#### Sample records for local limit theorem

1. Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corcoran, Mimi

2016-01-01

Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…

2. Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ruggieri, Eric

2016-01-01

The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…

3. Central limit theorems under special relativity.

PubMed

McKeague, Ian W

2015-04-01

Several relativistic extensions of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution have been proposed, but they do not explain observed lognormal tail-behavior in the flux distribution of various astrophysical sources. Motivated by this question, extensions of classical central limit theorems are developed under the conditions of special relativity. The results are related to CLTs on locally compact Lie groups developed by Wehn, Stroock and Varadhan, but in this special case the asymptotic distribution has an explicit form that is readily seen to exhibit lognormal tail behavior.

4. "Dealing" with the Central Limit Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Matz, David C.; Hause, Emily L.

2008-01-01

We describe an easy-to-employ, hands-on demonstration using playing cards to illustrate the central limit theorem. This activity allows students to see how a collection of sample means drawn from a nonnormally distributed population will be normally distributed. Students who took part in the demonstration reported it to be helpful in understanding…

5. Temporal Distributional Limit Theorems for Dynamical Systems

Dolgopyat, Dmitry; Sarig, Omri

2017-02-01

Suppose {T^t} is a Borel flow on a complete separable metric space X, f:X→ R is Borel, and xin X. A temporal distributional limit theorem is a scaling limit for the distributions of the random variables X_T:=int _0^t f(T^s x)ds, where t is chosen randomly uniformly from [0, T], x is fixed, and T→ ∞. We discuss such laws for irrational rotations, Anosov flows, and horocycle flows.

6. Central limit theorem: the cornerstone of modern statistics

PubMed Central

2017-01-01

According to the central limit theorem, the means of a random sample of size, n, from a population with mean, µ, and variance, σ2, distribute normally with mean, µ, and variance, σ2n. Using the central limit theorem, a variety of parametric tests have been developed under assumptions about the parameters that determine the population probability distribution. Compared to non-parametric tests, which do not require any assumptions about the population probability distribution, parametric tests produce more accurate and precise estimates with higher statistical powers. However, many medical researchers use parametric tests to present their data without knowledge of the contribution of the central limit theorem to the development of such tests. Thus, this review presents the basic concepts of the central limit theorem and its role in binomial distributions and the Student's t-test, and provides an example of the sampling distributions of small populations. A proof of the central limit theorem is also described with the mathematical concepts required for its near-complete understanding. PMID:28367284

7. Central limit theorems for percolation models

Cox, J. Theodore; Grimmett, Geoffrey

1981-06-01

Let p ≠ 1/2 be the open-bond probability in Broadbent and Hammersley's percolation model on the square lattice. Let W x be the cluster of sites connected to x by open paths, and let γ(n) be any sequence of circuits with interiors|γ limits^ circ (n)| to infty . It is shown that for certain sequences of functions { f n },S_n = sum _{x in γ limits^ circ (n)} f_n (W_x ) converges in distribution to the standard normal law when properly normalized. This result answers a problem posed by Kunz and Souillard, proving that the number S n of sites inside γ(n) which are connected by open paths to γ(n) is approximately normal for large circuits γ(n).

8. Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: The Central Limit Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rodriguez-Lopez, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr.

2006-01-01

This article describes the central limit theorem (CLT) and its relation to analytical chemistry. The pedagogic rational, which argues for teaching the CLT in the analytical chemistry classroom, is discussed. Some analytical chemistry concepts that could be improved through an understanding of the CLT are also described. (Contains 2 figures.)

9. Understanding the Sampling Distribution and the Central Limit Theorem.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lewis, Charla P.

The sampling distribution is a common source of misuse and misunderstanding in the study of statistics. The sampling distribution, underlying distribution, and the Central Limit Theorem are all interconnected in defining and explaining the proper use of the sampling distribution of various statistics. The sampling distribution of a statistic is…

10. Nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems in the presence of local heating

Pradhan, Punyabrata; Kafri, Yariv; Levine, Dov

2008-04-01

We study two nonequilibrium work fluctuation theorems, the Crooks theorem and the Jarzynski equality, for a test system coupled to a spatially extended heat reservoir whose degrees of freedom are explicitly modeled. The sufficient conditions for the validity of the theorems are discussed in detail and compared to the case of classical Hamiltonian dynamics. When the conditions are met the fluctuation theorems are shown to hold despite the fact that the immediate vicinity of the test system goes out of equilibrium during an irreversible process. We also study the effect of the coupling to the heat reservoir on the convergence of ⟨exp(-βW)⟩ to its theoretical mean value, where W is the work done on the test system and β is the inverse temperature. It is shown that the larger the local heating, the slower the convergence.

11. On local-hidden-variable no-go theorems

Methot, A. A.

2006-06-01

The strongest attack against quantum mechanics came in 1935 in the form of a paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. It was argued that the theory of quantum mechanics could not be called a complete theory of Nature, for every element of reality is not represented in the formalism as such. The authors then put forth a proposition: we must search for a theory where, upon knowing everything about the system, including possible hidden variables, one could make precise predictions concerning elements of reality. This project was ultimately doomed in 1964 with the work of Bell, who showed that the most general local hidden variable theory could not reproduce correlations that arise in quantum mechanics. There exist mainly three forms of no-go theorems for local hidden variable theories. Although almost every physicist knows the consequences of these no-go theorems, not every physicist is aware of the distinctions between the three or even their exact definitions. Thus, we will discuss here the three principal forms of no-go theorems for local hidden variable theories of Nature. We will define Bell theorems, Bell theorems without inequalities, and pseudo-telepathy. A discussion of the similarities and differences will follow.

12. Entropy Inequalities for Stable Densities and Strengthened Central Limit Theorems

Toscani, Giuseppe

2016-10-01

We consider the central limit theorem for stable laws in the case of the standardized sum of independent and identically distributed random variables with regular probability density function. By showing decay of different entropy functionals along the sequence we prove convergence with explicit rate in various norms to a Lévy centered density of parameter λ >1 . This introduces a new information-theoretic approach to the central limit theorem for stable laws, in which the main argument is shown to be the relative fractional Fisher information, recently introduced in Toscani (Ricerche Mat 65(1):71-91, 2016). In particular, it is proven that, with respect to the relative fractional Fisher information, the Lévy density satisfies an analogous of the logarithmic Sobolev inequality, which allows to pass from the monotonicity and decay to zero of the relative fractional Fisher information in the standardized sum to the decay to zero in relative entropy with an explicit decay rate.

13. Zero-Bounded Limits as a Special Case of the Squeeze Theorem for Evaluating Single-Variable and Multivariable Limits

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gkioulekas, Eleftherios

2013-01-01

Many limits, typically taught as examples of applying the "squeeze" theorem, can be evaluated more easily using the proposed zero-bounded limit theorem. The theorem applies to functions defined as a product of a factor going to zero and a factor that remains bounded in some neighborhood of the limit. This technique is immensely useful…

14. Mixing rates and limit theorems for random intermittent maps

Bahsoun, Wael; Bose, Christopher

2016-04-01

We study random transformations built from intermittent maps on the unit interval that share a common neutral fixed point. We focus mainly on random selections of Pomeu-Manneville-type maps {{T}α} using the full parameter range 0<α <∞ , in general. We derive a number of results around a common theme that illustrates in detail how the constituent map that is fastest mixing (i.e. smallest α) combined with details of the randomizing process, determines the asymptotic properties of the random transformation. Our key result (theorem 1.1) establishes sharp estimates on the position of return time intervals for the quenched dynamics. The main applications of this estimate are to limit laws (in particular, CLT and stable laws, depending on the parameters chosen in the range 0<α <1 ) for the associated skew product; these are detailed in theorem 3.2. Since our estimates in theorem 1.1 also hold for 1≤slant α <∞ we study a second class of random transformations derived from piecewise affine Gaspard-Wang maps, prove existence of an infinite (σ-finite) invariant measure and study the corresponding correlation asymptotics. To the best of our knowledge, this latter kind of result is completely new in the setting of random transformations.

15. A pointwise limit theorem for filtered backprojection in computed tomography.

PubMed

Ye, Yangbo; Zhu, Jiehua; Wang, Ge

2003-05-01

Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most important areas in the modern science and technology. The most popular approach for image reconstruction is filtered backprojection. It is essential to understand the limit behavior of the filtered backprojection algorithms. The classic results on the limit of image reconstruction are typically done in the norm sense. In this paper, we use the method of limited bandwidth to handle filtered backprojection-based image reconstruction when the spectrum of an underlying image is not absolutely integrable. Our main contribution is, assuming the method of limited bandwidth, to prove a pointwise limit theorem for a class of functions practically relevant and quite general. Further work is underway to extend the theory and explore its practical applications.

16. No-local-broadcasting theorem for multipartite quantum correlations.

PubMed

Piani, Marco; Horodecki, Paweł; Horodecki, Ryszard

2008-03-07

We prove that the correlations present in a multipartite quantum state have an operational quantum character even if the state is unentangled, as long as it does not simply encode a multipartite classical probability distribution. Said quantumness is revealed by the new task of local broadcasting, i.e., of locally sharing preestablished correlations, which is feasible if and only if correlations are stricly classical. Our operational approach leads to natural definitions of measures for quantumness of correlations. It also reproduces the standard no-broadcasting theorem as a special case.

17. Using Computers To Teach the Concepts of the Central Limit Theorem.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mittag, Kathleen Cage

A pivotal theorem which is of critical importance to statistical inference in probability and statistics is the Central Limit Theorem (CLT). The theorem concerns the sampling distribution of random samples taken from a population, including population distributions that do not have to be normal distributions. This paper contains a brief history of…

18. Local Paley Wiener theorems for functions analytic on unit spheres

Damelin, S. B.; Devaney, A. J.

2007-04-01

The purpose of this paper is to provide new and simplified statements of local Paley-Wiener theorems on the (n - 1)-dimensional unit sphere realized as a subset of n = 2, 3 Euclidean space. More precisely, given a function f:{\\bb C}^n\\to {\\bb C}, n=2,3 , whose restriction to an n - 1 sphere is analytic, we establish necessary and sufficient conditions determining whether f is the Fourier transform of a compactly supported, bounded function F:{\\bb R}^n\\to{\\bb C} . The essence of this investigation is that, because of the local nature of the problem, the mapping f → F is not in general invertible and so the problem cannot be studied via a Fourier integral. Our proofs are new.

19. Planetary Accretion, Oxygen Isotopes and the Central Limit Theorem

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

The accumulation of presolar dust into increasingly larger aggregates (CAIs and Chondrules, Asteroids, Planets) should result in a very drastic reduction in the numerical spread in oxygen isotopic composition between bodies of similar size, in accord with the Central Limit Theorem. Observed variations in oxygen isotopic composition are many orders of magnitude larger than would be predicted by a simple, random accumulation model that begins in a well-mixed nebula - no matter which size-scale objects are used as the beginning or end points of the calculation. This discrepancy implies either that some as yet unspecified process acted on the solids in the Solar Nebula to increase the spread in oxygen isotopic composition during each and every stage of accumulation or that the nebula was heterogeneous and maintained this heterogeneity throughout most of nebular history. Large-scale nebular heterogeneity would have significant consequences for many areas of cosmochemistry, including the application of some well-known isotopic systems to the dating of nebular events or the prediction of bulk compositions of planetary bodies on the basis of a uniform cosmic abundance.

20. Finiteness theorems for limit cycles: a digest of the revised proof

Ilyashenko, Yu S.

2016-02-01

This is the first paper in a series of two presenting a digest of the proof of the finiteness theorem for limit cycles of a planar polynomial vector field. At the same time we sketch the proof of the following two theorems: an analogous result for analytic vector fields, and a description of the asymptotics of the monodromy transformation for polycycles of such fields.

1. Central limit theorems and suppression of anomalous diffusion for systems with symmetry

Gottwald, Georg A.; Melbourne, Ian

2016-10-01

We give general conditions for the central limit theorem and weak convergence to Brownian motion (the weak invariance principle/functional central limit theorem) to hold for observables of compact group extensions of nonuniformly expanding maps. In particular, our results include situations where the central limit theorem would fail, and anomalous behaviour would prevail, if the compact group were not present. This has important consequences for systems with noncompact Euclidean symmetry and provides the rigorous proof for a conjecture made in our paper: a Huygens principle for diffusion and anomalous diffusion in spatially extended systems. Gottwald and Melbourne (2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110 8411-6).

2. On a new proof of the Lindeberg-Feller classical limit theorem

2015-09-01

In recent papers researchers describe some of the new types of properties characterization of the normal distribution. This paper gives a new one based on the characterization of these properties, the proof of the classical limit theorem Lindeberg-Feller.

3. Uniform Limit Theorems for Synchronous Processes with Applications to Queues

DTIC Science & Technology

1989-10-01

first moment. In the present paper we investi gate conditions under which the Cesaro averaged functionals ;(f) 1- jfoE((6,X))dj converge uniformly...Proposition 3.1 both apply to positive HRMP’s. So, for example, given any initial state Z 0 = :, it follows that the Cesaro averaged measures (A) 1! 7foEIA o...collection of measures (see Theorem 2.1 of [41)). Continuing in the spirit of Cesaro convergence we have Proposition 4.1. If Z is a positive HRMP with

4. The Implicit Function Theorem and Non-Existence of Limit of Functions of Several Variables

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

dos Santos, A. L. C.; da Silva, P. N.

2008-01-01

We use the Implicit Function Theorem to establish a result of non-existence of limit to a certain class of functions of several variables. We consider functions given by quotients such that both the numerator and denominator functions are null at the limit point. We show that the non-existence of the limit of such function is related with the…

5. Signal-locality, uncertainty, and the subquantum H-theorem. II

Valentini, Antony

1991-08-01

In the pilot-wave formulation, signal-locality and the uncertainty principle are shown to be valid only for the equilibrium distribution P=| Ψ| 2 (which arises from the subquantum H-theorem proved earlier). The H-theorem then explains the emergence of effective locality and uncertainty from a deeper nonlocal and deterministic theory. In order to explain the present uneasy “peaceful coexistence” (or “conspiracy”) between relativity and quantum theory, we suggest that a subquantum analogue of Boltzmann's heat death has actually happened in the real universe.

6. Metric rigidity theorems on Hermitian locally symmetric spaces

PubMed Central

Mok, Ngaiming

1986-01-01

Let X = Ω/Γ be a compact quotient of an irreducible bounded symmetric domain Ω of rank ≥2 by a discrete group ω of automorphisms without fixed points. It is well known that the Kähler-Einstein metric g on X carries seminegative curvature (in the sense of Griffiths). I show that any Hermitian metric h on X carrying seminegative curvature must be a constant multiple of g. This can be applied to prove rigidity theorems of holomorphic maps from X into Hermitian manifolds (Y, k) carrying seminegative curvature. These results are also generalized to the case of quotients of finite volume. On the other hand, let (Xc, gc) be an irreducible compact Hermitian symmetric manifold of rank ≥2. Then gc is Kähler and carries semipositive holomorphic bisectional curvature. I prove that any Kähler h on Xc carrying semipositive holomorphic bisectional curvature must be equal to gc up to a constant multiple and up to a biholomorphic transformation of Xc. PMID:16593680

7. A Central Limit Theorem for the Effective Conductance: Linear Boundary Data and Small Ellipticity Contrasts

Biskup, M.; Salvi, M.; Wolff, T.

2014-06-01

Given a resistor network on with nearest-neighbor conductances, the effective conductance in a finite set with a given boundary condition is the minimum of the Dirichlet energy over functions with the prescribed boundary values. For shift-ergodic conductances, linear (Dirichlet) boundary conditions and square boxes, the effective conductance scaled by the volume of the box converges to a deterministic limit as the box-size tends to infinity. Here we prove that, for i.i.d. conductances with a small ellipticity contrast, also a (non-degenerate) central limit theorem holds. The proof is based on the corrector method and the Martingale Central Limit Theorem; a key integrability condition is furnished by the Meyers estimate. More general domains, boundary conditions and ellipticity contrasts will be addressed in a subsequent paper.

8. The optical theorem for local source excitation of a particle near a plane interface

Eremin, Yuri; Wriedt, Thomas

2015-11-01

Based on classic Maxwell's theory and the Gauss Theorem we extended the Optical Theorem to the case of a penetrable particle excited by a local source deposited near a plane interface. We demonstrate that the derived Extinction Cross-Section involves the total point source radiating cross-section and some definite integrals responsible for the scattering by the interface. The derived extinction cross-section can be employed to estimate the quantum yield and the optical antenna efficiency without computation of the absorption cross-section.

9. Computability, Gödel's incompleteness theorem, and an inherent limit on the predictability of evolution.

PubMed

Day, Troy

2012-04-07

The process of evolutionary diversification unfolds in a vast genotypic space of potential outcomes. During the past century, there have been remarkable advances in the development of theory for this diversification, and the theory's success rests, in part, on the scope of its applicability. A great deal of this theory focuses on a relatively small subset of the space of potential genotypes, chosen largely based on historical or contemporary patterns, and then predicts the evolutionary dynamics within this pre-defined set. To what extent can such an approach be pushed to a broader perspective that accounts for the potential open-endedness of evolutionary diversification? There have been a number of significant theoretical developments along these lines but the question of how far such theory can be pushed has not been addressed. Here a theorem is proven demonstrating that, because of the digital nature of inheritance, there are inherent limits on the kinds of questions that can be answered using such an approach. In particular, even in extremely simple evolutionary systems, a complete theory accounting for the potential open-endedness of evolution is unattainable unless evolution is progressive. The theorem is closely related to Gödel's incompleteness theorem, and to the halting problem from computability theory.

10. Sanov and central limit theorems for output statistics of quantum Markov chains

SciTech Connect

2015-02-15

In this paper, we consider the statistics of repeated measurements on the output of a quantum Markov chain. We establish a large deviations result analogous to Sanov’s theorem for the multi-site empirical measure associated to finite sequences of consecutive outcomes of a classical stochastic process. Our result relies on the construction of an extended quantum transition operator (which keeps track of previous outcomes) in terms of which we compute moment generating functions, and whose spectral radius is related to the large deviations rate function. As a corollary to this, we obtain a central limit theorem for the empirical measure. Such higher level statistics may be used to uncover critical behaviour such as dynamical phase transitions, which are not captured by lower level statistics such as the sample mean. As a step in this direction, we give an example of a finite system whose level-1 (empirical mean) rate function is independent of a model parameter while the level-2 (empirical measure) rate is not.

11. Limit theorems for Lévy walks in d dimensions: rare and bulk fluctuations

Fouxon, Itzhak; Denisov, Sergey; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Barkai, Eli

2017-04-01

We consider super-diffusive Lévy walks in d≥slant 2 dimensions when the duration of a single step, i.e. a ballistic motion performed by a walker, is governed by a power-law tailed distribution of infinite variance and finite mean. We demonstrate that the probability density function (PDF) of the coordinate of the random walker has two different scaling limits at large times. One limit describes the bulk of the PDF. It is the d-dimensional generalization of the one-dimensional Lévy distribution and is the counterpart of the central limit theorem (CLT) for random walks with finite dispersion. In contrast with the one-dimensional Lévy distribution and the CLT this distribution does not have a universal shape. The PDF reflects anisotropy of the single-step statistics however large the time is. The other scaling limit, the so-called ‘infinite density’, describes the tail of the PDF which determines second (dispersion) and higher moments of the PDF. This limit repeats the angular structure of the PDF of velocity in one step. A typical realization of the walk consists of anomalous diffusive motion (described by anisotropic d-dimensional Lévy distribution) interspersed with long ballistic flights (described by infinite density). The long flights are rare but due to them the coordinate increases so much that their contribution determines the dispersion. We illustrate the concept by considering two types of Lévy walks, with isotropic and anisotropic distributions of velocities. Furthermore, we show that for isotropic but otherwise arbitrary velocity distributions the d-dimensional process can be reduced to a one-dimensional Lévy walk. We briefly discuss the consequences of non-universality for the d  >  1 dimensional fractional diffusion equation, in particular the non-uniqueness of the fractional Laplacian.

12. Limitations of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, and bayes' theorem in assessing diagnostic probabilities: a clinical example.

PubMed

Moons, K G; van Es, G A; Deckers, J W; Habbema, J D; Grobbee, D E

1997-01-01

We evaluated the extent to which the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio of the exercise test to diagnose coronary artery disease vary across subgroups of a certain patient population. Among 295 patients suspected of coronary artery disease, as independently determined by coronary angiography, we assessed variation in sensitivity and specificity according to patient history, physical examination, exercise test results, and disease severity in 207 patients with and 88 patients without coronary artery disease, respectively. The sensitivity varied substantially according to sex (women 30% and men 64%), systolic blood pressure at baseline (53% to 65%), expected workload (50% to 64%), systolic blood pressure at peak exercise (50% to 67%), relative workload (33% to 68%), and number of diseased vessels (39% to 77%). The specificity varied across subgroups of sex (men 89% and women 97%) and relative workload (85% to 98%). The likelihood ratio varied (3.8 to 17.0) across the same patient subgroups, as did the sensitivity. As each population tends to be heterogeneous with respect to patient characteristics, no single level of these parameters can be given that is adequate for all subgroups. Use of these parameters as a basis for calculating diagnostic probabilities in individual patients using Bayes' theorem has serious limitations.

