statements of Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muda, I.; Dharsuky, A.; Siregar, H. S.; Sadalia, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the pattern of readiness dimensional accuracy of financial statements of local government in North Sumatra with a routine pattern of two (2) months after the fiscal year ends and patterns of at least 3 (three) months after the fiscal year ends. This type of research is explanatory survey with quantitative methods. The population and the sample used is of local government officials serving local government financial reports. Combined Analysis And Cross-Loadings Loadings are used with statistical tools WarpPLS. The results showed that there was a pattern that varies above dimensional accuracy of the financial statements of local government in North Sumatra.

  13. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments, (Revised) August 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-08-01

    DOE has developed this guide to help local governments design and implement local solar plans. This guide includes examples and models tested in cities. Many of the examples are results of DOE's Solar America Cities Program.

  14. 32 CFR 700.835 - Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other Government departments, State or local governments, foreign governments, private parties and... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED....835 Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or...

  15. 32 CFR 700.835 - Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other Government departments, State or local governments, foreign governments, private parties and... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED....835 Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or...

  16. 32 CFR 700.835 - Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other Government departments, State or local governments, foreign governments, private parties and... Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED....835 Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or...

  17. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments; Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    DOE designed this guide "Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments" to assist local government officials and stakeholders in designing and implementing strategic local solar plans. The 2011 edition contains the most recent lessons and successes from the 25 Solar America Cities and other communities promoting solar energy. Because DOE recognizes that there is no one path to solar market development, this guide introduces a range of policy and program options that can help a community build a local solar infrastructure.

  18. Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments, Second Edition (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet describes the details of the Solar Powering Your Community: A Guide for Local Governments. This report has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as a comprehensive resource to assist local governments and stakeholders in designing and implementing a strategic local solar plan. The guide presents helpful information on a wide array of topics that are of particular interest to cities and local communities.

  19. The Need for Participation of Women in Local Governance: A Nigerian Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Ihemeje

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine studies on participation of women in governance as applicable to the local government levels in Nigeria. Again, it sets out to identify what propelled the quest for more women participation in governance. Examination of treatments given to women by both male and female counterparts is critically explored. The paper…

  20. 40 CFR 312.26 - Reviews of Federal, State, Tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... records or data bases of government records of the subject property and adjoining properties must be... data bases of such government records and local government records and data bases of such records... registered, or state-permitted or registered waste management activities. Such records or data bases that...

  1. 76 FR 3610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Annual Survey of State and Local Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Government Finances AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce..., Chief, Local Government Finance and Statistics Branch, Governments Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census... public finance program which consists of an annual collection of information and a...

  2. [Local involvement of the optic nerve by acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Bernardczyk-Meller, Jadwiga; Stefańska, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    The leucemias quite commonly involve the eyes and adnexa. In some cases it causes visual complants. Both, the anterior chamber of the eye and the posterior portion of the globe may sites of acute or chronic leukemia and leucemic relapse. We report an unique case of a 14 years old leucemic patient who suffered visual loss and papilloedema, due to a unilateral local involvement within optic nerve, during second relapse of acute lymphocytic leuemia. In spite of typical treatment of main disease, the boy had died. The authors present typical ophthalmic features of the leucemia, too.

  3. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government.

    PubMed

    Wright, Glenn D; Andersson, Krister P; Gibson, Clark C; Evans, Tom P

    2016-12-27

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff.

  4. Mapping the Context: Insights and Issues from Local Government Development of Music Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Ailbhe

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have revealed local government to be a fundamental stakeholder in the development of arts and music communities. This article provides a context for an exploration and study of the issues, themes and dilemmas that surround local government and music communities. In particular the article provides this examination from an Irish…

  5. 31 CFR 13.6 - Reimbursement of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement of State and local governments. 13.6 Section 13.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS §...

  6. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is...

  7. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is...

  8. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is...

  9. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is...

  10. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of State and local taxes to the Government. 29.302 Section 29.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is...

  11. 29 CFR 1952.11 - State and local government employee programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State and local government employee programs. 1952.11... Provisions and Conditions § 1952.11 State and local government employee programs. (a) Each approved State..., establish and maintain an effective and comprehensive occupational safety and health program applicable...

  12. 29 CFR 1952.11 - State and local government employee programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State and local government employee programs. 1952.11... Provisions and Conditions § 1952.11 State and local government employee programs. (a) Each approved State..., establish and maintain an effective and comprehensive occupational safety and health program applicable...

  13. 29 CFR 1952.11 - State and local government employee programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State and local government employee programs. 1952.11... Provisions and Conditions § 1952.11 State and local government employee programs. (a) Each approved State..., establish and maintain an effective and comprehensive occupational safety and health program applicable...

  14. Local Government Information Systems--A Study of USAC and the Future Application of Computer Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    This report addressed to policy making officials in local government deals with the role of federal assistance in future developments of information systems by local governments through an assessment of the Urban Information Systems Inter-Agency Committee (USAC) Program, which, beginning in 1970, provided grants to five municipalities--Charlotte,…

  15. 25 CFR 170.110 - How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How can State and local governments prevent discrimination or adverse impacts? 170.110 Section 170.110 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Eligibility Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.110 How can State and local governments...

  16. Providing Access to Local Government Information: The Nature of Public Library Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrance, Joan C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey of public libraries that examined problems associated with access to local government information. Findings are reported on the nature of requests received, the types of responses given and sources used, and reasons given by librarians for providing access to local government information. (14 notes with references) (CLB)

  17. Diffusion and utilization of scientific and technological knowledge within state and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, I.; Flanary, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art is reviewed concerning current knowledge of processes by which technological innovation and scientific information are disseminated among state and local governments. The effectiveness of various mechanisms, strategies, and approaches by which federal agencies have sought to transfer technology to state, regional, and city governments are assessed. It is concluded that the existing relationships between the state and local governments, and the scientific communities are not adequate.

  18. Consequences of Local Government Under the Klieg Lights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Elaine B.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with an open-government innovation that many cities are adopting: television coverage of city council meetings. Survey data show that less-educated, lower-income, and minority individuals watch the coverage at least as much as the more-advantaged segments of the community. Reasons for television viewing are explored. (PD)

  19. Energy efficient building design. A transfer guide for local governments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  20. Politics, Programs, and Local Governments: The Case of Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy Haffron

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on two aspects of governance and policy: the electoral process by which community college trustees are selected and the responsiveness of colleges to their communities as manifested by their programs. Available from Journal of Politics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. (Author/IRT)

  1. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  2. 75 FR 67965 - Announcement of Local Government Advisory Committee Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    .... Environmental Protection Agency announces that Administrator Lisa P. Jackson has appointed 29 local, State, and... Peterson, Mayor, Ithaca, New York. Lisa A.Wong, Mayor, Fitchburg, Massachusetts. David W. Smith,...

  3. Financing State and Local Governments. Third Edition. Studies of Government Finance Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, James A.; Aronson, J. Richard

    This book provides a nontechnical analysis of state and local finances that is intended to provide educators, lawmakers, students, and voters with the background necessary to form intelligent opinions and make effective decisions. The authors summarize current theories of the incidence of the major state and local taxes, assess the capacity of…

  4. Developing a civic intelligence: local involvement in HIA

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Eva; Williams, Gareth

    2004-02-01

    Public involvement and participation in policy development and implementation is becoming an increasingly prominent feature of social life. However, as politics and policy become ever more concerned with 'evidence,' the relationship between 'expert evidence' and political judgements and decisions becomes ever more complicated. For this reason, public participation increasingly has to mean inclusion in arguments about information, evidence and knowledge as much as it means straightforward involvement in decision making. Such involvement can involve critical questioning of a kind that can challenge and sometimes debunk experts' claims to privileged understanding. One practical arena in which knowledge-based policy and politics is being expressed is in health impact assessment (HIA). This paper describes a health impact assessment of housing options in a former mining village in South Wales in order to illustrate the contributions that local people can make to both evidence and decision making. This case study exemplifies an emerging civic intelligence that challenges a traditional demarcation between different forms of expertise and creates public spaces that provide the basis for new opportunities of democratic renewal.

  5. 32 CFR 37.220 - How involved should the Government program official be in the project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 37.220 How involved should the Government program official be in the... of the research than the usual oversight of a research grant or procurement contract. For...

  6. 32 CFR 37.220 - How involved should the Government program official be in the project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Appropriate Use of Technology Investment Agreements § 37.220 How involved should the Government program official be in the... of the research than the usual oversight of a research grant or procurement contract. For...

  7. 32 CFR 37.220 - How involved should the Government program official be in the project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... recipient, which requires a greater level of involvement of the Government program official in the execution of the research than the usual oversight of a research grant or procurement contract. For example, program officials will participate in recipients' periodic reviews of research progress and will...

  8. 32 CFR 37.220 - How involved should the Government program official be in the project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recipient, which requires a greater level of involvement of the Government program official in the execution of the research than the usual oversight of a research grant or procurement contract. For example, program officials will participate in recipients' periodic reviews of research progress and will...

  9. 32 CFR 37.220 - How involved should the Government program official be in the project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recipient, which requires a greater level of involvement of the Government program official in the execution of the research than the usual oversight of a research grant or procurement contract. For example, program officials will participate in recipients' periodic reviews of research progress and will...

  10. Communicating the Urgency of Climate Change to Local Government Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A.

    2004-12-01

    What are the challenges and obstacles in conveying scientific research and uncertainties about climate change to local government policy makers? What information do scientists need from local government practitioners to guide research efforts into producing more relevant information for the local government audience? What works and what doesn't in terms of communicating climate change science to non-technical audiences? Based on over a decade of experience working with local governments around the world on greenhouse gas mitigation, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability has developed a unique perspective and valuable insight into effective communication on climate science that motivates policy action. In the United States practical actions necessary to mitigate global climate change occur largely at the local level. As the level of government closest to individual energy consumers, local governments play a large role in determining the energy intensity of communities. How can local governments be persuaded to make greenhouse gas mitigation a policy priority over the long-term? Access to relevant information is critical to achieving that commitment. Information that will persuade local officials to pursue climate protection commitments includes specific impacts of global warming to communities, the costs of adaptation versus mitigation, and the potential benefits of implementing greenhouse gas-reducing initiatives. The manner in which information is conveyed is also critically important. The scientific community is loath to advocate for specific policies, or to make determinate statements on topics for which research is ongoing. These communication hurdles can be overcome if the needs of local policy practitioners can be understood by the scientific community, and research goals can be cooperatively defined.

  11. 40 CFR 280.107 - Local government fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meets one of the following requirements: (a) The fund is dedicated by state constitutional provision, or... mechanism(s) that provide the remaining coverage; or (b) The fund is dedicated by state constitutional... amount in the fund; or (c) The fund is dedicated by state constitutional provision, or local...

  12. Financing State and Local Government: Future Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildasin, David E.; Childress, Michael T.; Hackbart, Merl; Lynch, Lawrence K.; Martie, Charles W.

    This report focuses on state and local taxation in the state of Kentucky. It looks into what "the ideal" tax system looks like and how Kentucky's system compares, whether the current system will provide adequate revenue for the long-term, whether the tax system is efficient, how fair and equitable the tax system is, and whether the state…

  13. Preventive Maintenance for Local Government Buildings: A Best Practices Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Jody; Bombach, Valerie; Mohr, Caryn; Masse, Ann

    This report identifies seven strategic practices for effectively managing preventive maintenance of Minnesota school district, city, and county buildings; and profiles local jurisdictions currently using them. The following best practices for preventive maintenance are recommended: (1) inventory building components and assess their conditions; (2)…

  14. Guidelines for Local Governments on Solid Waste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Counties, Washington, DC. Research Foundation.

    This document consists of ten guides on Solid Waste Management to assist local elected and appointed policy-making officials. They are entitled: Areawide Approaches; Legal Authority, Planning, Organization Design and Operation, Financing, Technical and Financial Assistance, Citizen Support, Personnel, and Action Plan and Bibliography. The guides…

  15. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling governs aquaporin-4 localization in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Rossi, Andrea; Mola, Maria Grazia; Procino, Giuseppe; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria

    2008-12-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is constitutively concentrated in the plasma membrane of the perivascular glial processes, and its expression is altered in certain pathological conditions associated with brain edema or altered glial migration. When astrocytes are grown in culture, they lose their characteristic star-like shape and AQP4 continuous plasma membrane localization observed in vivo. In this study, we differentiated primary astrocyte cultures with cAMP and lovastatin, both able to induce glial stellation through a reorganization of F-actin cytoskeleton, and obtained AQP4 selectively localized on the cell plasma membrane associated with an increase in the plasma membrane water transport level, but only cAMP induced an increase in AQP4 total protein expression. Phosphorylation experiments indicated that AQP4 in astrocytes is neither phosphorylated nor a substrate of PKA. Depolymerization of F-actin cytoskeleton performed by cytochalasin-D suggested that F-actin cytoskeleton plays a primary role for AQP4 plasma membrane localization and during cell adhesion. Finally, AQP4 knockdown does not compromise the ability of astrocytes to stellate in the presence of cAMP, indicating that astrocyte stellation is independent of AQP4.

  16. Optical Storage Systems for Records and Information Management: Overview, Recommendations and Guidelines for Local Governments. Local Government Records Technical Information Series. Number 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stanley F.

    This publication discusses optical storage, a term encompassing technologies that use laser-produced light to record and store information in digital form. The booklet also discusses how optical storage systems relate to records management, in particular to the management of local government records in New York State. It describes components of…

  17. Local Government Planning Tool to Calculate Institutional and Engineering Control Costs for Brownfield Properties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This cost calculator is designed as a guide for municipal or local governments to assist in calculating their expected costs of implementing and conducting long-term stewardship of institutional controls and engineering controls at brownfield properties.

  18. 76 FR 61597 - Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments: DOT Amendments on Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... and Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals and Other Non-Profit Organizations... Agreements to State and Local Governments; Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education... uniform administrative requirements for grants and agreements with Institutions of Higher...

  19. 48 CFR 970.2903-2 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exemptions from state and local taxes to which it is entitled under the Federal Constitution or state laws... acquisition will result in substantial savings to the Government, taking into consideration any...

  20. Nuclear materials transportation workshops: USDOE outreach to local governments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-28

    To provide direct outreach to local governments, the Transportation Management Division of the United States Department of Energy asked the Urban Consortium and its Energy Task Force to assemble representatives for two workshops focusing on the transport of nuclear materials. The first session, for jurisdictions east of the Mississippi River, was held in New Orleans on May 5--6, 1988; the second was conducted on June 6--7, 1988 in Denver for jurisdictions to the west. Twenty local government professionals with management or operational responsibility for hazardous materials transportation within their jurisdictions were selected to attend each workshop. The discussions identified five major areas of concern to local government professionals; coordination; training; information resources; marking and placarding; and responder resources. Integrated federal, state, and local levels of government emerged as a priority coordination issue along with the need for expanded availability of training and training resources for first-reponders.

  1. 48 CFR 29.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... claiming immunity from State or local sales or use taxes. Before any activity contends that a contractor is... transaction from a sales or use tax may not rest on the Government's immunity from direct taxation by...

  2. 48 CFR 29.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... claiming immunity from State or local sales or use taxes. Before any activity contends that a contractor is... transaction from a sales or use tax may not rest on the Government's immunity from direct taxation by...

  3. The Added Dimension. State and Land-Grant Universities Serving State and Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ione

    Responses to a survey of university public service programs of benefit to state and local governments were received from 70 individual campuses, and one systemwide office, representing 79 of the 133 NASULGC member institutions and 41 of the 50 states. The survey asked for (1) information on institutes of government and on technical service units…

  4. Use of Local Health Department Websites: A Study of E-Government Adoption and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaltonen, Pamela Massie

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct but converging activities have the potential to alter the way local public health departments conduct business. These activities are the emergence of e-government and the addition of preparedness as a basic function of the public health system. Preparedness implies timely collaboration with government entities, community partners and…

  5. 40 CFR 312.26 - Reviews of Federal, State, Tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Response Notification System records; (6) Registries or publicly available lists of engineering controls... properties, the review of federal, tribal, state, and local government records or databases of government... records of reported releases or threatened releases. Such records or databases containing such records...

  6. 40 CFR 312.26 - Reviews of Federal, State, Tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Response Notification System records; (6) Registries or publicly available lists of engineering controls... properties, the review of federal, tribal, state, and local government records or databases of government... records of reported releases or threatened releases. Such records or databases containing such records...

  7. 40 CFR 312.26 - Reviews of Federal, State, Tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Response Notification System records; (6) Registries or publicly available lists of engineering controls... properties, the review of federal, tribal, state, and local government records or databases of government... records of reported releases or threatened releases. Such records or databases containing such records...

  8. 40 CFR 312.26 - Reviews of Federal, State, Tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Response Notification System records; (6) Registries or publicly available lists of engineering controls... properties, the review of federal, tribal, state, and local government records or databases of government... records of reported releases or threatened releases. Such records or databases containing such records...

  9. Government Initiatives to Encourage Employer-Supported Child Care: The State and Local Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Dana E.

    A study was conducted to identify a range of strategies that New York State government could adopt to stimulate business and industry to provide supportive family benefits, services, and work policies. The investigation included a national survey of state and local government initiatives and a special analysis of policies appropriate for New York…

  10. The role of nurses and midwives in the governance of local health networks.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Current health reforms in Australia will establish local health networks of public hospitals each with a governing body. The establishment of these governing bodies, particularly in states like NSW where these entities do not currently exist within the public hospital system, provides opportunities for nurses, midwives and other clinicians to seek appointment to them. The policy and discussion papers on the establishment of the local health networks promise that local clinicians will be appointed to these governing bodies. Debate within the nursing and midwifery profession seems focused on the management of nursing and midwifery services within the new local health networks and not on the role of nurses and midwives on governing bodies. Nurses and midwives undoubtedly have a role to play on these governing councils, however there are a range of issues that should be considered on the role that nurses, midwives (and other clinicians) will play when appointed to the governing councils to ensure that they can appropriately undertake the role of a council member. The role of governance differs from that of management and clinicians who aspire to appointment of these governing bodies should be aware of the difference in these roles.

  11. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Communications with State and local government officials. 20.88 Section 20.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  12. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Communications with State and local government officials. 20.88 Section 20.88 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  13. Minority business bidding for local government contracts: the complexity of availability.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Ralph L; Murrell, Audrey; Constance-Huggins, Monique

    2007-01-01

    While minority-business enterprises (MBEs) have gained some access to local government contracts during the last three decades, these firms continue to receive a small share of local government contract spending relative to the number of available firms. Researchers have suggested two general explanations for the low representation of MBEs in contract awards: (1) lack of qualifications and capacity among MBEs, and (2) public and private discrimination against MBEs in contracting processes. This study on prime contract opportunities in a Northern central city and county with a large minority population finds that low bid rates greatly contribute to the low MBE shares of prime contracts and that bidding is reduced by both local government processes and characteristics of the firms. Some implications of these findings are that local governments need to: (1) monitor MBE shares of prime contract bids by size of contract and use share of bids as one measure of program and organizational effectiveness; (2) identify MBEs that are qualified for prime contracts and encourage and help interested firms to submit competitive bids; and (3) ensure that local government policies and practices do not diminish access to information about prime contract opportunities for qualified and interested minority firms. Another implication is that bidders lists should not be a primary basis for determining MBE availability, since many qualified and interested MBEs do not bid because of perceived barriers in local government.

  14. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  15. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  16. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  17. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  18. 10 CFR 455.141 - Grant awards for units of local government, public care institutions, and coordinating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Grant Awards § 455.141 Grant awards for units of local government, public care... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant awards for units of local government, public...

  19. Changing Framework of Local Governance and Community Participation in Elementary Education in India. Research Monograph No. 35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govinda, R; Bandyopadhyay, Madhumita

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, strengthening and better functioning of local governance have become prime concerns of educational reform agenda. Establishment of effective local governance has been part of overall changes in educational governance for several years in many countries including India. It is now widely recognized that effective local governance…

  20. Creating Synergies: Local Government Facilitating Learning and Development through Partnerships. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Peter; Virgona, Crina; Brown, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the evolution and development of four learning communities in Victoria, which are involved in local government. It investigates the challenges and complexities involved in getting these communities off the ground and what roles, if any, vocational education and training (VET) institutions have played. Key principles emerging…

  1. Reconstructed Task Orientation and Local Time Governance in Compulsory Schools: The Swedish Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westlund, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Recently, a five-year trial period without a set timetable for compulsory school education in 79 municipalities was concluded in Sweden. The overall idea of the trial was to facilitate local participation, local time governance and flexible learning. Within the pilot trial, each individual pupil's school activities were supposed to be designed to…

  2. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... immunity from State and local sales and use taxes, the matter will be referred to the AAG/A for review, and... support the contention that a contractor is an agent of the Government for the purpose of immunity from a... immunity from State and local sales or use taxes. Any referral to the AAG/A for approval under this...

  3. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... immunity from State and local sales and use taxes, the matter will be referred to the AAG/A for review, and... support the contention that a contractor is an agent of the Government for the purpose of immunity from a... immunity from State and local sales or use taxes. Any referral to the AAG/A for approval under this...

  4. 48 CFR 2829.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... immunity from State and local sales and use taxes, the matter will be referred to the AAG/A for review, and... support the contention that a contractor is an agent of the Government for the purpose of immunity from a... immunity from State and local sales or use taxes. Any referral to the AAG/A for approval under this...

  5. A Multi-Media Approach to Teaching Local Government on the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTeer, J. Hugh; Jackson, Barry N.

    The document offers numerous examples of using the media in teaching local government and explains how to create appropriate materials. Suggestions are to collect news from newspapers and to record news and forum discussions on local radio stations. Forms and pamphlets can be collected from offices of the court clerk, probate judge, tax…

  6. Guidelines for Groundwater Governance in California: A Framework for Evaluation of Local Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiparsky, M.; Owen, D.; Green Nylen, N. M.; Doremus, H.; Christian-Smith, J.; Fisher, A.; Milman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of California's historic Sustainable Groundwater Management Act for the future of California's water is difficult to overstate, but its implementation raises new questions. Governance refers to structures and processes that enable policy decisions to be made and implemented, and is one key unresolved topic. Local governments will need to decide, quickly and with great latitude, how to create novel agencies with novel structures and challenging mandates. Sustainability is defined in physical terms in the Act, but because governance plays such a critical role in the potential for GSAs to achieve their goals, we argue that governance itself should also be viewed as an essential element of sustainability, and that it needs to be considered with nuance and rigor. We propose a framework to inform decisions about local groundwater governance. We suggest that local stakeholders and state agencies should evaluate plans and proposals from GSAs based on specific criteria that are necessary for the effective governance of such a complex, interconnected resource. These criteria include scale, capacity, funding, authority, independence, representation, participation, accountability, and transparency, each of which supports the overarching themes of fairness and efficacy. We discuss these concepts within the legal, regulatory, and geophysical contexts in which they must be explicitly situated for effective governance.

  7. Government management of two media-facilitated crises involving dioxin contamination of food.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Casey J; Lok, Corie; Morley, Katija; Powell, Douglas A

    2011-03-01

    Incidents become crises through a constant and intense public scrutiny facilitated by the media. Two incidents involving dioxin contamination of food led to crises in Belgium and the Republic of Ireland in 1999 and 2008, respectively. Thought to cause cancer in humans, dioxins reached the food supply in both incidents through the contamination of fat used for animal feed. The food and agricultural industries connected to each incident relied on crisis management activities of federal governments to limit adverse public reaction. Analysis of the management of the two crises by their respective federal governments, and a subsequent review of crisis management literature, led to the development of an effective crisis management model. Such a model, appropriately employed, may insulate industries associated with a crisis against damaged reputations and financial loss.

  8. A critical friend: monitoring and evaluation systems, development cooperation and local government. The case of Tuscany.

    PubMed

    Rossignoli, Serena; Coticchia, Fabrizio; Mezzasalma, Annarosa

    2015-06-01

    The role of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems in the field of development cooperation has globally increased in last decades. International and regional organizations, as well as states, local governments and NGOs have largely adopted the tools provided by M&E in order to enhance transparency, effectiveness and efficiency. The paper aims at verifying how and to what extent the implementation of M&E systems has affected the overall quality of international cooperation projects financed by a local government. After a literature review on M&E in development cooperation, the research analyzes the wide range of activities (evaluation ex-ante, mid-term, final, monitoring, consultancy) carried out by the Evaluation Team of the XY in the last eight years in behalf of an Italian local government: the Region of Tuscany. The paper reveals the strategic significance of adopting M&E systems in the medium-long term.

  9. Local Government Leadership Education: Measuring the Impact of Leadership Skill Development on Public Officials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gregory A.; Lucente, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Many Extension leadership development programs have been evaluated for effectiveness. Little literature exists focusing on the evaluation of leadership development programs involving elected and appointed local officials. This article describes an annual program involving elected and appointed local officials and shares quantitative and…

  10. DAMAGE AND CORRESPOBDENCE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENTS FOR Mt. SHINMOE 2011 ERUPTIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kohji; Nakano, Susumu; Kasubuchi, Yoshio

    On Jan. 27, 2011, Mt. Shinmoe in the Kirishima mountain range on the border between Kagoshima and Miyazaki Prefectures began erupting for the first time in 52 years. In this study, to clarify the damage and correspondence of local governments and business establishments for a series of volcanic hazards of Mt. Shinmoe in 2011, we conducted interview research and document investigation. For endless volcanic hazard, not only the serious and sustained effots of disaster-affected area, but also the broad-based supoorts from neighboring local governments and business establishments are required.

  11. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  12. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  13. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  14. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  15. 14 CFR 11.103 - What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... federal, state, and local governments when operating aircraft that are not public aircraft? 11.103 Section... to ensure safe operations of the type of aircraft operated by the unit of government. ... § 11.103 What exemption relief may be available to federal, state, and local governments when...

  16. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... local government official in electronic form, unless the official specifically requests the information... analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection of... Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence...

  17. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  18. Geothermal Development and Resource Management in the Yakima Valley : A Guidebook for Local Governments.

    SciTech Connect

    Creager, Kurt

    1984-03-01

    The guidebook defines the barriers to geothermal energy development at all levels of government and proposes ways to overcome these various barriers. In recognition that wholesale development of the region's geothermal resources could create a series of environmental problems and possible conflicts between groundwater users, resource management options are identified as possible ways to ensure the quality and quantity of the resource for future generations. It is important for local governments to get beyond the discussion of the merits of geothermal energy and take positive actions to develop or to encourage the development of the resource. To this end, several sources of technical and financial assistance are described. These sources of assistance can enable local governments and others to take action should they choose to do so. Even though the Yakima Valley is the setting for the analysis of local issues that could hamper geothermal development, this guidebook could be used by any locale with geothermal energy resources. The guidebook is not a scientific manual, but rather a policy document written especially for local government staff and officials who do not have technical backgrounds in geology or hydrology.