13. A Microsoft® Excel Simulation Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem's Appropriateness for Comparing the Difference between the Means of Any Two Populations

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moen, David H.; Powell, John E.

2008-01-01

Using Microsoft® Excel, several interactive, computerized learning modules are developed to illustrate the Central Limit Theorem's appropriateness for comparing the difference between the means of any two populations. These modules are used in the classroom to enhance the comprehension of this theorem as well as the concepts that provide the…

14. Fluctuation limits of a locally regulated population and generalized Langevin equations

2015-06-01

We consider a locally regulated spatial population model introduced by Bolker and Pacala. Based on the deterministic approximation studied by Fournier and Méléard, we prove that the fluctuation theorem holds under some mild moment conditions. The limiting process is shown to be an infinite-dimensional Gaussian process solving a generalized Langevin equation. In particular, we further consider its properties in one dimension case, which is characterized as a time-inhomogeneous Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

15. Resolution limits of ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy

Desailly, Yann; Pierre, Juliette; Couture, Olivier; Tanter, Mickael

2015-11-01

As in other imaging methods based on waves, the resolution of ultrasound imaging is limited by the wavelength. However, the diffraction-limit can be overcome by super-localizing single events from isolated sources. In recent years, we developed plane-wave ultrasound allowing frame rates up to 20 000 fps. Ultrafast processes such as rapid movement or disruption of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) can thus be monitored, providing us with distinct punctual sources that could be localized beyond the diffraction limit. We previously showed experimentally that resolutions beyond λ/10 can be reached in ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy (uULM) using a 128 transducer matrix in reception. Higher resolutions are theoretically achievable and the aim of this study is to predict the maximum resolution in uULM with respect to acquisition parameters (frequency, transducer geometry, sampling electronics). The accuracy of uULM is the error on the localization of a bubble, considered a point-source in a homogeneous medium. The proposed model consists in two steps: determining the timing accuracy of the microbubble echo in radiofrequency data, then transferring this time accuracy into spatial accuracy. The simplified model predicts a maximum resolution of 40 μm for a 1.75 MHz transducer matrix composed of two rows of 64 elements. Experimental confirmation of the model was performed by flowing microbubbles within a 60 μm microfluidic channel and localizing their blinking under ultrafast imaging (500 Hz frame rate). The experimental resolution, determined as the standard deviation in the positioning of the microbubbles, was predicted within 6 μm (13%) of the theoretical values and followed the analytical relationship with respect to the number of elements and depth. Understanding the underlying physical principles determining the resolution of superlocalization will allow the optimization of the imaging setup for each organ. Ultimately, accuracies better than the size

16. On the limit theorem for life time distribution connected with some reliability systems and their validation by means of the Monte Carlo method

Gheorghe, Munteanu Bogdan; Alexei, Leahu; Sergiu, Cataranciuc

2013-09-01

We prove the limit theorem for life time distribution connected with reliability systems when their life time is a Pascal Convolution of independent and identically distributed random variables. We show that, in some conditions, such distributions may be approximated by means of Erlang distributions. As a consequnce, survival functions for such systems may be, respectively, approximated by Erlang survival functions. By using Monte Carlo method we experimantally confirm the theoretical results of our theorem.

17. Beyond Gisin's Theorem and its Applications: Violation of Local Realism by Two-Party Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.

PubMed

Chen, Jing-Ling; Su, Hong-Yi; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Wu, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chunfeng; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Żukowski, Marek; Kwek, L C

2015-06-25

We demonstrate here that for a given mixed multi-qubit state if there are at least two observers for whom mutual Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is possible, i.e. each observer is able to steer the other qubits into two different pure states by spontaneous collapses due to von Neumann type measurements on his/her qubit, then nonexistence of local realistic models is fully equivalent to quantum entanglement (this is not so without this condition). This result leads to an enhanced version of Gisin's theorem (originally: all pure entangled states violate local realism). Local realism is violated by all mixed states with the above steering property. The new class of states allows one e.g. to perform three party secret sharing with just pairs of entangled qubits, instead of three qubit entanglements (which are currently available with low fidelity). This significantly increases the feasibility of having high performance versions of such protocols. Finally, we discuss some possible applications.

18. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

SciTech Connect

Duann, D.J.

1994-08-01

The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the reconstitution of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

19. Central limit theorem for the solution to the heat equation with moving time

Liu, Junfeng; Tudor, Ciprian A.

2016-03-01

We consider the solution to the stochastic heat equation driven by the time-space white noise and study the asymptotic behavior of its spatial quadratic variations with “moving time”, meaning that the time variable is not fixed and its values are allowed to be very big or very small. We investigate the limit distribution of these variations via Malliavin calculus.

20. Computer-Enriched Instruction (CEI) Is Better for Preview Material Instead of Review Material: An Example of a Biostatistics Chapter, the Central Limit Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

See, Lai-Chu; Huang, Yu-Hsun; Chang, Yi-Hu; Chiu, Yeo-Ju; Chen, Yi-Fen; Napper, Vicki S.

2010-01-01

This study examines the timing using computer-enriched instruction (CEI), before or after a traditional lecture to determine cross-over effect, period effect, and learning effect arising from sequencing of instruction. A 2 x 2 cross-over design was used with CEI to teach central limit theorem (CLT). Two sequences of graduate students in nursing…

1. Classroom Research: Assessment of Student Understanding of Sampling Distributions of Means and the Central Limit Theorem in Post-Calculus Probability and Statistics Classes

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lunsford, M. Leigh; Rowell, Ginger Holmes; Goodson-Espy, Tracy

2006-01-01

We applied a classroom research model to investigate student understanding of sampling distributions of sample means and the Central Limit Theorem in post-calculus introductory probability and statistics courses. Using a quantitative assessment tool developed by previous researchers and a qualitative assessment tool developed by the authors, we…

2. Nonparametric Functional Central Limit Theorem for Time Series Regression with Application to Self-normalized Confidence Interval.

PubMed

Kim, Seonjin; Zhao, Zhibiao; Shao, Xiaofeng

2015-01-01

This paper is concerned with the inference of nonparametric mean function in a time series context. The commonly used kernel smoothing estimate is asymptotically normal and the traditional inference procedure then consistently estimates the asymptotic variance function and relies upon normal approximation. Consistent estimation of the asymptotic variance function involves another level of nonparametric smoothing. In practice, the choice of the extra bandwidth parameter can be difficult, the inference results can be sensitive to bandwidth selection and the normal approximation can be quite unsatisfactory in small samples leading to poor coverage. To alleviate the problem, we propose to extend the recently developed self-normalized approach, which is a bandwidth free inference procedure developed for parametric inference, to construct point-wise confidence interval for nonparametric mean function. To justify asymptotic validity of the self-normalized approach, we establish a functional central limit theorem for recursive nonparametric mean regression function estimates under primitive conditions and show that the limiting process is a Gaussian process with non-stationary and dependent increments. The superior finite sample performance of the new approach is demonstrated through simulation studies.

3. Generalised Central Limit Theorems for Growth Rate Distribution of Complex Systems

Takayasu, Misako; Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki

2014-04-01

We introduce a solvable model of randomly growing systems consisting of many independent subunits. Scaling relations and growth rate distributions in the limit of infinite subunits are analysed theoretically. Various types of scaling properties and distributions reported for growth rates of complex systems in a variety of fields can be derived from this basic physical model. Statistical data of growth rates for about 1 million business firms are analysed as a real-world example of randomly growing systems. Not only are the scaling relations consistent with the theoretical solution, but the entire functional form of the growth rate distribution is fitted with a theoretical distribution that has a power-law tail.

4. Quasi-local approximation of non-local exchange-correlation kernels in the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem

Lu, Deyu

The adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem (ACFDT) is a formal theoretical framework to treat van der Waals (vdW) dispersion interactions. Under the random phase approximation (RPA), it yields the correct asymptotic behavior at large distances, but the short-range correlation is overestimated. It has been demonstrated that non-local exchange-correlation kernels can systematically correct the errors of RPA for homogenous electron gas. However, direct extension of non-local kernels derived from the electron gas model to inhomogeneous systems raises several issues. In addition to the high computational expense, the non-local kernels worsen the rare gas dimer binding curve as compared to RPA. In this study, we propose a quasi-local approximation of the non-local kernel in order to address these issues. This research used resources of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, which is a U.S. DOE Office of Science Facility, at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

5. Limits on the local dark matter density

Garbari, Silvia; Read, Justin I.; Lake, George

2011-09-01

We revisit systematics in determining the local dark matter density ρdm from the vertical motion of stars in the solar neighbourhood. Using a simulation of a Milky Way like galaxy, we determine the data quality required to detect ρdm at its expected local value. We introduce a new method for recovering ρdm that uses moments of the Jeans equations, combined with a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, to marginalize over the unknown parameters. Given sufficiently good data, we show that our method can recover the correct local dark matter density even in the face of disc inhomogeneities, non-isothermal tracers and a non-separable distribution function. We illustrate the power of our technique by applying it to Hipparcos data. We first make the assumption that the A- and F-star tracer populations are isothermal. This recovers ρdm= 0.003+0.009- 0.007 M⊙ pc-3 (ρdm= 0.11+0.34- 0.27 GeV cm-3, with 90 per cent confidence), consistent with previous determinations. However, the vertical dispersion profile of these tracers is poorly known. If we assume instead a non-isothermal profile similar to that of the blue disc stars from SDSS DR-7 recently measured, we obtain a fit with a very similar χ2 value, but with ρdm= 0.033+0.008- 0.009 M⊙ pc-3 (ρdm= 1.25+0.30- 0.34 GeV cm-3 with 90 per cent confidence). This highlights that it is vital to measure the vertical dispersion profile of the tracers to recover an unbiased estimate of ρdm.

6. Local and nonlocal advected invariants and helicities in magnetohydrodynamics and gas dynamics: II. Noether's theorems and Casimirs

Webb, G. M.; Dasgupta, B.; McKenzie, J. F.; Hu, Q.; Zank, G. P.

2014-03-01

Conservation laws in ideal gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) associated with fluid relabeling symmetries are derived using Noether's first and second theorems. Lie dragged invariants are discussed in terms of the MHD Casimirs. A nonlocal conservation law for fluid helicity applicable for a non-barotropic fluid involving Clebsch variables is derived using Noether's theorem, in conjunction with a fluid relabeling symmetry and a gauge transformation. A nonlocal cross helicity conservation law involving Clebsch potentials, and the MHD energy conservation law are derived by the same method. An Euler-Poincaré variational approach is also used to derive conservation laws associated with fluid relabeling symmetries using Noether's second theorem.

7. Visual Theorems.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Davis, Philip J.

1993-01-01

Argues for a mathematics education that interprets the word "theorem" in a sense that is wide enough to include the visual aspects of mathematical intuition and reasoning. Defines the term "visual theorems" and illustrates the concept using the Marigold of Theodorus. (Author/MDH)

8. Wold-Cramer Concordance Theorems for Interpolation of q-Variate Stationary Process over Locally Compact Abelian Groups

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Makagon, A.; Weron, A.

1976-01-01

Salehi and Scheidt have derived several Wold-Cramer concordance theorems for q-variate stationary processes over discrete groups. This paper characterizes the concordance of the Wold decomposition with respect to families arising in the interpolation problem and the Cramer decomposition for non-full-rank q-variate stationary processes over certain…

9. Dulac's memoir "On limit cycles" and related problems of the local theory of differential equations

Il'yashenko, Yu S.

1985-12-01

CONTENTSIntroductionChapter I. Dulac's theorem and its generalization § 1. Definitions § 2. Reduction of the finiteness problem to the study of a neighbourhood of a compound cycle with elementary singular points § 3. Correspondence maps § 4. Composition of correspondence maps § 5. Remarks on Dulac's theory § 6. Two finiteness theoremsChapter II. Smooth orbital classification of elementary singular points of plane vector fields § 1. Survey of known results and sketch of a proof of the classification theorem § 2. Formal normal forms § 3. Proof of the classification theorem for degenerate elementary singular pointsConclusionAppendix. Example of a flat quadratic system having four limit cycles (after Shi Sonling)References

10. Bell's theorem and Bayes' theorem

Garrett, A. J. M.

1990-12-01

Bell's theorem is expounded as an analysis in Bayesian probabilistic inference. Assume that the result of a spin measurement on a spin- 1/2 particle is governed by a variable internal to the particle (local, “hidden”), and examine pairs of particles having zero combined angular momentum so that their internal variables are correlated: knowing something about the internal variable of one tells us something about that of the other. By measuring the spin of one particle, we infer something about its internal variable; through the correlation, about the internal variable of the second particle, which may be arbitrarily distant and is by hypothesis unchanged by this measurement (locality); and make (probabilistic) prediction of spin observations on the second particle. Each link in this chain has a counterpart in the Bayesian analysis of the situation. Irrespective of the details of the internal variable description, such prediction is violated by measurements on many particle pairs, so that locality—effectively the only physics invoked—fails. The time ordering of the two measurements is not Lorentz-invariant, implying acausality. Quantum mechanics is irrelevant to this reasoning, although its correct predictions of the statistics of the results imply it has a nonlocal—acausal interpretation; one such, the “transactional” interpretation, is presented to demonstrable advantage, and some misconceptions about quantum theory are pursued. The “unobservability” loophole in photonic Bell experiments is proven to be closed. It is shown that this mechanism cannot be used for signalling; signalling would become possible only if the hidden variables, which we insist must underlie the statistical character of the observations (the alternative is to give up), are uncovered in deviations from quantum predictions. Their reticence is understood as a consequence of their nonlocality: it is not easy to isolate and measure something nonlocal. Once the hidden variables

11. Studies on Bell's theorem

Guney, Veli Ugur

In this work we look for novel classes of Bell's inequalities and methods to produce them. We also find their quantum violations including, if possible, the maximum one. The Jordan bases method that we explain in Chapter 2 is about using a pair of certain type of orthonormal bases whose spans are subspaces related to measurement outcomes of incompatible quantities on the same physical system. Jordan vectors are the briefest way of expressing the relative orientation of any two subspaces. This feature helps us to reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space on which we do searches for optimization. The work is published in [24]. In Chapter 3, we attempt to find a connection between group theory and Bell's theorem. We devise a way of generating terms of a Bell's inequality that are related to elements of an algebraic group. The same group generates both the terms of the Bell's inequality and the observables that are used to calculate the quantum value of the Bell expression. Our results are published in [25][26]. In brief, Bell's theorem is the main tool of a research program that was started by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen [19] and Bohr [8] in the early days of quantum mechanics in their discussions about the core nature of physical systems. These debates were about a novel type of physical states called superposition states, which are introduced by quantum mechanics and manifested in the apparent inevitable randomness in measurement outcomes of identically prepared systems. Bell's huge contribution was to find a means of quantifying the problem and hence of opening the way to experimental verification by rephrasing the questions as limits on certain combinations of correlations between measurement results of spatially separate systems [7]. Thanks to Bell, the fundamental questions related to the nature of quantum mechanical systems became quantifiable [6]. According to Bell's theorem, some correlations between quantum entangled systems that involve incompatible

12. A rapid-pressure correlation representation consistent with the Taylor-Proudman theorem materially-frame-indifferent in the 2D limit

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ristorcelli, J. R.; Lumley, J. L.; Abid, R.

1994-01-01

A nonlinear representation for the rapid-pressure correlation appearing in the Reynolds stress equations, consistent with the Taylor-Proudman theorem, is presented. The representation insures that the modeled second-order equations are frame-invariant with respect to rotation when the flow is two-dimensional in planes perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The representation satisfies realizability in a new way: a special ansatz is used to obtain analytically, the values of coefficients valid away from the realizability limit: the model coefficients are functions of the state of the turbulence that are valid for all states of the mechanical turbulence attaining their constant limiting values only when the limit state is achieved. Utilization of all the mathematical constraints are not enough to specify all the coefficients in the model. The unspecified coefficients appear as free parameters which are used to insure that the representation is asymptotically consistent with the known equilibrium states of a homogeneous sheared turbulence. This is done by insuring that the modeled evolution equations have the same fixed points as those obtained from computer and laboratory experiments for the homogeneous shear. Results of computations of the homogeneous shear, with and without rotation, and with stabilizing and destabilizing curvature, are shown. Results are consistently better, in a wide class of flows which the model not been calibrated, than those obtained with other nonlinear models.

13. Accounting for Limited Detection Efficiency and Localization Precision in Cluster Analysis in Single Molecule Localization Microscopy

PubMed Central

Shivanandan, Arun; Unnikrishnan, Jayakrishnan; Radenovic, Aleksandra

2015-01-01

Single Molecule Localization Microscopy techniques like PhotoActivated Localization Microscopy, with their sub-diffraction limit spatial resolution, have been popularly used to characterize the spatial organization of membrane proteins, by means of quantitative cluster analysis. However, such quantitative studies remain challenged by the techniques’ inherent sources of errors such as a limited detection efficiency of less than 60%, due to incomplete photo-conversion, and a limited localization precision in the range of 10 – 30nm, varying across the detected molecules, mainly depending on the number of photons collected from each. We provide analytical methods to estimate the effect of these errors in cluster analysis and to correct for them. These methods, based on the Ripley’s L(r) – r or Pair Correlation Function popularly used by the community, can facilitate potentially breakthrough results in quantitative biology by providing a more accurate and precise quantification of protein spatial organization. PMID:25794150

14. Local versus basin-scale limitation of marine nitrogen fixation.

PubMed

Weber, Thomas; Deutsch, Curtis

2014-06-17

Nitrogen (N) fixation by diazotrophic plankton is the primary source of this crucial nutrient to the ocean, but the factors limiting its rate and distribution are controversial. According to one view, the ecological niche of diazotrophs is primarily controlled by the ocean through internally generated N deficits that suppress the growth of their competitors. A second view posits an overriding limit from the atmosphere, which restricts diazotrophs to regions where dust deposition satisfies their high iron (Fe) requirement, thus separating N sources from sinks at a global scale. Here we use multiple geochemical signatures of N2 fixation to show that the Fe limitation of diazotrophs is strong enough to modulate the regional distribution of N2 fixation within ocean basins--particularly the Fe-poor Pacific--but not strong enough to influence its partition between basins, which is instead governed by rates of N loss. This scale-dependent limitation of N2 fixation reconciles local observations of Fe stress in diazotroph communities with an inferred spatial coupling of N sources and sinks. Within this regime of intermediate Fe control, the oceanic N reservoir would respond only weakly to enhanced dust fluxes during glacial climates, but strongly to the reduced fluxes hypothesized under anthropogenic climate warming.

15. Limits of localized control in extended nonlinear systems

Handel, Andreas

We investigate the limits of localized linear control in spatially extended, nonlinear systems. Spatially extended, nonlinear systems can be found in virtually every field of engineering and science. An important category of such systems are fluid flows. Fluid flows play an important role in many commercial applications, for instance in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food-processing industries. Other important fluid flows include air- or water flows around cars, planes or ships. In all these systems, it is highly desirable to control the flow of the respective fluid. For instance control of the air flow around an airplane or car leads to better fuel-economy and reduced noise production. Usually, it is impossible to apply control everywhere. Consider an airplane: It would not be feasibly to cover the whole body of the plane with control units. Instead, one can place the control units at localized regions, such as points along the edge of the wings, spaced as far apart from each other as possible. These considerations lead to an important question: For a given system, what is the minimum number of localized controllers that still ensures successful control? Too few controllers will not achieve control, while using too many leads to unnecessary expenses and wastes resources. To answer this question, we study localized control in a class of model equations. These model equations are good representations of many real fluid flows. Using these equations, we show how one can design localized control that renders the system stable. We study the properties of the control and derive several expressions that allow us to determine the limits of successful control. We show how the number of controllers that are needed for successful control depends on the size and type of the system, as well as the way control is implemented. We find that especially the nonlinearities and the amount of noise present in the system play a crucial role. This analysis allows us to determine under

16. Exponential Localization of Photons

Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

1998-06-01

It is shown that photons can be localized in space with an exponential falloff of the energy density and photodetection rates. The limits of localization are determined by the fundamental Paley-Wiener theorem. A direct mathematical connection between the spatial localization of photons and the decay in time of quantum mechanical systems is established.

17. Application of the Central Limit Theorem in microbial risk assessment: high number of servings reduces the Coefficient of Variation of food-borne burden-of-illness.

PubMed

Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Zwietering, Marcel H

2012-02-15

The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is proposed as a means of understanding microbial risk in foods from a Public Health perspective. One variant of the CLT states that as the number of random variables, each with a finite mean and variance, increases (→∞), the distribution of the sum (or mean) of those variables approximates a normal distribution. On the basis of the CLT, the hypothesis introduced by this paper states that the Coefficient of Variation (CV) of the annual number of food-borne illness cases decreases as a result of a larger number of exposures (or servings) (n). Second-order Monte-Carlo analysis and classical statistics were used to support the hypothesis, based on existing risk models on Listeria monocytogenes in deli meat products focused on elderly people in the United States. Likewise, the hypothesis was tested on epidemiological data of annual incidence of salmonellosis and listeriosis in different countries (i.e. different n). Although different sources of error affected the accuracy of the results, both the Monte-Carlo analysis (in silico) and epidemiological data (in vivo), especially for salmonellosis, demonstrated that the CV of the annual number of cases decreased as n increased as stated by the CLT. Furthermore, results from this work showed that classical statistical methods can be helpful to provide reliable risk estimates based on simple and well-established statistical principles.

18. Local and Global Limits on Visual Processing in Schizophrenia

PubMed Central

Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

2015-01-01

Schizophrenia has been linked to impaired performance on a range of visual processing tasks (e.g. detection of coherent motion and contour detection). It has been proposed that this is due to a general inability to integrate visual information at a global level. To test this theory, we assessed the performance of people with schizophrenia on a battery of tasks designed to probe voluntary averaging in different visual domains. Twenty-three outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age: 40±8 years; 3 female) and 20 age-matched control participants (mean age 39±9 years; 3 female) performed a motion coherence task and three equivalent noise (averaging) tasks, the latter allowing independent quantification of local and global limits on visual processing of motion, orientation and size. All performance measures were indistinguishable between the two groups (ps>0.05, one-way ANCOVAs), with one exception: participants with schizophrenia pooled fewer estimates of local orientation than controls when estimating average orientation (p = 0.01, one-way ANCOVA). These data do not support the notion of a generalised visual integration deficit in schizophrenia. Instead, they suggest that distinct visual dimensions are differentially affected in schizophrenia, with a specific impairment in the integration of visual orientation information. PMID:25689281

19. Local and global limits on visual processing in schizophrenia.

PubMed

Tibber, Marc S; Anderson, Elaine J; Bobin, Tracy; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Dakin, Steven C

2015-01-01

Schizophrenia has been linked to impaired performance on a range of visual processing tasks (e.g. detection of coherent motion and contour detection). It has been proposed that this is due to a general inability to integrate visual information at a global level. To test this theory, we assessed the performance of people with schizophrenia on a battery of tasks designed to probe voluntary averaging in different visual domains. Twenty-three outpatients with schizophrenia (mean age: 40±8 years; 3 female) and 20 age-matched control participants (mean age 39±9 years; 3 female) performed a motion coherence task and three equivalent noise (averaging) tasks, the latter allowing independent quantification of local and global limits on visual processing of motion, orientation and size. All performance measures were indistinguishable between the two groups (ps>0.05, one-way ANCOVAs), with one exception: participants with schizophrenia pooled fewer estimates of local orientation than controls when estimating average orientation (p = 0.01, one-way ANCOVA). These data do not support the notion of a generalised visual integration deficit in schizophrenia. Instead, they suggest that distinct visual dimensions are differentially affected in schizophrenia, with a specific impairment in the integration of visual orientation information.

20. Vorticity, Stokes' Theorem and the Gauss's Theorem

Narayanan, M.

2004-12-01

Vorticity is a property of the flow of any fluid and moving fluids acquire properties that allow an engineer to describe that particular flow in greater detail. It is important to recognize that mere motion alone does not guarantee that the air or any fluid has vorticity. Vorticity is one of four important quantities that define the kinematic properties of any fluid flow. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. However, the divergence theorem is a mathematical statement of the physical fact that, in the absence of the creation or destruction of matter, the density within a region of space can change only by having it flow into, or away from the region through its boundary. This is also known as Gauss's Theorem. It should also be noted that there are many useful extensions of Gauss's Theorem, including the extension to include surfaces of discontinuity in V. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. Integral (Surface) [(DEL X V)] . dS = Integral (Contour) [V . dx] In this paper, the author outlines and stresses the importance of studying and teaching these mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. References Arfken, G. "Gauss's Theorem." 1.11 in Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 3rd ed. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 57-61, 1985. Morse, P. M. and Feshbach, H. "Gauss's Theorem." In Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I. New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 37-38, 1953. Eric W. Weisstein. "Divergence Theorem." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DivergenceTheorem.html

1. Structure theorem for Vaisman completely solvable solvmanifolds

Sawai, Hiroshi

2017-04-01

Locally conformal Kähler manifold is said to be a Vaisman manifold if the Lee form is parallel with respect to the Riemannian metric. In this paper, we have the structure theorem for Vaisman completely solvable solvmanifolds.

2. Local Longitudinal Microwave Instability Limits During Bunch Rotation

SciTech Connect

Ng, K. Y.

2012-10-23

Bunch width compression can be accomplished by rf rotating an elongated bunch with minimal energy spread. The formation of tails at the two bunch ends produces disconnected regions in many time-advance slices. The stability limits of longitudinal microwave growth for each time-advance slice of the beam will be affected. This effect is studied and the Keil-Schnell stability limits for such time-advance slices are derived. Application is made to the bunch-width compression in the Fermilab Compressor Ring, destined for pion and subsequently muon production

3. Local Revenues for Schools: Limits and Options in California

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perry, Mary; Edwards, Brian

2009-01-01

With K-12 schools representing the single largest expenditure in the state budget, education funding has been a central issue throughout the chaos that has recently characterized California's budget process. School districts throughout California have endured deep cuts in state funding, and more cuts are looming. But state law severely limits the…

4. Quantum-limited estimation of continuous spontaneous localization

McMillen, S.; Brunelli, M.; Carlesso, M.; Bassi, A.; Ulbricht, H.; Paris, M. G. A.; Paternostro, M.

2017-01-01

We apply the formalism of quantum estimation theory to extract information about potential collapse mechanisms of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) form. In order to estimate the strength with which the field responsible for the CSL mechanism couples to massive systems, we consider the optomechanical interaction between a mechanical resonator and a cavity field. Our estimation strategy passes through the probing of either the state of the oscillator or that of the electromagnetic field that drives its motion. In particular, we concentrate on all-optical measurements, such as homodyne and heterodyne measurements. We also compare the performances of such strategies with those of a spin-assisted optomechanical system, where the estimation of the CSL parameter is performed through time-gated spinlike measurements.

5. Understanding Rolle's Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parameswaran, Revathy

2009-01-01

This paper reports on an experiment studying twelfth grade students' understanding of Rolle's Theorem. In particular, we study the influence of different concept images that students employ when solving reasoning tasks related to Rolle's Theorem. We argue that students' "container schema" and "motion schema" allow for rich…

6. The Parity Theorem Shuffle

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Michael D.

2016-01-01

The Parity Theorem states that any permutation can be written as a product of transpositions, but no permutation can be written as a product of both an even number and an odd number of transpositions. Most proofs of the Parity Theorem take several pages of mathematical formalism to complete. This article presents an alternative but equivalent…

7. An extension theorem for conformal gauge singularities

Lübbe, Christian; Tod, Paul

2009-11-01

We analyze conformal gauge, or isotropic, singularities in cosmological models in general relativity. Using the calculus of tractors, we find conditions in terms of tractor curvature for a local extension of the conformal structure through a cosmological singularity and prove a local extension theorem along a congruence of timelike conformal geodesics.

8. The Floquet Adiabatic Theorem revisited

Weinberg, Phillip; Bukov, Marin; D'Alessio, Luca; Kolodrubetz, Michael; Davidson, Shainen; Polkovnikov, Anatoli

2015-03-01

The existance of the adiabatic theorem for Floquet systems has been the subject of an active debate with different articles reaching opposite conclusions over the years. In this talk we clarify the situation by deriving a systematic expansion in the time-derivatives of a slow parameter for the occupation probabilities of the Floque states. Our analysis shows that the in a certain limit the transition between Floquet eigenstates are suppressed and it is possible to define an adiabatic theorem for Floquet systems. Crucially we observe however that the conditions for adiabaticity in ordinary and Floquet systems are different and that this difference can become important when the amplitude of the periodic driving is large. We illustrate our results with specific examples of a periodically driven harmonic oscillator and cold atoms in optical lattices which are relevant in current experiments.

9. Local superconducting coupling in the strong-localization limit of ultrathin granular metal films

SciTech Connect

Haviland, D. B.; Jaeger, H. M.; Orr, B. G.; Goldman, A. M.

1989-07-01

The onset of fluctuations into the superconducting state, as identified bythe appearance of a local minimum in the resistance versus temperature, isfound to be coincident with the characteristic activation energy ofnormal-state conduction falling to a value of the order of the superconductingenergy gap of the material at /ital T/=0. The model of conduction used isvariable-range hopping with a Coulomb gap, appropriate to granular metals.

10. Cooperation Among Theorem Provers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waldinger, Richard J.

1998-01-01

In many years of research, a number of powerful theorem-proving systems have arisen with differing capabilities and strengths. Resolution theorem provers (such as Kestrel's KITP or SRI's SNARK) deal with first-order logic with equality but not the principle of mathematical induction. The Boyer-Moore theorem prover excels at proof by induction but cannot deal with full first-order logic. Both are highly automated but cannot accept user guidance easily. The purpose of this project, and the companion project at Kestrel, has been to use the category-theoretic notion of logic morphism to combine systems with different logics and languages.

11. Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED

DOEpatents

Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin

2013-11-05

The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

12. Anti-Bell - Refutation of Bell's theorem

Barukčić, Ilija

2012-12-01

In general, Albert Einstein as one of "the founding fathers of quantum mechanics" had some problems to accept especially the Copenhagen dominated interpretation of quantum mechanics. Einstein's dissatisfaction with Copenhagen's interpretation of quantum mechanics, the absence of locality and causality within the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics lead to the well known Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment. According to Einstein et al., the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics cannot be regarded as a complete physical theory. The Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen thought experiment was the origin of J. S. Bell's publication in 1964; known as Bell's theorem. Meanwhile, some dramatic violations of Bell's inequality (by so called Bell test experiments) have been reported which is taken as an empirical evidence against local realism and causality at quantum level and as positive evidence in favor of the Copenhagen dominated quantum mechanics. Thus far, Quantum mechanics is still regarded as a "strictly" non-local theory. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem. Thus far, if we accept Bell's theorem as correct, we must accept that +0> = +1. We can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's theorem, Bell's theorem is refuted.

13. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kent, David

1980-01-01

Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

14. Pompeiu's Theorem Revisited

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2009-01-01

Pompeiu's theorem states that if ABC is an "equilateral" triangle and M a point in its plane, then MA, MB, and MC form a new triangle. In this article, we have a new look at this theorem in the realm of arbitrary triangles. We discover what we call Pompeiu's Area Formula, a neat equality relating areas of triangles determined by the points A, B,…

15. Reaching the ultimate performance limit given by non-local effects in BOTDA sensors

Dominguez-Lopez, Alejandro; Yang, Zhisheng; Soto, Marcelo A.; Angulo-Vinuesa, Xabier; Martin-Lopez, S.; Thevenaz, Luc; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

2015-09-01

Non-local effects have been traditionally identified as one of the most limiting factors of the performance of Brillouin optical time-domain analyzers. These phenomena, directly linked with the energy gained/lost by the pump pulse, limit the probe power and ultimately the SNR of the system. Several solutions have been proposed, although none offers the possibility to increase the probe power until its limit, the onset of amplified spontaneous Brillouin scattering. In this work, we propose a technique that avoids non-local effects and permits to set the probe power at its maximum, reaching a 100 km sensing distance with 2 meter resolution.

16. Influence of localized surface plasmons on Pauli blocking and optical limiting in graphene under femtosecond pumping

Bongu, Sudhakara Reddy; Bisht, Prem B.; Namboodiri, Raman C. K.; Nayak, Pranati; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Kelly, Thomas J.; Fallon, Colm; Costello, John T.

2014-08-01

The Pauli blocking limit and optical limiting threshold have been found to be modified following silver-nanoparticle decoration of functionalized hydrogen induced exfoliated graphene. Femtosecond Z-scan experiments have been used to measure the Pauli blocking range, optical limiting threshold, and the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) values. The observed results have been explained by modified band structure of graphene in the presence of silver nanoparticles and their localized surface plasmon resonances.

17. Fluctuation theorem in dynamical systems with quenched disorder

Drocco, Jeffrey; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles

2010-03-01

We demonstrate that the fluctuation theorem of Gallavotti and Cohen can be used to characterize far from equilibrium dynamical nonthermal systems in the presence of quenched disorder where strong fluctuations or crackling noise occur. By observing the frequency of entropy-destroying trajectories, we show that the theorem holds in specific dynamical regimes near the threshold for motion, indicating that these systems might be ideal candidates for understanding what types of nonthermal fluctuations could be used in constructing generalized fluctuation theorems. We also discuss how the theorem could be tested with global or local probes in systems such as superconducting vortices, magnetic domain walls, stripe phases, Coulomb glasses and earthquake models.

18. Navier Stokes Theorem in Hydrology

Narayanan, M.

2005-12-01

In a paper presented at the 2004 AGU International Conference, the author outlined and stressed the importance of studying and teaching certain important mathematical techniques while developing a course in Hydrology and Fluid Mechanics. The Navier-Stokes equations are the foundation of fluid mechanics, and Stokes' theorem is used in nearly every branch of mechanics as well as electromagnetics. Stokes' Theorem also plays a vital role in many secondary theorems such as those pertaining to vorticity and circulation. Mathematically expressed, Stokes' theorem can be expressed by considering a surface S having a bounding curve C. Here, V is any sufficiently smooth vector field defined on the surface and its bounding curve C. In an article entitled "Corrections to Fluid Dynamics" R. F. Streater, (Open Systems and Information Dynamics, 10, 3-30, 2003.) proposes a kinetic model of a fluid in which five macroscopic fields, the mass, energy, and three components of momentum, are conserved. The dynamics is constructed using the methods of statistical dynamics, and results in a non-linear discrete-time Markov chain for random fields on a lattice. In the continuum limit he obtains a non-linear coupled parabolic system of field equations, showing a correction to the Navier-Stokes equations. In 2001, David Hoff published an article in Journees Equations aux derivees partielles. (Art. No. 7, 9 p.). His paper is entitled : Dynamics of Singularity Surfaces for Compressible Navier-Stokes Flows in Two Space Dimensions. In his paper, David Hoff proves the global existence of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible, barotropic flow in two space dimensions with piecewise smooth initial data. These solutions remain piecewise smooth for all time, retaining simple jump discontinuities in the density and in the divergence of the velocity across a smooth curve, which is convected with the flow. The strengths of these discontinuities are shown to decay exponentially in time

19. Plasmonic localized heating beyond the diffraction limit via magnetic polariton excitation

Alshehri, Hassan; Ying, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Liping

2016-09-01

Optical localized heating in the nanoscale has recently attracted great attention due to its unique small hot spot size with high energy. However, the hot spot size is conventionally constrained by the diffraction limit. Plasmonic localized heating can provide solutions to this limitation in nanoscale patterning, cancer treatment, and data storage. Plasmonic approaches to overcome the diffraction limit in hot spot size have mainly utilized the excitation of surface plasmon or localized surface plasmon resonance. However, achieving plasmonic localized heating by the excitation of magnetic polariton has not been researched extensively yet. In this work, we numerically investigated the optical response of a nanoscale metamaterial composed of a gold nanowire array and a gold film separated by an ultrathin polymer spacer using ANSYS High Frequency Structural Simulator. A strong absorption peak at the wavelength of 760 nm was exhibited, and the underlying physical mechanism for the strong absorption was verified via the local electromagnetic field distribution to be magnetic resonance excitation. An inductor-capacitor circuit model was used to predict the magnetic resonance wavelength and compare with the numerical results for varied geometrical parameters. Volume loss density due to the strong local optical energy confinement was transferred as heat generation to an ANSYS thermal solver to obtain the local temperature profile. The steady state temperature profile shows an average temperature of 145 °C confined in a local area as small as 33 nm within the spacer, with a full-width at half-maximum of 50 nm along the x-direction. Moreover, the temperature rise from ambient drops to half its maximum value at a distance of 5 nm from the top of the spacer along the z-direction. This clearly demonstrates plasmonic localized heating beyond the diffraction limit via magnetic polariton excitation. Furthermore, the transient temperature profile shows that the system reached

20. A generalization of Nekhoroshev's theorem

Bates, Larry; Cushman, Richard

2016-11-01

Nekhoroshev discovered a beautiful theorem in Hamiltonian systems that includes as special cases not only the Poincaré theorem on periodic orbits but also the theorem of Liouville-Arnol'd on completely integrable systems [7]. Sadly, his early death precluded him publishing a full account of his proof. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to provide a complete proof of his original theorem and second a generalization to the noncommuting case. Our generalization of Nekhoroshev's theorem to the nonabelian case subsumes aspects of the theory of noncommutative complete integrability as found in Mishchenko and Fomenko [5] and is similar to what Nekhoroshev's theorem does in the abelian case.

1. Adaptation of Medicago truncatula to nitrogen limitation is modulated via local and systemic nodule developmental responses.

PubMed

Jeudy, Christian; Ruffel, Sandrine; Freixes, Sandra; Tillard, Pascal; Santoni, Anne Lise; Morel, Sylvain; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Duc, Gérard; Gojon, Alain; Lepetit, Marc; Salon, Christophe

2010-02-01

Adaptation of Medicago truncatula to local nitrogen (N) limitation was investigated to provide new insights into local and systemic N signaling. The split-root technique allowed a characterization of the local and systemic responses of NO(3)(-) or N(2)-fed plants to localized N limitation. (15)N and (13)C labeling were used to monitor plant nutrition. Plants expressing pMtENOD11-GUS and the sunn-2 hypernodulating mutant were used to unravel mechanisms involved in these responses. Unlike NO(3)(-)-fed plants, N(2)-fixing plants lacked the ability to compensate rapidly for a localized N limitation by up-regulating the N(2)-fixation activity of roots supplied elsewhere with N. However they displayed a long-term response via a growth stimulation of pre-existing nodules, and the generation of new nodules, likely through a decreased abortion rate of early nodulation events. Both these responses involve systemic signaling. The latter response is abolished in the sunn mutant, but the mutation does not prevent the first response. Local but also systemic regulatory mechanisms related to plant N status regulate de novo nodule development in Mt, and SUNN is required for this systemic regulation. By contrast, the stimulation of nodule growth triggered by systemic N signaling does not involve SUNN, indicating SUNN-independent signaling.

2. Immigration, local dispersal limitation, and the repeatability of community composition under neutral and niche dynamics.

PubMed

Ai, Dexiecuo; Desjardins-Proulx, Philippe; Chu, Chengjin; Wang, Gang

2012-01-01

Repeatability of community composition has been a critical aspect for community structure, which is closely associated with community stability, predictability, conservation biology and ecological restoration. It has been shown that both immigration and local dispersal limitation can affect the community composition in both neutral and niche model. Hence, we use a spatially explicit individual-based model to investigate the potential influence of immigration rate and strength of local dispersal limitation on repeatability in both neutral and niche models. Similarity measures are used to quantify repeatability. We examine the repeatability of community composition among replicate communities (which means the same community repeats many times), and between niche and neutral replicate communities. We find the correlation between repeatability and immigration rate is positive in the neutral model and an inverted unimodal in the niche model. The correlation between repeatability and local dispersal distance is positive in the niche model and negative in the neutral model. High repeatability between niche communities and neutral communities is observed with high immigration rates or when high local dispersal distance appears in the niche model or low local dispersal distance in the neutral model. Our results show that repeatability of community composition is not only dependent on the types of community models (niche vs. neutrality) but also strongly determined by immigration rates and local dispersal limitation.

3. New limits on the violation of local position invariance of gravity

Shao, Lijing; Wex, Norbert

2013-08-01

Within the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism, there could be an anisotropy of local gravity induced by an external matter distribution, even for a fully conservative metric theory of gravity. It reflects the breakdown of the local position invariance of gravity and, within the PPN formalism, is characterized by the Whitehead parameter ξ. We present three different kinds of observation, from the Solar system and radio pulsars, to constrain it. The most stringent limit comes from recent results on the extremely stable pulse profiles of solitary millisecond pulsars, that gives |\\hat{\\xi }| < 3.9 \\times 10^{-9} (95% CL), where the hat denotes the strong-field generalization of ξ. This limit is six orders of magnitude more constraining than the current best limit from superconducting gravimeter experiments. It can be converted into an upper limit of ˜4 × 10-16 on the spatial anisotropy of the gravitational constant. Communicated by C M Will

4. Spatial fluctuation theorem

Pérez-Espigares, Carlos; Redig, Frank; Giardinà, Cristian

2015-08-01

For non-equilibrium systems of interacting particles and for interacting diffusions in d-dimensions, a novel fluctuation relation is derived. The theorem establishes a quantitative relation between the probabilities of observing two current values in different spatial directions. The result is a consequence of spatial symmetries of the microscopic dynamics, generalizing in this way the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem related to the time-reversal symmetry. This new perspective opens up the possibility of direct experimental measurements of fluctuation relations of vectorial observables.