  19. A Balance Between Two Nuclear Localization Sequences and a Nuclear Export Sequence Governs Extradenticle Subcellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Katherine E.; Mann, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    During animal development, transcription factor activities are modulated by several means, including subcellular localization. The Hox cofactor Extradenticle (Exd) has a dynamic subcellular localization, such that Exd is cytoplasmic by default, but is nuclear when complexed with another homeodomain protein, Homothorax (Hth). These observations raise the question of whether dimerization with Hth simply induces Exd's nuclear localization or, alternatively, if Hth is also necessary for Exd activity. To address this question, we analyzed the nuclear transport signals in Exd, including a divergent nuclear export signal (NES) and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs). We show that, although these signals are weak compared to canonical signals, they balance each other in Exd. We also provide evidence that Exd contains an NLS mask that contributes to its cytoplasmic localization. With these signals characterized, we generated forms of Exd that are nuclear localized in the absence of Hth. Surprisingly, although these Exd forms are functional, they do not phenocopy Hth overexpression. These findings suggest that Hth is required for Exd activity, not simply for inducing its nuclear localization. PMID:17277370

  20. Local groundwater governance in Yemen: building on traditions and enabling communities to craft new rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, Taha; Bruns, Bryan; Bamaga, Omar; Al-Weshali, Adel; van Steenbergen, Frank

    2012-09-01

    Local groundwater management in Yemen and the means by which stakeholders can work together to improve water governance are discussed. In the last few decades the discourse on groundwater management in Yemen has increasingly been cast in terms of crisis, triggered by rapidly declining water tables around cities and in the main agricultural areas. However, in some places in Yemen, communities have responded by implementing local rules that have reduced conflict and provided more reliable and equitable access to water. This trend towards development of local groundwater governance is described, and could make a major contribution in realizing the goals of national water-sector policies and strategies. Twenty-four cases have been identified from different parts of the country and five cases are presented in detail. The article discusses how the process of local management could be nurtured and how it could contribute to rebalancing water use in several parts of Yemen.

  1. Challenging urban health: towards an improved local government response to migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Vearey, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis undertaken by Joanna Vearey that explores local government responses to the urban health challenges of migration, informal settlements, and HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. Urbanisation in South Africa is a result of natural urban growth and (to a lesser extent) in-migration from within the country and across borders. This has led to the development of informal settlements within and on the periphery of urban areas. The highest HIV prevalence nationally is found within urban informal settlements. South African local government has a 'developmental mandate' that calls for government to work with citizens to develop sustainable interventions to address their social, economic, and material needs. Through a mixed-methods approach, four studies were undertaken within inner-city Johannesburg and a peripheral urban informal settlement. Two cross-sectional surveys - one at a household level and one with migrant antiretroviral clients - were supplemented with semi-structured interviews with multiple stakeholders involved with urban health and HIV in Johannesburg, and participatory photography and film projects undertaken with urban migrant communities. The findings show that local government requires support in developing and implementing appropriate intersectoral responses to address urban health. Existing urban health frameworks do not deal adequately with the complex health and development challenges identified; it is essential that urban public health practitioners and other development professionals in South Africa engage with the complexities of the urban environment. A revised, participatory approach to urban health - 'concept mapping' - is suggested which requires a recommitment to intersectoral action, 'healthy urban governance' and public health advocacy.

  2. CHP and Local Governments: Case Studies and EPA’s New Guide (Webinar) – September 30, 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar presents two case studies of CHP development projects undertaken through cooperation between private companies and government entities, and introduces an EPA guide to assist local governments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

  3. Report to the Legislature on the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Development Grant Program for Local Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report documents the California Energy Commission's administration of its Geothermal Development Grant Program for Local Governments. The Energy Commission established this program as a result of the passage of Assembly Bill 1905 (Bosco) in 1980. This legislation established the mechanism to distribute the state's share of revenues received from the leasing of federal mineral reserves for geothermal development. The federal government deposits these revenues in the Geothermal Resources Development Account (GRDA) created by AB 1905. The state allocates funds from the GRDA to the California Parklands and Renewable Resources Investment Fund, the counties of origin where the federal leases are located, and the Energy Commission. The legislation further directs the Energy Commission to disburse its share as grants to local governments to assist with the planning and development of geothermal resources. Activities which are eligible for funding under the Energy Commission's grant program include resource development projects, planning and feasibility studies, and activities to mitigate the impacts of existing geothermal development.

  4. Science-practice nexus for landslide surveying: technical training for local government units in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, A. L.; Hespiantoro, S.; Dyar, D.; Balzer, D.; Kuhn, D.; Torizin, J.; Fuchs, M.; Kastl, S.; Anhorn, J.

    2017-02-01

    The Indonesian archipelago is prone to various geological hazards on an almost day to day basis. In order to mitigate disaster risk and reduce losses, the government uses its unique setup of ministerial training institutions. The Centre for Development of Human Resources in Geology, Mineral and Coal offers different level of technical training to local governments in order to provide them with the necessary means to understand geological hazards, mitigate risks, and hence close the gap between local and national governments. One key factor has been the continuous incorporation of new scientific knowledge into their training curricula. The paper presents benefits and challenges of this science-practice nexus using the standardised landslide survey as one example where mobile technology has been introduced to the training just recently.

  5. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  6. Creating Synergies: Local Government Facilitating Learning and Development through Partnerships--Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterhouse, Peter; Virgona, Crina; Brown, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This research sought to document and better understand four evolving learning communities in Victoria. It was based upon an earlier study by the Victorian Local Governance Association (VLGA) (Snelling, 2003). The study was qualitative in nature, based on face-to-face interviews and case studies. This supporting document provides the literature…

  7. Does Support for VET Reduce Employee Churn? A Case Study in Local Government. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kath

    2010-01-01

    To what extent do local governments use vocational education and training as a staff retention strategy? Human resources personnel from a selection of councils around Australia believed that a lack of career development or training opportunities might cause an employee to leave their organisation. They had some reservations about the quality and…

  8. Growing Up Healthy: What Local Governments Can Do to Support Young Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakian, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    The first five years of life are a period of profound growth and change as children begin to speak, think, reason, and feel. Brain research has found that both children's experiences and their relationships with others influence this early development in important and lasting ways. For local governments, the first five years represent a critical…

  9. Innovation Attributes, Policy Intervention, and the Diffusion of Computer Applications Among Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, James L.; Kraemer, Kenneth L.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that innovation attributes, together with policies associated with the diffusion on an innovation, account for significant differences in diffusion patterns. An empirical analysis of this thesis focuses on the diffusion of computer applications software in local government. Available from Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., Box 211,…

  10. 48 CFR 970.2903-2 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Application of State and local taxes to the Government. It is DOE policy to secure those immunities or... to preclude payment of any taxes for which any of the immunities or exemptions cited in this subpart are available. Advice of Counsel should be sought as to the availability of such immunities...

  11. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE...

  12. An Extension Education Program to Help Local Governments with Flood Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Gretchen; Allred, Shorna; LoGiudice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Education is an important tool to increase the capacity of local government officials for community flood adaptation. To address flood adaptation and post-flood stream management in municipalities, Cornell Cooperative Extension and collaborators developed an educational program to increase municipal officials' knowledge about how to work…

  13. Autonomy and Governance in Local Authority Provision for Children and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth; Donkin, Arnet; Waite, Sue; Lawson, Hazel

    2013-01-01

    The role of local government in addressing issues of social equity is undergoing significant reconstruction in current educational policy reforms in England. The current conceptualisation of social provision places individual rights at the centre of policy, and social responsibility is represented as the work of individuals. Drawing upon a…

  14. Index of Training Programs and Services Offered to Local Units of Government in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chuck

    The document is intended as ready compilation of services and training programs available to local units of government, their officials and employees. It is organized into functional areas with subcategories of services and training offered by State agencies, educational institutions, and private entities. Agency contact personnel, substate…

  15. Urban Poverty and Access to Information Technology: A Role for Local Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Servon, Lisa J.; Horrigan, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the intersection between access to information technology and urban poverty and the role of the local government through a case study of Austin (Texas). The examples of the Austin Free-Net, which provides access sites and user training, and other Austin programs show the large degree of citizen interest and the recognition by policymakers…

  16. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Deployment on Public Property by State and Local Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Coggeshall, C.

    2008-05-01

    State and local governments have grown increasingly aware of the economic, environmental, and societal benefits of taking a lead role in U.S. implementation of renewable energy, particularly distributed photovoltaic (PV) installations. Recently, solar energy's cost premium has declined as a result of technology improvements and an increase in the cost of traditional energy generation. At the same time, a nationwide public policy focus on carbon-free, renewable energy has created a wide range of financial incentives to lower the costs of deploying PV even further. These changes have led to exponential increases in the availability of capital for solar projects, and tremendous creativity in the development of third-party ownership structures. As significant users of electricity, state and local governments can be an excellent example for solar PV system deployment on a national scale. Many public entities are not only considering deployment on public building rooftops, but also large-scale applications on available public lands. The changing marketplace requires that state and local governments be financially sophisticated to capture as much of the economic potential of a PV system as possible. This report examines ways that state and local governments can optimize the financial structure of deploying solar PV for public uses.

  17. 76 FR 28224 - Cancellation of the Local Government Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... later date. Further information regarding this meeting can be obtained by contacting Paula Zampieri, DFO for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) at (202) 566-2496 or Zampieri.Paula@epa.gov... or any future meetings should contact Ms. Paula Zampieri, Designated Federal Officer (DFO) for...

  18. 76 FR 35891 - Meeting of the Local Government Advisory Committee and Small Community Advisory Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... their point of view. Also, written comments should be submitted electronically to Zampieri.Paula@epa.gov... CONTACT: Paula Zampieri, DFO for the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) and Small Community Advisory Subcommittee (SCAS) at (202) 566-2496 or e-mail at Zampieri.Paula@epa.gov . INFORMATION...

  19. 75 FR 56163 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...This final rule revises the regulation of the Department of Justice (Department) that implements title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), relating to nondiscrimination on the basis of disability in State and local government services. The Department is issuing this final rule in order to adopt enforceable accessibility standards under the ADA that are consistent with the minimum......

  20. Aerospace Employment Project: Finding New Careers in Local Government for Unemployed Engineers and Scientists. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.

    "If we can put a man on the moon, why can't we solve the problems of our cities?" The demand for urban services and the manpower needs of local governments were increasing dramatically. Skilled professional personnel were unemployed. The Aerospace Employment Project was set up as a special pilot project to test whether unemployed professional…

  1. Generic Behavioural Criteria of Managerial Effectiveness: An Empirical and Comparative Case Study of UK Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Serventi, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of a "partnership-research" study of effective and ineffective managerial behaviour within the "local government" setting of the Wolverhampton City Council Social Care Department, and to describe how the research supports and challenges the organisation's existing…

  2. State and Local Government Finance and Financial Management: A Compendium of Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, John E., Ed.; And Others

    This volume is a compendium of current research in the field of state and local government finance and financial management. It was created in response to the need of both users and researchers in the area for a comprehensive picture of research work that has been undertaken since 1974 and the results of which are now, or will be soon, available.…

  3. 48 CFR 970.2903-2 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Application of State and local taxes to the Government. It is DOE policy to secure those immunities or... to preclude payment of any taxes for which any of the immunities or exemptions cited in this subpart are available. Advice of Counsel should be sought as to the availability of such immunities...

  4. 33 CFR 137.60 - Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reviews of Federal, State, tribal, and local government records. 137.60 Section 137.60 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION...

  5. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? 170.902 Section 170.902 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER..., develop emergency response plans, perform emergency response, issue permits, conduct vehicle...

  6. "Critical Friends": Exploring Arm's Length Actor Relationships to Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Discussions charting the changing role of local government in education have often focused extensively on "concrete" policy changes over time, but have provided less detail on the contribution to changing power relations of less tangible shifts. Drawing on Foucauldian notions of discourse and governmentality, in this paper, detailed…

  7. Sustainable Development and African Local Government: Can Electronic Training Help Build Capacities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hazel; Thomas, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A recent study carried out by European and African organizations into the potential for electronic distance training (EDT) on sustainability in African local governments concluded that EDT was both "useful and feasible". This article reflects on some of the theoretical and practical implications of that study. It focuses on the…

  8. 41 CFR 105-50.001-2 - Political subdivision or local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision or local government. 105-50.001-2 Section 105-50.001-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF...

  9. 41 CFR 105-50.001-3 - Unit of general local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit of general local government. 105-50.001-3 Section 105-50.001-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF SPECIAL...

  10. 41 CFR 105-50.001-4 - Special-purpose unit of local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special-purpose unit of local government. 105-50.001-4 Section 105-50.001-4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 50-PROVISION OF...

  11. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for State and Local Government/Solid Waste Planners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by state and local government/solid waste planners. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  12. Funding for Local Government and Schools in Rural Oklahoma. ERS Staff Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloggett, Gordon; Doeksen, Gerald

    Oil, gas, and agriculture are the bases of rural Oklahoma's economy, and income from these sectors varied widely during the 1980s. This study investigated revenue sources and the effects of changing revenues for county and town governments and school systems in 36 rural Oklahoma counties. Major sources of local revenue were sales taxes, property…

  13. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? 170.902 Section 170.902 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  14. 25 CFR 170.902 - What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the role of State, tribal, and local governments? 170.902 Section 170.902 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Hazardous and Nuclear Waste...

  15. Industry/Government Teleconference on Pollution Control. Proceedings National Telecast and Local Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY.

    Proceedings of the closed-circuit Teleconference on Pollution Control conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers on May 26, 1971 are supplied in this compendium. Edited transcripts are provided for the national programs and local panel sessions. Seeking to bring business and government together for cooperative problem solving, the…

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 31 - Audit Requirements for State and Local Government Recipients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Local Government Recipients EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-128 April 12, 1985 To the Heads of Executive Departments and Establishments. Subject: Audits... builds upon earlier efforts to improve audits of Federal aid programs. The Act requires State or...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 31 - Audit Requirements for State and Local Government Recipients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Local Government Recipients EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-128 April 12, 1985 To the Heads of Executive Departments and Establishments. Subject: Audits... builds upon earlier efforts to improve audits of Federal aid programs. The Act requires State or...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 31 - Audit Requirements for State and Local Government Recipients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Local Government Recipients EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-128 April 12, 1985 To the Heads of Executive Departments and Establishments. Subject: Audits... builds upon earlier efforts to improve audits of Federal aid programs. The Act requires State or...

  19. 77 FR 2539 - Meetings of the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee and the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... should be submitted electronically to eargle.frances@epa.gov . Please contact the Designated Federal... at davis.catherinem@epa.gov . For the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) contact Frances Eargle at (202) 564-3115 or email at eargle.frances@epa.gov . Information on Services for Those...

  20. 77 FR 15751 - Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... should be submitted electronically to eargle.frances@epa.gov . Please contact the Designated Federal...: Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) contact Frances Eargle at (202) 564-3115 or email at eargle.frances@epa.gov . For the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee (SCAS), contact Cathy Davis,...

  1. 48 CFR 702.170-8 - Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions. 702.170-8 Section 702.170-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions...

  2. The Role of Local Government in the Provision of Training for Volunteer Grassroots Sport Administrators in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jak; Skinner, James; Arthur, Dave; Booker, Ray

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 32 Australian local government officials and interviews held with 18 administrators responsible for sports and recreation. They recognized the importance of training for volunteer sports administrators and believed local government's role included identifying local needs and facilitating training. (Contains 20…

  3. Mineral Resource Dilemma: How to Balance the Interests of Government, Local Communities and Abiotic Nature

    PubMed Central

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights. PMID:25158138

  4. Mineral resource dilemma: how to balance the interests of government, local communities and abiotic nature.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-08-25

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights.

  5. Public health and English local government: historical perspectives on the impact of ‘returning home’

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Martin; Lock, Karen; Hogarth, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers’ allusions to ‘a long and proud history’ and ‘returning public health home’ there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it developed for environmental, preventive and health services by the mid-twentieth century. The main section discusses the early NHS, explaining why historians see the era as one of decline for the speciality of public health, leading to the reform of 1974, which saw the removal from local government and the abolition of the Medical Officer of Health role. Our discussion focuses on challenges faced before 1974 which raise organizational and political issues relevant to local councils today as they embed new public health teams. These include the themes of leadership, funding, integrated service delivery, communication and above all the need for a coherent vision and rationale for public health action in local authorities. PMID:24472776

  6. Public health and English local government: historical perspectives on the impact of 'returning home'.

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin; Lock, Karen; Hogarth, Sue

    2014-12-01

    This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers' allusions to 'a long and proud history' and 'returning public health home' there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it developed for environmental, preventive and health services by the mid-twentieth century. The main section discusses the early NHS, explaining why historians see the era as one of decline for the speciality of public health, leading to the reform of 1974, which saw the removal from local government and the abolition of the Medical Officer of Health role. Our discussion focuses on challenges faced before 1974 which raise organizational and political issues relevant to local councils today as they embed new public health teams. These include the themes of leadership, funding, integrated service delivery, communication and above all the need for a coherent vision and rationale for public health action in local authorities.

  7. The place and practices of well-being in local governance

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Sarah; Joyce, Kerry E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of well-being has become prominent within national policy goals in the UK since the end of the 1990s. However, the concept of well-being remains ill defined, an instability that is increasingly understood as problematic to policy making. We engage with this terminological instability through an exploration of how the concept of well-being is practised discursively in local governance and critically examine the place of the concept in local policy making. In contrast to the current enthusiasm to define and measure well-being, we argue that the conceptual instability has inherent value for local governance. The concept of well-being is practised through a number of potentially conflicting discourses, but it is exactly this conceptual instability that enables a local negotiation and combination of alternative policy frameworks for local place-shaping strategies. As such, well-being not only is an overarching goal of governance but also contributes to the dynamics of the policy process. PMID:25729122

  8. Air quality management: evolution of policy and practice in the UK as exemplified by the experience of English local government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, C. I.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Woodfield, N. K.

    The air quality management (AQM) framework in the UK is designed to be an effects-based solution to air pollutants currently affecting human health. The AQM process has been legislated through The Environment Act 1995, which required the National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published. AQM practice and capability within local authorities has flourished since the publication of the NAQS in March 1997. This paper outlines the policy framework within which the UK operates, both at a domestic and European level, and reviews the air quality management process relating to current UK policy and EU policy. Data from questionnaire surveys are used to indicate the involvement of various sectors of local government in the air quality management process. These data indicate an increasing use of monitoring, and use of air dispersion modelling by English local authorities. Data relating to the management of air quality, for example, the existence and work of air quality groups, dissemination of information to the public and policy measures in place on a local scale to improve air quality, have also been reported. The UK NAQS has been reviewed in 1999 to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the socio-economic issues involved. The AQM process, as implemented by UK local authorities, provides an effective model for other European member states with regards to the implementation of the Air Quality Framework Directive. The future direction of air quality policy in the UK is also discussed.

  9. Blaming the Government for Environmental Problems: A Multilevel and Cross-National Analysis of the Relationship between Trust in Government and Local and Global Environmental Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cin, Cigdem Kentmen

    2013-01-01

    Although the determinants of trust in governments have received significant attention in the literature on political trust, there has been no attention paid to whether environmental concerns affect governmental trust. Yet, if individuals are worried about local and global environmental degradation, they may think that the government has failed in…

  10. Central Localization of Plasticity Involved in Appetitive Conditioning in "Lymnaea"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Volko A.; Styles, Benjamin J.; Ireland, Julie S.; O'Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    Learning to associate a conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) results in changes in the processing of CS information. Here, we address directly the question whether chemical appetitive conditioning of "Lymnaea" feeding behavior involves changes in the peripheral and/or central processing of the CS by using extracellular recording…

  11. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  12. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie

    2011-05-01

    Local level actions are crucial for achieving energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Yet it is challenging to implement new policies and actions due to a lack of information, funding, and capacity. This is particularly the case in developing countries such as China. Even though national energy intensity and carbon intensity targets have been set, most local governments do not have the knowledge regarding actions to achieve the targets, the cost-effectiveness of policies, the possible impact of policies, or how to design and implement a climate action plan. This paper describes a guidebook that was developed to motivate and provide local governments in China with information to create an action plan to tackle climate change and increase energy efficiency. It provides a simple step-by-step description of how action plans can be established and essential elements to be included - from preparing a GHG emission inventory to implementation of the plan. The guidebook also provides a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices found internationally and in China to encourage low carbon development in industry, buildings, transportation, electric power generation, agriculture and forestry. This paper also presents indicators that can be used to define low-carbon development, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken at an aggregated (city) level, and at a sectoral or end use level. The guidebook can also be used for low carbon development by local governments in other developing countries.

  13. The 9/21 earthquake in Taiwan: a local government disaster rescue system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yungnane

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a three-element model to examine how the disaster rescue system of the government of Nantou County in Middle Taiwan functioned following the earthquake of 21 September 1999. The three elements are information gathering, local government mobilisation, and inter-organisational cooperation. The paper finds that the Nantou County government needs to address many problems associated with these three elements. Disaster information, for example, was not processed instantly because of the destruction of the electricity and telephone systems in the earthquake. Insufficient information caused ineffectiveness in the realms of mobilisation and inter-organisational cooperation. As for mobilisation, while the Nantou County magistrate successfully used specific information to encourage flows of huge resources in the county, he did not successfully mobilise human resources there. With regard to inter-organisational cooperation, myriad voluntary actors and international rescue teams travelled to Nantou County, but the fire and police services experienced cooperation and coordination problems.

  14. Non-local dynamics governing the self-induced motion of a planar vortex filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2015-06-01

    While the Hasimoto planar vortex filament is one of the few exact solutions to the local induction approximation (LIA) approximating the self-induced motion of a vortex filament, it is natural to wonder whether such a vortex filament solution would exist for the non-local Biot-Savart dynamics exactly governing the filament motion, and if so, whether the non-local effects would drastically modify the solution properties. Both helical vortex filaments and vortex rings are known to exist under both the LIA and non-local Biot-Savart dynamics; however, the planar filament is a bit more complicated. In the present paper, we demonstrate that a planar vortex filament solution does exist for the non-local Biot-Savart formulation, provided that a specific non-linear integral equation (governing the spatial structure of such a filament) has a non-trivial solution. By using the Poincaré-Lindstedt method, we are able to obtain an accurate analytical approximation to the solution of this integral equation under physically reasonable assumptions. To obtain these solutions, we approximate local effects near the singularity of the integral equation using the LIA and non-local effects using the Biot-Savart formulation. Mathematically, the results constitute an analytical solution to an interesting nonlinear singular integro-differential equation in space and time variables. Physically, these results show that planar vortex filaments exist and maintain their forms under the non-local Biot-Savart formulation, as one would hope. Due to the regularization approach utilized, we are able to compare the structure of the planar filaments obtained under both LIA and Biot-Savart formulations in a rather straightforward manner, in order to determine the role of the non-locality on the structure of the planar filament.

  15. RETINOID SIGNALING IS INVOLVED IN GOVERNING THE WAITING PERIOD FOR AXONS IN CHICK HINDLIMB

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Scott, Sheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    During embryonic development in chick, axons pause in a plexus region for approximately one day prior to invading the limb. We have previously shown that this “waiting period” is governed by maturational changes in the limb. Here we provide a detailed description of the spatiotemporal pattern of Raldh2 expression in lumboscaral motoneurons and in the limb, and show that retinoid signaling in the limb contributes significantly to terminating the waiting period. Raldh2, indicative of retinoid signaling, first appears in hindlimb mesenchyme near the end of the waiting period. Transcripts are more abundant in connective tissue associated with predominantly fast muscles than predominantly slow muscles, but are not expressed in muscle cells themselves. The tips of ingrowing axons are always found in association with domains of Raldh2, but development of Raldh2 expression is not regulated by the axons. Instead, retinoid signaling appears to regulate axon entry into the limb. Supplying exogenous retinoic acid to proximal limb during the waiting period caused both motor and sensory axons to invade the limb prematurely and altered the normal stereotyped pattern of axon ingrowth without obvious effects on limb morphogenesis or motoneuron specification. Conversely, locally decreasing retinoid synthesis reduced axon growth into the limb. Retinoic acid significantly enhanced motor axon growth in vitro, suggesting that retinoic acid may directly promote axon growth into the limb in vivo. In addition, retinoid signaling may indirectly affect the waiting period by regulating the maturation of other gate keeping or guidance molecules in the limb. Together these findings reveal a novel function of retinoid signaling in governing the timing and patterning of axon growth into the limb. PMID:18602384

  16. Options for state and local governments to regulate non-cigarette tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Most tobacco control laws were written to address the scourge of smoking--particularly smoking cigarettes. As a result, these laws frequently exclude non-cigarette tobacco products, which are becoming more prevalent on the market. These regulatory gaps jeopardize public health by increasing the possibility that these products will be used--particularly by minors and young adults. This article examines gaps in regulation using five products as case studies: dissolvable tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, little cigars, snus, and water pipes. In addition, this article presents policy options that state and local governments can adopt to regulate these products more effectively, including regulations relating to price, flavors, youth access, use in public places, point-of-sale warnings, and marketing. Furthermore, this article contains extensive discussion of the recently adopted federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which both limits and expands the power of state and local governments.

  17. [Health economic evaluation in a local level government health care system].

    PubMed

    Sancho, Leyla Gomes; Vargens, José Muniz Costa

    2009-10-01

    This work aims to contribute to the discussion about the possibility of applying health economic evaluations at local level government healthcare system, and consequently use the results of this study into decision making. In order to subside this reflexion, it was analyzed the SAMU/192 Program costs evaluation in the city of Belo Horizonte, as well as data concerning effectiveness of the program and a review on electronic databases (SciELO and Medline) about the application of studies in decision making. The analysis showed that even for a simple evaluation on expenditure, there are still unsolved problems of data availability as well as of data effectiveness on information systems definition and association. It showed that decision makers do not use the result of studies for decision making either. So, we conclude that there is no possibility to apply a health economic evaluation research and have the results used in a local level government health care system.

  18. Strained local and state government finances among current realities that threaten public hospitals' profitability.

    PubMed

    Kane, Nancy M; Singer, Sara J; Clark, Jonathan R; Eeckloo, Kristof; Valentine, Melissa

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates that some safety-net hospitals--those that provide a large share of the care to low-income, uninsured, and Medicaid populations--survived and even thrived before the recent recession. We analyzed the financial performance and governance of 150 hospitals during 2003-07. We found, counterintuitively, that those directly governed by elected officials and in highly competitive markets were more profitable than other safety-net hospitals. They were financially healthy primarily because they obtained subsidies from state and local governments, such as property tax transfers or supplemental Medicaid payments, including disproportionate share payments. However, safety-net hospitals now face a new market reality. The economic downturn, slow recovery, and politics of deficit reduction have eroded the ability of local governments to support the safety net. Many safety-net hospitals have not focused on effective management, cost control, quality improvement, or services that attract insured patients. As a result, and coupled with new uncertainties regarding Medicaid expansion stemming from the recent Supreme Court decision on the Affordable Care Act, many are likely to face increasing financial and competitive pressures that may threaten their survival.

  19. Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies.

  20. Factors Associated With Occupational Sun-Protection Policies in Local Government Organizations in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Walkosz, Barbara J.; Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Wallis, Allan; Buller, Mary Klein; Scott, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Skin cancer prevention remains a national priority. Reducing chronic UV radiation exposure for outdoor workers through sun-safety practices is an important step to help reduce the incidence of skin cancer. OBJECTIVE To determine the presence of occupational sun-safety policies at local government organizations in a single state. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Of 571 potentially eligible local government organizations of Colorado cities, counties, and special tax districts, we enrolled 98 in a randomized pretest-posttest controlled experiment starting August 15, 2010, that evaluated an intervention to promote the adoption of sun-safety policies. We used a policy-coding protocol to evaluate personal sun-protection practices, environmental and administrative controls, and policy directives for sun safety starting February 10, 2011. We report the baseline assessment of the occupational sun-protection policies of these organizations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The presence of an occupational sun-safety policy. RESULTS Overall, 85 local government organizations (87%) had policies that required personal sun-protection practices, including the use of eyewear, hats, and protective clothing. However, of the 98 responding organizations, only 8 hat policies (8%), 10 eyewear policies (10%), and 7 clothing policies (7%) mentioned sun protection as the intent of the policy. Only cosmopoliteness, operationalized as proximity to an urban area, was associated with the presence of a sun-safety policy (odds ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.98–1.00]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Outdoor workers are at increased risk for skin cancer because of long-term exposure to solar UV radiation. Although organizational policies have the potential to increase sun protection in occupational settings, occupational sun-safety policies were uncommon among local governments. Opportunities exist for dermatologists and other physicians to influence occupational sun-safety practices and

  1. [Analysis on funds application of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS response and government financial investment in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Zhang, G; Zhu, Y X; Wang, P; Liu, P; Li, J F; Sha, S; Yang, W Z; Li, H

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To understand the government financial investments to community based organizations (CBO) involved in HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention of China and its influencing factors. Methods: Questionnaire of the situation of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention were designed, and filled by the staff of Provincial Health Administrative Departments of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). The research focused on the fields of CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities), including intervention on HIV/AIDS high risk population (female sex worker (FSW), man who sex with man (MSM), drug user (DU) and case management and care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)). 29 valid questionnaires were collecting, with Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions not filled. Questionnaire included financial supports from local governments, transfer payment from central government for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS response in 2014, and unit cost for CBO involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention. Multivariate analysis was conducted on the project application and financial investment of community based organizations involved in HIV/AIDS control and prevention in 2014. Results: The total amount of CBO to apply for participation in AIDS prevention and control was 64 482 828 Yuan in 2014. The actual total amount of investment was 50 616 367 Yuan, The investment came from the central government funding, the provincial level government funding, the prefecture and county level government funding investment and other sources of funding. 22 of 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) received the funds from the central government finance, and median of investment funds 500 000 Yuan. 15 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) gained the funds from the provincial government finance, and median of investment funds 350 000 Yuan. 12 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) got the funds

  2. Government Influence and Community Involvement on Abstinence-Only Programs in 1999 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusrang, Jamie L.; Cheng, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare federal government influence on abstinence-only programs in 1999 and 2003 to better see how shifts in the federal government's sex education polices impacted other government and community actors. Using data from the Sex Education in America Surveys (SEAS), we find that changes in federal policy, particularly after the…

  3. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec. 123 III Appendix III to Part 310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec....

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec. 123 III Appendix III to Part 310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec....

  5. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec. 123 III Appendix III to Part 310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec....

  6. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 310 - Form: Application for Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec. 123 III Appendix III to Part 310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Reimbursement to Local Governments for Emergency Response to Hazardous Substance Release Under CERCLA Sec....

  7. 41 CFR 102-38.340 - How may we sell personal property to State and local governments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... property to State and local governments? 102-38.340 Section 102-38.340 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Provisions for State and Local Governments § 102-38.340 How may...

  8. 25 CFR 170.107 - Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation projects? 170.107 Section 170.107 Indians BUREAU OF... planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation...

  9. 25 CFR 170.107 - Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Should planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation projects? 170.107 Section 170.107 Indians BUREAU OF... planning organizations and local governments consult with tribes when planning for transportation...

  10. 25 CFR 170.108 - Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' planning organizations and local governments in the development of their IRRTIP? 170.108 Section 170.108... § 170.108 Should Indian tribes and BIA consult with States' planning organizations and local governments in the development of their IRRTIP? Yes. (a) All regionally significant IRR Program projects must...

  11. Applying Best Practices to Florida Local Government Retrofit Programs, Central Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    In some communities, local government and non-profit entities have funds to purchase and renovate distressed, foreclosed homes for resale in the affordable housing market. Numerous opportunities to improve whole house energy efficiency are inherent in these comprehensive renovations. BA-PIRC worked together in a multi-year field study making recommendations in individual homes, meanwhile compiling improvement costs, projected energy savings, practical challenges, and labor force factors surrounding common energy-related renovation measures. The field study, Phase 1 of this research, resulted in a set of best practices appropriate to the current labor pool and market conditions in central Florida to achieve projected annual energy savings of 15-30% and higher. This report describes Phase 2 of the work where researchers worked with a local government partner to implement and refine the "current best practices". A simulation study was conducted to characterize savings potential under three sets of conditions representing varying replacement needs for energy-related equipment and envelope components. The three scenarios apply readily to the general remodeling industry as for renovation of foreclosed homes for the affordable housing market. Our new local government partner, the City of Melbourne, implemented the best practices in a community-scale renovation program that included ten homes in 2012. ​

  12. Flutter of wings involving a locally distributed flexible control surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari-Jovin, S.; Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Roshanian, J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper undertakes to facilitate appraisal of aeroelastic interaction of a locally distributed, flap-type control surface with aircraft wings operating in a subsonic potential flow field. The extended Hamilton's principle serves as a framework to ascertain the Euler-Lagrange equations for coupled bending-torsional-flap vibration. An analytical solution to this boundary-value problem is then accomplished by assumed modes and the extended Galerkin's method. The developed aeroelastic model considers both the inherent flexibility of the control surface displaced on the wing and the inertial coupling between these two flexible bodies. The structural deformations also obey the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, along with the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic constitutive law. Meanwhile, the unsteady thin-airfoil and strip theories are the tools of producing the three-dimensional airloads. The origin of aerodynamic instability undergoes analysis in light of the oscillatory loads as well as the loads owing to arbitrary motions. After successful verification of the model, a systematic flutter survey was conducted on the theoretical effects of various control surface parameters. The results obtained demonstrate that the flapping modes and parameters of the control surface can significantly impact the flutter characteristics of the wings, which leads to a series of pertinent conclusions.

  13. DOE Technical Standards List. Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This is a periodic report on the level of agency participation in non-Government standards activities. This technical standards list is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) management and other personnel involved in the DOE technical Standards Program by identifying those participating individuals. The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted a Record of Non-Government Standards Activity. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. Appendices to this document are provided to list the information by parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees.

  14. Optical Activity Governed by Local Chiral Structures in Two-Dimensional Curved Metallic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Narushima, Tetsuya; Hashiyada, Shun; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    Chiral nanostructures show macroscopic optical activity. Local optical activity and its handedness are not uniform in the nanostructure, and are spatially distributed depending on the shape of the nanostructure. In this study we fabricated curved chain nanostructures made of gold by connecting linearly two or more arc structures in a two-dimensional plane. Spatial features of local optical activity in the chain structures were evaluated with near-field circular dichroism (CD) imaging, and analyzed with the aid of classical electromagnetic simulation. The electromagnetic simulation predicted that local optical activity appears at inflection points where arc structures are connected. The handedness of the local optical activity was dependent on the handedness of the local chirality at the inflection point. Chiral chain structures have odd inflection points and the local optical activity distributed symmetrically with respect to structural centers. In contrast, achiral chain structures have even inflection points and showed antisymmetric distribution. In the near-field CD images of fabricated chain nanostructures, the symmetric and antisymmetric distributions of local CD were observed for chiral and achiral chain structures, respectively, consistent with the simulated results. The handedness of the local optical activity was found to be determined by the handedness of the inflection point, for the fabricated chain structures having two or more inflection points. The local optical activity was thus governed primarily by the local chirality of the inflection points for the gold chain structures. The total effect of all the inflection points in the chain structure is considered to be a predominant factor that determines the macroscopic optical activity. Chirality 28:540-544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  16. Student Involvement in Wellness Policies: A Study of Pennsylvania Local Education Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jomaa, Lamis H.; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Jensen, Leif; Probart, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Explore student-involvement goals in local wellness policies (LWPs) of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania (PA) and investigate associations with LEA characteristics. Design: An observational study that helped examine student-involvement goals. Setting: Public PA LEAs. Participants: LWPs submitted by 539 PA public LEAs. Main…

  17. Deregulation strategies for local governments and the role/opportunities for energy efficiency services in the utility industry deregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, P.C.

    1998-07-01

    As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc.

  18. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  19. Estimation of potential scour at bridges on local government roads in South Dakota, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ryan F.; Wattier, Chelsea M.; Liggett, Richard R.; Truax, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT) began a study to estimate potential scour at selected bridges on local government (county, township, and municipal) roads in South Dakota. A rapid scour-estimation method (level-1.5) and a more detailed method (level-2) were used to develop estimates of contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Data from 41 level-2 analyses completed for this study were combined with data from level-2 analyses completed in previous studies to develop new South Dakota-specific regression equations: four regional equations for main-channel velocity at the bridge contraction to account for the widely varying stream conditions within South Dakota, and one equation for head change. Velocity data from streamgages also were used in the regression for average velocity through the bridge contraction. Using these new regression equations, scour analyses were completed using the level-1.5 method on 361 bridges on local government roads. Typically, level-1.5 analyses are completed at flows estimated to have annual exceedance probabilities of 1 percent (100-year flood) and 0.2 percent (500-year flood); however, at some sites the bridge would not pass these flows. A level-1.5 analysis was then completed at the flow expected to produce the maximum scour. Data presented for level-1.5 scour analyses at the 361 bridges include contraction, abutment, and pier scour. Estimates of potential contraction scour ranged from 0 to 32.5 feet for the various flows evaluated. Estimated potential abutment scour ranged from 0 to 40.9 feet for left abutments, and from 0 to 37.7 feet for right abutments. Pier scour values ranged from 2.7 to 31.6 feet. The scour depth estimates provided in this report can be used by the SDDOT to compare with foundation depths at each bridge to determine if abutments or piers are at risk of being undermined by scour at the flows evaluated. Replicate analyses were completed at 24 of the 361 bridges

  20. Involvement of pre- and postsynaptic NMDA receptors at local circuit interneuron connections in rat neocortex.

    PubMed

    De-May, C L; Ali, A B

    2013-01-03

    To investigate the involvement of N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in local neocortical synaptic transmission, dual whole-cell recordings - combined with biocytin labelling - were obtained from bitufted adapting, multipolar adapting or multipolar non-adapting interneurons and pyramidal cells in layers II-V of rat (postnatal days 17-22) sensorimotor cortex. The voltage dependency of the amplitude of Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) received by the three types of interneuron appeared to coincide with the interneuron subclass; upon depolarisation, EPSPs received by multipolar non-adapting interneurons either decreased in amplitude or appeared insensitive, multipolar adapting interneuron EPSP amplitudes increased or appeared insensitive, whereas bitufted interneuron EPSP amplitudes increased or decreased. Connections were challenged with the NMDA receptor antagonist d-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP5) (50μM) revealing NMDA receptors to contribute to EPSPs received by all cell types, this also abolished the non-conventional voltage dependency. Reciprocal connections were frequent between pyramidal cells and multipolar interneurons, and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) elicited in pyramidal cells by both multipolar adapting and multipolar non-adapting interneurons were sensitive to a significant reduction in amplitude by d-AP5. The involvement of presynaptic NMDA receptors was indicated by coefficient of variation analysis and an increase in the failures of transmission. Furthermore, by loading MK-801 into the pre- or postsynaptic neurons, we observed that a reduction in inhibition requires presynaptic and not postsynaptic NMDA receptors. These results suggest that NMDA receptors possess pre- and postsynaptic roles at selective neocortical synapses that are probably important in governing spike-timing and information flow.

  1. Local Government Implementation of Long-Term Stewardship at Two DOE Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    John Pendergrass; Roman Czebiniak; Kelly Mott; Seth Kirshenberg; Audrey Eidelman; Zachary Lamb; Erica Pencak; Wendy Sandoz

    2003-08-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleaning up the radioactive and chemical contamination that resulted from the production of nuclear weapons. At more than one hundred sites throughout the country DOE will leave some contamination in place after the cleanup is complete. In order to protect human health and the environment from the remaining contamination DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state environmental regulatory agencies, local governments, citizens and other entities will need to undertake long-term stewardship of such sites. Long-term stewardship includes a wide range of actions needed to protect human health in the environment for as long as the risk from the contamination remains above acceptable levels, such as barriers, caps, and other engineering controls and land use controls, signs, notices, records, and other institutional controls. In this report the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) and the Energy Communities Alliance (ECA) examine how local governments, state environmental agencies, and real property professionals implement long-term stewardship at two DOE facilities, Losa Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Reservation.

  2. Status of emergency obstetric care in a local government area in south-south Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mezie-Okoye, Margaret M; Adeniji, Foluke O; Tobin-West, Charles I; Babatunde, Seye

    2012-09-01

    This study assessed the status of the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in 12 functional public health facilities out of the existing 19 in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State in south-south Nigeria, prior to the midwives service scheme (MSS) launch in 2009. No facility qualified as basic EmOC, while one had comprehensive EmOC status. Signal functions that required supply of medical consumables were performed by more facilities than services that required special training, equipment and maintenance. Only two facilities (16.67%) had the minimum requirement of > or =4 midwives for 24-hour EmOC service; while only 2.2% of expected births occurred at the facilities. The poor state of maternal health resources in the study area requires urgent interventions by Local and State Governments for infrastructure upgrade and deployment and training of staff towards attainment of MDG-5. A follow-up evaluation would be required since the commencement of the MSS.

  3. The Local Turn: an Introductory Essay Revisiting Leadership, Elite Capture and Good Governance in Indonesian Conservation and Development Programs.

    PubMed

    Warren, Carol; Visser, Leontine

    The local turn in good governance theory and practice responded to critiques of the ineffectiveness of state management and the inequity of privatization alternatives in natural resource management. Confounding expectations of greater effectiveness from decentralised governance, including community-based natural resource management, however, critics argue that expanded opportunities for elite capture have become widely associated with program failures. This overview of theoretical controversies on leadership, patronage and elite capture is part of a themed section in this issue that challenges assumptions across a wide range of current policy literature. It introduces a set of Indonesian case studies that examine practices of local leaders and elites and seek to account in structural terms for appropriations both by ('elite capture') and of ('captured elites') these key figures. These studies explore the structural factors and co-governance practices most likely to promote effective participation of the full spectrum of local interests in pursuit of better local natural resource governance.

  4. Enhancing the Motivation for Rural Career: The Collaboration between the Local Government and Medical School.

    PubMed

    Seguchi, Masaru; Furuta, Noriko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Kouji; Hori, Hiroki; Okuno, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of medical workforce in rural areas is a global long-standing problem. Due to the severity of shortages in the medical workforce, Mie prefectural government has collaborated with a medical school and the municipal governments to increase the rural medical workforce. Since 2010, this collaboration has led to an annual lecture series on rural practice for medical students. We distributed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the lecture series to examine the effect of this program. The questionnaire consisted of two parts that included an understanding of rural practice and the motivation to work in rural areas. The lecture series significantly improved the responses to the following questions "Rural practice is interesting" (p < 0.001), "Rural practitioners can deliver adequate medical care" (p < 0.01), "Rural practitioners cannot go back to urban areas" (p < 0.001), "I want to be a rural practitioner" (p < 0.001), "Healthcare facilities in rural areas have been developed" (p < 0.001), "Rural practitioners can be a specialist" (p < 0.001), and "Rural residents can be served adequate healthcare service" (p < 0.01). The percentage of students who desired to work in rural areas increased significantly (11.1% vs. 23.9%, p = 0.04). A lecture series on rural practice enhanced the motivation of medical students and their interest in a rural career. While collaboration between the local government and medical school rarely occurs in planning medical education programs, this approach may offer a promising way to foster local health professionals.

  5. 18 CFR 401.116 - Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure to consultants, advisory committees, State and local government officials, and other special government employees. 401.116 Section 401.116 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  6. 75 FR 44814 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; Circular A-133 Compliance... updates APPENDIX VII that provides an audit alert and compliance requirements regarding the grant programs... through the Government Printing Office. DATES: The 2010 Supplement will apply to audits of fiscal...

  7. The Governance and Organizational Affiliation of Regional Educational Service Agencies: Arms of the State Education Agency, Pure Creatures of Constituent Local Districts, or Pure Special District Governments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    Focusing on one of the most critical and complex aspects of the concept of the regional educational service agency (RESA), the paper questions whether RESA's should be an arm of the state educational agency, pure creatures of constituent local school districts, or pure special district governments. The critical dimensions of the issue being…

  8. Processes governing phytoplankton blooms in estuaries. I: The local production-loss balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, L.V.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Cloern, J.E.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Thompson, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The formation and spatial distribution of phytoplankton blooms in estuaries are controlled by (1) local mechanisms, which determine the production-loss balance for a water column at a particular spatial location (i.e. control if a bloom is possible), and (2) transport-related mechanisms, which govern biomass distribution (i.e. control if and where a bloom actually occurs). In this study, the first of a 2-paper series, we use a depth-averaged numerical model as a theoretical tool to describe how interacting local conditions (water column height, light availability, benthic grazing) influence the local balance between phytoplankton sources and sinks. We also explore trends in the spatial variability of the production-loss balance across the topographic gradients between deep channels and lateral shoals which are characteristic of shallow estuaries. For example, under conditions of high turbidity and slow benthic grazing the highest rates of phytoplankton population growth are found in the shallowest regions. On the other hand, with low turbidity and rapid benthic grazing the highest growth rates occur in the deeper areas. We also explore the effects of semidiurnal tidal variation in water column height, as well as spring-neap variability. Local population growth in the shallowest regions is very sensitive to tidal-scale shallowing and deepening of the water column, especially in the presence of benthic grazing. A spring-neap signal in population growth rate is also prominent in the shallow areas. Population growth in deeper regions is less sensitive to temporal variations in tidal elevation. These results show that both shallow and deep regions of estuaries can act as sources or sinks for phytoplankton biomass, depending on the local conditions of mean water column height, tidal amplitude, light-limited growth rate, and consumption by grazers.

  9. Academic Politics, Morale, and Involvement: Preliminary Findings of the Stanford Project on Academic Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecker, George Paul; Baldridge, J. Victor

    This document was prepared as a preliminary report on the findings of the Stanford Project on Academic Governance, a comparative study of the politics of decisionmaking in colleges and universities in the United States. The project is using data gathered from faculty members and administrators in a sample of 249 colleges and universities, as well…

  10. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  11. Home-based Palliative Services under Two Local Self-government Institutions of Kerala, India: An Assessment of Compliance with Policy and Guidelines to Local Self-government Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, Rajeev; Suhita, Chatterjee Chopra

    2017-01-01

    Background: In contrast to India's poor performance in palliative and end-of-life care, the state of Kerala has gained considerable attention for its palliative care (PC) policy. This study tried to understand the structure, organization, and delivery of the program currently offered to the rural population, and its conformity to the state's PC policy and guidelines for Local Self-government Institutions (LSGIs). Materials and Methods: A descriptive research design involving a review of Kerala palliative policy and guidelines for LSGIs was followed by direct field observation and interviews of stakeholders. Two LSGIs in rural Kerala served also by a nongovernmental organization (NGO), were selected. Data were collected from health workers (doctors, nurses, and PC nurses), government stakeholders (LSGI members and representatives of the National Health Mission), and the health workers and officials of NGO. Results: The program in two LSGIs varies considerably in terms of composition of the palliative team, infrastructure and human resource, cost, and type of service provided to the community. A comparative assessment with a nongovernmental service provider shows that the services offered by the LSGIs seemed to be restricted in scope to meet the needs of the resource-stricken community. Compliance with policy guidelines seems to be poor for both the LSGIs. Conclusions: Despite a robust policy, the palliative program lacks a public health approach to end-of-life care. A structural reconfiguration of the delivery system is needed, involving greater state responsibility and political will in integrating PC within a broader social organization of care. PMID:28216866

  12. Embedding economic relationships through social learning? The limits of patient and public involvement in healthcare governance in England.

    PubMed

    Vincent-Jones, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The strategy for NHS modernization in England is privileging individual choice over collective voice in the governance of healthcare. This paper explores the tension between economic and democratic strands in the current reform agenda, drawing on sociological conceptions of embeddedness and on theories of reflexive governance. Building on a Polanyian account of the disembedding effects of the increasing commercialization of health services, we consider the prospects for re-embedding economic relationships in this field. An analysis is provided of the limits of the present legal and regulatory framework of Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in establishing the democratic and pragmatist conditions of social learning necessary for effective embedding. We show how the attainment of reflexive governance in the public interest is dependent on such conditions, and on the capacities of patients and the public to contribute to debate and deliberation in decision making, including on fundamental policy questions such as how services are provided and by whom.

  13. The effect of types of banner ad, Web localization, and customer involvement on Internet users' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jengchung Victor; Ross, William H; Yen, David C; Akhapon, Lerdsuwankij

    2009-02-01

    In this study, three characteristics of Web sites were varied: types of banner ad, Web localization, and involvement in purchasing a product. The dependent variable was attitude toward the site. In laboratory experiments conducted in Thailand and Taiwan, participants browsed versions of a Web site containing different types of banner ads and products. As a within-participants factor, each participant browsed both a standardized English-language Web site and a localized Web site. Results showed that animated (rather than static) banner ads, localized versions (rather than a standardized version) of Web sites, and high (rather than low) product involvement led to favorable attitudes toward the site.

  14. A New Education Model as a Collaborative Work of Industry, Local Government and College of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himuro, Shozo

    A new educational program was introduced to our college in 2000. This program based on the extensive knowledge in the engineering and high culture, originally intended to foster young engineers with creativity, diversity, interdisciplinarity, internationality and high practical skills. It also aimed to nourish engineers who would be engaged in developing user-friendly technologies that can coexist with nature and who can flexibly cope with current global issues such as environmental problems, food shortages and energy efficiency. Regrettably, great numbers of students don't seem to be interested in studying. We feel that there is an urgent need to improve the educational program to attract students to learn and encourage their motivations. In this paper, We would like to propose a new education model that is the Collaborative Work of Industry, Local Government and College of Technology.

  15. Protecting children from harmful food marketing: options for local government to make a difference.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Graff, Samantha K

    2011-09-01

    The obesity epidemic cannot be reversed without substantial improvements in the food marketing environment that surrounds children. Food marketing targeted to children almost exclusively promotes calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and takes advantage of children's vulnerability to persuasive messages. Increasing scientific evidence reveals potentially profound effects of food marketing on children's lifelong eating behaviors and health. Much of this marketing occurs in nationwide media (eg, television, the Internet), but companies also directly target children in their own communities through the use of billboards and through local environments such as stores, restaurants, and schools. Given the harmful effect of this marketing environment on children's health and the industry's reluctance to make necessary changes to its food marketing practices, government at all levels has an obligation to act. This article focuses on policy options for municipalities that are seeking ways to limit harmful food marketing at the community level.

  16. Critical length scales and strain localization govern the mechanical performance of multi-layer graphene assemblies.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenjie; Ruiz, Luis; Pugno, Nicola M; Keten, Sinan

    2016-03-28

    Multi-layer graphene assemblies (MLGs) or fibers with a staggered architecture exhibit high toughness and failure strain that surpass those of the constituent single sheets. However, how the architectural parameters such as the sheet overlap length affect these mechanical properties remains unknown due in part to the limitations of mechanical continuum models. By exploring the mechanics of MLG assemblies under tensile deformation using our established coarse-grained molecular modeling framework, we have identified three different critical interlayer overlap lengths controlling the strength, plastic stress, and toughness of MLGs, respectively. The shortest critical length scale L(C)(S) governs the strength of the assembly as predicted by the shear-lag model. The intermediate critical length L(C)(P) is associated with a dynamic frictional process that governs the strain localization propensity of the assembly, and hence the failure strain. The largest critical length scale L(C)(T) corresponds to the overlap length necessary to achieve 90% of the maximum theoretical toughness of the material. Our analyses provide the general guidelines for tuning the constitutive properties and toughness of multilayer 2D nanomaterials using elasticity, interlayer adhesion energy and geometry as molecular design parameters.

  17. Using Participatory Approach to Improve Availability of Spatial Data for Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, T.; Cetl, V.; Tomič, H.; Lisiak, J.; Kliment, M.

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, the availability of authoritative geospatial features of various data themes is becoming wider on global, regional and national levels. The reason is existence of legislative frameworks for public sector information and related spatial data infrastructure implementations, emergence of support for initiatives as open data, big data ensuring that online geospatial information are made available to digital single market, entrepreneurs and public bodies on both national and local level. However, the availability of authoritative reference spatial data linking the geographic representation of the properties and their owners are still missing in an appropriate quantity and quality level, even though this data represent fundamental input for local governments regarding the register of buildings used for property tax calculations, identification of illegal buildings, etc. We propose a methodology to improve this situation by applying the principles of participatory GIS and VGI used to collect observations, update authoritative datasets and verify the newly developed datasets of areas of buildings used to calculate property tax rates issued to their owners. The case study was performed within the district of the City of Požega in eastern Croatia in the summer 2015 and resulted in a total number of 16072 updated and newly identified objects made available online for quality verification by citizens using open source geospatial technologies.

  18. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  19. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems. Demand side management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  20. Earthquake Drill for Effective Emergency Response and Quick Collection of Damage Information by Collaboration between Local Government and Residents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisada, Yoshiaki; Murakami, Masahiro; Zama, Shinsaku; Endo, Makoto; Shibayama, Akihiro; Ichii, Tsuguyuki; Sekizawa, Ai; Suematsu, Takashi; Yamada, Takeshi; Noda, Itsuki; Matsui, Hiroki; Kubo, Tomohiro; Ohgai, Akira

    An earthquake drill for collecting quickly earthquake damage information and conducting effective emergency response was developed and carried out by collaboration between a local government and residents. The methodology for the drill consists of two stages; at the first stage, workshops by local communities' associations and government officers are held to make disaster prevention maps, which indicate strong and weak points of the local area, such as the locations of fire distinguishers, fire hydrants, storages of rescue equipments, weak walls and buildings, open spaces, and so on. During the workshop, the participants also discuss about what happens during a large earthquake, and how to cope with the disaster. At second stage, an emergency drill is carried out by collaboration between the local government and the community residents, as follows. First, the panels are suspended at electric poles just before the drill, which show the information about earthquake damage, such as a fire breaking, a collapsed building, and a blocked road, starts. Second, when the drill starts under the assumption of the occurrence of a large earthquake, the local residents check the area to collect the damage information, and to conduct emergency response. For example, when a resident finds a panel of fire breaking, he/she is expected to gather people, fire distinguishers, and buckets with water as many as possible within 10 minutes. Third, the residents get together at the local evacuation center, and make a map indicating the locations of the damage and their information. Local government officials at the evacuation center collect those damage maps, and immediately sent them to the emergency operation center of the government. Fourth, the operation center gathers and analyzes all the data, and informs the residents about important information, such as the evacuation order from the local center to other safe areas due to a possible massive fire. The proposed methodology was applied

  1. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... requires the visiting State government scientist to sign a written commitment to protect the confidentiality of the information, and the visiting State government scientist provides a written assurance...