5. Plasmonic local heating beyond diffraction limit by the excitation of magnetic polariton

Alshehri, Hassan; Wang, Hao; Ma, Yanchao; Wang, Liping

2015-08-01

In recent years, optical local heating in the nanoscale has attracted great attention due to its unique features of small hot spot size and high energy density. Plasmonic local heating can provide solutions to several challenges in data storage and cancer treatment. Research conducted in this field to achieve plasmonic local heating has mainly utilized the excitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) or surface plasmon resonance (SPR). However, achieving plasmonic local heating by the excitation of magnetic polariton (MP) has not been researched extensively yet. We numerically investigate the optical response of a nanostructure composed of a gold nanowire on a gold surface separated by a polymer spacer using the ANSYS High Frequency Structural Simulator (HFSS). The structure exhibits a strong absorption peak at the wavelength of 750 nm, and the underlying physical mechanism is verified by the local electromagnetic field distribution to be the magnetic resonance excitation. By incorporating the volume loss density due to the strong local optical energy confinement as the heat generation, nanoscale temperature distribution within the structure is numerically obtained with a thermal solver after assigning proper boundary conditions. The results show a maximum temperature of 158.5°C confined in a local area on the order of 35 nm within the ultrathin polymer layer, which clearly demonstrates the plasmonic local heating effect beyond diffraction limit by excitation of MP.

6. Strong genetic differentiation but not local adaptation toward the range limit of a coastal dune plant.

PubMed

Samis, Karen E; López-Villalobos, Adriana; Eckert, Christopher G

2016-11-01

All species have limited geographic distributions; but the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms causing range limits are largely unknown. That many species' geographic range limits are coincident with niche limits suggests limited evolutionary potential of marginal populations to adapt to conditions experienced beyond the range. We provide a test of range limit theory by combining population genetic analysis of microsatellite polymorphisms with a transplant experiment within, at the edge of, and 60 km beyond the northern range of a coastal dune plant. Contrary to expectations, lifetime fitness increased toward the range limit with highest fitness achieved by most populations at and beyond the range edge. Genetic differentiation among populations was strong, with very low, nondirectional gene flow suggesting range limitation via constraints to dispersal. In contrast, however, local adaptation was negligible, and a distance-dependent decline in fitness only occurred for those populations furthest from home when planted beyond the range limit. These results challenge a commonly held assumption that stable range limits match niche limits, but also raise questions about the unique value of peripheral populations in expanding species' geographical ranges.

7. Virial Theorem and Scale Transformations.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kleban, Peter

1979-01-01

Discussed is the virial theorem, which is useful in classical, quantum, and statistical mechanics. Two types of derivations of this theorem are presented and the relationship between the two is explored. (BT)

8. Rediscovering Schreinemakers' Theorem.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bathurst, Bruce

1983-01-01

Schreinemakers' theorem (arrangement of curves around an invariant point), derived from La Chatelier's principle, can be rediscovered by students asked to use the principle when solving a natural problem such as "How does diluting a mineral/fluid alter shape of a pressure/temperature diagram?" Background information and instructional…

9. Limits of slow sound propagation and transparency in lossy, locally resonant periodic structures

Theocharis, G.; Richoux, O.; Romero García, V.; Merkel, A.; Tournat, V.

2014-09-01

We investigate sound propagation in lossy, locally resonant periodic structures by studying an air-filled tube periodically loaded with Helmholtz resonators and taking into account the intrinsic viscothermal losses. In particular, by tuning the resonator with the Bragg gap in this prototypical locally resonant structure, we study the limits and various characteristics of slow sound propagation. While in the lossless case the overlapping of the gaps results in slow-sound-induced transparency of a narrow frequency band surrounded by a strong and broadband gap, the inclusion of the unavoidable losses imposes limits to the slowdown factor and the maximum transmission. Experiments, theory, and finite element simulations have been used for the characterization of acoustic wave propagation by tuning the Helmholtz/Bragg frequencies and the total amount of loss both for infinite and finite lattices. This study contributes to the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials and slow sound applications.

10. The Fluctuation Theorem

Evans, Denis J.; Searles, Debra J.

2002-11-01

The question of how reversible microscopic equations of motion can lead to irreversible macroscopic behaviour has been one of the central issues in statistical mechanics for more than a century. The basic issues were known to Gibbs. Boltzmann conducted a very public debate with Loschmidt and others without a satisfactory resolution. In recent decades there has been no real change in the situation. In 1993 we discovered a relation, subsequently known as the Fluctuation Theorem (FT), which gives an analytical expression for the probability of observing Second Law violating dynamical fluctuations in thermostatted dissipative non-equilibrium systems. The relation was derived heuristically and applied to the special case of dissipative non-equilibrium systems subject to constant energy 'thermostatting'. These restrictions meant that the full importance of the Theorem was not immediately apparent. Within a few years, derivations of the Theorem were improved but it has only been in the last few of years that the generality of the Theorem has been appreciated. We now know that the Second Law of Thermodynamics can be derived assuming ergodicity at equilibrium, and causality. We take the assumption of causality to be axiomatic. It is causality which ultimately is responsible for breaking time reversal symmetry and which leads to the possibility of irreversible macroscopic behaviour. The Fluctuation Theorem does much more than merely prove that in large systems observed for long periods of time, the Second Law is overwhelmingly likely to be valid. The Fluctuation Theorem quantifies the probability of observing Second Law violations in small systems observed for a short time. Unlike the Boltzmann equation, the FT is completely consistent with Loschmidt's observation that for time reversible dynamics, every dynamical phase space trajectory and its conjugate time reversed 'anti-trajectory', are both solutions of the underlying equations of motion. Indeed the standard proofs of

11. Cooperation Among Theorem Provers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Waldinger, Richard J.

1998-01-01

This is a final report, which supports NASA's PECSEE (Persistent Cognizant Software Engineering Environment) effort and complements the Kestrel Institute project "Inference System Integration via Logic Morphism". The ultimate purpose of the project is to develop a superior logical inference mechanism by combining the diverse abilities of multiple cooperating theorem provers. In many years of research, a number of powerful theorem-proving systems have arisen with differing capabilities and strengths. Resolution theorem provers (such as Kestrel's KITP or SRI's, SNARK) deal with first-order logic with equality but not the principle of mathematical induction. The Boyer-Moore theorem prover excels at proof by induction but cannot deal with full first-order logic. Both are highly automated but cannot accept user guidance easily. The PVS system (from SRI) in only automatic within decidable theories, but it has well-designed interactive capabilities: furthermore, it includes higher-order logic, not just first-order logic. The NuPRL system from Cornell University and the STeP system from Stanford University have facilities for constructive logic and temporal logic, respectively - both are interactive. It is often suggested - for example, in the anonymous "QED Manifesto"-that we should pool the resources of all these theorem provers into a single system, so that the strengths of one can compensate for the weaknesses of others, and so that effort will not be duplicated. However, there is no straightforward way of doing this, because each system relies on its own language and logic for its success. Thus. SNARK uses ordinary first-order logic with equality, PVS uses higher-order logic. and NuPRL uses constructive logic. The purpose of this project, and the companion project at Kestrel, has been to use the category-theoretic notion of logic morphism to combine systems with different logics and languages. Kestrel's SPECWARE system has been the vehicle for the implementation.

12. Ferromagnetism beyond Lieb's theorem

Costa, Natanael C.; Mendes-Santos, Tiago; Paiva, Thereza; Santos, Raimundo R. dos; Scalettar, Richard T.

2016-10-01

The noninteracting electronic structures of tight-binding models on bipartite lattices with unequal numbers of sites in the two sublattices have a number of unique features, including the presence of spatially localized eigenstates and flat bands. When a uniform on-site Hubbard interaction U is turned on, Lieb proved rigorously that at half-filling (ρ =1 ) the ground state has a nonzero spin. In this paper we consider a "CuO2 lattice" (also known as "Lieb lattice," or as a decorated square lattice), in which "d orbitals" occupy the vertices of the squares, while "p orbitals" lie halfway between two d orbitals; both d and p orbitals can accommodate only up to two electrons. We use exact determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) simulations to quantify the nature of magnetic order through the behavior of correlation functions and sublattice magnetizations in the different orbitals as a function of U and temperature; we have also calculated the projected density of states, and the compressibility. We study both the homogeneous (H) case, Ud=Up , originally considered by Lieb, and the inhomogeneous (IH) case, Ud≠Up . For the H case at half-filling, we found that the global magnetization rises sharply at weak coupling, and then stabilizes towards the strong-coupling (Heisenberg) value, as a result of the interplay between the ferromagnetism of like sites and the antiferromagnetism between unlike sites; we verified that the system is an insulator for all U . For the IH system at half-filling, we argue that the case Up≠Ud falls under Lieb's theorem, provided they are positive definite, so we used DQMC to probe the cases Up=0 ,Ud=U and Up=U ,Ud=0 . We found that the different environments of d and p sites lead to a ferromagnetic insulator when Ud=0 ; by contrast, Up=0 leads to to a metal without any magnetic ordering. In addition, we have also established that at density ρ =1 /3 , strong antiferromagnetic correlations set in, caused by the presence of one fermion on each

Wares, Arsalan

2015-02-01

The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of 'non-traditional' proof-related activities or theorems that can be explored through paper folding by university and high-school students. These theorems were encountered through playful acts of paper folding by the author. The author used these activities successfully with preservice teachers. The paper contains proof outlines for each theorem.

PubMed

Barnum, Howard; Barrett, Jonathan; Leifer, Matthew; Wilce, Alexander

2007-12-14

We prove a generalized version of the no-broadcasting theorem, applicable to essentially any nonclassical finite-dimensional probabilistic model satisfying a no-signaling criterion, including ones with "superquantum" correlations. A strengthened version of the quantum no-broadcasting theorem follows, and its proof is significantly simpler than existing proofs of the no-broadcasting theorem.

Barnum, Howard; Barrett, Jonathan; Leifer, Matthew; Wilce, Alexander

2007-12-01

We prove a generalized version of the no-broadcasting theorem, applicable to essentially any nonclassical finite-dimensional probabilistic model satisfying a no-signaling criterion, including ones with “superquantum” correlations. A strengthened version of the quantum no-broadcasting theorem follows, and its proof is significantly simpler than existing proofs of the no-broadcasting theorem.

16. Pick's Theorem: What a Lemon!

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Russell, Alan R.

2004-01-01

Pick's theorem can be used in various ways just like a lemon. This theorem generally finds its way in the syllabus approximately at the middle school level and in fact at times students have even calculated the area of a state considering its outline with the help of the above theorem.

17. Intragrain charge transport in kesterite thin films—Limits arising from carrier localization

Hempel, Hannes; Redinger, Alex; Repins, Ingrid; Moisan, Camille; Larramona, Gerardo; Dennler, Gilles; Handwerg, Martin; Fischer, Saskia F.; Eichberger, Rainer; Unold, Thomas

2016-11-01

Intragrain charge carrier mobilities measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in state of the art Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 kesterite thin films are found to increase from 32 to 140 cm2 V-1 s-1 with increasing Se content. The mobilities are limited by carrier localization on the nanometer-scale, which takes place within the first 2 ps after carrier excitation. The localization strength obtained from the Drude-Smith model is found to be independent of the excited photocarrier density. This is in accordance with bandgap fluctuations as a cause of the localized transport. Charge carrier localization is a general issue in the probed kesterite thin films, which were deposited by coevaporation, colloidal inks, and sputtering followed by annealing with varying Se/S contents and yield 4.9%-10.0% efficiency in the completed device.

18. Intragrain charge transport in kesterite thin films—Limits arising from carrier localization

SciTech Connect

Hempel, Hannes; Redinger, Alex; Repins, Ingrid; Moisan, Camille; Larramona, Gerardo; Dennler, Gilles; Handwerg, Martin; Fischer, Saskia F.; Eichberger, Rainer; Unold, Thomas

2016-11-03

Intragrain charge carrier mobilities measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in state of the art Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 kesterite thin films are found to increase from 32 to 140 cm2V-1s-1 with increasing Se content. The mobilities are limited by carrier localization on the nanometer-scale, which takes place within the first 2 ps after carrier excitation. The localization strength obtained from the Drude-Smith model is found to be independent of the excited photocarrier density. This is in accordance with bandgap fluctuations as a cause of the localized transport. Lastly, charge carrier localization is a general issue in the probed kesterite thin films, which were deposited by coevaporation, colloidal inks, and sputtering followed by annealing with varying Se/S contents and yield 4.9%-10.0% efficiency in the completed device.

19. Intragrain charge transport in kesterite thin films—Limits arising from carrier localization

DOE PAGES

Hempel, Hannes; Redinger, Alex; Repins, Ingrid; ...

2016-11-03

Intragrain charge carrier mobilities measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy in state of the art Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 kesterite thin films are found to increase from 32 to 140 cm2V-1s-1 with increasing Se content. The mobilities are limited by carrier localization on the nanometer-scale, which takes place within the first 2 ps after carrier excitation. The localization strength obtained from the Drude-Smith model is found to be independent of the excited photocarrier density. This is in accordance with bandgap fluctuations as a cause of the localized transport. Lastly, charge carrier localization is a general issue in the probed kesterite thin films, which weremore » deposited by coevaporation, colloidal inks, and sputtering followed by annealing with varying Se/S contents and yield 4.9%-10.0% efficiency in the completed device.« less

20. Building local human resources to implement SLMTA with limited donor funding: The Ghana experience

PubMed Central

Nkrumah, Bernard; van der Puije, Beatrice; Bekoe, Veronica; Adukpo, Rowland; Kotey, Nii A.; Yao, Katy; Fonjungo, Peter N.; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Duh, Samuel; Njukeng, Patrick A.; Addo, Nii A.; Khan, Fazle N.; Woodfill, Celia J.I.