  2. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... requires the visiting State government scientist to sign a written commitment to protect the confidentiality of the information, and the visiting State government scientist provides a written assurance...

  3. 21 CFR 20.88 - Communications with State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... State government scientist visiting the Food and Drug Administration on the agency's premises as part of... requires the visiting State government scientist to sign a written commitment to protect the confidentiality of the information, and the visiting State government scientist provides a written assurance...

  4. Factors Governing the Germination of Sulfate-Reducing Desulfotomaculum Endospores Involved in Oil Reservoir Souring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, A.; Bell, E.; Cueto, G.; Suarez-Suarez, A.; Pilloni, G.; Hubert, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir souring is caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in subsurface oil reservoirs, and is often induced by seawater injection during secondary oil recovery. Souring can potentially contribute to corrosion of infrastructure, health and safety hazards to the workforce, and reduction in value by increasing refining costs associated with producing the oil resource. Souring causes annual losses in the billions of dollars to the oil industry. Endospore-forming SRM, such as Desulfotomaculum spp., are often suspected culprits in reservoir souring. Endospores can survive unfavourable conditions for long periods, yet remain poised to germinate and become active if conditions become more favourable. Factors governing endospore germination are poorly understood, but are thought to include availability of nutrients, possibly metabolic by products of other anaerobic bioprocesses, and/or variations in temperature. Most research has focused on aerobic Bacillus spp., with very few studies dedicated to spore germination among anaerobes (order Clostridiales) including the sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum found in anoxic subsurface petroleum reservoirs. For Desulfotomaculum spores in deep hot oil reservoirs, cold seawater introduction during secondary oil recovery may create thermal viability zones for sulfate reduction near the injection wellbore. To evaluate these processes, sulfate-containing microcosms were prepared with different marine sediments as a source of spores, and amended with organic substrates in the presence or absence of oil. Incubation at 80°C for six days was followed by a down-shift in temperature to 60°C to mimic cold seawater injection into a hot reservoir. Souring did not occur at 80°C, but commenced within hours at 60°C. Microcosms were monitored for sulfate reduction and organic acids in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes (Ion Torrent, Illumina MiSeq). Through a combination of high

  5. Governing AIDS through aid to civil society: Global solutions meet local problems in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Follér, Maj-Lis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The main questions the paper aims to answer are: Who is setting the agenda? What power mechanisms are in place to fulfil planned projects and programmes? Are there any forms of resistance from civil society AIDS-organisations in the face of the donor interventions? The actions will be analysed through the lens of governmentality theory. The study concluded that donors have the power to set the agenda through predetermined programmes and using various technologies. Their strongest weapons are audit mechanisms such as the result based management model used as a control mechanism, and there is still a long way to go to achieve a situation with multiple forms of local resistance to the conditions set by economically powerful donors. The standardisation imposed through clustering donors into like-minded groups and other constellations gives them power to govern the politics of AIDS.

  6. Good practices in Local Government - A first overview of Portuguese reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalhosa, P.; Portela, F.; Machado, J.; Santos, M. F.; Abelha, A.

    2017-03-01

    Good practices in eGov are being increasingly used by Local Governments being that it is considered by them as an advantage. The main goal is providing to the town hall a differentiation point and approximate their services to the citizens. For this, it is necessary to define and apply innovative strategies in order to increase the use of services by the citizens. This paper is framed in a research work and it presents a first overview of the existing good practices in eGov, taking in consideration the Portuguese’s reality. The good practices identified were distinguished with many awards and with a positive response from the target audience. The use of digital marketing strategies aims to increase their membership and coming closer the municipalities of its citizens through the dissemination of the good practices. At this moment the data collected are almost exclusively of good practice in Portugal, however some international practices were also identified. As a result of this study the community has a list of good practices that can be applied in their municipalities.

  7. Commercial Complexity and Local and Global Involvement in Programs: Effects on Viewer Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberman, Heiko; Thorson, Esther

    A study investigated the effects of local (momentary) and global (whole program) involvement in program context and the effects of message complexity on the retention of television commercials. Sixteen commercials, categorized as simple video/simple audio through complex video/complex audio were edited into two globally high- and two globally…

  8. Multi-state targeting machinery govern the fidelity and efficiency of protein localization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingjun; Pang, Xueqin; Han, Keli

    2014-01-01

    Proper localization of newly synthesized proteins is essential to cellular function. Among different protein localization modes, the signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptor (SR) constitute the conserved targeting machinery in all three life kingdoms and mediate about one third of the protein targeting reactions. Based on experimental and computational studies, a detailed molecular model is proposed to explain how this molecular machinery governs the efficiency and fidelity of protein localizations. In this targeting machinery, two distinct SRP GTPases are contained into the SRP and SR that are responsible to the interactions between SRP and SR. These two GTPases can interact with one another through a series of sequential and discrete interaction states that are the early intermediate formation, stable complex association, and GTPase activation. In contrast to canonical GTPases, a floppy and open conformation adopted in free SRP GTPases can facilitate efficient GTP/GDP exchange without the aid of any external factors. As the apo-form free SRP GTPases can adopt the conformational states of GDP- or GTP-bound form, the binding of GTP/GDP follows a mechanism of conformational selection. In the first step of complex formation, the two SRP GTPases can rapidly assemble into an unstable early intermediate by selecting and stabilizing one another's primed states from the equilibrium conformational ensemble. Subsequently, extensive inter- and intra-domain changes rearrange the early complex into a tight and closed state of stable complex through induced fit mechanism. Upon stable complex association, further tune of several important interaction networks activates the SRP GTPase for GTP hydrolysis. These different conformational states are coupled to corresponding protein targeting events, in which the complex formation deliveries the translating ribosome to the target membrane and the GTPase activation couples to the cargo release from SRP-SR machinery to the

  9. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading.

    PubMed

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-06-07

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world's largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions-induced by a single adopting neighbour-appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading.

  10. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-06-01

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world’s largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions—induced by a single adopting neighbour—appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading.

  11. Local cascades induced global contagion: How heterogeneous thresholds, exogenous effects, and unconcerned behaviour govern online adoption spreading

    PubMed Central

    Karsai, Márton; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Kikas, Riivo; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of innovations, products or online services is commonly interpreted as a spreading process driven to large extent by social influence and conditioned by the needs and capacities of individuals. To model this process one usually introduces behavioural threshold mechanisms, which can give rise to the evolution of global cascades if the system satisfies a set of conditions. However, these models do not address temporal aspects of the emerging cascades, which in real systems may evolve through various pathways ranging from slow to rapid patterns. Here we fill this gap through the analysis and modelling of product adoption in the world’s largest voice over internet service, the social network of Skype. We provide empirical evidence about the heterogeneous distribution of fractional behavioural thresholds, which appears to be independent of the degree of adopting egos. We show that the structure of real-world adoption clusters is radically different from previous theoretical expectations, since vulnerable adoptions—induced by a single adopting neighbour—appear to be important only locally, while spontaneous adopters arriving at a constant rate and the involvement of unconcerned individuals govern the global emergence of social spreading. PMID:27272744

  12. EPA Announces Availability of Clean Diesel Grants for Communities Across the Country/Local governments, tribal agencies and nonprofits can win grants up to $2.14 million

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of $13.5 million in grant funding to help governments and nonprofit organizations switch to cleaner diesel engines. Local governments, tribal agencies and no

  13. A Historical Perspective on Local Environmental Movements in Japan: Lessons for the Transdisciplinary Approach on Water Resource Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, T.

    2014-12-01

    Typical studies on natural resources from a social science perspective tend to choose one type of resource—water, for example— and ask what factors contribute to the sustainable use or wasteful exploitation of that resource. However, climate change and economic development, which are causing increased pressure on local resources and presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts, force us to consider the trade-offs between options for using a particular resource. Therefore, the transdisciplinary approach that accurately captures the advantages and disadvantages of various possible resource uses is particularly important in the complex social-ecological systems, where concerns about inequality with respect to resource use and access have become unavoidable. Needless to say, resource management and policy require sound scientific understanding of the complex interconnections between nature and society, however, in contrast to typical international discussions, I discuss Japan not as an "advanced" case where various dilemmas have been successfully addressed by the government through the optimal use of technology, but rather as a nation seeing an emerging trend that is based on a awareness of the connections between local resources and the environment. Furthermore, from a historical viewpoint, the nexus of local resources is not a brand-new idea in the experience of environmental governance in Japan. There exist the local environment movements, which emphasized the interconnection of local resources and succeeded in urging the governmental action and policymaking. For this reason, local movements and local knowledge for the resource governance warrant attention. This study focuses on the historical cases relevant to water resource management including groundwater, and considers the contexts and conditions to holistically address local resource problems, paying particular attention to interactions between science and society. I

  14. 24 CFR 5.526 - Protection from liability for responsible entities and State and local government agencies and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection from liability for responsible entities and State and local government agencies and officials. 5.526 Section 5.526 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL...

  15. The Forgotten Minority: An Analysis of American Indian Employment Patterns in State and Local Governments, 1991-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Valerie H.; Kerr, Brinck; Ketcher, Linda K.; Murphy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address a gap in the empirical literature by analyzing levels of proportional representation of American Indians over time in state and local government bureaucracies in key states. The authors limit their analysis to six states with the largest percentages of American Indian populations in 2000: Alaska, Arizona,…

  16. The Impact of Physics Laboratory on Students Offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, Oluwasegun; Adrian, Ohwofosirai; Johnbull, Emagbetere

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Physics laboratory on students was carried out among senior secondary school students offering Physics in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State using descriptive survey. Five public schools were random-even samplying technique was adopted for precision. Fifty questionnaires were distributed to students in each school,…

  17. Safe Physical Activity Environments--To What Extent Are Local Government Authorities Auditing the Safety of Grassed Sporting Grounds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otago, Leonie; Swan, Peter; Donaldson, Alex; Payne, Warren; Finch, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation is influenced by the safety of the settings in which it is undertaken. This study describes the grounds assessment practices of Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia to ensure the safety of grassed sporting grounds. It also makes recommendations for improving these practices to maximise the…

  18. 31 CFR 13.5 - Utilization of the services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of State and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Utilization of the services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of State and local governments. 13.5 Section 13.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND...

  19. Variation at Local Government Level in the Support for Families of Severely Disabled Children and the Factors that Affect It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Method: Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the…

  20. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  1. Home Influences on the Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndirika, Maryann C.; Njoku, U. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the home influences on the academic performance of agricultural science secondary school students in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. The instrument used in data collection was a validated questionnaire structured on a two point rating scale. Simple random sampling technique was used to select…

  2. Service-Learning from a Distance: Partnering Multiple Universities and Local Governments in a Large Scale Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poindexter, Sandra; Arnold, Pamela; Osterhout, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Service-learning can be academically effective even when the distances between students and client organizations prevent face-to-face interchanges and site visits. Working with the State of Michigan and Michigan Townships Association, Michigan students from five universities learned about local government while helping Michigan townships develop…

  3. 78 FR 41424 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance.... Appendix VII provides an audit alert concerning deletion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act programs... Supplement and will apply to audits of fiscal years beginning after June 30, 2012. All comments on the...

  4. 76 FR 32377 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance... 2011 Supplement can be found at Appendix V. It updates Appendix VII that provides an audit alert and... 2011 Supplement will apply to audits of fiscal years beginning after June 30, 2010 and supersedes...

  5. 77 FR 45695 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-18808] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non... provides an audit alert and lists compliance requirements regarding the grant programs funded under... audits of fiscal years beginning after June 30, 2011. All comments on the 2012 Supplement must be...

  6. Factors Influencing Low Level of Women Participation in Literacy Programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Aminchi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which poverty, gender stereotype, socio-cultural belief and lack of awareness influence low level of women participation in literacy programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Survey designed was adopted for the study and a sample consisting of three hundred (300) women who were…

  7. Changes in Federal Aid to State and Local Governments, as Proposed in the Bush Administration FY2002 Budget. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence

    This report analyzes the effect of President George W. Bush's administration's budget proposal on federal discretionary grant-in-aid programs provided to state and local governments. These programs are projected to be cut by 6.9 percent in fiscal year (FY) 2002 and, by 2011, by 11.2 percent. The report provides data on proposed changes in spending…

  8. 30 CFR 206.366 - What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., or local government lessee must pay for the use of geothermal resources? 206.366 Section 206.366... PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 206.366 What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of geothermal resources? If a State, tribal, or local...

  9. Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Atakunmosa West Local Government area of southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, O H; Adeoye, A O; Akinsola, F B; Adegbehingbe, B O

    2007-05-01

    Blindness survey remains a useful tool for eye care needs assessment. A cross sectional survey of Atakunmosa West Local Government Area, a rural community of southwest Nigeria with no form of eye care facility was carried out. The objective of this study was to define areas of eye care need and develop programme for elimination of avoidable blindness in the region. Multistage cluster sampling technique selected 1248 respondents across all the eleven health districts. Respondents had visual acuity and ocular examination. Blindness was defined as presenting visual acuity (pva) of < 3/60 in the better eye and visual impairment as pva of < 6/18 in the better eye. Out of the 1,248 respondents screened, 14 (1.1%) were blind and 78 (6.3%) were visually impaired. There was an increasing risk of blindness and visual impairment with age; occurring more commonly after 60 years of age. The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment were higher in females although not statistically significant (P = 0.70; 0.46 respectively). Blindness was caused mainly by cataract (57.2%), glaucoma (14.3%) and congenital childhood blindness (14.3%). Cataract (57.7%), glaucoma (16.7%) and uncorrected refractive error (15.4%) were the leading causes of visual impairment. Blindness was avoidable in 85.7% of cases. Qualitative and subsidised cataract surgical and refractive services are needed urgently in this region and therefore, the incorporation of eye health care into the existing primary health care system may ensure programme sustainability.

  10. Using local culture and gender roles to improve male involvement in maternal health in southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Omokhoa Adedayo; Aldoory, Linda; Parakoyi, Dauda Bayo

    2011-11-01

    Group health talks were conducted in Ekiadolor, Southern Nigeria, to improve male attitudes and practices regarding their involvement in prenatal care and family planning. Intervention planners highlight the importance of embedding local cultural norms along with co-opting gendered beliefs for purposes of planning and implementing the group talks. The authors facilitated 9 groups of adult males mostly from the traditional hierarchy of the community. Using gender theory as an analytical lens along with the application of local cultural beliefs and norms, a useful communication intervention was developed that increased the possibility of positive male engagement in maternal health in 1 Nigerian community.

  11. The Changing Educational Governance of First Nations Schools in Canada: Towards Local Control and Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Stewart, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    In 1867, Canada was established as a federal state in which each province "may exclusively make Laws in relation to Education" while the federal government may "make Laws for the Peace, Order, and good Government of Canada, in relation to all matters....[including] Indians and lands reserved for Indians." Thus two separate…

  12. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND COMMUNITY LEADERS' PERSPECTIVES ON CHILD HEALTH AND MORTALITY AND INEQUITY ISSUES IN RURAL EASTERN INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut

    2017-01-01

    Since 2001 a decentralization policy has increased the responsibility placed on local government for improving child health in Indonesia. This paper explores local government and community leaders' perspectives on child health in a rural district in Indonesia, using a qualitative approach. Focus group discussions were held in May 2013. The issues probed relate to health personnel skills and motivation, service availability, the influence of traditional beliefs, and health care and gender inequity. The participants identify weak leadership, inefficient health management and inadequate child health budgets as important issues. The lack of health staff in rural areas is seen as the reason for promoting the use of traditional birth attendants. Midwifery graduates and village midwives are perceived as lacking motivation to work in rural areas. Some local traditions are seen as detrimental to child health. Husbands provide little support to their wives. These results highlight the need for a harmonization and alignment of the efforts of local government agencies and local community leaders to address child health care and gender inequity issues.

  13. Moving beyond 'rates, roads and rubbish': How do local governments make choices about healthy public policy to prevent obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Allender, Steven; Gleeson, Erin; Crammond, Brad; Sacks, Gary; Lawrence, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Loff, Bebe; Swinburn, Boyd

    2009-01-01

    While the causes of obesity are well known traditional education and treatment strategies do not appear to be making an impact. One solution as part of a broader complimentary set of strategies may be regulatory intervention at local government level to create environments for healthy nutrition and increased physical activity. Semi structured interviews were conducted with representatives of local government in Australia. Factors most likely to facilitate policy change were those supported by external funding, developed from an evidence base and sensitive to community and market forces. Barriers to change included a perceived or real lack of power to make change and the complexity of the legislative framework. The development of a systematic evidence base to provide clear feedback on the size and scope of the obesity epidemic at a local level, coupled with cost benefit analysis for any potential regulatory intervention, are crucial to developing a regulatory environment which creates the physical and social environment required to prevent obesity. PMID:19698170

  14. A rare presentation of locally re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Andrew; Babikir, Osman Mahdi; Abboud, Amer; Theodorakis, Spyridon

    2014-10-29

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the USA. While locally advanced rectal cancer involving bone has been described extensively, colon cancer locally involving bone has only been described, to our knowledge, in a single case report. In this case report, we describe the presentation and treatment of locally advanced re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone. We also discuss the available literature on treatment for recurrent and re-recurrent colorectal cancer.

  15. A rare presentation of locally re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Andrew; Mahdi Babikir, Osman; Abboud, Amer; Theodorakis, Spyridon

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the USA. While locally advanced rectal cancer involving bone has been described extensively, colon cancer locally involving bone has only been described, to our knowledge, in a single case report. In this case report, we describe the presentation and treatment of locally advanced re-recurrent colon cancer involving the iliac bone. We also discuss the available literature on treatment for recurrent and re-recurrent colorectal cancer. PMID:25355743

  16. Active non-participation among local natural resource-dependent communities: the case of North Carolina fisheries governance.

    PubMed

    May, Candace K

    2012-12-30

    The great emphasis placed on the democratic participation of local user groups as necessary for sustainable natural resource and environmental governance by scholars, advocates, and practitioners of collaborative natural resource management demands a greater focus on who is and who is not participating in governance processes, why, and the potential consequences. This project examines a case where commercial fishers in North Carolina practice active non-participation regarding the governance of sea turtles, spotted seatrout and gill nets. Active non-participation is a choice to not participate in formal political activities. Data was collected through observations, interviews and document and policy review. An important finding from this study is that the active non-participation of commercial fishers is contributing to their displacement from, as well as the mismanagement of, the fisheries they depend upon for a living.

  17. Reviews of Data on Science Resources, No. 35. State and Local Government R&D Expenditures, FY 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Presented are data on State and local government research and development (R&D) expenditures for fiscal year 1977. State agency R&D and R&D plant expenditures are compared graphically for the years 1964, 1968, 1973, and 1977 in both 1977 and constant 1972 dollars, and the trend of State support to R&D is analyzed. A graph of total State agency R&D…

  18. 30 CFR 1206.366 - What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or local government lessee must pay for the use of geothermal resources? 1206.366 Section 1206.366... Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.366 What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of geothermal resources? If a State, tribal,...

  19. 20 CFR 661.120 - What are the roles of the local and State governmental partner in the governance of the workforce...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the roles of the local and State governmental partner in the governance of the workforce investment system? 661.120 Section 661.120 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEWIDE AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT SYSTEM...

  20. Study on recent execution of overall evaluation bidding method in small and medium-sized regional local governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishima, Hirohide; Yanase, Norihiko

    About 70% of local governments in Japan, endeavored to introduce overall evaluation bidding method for their public works in 2011 and each authority ordered one or some projects in according to the new bidding process. That is, their enforcement was an only trial level and they say that the reason why is long-term procedure and heavily administrative load of the system. The author think that such burden has relationship of human affairs of local govern ments, practical problems on kinds and price of constructions and the officers' experience on the new bidding method. The aim of this study is to analyze such problems among the officers' profession, posts and experience of administrative matter by statistical data, questionnaire and hearing to the officers. The result could indicate that a group of small local governments uses the method appropriately and that another group of medium-sized rejects to increase more contracts in according to the new bidding system because of unbalance between the stuffs' ability and order quantity of public works.

  1. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Applying Best Practices to Florida Local Government Retrofit Programs - Central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2014-03-01

    In some communities, local government and non-profit entities have funds to purchase and renovate distressed, foreclosed homes for resale in the affordable housing market. Numerous opportunities to improve whole house energy efficiency are inherent in these comprehensive renovations. BA-PIRC worked together in a multiyear field study making recommendations in individual homes, meanwhile compiling improvement costs, projected energy savings, practical challenges, and labor force factors surrounding common energy-related renovation measures. The field study, Phase 1 of this research, resulted in a set of best practices appropriate to the current labor pool and market conditions in central Florida to achieve projected annual energy savings of 15%-30% and higher. This case study describes Phase 2 of the work where researchers worked with a local government partner to implement and refine the "current best practices". A simulation study was conducted to characterize savings potential under three sets of conditions representing varying replacement needs for energy-related equipment and envelope components. The three scenarios apply readily to the general remodeling industry as for renovation of foreclosed homes for the affordable housing market. The new local government partner, the City of Melbourne, implemented the best practices in a community-scale renovation program that included ten homes in 2012.

  2. 76 FR 13285 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... an animal would not involve unprovoked aggression but could include actively cuing the handler by... appropriately by such an animal would not involve unprovoked aggression but could include actively cuing...

  3. Increasing conservation management action by involving local people in natural resource monitoring.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Finn; Mendoza, Marlynn M; Tagtag, Anson; Alviola, Phillip A; Balete, Danilo S; Jensen, Arne E; Enghoff, Martin; Poulsen, Michael K

    2007-11-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of the status of the environment. At the same time, concerns have been raised regarding alienation of the local populace from environmental decisions. One proposed solution is participatory environmental monitoring. When evaluating the usefulness of environmental monitoring, the focus may be on accuracy, as is usually done by scientists, or on efficiency in terms of conservation impact. To test whether investment in participatory biodiversity monitoring makes economic sense for obtaining data for management decisions, we compared the cost efficiency of participatory and conventional biodiversity monitoring methods in Philippine parks. We found that, from a government perspective, investment in monitoring that combines scientific with participatory methods is strikingly more effective than a similar level of investment in conventional scientific methods alone in generating conservation management interventions. Moreover, the local populace seemed to benefit from more secure de facto user rights over land and other resources. Participatory biodiversity monitoring not only represents a cost-effective alternative when conventional monitoring is impossible, but it is also an unexpectedly powerful complementary approach, capable of generating a much higher level of conservation management intervention, where conventional monitoring already takes place.

  4. Local Area Disadvantage and Gambling Involvement and Disorder: Evidence for Gene-Environment Correlation and Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Slutske, Wendy S.; Deutsch, Arielle R.; Statham, Dixie B.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that local area characteristics (such as disadvantage and gambling outlet density) and genetic risk factors are associated with gambling involvement and disordered gambling. These two lines of research were brought together in the present study by examining the extent to which genetic contributions to individual differences in gambling involvement and disorder contributed to being exposed to, and were also accentuated by, local area disadvantage. Participants were members of the national community-based Australian Twin Registry who completed a telephone interview in which the past-year frequency of gambling and symptoms of disordered gambling were assessed. Indicators of local area disadvantage were based on census data matched to the participants' postal codes. Univariate biometric model-fitting revealed that exposure to area disadvantage was partially explained by genetic factors. Bivariate biometric model-fitting was conducted to examine the evidence for gene-environment interaction while accounting for gene-environment correlation. These analyses demonstrated that: (a) a small portion of the genetic propensity to gamble was explained by moving to or remaining in a disadvantaged area, and (b) the remaining genetic and unique environmental variation in the frequency of participating in electronic machine gambling (among men and women) and symptoms of disordered gambling (among women) was greater in more disadvantaged localities. As the gambling industry continues to grow, it will be important to take into account the multiple contexts in which problematic gambling behavior can emerge -- from genes to geography -- as well as the ways in which such contexts may interact with each other. PMID:26147321

  5. Covering the Gap: Social Inclusion, International Students and the Role of Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, Toby; Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twenty years or so the number of international students in Australia has grown rapidly. At the same time, official responsibility for providing support to international students has been devolved from governments to educational institutions. In this paper we argue that while education institutions have a significant role in…

  6. The Impact of Centralization on Local School District Governance in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galway, Gerald; Sheppard, Bruce; Wiens, John; Brown, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Across Canada there have been numerous recent examples of incidents where the political and ideological interests of provincial governments have run counter to the mandates of school districts. In this pan-Canadian study, focus groups were conducted with school board trustees and school district superintendents to examine the relationships between…

  7. Local impacts, global sources: The governance of boundary-crossing chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Hugh S; Gagnon, Valoree S; Norman, Emma S

    2016-12-01

    Over the last half century, a multijurisdictional, multiscale system of governance has emerged to address concerns associated with toxic chemicals that have the capacity to bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify in food chains, leading to fish consumption advisories. Components of this system of governance include international conventions (such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Minamata Convention on Mercury), laws enacted by nation states and their subjurisdictions, and efforts to adaptively manage regional ecosystems (such as the U.S.-Canadian Great Lakes). Given that many of these compounds - including mercury, industrial chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides such as toxaphene - circulate throughout the globe through cycles of deposition and reemission, regional efforts to eliminate the need for fish consumption advisories cannot be successful without efforts to reduce emissions everywhere in the world. This paper argues that the scientific community, by monitoring the concentrations of these compounds in the atmosphere and by modeling their fate and transport, play an important role in connecting the various jurisdictional scales of governance. In addition, the monitoring networks that this community of scientists has established can be visualized as a technology of governance essential in an era in which societies have the capacity to produce and release such chemicals on an industrial scale.

  8. 48 CFR 942.705-5 - Nonprofit organizations other than educational and state and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... governments. OMB Circular A-122 establishes the rules for assigning cognizant agencies for the negotiation and approval of indirect cost rates. The Federal agency with the largest dollar value of awards (contracts plus federal financial assistance dollars) will be designated as the cognizant agency. There is no...

  9. 48 CFR 942.705-5 - Nonprofit organizations other than educational and state and local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... governments. OMB Circular A-122 establishes the rules for assigning cognizant agencies for the negotiation and approval of indirect cost rates. The Federal agency with the largest dollar value of awards (contracts plus federal financial assistance dollars) will be designated as the cognizant agency. There is no...

  10. Localization of genes involved in the metabolic syndrome using multivariate linkage analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olswold, Curtis; Andrade, Mariza de

    2003-01-01

    There are no well accepted criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. However, the metabolic syndrome is identified clinically by the presence of three or more of these five variables: larger waist circumference, higher triglyceride levels, lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose. We use sets of two or three variables, which are available in the Framingham Heart Study data set, to localize genes responsible for this syndrome using multivariate quantitative linkage analysis. This analysis demonstrates the applicability of using multivariate linkage analysis and how its use increases the power to detect linkage when genes are involved in the same disease mechanism. PMID:14975125

  11. How Localized are Language Brain Areas? A Review of Brodmann Areas Involvement in Oral Language.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2016-02-01

    The interest in understanding how language is "localized" in the brain has existed for centuries. Departing from seven meta-analytic studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging activity during the performance of different language activities, it is proposed here that there are two different language networks in the brain: first, a language reception/understanding system, including a "core Wernicke's area" involved in word recognition (BA21, BA22, BA41, and BA42), and a fringe or peripheral area ("extended Wernicke's area:" BA20, BA37, BA38, BA39, and BA40) involved in language associations (associating words with other information); second, a language production system ("Broca's complex:" BA44, BA45, and also BA46, BA47, partially BA6-mainly its mesial supplementary motor area-and extending toward the basal ganglia and the thalamus). This paper additionally proposes that the insula (BA13) plays a certain coordinating role in interconnecting these two brain language systems.

  12. 50 CFR 18.22 - Taking by Federal, State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Director, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The circumstances... employee involved; (5) The disposition of the animal, including in cases where the animal has been retained in captivity, a description of the place and means of confinement and the measures taken for...

  13. 50 CFR 18.22 - Taking by Federal, State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Director, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The circumstances... employee involved; (5) The disposition of the animal, including in cases where the animal has been retained in captivity, a description of the place and means of confinement and the measures taken for...

  14. 50 CFR 18.22 - Taking by Federal, State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Director, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The circumstances... employee involved; (5) The disposition of the animal, including in cases where the animal has been retained in captivity, a description of the place and means of confinement and the measures taken for...

  15. 50 CFR 18.22 - Taking by Federal, State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Director, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The circumstances... employee involved; (5) The disposition of the animal, including in cases where the animal has been retained in captivity, a description of the place and means of confinement and the measures taken for...

  16. 50 CFR 18.22 - Taking by Federal, State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Director, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The circumstances... employee involved; (5) The disposition of the animal, including in cases where the animal has been retained in captivity, a description of the place and means of confinement and the measures taken for...

  17. Disaster budgeting of Banda Aceh’s local government: Trends and analysis of post-tsunami Aceh 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktari, R. S.; Fahlevi, H.; Irawati, W.

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze Disaster Risk Management (DRM) related funds that budgeted by the government of Banda Aceh. The specific objectives of this study were: i) to assess and analyze the budget allocation related the DRM investment in the government of Banda Aceh, ii) to provide an update on achievements and key trends in DRM investments in government of Banda Aceh, iii) to evaluate the implementation of DRM budget and challenges on mainstreaming with DRM perspectives into policy of local budgeting, and iii) to propose appropriate recommendations for improvement. The study utilized both primary and secondary sources of data to achieve the objective. The method in this study included the following steps: searching/ collecting, checking, compiling, classifying, measuring, accounting and analyzing the existing budget document. The results of the data analysis showed that a large proportion of DRM investments was allocated after 2011. This study recommended some actions to be taken by the government and related stakeholder to increase the quantity and quality of DRM investments.

  18. 48 CFR 829.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the State and local tax, the contracting officer must use Standard Form (SF) 1094, U.S. Tax Exemption... may not furnish an SF 1094 to a vendor or use SF 1094 to claim reimbursement from the taxing...

  19. 48 CFR 829.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the State and local tax, the contracting officer must use Standard Form (SF) 1094, U.S. Tax Exemption... may not furnish an SF 1094 to a vendor or use SF 1094 to claim reimbursement from the taxing...

  20. 48 CFR 829.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the State and local tax, the contracting officer must use Standard Form (SF) 1094, U.S. Tax Exemption... may not furnish an SF 1094 to a vendor or use SF 1094 to claim reimbursement from the taxing...

  1. 48 CFR 829.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the State and local tax, the contracting officer must use Standard Form (SF) 1094, U.S. Tax Exemption... may not furnish an SF 1094 to a vendor or use SF 1094 to claim reimbursement from the taxing...

  2. 48 CFR 829.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the State and local tax, the contracting officer must use Standard Form (SF) 1094, U.S. Tax Exemption... may not furnish an SF 1094 to a vendor or use SF 1094 to claim reimbursement from the taxing...

  3. Response to chemoradiotherapy and lymph node involvement in locally advanced rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    García-Flórez, Luis J; Gómez-Álvarez, Guillermo; Frunza, Ana M; Barneo-Serra, Luis; Fresno-Forcelledo, Manuel F

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To establish the association between lymph node involvement and the response to neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: Data of 130 patients with mid and low locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by radical surgery over a 5-year period were reviewed. Tumor staging was done by endorectal ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy was determined by T-downstaging and tumor regression grading (TRG). Pathologic complete response (pCR) is defined as the absence of tumor cells in the surgical specimen (ypT0N0). The varying degrees TRG were classified according to Mandard’s scoring system. The evaluation of the response is based on the comparison between previous clinico-radiological staging and the results of pathological evaluation. χ2 and Spearman’s correlation tests were used for the comparison of variables. RESULTS: Pathologic complete response (pCR, ypT0N0, TRG1) was observed in 19 cases (14.6%), and other 18 (13.8%) had only very few residual malignant cells in the rectal wall (TRG2). T-downstaging was found in 63 (48.5%). Mean lymph node retrieval was 9.4 (range 0-38). In 37 cases (28.5%) more than 12 nodes were identified in the surgical specimen. Preoperative lymph node involvement was seen in 77 patients (59.2%), 71 N1 and 6 N2. Postoperative lymph node involvement was observed in 41 patients (31.5%), 29 N1 and 12 N2, while the remaining 89 were N0 (68.5%). In relation to ypT stage, we found nodal involvement of 9.4% in ypT0-1, 22.2% in ypT2 and 43.7% in ypT3-4. Of the 37 patients considered “responders” to neoadjuvant therapy (TRG1 and 2), there were only 4 N+ (10.8%) and the remainder N0 (89.2%). In the “non responders” group (TRG 3, 4 and 5), 37 cases were N+ (39.8%) and 56 (60.2%) were N0 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer is associated with lymph node involvement. PMID:26425268

  4. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) eradication: a pilot study conducted at the Ohaukwu Local Government Areas, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ogamdi, S O; Onwe, F

    2001-01-01

    The incidence and the prevalence of Guinea worm disease, a major cause of disability and a frequent cause of serious permanent deformity, were both drastically reduced in Ohaukwu Local Government Communities, with the provision (through bore holes) of a safer form of drinking water. Since 1986, the Carter Center program has been working to eradicate Guinea worm. The bore holes were dug through the Wasatan Project, a Japanese-funded grant awarded to the Enugu State Ministry of Health to help provide safer drinking water in the local communities. Bore holes were dug in several communities in Ohaukwu Local Government Areas between January 1991 and June 1991. The number of Guinea worm cases in the selected communities was ascertained and recorded by health workers. There was more than a 90% reduction in the number of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) cases after one year. Data collection began in June 1991, shortly after the completion of bore holes in the selected communities. By December 1998, when one of the villages was spot checked for Guinea worm infection, no active case was found. There is a need for post evaluation of all the villages studied to determine the current prevalence of Guinea worm disease.

  5. Public health promotion of "local food": Constituting the self-governing citizen-consumer.

    PubMed

    Derkatch, Colleen; Spoel, Philippa

    2017-03-01

    This article explores how the recent and growing promotion of local foods by public health units in Ontario, Canada, rhetorically interpellates the "good" health citizen as someone who not only takes responsibility for personal health but, through the consumption and support of "local food," also accepts and fulfills her responsibilities to care for the local economy, the community's well-being, and the natural environment. Drawing on Charland's concept of constitutive rhetoric, we analyze a selection of public health unit documents about local food to develop a textured account of the complex, multifaceted forms of health citizenship they constitute. Our analysis reveals that, despite their appeals to environmental sustainability and community well-being, these materials primarily characterize the ideal health citizen as an informed consumer who supports the interests of the neoliberal state through individualized lifestyle behaviors, consuming goods produced and distributed through private enterprise. By exhorting individuals to "buy local," public health discourse therefore frames responsible health citizenship principally in consumerist terms that constrain the range of available options for citizens to engage in meaningful action vis-à-vis their food systems.

  6. GASB proposes new standards for financial reporting of postemployment benefits by state and local governments.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karl D

    2003-03-01

    GASB has proposed new standards that will affect the way in which governments report postemployment health care benefits in audited external financial statements, resulting in more complete and transparent reporting by employers and plans and more relevant and useful information for the users of governmental financial reports. This article provides an overview of current financial reporting standards and practice, the financial reporting objectives of the project, the proposed measurement approach, noteworthy specific proposals, and the projected timetable for completion of the project and implementation of the new standards.

  7. The importance of performance assessment in local government decisions to fund health and human services nonprofit organizations.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Shannon K

    2010-01-01

    In times of fiscal crisis, demand for health and human services increases while revenues shrink, causing funders to focus more intently on identifying the most successful organizations in which to invest scarce resources. This research grew out of interest in enhancing performance assessment of nonprofit organizations expressed by local government managers. A survey of Alliance for Innovation Members explores two primary research questions: 1) what is a successful nonprofit; and 2) what type(s) of performance assessment tools are the most useful. The results strengthen our understanding of what information city and county managers want and why they prefer certain evaluation tools.

  8. Providing a Clearer View: An Examination of Transparency on Local Government Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Cory L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of content professionalism and public outreach, along with partisanship in the availability of online local public information. Comparing county and school board websites in Florida, the author suggests that online public records serve as a proxy for the entity's overall level of transparency. A content analysis of 134…

  9. TAP Helps States and Local Governments Reach Their Wind Power Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    Technical Assistance Project: Wind and Hydropower Program provides information to state and local officials regarding the U.S. Department of Energy's Technical Assistance Project (TAP). The TAP program provides access to wind energy experts at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, including the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).

  10. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 31 - Audit Requirements for State and Local Government Recipients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identify the controls that were evaluated, the controls that were not evaluated, and the material... builds upon earlier efforts to improve audits of Federal aid programs. The Act requires State or local... standards; or (2) A public accountant who meets such independence standards. g. Internal controls means...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 31 - Audit Requirements for State and Local Government Recipients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identify the controls that were evaluated, the controls that were not evaluated, and the material... builds upon earlier efforts to improve audits of Federal aid programs. The Act requires State or local... standards; or (2) A public accountant who meets such independence standards. g. Internal controls means...

  13. Remote sensing procurement package: A management report for state and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the remote sensing procurement process is presented for chief executives, senior administrators, and other local and state officials responsible for purchasing remote sensing products, services, or equipment. Guidelines are provided for planning, organizing, staffing, and implementing such a procurement project. Other sections of the four-volume package are described and their benefits examined.

  14. Overview of local, state, and national government legislation restricting trans fats.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Raymen R

    2014-03-01

    Trans fats, also known as partially hydrogenated oils, have long been associated with cardiovascular disease. In 2003, the Food and Drug Administration mandated that trans fat content of ≥0.5 g be listed on food labeling; the next year, the World Health Organization released a recommended daily limit on trans fat intake. During the following decade, legislatures in different municipal and state governments moved trans fat regulation forward, whereas many food companies decided to independently phase out trans fat in their products. The advancement of these parallel processes suggests an emerging best practices phenomenon, integrating public health, law, and the food industry. With both legislation and markets seemingly favoring a limitation on trans fat content in foods, attention has once again shifted to the Food and Drug Administration for a ruling on the safety of trans fats.

  15. Caring for Children: Case Studies of Local Government Child Care Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Fern

    This book of case studies highlights 26 municipalities involved in activities related to child care. Cities selected were of different sizes; were located in different parts of the country; and used diverse approaches for developing ways to improve access to affordable, high-quality child care. Each case study was developed through a telephone…

  16. 50 CFR 216.22 - Taking by State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sick, it shall be permissible to place it in temporary captivity until such time as it is able to be... in accordance with this subsection whether the animal is dead at the time of taking or dies... Secretary, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The...

  17. 50 CFR 216.22 - Taking by State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sick, it shall be permissible to place it in temporary captivity until such time as it is able to be... in accordance with this subsection whether the animal is dead at the time of taking or dies... Secretary, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The...

  18. 50 CFR 216.22 - Taking by State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sick, it shall be permissible to place it in temporary captivity until such time as it is able to be... in accordance with this subsection whether the animal is dead at the time of taking or dies... Secretary, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The...

  19. 50 CFR 216.22 - Taking by State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sick, it shall be permissible to place it in temporary captivity until such time as it is able to be... in accordance with this subsection whether the animal is dead at the time of taking or dies... Secretary, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The...

  20. 50 CFR 216.22 - Taking by State or local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sick, it shall be permissible to place it in temporary captivity until such time as it is able to be... in accordance with this subsection whether the animal is dead at the time of taking or dies... Secretary, the report shall contain a description of: (1) The animal involved; (2) The...

  1. Remote sensing procurement package: A technical guide for state and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The guide provides the tools and techniques for procuring remote sensing products and services. It is written for administrators, procurement officials and line agency staff who are directly involved in identifying information needs; defining remote sensing project requirements; soliciting and evaluating contract responses and negotiating, awarding, and administering contracts.

  2. DOE technical standards list: Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity, which is attached to the end of this document. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. The committees or governing bodies in which the person participates is listed after each name. An asterisk preceding the committee notation indicates that the person has identified himself or herself as the DOE representative on that committee. Appendices to this document are also provided to sort the information by the parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees. DOE employees and contractors listed in this technical standards list are those recorded as of May 1, 1999.

  3. DOE technical standards list: Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity, which is attached to the end of this document and to DOE Order 1300.2A. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. The committees or governing bodies in which the person participates is listed after each name. An asterisk preceding the committee notation indicates that the person has identified himself or herself as the DOE representative on that committee. Appendices to this document are also provided to sort the information by the parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees. DOE employees and contractors listed in this TSL are those recorded as of July 1, 1996.

  4. New Mexico handbook for geothermal resource development state and local government regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The regulatory aspects of a wide range of potential projects and sequences within the projects are covered, such as: exploration, demonstration, construction, commercialization, and operation. Such topics as environmental studies, water rights, district heating, taxation archaeological clearances, and construction permits are addressed. Other general information is provided which may assist a prospective geothermal developer in understanding which state and local agencies have review responsibilities, their review procedures, and the appropriate time frame necessary to complete their review process. (MHR)

  5. Academe-Local Government Partnership Towards Effective Application of Geospatial Technologies for Smarter Flood Disaster Management at the Local Level: AN Example from Mindanao, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makinano-Santillan, M.; Santillan, J. R.; Morales, E. M. O.; Asube, L. C. S.; Amora, A. M.; Cutamora, L. C.; Makinano, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss how an academe-local government partnership can lead the way for the effective use of geospatial technologies for smarter and geospatially-informed decision making before, during, and after a flood disaster. In Jabonga municipality, in the province of Agusan del Norte, in Mindanao, Philippines, two significant flooding events occurred in the year 2014 which were caused by overflowing water bodies due to continuous heavy rains. These flood events inundated populated areas, caused massive evacuation, made roads un-passable, and greatly damaged sources of incomes such as croplands and other agricultural areas. The partnership between Caraga State University and the local government of Jabonga attempts to improve localized flood disaster management through the development of web-based Near-real Time Flood Event Visualization and Damage Estimations (Flood EViDEns) application. Flood EViDENs utilizes LiDAR-derived elevation and information products as well as other elevation datasets, water level records by monitoring stations, flood simulation models, flood hazard maps, and socio-economic datasets (population, household information, etc.), in order to visualize in near-real time the current and future extent of flooding, to disseminate early warnings, and to provide maps and statistics of areas and communities affected and to be affected by flooding. The development of Flood EViDEns as the main product of the partnership is an important application of geospatial technologies that will allow smarter and geospatially-informed decision making before, during, and after a flood disaster in Jabonga.

  6. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  7. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal...

  9. 20 CFR 645.125 - What are the roles of the local and State governmental partners in the governance of the WtW...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the roles of the local and State governmental partners in the governance of the WtW program? 645.125 Section 645.125 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS...

  10. EPA Announces Availability of Clean Diesel Grants for Communities Across the Country Local governments, tribal agencies and nonprofits can win grants up to $2.14 million

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    05/07/15- ATLANTA -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is announcing the availability of $13.5 million in grant funding to help governments and nonprofit organizations switch to cleaner diesel engines. Local governments, tribal agencies and n

  11. Localization of protein aggregation in Escherichia coli is governed by diffusion and nucleoid macromolecular crowding effect.

    PubMed

    Coquel, Anne-Sophie; Jacob, Jean-Pascal; Primet, Mael; Demarez, Alice; Dimiccoli, Mariella; Julou, Thomas; Moisan, Lionel; Lindner, Ariel B; Berry, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli) where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian). Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids) are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of "soft" intracellular structuring (based on macromolecular

  12. Localization of Protein Aggregation in Escherichia coli Is Governed by Diffusion and Nucleoid Macromolecular Crowding Effect

    PubMed Central

    Coquel, Anne-Sophie; Jacob, Jean-Pascal; Primet, Mael; Demarez, Alice; Dimiccoli, Mariella; Julou, Thomas; Moisan, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates of misfolded proteins are a hallmark of many age-related diseases. Recently, they have been linked to aging of Escherichia coli (E. coli) where protein aggregates accumulate at the old pole region of the aging bacterium. Because of the potential of E. coli as a model organism, elucidating aging and protein aggregation in this bacterium may pave the way to significant advances in our global understanding of aging. A first obstacle along this path is to decipher the mechanisms by which protein aggregates are targeted to specific intercellular locations. Here, using an integrated approach based on individual-based modeling, time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, we show that the movement of aging-related protein aggregates in E. coli is purely diffusive (Brownian). Using single-particle tracking of protein aggregates in live E. coli cells, we estimated the average size and diffusion constant of the aggregates. Our results provide evidence that the aggregates passively diffuse within the cell, with diffusion constants that depend on their size in agreement with the Stokes-Einstein law. However, the aggregate displacements along the cell long axis are confined to a region that roughly corresponds to the nucleoid-free space in the cell pole, thus confirming the importance of increased macromolecular crowding in the nucleoids. We thus used 3D individual-based modeling to show that these three ingredients (diffusion, aggregation and diffusion hindrance in the nucleoids) are sufficient and necessary to reproduce the available experimental data on aggregate localization in the cells. Taken together, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the localization of aging-related protein aggregates in the poles of E. coli results from the coupling of passive diffusion-aggregation with spatially non-homogeneous macromolecular crowding. They further support the importance of “soft” intracellular structuring (based on macromolecular

  13. Energy Management Workbook for Local Governments : Workbook 1, Electrical Energy, 1981.

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    Descriptions are presented for 20 major categories of energy actions providing background information needed for communities to implement energy management programs and explaining where financial and technical help may be available. Chapter 1 provides background on the energy problem, discusses Federal, state and local roles, and outlines the planning process. Chapter 2 is a list of 20 questions to help identify a range of potential actions that could become part of the energy management plan. Chapter 3 will help evaluate each of the twenty potential activities, and chapters 4 and 5 discuss implementing and monitoring the energy management plan. (MCW)

  14. Power Exercise in the Institutionalization of an eProcurement System in Indonesian Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Fathul

    2017-03-01

    Power possessed by institutional entrepreneur is believed to have an influential role in navigating the institutionalization process of an idea. However, only few studies that have examined how the institutional entrepreneur exercise his power throughout the institutionalization process. This study aims at examining this phenomenon in the context of developing countries with special reference to the implementation of an eProcurement system in Indonesia. It finds that the power has been exercised by the institutional entrepreneur differently along the process. Smart power was exercised by combining soft power at the early stage of institutionalization process. At this stage level of reluctance among organizational members was high, no authorization from higher-level agencies, and the benefits of adopting the system were opaque. Hard power was then exercised at the later stage, when the legal support was well formulated, and the system’s benefits were confirmed. The study also reveals that value-based power that is used wisely make organization change runs smoothly until it becomes institutionalized. Keywords: Institutionalization, smart power, soft power, hard power, value-guided power, eGovernment, eProcurement, Indonesia, developing countries.

  15. Arginine Methylation of hnRNP A2 Does Not Directly Govern Its Subcellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Nouwens, Amanda S.; Wei, Ying; Rothnagel, Joseph A.; Smith, Ross

    2013-01-01

    The hnRNP A/B paralogs A1, A2/B1 and A3 are key components of the nuclear 40S hnRNP core particles. Despite a high degree of sequence similarity, increasing evidence suggests they perform additional, functionally distinct roles in RNA metabolism. Here we identify and study the functional consequences of differential post-translational modification of hnRNPs A1, A2 and A3. We show that while arginine residues in the RGG box domain of hnRNP A1 and A3 are almost exhaustively, asymmetrically dimethylated, hnRNP A2 is dimethylated at only a single residue (Arg-254) and this modification is conserved across cell types. It has been suggested that arginine methylation regulates the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of hnRNP A/B proteins. However, we show that transfected cells expressing an A2R254A point mutant exhibit no difference in subcellular localization. Similarly, immunostaining and mass spectrometry of endogenous hnRNP A2 in transformed cells reveals a naturally-occurring pool of unmethylated protein but an exclusively nuclear pattern of localization. Our results suggest an alternative role for post-translational arginine methylation of hnRNPs and offer further evidence that the hnRNP A/B paralogs are not functionally redundant. PMID:24098712

  16. Subcellular localization of glycosidases and glycosyltransferases involved in the processing of N-linked oligosaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, A.; Johnson, K.D.; Szumilo, T.; Elbein, A.D.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    Using isopycnic sucrose gradients, we have ascertained the subcellular location of several enzymes involved in the processing of the N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins in developing cotyledons of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. All are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi complex as determined by co-sedimentation with the ER marker, NADH-cytochrome c reductase, or the Golgi marker, glucan synthase I. Glucosidase activity, which removes glucose residues from Glc/sub 3/Man/sub 9/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/, was found exclusively in the ER. All other processing enzymes, which act subsequent to the glucose trimming steps, are associates with Golgi. These include mannosidase I (removes 1-2 mannose residues from Man/sub 6-9/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/), mannosidase II (removes mannose residues from GlcNAcMan/sub 5/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/), and fucosyltransferase (transfers a fucose residue to the Asn-linked GlcNAc of appropriate glycans). The authors have previously reported the localization of two other glycan modifying enzymes (GlcNAc-transferase and xylosyltranferase activities) in the Golgi complex. Attempts at subfractionation of the Golgi fraction on shallow sucrose gradients yielded similar patterns of distribution for all the Golgi processing enzymes. Subfractionation on Percoll gradients resulted in two peaks of the Golgi marker enzyme inosine diphosphatase, whereas the glycan processing enzymes were all enriched in the peak of lower density. These results do not lend support to the hypothesis that N-linked oligosaccharide processing enzymes are associated with Golgi cisternae of different densities.

  17. Why social science matters in river management: involvement of local stakeholders in monitoring the effects of room for the river measures in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbrugge, Laura; van den Born, Riyan

    2015-04-01

    The Netherlands is a densely populated delta region with a long tradition in flood protection and river management. In response to climate change, adaptive measures are implemented to create more room for the river (and thus increasing water discharge capacity) while at the same time maintaining the multifunctional use of the river system. These functions include for example navigation, water supply, housing and spatial quality, nature development and recreation. The incorporation of social aspects in water management is vital for the development and implementation of sustainable solutions in environmental planning. Active stakeholder involvement has major benefits in terms of trust, public support, social learning and creative decision making. In practice, however, stakeholder involvement is often confined to one-way communication (e.g. information on websites and public hearings) instead of establishing a dialogue with the relevant local stakeholders. Moreover, stakeholders are often involved too late. Our study focusses on stakeholder perceptions and the opportunities for stakeholder participation and collaboration in river management. One way to actively involve stakeholders and invest in a dialogue is through participatory monitoring, i.e. to involve local stakeholders in collecting, analyzing and evaluating monitoring data. Currently, a pilot engineering intervention (2013-2015) is carried out in the Waal river, i.e. the main Rhine branch in The Netherlands. This intervention comprises the substitution of traditional groynes by a 10 km longitudinal dam and will change the appearance of the fluvial landscape dramatically. An interdisciplinary team of scientists, government representatives and other public and private parties is involved in monitoring the hydrological, ecological and socio-economic effects of the longitudinal dam with the aim to develop and improve models, guidelines and tools for integrative river management. This also provides unique

  18. State and Local Governments: Fiscal Pressures Could Have Implications for Future Delivery of Intergovernmental Programs. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives. GAO-10-899

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerwinski, Stanley J.

    2010-01-01

    State and local governments work in partnership with the federal government to implement numerous intergovernmental programs. Fiscal pressures for state and local governments may exist when spending is expected to outpace revenues for the long term. GAO (Government Accountability Office) was asked to examine (1) the long-term fiscal pressures…

  19. Khat in the neighbourhood--local government responses to khat use in a London community.

    PubMed

    Klein, Axel

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing fear among the general public about khat, its use and users, and associated crime. In many English cities, neighborhoods with growing Somali populations and emerging khat-using scenes and markets have to find ways of managing the impact of the negative image of khat. This case study describes and analyzes how a local municipal authority can respond constructively by generating an evidence base, engaging in consultation, and endeavoring to identify the actual relationship between reported criminality and public nuisance and the alleged patterns of use and distribution of khat. It is argued that it is important to frame the khat in the community not as a "drug problem" but as a wider public health issue, for which appropriate solutions can be developed.

  20. Local governments and civil society lead breakthrough for tobacco control: lessons from Chandigarh and Chennai.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Arul, Rathinum; Goswami, Hemant; Narain, Jai P; Armada, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Smoke-free legislation is gaining popularity; however, it must accompany effective implementation to protect people from secondhand smoke (SHS) which causes 600,000 deaths annually. Increasing numbers of smoke-free cities in the world indicate that municipalities have an important role in promoting smoke-free environments. The objectives were to describe the local initiative to promote smoke-free environments and identify the key factors that contributed to the process. Observations were based on a case study on the municipal smoke-free initiatives in Chandigarh and Chennai, India. India adopted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act in 2003, the first national tobacco control law including smoke-free provisions. In an effort to enforce the Act at the local level, a civil society organization in Chandigarh initiated activities urging the city to support the implementation of the provisions of the Act which led to the initiation of city-wide law enforcement. After the smoke-free declaration of Chandigarh in 2007, Chennai also initiated a smoke-free intervention led by civil society in 2008, following the strategies used in Chandigarh. These experiences resonate with other cases in Asian cities, such as Jakarta, Davao, and Kanagawa as well as cities in other areas of the world including Mexico City, New York City, Mecca and Medina. The cases of Chandigarh and Chennai demonstrate that civil society can make a great contribution to the enforcement of smoke-free laws in cities, and that cities can learn from their peers to protect people from SHS.