2016-01-01

Background In 2009, Ghana adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme in order to improve laboratory quality. The programme was implemented successfully with limited donor funding and local human resources. Objectives To demonstrate how Ghana, which received very limited PEPFAR funding, was able to achieve marked quality improvement using local human resources. Method Local partners led the SLMTA implementation and local mentors were embedded in each laboratory. An in-country training-of-trainers workshop was conducted in order to increase the pool of local SLMTA implementers. Three laboratory cohorts were enrolled in SLMTA in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Participants from each cohort attended in a series of three workshops interspersed with improvement projects and mentorship. Supplemental training on internal audit was provided. Baseline, exit and follow-up audits were conducted using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist. In November 2013, four laboratories underwent official SLIPTA audits by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine (ASLM). Results The local SLMTA team successfully implemented three cohorts of SLMTA in 15 laboratories. Seven out of the nine laboratories that underwent follow-up audits have reached at least one star. Three out of the four laboratories that underwent official ASLM audits were awarded four stars. Patient satisfaction increased from 25% to 70% and sample rejection rates decreased from 32% to 10%. On average, $40 000 was spent per laboratory to cover mentors' salaries, SLMTA training and improvement project support. Conclusion Building in-country capacity through local partners is a sustainable model for improving service quality in resource-constrained countries such as Ghana. Such models promote country ownership, capacity building and the use of local human resources for the expansion of SLMTA. PMID:26937417 1. Evaluation of Forming Limit by the 3 Dimensional Local Bifurcation Theory SciTech Connect Nishimura, Ryuichi; Nakazawa, Yoshiaki; Ito, Koichi; Uemura, Gen; Mori, Naomichi 2007-05-17 A theoretical prediction and evaluation method for the sheet metal formability is developed on the basis of the three-dimensional local bifurcation theory previously proposed by authors. The forming limit diagram represented on the plane defined by the ratio of stress component to work-hardening rate is perfectly independent of plastic strain history. The upper and the lower limit of the sheet formability are indicated by the 3D critical line and the Stoeren-Rice's critical line on this plane, respectively. In order to verify the above mentioned behavior of the proposed forming limit diagram, the experimental research is also conducted. From the standpoint of the mechanical instability theory, a new concept called instability factor is introduced. It represents a degree of acceleration by current stress for developing the local bifurcation mode toward a fracture. The instability factor provides a method to evaluate a forming allowance which is useful to appropriate identification for a forming limit and to optimize the forming condition. The proposed criterion provides not only the moment to initiate the necking but also the local bifurcation mode vector and the direction of necking line. 2. Silhouette-Slice Theorems DTIC Science & Technology 1987-03-20 with standard expressions of spherical trigonometry is sinr)0 = cos0 sini//0 (4.37) which is consistent with the results obtained previously with...theorems for discrete transforms. However, sampling questions inlroduce difficult obstacles in the develop- ment of a discrete theory. First, sampling...additional obstacle to discrete represen- tations of the CT. An example of qualitative predication of the shape of silhouettes with the Silhouette-Slice 3. The Steep Nekhoroshev's Theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Guzzo, M.; Chierchia, L.; Benettin, G. 2016-03-01 Revising Nekhoroshev's geometry of resonances, we provide a fully constructive and quantitative proof of Nekhoroshev's theorem for steep Hamiltonian systems proving, in particular, that the exponential stability exponent can be taken to be {1/(2nα_1\\cdotsα_{n-2}}) ({α_i}'s being Nekhoroshev's steepness indices and {n ≥ 3} the number of degrees of freedom). On the base of a heuristic argument, we conjecture that the new stability exponent is optimal. 4. Effects of hole localization on limiting p-type conductivity in oxide and nitride semiconductors SciTech Connect Lyons, J. L.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G. 2014-01-07 We examine how hole localization limits the effectiveness of substitutional acceptors in oxide and nitride semiconductors and explain why p-type doping of these materials has proven so difficult. Using hybrid density functional calculations, we find that anion-site substitutional impurities in AlN, GaN, InN, and ZnO lead to atomic-like states that localize on the impurity atom itself. Substitution with cation-site impurities, on the other hand, triggers the formation of polarons that become trapped on nearest-neighbor anions, generally leading to large ionization energies for these acceptors. Unlike shallow effective-mass acceptors, these two types of deep acceptors couple strongly with the lattice, significantly affecting the optical properties and severely limiting prospects for achieving p-type conductivity in these wide-band-gap materials. 5. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals. Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR 2011-01-01 ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television... 6. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals. Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR 2013-01-01 ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television... 7. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals. Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR 2012-01-01 ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television... 8. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals. Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR 2010-01-01 ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television... 9. 7 CFR 2201.9 - Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television Broadcast Signals. Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR 2014-01-01 ... Local Television Broadcast Signals. 2201.9 Section 2201.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS General § 2201.9 Limitation on the applicability of the definition of Local Television... 10. How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales. PubMed Stournaras, Kalliope E; Lo, Eugenia; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Cazetta, Eliana; Dehling, D Matthias; Schleuning, Matthias; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Donoghue, Michael J; Prum, Richard O; Schaefer, H Martin 2013-04-01 The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals, but their diversity remains poorly understood. Using an avian color space to derive a sensory morphospace for fruit color, we tested four hypotheses of fruit color diversity: fruit colors occupy a limited area of the color space; they are less diverse than flower colors; fruit colors within localities are similar to each other; and fruit color diversity reflects phylogeny. The global fruit color diversity of 948 primarily bird-dispersed plant species and the color diversity of localities were compared with null models of random, unconstrained evolution of fruit color. Fruit color diversity was further compared with the diversity of 1300 flower colors. Tests of phylogenetic effects on fruit color were used to assess the degree of correspondence with phylogeny. Global and local fruit color diversity was limited compared with null models and fruits have achieved only half the color diversity of flowers. Interestingly, we found little indication of phylogenetic conservatism. Constraints resulting from the chemical properties of pigments probably limit global fruit and flower color diversity. Different types of selection on fruits and flowers may further explain the smaller color diversity of fruits. 11. Upper limit of applicability of the local similarity theory in the stable atmospheric boundary layer NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Grachev, A. A.; Andreas, E. L.; Fairall, C. W.; Guest, P. S.; Persson, P. O. G. 2012-04-01 The applicability of the classical Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (1954) has been limited by constant flux assumption, which is valid in a narrow range z/L < 0.1 in the stable boundary layer (SBL). Nieuwstadt (1984) extended the range of applicability of the original theory using the local scaling (height-dependent) in place of the surface scaling, but the limits of applicability of the local similarity theory in the SBL have been blurred. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence made over the Arctic pack ice during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean experiment (SHEBA) are used to clarify this issue. Based on spectral analysis of wind velocity and temperature fluctuations, it is shown that when both gradient Richardson number, Ri, and flux Richardson number, Rf, exceed a "critical value" about 0.2-0.25, inertial subrange associated with a Kolmogorov cascade dies out and vertical turbulent fluxes become small. Some small-scale turbulence survives even in the supercritical regime but this is non-Kolmogorov turbulence and it decays rapidly with further increasing stability. The similarity theory is based on the turbulent fluxes in the high frequency part of the spectra associated with energy-containing/flux-carrying eddies. Spectral densities in this high-frequency band collapse along with the Kolmogorov energy cascade. Therefore, applicability of the local Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in the SBL is limited by inequalities Ri < Ri_cr and Rf < Rf_cr (however, Rf_cr = 0.2-0.25 is a primary threshold). Application of this prerequisite shows that both the flux-profile and flux-variances relationships follow to the classical Monin-Obukhov local z-less predictions after the irrelevant cases have been filtered out. 12. A Geometrical Approach to Bell's Theorem NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Rubincam, David Parry 2000-01-01 Bell's theorem can be proved through simple geometrical reasoning, without the need for the Psi function, probability distributions, or calculus. The proof is based on N. David Mermin's explication of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment, which involves Stern-Gerlach detectors which flash red or green lights when detecting spin-up or spin-down. The statistics of local hidden variable theories for this experiment can be arranged in colored strips from which simple inequalities can be deduced. These inequalities lead to a demonstration of Bell's theorem. Moreover, all local hidden variable theories can be graphed in such a way as to enclose their statistics in a pyramid, with the quantum-mechanical result lying a finite distance beneath the base of the pyramid. 13. Rotationally invariant proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities SciTech Connect Cabello, Adan 2003-03-01 The singlet state of two spin-(3/2) particles allows a proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities with two distinguishing features: any local observable can be regarded as an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen element of reality, and the contradiction with local realism occurs not only for some specific local observables but for any rotation whereof. 14. Tests of the lattice index theorem SciTech Connect Jordan, Gerald; Hoellwieser, Roman; Faber, Manfried; Heller, Urs M. 2008-01-01 We investigate the lattice index theorem and the localization of the zero modes for thick classical center vortices. For nonorientable spherical vortices, the index of the overlap Dirac operator differs from the topological charge although the traces of the plaquettes deviate only by a maximum of 1.5% from trivial plaquettes. This may be related to the fact that even in Landau gauge some links of these configuration are close to the nontrivial center elements. 15. Bayes' theorem in paleopathological diagnosis. PubMed Byers, Steven N; Roberts, Charlotte A 2003-05-01 The utility of Bayes' theorem in paleopathological diagnoses is explored. Since this theorem has been used heavily by modern clinical medicine, its usefulness in that field is described first. Next, the mechanics of the theorem are discussed, along with methods for deriving the prior probabilities needed for its application. Following this, the sources of these prior probabilities and their accompanying problems in paleopathology are considered. Finally, an application using prehistoric rib lesions is presented to demonstrate the utility of this method to paleopathology. 16. Recurrence theorems: A unified account SciTech Connect Wallace, David 2015-02-15 I discuss classical and quantum recurrence theorems in a unified manner, treating both as generalisations of the fact that a system with a finite state space only has so many places to go. Along the way, I prove versions of the recurrence theorem applicable to dynamics on linear and metric spaces and make some comments about applications of the classical recurrence theorem in the foundations of statistical mechanics. 17. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets SciTech Connect Rossi, Tuomas P. Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J.; Lehtola, Susi; Nieminen, Risto M. 2015-03-07 We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond. 18. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets. PubMed Rossi, Tuomas P; Lehtola, Susi; Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J; Nieminen, Risto M 2015-03-07 We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond. 19. Limitations in the spectral method for graph partitioning: Detectability threshold and localization of eigenvectors. PubMed Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki 2015-06-01 Investigating the performance of different methods is a fundamental problem in graph partitioning. In this paper, we estimate the so-called detectability threshold for the spectral method with both un-normalized and normalized Laplacians in sparse graphs. The detectability threshold is the critical point at which the result of the spectral method is completely uncorrelated to the planted partition. We also analyze whether the localization of eigenvectors affects the partitioning performance in the detectable region. We use the replica method, which is often used in the field of spin-glass theory, and focus on the case of bisection. We show that the gap between the estimated threshold for the spectral method and the threshold obtained from Bayesian inference is considerable in sparse graphs, even without eigenvector localization. This gap closes in a dense limit. 20. Limitations in the spectral method for graph partitioning: Detectability threshold and localization of eigenvectors NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki 2015-06-01 Investigating the performance of different methods is a fundamental problem in graph partitioning. In this paper, we estimate the so-called detectability threshold for the spectral method with both un-normalized and normalized Laplacians in sparse graphs. The detectability threshold is the critical point at which the result of the spectral method is completely uncorrelated to the planted partition. We also analyze whether the localization of eigenvectors affects the partitioning performance in the detectable region. We use the replica method, which is often used in the field of spin-glass theory, and focus on the case of bisection. We show that the gap between the estimated threshold for the spectral method and the threshold obtained from Bayesian inference is considerable in sparse graphs, even without eigenvector localization. This gap closes in a dense limit. 1. Multidimensional Tauberian theorems for generalized functions NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Drozhzhinov, Yu N. 2016-12-01 This is a brief survey of multidimensional Tauberian theorems for generalized functions. Included are theorems of Hardy-Littlewood type, Tauberian and Abelian comparison theorems of Keldysh type, theorems of Wiener type, and Tauberian theorems for generalized functions with values in Banach spaces. Bibliography: 58 titles. 2. Phase space localization for anti-de Sitter quantum mechanics and its zero curvature limit NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Elgradechi, Amine M. 1993-01-01 Using techniques of geometric quantization and SO(sub 0)(3,2)-coherent states, a notion of optimal localization on phase space is defined for the quantum theory of a massive and spinning particle in anti-de Sitter space time. It is shown that this notion disappears in the zero curvature limit, providing one with a concrete example of the regularizing character of the constant (nonzero) curvature of the anti-de Sitter space time. As a byproduct a geometric characterization of masslessness is obtained. 3. Theorems on positive data: on the uniqueness of NMF. PubMed Laurberg, Hans; Christensen, Mads Graesbøll; Plumbley, Mark D; Hansen, Lars Kai; Jensen, Søren Holdt 2008-01-01 We investigate the conditions for which nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is unique and introduce several theorems which can determine whether the decomposition is in fact unique or not. The theorems are illustrated by several examples showing the use of the theorems and their limitations. We have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors. 4. Theorems on Positive Data: On the Uniqueness of NMF PubMed Central Laurberg, Hans; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Plumbley, Mark D.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Jensen, Søren Holdt 2008-01-01 We investigate the conditions for which nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is unique and introduce several theorems which can determine whether the decomposition is in fact unique or not. The theorems are illustrated by several examples showing the use of the theorems and their limitations. We have shown that corruption of a unique NMF matrix by additive noise leads to a noisy estimation of the noise-free unique solution. Finally, we use a stochastic view of NMF to analyze which characterization of the underlying model will result in an NMF with small estimation errors. PMID:18497868 5. Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem beyond conservation laws NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Tukiainen, Mikko 2017-01-01 The ability to measure every quantum observable is ensured by a fundamental result in quantum measurement theory. Nevertheless, additive conservation laws associated with physical symmetries, such as the angular momentum conservation, may lead to restrictions on the measurability of the observables. Such limitations are imposed by the theorem of Wigner, Araki, and Yanase (WAY). In this paper a formulation of the WAY theorem is presented rephrasing the measurability limitations in terms of quantum incompatibility. This broader mathematical basis enables us to both capture and generalize the WAY theorem by allowing us to drop the assumptions of additivity and even conservation of the involved quantities. Moreover, we extend the WAY theorem to the general level of positive operator-valued measures. 6. Limiter DOEpatents Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R. 1984-10-19 A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles. 7. Crop response to localized organic amendment in soils with limiting physical properties NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Lordan, Joan; Pascual, Miquel; Fonseca, Francisco; Villar, Josep Maria; Montilla, Victor; Papió, Josep; Rufat, Josep 2013-04-01 This 2-year study evaluated the use of rice husk as a localized organic amendment in a soil with limiting physical properties. The research was conducted in a commercial peach orchard planted in 2011 using a ridge planting system. Six soil and water management treatments were evaluated in 18 experimental units, which were set up in the field using a randomized complete block design. The treatments were compared both in terms of soil physical properties and crop response. Soil amendment with rice husk was the most effective technique. It improved soil conditions (soil infiltration and soil porosity), providing a better soil environment for root activity and thereby resulted in better crop performance. Concerning growth parameters, the amended treatment presented the highest overall values without negatively affecting crop water status. These techniques were suitable for mitigating the effects of soils with limiting physical conditions. Localized applications of amendments, as proposed in this work, imply an important reduction in application rates. It is important to consider an efficient use of by-products since there is a growing interest in industrial and agronomical exploitations. 8. A locally-blazed ant trail achieves efficient collective navigation despite limited information PubMed Central Fonio, Ehud; Heyman, Yael; Boczkowski, Lucas; Gelblum, Aviram; Kosowski, Adrian; Korman, Amos; Feinerman, Ofer 2016-01-01 Any organism faces sensory and cognitive limitations which may result in maladaptive decisions. Such limitations are prominent in the context of groups where the relevant information at the individual level may not coincide with collective requirements. Here, we study the navigational decisions exhibited by Paratrechina longicornis ants as they cooperatively transport a large food item. These decisions hinge on the perception of individuals which often restricts them from providing the group with reliable directional information. We find that, to achieve efficient navigation despite partial and even misleading information, these ants employ a locally-blazed trail. This trail significantly deviates from the classical notion of an ant trail: First, instead of systematically marking the full path, ants mark short segments originating at the load. Second, the carrying team constantly loses the guiding trail. We experimentally and theoretically show that the locally-blazed trail optimally and robustly exploits useful knowledge while avoiding the pitfalls of misleading information. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20185.001 PMID:27815944 9. Critical properties of the Anderson localization transition and the high-dimensional limit NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Tarquini, E.; Biroli, G.; Tarzia, M. 2017-03-01 In this paper we present a thorough study of transport, spectral, and wave-function properties at the Anderson localization critical point in spatial dimensions d =3 , 4, 5, 6. Our aim is to analyze the dimensional dependence and to assess the role of the d →∞ limit provided by Bethe lattices and treelike structures. Our results strongly suggest that the upper critical dimension of Anderson localization is infinite. Furthermore, we find that dU=∞ is a much better starting point compared to dL=2 to describe even three-dimensional systems. We find that critical properties and finite-size scaling behavior approach by increasing d those found for Bethe lattices: the critical state becomes an insulator characterized by Poisson statistics and corrections to the thermodynamics limit become logarithmic in the number N of lattice sites. In the conclusion, we present physical consequences of our results, propose connections with the nonergodic delocalized phase suggested for the Anderson model on infinite-dimensional lattices, and discuss perspectives for future research studies. 10. Propagule Limitation, Disparate Habitat Quality, and Variation in Phenotypic Selection at a Local Species Range Boundary PubMed Central Moore, Kara A.; Stanton, Maureen L. 2014-01-01 Adaptation to novel conditions beyond current range boundaries requires the presence of suitable sites within dispersal range, but may be impeded when emigrants encounter poor habitat and sharply different selection pressures. We investigated fine-scale spatial heterogeneity in ecological dynamics and selection at a local population boundary of the annual plant Gilia tricolor. In two years, we planted G. tricolor seeds in core habitat, margin habitat at the edge of the local range, and exterior habitat in order to measure spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality, opportunity for selection, and selection on phenotypic traits. We found a striking decline in average habitat quality with distance from the population core, yet some migrant seeds were successful in suitable, unoccupied microsites at and beyond the range boundary. Total and direct selection on four out of five measured phenotypic traits varied across habitat zones, as well as between years. Moreover, the margin habitat often exerted unique selection pressures that were not intermediate between core and exterior habitats. This study reveals that a combination of ecological and evolutionary forces, including propagule limitation, variation in habitat quality and spatial heterogeneity in phenotypic selection may reduce opportunities for adaptive range expansion, even across a very local population boundary. PMID:24717472 11. Propagule limitation, disparate habitat quality, and variation in phenotypic selection at a local species range boundary. PubMed Moore, Kara A; Stanton, Maureen L 2014-01-01 Adaptation to novel conditions beyond current range boundaries requires the presence of suitable sites within dispersal range, but may be impeded when emigrants encounter poor habitat and sharply different selection pressures. We investigated fine-scale spatial heterogeneity in ecological dynamics and selection at a local population boundary of the annual plant Gilia tricolor. In two years, we planted G. tricolor seeds in core habitat, margin habitat at the edge of the local range, and exterior habitat in order to measure spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality, opportunity for selection, and selection on phenotypic traits. We found a striking decline in average habitat quality with distance from the population core, yet some migrant seeds were successful in suitable, unoccupied microsites at and beyond the range boundary. Total and direct selection on four out of five measured phenotypic traits varied across habitat zones, as well as between years. Moreover, the margin habitat often exerted unique selection pressures that were not intermediate between core and exterior habitats. This study reveals that a combination of ecological and evolutionary forces, including propagule limitation, variation in habitat quality and spatial heterogeneity in phenotypic selection may reduce opportunities for adaptive range expansion, even across a very local population boundary. 12. Limited availability of ZBP1 restricts axonal mRNA localization and nerve regeneration capacity. PubMed Donnelly, Christopher J; Willis, Dianna E; Xu, Mei; Tep, Chhavy; Jiang, Chunsu; Yoo, Soonmoon; Schanen, N Carolyn; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B; van Minnen, Jan; English, Arthur; Yoon, Sung Ok; Bassell, Gary J; Twiss, Jeffery L 2011-09-30 Subcellular localization of mRNAs is regulated by RNA-protein interactions. Here, we show that introduction of a reporter mRNA with the 3'UTR of β-actin mRNA competes with endogenous mRNAs for binding to ZBP1 in adult sensory neurons. ZBP1 is needed for axonal localization of β-actin mRNA, and introducing GFP with the 3'UTR of β-actin mRNA depletes axons of endogenous β-actin and GAP-43 mRNAs and attenuates both in vitro and in vivo regrowth of severed axons. Consistent with limited levels of ZBP1 protein in adult neurons, mice heterozygous for the ZBP1 gene are haploinsufficient for axonal transport of β-actin and GAP-43 mRNAs and for regeneration of peripheral nerve. Exogenous ZBP1 can rescue the RNA transport deficits, but the axonal growth deficit is only rescued if the transported mRNAs are locally translated. These data support a direct role for ZBP1 in transport and translation of mRNA cargos in axonal regeneration in vitro and in vivo. 13. Roo: A parallel theorem prover SciTech Connect Lusk, E.L.; McCune, W.W.; Slaney, J.K. 1991-11-01 We describe a parallel theorem prover based on the Argonne theorem-proving system OTTER. The parallel system, called Roo, runs on shared-memory multiprocessors such as the Sequent Symmetry. We explain the parallel algorithm used and give performance results that demonstrate near-linear speedups on large problems. 14. Theorem of Mystery: Part 1 ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Lopez-Real, Francis 2008-01-01 While the author was searching the web, he came across an article by Michael Keyton of IMSA (Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy) called "Theorems of mystery". The phrase is Keyton's own, and he defines such a theorem as "a result that has considerable structure with minimal hypotheses." The simplest of his 10 examples is one that many… 15. The 1965 Penrose singularity theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Senovilla, José M. M.; Garfinkle, David 2015-06-01 We review the first modern singularity theorem, published by Penrose in 1965. This is the first genuine post-Einsteinian result in general relativity, where the fundamental and fruitful concept of the closed trapped surface was introduced. We include historical remarks, an appraisal of the theorem's impact, and relevant current and future work that belongs to its legacy. 