  1. Local circuitry involving parvalbumin-positive basket cells in the CA2 region of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Audrey; Eastlake, Karen; Trigg, Hayley L; Thomson, Alex M

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that the CA2 region of the hippocampus has its own distinctive properties, inputs, and pathologies. The dendritic and axonal patterns of some interneurons in this region are also strikingly different from those described previously in CA1 and CA3. The local circuitry in this region, however, had yet to be studied in detail. Accordingly, using dual intracellular recordings and biocytin-filling, excitatory and inhibitory connections involving CA2 parvalbumin-positive basket cells were characterized for the first time. CA2 basket cells targeted neighboring pyramidal cells and received excitatory inputs from them. CA2 basket cells that resembled those in CA1 with a fast spiking behavior and dendritic tree confined to the region of origin received depressing excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). In contrast, unlike CA1 basket cells but like CA1 Oriens-Lacunosum Moleculare (OLM) cells, the majority of CA2 basket cells had horizontally oriented dendrites in Stratum Oriens (SO), which extended into all three CA subfields, had an adapting firing pattern, presented a "sag" in their voltage responses to hyperpolarizing current injection, and received facilitating EPSPs. The expression of I(h) did not influence the EPSP time courses and paired pulse ratios (PPR). Estimates of the probability of release (p) for the depressing and facilitating EPSPs were correlated with the PPR. Connections with low probabilities of release had higher PPR. Quantal amplitude (q) for the facilitating connections was larger than q at depressing inputs onto fast spiking basket cells.

  2. A novel protein involved in heart development in Ambystoma mexicanum is localized in endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Jia, P; Zhang, C; Huang, X P; Poda, M; Akbas, F; Lemanski, S L; Erginel-Unaltuna, N; Lemanski, L F

    2008-11-01

    The discovery of the naturally occurring cardiac non-function (c) animal strain in Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) provides a valuable animal model to study cardiomyocyte differentiation. In homozygous mutant animals (c/c), rhythmic contractions of the embryonic heart are absent due to a lack of organized myofibrils. We have previously cloned a partial sequence of a peptide cDNA (N1) from an anterior-endoderm-conditioned-medium RNA library that had been shown to be able to rescue the mutant phenotype. In the current studies we have fully cloned the N1 full length cDNA sequence from the library. N1 protein has been detected in both adult heart and skeletal muscle but not in any other adult tissues. GFP-tagged expression of the N1 protein has revealed localization of the N1 protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Results from in situ hybridization experiments have confirmed the dramatic decrease of expression of N1 mRNA in mutant (c/c) embryos indicating that the N1 gene is involved in heart development.

  3. Genetic Control of Chromatin States in Humans Involves Local and Distal Chromosomal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Grubert, Fabian; Zaugg, Judith B.; Kasowski, Maya; Ursu, Oana; Spacek, Damek V.; Martin, Alicia R.; Greenside, Peyton; Srivas, Rohith; Phanstiel, Doug H.; Pekowska, Aleksandra; Heidari, Nastaran; Euskirchen, Ghia; Huber, Wolfgang; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Kundaje, Anshul; Snyder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Deciphering the impact of genetic variants on gene regulation is fundamental to understanding human disease. Although gene regulation often involves long-range interactions, it is unknown to what extent non-coding genetic variants influence distal molecular phenotypes. Here, we integrate chromatin profiling for three histone marks in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from 75 sequenced individuals with LCL-specific Hi-C and ChIA-PET-based chromatin contact maps to uncover one of the largest collections of local and distal histone quantitative trait loci (hQTLs). Distal QTLs are enriched within topologically associated domains and exhibit largely concordant variation of chromatin state coordinated by proximal and distal non-coding genetic variants. Histone QTLs are enriched for common variants associated with autoimmune diseases and enable identification of putative target genes of disease-associated variants from genome-wide association studies. These analyses provide insights into how genetic variation can affect human disease phenotypes by coordinated changes in chromatin at interacting regulatory elements. PMID:26300125

  4. Accumulation of cynaropicrin in globe artichoke and localization of enzymes involved in its biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eljounaidi, K; Comino, C; Moglia, A; Cankar, K; Genre, A; Hehn, A; Bourgaud, F; Beekwilder, J; Lanteri, S

    2015-10-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) belongs to the Asteraceae family, in which one of the most biologically significant class of secondary metabolites are sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). In globe artichoke the principal STL is the cynaropicrin, which contributes to approximately 80% of its characteristic bitter taste. Cynaropicrin content was assessed in globe artichoke tissues and was observed to accumulate in leaves of different developmental stages. In the receptacle, a progressive decrease was observed during inflorescence development, while the STL could not be detected in the inflorescence bracts. Almost undetectable amounts were found in the roots and inflorescence stems at the commercial stage. Cynaropicrin content was found to correlate with expression of genes encoding CcGAS, CcGAO and CcCOS, which are involved in the STL biosynthesis. A more detailed study of leaf material revealed that cynaropicrin predominantly accumulates in the trichomes, and not in the apoplastic cavity fluids. Analysis of the promoter regions of CcGAO and CcCOS revealed the presence of L1-box motifs, which confers trichome-specific expression in Arabidopsis, suggesting that cynaropicrin is not only stored but also synthesized in trichomes. A transient expression of GFP fusion proteins was performed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants: the CcGAS fluorescence signal was located in the cytoplasm while the CcGAO and CcCOS localized to the endoplasmatic reticulum.

  5. [Local government and public dental health services: an analysis of inequality in use].

    PubMed

    Soares, Felipe Fagundes; Chaves, Sônia Cristina Lima; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the use of primary and specialized public dental health services and private services. A population-based household survey was conducted in two cities of Bahia State, Brazil. Key informants provided data on socioeconomic variables and use of dental health services. Organization of the local public dental health service was ranked as worse versus better. Univariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression was performed. Of the total of 1,290 individuals, 38.76% used private services, 33.80% used public primary care, and 17.29% used both primary care and the Center for Dental Specialties. Less use of both primary care and specialized public services was associated with lower education (OR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.03-2.10) and worse organization of services (OR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.22-2.48), when compared to the exclusive use of primary care. The study showed inequality in the use of dental services, even when comparing more homogeneous groups, namely users of public services.

  6. Female circumcision and its health implications: a study of the Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebong, R D

    1997-04-01

    A total of 400 subjects was randomly selected from 40 villages in the Uruan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State for the study. The purposes of the study were to: i. identify the 'established benefits' of female circumcision; ii. identify the health hazards that accompany the practice; and iii. create awareness among community members of the ill-effects of the practice. The study discovered a strong belief in the established benefits and poor appreciation of the health hazards of female circumcision by the participants. Recommendations were made for more efforts in public health education programmes on the ill-effects of the practice. Studies were also recommended to be conducted in other parts of the country to assess the level of awareness on the ill-effects of such an operation and the institution of educational programmes where applicable.

  7. On the (In)Consistency of Citizen and Municipal Level Indicators of Social Capital and Local Government Performance

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We study the empirical consistency of survey based (micro level) indicators of social capital and local government performance on the one, and municipality based (aggregate level) measures of these two concepts on the other hand. Knowledge about the behavior of these indicators is helpful for evaluating the value of studies carried out in isolated contexts, that is, with access to data on either, but not both, levels. The method is by comparing data collected by Statistics Belgium on Flemish municipalities, to data collected at citizen level by means of a face-to-face survey. The available evidence supplies at best a meager basis for presupposing a shared component of the indicators under study. PMID:20461124

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... state or local restrictions are more stringent than the Federal policy. Accident and Fire Prevention ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities, does the state or local law or Federal policy control? 102-74.351 Section 102-74.351 Public...

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... state or local restrictions are more stringent than the Federal policy. Accident and Fire Prevention ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities, does the state or local law or Federal policy control? 102-74.351 Section 102-74.351 Public...

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDING FACILITY AMONG WORKERS IN A LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECRETARIAT IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Uchendu, O.C.; Ilesanmi, O.S.; Olumide, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the choice of health care providing facility in Nigeria. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the factors influencing choice and satisfaction with health service providers among local government staff. Methods: A cross sectional survey of all 312 workers in a Local Government Secretariat in South West Nigeria was done. Chi Square and logistic regression analysis was done. Results: The mean age was 38.6 ± 7.5 years, 55% were females and 71.7% had tertiary education. The median monthly family income of the respondents was N 28, 000 (N3,000 – N500,000), with 24.4% earning a monthly income of N21, 000 to N30, 000. Many (72.3%) utilized public health facilities attributing the choice to the low cost of services. Respondents who are satisfied with their usual care providing facilities are 12.2 times more likely to have used public facilities than private facilities (95%, CI 3.431 – 43.114). Respondents who described the quality with ease of getting care/short waiting times as being good are 3.9 times more likely to have private facilities as their chosen health care providing facility (95%, CI 1.755 – 8.742). Cost/payment for service is 2.9 times more likely to predict the use of public health facility as the usual health care provider. Conclusion: Private facilities though costlier do not appear to be providing better services than public facilities. To increase access to health care the cost of services and the waiting time are important factors to address. PMID:25161426

  11. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Reduces Local Recurrence Rates in Patients With Microscopically Involved Circumferential Resection Margins After Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Alberda, Wijnand J.; Verhoef, Cornelis; Nuyttens, Joost J.; Meerten, Esther van; Rothbarth, Joost; Wilt, Johannes H.W. de; Burger, Jacobus W.A.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is advocated by some for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have involved or narrow circumferential resection margins (CRM) after rectal surgery. This study evaluates the potentially beneficial effect of IORT on local control. Methods and Materials: All surgically treated patients with LARC treated in a tertiary referral center between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome in patients treated with IORT with a clear but narrow CRM (≤2 mm) or a microscopically involved CRM was compared with the outcome in patients who were not treated with IORT. Results: A total of 409 patients underwent resection of LARC, and 95 patients (23%) had a CRM ≤ 2 mm. Four patients were excluded from further analysis because of a macroscopically involved resection margin. In 43 patients with clear but narrow CRMs, there was no difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival of patients treated with (n=21) or without (n=22) IORT (70% vs 79%, P=.63). In 48 patients with a microscopically involved CRM, there was a significant difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival in favor of the patients treated with IORT (n=31) compared with patients treated without IORT (n=17) (84 vs 41%, P=.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed that IORT was independently associated with a decreased local recurrence rate (hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.86). There was no significant difference in complication rate of patients treated with or without IORT (65% vs 52%, P=.18) Conclusion: The current study suggests that IORT reduces local recurrence rates in patients with LARC with a microscopically involved CRM.

  12. How Different Are Higher Education Institutions in the UK, US and Australia? The Significance of Government Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Governments in the UK and many other countries have long sought to promote the diversity of their higher education institutions. However, diversity is hard to define, harder to measure and even more difficult to compare between countries. Most empirical analyses of the diversity of higher education systems use categorical variables, which shape…

  13. Conceptual aspects of fiscal interactions between local governments and federally-owned, high-level radioactive waste-isolation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Johnson, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines a number of ways to transfer revenues between a federally-owned high level radioactive waste isolation facility (hereafter simply, facility) and local governments. Such payments could be used to lessen fiscal disincentives or to provide fiscal incentives for communities to host waste isolation facilities. Two facility characteristics which necessitate these actions are singled out for attention. First, because the facility is federally owned, it is not liable for state and local taxes and may be viewed by communities as a fiscal liability. Several types of payment plans to correct this deficiency are examined. The major conclusion is that while removal of disincentives or creation of incentives is possible, plans based on cost compensation that fail to consider opportunity costs cannot create incentives and are likely to create disincentives. Second, communities other than that in which the facility is sited may experience costs due to the siting and may, therefore, oppose it. These costs (which also accrue to the host community) arise due to the element of risk which the public generally associates with proximity to the transport and storage of radioactive materials. It is concluded that under certain circumstances compensatory payments are possible, but that measuring these costs will pose difficulty.

  14. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…

  15. 20 CFR 670.800 - How do Job Corps centers and service providers become involved in their local communities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How do Job Corps centers and service providers become involved in their local communities? 670.800 Section 670.800 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Community Connections...

  16. 20 CFR 670.800 - How do Job Corps centers and service providers become involved in their local communities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How do Job Corps centers and service providers become involved in their local communities? 670.800 Section 670.800 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Community Connections...

  17. Local motifs involved in the canonical structure of the ligand-binding domain in the nuclear receptor superfamily.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Motonori

    2014-03-01

    Structural and sequence alignment analyses have revealed the existence of class-dependent and -independent local motifs involved in the overall fold of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) in the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily. Of these local motifs, three local motifs, i.e., AF-2 fixed motifs, were involved in the agonist conformation of the activation function-2 (AF-2) region of the LBD. Receptor-agonist interactions increased the stability of these AF-2 fixed motifs in the agonist conformation. In contrast, perturbation of the AF-2 fixed motifs by a ligand or another protein molecule led the AF-2 architecture to adopt an antagonist conformation. Knowledge of this process should provide us with novel insights into the 'agonism' and 'antagonism' of NRs.

  18. DOE Voluntary Partnership Program with Utilities and Local Governments Supports the Design of New Data Access Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Monisha; Burr, Andrew; Schulte, Andrew; Field-Macumber, Kristin; Cochran-Hameen, Erica; Marion, Flore

    2016-08-26

    The Better Buildings Energy Data Accelerator (BBEDA) is a unique effort that has supported 22 pairs of local governments and their utility companies to help building owners gain access to their whole-building energy data. Municipal and Utility BBEDA Partners committed to develop streamlined and easy-to-use solutions to provide whole-building energy data, especially for multitenant commercial buildings, by the end of 2015. As a result, building owners would be able to make data-driven decisions about their buildings by utilizing readily available energy consumption data for entire buildings. Traditionally, data access was difficult to implement due to technical barriers and the lack of clear value propositions for the utilities. During the past two years, BBEDA has taken a hands-on approach to overcome these barriers by offering a platform for the partners to discuss their challenges and solutions. Customized support was also provided to Partners building their local strategies. Based on the lessons learned from the partners, BBEDA developed a final toolkit with guiding documents that addressed key barriers and served as a resource for the other cities and utilities attempting to establish whole-building data access, including an exploration of opportunities to apply the whole-building data to various aspects of utility demand-side management (DSM) programs. BBEDA has been a catalyst for market transformation by addressing the upstream (to efficiency implementation) barrier of data access, demonstrated through the success of the BBEDA partners to address policy, engagement, and technical hurdles and arrive at replicable solutions to make data access a standard practice nationwide. As a result of best practices identified by the BBEDA, 18 utilities serving more than 2.6 million commercial customers nationwide will provide whole-building energy data access to building owners by 2017. This historic expansion of data accessibility will increase building energy

  19. Some free boundary problems involving non-local diffusion and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José Antonio; Vázquez, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the study of evolution processes involving degenerate parabolic equations which may exhibit free boundaries. The equations we have selected follow two recent trends in diffusion theory: considering anomalous diffusion with long-range effects, which leads to fractional operators or other operators involving kernels with large tails; and the combination of diffusion and aggregation effects, leading to delicate long-term equilibria whose description is still incipient. PMID:26261360

  20. NMR-based localization of ions involved in salting out of hen egg white lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Poznański, Jarosław

    2006-01-01

    NaCl-induced aggregation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) was monitored by NMR spectroscopy. Small, but significant, changes induced by salt addition in TOCSY spectra were attributed to the effect of local reorganization of protein backbone upon ion binding. Salt-induced variations in HN and H alpha chemical shifts were mapped on the HEWL 3D structure which allowed the construction of a scheme of the spatial localization of potential ion binding sites. It was found that in a 0.5 M NaCl solution six chloride anions and at least one sodium cation are bound to preferred sites on the HEWL surface.

  1. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  2. An Examination of Important Competencies Necessary for Vocational Agriculture in Selected Senior Secondary Students in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onanuga, Peter Abayomi

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses the relationship existing between some specified competencies important to vocational agriculture and preparation for occupation between male and female students in senior secondary schools in Ijebu-North Local Government Area, Nigeria. It adopted the classical design for change experiment (i.e. before and after measures) with…

  3. Traditions and Customs in Community Development: The Case of Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekola, G.; Egbo, Nwoye Charles

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of traditions and customs on community development in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The study was carried out with three objectives and three null hypotheses. The research adopted descriptive survey design with a population of 2,125 members of community Based Organizations in the…

  4. 30 CFR 1206.366 - What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of geothermal resources? 1206.366 Section 1206.366 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.366 - What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of geothermal resources? 1206.366 Section 1206.366 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.366 - What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the nominal fee that a State, tribal, or local government lessee must pay for the use of geothermal resources? 1206.366 Section 1206.366 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  7. Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, Mary Anike; Eyiene, Ameh; Egbai, Mercy E.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between instructional supervisory practices and teachers' role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study…

  8. Effect of Gender on Students' Academic Performance in Computer Studies in Secondary Schools in New Bussa, Borgu Local Government of Niger State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adigun, Joseph; Onihunwa, John; Irunokhai, Eric; Sada, Yusuf; Adesina, Olubunmi

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the relationship between student's gender and academic performance in computer science in New Bussa, Borgu local government of Niger state. Questionnaire which consisted of 30 multiple-choice items drawn from Senior School Certificate Examination past questions as set by the West Africa Examination Council in 2014 multiple…

  9. Energy Efficiency Programs in K-12 Schools: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Saving energy through energy efficiency improvements can cost less than generating, transmitting, and distributing energy from power plants, and provides multiple economic and environmental benefits. Local governments can promote energy efficiency in their jurisdictions by developing and implementing strategies that improve the efficiency of…

  10. Local Governance in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Central and Eastern Europe: A Skills Exchange Workshop (Romania, April 4-7, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    This report describes a skills exchange workshop, co-organized by Minority Rights Group International (MRG) and the Liga Pro Europa, on local governance in multi-ethnic communities in Central and Eastern Europe. Civil servants, members of minority communities, non-governmental organization (NGO) activists, and public officials from Bulgaria,…

  11. Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

  12. Biochemical localization of a protein involved in Gluconacetobacter hansenii cellulose synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Prashanti R; Catchmark, Jeffrey M; Brown, Nicole Robitaille; Tien, Ming

    2011-02-08

    Using subcellular fractionation and Western blot methods, we have shown that AcsD, one of the proteins encoded by the Acetobacter cellulose synthase (acs) operon, is localized in the periplasmic region of the cell. AcsD protein was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using histidine tag affinity methods. The purified protein was used to obtain rabbit polyclonal antibodies. The purity of the subcellular fractions was assessed by marker enzyme assays.

  13. Aminopropyltransferases Involved in Polyamine Biosynthesis Localize Preferentially in the Nucleus of Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Ruiz, Leticia; Martí, Esmeralda; Tárraga, Susana; Tiburcio, Antonio F.; Culiáñez, Francisco; Farràs, Rosa; Carrasco, Pedro; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Plant aminopropyltransferases consist of a group of enzymes that transfer aminopropyl groups derived from decarboxylated S-adenosyl-methionine (dcAdoMet or dcSAM) to propylamine acceptors to produce polyamines, ubiquitous metabolites with positive charge at physiological pH. Spermidine synthase (SPDS) uses putrescine as amino acceptor to form spermidine, whereas spermine synthase (SPMS) and thermospermine synthase (TSPMS) use spermidine as acceptor to synthesize the isomers spermine and thermospermine respectively. In previous work it was shown that both SPDS1 and SPDS2 can physically interact with SPMS although no data concerning the subcellular localization was reported. Here we study the subcellular localization of these enzymes and their protein dimer complexes with gateway-based Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) binary vectors. In addition, we have characterized the molecular weight of the enzyme complexes by gel filtration chromatography with in vitro assembled recombinant enzymes and with endogenous plant protein extracts. Our data suggest that aminopropyltransferases display a dual subcellular localization both in the cytosol and nuclear enriched fractions, and they assemble preferably as dimers. The BiFC transient expression data suggest that aminopropyltransferase heterodimer complexes take place preferentially inside the nucleus. PMID:23056524

  14. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Agere, H.; Wama, B. E.; Bingbeng, J. B.; Amuta, E. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA), Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter), and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity). Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ2 = 365.8, p = 0.000). Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p = 0.000), rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p = 0.000), and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p = 0.000) were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area. PMID:28096819

  15. Tele-Autonomous control involving contact. Final Report Thesis; [object localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Lejun; Volz, Richard A.; Conway, Lynn; Walker, Michael W.

    1990-01-01

    Object localization and its application in tele-autonomous systems are studied. Two object localization algorithms are presented together with the methods of extracting several important types of object features. The first algorithm is based on line-segment to line-segment matching. Line range sensors are used to extract line-segment features from an object. The extracted features are matched to corresponding model features to compute the location of the object. The inputs of the second algorithm are not limited only to the line features. Featured points (point to point matching) and featured unit direction vectors (vector to vector matching) can also be used as the inputs of the algorithm, and there is no upper limit on the number of the features inputed. The algorithm will allow the use of redundant features to find a better solution. The algorithm uses dual number quaternions to represent the position and orientation of an object and uses the least squares optimization method to find an optimal solution for the object's location. The advantage of using this representation is that the method solves for the location estimation by minimizing a single cost function associated with the sum of the orientation and position errors and thus has a better performance on the estimation, both in accuracy and speed, than that of other similar algorithms. The difficulties when the operator is controlling a remote robot to perform manipulation tasks are also discussed. The main problems facing the operator are time delays on the signal transmission and the uncertainties of the remote environment. How object localization techniques can be used together with other techniques such as predictor display and time desynchronization to help to overcome these difficulties are then discussed.

  16. Isolation of a trans-acting factor involved in localization of Paracentrotus lividus maternal mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, C; Romancino, D P; Ingrassia, A; Vizzini, A; Di Carlo, M

    1999-01-01

    Localization of Paracentrotus lividus bep maternal mRNAs at the animal pole occurs by association with the cytoskeleton and involves a 54-kDa protein, called LP54, that is able to bind to the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of bep mRNAs. We describe here the isolation and purification of this protein. Antibodies raised against purified LP54 allowed us to establish its localization in P. lividus eggs and embryos. This localization coincides with the mRNAs with which it is associated, that is, the animal pole in the egg, and, after fertilization, the regions derived from this part of the egg, and finally the oral ectoderm of the pluteus. Association with the cytoskeleton was shown by the copurification of LP54 in a microtubule preparation. Involvement in bep mRNA localization was demonstrated by microinjection of anti-LP54 antibodies in P. lividus eggs, which caused alteration of spatial distribution of bep3 mRNA. PMID:10573120

  17. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization

    PubMed Central

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:26903973

  18. CyDiv, a Conserved and Novel Filamentous Cyanobacterial Cell Division Protein Involved in Septum Localization.

    PubMed

    Mandakovic, Dinka; Trigo, Carla; Andrade, Derly; Riquelme, Brenda; Gómez-Lillo, Gabriela; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Díez, Beatriz; Vásquez, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cell division in bacteria has been studied mostly in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, model organisms for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. However, cell division in filamentous cyanobacteria is poorly understood. Here, we identified a novel protein, named CyDiv (Cyanobacterial Division), encoded by the all2320 gene in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. We show that CyDiv plays a key role during cell division. CyDiv has been previously described only as an exclusive and conserved hypothetical protein in filamentous cyanobacteria. Using polyclonal antibodies against CyDiv, we showed that it localizes at different positions depending on cell division timing: poles, septum, in both daughter cells, but also in only one of the daughter cells. The partial deletion of CyDiv gene generates partial defects in cell division, including severe membrane instability and anomalous septum localization during late division. The inability to complete knock out CyDiv strains suggests that it is an essential gene. In silico structural protein analyses and our experimental results suggest that CyDiv is an FtsB/DivIC-like protein, and could therefore, be part of an essential late divisome complex in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

  19. Differential Subplastidial Localization and Turnover of Enzymes Involved in Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Perello, Catalina; Llamas, Ernesto; Burlat, Vincent; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Phillips, Michael A.; Pulido, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Plastidial isoprenoids are a diverse group of metabolites with roles in photosynthesis, growth regulation, and interaction with the environment. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway produces the metabolic precursors of all types of plastidial isoprenoids. Proteomics studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that all the enzymes of the MEP pathway are localized in the plastid stroma. However, immunoblot analysis of chloroplast subfractions showed that the first two enzymes of the pathway, deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductoisomerase (DXR), can also be found in non-stromal fractions. Both transient and stable expression of GFP-tagged DXS and DXR proteins confirmed the presence of the fusion proteins in distinct subplastidial compartments. In particular, DXR-GFP was found to accumulate in relatively large vesicles that could eventually be released from chloroplasts, presumably to be degraded by an autophagy-independent process. Together, we propose that protein-specific mechanisms control the localization and turnover of the first two enzymes of the MEP pathway in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. PMID:26919668

  20. Microevolutionary Events Involving Narrow Host Plasmids Influences Local Fixation of Vancomycin-Resistance in Enterococcus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ana R.; Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P.; Francia, María Victoria; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (VRE) is associated with isolates within ST18, ST17, ST78 Enterococcus faecium (Efm) and ST6 Enterococcus faecalis (Efs) human adapted lineages. Despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. Portugal is one of the European countries where Tn1546 (vanA) is consistently found in a variety of environments. A comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE isolates (75 Efm and 29 Efs) from Portuguese hospitals and aquatic surroundings (1996–2008) was performed to clarify the local dynamics of VRE. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST while plasmid characterization comprised the analysis of known relaxases, rep initiator proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA) by PCR-based typing schemes, RFLP comparison, hybridization and sequencing. Tn1546 variants were characterized by PCR overlapping/sequencing. Intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of Efm ST18, ST132 and ST280 and Efs ST6 clones, carrying rolling-circle (pEFNP1/pRI1) and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHTβ-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive) plasmids was documented. Tn1546 variants, mostly containing ISEf1 or IS1216, were located on plasmids (30–150 kb) with a high degree of mosaicism and heterogeneous RFLP patterns that seem to have resulted from the interplay between broad host Inc18 plasmids (pIP501, pRE25, pEF1), and narrow host RepA_N plasmids (pRUM, pAD1-like). TAs of Inc18 (ω-ε-ζ) and pRUM (Axe-Txe) plasmids were infrequently detected. Some plasmid chimeras were persistently recovered over years from different clonal lineages. This work represents the first multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE, revealing a frequent recombinatorial diversification of a limited number of interacting clonal backgrounds, plasmids and transposons at local scale. These interactions provide a continuous process of parapatric clonalization driving a full

  1. Localization of a translocation breakpoint involved in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, T.L.; Gray, B.A.; Lee, S.

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome, with features including toe syndactyly, genital anomalies, unusual facies, and occasional organ malformations. The gene(s) for this autosomal recessive disorder has not been mapped. Recent biochemical studies suggest that the defect may involve the penultimate step in cholesterol synthesis, as patients have low serum cholesterol and increased 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) levels. However, the enzyme putatively involved (7-DHC reductase) has not been isolated. We identified an SLOS patient with a de novo balanced chromosome translocation [t(7;20)(q32.1;q13.2)], and we propose that the translocation interrupts one of the patient`s SLOS alleles. We are pursuing positional cloning to identify the SLOS gene. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we recently identified a chromosome 7 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) that spans the breakpoint and places it onto physical and genetic maps. We are in the process of narrowing this region via overlapping YACs and YAC subclones, from which we will isolate candidate cDNAs. Any candidate gene disrupted by the translocation and mutated on the other allele will be proven to be the SLOS gene. Functional analysis of an SLOS cDNA may also determine its relationship to cholesterol metabolism and the observed biochemical abnormalities.