16. Geometry of the Adiabatic Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Lobo, Augusto Cesar; Ribeiro, Rafael Antunes; Ribeiro, Clyffe de Assis; Dieguez, Pedro Ruas 2012-01-01 We present a simple and pedagogical derivation of the quantum adiabatic theorem for two-level systems (a single qubit) based on geometrical structures of quantum mechanics developed by Anandan and Aharonov, among others. We have chosen to use only the minimum geometric structure needed for the understanding of the adiabatic theorem for this case.… 17. Equivalence theorem in effective theories NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Chicherin, D.; Gorbenko, V.; Vereshagin, V. 2011-11-01 The famous equivalence theorem is reexamined in order to make it applicable to the case of effective theories. We slightly modify the formulation of this theorem and prove it based on the notion of the generating functional for Green functions. This allows one to trace (directly in terms of graphs) the mutual cancellation of different groups of contributions. 18. A Decomposition Theorem for Finite Automata. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Santa Coloma, Teresa L.; Tucci, Ralph P. 1990-01-01 Described is automata theory which is a branch of theoretical computer science. A decomposition theorem is presented that is easier than the Krohn-Rhodes theorem. Included are the definitions, the theorem, and a proof. (KR) 19. Limiter DOEpatents Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R. 1986-01-01 A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. 20. Localized reversal of the perpendicular velocity in Tore Supra ohmic, L-mode, limited plasmas NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Trier, E.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Sabot, R.; Bucalossi, J.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Bourdelle, C.; Clairet, F.; Falchetto, G.; Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Maget, P.; Vermare, L.; The Tore Supra Team 2017-04-01 In Tore Supra plasmas, the perpendicular velocity measured by Doppler reflectometry was observed to reverse in a localized zone close to a normalized radius ∼0.5–0.6, changing from a negative value (corresponding to a negative radial electric field E r) to a positive value ({{E}\\text{r}}>0 ). This occurs in L-mode, ohmic plasmas with a negligible external momentum input, a non-circular limited cross-section, and an edge safety factor close to 3. This reversal is favoured by a decrease in the magnetic field, or an increase in density. It is accompanied by a characteristic behaviour of the MHD activity signal, whose amplitude decrease during a ramp-down of the edge safety factor as it approaches {{q}a}∼ 3.1 –3.2. A m/n = 2/1 mode is involved in the mechanism causing these observations. 1. Spatial resolution limits for the localization of noise sources using direct sound mapping NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Fernandez Comesaña, D.; Holland, K. R.; Fernandez-Grande, E. 2016-08-01 One of the main challenges arising from noise and vibration problems is how to identify the areas of a device, machine or structure that produce significant acoustic excitation, i.e. the localization of main noise sources. The direct visualization of sound, in particular sound intensity, has extensively been used for many years to locate sound sources. However, it is not yet well defined when two sources should be regarded as resolved by means of direct sound mapping. This paper derives the limits of the direct representation of sound pressure, particle velocity and sound intensity by exploring the relationship between spatial resolution, noise level and geometry. The proposed expressions are validated via simulations and experiments. It is shown that particle velocity mapping yields better results for identifying closely spaced sound sources than sound pressure or sound intensity, especially in the acoustic near-field. 2. Non-local meta-conformal invariance in diffusion-limited erosion NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Henkel, Malte 2016-12-01 The non-stationary relaxation and physical ageing in the diffusion-limited erosion process (dle) is studied through the exact solution of its Langevin equation, in d spatial dimensions. The dynamical exponent z = 1, the growth exponent β =\\max (0,(1-d)/2) and the ageing exponents a=b=d-1 and {λ }C={λ }R=d are found. In d = 1 spatial dimension, a new representation of the meta-conformal Lie algebra, isomorphic to {sl}(2,{{R}})\\oplus {sl}(2,{{R}}), acts as a dynamical symmetry of the noise-averaged dle Langevin equation. Its infinitesimal generators are non-local in space. The exact form of the full time-space dependence of the two-time response function of dle is reproduced for d = 1 from this symmetry. The relationship to the terrace-step-kink model of vicinal surfaces is discussed. 3. Avoiding the local-minimum problem in multi-agent systems with limited sensing and communication NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Okamoto, Makiko; Akella, Maruthi R. 2016-06-01 In this paper, we consider a control problem for nonholonomic multi-agent systems in which agents and obstacles operate within a circular-shaped work area. We assume that agents only have limited sensing and communication ranges. We propose a novel control scheme using potential functions that drives agents from the initial to the goal configuration while avoiding collision with other agents, obstacles, and the boundary of the work area. The control scheme employs an avoidance strategy that ensures that the agents are never trapped at local minima that are typically encountered with most potential function-based approaches. A numerical simulation is presented to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. 4. Generalized Sampling Theorem for Bandpass Signals NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Prokes, Ales 2006-12-01 The reconstruction of an unknown continuously defined function[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] from the samples of the responses of[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] linear time-invariant (LTI) systems sampled by the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]th Nyquist rate is the aim of the generalized sampling. Papoulis (1977) provided an elegant solution for the case where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is a band-limited function with finite energy and the sampling rate is equal to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] times cutoff frequency. In this paper, the scope of the Papoulis theory is extended to the case of bandpass signals. In the first part, a generalized sampling theorem (GST) for bandpass signals is presented. The second part deals with utilizing this theorem for signal recovery from nonuniform samples, and an efficient way of computing images of reconstructing functions for signal recovery is discussed. 5. Temporomandibular joint injection with corticosteroid and local anesthetic for limited mouth opening. PubMed Samiee, Aveed; Sabzerou, Daniel; Edalatpajouh, Faraz; Clark, Glenn T; Ram, Saravanan 2011-09-01 It is unclear whether temporomandibular joint (TMJ) injections with local anesthetic and corticosteroid are an effective first-line management modality for patients with limited mouth opening. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of TMJ injections in patients with disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR), i.e. closed lock, at the University of Southern California Orofacial Pain and Oral Medicine Center. A retrospective chart review was conducted using a database of over 4000 patient records from 2003-2010. We identified 17 patients (16 female; 1 male) between the ages of 16 and 70 years who had been diagnosed with DDWOR and received a TMJ injection. Active mouth opening before injection ranged between 15 and 40 mm (average 29 mm), and active mouth opening after injection and manual mobilization ranged between 25 and 50 mm (average 39 mm). The average increase in mouth opening after injection and manual mobilization was 10 mm (P = 0.0004). TMJ injection with corticosteroid and local anesthetic is suitable as an alternative first-line management modality for DDWOR. 6. Metapopulation dynamics override local limits on long-term parasite persistence. PubMed Ram, Karthik; Preisser, Evan L; Gruner, Daniel S; Strong, Donald R 2008-12-01 A simple null model, particularly germane to small and vulnerable organisms such as parasites, is that local conditions set a stage upon which larger-scale dynamics play out. Soil moisture strongly influences survival of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), which in turn drive trophic cascades by protecting vegetation from root-feeding herbivores. In this study, we examine the mechanisms responsible for patchy occurrence of an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis marelatus, in a California coastal prairie. One hypothesis proposes that biotic factors such as competition and natural enemies could regulate occurrence of EPN populations. We found that fungi and other enemies of EPN, although locally potent, did not explain the patterns of incidence across sites. Abiotic factors also have strong effects on EPN persistence, especially for vulnerable free-living stages. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that patchy occurrence of EPN on a large landscape was driven by differences in soil moisture. Our research uses long-term data on nematode incidence in combination with a landscape-level experiment to demonstrate the lack of a correlation between soil moisture and long-term persistence. A year-long experiment showed EPN mortality was weakly correlated with soil moisture among our study sites. Thirteen years of data, however, showed that colonization rates were highly correlated with long-term persistence. Sites with highest long-term persistence experienced the highest rates of rhizosphere colonization, extinction, and turnover. As a result, we concluded that metapopulation dynamics override limitations set by local and short-term abiotic conditions to determine long-term persistence in this parasite-driven trophic cascade. 7. Analogues of Chernoff's theorem and the Lie-Trotter theorem SciTech Connect Neklyudov, Alexander Yu 2009-10-31 This paper is concerned with the abstract Cauchy problem .x=Ax, x(0)=x{sub 0} element of D(A), where A is a densely defined linear operator on a Banach space X. It is proved that a solution x( {center_dot} ) of this problem can be represented as the weak limit lim {sub n{yields}}{sub {infinity}}{l_brace}F(t/n){sup n}x{sub 0}{r_brace}, where the function F:[0,{infinity}){yields}L(X) satisfies the equality F'(0)y=Ay, y element of D(A), for a natural class of operators. As distinct from Chernoff's theorem, the existence of a global solution to the Cauchy problem is not assumed. Based on this result, necessary and sufficient conditions are found for the linear operator C to be closable and for its closure to be the generator of a C{sub 0}-semigroup. Also, we obtain new criteria for the sum of two generators of C{sub 0}-semigroups to be the generator of a C{sub 0}-semigroup and for the Lie-Trotter formula to hold. Bibliography: 13 titles. 8. Multi Sensor Fusion Framework for Indoor-Outdoor Localization of Limited Resource Mobile Robots PubMed Central Marín, Leonardo; Vallés, Marina; Soriano, Ángel; Valera, Ángel; Albertos, Pedro 2013-01-01 This paper presents a sensor fusion framework that improves the localization of mobile robots with limited computational resources. It employs an event based Kalman Filter to combine the measurements of a global sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on an event based schedule, using fewer resources (execution time and bandwidth) but with similar performance when compared to the traditional methods. The event is defined to reflect the necessity of the global information, when the estimation error covariance exceeds a predefined limit. The proposed experimental platforms are based on the LEGO Mindstorm NXT, and consist of a differential wheel mobile robot navigating indoors with a zenithal camera as global sensor, and an Ackermann steering mobile robot navigating outdoors with a SBG Systems GPS accessed through an IGEP board that also serves as datalogger. The IMU in both robots is built using the NXT motor encoders along with one gyroscope, one compass and two accelerometers from Hitecnic, placed according to a particle based dynamic model of the robots. The tests performed reflect the correct performance and low execution time of the proposed framework. The robustness and stability is observed during a long walk test in both indoors and outdoors environments. PMID:24152933 9. Multi sensor fusion framework for indoor-outdoor localization of limited resource mobile robots. PubMed Marín, Leonardo; Vallés, Marina; Soriano, Ángel; Valera, Ángel; Albertos, Pedro 2013-10-21 This paper presents a sensor fusion framework that improves the localization of mobile robots with limited computational resources. It employs an event based Kalman Filter to combine the measurements of a global sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) on an event based schedule, using fewer resources (execution time and bandwidth) but with similar performance when compared to the traditional methods. The event is defined to reflect the necessity of the global information, when the estimation error covariance exceeds a predefined limit. The proposed experimental platforms are based on the LEGO Mindstorm NXT, and consist of a differential wheel mobile robot navigating indoors with a zenithal camera as global sensor, and an Ackermann steering mobile robot navigating outdoors with a SBG Systems GPS accessed through an IGEP board that also serves as datalogger. The IMU in both robots is built using the NXT motor encoders along with one gyroscope, one compass and two accelerometers from Hitecnic, placed according to a particle based dynamic model of the robots. The tests performed reflect the correct performance and low execution time of the proposed framework. The robustness and stability is observed during a long walk test in both indoors and outdoors environments. 10. Upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising in the local Solar neighbourhood NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Cartin, Daniel 2015-10-01 At this point in time, there is very little empirical evidence on the likelihood of a space-faring species originating in the biosphere of a habitable world. However, there is a tension between the expectation that such a probability is relatively high (given our own origins on Earth), and the lack of any basis for believing the Solar System has ever been visited by an extraterrestrial colonization effort. From the latter observational fact, this paper seeks to place upper limits on the probability of an interstellar civilization arising on a habitable planet in its stellar system, using a percolation model to simulate the progress of such a hypothetical civilization's colonization efforts in the local Solar neighbourhood. To be as realistic as possible, the actual physical positions and characteristics of all stars within 40 parsecs of the Solar System are used as possible colony sites in the percolation process. If an interstellar civilization is very likely to have such colonization programmes, and they can travel over large distances, then the upper bound on the likelihood of such a species arising per habitable world is of the order of 10-3 on the other hand, if civilizations are not prone to colonize their neighbours, or do not travel very far, then the upper limiting probability is much larger, even of order one. 11. Turbulence, flows and edge localized mode (ELM) dynamics in limiter H-mode plasmas in TEXTOR NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Soldatov, S.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Kantor, M.; Unterberg, B.; Sun, Y.; Van Oost, G.; Reiter, D.; TEXTOR Team 2010-08-01 The turbulence, plasma flow and edge localized mode (ELM) dynamics in the limiter H-mode TEXTOR plasmas are investigated. Properties of both ambient turbulence within 0 < k⊥ < 4.2 cm-1 and coherent modes are studied on the ELM time scale in detail. The turbulence level near the pedestal is shown to evolve several times with the period of ELMs. Within the inter-ELM period the 'silent stage' is found which is characterized by an extremely low (below that for Ohmic plasmas) turbulence level and a phase growth in the reflectometry signal. The silent stage is associated with the quasi-steady state when the pedestal is formed and confinement is improved between two successive ELMs. Quasi-coherent density oscillations near the pedestal region with m ≈ 3, 5, 16 and 38 are measured with correlation reflectometry. Low-m modes are found to reveal the signatures of precursor mode. At first, the radial structure of the rotation shear and radial electric field Er in limiter H-mode in TEXTOR is presented. The characteristic negative electric field well with the sharp gradient ∇Er ≈ 250 V cm-2 at ≈2 cm inside separatrix is resolved. The Er × B rotation profile defines both the resulting plasma rotation in the electron diamagnetic drift direction and a significant rotation shear near the separatrix which exceeds the decorrelation rate of ambient turbulence by several times. 12. Tau leaping of stiff stochastic chemical systems via local central limit approximation NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Yang, Yushu; Rathinam, Muruhan 2013-06-01 Stiffness manifests in stochastic dynamic systems in a more complex manner than in deterministic systems; it is not only important for a time-stepping method to remain stable but it is also important for the method to capture the asymptotic variances accurately. In the context of stochastic chemical systems, time stepping methods are known as tau leaping. Well known existing tau leaping methods have shortcomings in this regard. The implicit tau method is far more stable than the trapezoidal tau method but underestimates the asymptotic variance. On the other hand, the trapezoidal tau method which estimates the asymptotic variance exactly for linear systems suffers from the fact that the transients of the method do not decay fast enough in the context of very stiff systems. We propose a tau leaping method that possesses the same stability properties as the implicit method while it also captures the asymptotic variance with reasonable accuracy at least for the test system S1↔S2. The proposed method uses a central limit approximation (CLA) locally over the tau leaping interval and is referred to as the LCLA-τ. The CLA predicts the mean and covariance as solutions of certain differential equations (ODEs) and for efficiency we solve these using a single time step of a suitable low order method. We perform a mean/covariance stability analysis of various possible low order schemes to determine the best scheme. Numerical experiments presented show that LCLA-τ performs favorably for stiff systems and that the LCLA-τ is also able to capture bimodal distributions unlike the CLA itself. The proposed LCLA-τ method uses a split implicit step to compute the mean update. We also prove that any tau leaping method employing a split implicit step converges in the fluid limit to the implicit Euler method as applied to the fluid limit differential equation. 13. 20 CFR 661.310 - Under what limited conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services... Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR 2011-04-01 ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Under what limited conditions may a Local...-Stop Operator? 661.310 Section 661.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEWIDE AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF... 14. 20 CFR 661.310 - Under what limited conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services... Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR 2012-04-01 ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Under what limited conditions may a Local...-Stop Operator? 661.310 Section 661.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) STATEWIDE AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT SYSTEM UNDER... 15. Comparison theorems for causal diamonds NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Berthiere, Clément; Gibbons, Gary; Solodukhin, Sergey N. 2015-09-01 We formulate certain inequalities for the geometric quantities characterizing causal diamonds in curved and Minkowski spacetimes. These inequalities involve the redshift factor which, as we show explicitly in the spherically symmetric case, is monotonic in the radial direction, and it takes its maximal value at the center. As a by-product of our discussion we rederive Bishop's inequality without assuming the positivity of the spatial Ricci tensor. We then generalize our considerations to arbitrary, static and not necessarily spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the case of spacetimes with a horizon our generalization involves the so-called domain of dependence. The respective volume, expressed in terms of the duration measured by a distant observer compared with the volume of the domain in Minkowski spacetime, exhibits behaviors which differ if d =4 or d >4 . This peculiarity of four dimensions is due to the logarithmic subleading term in the asymptotic expansion of the metric near infinity. In terms of the invariant duration measured by a comoving observer associated with the diamond we establish an inequality which is universal for all d . We suggest some possible applications of our results including comparison theorems for entanglement entropy, causal set theory, and fundamental limits on computation. 16. The Digital Morphological Sampling Theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Haralick, Robert M.; Zhuang, Xinhua; Lin, Charlotte; Lee, James 1988-02-01 There are potential industrial applications for any methodology which inherently reduces processing time and cost and yet produces results sufficiently close to the result of full processing. It is for this reason that a morphological sampling theorem is important. The morphological sampling theorem described in this paper states: (1) how a digital image must be morphologically filtered before sampling in order to preserve the relevant information after sampling; (2) to what precision an appropriately morphologically filtered image can be reconstructed after sampling; and (3) the relationship between morphologically operating before sampling and the more computationally efficient scheme of morphologically operating on the sampled image with a sampled structuring element. The digital sampling theorem is developed first for the case of binary morphology and then it is extended to gray scale morphology through the use of the umbra homomorphism theorems. 17. Racial Isolation, Poverty, and the Limits of Local Control in Oakland ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Noguera, Pedro A. 2004-01-01 Historically, schools in the United States have been governed at the local level by elected school boards, and finances have been raised primarily through local property taxes. While local control theoretically allows for greater responsiveness to local concerns, it does not take into account the vast inequality among and between communities in… 18. Factor and Remainder Theorems: An Appreciation ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Weiss, Michael 2016-01-01 The high school curriculum sometimes seems like a disconnected collection of topics and techniques. Theorems like the factor theorem and the remainder theorem can play an important role as a conceptual "glue" that holds the curriculum together. These two theorems establish the connection between the factors of a polynomial, the solutions… 19. Cosmological singularity theorems and splitting theorems for N-Bakry-Émery spacetimes SciTech Connect Woolgar, Eric; Wylie, William 2016-02-15 We study Lorentzian manifolds with a weight function such that the N-Bakry-Émery tensor is bounded below. Such spacetimes arise in the physics of scalar-tensor gravitation theories, including Brans-Dicke theory, theories with Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction, and low-energy approximations to string theory. In the “pure Bakry-Émery” N = ∞ case with f uniformly bounded above and initial data suitably bounded, cosmological-type singularity theorems are known, as are splitting theorems which determine the geometry of timelike geodesically complete spacetimes for which the bound on the initial data is borderline violated. We extend these results in a number of ways. We are able to extend the singularity theorems to finite N-values N ∈ (n, ∞) and N ∈ (−∞, 1]. In the N ∈ (n, ∞) case, no bound on f is required, while for N ∈ (−∞, 1] and N = ∞, we are able to replace the boundedness of f by a weaker condition on the integral of f along future-inextendible timelike geodesics. The splitting theorems extend similarly, but when N = 1, the splitting is only that of a warped product for all cases considered. A similar limited loss of rigidity has been observed in a prior work on the N-Bakry-Émery curvature in Riemannian signature when N = 1 and appears to be a general feature. 20. Basis set limit and systematic errors in local-orbital based all-electron DFT NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Blum, Volker; Behler, Jörg; Gehrke, Ralf; Reuter, Karsten; Scheffler, Matthias 2006-03-01 With the advent of efficient integration schemes,^1,2 numeric atom-centered orbitals (NAO's) are an attractive basis choice in practical density functional theory (DFT) calculations of nanostructured systems (surfaces, clusters, molecules). Though all-electron, the efficiency of practical implementations promises to be on par with the best plane-wave pseudopotential codes, while having a noticeably higher accuracy if required: Minimal-sized effective tight-binding like calculations and chemically accurate all-electron calculations are both possible within the same framework; non-periodic and periodic systems can be treated on equal footing; and the localized nature of the basis allows in principle for O(N)-like scaling. However, converging an observable with respect to the basis set is less straightforward than with competing systematic basis choices (e.g., plane waves). We here investigate the basis set limit of optimized NAO basis sets in all-electron calculations, using as examples small molecules and clusters (N2, Cu2, Cu4, Cu10). meV-level total energy convergence is possible using <=50 basis functions per atom in all cases. We also find a clear correlation between the errors which arise from underconverged basis sets, and the system geometry (interatomic distance). ^1 B. Delley, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 508 (1990), ^2 J.M. Soler et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 2745 (2002). 1. Limits of the measurability of the local quantum electromagnetic-field amplitude NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Compagno, G.; Persico, F. 1998-03-01 The precision with which the amplitude of the free electromagnetic field can be measured locally in QED is evaluated by analyzing a well-known gedanken experiment originally proposed by Bohr and Rosenfeld (BR). The analysis is performed by applying standard theoretical techniques familiar in quantum optics. The main result obtained for the precision is significantly different from the generally accepted Bohr-Rosenfeld result. This leads to questioning the widely accepted notion of the compensating field, fostered by these authors. A misconception at the origin of this notion is pointed out by a careful investigation of the self-force acting on the apparatus designed to measure the field. The correct expression for this self-force is found to be at variance with that proposed by Bohr and Rosenfeld and generally accepted. It is argued that, as a consequence of this new expression and in contrast with the generally accepted view, no compensating force of nonelectromagnetic nature is required in order to perform measurements of the quantum field amplitude with any desired accuracy. It is shown that the only limitations to the precision of the measurement, in the BR gedanken experiment, arise from the time-energy uncertainty principle, as well as from the finite dimensions of the measuring apparatus. 2. Systemic protein delivery by muscle-gene transfer is limited by a local immune response PubMed Central Wang, Lixin; Dobrzynski, Eric; Schlachterman, Alexander; Cao, Ou; Herzog, Roland W. 2005-01-01 Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have been successfully used for therapeutic expression of systemic transgene products (such as factor IX or erythropoietin) following in vivo administration to skeletal muscle of animal models of inherited hematologic disorders. However, an immune response may be initiated if the transgene product represents a neoantigen. Here, we use ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen and demonstrate immune-mediated elimination of expression on muscle-directed AAV-2 gene transfer. Administration to immune competent mice resulted in transient systemic OVA expression. Within 10 days, OVA-specific T-helper cells had been activated in draining lymph nodes, an inflammatory immune response ensued, and OVA-expressing muscle fibers were destroyed by a cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell response. Use of a muscle-specific promoter did not prevent this immune response. Adoptively transferred CD4+ cells transgenic for a T-cell receptor specific to OVA peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II showed antigen-specific, vector dose-dependent proliferation confined to the draining lymph nodes of AAV-OVA–transduced muscle within 5 days after gene transfer and subsequently participated in lymphocytic infiltration of transduced muscle. This study documents that a local immune response limits sustained expression of a secreted protein in muscle gene transfer, a finding that may have consequences for design of clinical protocols. PMID:15713796 3. Freezing of tissue-limits for the autoradiographic localization of diffusible substances. PubMed Frederik, P M; Busing, W M 1979-11-01 Frozen thin sections and sections from freeze-dried and embedded tissue are used for the autoradiographic localization of diffusible substances at the electron microscope level. The presence of ice crystals in such sections may limit the autoradiographic resolution. Ice crystals are formed during freezing and may grow during subsequent processing of tissue. The contribution of ice crystal growth to the final image was estimated by measuring the distribution of the ice crystal sizes in freeze-etch replicas and in sections from freeze-dried and embedded tissues. A surface layer (10-15 mu) without visible ice crystals was present in both preparations. Beneath this surface layer the diameter of ice crystals increased towards the interior with the same relationship between crystal size and distance from the surface in the freeze-etch preparation as in the freeze-dry preparation. Ice crystal growth occurring during a much longer time during freeze-drying compared to freeze-etching does not significantly contribute to the final image in the electron microscope. The formation of ice crystals during freezing determines to a large extent the image (and therefore the autoradiographic resolution) of freeze-dry preparations and this probably holds also for thin cryosections of which examples are given. 4. Spin groups of super metrics and a theorem of Rogers NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Fulp, Ronald 2017-01-01 We derive the canonical forms of super Riemannian metrics and the local isometry groups of such metrics. For certain super metrics we also compute the simply connected covering groups of the local isometry groups and interpret these as local spin groups of the super metric. Super metrics define reductions OSg of the relevant frame bundle. When principal bundles S˜g exist with structure group the simply connected covering group G ˜ of the structure group of OSg , representations of G ˜ define vector bundles associated to S˜g whose sections are "spinor fields" associated with the super metric g . Using a generalization of a Theorem of Rogers, which is itself one of the main results of this paper, we show that for super metrics we call body reducible, each such simply connected covering group G ˜ is a super Lie group with a conventional super Lie algebra as its corresponding super Lie algebra. Some of our results were known to DeWitt (1984) using formal Grassmann series and others were known by Rogers using finitely many Grassmann generators and passing to a direct limit. We work exclusively in the category of G∞ supermanifolds with G∞ mappings. Our supernumbers are infinite series of products of Grassmann generators subject to convergence in the ℓ1 norm introduced by Rogers (1980, 2007). 5. Enhancing Local Climate Projections of Precipitation: Assets and Limitations of Quantile Mapping Techniques for Statistical Downscaling NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ivanov, Martin; Kotlarski, Sven; Schär, Christoph 2015-04-01 The Swiss CH2011 scenarios provide a portfolio of climate change scenarios for the region of Switzerland, specifically tailored for use in climate impact research. Although widely applied by a variety of end-users, these scenarios are subject to several limitations related to the underlying delta change methodology. Examples are difficulties to appropriately account for changes in the spatio-temporal variability of meteorological fields and for changes in extreme events. The recently launched ELAPSE project (Enhancing local and regional climate change projections for Switzerland) is connected to the EU COST Action VALUE (www.value-cost.eu) and aims at complementing CH2011 by further scenario products, including a bias-corrected version of daily scenarios at the site scale. For this purpose the well-established empirical quantile mapping (QM) methodology is employed. Here, daily temperature and precipitation output of 15 GCM-RCM model chains of the ENSEMBLES project is downscaled and bias-corrected to match observations at weather stations in Switzerland. We consider established QM techniques based on all empirical quantiles or linear interpolation between the empirical percentiles. In an attempt to improve the downscaling of extreme precipitation events, we also apply a parametric approximation of the daily precipitation distribution by a dynamically weighted mixture of a Gamma distribution for the bulk and a Pareto distribution for the right tail for the first time in the context of QM. All techniques are evaluated and intercompared in a cross-validation framework. The statistical downscaling substantially improves virtually all considered distributional and temporal characteristics as well as their spatial distribution. The empirical methods have in general very similar performances. The parametric method does not show an improvement over the empirical ones. Critical sites and seasons are highlighted and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on investigating the 6. Nambu-Goldstone theorem and spin-statistics theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Fujikawa, Kazuo 2016-05-01 On December 19-21 in 2001, we organized a yearly workshop at Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics in Kyoto on the subject of “Fundamental Problems in Field Theory and their Implications”. Prof. Yoichiro Nambu attended this workshop and explained a necessary modification of the Nambu-Goldstone theorem when applied to non-relativistic systems. At the same workshop, I talked on a path integral formulation of the spin-statistics theorem. The present essay is on this memorable workshop, where I really enjoyed the discussions with Nambu, together with a short comment on the color freedom of quarks. 7. Four theorems on the psychometric function. PubMed May, Keith A; Solomon, Joshua A 2013-01-01 In a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task, observers choose which of two stimuli has the higher value. The psychometric function for this task gives the probability of a correct response for a given stimulus difference, Δx. This paper proves four theorems about the psychometric function. Assuming the observer applies a transducer and adds noise, Theorem 1 derives a convenient general expression for the psychometric function. Discrimination data are often fitted with a Weibull function. Theorem 2 proves that the Weibull "slope" parameter, β, can be approximated by β(Noise) x β(Transducer), where β(Noise) is the β of the Weibull function that fits best to the cumulative noise distribution, and β(Transducer) depends on the transducer. We derive general expressions for β(Noise) and β(Transducer), from which we derive expressions for specific cases. One case that follows naturally from our general analysis is Pelli's finding that, when d' ∝ (Δx)(b), β ≈ β(Noise) x b. We also consider two limiting cases. Theorem 3 proves that, as sensitivity improves, 2AFC performance will usually approach that for a linear transducer, whatever the actual transducer; we show that this does not apply at signal levels where the transducer gradient is zero, which explains why it does not apply to contrast detection. Theorem 4 proves that, when the exponent of a power-function transducer approaches zero, 2AFC performance approaches that of a logarithmic transducer. We show that the power-function exponents of 0.4-0.5 fitted to suprathreshold contrast discrimination data are close enough to zero for the fitted psychometric function to be practically indistinguishable from that of a log transducer. Finally, Weibull β reflects the shape of the noise distribution, and we used our results to assess the recent claim that internal noise has higher kurtosis than a Gaussian. Our analysis of β for contrast discrimination suggests that, if internal noise is stimulus 8. A categorical account of the Hofmann-Mislove theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Townsend, Christopher F. 2005-11-01 A categorical account is given of the Hofmann-Mislove theorem, describing the Scott open filters on a frame. The account is stable under an order duality and so is shown to also cover Bunge and Funk's constructive description of the points of the lower power locale. 9. Equipartition theorem and the dynamics of liquids SciTech Connect Levashov, Valentin A.; Egami, Takeshi; Aga, Rachel S; Morris, James R 2008-01-01 In liquids, phonons have a very short lifetime and the total potential energy does not depend linearly on temperature. Thus it may appear that atomic vibrations in liquids cannot be described by the harmonic-oscillator model and that the equipartition theorem for the potential energy is not upheld. In this paper we show that the description of the local atomic dynamics in terms of the atomic-level stresses provides such a description, satisfying the equipartition theorem. To prove this point we carried out molecular-dynamics simulations with several pairwise potentials, including the Lennard-Jones potential, the modified Johnson potential, and the repulsive part of the Johnson potential, at various particle number densities. In all cases studied the total self-energy of the atomic-level stresses followed the (3/2)kBT law. From these results we suggest that the concept of local atomic stresses can provide description of thermodynamic properties of glasses and liquids on the basis of harmonic atomistic excitations. An example of application of this approach to the description of the glass transition temperature in metallic glasses is discussed. 10. New double soft emission theorems NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Cachazo, Freddy; He, Song; Yuan, Ellis Ye 2015-09-01 We study the behavior of the tree-level S-matrix of a variety of theories as two particles become soft. By analogy with the recently found subleading soft theorems for gravitons and gluons, we explore subleading terms in double soft emissions. We first consider double soft scalar emissions and find subleading terms that are controlled by the angular momentum operator acting on hard particles. The order of the subleading theorems depends on the presence or not of color structures. Next we obtain a compact formula for the leading term in a double soft photon emission. The theories studied are a special Galileon, Dirac-Born-Infeld, Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar, nonlinear sigma model and Yang-Mills-Scalar. We use the recently found Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of these theories in order to give a simple proof of the leading order part of all these theorems. 11. The Variation Theorem Applied to H-2+: A Simple Quantum Chemistry Computer Project ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Robiette, Alan G. 1975-01-01 Describes a student project which requires limited knowledge of Fortran and only minimal computing resources. The results illustrate such important principles of quantum mechanics as the variation theorem and the virial theorem. Presents sample calculations and the subprogram for energy calculations. (GS) 12. Quantum cryptography without Bell's theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Bennett, Charles H.; Brassard, Gilles; Mermin, N. David 1992-02-01 Ekert has described a cryptographic scheme in which Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs of particles are used to generate identical random numbers in remote places, while Bell's theorem certifies that the particles have not been measured in transit by an eavesdropper. We describe a related but simpler EPR scheme and, without invoking Bell's theorem, prove it secure against more general attacks, including substitution of a fake EPR source. Finally we show our scheme is equivalent to the original 1984 key distribution scheme of Bennett and Brassard, which uses single particles instead of EPR pairs. 13. Advantages and limitations of navigation-based multicriteria optimization (MCO) for localized prostate cancer IMRT planning SciTech Connect McGarry, Conor K.; Bokrantz, Rasmus; O’Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R. 2014-10-01 Efficacy of inverse planning is becoming increasingly important for advanced radiotherapy techniques. This study’s aims were to validate multicriteria optimization (MCO) in RayStation (v2.4, RaySearch Laboratories, Sweden) against standard intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization in Oncentra (v4.1, Nucletron BV, the Netherlands) and characterize dose differences due to conversion of navigated MCO plans into deliverable multileaf collimator apertures. Step-and-shoot IMRT plans were created for 10 patients with localized prostate cancer using both standard optimization and MCO. Acceptable standard IMRT plans with minimal average rectal dose were chosen for comparison with deliverable MCO plans. The trade-off was, for the MCO plans, managed through a user interface that permits continuous navigation between fluence-based plans. Navigated MCO plans were made deliverable at incremental steps along a trajectory between maximal target homogeneity and maximal rectal sparing. Dosimetric differences between navigated and deliverable MCO plans were also quantified. MCO plans, chosen as acceptable under navigated and deliverable conditions resulted in similar rectal sparing compared with standard optimization (33.7 ± 1.8 Gy vs 35.5 ± 4.2 Gy, p = 0.117). The dose differences between navigated and deliverable MCO plans increased as higher priority was placed on rectal avoidance. If the best possible deliverable MCO was chosen, a significant reduction in rectal dose was observed in comparison with standard optimization (30.6 ± 1.4 Gy vs 35.5 ± 4.2 Gy, p = 0.047). Improvements were, however, to some extent, at the expense of less conformal dose distributions, which resulted in significantly higher doses to the bladder for 2 of the 3 tolerance levels. In conclusion, similar IMRT plans can be created for patients with prostate cancer using MCO compared with standard optimization. Limitations exist within MCO regarding conversion of navigated plans to 14. Towards a novel no-hair theorem for black holes SciTech Connect Hertog, Thomas 2006-10-15 We provide strong numerical evidence for a new no-scalar-hair theorem for black holes in general relativity, which rules out spherical scalar hair of static four-dimensional black holes if the scalar field theory, when coupled to gravity, satisfies the Positive Energy Theorem. This sheds light on the no-scalar-hair conjecture for Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory, where the effective potential typically has negative regions but where supersymmetry ensures the total energy is always positive. In theories where the scalar tends to a negative local maximum of the potential at infinity, we find the no-scalar-hair theorem holds provided the asymptotic conditions are invariant under the full anti-de Sitter symmetry group. 15. On the role of sharp chains in the transport theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Falach, L.; Segev, R. 2016-03-01 A generalized transport theorem for convecting irregular domains is presented in the setting of Federer's geometric measure theory. A prototypical r-dimensional domain is viewed as a flat r-chain of finite mass in an open set of an n-dimensional Euclidean space. The evolution of such a generalized domain in time is assumed to follow a continuous succession of Lipschitz embedding so that the spatial gradient may be nonexistent in a subset of the domain with zero measure. The induced curve is shown to be continuous with respect to the flat norm and differential with respect to the sharp norm on currents in Rn. A time-dependent property is naturally assigned to the evolving region via the action of an r-cochain on the current associated with the domain. Applying a representation theorem for cochains, the properties are shown to be locally represented by an r-form. Using these notions, a generalized transport theorem is presented. 16. Stochastic thermodynamics, fluctuation theorems and molecular machines. PubMed Seifert, Udo 2012-12-01 Stochastic thermodynamics as reviewed here systematically provides a framework for extending the notions of classical thermodynamics such as work, heat and entropy production to the level of individual trajectories of well-defined non-equilibrium ensembles. It applies whenever a non-equilibrium process is still coupled to one (or several) heat bath(s) of constant temperature. Paradigmatic systems are single colloidal particles in time-dependent laser traps, polymers in external flow, enzymes and molecular motors in single molecule assays, small biochemical networks and thermoelectric devices involving single electron transport. For such systems, a first-law like energy balance can be identified along fluctuating trajectories. For a basic Markovian dynamics implemented either on the continuum level with Langevin equations or on a discrete set of states as a master equation, thermodynamic consistency imposes a local-detailed balance constraint on noise and rates, respectively. Various integral and detailed fluctuation theorems, which are derived here in a unifying approach from one master theorem, constrain the probability distributions for work, heat and entropy production depending on the nature of the system and the choice of non-equilibrium conditions. For non-equilibrium steady states, particularly strong results hold like a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem involving entropy production. Ramifications and applications of these concepts include optimal driving between specified states in finite time, the role of measurement-based feedback processes and the relation between dissipation and irreversibility. Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones such as molecular motors, and heat engines such as thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production. 17. Stochastic thermodynamics, fluctuation theorems and molecular machines NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Seifert, Udo 2012-12-01 Stochastic thermodynamics as reviewed here systematically provides a framework for extending the notions of classical thermodynamics such as work, heat and entropy production to the level of individual trajectories of well-defined non-equilibrium ensembles. It applies whenever a non-equilibrium process is still coupled to one (or several) heat bath(s) of constant temperature. Paradigmatic systems are single colloidal particles in time-dependent laser traps, polymers in external flow, enzymes and molecular motors in single molecule assays, small biochemical networks and thermoelectric devices involving single electron transport. For such systems, a first-law like energy balance can be identified along fluctuating trajectories. For a basic Markovian dynamics implemented either on the continuum level with Langevin equations or on a discrete set of states as a master equation, thermodynamic consistency imposes a local-detailed balance constraint on noise and rates, respectively. Various integral and detailed fluctuation theorems, which are derived here in a unifying approach from one master theorem, constrain the probability distributions for work, heat and entropy production depending on the nature of the system and the choice of non-equilibrium conditions. For non-equilibrium steady states, particularly strong results hold like a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem involving entropy production. Ramifications and applications of these concepts include optimal driving between specified states in finite time, the role of measurement-based feedback processes and the relation between dissipation and irreversibility. Efficiency and, in particular, efficiency at maximum power can be discussed systematically beyond the linear response regime for two classes of molecular machines, isothermal ones such as molecular motors, and heat engines such as thermoelectric devices, using a common framework based on a cycle decomposition of entropy production. 18. 20 CFR 661.310 - Under what limited conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services... Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR 2010-04-01 ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what limited conditions may a Local Board directly be a provider of core services, intensive services, or training services, or act as a One-Stop Operator? 661.310 Section 661.310 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEWIDE AND... 19. Angle Defect and Descartes' Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Scott, Paul 2006-01-01 Rene Descartes lived from 1596 to 1650. His contributions to geometry are still remembered today in the terminology "Descartes' plane". This paper discusses a simple theorem of Descartes, which enables students to easily determine the number of vertices of almost every polyhedron. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.) 20. Discovering the Inscribed Angle Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Roscoe, Matt B. 2012-01-01 Learning to play tennis is difficult. It takes practice, but it also helps to have a coach--someone who gives tips and pointers but allows the freedom to play the game on one's own. Learning to act like a mathematician is a similar process. Students report that the process of proving the inscribed angle theorem is challenging and, at times,… 1. Generalized Pump-restriction Theorem SciTech Connect Sinitsyn, Nikolai A; Chernyak, Vladimir Y 2008-01-01 We formulate conditions under which periodic modulations of parameters on a finite graph with stochastic transitions among its nodes do not lead to overall pump currents through any given link. Our theorem unifies previously known results with the new ones and provides a universal approach to explore futher restrictions on stochastic pump effect in non-adiabatically driven systems with detailed balance. 2. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Rodriguez, Brenda Cecilia Padilla; Armellini, Alejandro 2015-01-01 Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner) is present at a high level. This… 3. Arriving at the Pythagorean Theorem. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Jaramillo, James; Brown, Jonathan Caius This lesson plan uses group activity and manipulative materials to teach English-speaking students (ages 15-16) of diverse ethnic backgrounds an operatonal understanding of the Pythagorean Theorem. It is based on theories of constructivism and holism and includes teacher instructions, discussion questions, a retrospective vision, and an ancillary… 4. Interpretation of the quantum formalism and Bell's theorem SciTech Connect Santos, E. ) 1991-02-01 It is argued that quantum mechanics must be interpreted according to the Copenhagen interpretation. Consequently the formalism must be used in a purely operational way. The relation between realism, hidden variables, and the Bell inequalities is discussed. The proof of impossibility of local hidden-variables theories (Bell theorem) is criticized on the basis that the quantum mechanical states violating local realism are not physically realizable states. 5. Analytical proof of Gisin's theorem for three qubits SciTech Connect Choudhary, Sujit K.; Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Rahaman, Ramij 2010-04-15 Gisin's theorem assures that for any pure bipartite entangled state, there is violation of the inequality of Bell and of Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt, revealing its contradiction with local realistic model. Whether a similar result holds for three-qubit pure entangled states remained unresolved. We show analytically that all three-qubit pure entangled states violate a Bell-type inequality, derived on the basis of local realism, by exploiting the Hardy's nonlocality argument. 6. Optical theorem for multipole sources in wave diffraction theory NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Eremin, Yu. A.; Sveshnikov, A. G. 2016-05-01 The optical theorem is generalized to the case of local body excitation by multipole sources. It is found that, to calculate the extinction cross section, it is sufficient to calculate the scattered field derivatives at a single point. It is shown that the Purcell factor, which is a rather important parameter, can be represented in analytic form. The result is generalized to the case of a local scatterer incorporated in a homogeneous halfspace. 7. Generalized Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam image reconstruction. PubMed Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Jiang, Dazong; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Kang 2015-01-01 The cone-beam reconstruction theory has been proposed by Kirillov in 1961, Tuy in 1983, Feldkamp in 1984, Smith in 1985, Pierre Grangeat in 1990. The Fourier slice theorem is proposed by Bracewell 1956, which leads to the Fourier image reconstruction method for parallel-beam geometry. The Fourier slice theorem is extended to fan-beam geometry by Zhao in 1993 and 1995. By combining the above mentioned cone-beam image reconstruction theory and the above mentioned Fourier slice theory of fan-beam geometry, the Fourier slice theorem in cone-beam geometry is proposed by Zhao 1995 in short conference publication. This article offers the details of the derivation and implementation of this Fourier slice theorem for cone-beam geometry. Especially the problem of the reconstruction from Fourier domain has been overcome, which is that the value of in the origin of Fourier space is 0/0. The 0/0 type of limit is proper handled. As examples, the implementation results for the single circle and two perpendicular circle source orbits are shown. In the cone-beam reconstruction if a interpolation process is considered, the number of the calculations for the generalized Fourier slice theorem algorithm is O(N^4), which is close to the filtered back-projection method, here N is the image size of 1-dimension. However the interpolation process can be avoid, in that case the number of the calculations is O(N5). 8. Pythagorean Theorem Proofs: Connecting Interactive Websites ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Lin, Cheng-Yao 2007-01-01 There are over 400 proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem. Some are visual proofs, others are algebraic. This paper features several proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem in different cultures--Greek, Chinese, Hindu and American. Several interactive websites are introduced to explore ways to prove this beautiful theorem. (Contains 8 figures.) 9. A Fundamental Theorem on Particle Acceleration SciTech Connect Xie, Ming 2003-05-01 A fundamental theorem on particle acceleration is derived from the reciprocity principle of electromagnetism and a rigorous proof of the theorem is presented. The theorem establishes a relation between acceleration and radiation, which is particularly useful for insightful understanding of and practical calculation about the first order acceleration in which energy gain of the accelerated particle is linearly proportional to the accelerating field. 10. A note on generalized Weyl's theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Zguitti, H. 2006-04-01 We prove that if either T or T* has the single-valued extension property, then the spectral mapping theorem holds for B-Weyl spectrum. If, moreover T is isoloid, and generalized Weyl's theorem holds for T, then generalized Weyl's theorem holds for f(T) for every . An application is given for algebraically paranormal operators. 11. Generalizations of Ptolemy and Brahmagupta Theorems ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Ayoub, Ayoub B. 2007-01-01 The Greek astronomer Ptolemy of Alexandria (second century) and the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta (sixth century) each have a significant theorem named after them. Both theorems have to do with cyclic quadrilaterals. Ptolemy's theorem states that: In a cyclic quadrilateral, the product of the diagonals is equal to the sum of the products of two… 12. Khalfin's Theorem and Neutral Mesons Subsystem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Urbanowski, Krzysztof 2009-01-01 The consequences of Khalfin's Theorem are discussed. we find, eg., that diagonal matrix elements of the exact effective Hamiltonian for the neutral meson complex can not be equal if CPT symmetry holds and CP symmetry is violated. Within a given model we examine numerically the Khalfin's Theorem and show in a graphic form how the Khalfin's Theorem works. 