  2. [Physico-chemical signals involved in host localization and in the induction of mosquito bites].

    PubMed

    Torres-Estrada, José Luis; Rodríguez, Mario H

    2003-01-01

    Disease vector female mosquitoes respond to physic-chemical signals to localize vertebrate hosts for blood meals. Zoophylic mosquitoes preferentially respond to CO2 and octenol released in the breath and bodily fluids, while anthropophylic mosquitoes respond to lactic acid and a variety of sweat compounds. These compounds are modified by saprophytic microorganisms in the skin sebaceous glands. Other factors present in human dwellings contribute to the integration of microsystems with characteristic odors that have different attraction for mosquitoes, explaining the focalization of malaria transmission in few households in endemic areas. The identification of the chemical attractants and their molecular receptors could be used to complement new methods to attract mosquitoes to traps during epidemiological surveys, to increase their contact with insecticides in control interventions, and for genetic manipulation to divert mosquito bites towards other animal populations. The English version of this paper is available at:http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  3. Localization of CD9 Molecule on Bull Spermatozoa: Its Involvement in the Sperm-Egg Interaction.

    PubMed

    Antalíková, J; Jankovičová, J; Simon, M; Cupperová, P; Michalková, K; Horovská, Ľ

    2015-06-01

    Tetraspanin CD9 is one of the egg membrane proteins known to be essential in fertilization process. The presence and localization of CD9 molecule in spermatozoa and its possible function in reproduction are still unclear. In our study, we describe the localization of CD9 on bull spermatozoa. In the immunofluorescence assay, the positive signal has been observed in the high proportion of sperm cells as a fine grains either on the apical part or through the entire anterior region of sperm head. CD9 recognized by monoclonal antibody IVA-50 was detected on freshly ejaculated (83.4 ± 3.7%) and frozen-thawed (84.3 ± 2.3%) sperm. The same reaction pattern was observed on sperm capacitated for 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h (83.6 ± 2.0%; 84.0 ± 1.5%; 85.7 ± 0.8%; 77.5 ± 10.8%). The presence of CD9 exclusively on plasma membrane of the bovine sperm has been detected by Western blot analysis of the protein fractions after the discontinuous sucrose gradient fractionation of the bull sperm. Moreover, probable role of the sperm CD9 molecule in fertilization process of cattle has been suggested as sperm treatment with anti-CD9 antibody significantly reduced (by 25%, p ≤ 0.001) the number of fertilized oocytes compared to control group in fertilization assay in vitro.

  4. Stakeholders and public involvement for flood protection: traditional river management organisations for a better consideration of local knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, Stephan; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to understand how traditional, highly participatory, local organisations for flood protection have been institutionalised into current river management policy, and to what extent this has impacted on wider participatory processes of producing knowledge. Traditionally, flood protection strategies have been based upon scientific knowledge but have often ignored the capacities of local actors to contribute to the development of the policy. Thus, there may be a gap between scientists, stakeholders and the public that favours controversies and leads to opposition to flood protection projects. In order to reduce this gap and to increase incorporation of local knowledge, participatory processes are set up. They are considered as allowing the integration of all the actors concerned by flood risks to discuss their positions and to develop alternative solutions. This is a particularly important goal in the Swiss political system where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project. In order to support implementation of participatory processes, federal funding includes a special grant to cover the additional costs due to these actions. It is considered that, since its introduction in 2008, this grant certainly furthered participatory processes for flood protection projects and fostered water management policy implementation. However, the implication of stakeholders and public in decision-making processes is much well-established than modern river management often assumes. In some regions, flood protection tasks have been traditionally assumed by local organisations such as dyke corporations (DCs). These comprise land and property owners who are DC members and have to participate in flood protection

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins involved in mycolic acid synthesis and transport localize dynamically to the old growing pole and septum.

    PubMed

    Carel, Clément; Nukdee, Kanjana; Cantaloube, Sylvain; Bonne, Mélanie; Diagne, Cheikh T; Laval, Françoise; Daffé, Mamadou; Zerbib, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism that controls space-time coordination of elongation and division of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is critical for fighting the tubercle bacillus. Most of the numerous enzymes involved in the synthesis of Mycolic acid - Arabinogalactan-Peptidoglycan complex (MAPc) in the cell wall are essential in vivo. Using a dynamic approach, we localized Mtb enzymes belonging to the fatty acid synthase-II (FAS-II) complexes and involved in mycolic acid (MA) biosynthesis in a mycobacterial model of Mtb: M. smegmatis. Results also showed that the MA transporter MmpL3 was present in the mycobacterial envelope and was specifically and dynamically accumulated at the poles and septa during bacterial growth. This localization was due to its C-terminal domain. Moreover, the FAS-II enzymes were co-localized at the poles and septum with Wag31, the protein responsible for the polar localization of mycobacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The dynamic localization of FAS-II and of the MA transporter with Wag31, at the old-growing poles and at the septum suggests that the main components of the mycomembrane may potentially be synthesized at these precise foci. This finding highlights a major difference between mycobacteria and other rod-shaped bacteria studied to date. Based on the already known polar activities of envelope biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we propose the existence of complex polar machinery devoted to the biogenesis of the entire envelope. As a result, the mycobacterial pole would represent the Achilles' heel of the bacillus at all its growing stages.

  6. To provide immediate fiscal relief to cities experiencing serious budget deficits by providing funds for payments to qualified local governments.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Brady, Robert A. [D-PA-1

    2009-01-14

    02/24/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Putrescine-dependent re-localization of TvCP39, a cysteine proteinase involved in Trichomonas vaginalis cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Arroyo, Rossana; Vázquez-Carrillo, Laura Isabel; Ramón-Luing, Lucero De los Angeles; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are involved in the regulation of some Trichomonas vaginalis virulence factors such as the transcript, proteolytic activity, and cytotoxicity of TvCP65, a cysteine proteinase (CP) involved in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. In this work, we reported the putrescine effect on TvCP39, other CP that also participate in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. Parasites treated with 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB) (an inhibitor of putrescine biosynthesis), diminished the amount and proteolytic activity of TvCP39 as compared with untreated parasites. Inhibition of putrescine biosynthesis also reduced ∼ 80% the tvcp39 mRNA levels according to RT-PCR and qRT-PCR assays. Additionally, actinomycin D-treatment showed that the tvcp39 mRNA half-life decreased in the absence of putrescine. However, this reduction was restored by exogenous putrescine addition, suggesting that putrescine is necessary for tvcp39 mRNA stability. TvCP39 was localized in the cytoplasm but, in DAB treated parasites transferred into exogenous putrescine culture media, TvCP39 was re-localized to the nucleus and nuclear periphery of trichomonads. Interestingly, the amount and proteolytic activity of TvCP39 was recovered as well as the tvcp39 mRNA levels were restored when putrescine exogenous was added to the DAB-treated parasites. In conclusion, our data show that putrescine regulate the TvCP39 expression, protein amount, proteolytic activity, and cellular localization.

  8. Postnatal changes of local neuronal circuits involved in activation of jaw-closing muscles.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomio; Nakamura, Shiro; Takamatsu, Junichi; Tokita, Kenichi; Gemba, Akiko; Nakayama, Kiyomi

    2007-04-01

    Feeding behaviour in mammals changes from suckling to mastication during postnatal development and the neuronal circuits controlling feeding behaviour should change in parallel to the development of orofacial structures. In this review we discuss the location of excitatory premotor neurons for jaw-closing motoneurons (JCMNs) and postnatal changes of excitatory synaptic transmission from the supratrigeminal region (SupV) to JCMNs. We show that neurons located in SupV and the reticular formation dorsal to the facial nucleus most likely excite JCMNs. Excitatory inputs from SupV to JCMNs are mediated by activation of glutamate and glycine receptors in neonatal rats, whereas glycinergic inputs from SupV to JCMNs become inhibitory with age. We also show that the incidence of post-spike afterdepolarization increases during postnatal development, whereas the amplitude and half-duration of the medium-duration afterhyperpolarization decrease with age. Such postnatal changes in synaptic transmission from SupV to JCMNs and membrane properties of JCMNs might be involved in the transition from suckling to mastication.

  9. Dynamics of electronic excitations relaxation in hydrophilic colloidal CdS quantum dots in gelatin with involvement of localized states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, M. S.; Buganov, O. V.; Shabunya-Klyachkovskaya, E. V.; Tikhomirov, S. A.; Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Vitukhnovsky, A. G.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Matsukovich, A. S.; Katsaba, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Dynamics of the 1Se-1S3/2 exciton in colloidal CdS quantum dots with diameter of 3.1 ÷ 4.5 nm in gelatin with involvement of localized states was studied by means of femtosecond photoinduced absorption spectroscopy (pump-probe), thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) observed under permanently excited luminescence. It was found that the bleaching band occurs in the energy region of exciton ground state under excitation by femtosecond laser pulses. The complex dynamics of bleaching recovery is caused by the capture of electron on localized states, found using TSL. The stochastic model describing the dynamics of bleaching recovery is discussed. It is shown that the low efficiency of exciton luminescence is caused by the rapid capture of holes by luminescence centers.

  10. Structural social capital and local-level forest governance: Do they inter-relate? A mushroom permit case in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Gorriz-Mifsud, Elena; Secco, Laura; Da Re, Riccardo; Pisani, Elena; Bonet, José Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In diffuse forest uses, like non-timber forest products' harvesting, the behavioural alignment of pickers is crucial for avoiding a "tragedy of the commons". Moreover, the introduction of policy tools such as a harvest permit system may help in keeping the activity under control. Besides the official enforcement, pickers' engagement may also derive from the perceived legitimate decision of forest managers and the community pressure to behave according to the shared values. Framed within the social capital theory, this paper examines three types of relations of rural communities in a protected area in Catalonia (Spain) where a system of mushroom picking permits was recently introduced. Through social network analysis, we explore structural changes in relations within the policy network across the policy conception, design and implementation phases. We then test whether social links of the pickers' community relate to influential members of the policy network. Lastly, we assess whether pickers' bonding and bridging structures affect the rate of permit uptake. Our results show that the high degree of acceptance could be explained by an adequate consideration of pickers' preferences within the decision-making group: local pickers show proximity to members of the policy network with medium-high influence during the three policy phases. The policy network also evolves, with some members emerging as key actors during certain phases. Significant differences are found in pickers' relations among and across the involved municipalities following an urban-rural gradient. A preliminary relation is found between social structures and differential pickers' engagement. These results illustrate a case of positive social capital backing policy design and, probably, also implementation. This calls for a meticulous design of forest policy networks with respect to communities of affected forest users.

  11. Local government guide to the emerging technologies of energy-efficient motors and heat pumps. Energy technology report of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented to provide a local government manager with a basic background in energy efficient motors and heat pump technologies. An overview of each technology and the issues and considerations associated with their application are presented. Discussions cover installation and maintenance requirements, equipment availability, costs and risks/benefits. Data describing demonstration sites for solar assisted heat pump systems and contacts for further information are provided.

  12. Linking Housing and School Integration Policy: What Federal, State and Local Governments Can Do. Issue Brief No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegeler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This Issue Brief states that, in spite of the obvious "reciprocal relationship" between housing and school policy, government housing and education agencies have rarely collaborated to promote the common goals of racial and economic integration. Recent efforts to promote collaboration among housing and school agencies have focused on…

  13. The Role of Interpreting in Spanish Central and Local Government Integration Policies. The Case of the Romanian Population in Alicante

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gheorghiu, Catalina Iliescu

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that interpreting is a norm-governed type of communication and that within this communicative "pas de trois" or "situated activity" (Wadensjo) which is "socially bounded" (Inghilleri), the interpreter's presence appears as a defining feature, this paper tries to identify preliminary and…

  14. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence... CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence...

  15. State preemption of local smoke-free laws in government work sites, private work sites, and restaurants - United States, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    2010-02-05

    Smoke-free policies (i.e., policies that completely eliminate smoking in indoor workplaces and public places) result in health benefits, including preventing heart attacks. Preemptive legislation at the state level prohibits localities from enacting laws that vary from state law or are more stringent. A Healthy People 2010 objective (27-19) is to eliminate state laws that preempt stronger local tobacco control laws. A 2005 CDC review found that little progress was being made toward reducing the number of state laws preempting local smoking restrictions in three indoor settings: government work sites, private-sector work sites, and restaurants. These three settings were selected for analysis because they are settings that often are addressed by state and local smoking restrictions and because they are major settings where nonsmoking workers and patrons are exposed to secondhand smoke. This report updates the previous analysis and summarizes changes that occurred from December 31, 2004, to December 31, 2009, in state laws that preempt local smoke-free laws for the same three settings. During that period, the number of states preempting local smoking restrictions in at least one of these three settings decreased from 19 to 12. In contrast with the 2005 findings, this decrease indicates progress toward achieving the goal of eliminating state laws preempting local smoking restrictions. Further progress could result in additional reductions in secondhand smoke exposure.

  16. An epoxide hydrolase involved in the biosynthesis of an insect sex attractant and its use to localize the production site.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latief, Mohatmed; Garbe, Leif A; Koch, Markus; Ruther, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes occurring in virtually any living organism. They catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxide containing lipids and are involved in crucial mechanisms, such as the detoxification of xenobiotics or the regulation of inflammation and blood pressure. Here, we describe a function of a putative EH gene in the biosynthesis of a sex attractant in the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis and use this gene to localize the site of pheromone production. Males of this parasitic wasp release a mixture of (4R,5R)-( threo-) and (4R,5S)-( erythro-)5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (HDL) to attract virgin females. Using a stable isotope labeled precursor, we demonstrated that vernolic acid ( erythro-12,13-epoxy-octadec-9Z-enoic acid) is converted by N. vitripennis males to threo-HDL. This suggested the involvement of an EH in hydrolyzing the fatty acid epoxide under inversion of the stereochemistry into the respective diol, which might be further processed by chain shortening and lactonization to HDL. We cloned a putative N. vitripennis EH gene (Nasvi-EH1) encoding 470 amino acids and localized its transcripts in the male rectal papillae by in situ RT-PCR. Chemical analyses and histological studies confirmed that males synthesize the sex attractant in the rectal vesicle and release it via the anal orifice. Involvement of Nasvi-EH1 in HDL biosynthesis was established by RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Injection of Nasvi-EH1 dsRNA into male abdomens inhibited pheromone biosynthesis by 55% and suppressed the targeted gene transcripts in the rectal vesicle by 95%.

  17. An epoxide hydrolase involved in the biosynthesis of an insect sex attractant and its use to localize the production site

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-latief, Mohatmed; Garbe, Leif A.; Koch, Markus; Ruther, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes occurring in virtually any living organism. They catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxide containing lipids and are involved in crucial mechanisms, such as the detoxification of xenobiotics or the regulation of inflammation and blood pressure. Here, we describe a function of a putative EH gene in the biosynthesis of a sex attractant in the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis and use this gene to localize the site of pheromone production. Males of this parasitic wasp release a mixture of (4R,5R)-(threo-) and (4R,5S)-(erythro-)5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (HDL) to attract virgin females. Using a stable isotope labeled precursor, we demonstrated that vernolic acid (erythro-12,13-epoxy-octadec-9Z-enoic acid) is converted by N. vitripennis males to threo-HDL. This suggested the involvement of an EH in hydrolyzing the fatty acid epoxide under inversion of the stereochemistry into the respective diol, which might be further processed by chain shortening and lactonization to HDL. We cloned a putative N. vitripennis EH gene (Nasvi-EH1) encoding 470 amino acids and localized its transcripts in the male rectal papillae by in situ RT-PCR. Chemical analyses and histological studies confirmed that males synthesize the sex attractant in the rectal vesicle and release it via the anal orifice. Involvement of Nasvi-EH1 in HDL biosynthesis was established by RNAi-mediated gene silencing. Injection of Nasvi-EH1 dsRNA into male abdomens inhibited pheromone biosynthesis by 55% and suppressed the targeted gene transcripts in the rectal vesicle by 95%. PMID:18579785

  18. Reducing uncertainty in flood frequency analyses: A comparison of local and regional approaches involving information on extreme historical floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbert, K.; Nguyen, C. C.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a detailed comparison of local and regional approaches for flood frequency analyses, with a special emphasis on the effects of (a) the information on extreme floods used in the analysis (historical data or recent extreme floods observed at ungauged sites), and (b) the assumptions associated with regional approaches (statistical homogeneity of considered series, independence of observations). The results presented are based on two case studies: the Ard e ̀ che and Argens rivers regions in south-east of France. Four approaches are compared: 1 - local analysis based on continuous measured series, 2 - local analysis with historical information, 3 - regional index-flood analysis based on continuous series, 4 - regional analysis involving information on extremes (including both historical floods and recent floods observed at ungauged sites). The inference approach used is based on a GEV distribution and a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach for parameters estimation. The comparison relies both on (1) available observed datasets and (2) Monte Carlo simulations in order to evaluate the effects of sampling variability and to analyze the possible influence of regional heterogeneities. The results indicate that a relatively limited level of regional heterogeneity, which may not be detected through homogeneity tests, may significantly affect the performances of regional approaches. These results also illustrate the added value of information on extreme floods, historical floods or recent floods observed at ungauged sites, in both local and regional approaches. As far as possible, gathering such information and incorporating it into flood frequency studies should be promoted. Finally, the presented Monte Carlo simulations appear as an interesting analysis tool for adapting the estimation strategy to the available data for each specific case study.

  19. Involving local health departments in community health partnerships: evaluation results from the partnership for the public's health initiative.

    PubMed

    Cheadle, Allen; Hsu, Clarissa; Schwartz, Pamela M; Pearson, David; Greenwald, Howard P; Beery, William L; Flores, George; Casey, Maria Campbell

    2008-03-01

    Improving community health "from the ground up" entails a comprehensive ecological approach, deep involvement of community-based entities, and addressing social determinants of population health status. Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Office of the Surgeon General, and other authorities have called for public health to be an "inter-sector" enterprise, few models have surfaced that feature local health departments as a key part of the collaborative model for effecting community-level change. This paper presents evaluation findings and lessons learned from the Partnership for the Public's Health (PPH), a comprehensive community initiative that featured a central role for local health departments with their community partners. Funded by The California Endowment, PPH provided technical and financial resources to 39 community partnerships in 14 local health department jurisdictions in California to promote community and health department capacity building and community-level policy and systems change designed to produce long-term improvements in population health. The evaluation used multiple data sources to create progress ratings for each partnership in five goal areas related to capacity building, community health improvement programs, and policy and systems change. Overall results were generally positive; in particular, of the 37 partnerships funded continuously throughout the 5 years of the initiative, between 25% and 40% were able to make a high level of progress in each of the Initiative's five goal areas. Factors associated with partnership success were also identified by local evaluators. These results showed that health departments able to work effectively with community groups had strong, committed leaders who used creative financing mechanisms, inclusive planning processes, organizational changes, and open communication to promote collaboration with the communities they served.

  20. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication.

  1. Allele-specific suppression of a defective trans-Golgi network (TGN) localization signal in Kex2p identifies three genes involved in localization of TGN transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Redding, K; Brickner, J H; Marschall, L G; Nichols, J W; Fuller, R S

    1996-01-01

    Kex2 protease (Kex2p) and Ste13 dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (Ste13p) are required in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for maturation of the alpha-mating factor in a late Golgi compartment, most likely the yeast trans-Golgi network (TGN). Previous studies identified a TGN localization signal (TLS) in the C-terminal cytosolic tail of Kex2p consisting of Tyr-713 and contextual sequences. Further analysis of the Kex2p TLS revealed similarity to the Ste13p TLS. Mutation of the Kex2p TLS results in transport of Kex2p to the vacuole by default. When expression of a GAL1 promoter-driven KEX2 gene is shut off in MAT(alpha) cells, the TGN becomes depleted of Kex2p, resulting in a gradual decline in mating competence which is greatly accelerated by TLS mutations. To identify the genes involved in localization of Kex2p, we isolated second-site suppressors of the rapid loss of mating competence observed upon shutting off expression of a TLS mutant form of Kex2p (Y713A). Seven of 58 suppressors were allele specific, suppressing point mutations at Tyr-713 but not deletions of the TLS or entire C-terminal cytosolic tail. By linkage analysis, the allele-specific suppressors defined three genetic loci, SOI1, S0I2, and S0I3. Pulse-chase analysis demonstrated that these suppressors increased net TGN retention of both Y713A Kex2p and a Ste13p-Pho8p fusion protein containing a point mutation in the Ste13p TLS. SOI1 suppressor alleles reduced the efficiency of localization of wild-type Kex2p to the TGN, implying an impaired ability to discriminate between the normal TLS and a mutant TLS. soi1 mutants also exhibited a recessive defect in vacuolar protein sorting. Suppressor alleles of S0I2 were dominant. These results suggest that the SOI1 and S0I2 genes encode regulators or components of the TLS recognition machinery. PMID:8887651

  2. An Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized RRL protein mediates abscisic acid signal transduction through mitochondrial retrograde regulation involving ABI4.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuan; Li, Juanjuan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Kede

    2015-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling have been studied for many years; however, how mitochondria-localized proteins play roles in ABA signalling remains unclear. Here an Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRL (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH-LIKE) was shown to function in ABA signalling. A previous study had revealed that the Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRG (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH) is required for cell division in the root meristem. RRL shares 54% and 57% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, with RRG; nevertheless, RRL shows a different function in Arabidopsis. In this study, disruption of RRL decreased ABA sensitivity whereas overexpression of RRL increased ABA sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. High expression levels of RRL were found in germinating seeds and developing seedlings, as revealed by β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining of ProRRL-GUS transgenic lines. The analyses of the structure and function of mitochondria in the knockout rrl mutant showed that the disruption of RRL causes extensively internally vacuolated mitochondria and reduced ABA-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) in the alternative respiratory pathway is increased by mitochondrial retrograde regulation to regain ROS levels when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. The APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor ABI4 is a regulator of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a (AOX1a) in mitochondrial retrograde signalling. This study showed that ABA-induced AOX1a and ABI4 expression was inhibited in the rrl mutant, suggesting that RRL is probably involved in ABI4-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signalling. Furthermore, the results revealed that ABI4 is a downstream regulatory factor in RRL-mediated ABA signalling in seed germination and seedling growth.

  3. Involvement of ACSL in local synthesis of neutral lipids in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in human hepatocyte HuH7.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Tetsuaki; Homma, Koichi J; Onoduka, Jun; Mori, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Makita, Minoru; Higashi, Yusuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Takano, Tatsuya

    2007-06-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) function as intracellular storage depots of neutral lipids. Recently, we identified long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 3 (ACSL3) as a major LD-associated protein in the human hepatocyte cell line HuH7. In this study, we investigated whether droplet-associated ACSL is involved in lipid metabolism in LDs. Addition of oleic acid (OA) to culture medium was shown to enhance the intracellular accumulation of LDs in the cells, which was accompanied by an increase of droplet ACSL3. When LD-enriched cells induced by OA were further incubated without OA for 3 days, approximately 80% of LDs were retained in the cells. Conversely, cellular LD content was greatly decreased after the addition of an ACSL inhibitor, triacsin C. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease of the droplet ACSL3. Incubation of isolated LD fractions with (14)C-labeled OA or palmitic acid resulted in [(14)C]acyl-CoA generation in vitro, indicating the presence of ACSL activity in LDs. The droplet ACSL activity varied according to the quantity of LDs in their emergence and disappearance in cells. Incubation of the LD fraction with [(14)C]oleoyl-CoA resulted in radioactive triacylglycerol and cholesteryl esters. These results suggest that LD ACSL activity is involved in local synthesis of neutral lipids and LD formation.

  4. How the method of synthesis governs the local and global structure of zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Pushparaj, Suraj Shiv Charan; Forano, Claude; Prevot, Vanessa; Lipton, Andrew S.; Rees, Gregory; Hanna, John V.; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2015-11-10

    A series of zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides (ZnAl LDHs), [Zn1-xAlx (OH)2Ax,nH2O with A = NO3-, Cl- or CO3] were prepared by the urea and co-precipitation synthesis methods, which allowed for a detailed investigation on how synthesis parameters such as pH, metal ion concentration and post synthesis treatment influence the local and global structure of the LDH product. Information about sample composition, purity, defects and other structural aspects of the LDH products were obtained from powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and elemental analysis, as well as solid state 1H, 27Al and 67Zn NMR spectroscopy. Our results show that the urea method results in LDHs, which on the global scale are highly crystalline LDHs, whereas solid state NMR shows the different local environments indicating local disorder most likely linked to the presence of Al-rich phases. However, these Alrich phases are not detected by global range techniques, as they either defects within the LDH particles or separate phase(s) associated with LDHs. In contrast, samples prepared by coprecipitation especially synthesized under careful pH control and subsequently hydrothermal treated have high local order and good crystallinity (particle size). Our results show that both molecular level and macroscopic techniques are needed to assess the composition of LDHs, as the conventional PXRD and TEM analysis of LDHs failed to identify the many structural defects and/or amorphous phases.

  5. A Grounded Approach to Citizenship Education: Local Interplays between Government Institutions, Adult Schools, and Community Events in Sacramento, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loring, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Following a grounded, bottom-up approach to language policy (Blommaert 2009; Canagarajah 2005; McCarty, 2011; Ramanathan, 2005), this paper investigates available resources and discourses of citizenship in Sacramento, California to those situated within the citizenship infrastructure. It analyzes how the discursive framing of local and national…

  6. Provision of Reproductive Health Services for Adolescents--Report of a Study in Two Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olukoya, Adepeju A.

    1996-01-01

    Studied adolescent reproductive health services in two Nigerian states. Found that adolescents use health facilities mostly for general health problems. Only 6.1% (south) and 31.8% (north) of cases involved reproductive health, the gap attributable to maternity cases of northern married women. Reproductive health problems such as abortion and…

  7. Translating for Linguistic Minorities in Northern Ireland: A Look at Translation Policy in the Judiciary, Healthcare, and Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González Núñez, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Europe as a multilingual continent hosts three main types of languages: dominant languages, autochthonous minority languages, and new minority languages. From a policy standpoint, planning for speakers of these languages and their needs become a complex matter in which many actors with different interests are involved. Of the many issues which…

  8. Increasing the reach: Involving local Muslim religious teachers in a behavioral intervention to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar.

    PubMed

    Celone, Mike; Person, Bobbie; Ali, Said M; Lyimo, Jameelat H; Mohammed, Ulfat A; Khamis, Alippo N; Mohammed, Yussra S; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Rollinson, David; Knopp, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    In Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, Madrassa schools are influential institutions, where children and adults can learn about the interpretation of the Koran. We aimed to explore the involvement of Madrassa teachers for behavior change interventions in a randomized operational research trial designed to investigate the impact of multiple approaches to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis transmission from Zanzibar. Madrassa teachers performing in the 30 communities of the behavior change study arm were trained in new interactive and participatory teaching methods by the local behavioral team and provided with schistosomiasis-teaching tools for teaching about transmission and prevention in their Madrassa. In July 2014, in a qualitative research study, we conducted 25 semi-structured interviews with Madrassa teachers to find out how they perceived their involvement in interventions against schistosomiasis. In 2014, 5926 among the 8497 registered Madrassa students in 30 communities on Unguja and Pemba islands received health education and participated in interactive behavior change exercises about schistosomiasis. Madrassa teachers reported that they valued their inclusion in the study and the opportunity to educate their students about schistosomiasis transmission, prevention, and treatment. They also perceived personal and community benefits as a result of their training and strongly supported the inclusion of additional Madrassa teachers in future intervention activities. Madrassa teachers are influential in the Zanzibari society, and hence are important change agents within our community-level behavioral intervention. They might constitute an untapped resource that can help to expand and increase acceptance of and participation in schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical disease control activities in African Muslim communities.

  9. Numerical studies of localized wavefields governed by the Raman-extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesthaven, J. S.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Bergé, L.; Wyller, J.

    1997-12-01

    Using a stable pseudospectral multi-domain method we investigate the dynamics of localized wavefields in the extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, with particular emphasis on the critical mass and structure of the initial conditions that promote wave collapse. The results are found to correspond well with theoretical observations based on a Lagrangian approach and through comparison with solutions of the critical nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Inclusion of high-order nonlinear dissipation due to the self-induced Raman effect, leading to the Raman-extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, is found to inhibit finite-time collapse in certain cases.

  10. Opportunities and constraints for developing a sustainable E-waste management system at local government level in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Georgina; Herat, S

    2010-08-01

    E-waste refers to both electronic and electrical waste materials; namely any items which rely on an electric current or electromagnetic fields in order to operate, and contain a hard-drive or significant electronic components and/or a printed circuit board. E-waste is outstripping the general growth of the municipal waste stream. Increasingly, smaller and cheaper electronic items are being disposed of in municipal waste systems and this, coupled with an increase in the number of, and turnover of manufacturers and suppliers, may see local councils assuming a key role in future e-waste management. A survey of local councils across Australia was undertaken to determine the current level of understanding and action on e-waste, and to solicit key responses regarding the identification of areas where improvements could be made. The survey achieved an overall response rate of 35%. Survey results identified key barriers experienced by councils regarding the collection and treatment of e-wastes, such as access to reprocessing facilities and the limited or complete unawareness by the public of the issues. With regards to who should pay for e-waste disposal at end-of-life, consumers and producers were most commonly cited, depending on the state with the preferred funding mechanisms being 'advanced recycling fee' and Expanded Producer Responsibility. Overwhelmingly, 88% of respondents believed that federal legislation was required to manage e-waste. Overall, the results did not indicate differences in views between states for most questions.

  11. Involvement of lipid rafts in the localization and dysfunction effect of the antitumor ether phospholipid edelfosine in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Mollinedo, F; Fernández, M; Hornillos, V; Delgado, J; Amat-Guerri, F; Acuña, A U; Nieto-Miguel, T; Villa-Pulgarín, J A; González-García, C; Ceña, V; Gajate, C

    2011-01-01

    Lipid rafts and mitochondria are promising targets in cancer therapy. The synthetic antitumor alkyl-lysophospholipid analog edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine) has been reported to target lipid rafts. Here, we have found that edelfosine induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, both responses being abrogated by Bcl-xL overexpression. We synthesized a number of new fluorescent edelfosine analogs, which preserved the proapoptotic activity of the parent drug, and colocalized with mitochondria in HeLa cells. Edelfosine induced swelling in isolated mitochondria, indicating an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability. This mitochondrial swelling was independent of reactive oxygen species generation. A structurally related inactive analog was unable to promote mitochondrial swelling, highlighting the importance of edelfosine molecular structure in its effect on mitochondria. Raft disruption inhibited mitochondrial localization of the drug in cells and edelfosine-induced swelling in isolated mitochondria. Edelfosine promoted a redistribution of lipid rafts from the plasma membrane to mitochondria, suggesting a raft-mediated link between plasma membrane and mitochondria. Our data suggest that direct interaction of edelfosine with mitochondria eventually leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. These observations unveil a new framework in cancer chemotherapy that involves a link between lipid rafts and mitochondria in the mechanism of action of an antitumor drug, thus opening new avenues for cancer treatment. PMID:21593790

  12. Ryanodine receptor sensitivity governs the stability and synchrony of local calcium release during cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Wescott, Andrew P; Jafri, M Saleet; Lederer, W J; Williams, George S B

    2016-03-01

    Calcium-induced calcium release is the principal mechanism that triggers the cell-wide [Ca(2+)]i transient that activates muscle contraction during cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC). Here, we characterize this process in mouse cardiac myocytes with a novel mathematical action potential (AP) model that incorporates realistic stochastic gating of voltage-dependent L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channels (LCCs) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channels (the ryanodine receptors, RyR2s). Depolarization of the sarcolemma during an AP stochastically activates the LCCs elevating subspace [Ca(2+)] within each of the cell's 20,000 independent calcium release units (CRUs) to trigger local RyR2 opening and initiate Ca(2+) sparks, the fundamental unit of triggered Ca(2+) release. Synchronization of Ca(2+) sparks during systole depends on the nearly uniform cellular activation of LCCs and the likelihood of local LCC openings triggering local Ca(2+) sparks (ECC fidelity). The detailed design and true SR Ca(2+) pump/leak balance displayed by our model permits investigation of ECC fidelity and Ca(2+) spark fidelity, the balance between visible (Ca(2+) spark) and invisible (Ca(2+) quark/sub-spark) SR Ca(2+) release events. Excess SR Ca(2+) leak is examined as a disease mechanism in the context of "catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)", a Ca(2+)-dependent arrhythmia. We find that that RyR2s (and therefore Ca(2+) sparks) are relatively insensitive to LCC openings across a wide range of membrane potentials; and that key differences exist between Ca(2+) sparks evoked during quiescence, diastole, and systole. The enhanced RyR2 [Ca(2+)]i sensitivity during CPVT leads to increased Ca(2+) spark fidelity resulting in asynchronous systolic Ca(2+) spark activity. It also produces increased diastolic SR Ca(2+) leak with some prolonged Ca(2+) sparks that at times become "metastable" and fail to efficiently terminate. There is a huge margin of safety for

  13. Life expectancy estimation in small administrative areas with non-uniform population sizes: application to Australian New South Wales local government areas

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Alexandre S; Purdie, Stuart; Yang, Baohui; Moore, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine a practical approach for deriving life expectancy estimates in Australian New South Wales local government areas which display a large diversity in population sizes. Design Population-based study utilising mortality and estimated residential population data. Setting 153 local government areas in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome measures Key performance measures of Chiang II, Silcocks, adjusted Chiang II and Bayesian random effects model methodologies of life expectancy estimation including agreement analysis of life expectancy estimates and comparison of estimate SEs. Results Chiang II and Silcocks methods produced almost identical life expectancy estimates across a large range of population sizes but calculation failures and excessively large SEs limited their use in small populations. A population of 25 000 or greater was required to estimate life expectancy with SE of 1 year or less using adjusted Chiang II (a composite of Chiang II and Silcocks methods). Data aggregation offered some remedy for extending the use of adjusted Chiang II in small populations but reduced estimate currency. A recently developed Bayesian random effects model utilising the correlation in mortality rates between genders, age groups and geographical areas markedly improved the precision of life expectancy estimates in small populations. Conclusions We propose a hybrid approach for the calculation of life expectancy using the Bayesian random effects model in populations of 25 000 or lower permitting the precise derivation of life expectancy in small populations. In populations above 25 000, we propose the use of adjusted Chiang II to guard against violations of spatial correlation, to benefit from a widely accepted method that is simpler to communicate to local health authorities and where its slight inferior performance compared with the Bayesian approach is of minor practical significance. PMID:24302503

  14. Does MRI-detected cranial nerve involvement affect the prognosis of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Zong, Jingfeng; Lin, Shaojun; Chen, Yunbin; Wang, Bingyi; Xiao, Youping; Lin, Jin; Li, Rui; Pan, Jianji

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the common cancers in South China. It can easily invade into cranial nerves, especially in patients with local advanced disease. Despite the fact that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are not always consistent with the symptoms of CN palsy, MRI is recommended for the detection of CN involvement (CNI). However, the prognostic impact of MRI-detected CNI in NPC patients is still controversial. To investigate the prognostic value of MRI detected CNI, we performed a retrospective analysis on the clinical data of 375 patients with NPC who were initially diagnosed by MRI. All patients had T3-4 disease and received radical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as their primary treatment. The incidence of MRI-detected CNI was 60.8%. A higher incidence of MRI-detected CNI was observed in T4 disease compared with T3 disease (96.8% vs. 42.8%, P<0.001), and a higher incidence was also found in patients with Stage IV disease compared with those with Stage III disease (91.5% vs. 42.3%; P<0.001). The local relapse-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) of patients with T3 disease, with or without MRI-detected CNI, was superior to that of patients with T4 disease (P<0.05). No significant differences in LRFS, DMFS or OS were observed between T3 patients with or without MRI-detected CNI. The survival of Stage III patients with or without MRI-detected CNI was significantly superior to that of Stage IV patients (P<0.01), but there was no significant difference between Stage III patients with or without MRI-detected CNI for all endpoints. Therefore, when treated with IMRT, MRI-detected CNI in patients with NPC does not appear to affect the prognosis. In patients with clinical T3 disease, the presence of MRI-detected CNI is not sufficient evidence for defining T4 disease.

  15. Is Sonic Hedgehog Involved in Human Fracture Healing? - A Prospective Study on Local and Systemic Concentrations of SHH

    PubMed Central

    Eipeldauer, Stefan; Thomas, Anita; Hoechtl-Lee, Leonard; Kecht, Mathias; Binder, Harald; Koettstorfer, Julia; Gregori, Markus; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is a new signalling pathway in bone repair. Evidence exist that SHH pathway plays a significant role in vasculogenesis and limb development during embryogenesis. Some in vitro and animal studies has already proven its potential for bone regeneration. However, no data on the role of SHH in the human fracture healing have been published so far. Methods Seventy-five patients with long bone fractures were included into the study and divided in 2 groups. First group contained 69 patients with normal fracture healing. Four patients with impaired fracture healing formed the second group. 34 volunteers donated blood samples as control. Serum samples were collected over a period of 1 year following a standardized time schedule. In addition, SHH levels were measured in fracture haematoma and serum of 16 patients with bone fractures. Results Fracture haematoma and patients serum both contained lower SHH concentrations compared to control serum. The comparison between the patients' serum SHH level and the control serum revealed lower levels for the patients at all measurement time points. Significantly lower concentrations were observed at weeks 1 and 2 after fracture. SHH levels were slightly decreased in patients with impaired fracture healing without statistical significance. Conclusion This is the first study to report local and systemic concentration of SHH in human fracture healing and SHH serum levels in healthy adults. A significant reduction of the SHH levels during the inflammatory phase of fracture healing was found. SHH concentrations in fracture haematoma and serum were lower than the concentration in control serum for the rest of the healing period. Our findings indicate that there is no relevant involvement of SHH in human fracture healing. Fracture repair process seem to reduce the SHH level in human. Further studies are definitely needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25501422

  16. NG2/CSPG4-collagen type VI interplays putatively involved in the microenvironmental control of tumour engraftment and local expansion.

    PubMed

    Cattaruzza, Sabrina; Nicolosi, Pier Andrea; Braghetta, Paola; Pazzaglia, Laura; Benassi, Maria Serena; Picci, Piero; Lacrima, Katia; Zanocco, Daniela; Rizzo, Erika; Stallcup, William B; Colombatti, Alfonso; Perris, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    In soft-tissue sarcoma patients, enhanced expression of NG2/CSPG4 proteoglycan in pre-surgical primary tumours predicts post-surgical metastasis formation and thereby stratifies patients into disease-free survivors and patients destined to succumb to the disease. Both primary and secondary sarcoma lesions also up-regulate collagen type VI, a putative extracellular matrix ligand of NG2, and this matrix alteration potentiates the prognostic impact of NG2. Enhanced constitutive levels of the proteoglycan in isolated sarcoma cells closely correlate with a superior engraftment capability and local growth in xenogenic settings. This apparent NG2-associated malignancy was also corroborated by the diverse tumorigenic behaviour in vitro and in vivo of immunoselected NG2-expressing and NG2-deficient cell subsets, by RNAi-mediated knock down of endogenous NG2, and by ectopic transduction of full-length or deletion constructs of NG2. Cells with modified expression of NG2 diverged in their interaction with purified Col VI, matrices supplemented with Col VI, and cell-free matrices isolated from wild-type and Col VI null fibroblasts. The combined use of dominant-negative NG2 mutant cells and purified domain fragments of the collagen allowed us to pinpoint the reciprocal binding sites within the two molecules and to assert the importance of this molecular interaction in the control of sarcoma cell adhesion and motility. The NG2-mediated binding to Col VI triggered activation of convergent cell survival- and cell adhesion/migration-promoting signal transduction pathways, implicating PI-3K as a common denominator. Thus, the findings point to an NG2-Col VI interplay as putatively involved in the regulation of the cancer cell-host microenvironment interactions sustaining sarcoma progression.

  17. Age of sexual debut and patterns of sexual behaviour in two local government areas in southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C; Erinosho, Olayiwola; Ushie, Boniface; Aderinto, Adeyinka; Sunmola, Gbenga; Joseph, Richard

    2012-12-01

    The study examines the age of sexual debut and patterns of sexual behavior in Ugep, Cross River State, and Badeku and Olunloyo in Oyo State. A survey of households and individuals was conducted in the three communities; qualitative data were also collected through in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. The median age of first sex among never-married males and females were 17 years and 18 years respectively; more than one in five adolescents have had sex before age 16. Never-married males and females initiated sex earlier than ever-married, older respondents. That 14 percent of married men keep other sexual partners besides their wives is indicative of substantial extramarital relationship; also 12 percent of never-married male respondents with regular sex partners have other sexual partners. Condom use is fairly high, especially in sexual relations involving non-regular partners. The higher likelihood of alcohol use in sexual liaison with non-regular sex partners is suggestive of high prevalence of transactional sex and spontaneous or unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol, with their implications for the spread of HIV and AIDS. The study underscores the need for adolescent sexual and reproductive health education and behaviour change communication among all segments of the population and inculcation of values less favourable for the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

  18. Human Capital: Practices That Empowered and Involved Employees. Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring, and the District of Columbia, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihm, J. Christopher

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined selected experiences that six government agencies implemented to help empower or involve frontline employees. The agencies reviewed were as follows: the Federal Aviation Administration; the Federal Emergency Management Agency; the Internal Revenue Service; the Office of Personnel Management; and the…

  19. The Education Service: In or Out of Local Government? Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the British Educational Administration Society (6th, University of Birmingham, England, September 23-24, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Kenneth, Ed.

    This conference focused on the present position of British education within local government and whether schools can function effectively under local control. Issues discussed included the question of whether the schools were providing industry with employees having appropriate academic ability and social skills, the question of whether…

  20. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interested parties during preliminary planning stages to ensure that all environmental factors are identified..., State, local and Indian tribe actions required for project completion so that the Committee...

  1. Quantifying the Impact of Participation in Local Tobacco Control Groups on the Psychological Empowerment of Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Debra J.; Crankshaw, Erik; Nimsch, Christian; Hinnant, Laurie W.; Hund, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    A core component of Legacy's Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use is the ability of state and local initiatives to empower youth to effect change in their communities. The authors' conceptual framework proposes that youth empowerment is an outcome of the process by which youths become active participants in local efforts. Youths are…

  2. 20 CFR 670.800 - How do Job Corps centers and service providers become involved in their local communities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable Local Boards wherever geographically feasible. (b) Each Job Corps center must have a Business and... business owners, chief executives or chief operating officers of nongovernmental employers or other private... businesses with employment opportunities in the local area and the areas to which students will return....

  3. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Early involvement...

  4. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Early involvement...

  5. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Early involvement...

  6. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) Water Resources Council Implementing Procedures § 707.6 Early involvement in private... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Early involvement...

  7. Quantifying the impact of participation in local tobacco control groups on the psychological empowerment of involved youth.

    PubMed

    Holden, Debra J; Crankshaw, Erik; Nimsch, Christian; Hinnant, Laurie W; Hund, Lisa

    2004-10-01

    A core component of Legacy's Statewide Youth Movement Against Tobacco Use is the ability of state and local initiatives to empower youth to effect change in their communities. The authors' conceptual framework proposes that youth empowerment is an outcome of the process by which youths become active participants in local efforts. Youths are proposed to attain specific skills (e.g., assertiveness, advocacy), attitudes (e.g., domain-specific self-efficacy, perceived sociopolitical control, participatory competence), and knowledge of relevant resources. All are proposed outcomes of their individual participation in these local efforts. Data collected in fall 2002 through a tested survey instrument designed to obtain data on key components of empowerment are presented. Regression modeling was used to examine the extent to which characteristics of empowerment are an outcome of individual participation in these groups. A summary of lessons learned pertaining to effectively measuring empowerment and enhancing the empowerment process through local initiatives is provided.

  8. Direct association of occludin with ZO-1 and its possible involvement in the localization of occludin at tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Furuse, M; Itoh, M; Hirase, T; Nagafuchi, A; Yonemura, S; Tsukita, S; Tsukita, S

    1994-12-01

    Occludin is an integral membrane protein localizing at tight junctions (TJ) with four transmembrane domains and a long COOH-terminal cytoplasmic domain (domain E) consisting of 255 amino acids. Immunofluorescence and laser scan microscopy revealed that chick full-length occludin introduced into human and bovine epithelial cells was correctly delivered to and incorporated into preexisting TJ. Further transfection studies with various deletion mutants showed that the domain E, especially its COOH-terminal approximately 150 amino acids (domain E358/504), was necessary for the localization of occludin at TJ. Secondly, domain E was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase, and this fusion protein was shown to be specifically bound to a complex of ZO-1 (220 kD) and ZO-2 (160 kD) among various membrane peripheral proteins. In vitro binding analyses using glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins of various deletion mutants of domain E narrowed down the sequence necessary for the ZO-1/ZO-2 association into the domain E358/504. Furthermore, this region directly associated with the recombinant ZO-1 produced in E. coli. We concluded that occludin itself can localize at TJ and directly associate with ZO-1. The coincidence of the sequence necessary for the ZO-1 association with that for the TJ localization suggests that the association with underlying cytoskeletons through ZO-1 is required for occludin to be localized at TJ.

  9. Paxillin-dependent paxillin kinase linker and p21-activated kinase localization to focal adhesions involves a multistep activation pathway.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael C; West, Kip A; Turner, Christopher E

    2002-05-01

    The precise temporal-spatial regulation of the p21-activated serine-threonine kinase PAK at the plasma membrane is required for proper cytoskeletal reorganization and cell motility. However, the mechanism by which PAK localizes to focal adhesions has not yet been elucidated. Indirect binding of PAK to the focal adhesion protein paxillin via the Arf-GAP protein paxillin kinase linker (PKL) and PIX/Cool suggested a mechanism. In this report, we demonstrate an essential role for a paxillin-PKL interaction in the recruitment of activated PAK to focal adhesions. Similar to PAK, expression of activated Cdc42 and Rac1, but not RhoA, stimulated the translocation of PKL from a generally diffuse localization to focal adhesions. Expression of the PAK regulatory domain (PAK1-329) or the autoinhibitory domain (AID 83-149) induced PKL, PIX, and PAK localization to focal adhesions, indicating a role for PAK scaffold activation. We show PIX, but not NCK, binding to PAK is necessary for efficient focal adhesion localization of PAK and PKL, consistent with a PAK-PIX-PKL linkage. Although PAK activation is required, it is not sufficient for localization. The PKL amino terminus, containing the PIX-binding site, but lacking paxillin-binding subdomain 2 (PBS2), was unable to localize to focal adhesions and also abrogated PAK localization. An identical result was obtained after PKLDeltaPBS2 expression. Finally, neither PAK nor PKL was capable of localizing to focal adhesions in cells overexpressing paxillinDeltaLD4, confirming a requirement for this motif in recruitment of the PAK-PIX-PKL complex to focal adhesions. These results suggest a GTP-Cdc42/GTP-Rac triggered multistep activation cascade leading to the stimulation of the adaptor function of PAK, which through interaction with PIX provokes a functional PKL PBS2-paxillin LD4 association and consequent recruitment to focal adhesions. This mechanism is probably critical for the correct subcellular positioning of PAK, thereby

  10. Localization of antimicrobial peptides in the tunic of Ciona intestinalis (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) and their involvement in local inflammatory-like reactions

    PubMed Central

    Di Bella, M.A.; Fedders, H.; De Leo, G.; Leippe, M.

    2011-01-01

    Tunicates comprising a wide variety of different species synthesize antimicrobial peptides as important effector molecules of the innate immune system. Recently, two putative gene families coding for antimicrobial peptides were identified in the expressed sequence tag database of the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Two synthetic peptides representing the cationic core region of one member of each of the families displayed potent antibacterial and antifungal activities. Moreover, the natural peptides were demonstrated to be synthesized and stored in distinct hemocyte types. Here, we investigated the presence of these natural peptides, namely Ci-MAM-A and Ci-PAP-A, in the tunic of C. intestinalis considering that the ascidian tunic is a body surface barrier exposed to constant microbial assault. Furthermore, as the tunic may represent a major route of entry for pathogen invasion after its damage we monitored the location of these peptides upon a local inflammatory-like reaction induced by injection of foreign cells. Using immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy both peptides were localized to the tunic and were massively present in granulocytes of inflamed tissue. Conclusively, antimicrobial peptides may constitute a chemical barrier within the tunic of urochordates. PMID:24371555

  11. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... necessary and appropriate by the Committee to determine the impact of the proposed action on the human environment; (3) Consult with appropriate Federal, regional, State and local agencies and other potentially... environmental assessment or environmental impact statement (EIS) as set forth in § 51-7.4, or is one...

  12. 41 CFR 51-7.2 - Early involvement in private, State, and local activities requiring Federal approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... necessary and appropriate by the Committee to determine the impact of the proposed action on the human environment; (3) Consult with appropriate Federal, regional, State and local agencies and other potentially... environmental assessment or environmental impact statement (EIS) as set forth in § 51-7.4, or is one...

  13. Alfalfa Mob1-like proteins are involved in cell proliferation and are localized in the cell division plane during cytokinesis

    SciTech Connect

    Citterio, Sandra; Piatti, Simonetta; Albertini, Emidio; Aina, Roberta; Varotto, Serena; Barcaccia, Gianni . E-mail: gianni.barcaccia@unipd.it

    2006-04-15

    Mps-one-binder (Mob) proteins play a crucial role in yeast cytokinesis. After cloning two Mob1-like genes, MsMob1-A and MsMob1-B from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) we show that, although they are constitutively expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and pods, their transcripts and proteins are mostly produced in actively proliferating tissues. A polyclonal antibody specifically raised against MsMob1 proteins was used for immunolocalization studies in synchronized root tip cells. The subcellular localization of MsMob1-like proteins is demonstrated to be cell cycle-regulated. Cytoplasmic localization is faint and diffused during G{sub 1} and S. It becomes concentrated in punctuate and fibrillar structures in G{sub 2} as well as M phase. At the stage of cytokinesis, the protein is found at the emerging cell plate marking the progressive formation of the septum. Mob1 proteins partially co-localize with microtubules structures functionally related to the spindles and important for cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells. The MsMob1 expression cannot rescue the lethality of the yeast mob1 mutant, suggesting that interaction of Mob1 proteins with their effectors may be species-specific. Localization of Mob1 proteins in the inner layer of the root cap indicates an additional function for this class of proteins in plants, which is likely related to the onset of programmed cell death.

  14. NuMA localization, stability, and function in spindle orientation involve 4.1 and Cdk1 interactions

    PubMed Central

    Seldin, Lindsey; Poulson, Nicholas D.; Foote, Henry P.; Lechler, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The epidermis is a multilayered epithelium that requires asymmetric divisions for stratification. A conserved cortical protein complex, including LGN, nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA), and dynein/dynactin, plays a key role in establishing proper spindle orientation during asymmetric divisions. The requirements for the cortical recruitment of these proteins, however, remain unclear. In this work, we show that NuMA is required to recruit dynactin to the cell cortex of keratinocytes. NuMA's cortical recruitment requires LGN; however, LGN interactions are not sufficient for this localization. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we find that the 4.1-binding domain of NuMA is important for stabilizing its interaction with the cell cortex. This is functionally important, as loss of 4.1/NuMA interaction results in spindle orientation defects, using two distinct assays. Furthermore, we observe an increase in cortical NuMA localization as cells enter anaphase. Inhibition of Cdk1 or mutation of a single residue in NuMA mimics this effect. NuMA's anaphase localization is independent of LGN and 4.1 interactions, revealing two distinct mechanisms responsible for NuMA cortical recruitment at different stages of mitosis. This work highlights the complexity of NuMA localization and reveals the importance of NuMA cortical stability for productive force generation during spindle orientation. PMID:24109598

  15. Transformative environmental governance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  16. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse. PMID:27635258

  17. Evidence for Stopping Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis in Some, But Not All Local Government Areas of Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    King, Jonathan D.; Eigege, Abel; Umaru, John; Jip, Nimzing; Miri, Emmanuel; Jiya, Jonathan; Alphonsus, Kal M.; Sambo, Yohanna; Graves, Patricia; Richards, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An average of six annual rounds of ivermectin and albendazole were distributed in Plateau and Nasarawa States, Nigeria, to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. From 2007 to 2008, population-based surveys were implemented in all 30 local government areas (LGAs) of the two states to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti antigenemia to assess which LGA mass drug administration (MDA) could be halted. In total, 36,681 persons from 7,819 households were examined for filarial antigen as determined by immunochromatographic card tests. Overall antigen prevalence was 3.05% (exact upper 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.41%) with an upper 95% CI range by LGA of 0.50–19.3%. Among 3,233 children 6–7 years of age, overall antigen prevalence was 1.71% (exact upper 95% CI = 2.19%), too high to recommend generally halting MDA in the two-state area. However, based on criteria of < 2% antigenemia among persons > 2 years of age, stopping MDA was recommended for 10 LGAs. PMID:22855758

  18. Attitude and beliefs of traditional birth attendants to prematurely erupted teeth of infants in urban local government areas in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Juliana; Nasiru, Olukemi

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs.

  19. Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1979-01-01

    Reviews recent federal publications on government information, particularly in the area of general informational services, public access to government information and privacy issues, coordination of government information systems, and congressional information needs. (Author)

  20. 18 CFR 707.6 - Early involvement in private, State, local, and other non-Federal activities requiring Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Early involvement in... Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL... region or basin in which a comprehensive or Level B study is conducted, guidelines for...