13. Saoithín: A Theorem Prover for UTP NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Butterfield, Andrew Saoithín is a theorem prover developed to support the Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP) framework. Its primary design goal was to support the higher-order logic, alphabets, equational reasoning and "programs as predicates" style that is prevalent in much of the UTP literature, from the seminal work by Hoare & He [HH98] onwards. This paper describes the key features of the theorem prover, with an emphasis on the underlying foundations, and how these affect the design and implementation choices. These key features include: a formalisation of a UTP Theory; support for common proof strategies; sophisticated goal/law matching ; and user-defined language constructs. A simple theory of designs with some proof extracts is used to illustrate the above features. The theorem prover has been used with undergraduate students and we discuss some of those experiences. The paper then concludes with a discussion of current limitations and planned improvements to the tool. 14. Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Woodruff, Sierra C.; Stults, Missy 2016-08-01 Adaptation planning offers a promising approach for identifying and devising solutions to address local climate change impacts. Yet there is little empirical understanding of the content and quality of these plans. We use content analysis to evaluate 44 local adaptation plans in the United States and multivariate regression to examine how plan quality varies across communities. We find that plans draw on multiple data sources to analyse future climate impacts and include a breadth of strategies. Most plans, however, fail to prioritize impacts and strategies or provide detailed implementation processes, raising concerns about whether adaptation plans will translate into on-the-ground reductions in vulnerability. Our analysis also finds that plans authored by the planning department and those that engaged elected officials in the planning process were of higher quality. The results provide important insights for practitioners, policymakers and scientists wanting to improve local climate adaptation planning and action. 15. The sensitive period for auditory localization in barn owls is limited by age, not by experience. PubMed Knudsen, E I; Knudsen, P F 1986-07-01 Early in life, the barn owl passes through a sensitive period during which it can interpret and make use of abnormal auditory cues for accurate sound localization. This capacity is lost at about 8 weeks of age, just after the head and ears reach adult size (knudsen et al. 1984a). The end of the sensitive period could be triggered either by an age-dependent process or by the exposure of the auditory system to stable or adult-like cues. To distinguish between these alternatives, we subjected baby owls to constant abnormal cues (chronic monaural occlusion) or to frequently changing abnormal cues (alternating monaural occlusion) throughout the sensitive period. In the first group of animals (n = 2), one ear was plugged continuously until 73 or 79 d of age, respectively, and then the earplug was switched to the opposite ear. Although these animals adjusted sound localization accuracy during the initial chronic monaural occlusion, they could not localize sounds at all after the earplug was switched to the opposite ear, and they remained unable to localize sounds as long as the opposite ear remained occluded (7 and 27 weeks, respectively). When the second monaural occlusion was finally removed, both birds localized sounds with errors that were similar to the errors they exhibited immediately after removal of the first monaural occlusion. One bird that was 127-d-old at the time the second earplug was removed corrected its localization error; the other bird, 250-d-old when the second earplug was removed, did not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) 16. Hijacked organic, limited local, faulty fair trade: what's a radical to eat? PubMed Engler, Mark 2012-01-01 Organic farming has been hijacked by big business. Local food can have a larger carbon footprint than products shipped in from overseas. Fair trade doesn't address the real concerns of farmers in the global South. As the food movement has moved from the countercultural fringe to become a mainstream phenomenon, organic, local, and fair trade advocates have been beset by criticism from overt foes and erstwhile allies alike. Now that Starbucks advertises fair trade coffee and Kraft owns Boca soy burgers, it's fair to ask, "What's a radical to eat?" 17. Bell's theorem, inference, and quantum transactions NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Garrett, A. J. M. 1990-04-01 Bell's theorem is expounded as an analysis in Bayesian inference. Assuming the result of a spin measurement on a particle is governed by a causal variable internal (hidden, “local”) to the particle, one learns about it by making a spin measurement; thence about the internal variable of a second particle correlated with the first; and from there predicts the probabilistic result of spin measurements on the second particle. Such predictions are violated by experiment: locality/causality fails. The statistical nature of the observations rules out signalling; acausal, superluminal, or otherwise. Quantum mechanics is irrelevant to this reasoning, although its correct predictions of experiment imply that it has a nonlocal/acausal interpretation. Cramer's new transactional interpretation, which incorporates this feature by adapting the Wheeler-Feynman idea of advanced and retarded processes to the quantum laws, is advocated. It leads to an invaluable way of envisaging quantum processes. The usual paradoxes melt before this, and one, the “delayed choice” experiment, is chosen for detailed inspection. Nonlocality implies practical difficulties in influencing hidden variables, which provides a very plausible explanation for why they have not yet been found; from this standpoint, Bell's theorem reinforces arguments in favor of hidden variables. 18. De Finetti Theorem on the CAR Algebra NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Crismale, Vitonofrio; Fidaleo, Francesco 2012-10-01 The symmetric states on a quasi local C*-algebra on the infinite set of indices J are those invariant under the action of the group of the permutations moving only a finite, but arbitrary, number of elements of J. The celebrated De Finetti Theorem describes the structure of the symmetric states (i.e. exchangeable probability measures) in classical probability. In the present paper we extend the De Finetti Theorem to the case of the CAR algebra, that is for physical systems describing Fermions. Namely, after showing that a symmetric state is automatically even under the natural action of the parity automorphism, we prove that the compact convex set of such states is a Choquet simplex, whose extremal (i.e. ergodic w.r.t. the action of the group of permutations previously described) are precisely the product states in the sense of Araki-Moriya. In order to do that, we also prove some ergodic properties naturally enjoyed by the symmetric states which have a self-containing interest. 19. Complex virial theorem and complex scaling SciTech Connect Junker, B.R. 1983-06-01 We present the simple generalization to complex energies of the normal global real scaling used for bound-state calculations to produce a variational energy which satisfies the virial theorem. We show that in two limiting cases, one or the other of which is almost always p satisfied in all calculations, the virially stabilized complex energy is sensitive to only the real part or the imaginary part of the complex virial expression. We then compute the virial expression for a number of wave functions for the 1s2s/sup 2/ /sup 2/S He/sup -/, 1s2s2p /sup 2/P/sup o/ He/sup -/, and 1s/sup 2/2s/sup 2/kp /sup 2/P/sup o/ Be/sup -/ resonances and the corresponding virially stabilized resonance energies. In all calculations one of the limiting cases was applicable. 20. Limitations of a localized surface plasmon resonance sensor on Salmonella detection Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN) We have designed a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensor to perform the whole cell detection of Salmonella using gold nanoparticls fabricated by oblique angle deposition technique. The LSPR sensor showed a plasmon peak shift due to the Salmonella antigen and anti-Salmonella antibody r... 1. Taking account of local culture: limits to the development of a professional ethos. PubMed Goopy, Suzanne E 2005-06-01 The need to extend the discussion of culture in the study of nursing, combined with an enthusiasm for the possibility of viewing nursing from a new perspective, provides the impetus for this study. Based on fieldwork undertaken in the intensive care unit (RICU) of a major public hospital in Rome (Italy), this paper explores some of the key aspects of the social relations and local staff culture of one particular group of Italian nurses. In a climate of globalization, where the deployment of dominant Anglo-American ideas is difficult to counter, the RICU presents as a setting which challenges the widespread assumptions of universal standards of nursing practice. By building a picture of the working world of these particular nurses, we are assisted in our understanding of nursing practice as a local cultural activity. In exploring the significance of local culture this paper brings into question the universality of the current paradigm of professionalism and professional identity, and emphasizes the value of acknowledging local culture. 2. Localization of type I interferon receptor limits interferon-induced TLR-3 in epithelial cells EPA Science Inventory This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated prima... 3. 40 CFR 1400.11 - Limitation on dissemination to State and local government officials. Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR 2010-07-01 ... and local government officials. 1400.11 Section 1400.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE PREVENTION REQUIREMENTS; RISK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE... 4. Distant views and local realities: The limits of global assessments to restore the fragmented phosphorus cycle Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN) With more sophisticated data compilation and analytical capabilities, the evolution of “big data” analysis has occurred rapidly. We examine the meta-analysis of “big data” representing phosphorus (P) flows and stocks in global agriculture and address the need to consider local nuances of farm operat... 5. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion PubMed Central Montini, Theresa; Bero, Lisa A 2008-01-01 Background In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. Methods We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. Results The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Conclusion Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level. PMID:19063716 6. The Spin-S Einstein - Podolsky - Rosen Experiment and the Recovery of Local Realism in the Classical Limit. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Garg, Anupam Kumar This thesis consists of a study of the general spin Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment, with a view to seeing how classical behavior is recovered in the infinite -spin limit. In Bohm's version of the experiment, two spin -s particles fly apart in the singlet state. Quantum theory predicts that if the spin of one particle is measured to be m along a direction a, the other will necessarily have a sping of -m along a. Since the spins of the two far apart particles can be measured in an infinitesimal time interval, the requirement of locality suggests that the particles' spins are predetermined along all directions, in defiance of quantum theoretic precepts. It was shown by Bell and by Clauser and Horne that an alternative point of view called local realism which attempts to explain the spin correlations by introducing hidden variables mut be incompatible with the quantitative predictions of quantum theory for spin- 1/2. Chapters II and III of this thesis contain extensions of their arguments to arbitrary spin. It is found that no matter how large the spin gets, quantum mechanics and local realism do not become more compatible, and classical mechanics does not emerge as a smooth infinite-spin limit. Chapter IV gives a general procedure (with several examples) for deciding whether or not a given set of joint distributions for the spins of the two particles is compatible with local realism. In Chapter V it is argued that local realism can emerge in the infinite-spin limit only if limitations in detector resolution (quite unrelated to those imposed by the uncertainty principle) are explicitly included. Some questions stemming from this point of view are answered for spin- 1/2, and a specific model for including detector error is studied for higher spin. 7. Generalized Bloch theorem and chiral transport phenomena NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Yamamoto, Naoki 2015-10-01 Bloch theorem states the impossibility of persistent electric currents in the ground state of nonrelativistic fermion systems. We extend this theorem to generic systems based on the gauged particle number symmetry and study its consequences on the example of chiral transport phenomena. We show that the chiral magnetic effect can be understood as a generalization of the Bloch theorem to a nonequilibrium steady state, similarly to the integer quantum Hall effect. On the other hand, persistent axial currents are not prohibited by the Bloch theorem and they can be regarded as Pauli paramagnetism of relativistic matter. An application of the generalized Bloch theorem to quantum time crystals is also discussed. 8. The de Finetti theorem for test spaces NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Barrett, Jonathan; Leifer, Matthew 2009-03-01 We prove a de Finetti theorem for exchangeable sequences of states on test spaces, where a test space is a generalization of the sample space of classical probability theory and the Hilbert space of quantum theory. The standard classical and quantum de Finetti theorems are obtained as special cases. By working in a test space framework, the common features that are responsible for the existence of these theorems are elucidated. In addition, the test space framework is general enough to imply a de Finetti theorem for classical processes. We conclude by discussing the ways in which our assumptions may fail, leading to probabilistic models that do not have a de Finetti theorem. 9. Local oscillator phase noise limitation on the resolution of acoustic delay line wireless passive sensor measurement NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Chrétien, N.; Friedt, J.-M.; Martin, G. 2014-06-01 The role of the phase noise of a local oscillator driving a pulsed-mode RADAR used for probing surface acoustic wave sensors is investigated. The echo delay, representative of the acoustic velocity, and hence the physical quantity probed by the sensor, is finely measured as a phase. Considering that the intrinsic oscillator phase fluctuation defines the phase noise measurement resolution, we experimentally and theoretically assess the relation between phase noise, measurement range, and measurand resolution. 10. The Limits of the Czar’s Ukase: Drug Policy at the Local Level DTIC Science & Technology 1990-06-01 for which post-arrest data are available, approximately seven times as many persons were sen- tenced to incarceration in state prisons and local jails...referred to treatment programs than incarcerated . No doubt the cocaine epidemic would have put a great strain on big city treatment agencies anyway, bitt... recidivism . cooperation among treat ment and correct ions agencies wil haet-buh more efl’ ctive than it was during pre- vious drug abuse epidemics. 2 11. Genetic shift in local rice populations during rice breeding programs in the northern limit of rice cultivation in the world. PubMed Fujino, Kenji; Obara, Mari; Ikegaya, Tomohito; Tamura, Kenichi 2015-09-01 The rapid accumulation of pre-existing mutations may play major roles in the establishment and shaping of adaptability for local regions in current rice breeding programs. The cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., which originated from tropical regions, is now grown worldwide due to the concerted efforts of breeding programs. However, the process of establishing local populations and their origins remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized DNA polymorphisms in the rice variety KITAAKE from Hokkaido, one of the northern limits of rice cultivation in the world. Indel polymorphisms were attributed to transposable element-like insertions, tandem duplications, and non-TE deletions as the original mutation events in the NIPPONBARE and KITAAKE genomes. The allele frequencies of the KITAAKE alleles markedly shifted to the current variety types among the local population from Hokkaido in the last two decades. The KITAAKE alleles widely distributed throughout wild rice and cultivated rice over the world. These have accumulated in the local population from Hokkaido via Japanese landraces as the ancestral population of Hokkaido. These results strongly suggested that combinations of pre-existing mutations played a role in the establishment of adaptability. This approach using the re-sequencing of local varieties in unique environmental conditions will be useful as a genetic resource in plant breeding programs in local regions. 12. Quantum mechanics vs local realism near the classical limit:A Bell inequality for spin s SciTech Connect Mermin, N.D. 1980-07-15 The quantitative quantum-mechanical analysis of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment for correlated particles of arbitrary spin s is shown to contradict a generalized form of Bell's inequality, for suitable orientations of the detectors. As the classical (s ..-->.. infinity ) limit is approached, the range of angles for which the contradiction arises vanishes as 1/s. 13. Equivalence theorem of uncertainty relations NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Li, Jun-Li; Qiao, Cong-Feng 2017-01-01 We present an equivalence theorem to unify the two classes of uncertainty relations, i.e. the variance-based ones and the entropic forms, showing that the entropy of an operator in a quantum system can be built from the variances of a set of commutative operators. This means that an uncertainty relation in the language of entropy may be mapped onto a variance-based one, and vice versa. Employing the equivalence theorem, alternative formulations of entropic uncertainty relations are obtained for the qubit system that are stronger than the existing ones in the literature, and variance-based uncertainty relations for spin systems are reached from the corresponding entropic uncertainty relations. 14. Uniqueness Theorem for Black Objects SciTech Connect Rogatko, Marek 2010-06-23 We shall review the current status of uniqueness theorem for black objects in higher dimensional spacetime. At the beginning we consider static charged asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface with compact interior with both degenerate and non-degenerate components of the event horizon in n-dimensional spacetime. We gave some remarks concerning partial results in proving uniqueness of stationary axisymmetric multidimensional solutions and winding numbers which can uniquely characterize the topology and symmetry structure of black objects. 15. Splitting theorem for Z2n -supermanifolds NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Covolo, Tiffany; Grabowski, Janusz; Poncin, Norbert 2016-12-01 Smooth Z2n -supermanifolds have been introduced and studied recently. The corresponding sign rule is given by the 'scalar product' of the involved Z2n -degrees. It exhibits interesting changes in comparison with the sign rule using the parity of the total degree. With the new rule, nonzero degree even coordinates are not nilpotent, and even (resp., odd) coordinates do not necessarily commute (resp., anticommute) pairwise. The classical Batchelor-Gawȩdzki theorem says that any smooth supermanifold is diffeomorphic to the 'superization' ΠE of a vector bundle E. It is also known that this result fails in the complex analytic category. Hence, it is natural to ask whether an analogous statement goes through in the category of Z2n -supermanifolds with its local model made of formal power series. We give a positive answer to this question. 16. A global conformal extension theorem for perfect fluid Bianchi space-times SciTech Connect Luebbe, Christian Tod, Paul 2008-12-15 A global extension theorem is established for isotropic singularities in polytropic perfect fluid Bianchi space-times. When an extension is possible, the limiting behaviour of the physical space-time near the singularity is analysed. 17. Non-local rheological properties of granular flows near a jamming limit. SciTech Connect Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.; Malloggi, F.; Clement, E.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at San Diego; CNRS-ESPCI Univ. 2008-01-01 We study the rheology of sheared granular flows close to a jamming transition. We use the approach of partially fluidized theory (PFT) with a full set of equations extending the thin layer approximation derived previously for the description of the granular avalanches phenomenology. This theory provides a picture compatible with a local rheology at large shear rates [G. D. R. Midi, Eur. Phys. J. E 14, 341 (2004)] and it works in the vicinity of the jamming transition, where a description in terms of a simple local rheology comes short. We investigate two situations displaying important deviations from local rheology. The first one is based on a set of numerical simulations of sheared soft two-dimensional circular grains. The next case describes previous experimental results obtained on avalanches of sandy material flowing down an incline. Both cases display, close to jamming, significant deviations from the now standard Pouliquen's flow rule [O. Pouliquen, Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999); 11, 1956 (1999)]. This discrepancy is the hallmark of a strongly nonlocal rheology and in both cases, we relate the empirical results and the outcomes of PFT. The numerical simulations show a characteristic constitutive structure for the fluid part of the stress involving the confining pressure and the material stiffness that appear in the form of an additional dimensionless parameter. This constitutive relation is then used to describe the case of sandy flows. We show a quantitative agreement as far as the effective flow rules are concerned. A fundamental feature is identified in PFT as the existence of a jammed layer developing in the vicinity of the flow arrest that corroborates the experimental findings. Finally, we study the case of solitary erosive granular avalanches and relate the outcome with the PFT analysis. 18. Overcoming non-local effects and Brillouin threshold limitations in Brillouin distributed sensors NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Urricelqui, Javier; Ruiz-Lombera, Rubén.; Sagues, Mikel; Mirapeix, Jesús; López-Higuera, José M.; Loayssa, Alayn 2015-09-01 We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, a Brillouin optical time domain analysis sensor that is able to operate with a probe power larger than the Brillouin threshold of the deployed sensing fiber and that is free from detrimental non-local effects. The technique is based on a dual-probe-sideband setup in which a frequency modulation of the probes waves along the fiber is introduced. This makes the frequency of maximum interaction between pump and probes to vary along the fiber, thus mitigating the pump pulse depletion and making it possible to use very large probe power, which brings an improved signal-to-noise ratio in detection. 19. Radially dependent large-scale dynamos in global cylindrical shear flows and the local cartesian limit NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ebrahimi, F.; Blackman, E. G. 2016-06-01 For cylindrical differentially rotating plasmas, we study large-scale magnetic field generation from finite amplitude non-axisymmetric perturbations by comparing numerical simulations with quasi-linear analytic theory. When initiated with a vertical magnetic field of either zero or finite net flux, our global cylindrical simulations exhibit the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and large-scale dynamo growth of radially alternating mean fields, averaged over height and azimuth. This dynamo growth is explained by our analytic calculations of a non-axisymmetric fluctuation-induced electromotive force that is sustained by azimuthal shear of the fluctuating fields. The standard Ω effect' (shear of the mean field by differential rotation) is unimportant. For the MRI case, we express the large-scale dynamo field as a function of differential rotation. The resulting radially alternating large-scale fields may have implications for angular momentum transport in discs and corona. To connect with previous work on large-scale dynamos with local linear shear and identify the minimum conditions needed for large-scale field growth, we also solve our equations in local Cartesian coordinates. We find that large-scale dynamo growth in a linear shear flow without rotation can be sustained by shear plus non-axisymmetric fluctuations - even if not helical, a seemingly previously unidentified distinction. The linear shear flow dynamo emerges as a more restricted version of our more general new global cylindrical calculations. 20. Experiments with central-limit properties of spatial samples from locally covariant random fields USGS Publications Warehouse Barringer, T.H.; Smith, T.E. 1992-01-01 When spatial samples are statistically dependent, the classical estimator of sample-mean standard deviation is well known to be inconsistent. For locally dependent samples, however, consistent estimators of sample-mean standard deviation can be constructed. The present paper investigates the sampling properties of one such estimator, designated as the tau estimator of sample-mean standard deviation. In particular, the asymptotic normality properties of standardized sample means based on tau estimators are studied in terms of computer experiments with simulated sample-mean distributions. The effects of both sample size and dependency levels among samples are examined for various value of tau (denoting the size of the spatial kernel for the estimator). The results suggest that even for small degrees of spatial dependency, the tau estimator exhibits significantly stronger normality properties than does the classical estimator of standardized sample means. ?? 1992. 1. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CATHODIC LIMITATIONS ON LOCALIZED CORROSION OF WETTED SS 316L, AT ROOM TEMPERATURE SciTech Connect F. Cui; F.J. Presuel-Moreno; R.G. Kelly 2005-10-13 The ability of a SS316L surface wetted with a thin electrolyte layer to serve as an effective cathode for an active localized corrosion site was studied computationally. The dependence of the total net cathodic current, I{sub net}, supplied at the repassivation potential E{sub rp} (of the anodic crevice) on relevant physical parameters including water layer thickness (WL), chloride concentration ([Cl{sup -}]) and length of cathode (Lc) were investigated using a three-level, full factorial design. The effects of kinetic parameters including the exchange current density (i{sub o,c}) and Tafel slope ({beta}{sub c}) of oxygen reduction, the anodic passive current density (i{sub p}) (on the cathodic surface), and E{sub rp} were studied as well using three-level full factorial designs of [Cl{sup -}] and Lc with a fixed WL of 25 {micro}m. The study found that all the three parameters WL, [Cl{sup -}] and Lc as well as the interactions of Lc x WL and Lc x [Cl{sup -}] had significant impact on I{sub net}. A five-factor regression equation was obtained which fits the computation results reasonably well, but demonstrated that interactions are more complicated than can be explained with a simple linear model. Significant effects on I{sub net} were found upon varying either i{sub o,c}, {beta}{sub c}, or E{sub rp}, whereas i{sub p} in the studied range was found to have little impact. It was observed that I{sub net} asymptotically approached maximum values (I{sub max}) when Lc increased to critical minimum values. I{sub max} can be used to determine the stability of coupled localized corrosion and the critical Lc provides important information for experimental design and corrosion protection. 2. Variation of Pollinator Assemblages and Pollen Limitation in a Locally Specialized System: The Oil-producing Nierembergia linariifolia (Solanaceae) PubMed Central Cosacov, Andrea; Nattero, Julieta; Cocucci, Andrea A. 2008-01-01 Background and Aims Few studies have examined the dynamics of specialist plant–pollinator interactions at a geographical scale. This knowledge is crucial for a more general evolutionary and ecological understanding of specialized plant–pollinator systems. In the present study, variations in pollinator activity, assemblage composition and pollen limitation were explored in the oil-producing species Nierembergia linariifolia (Solanaceae). Methods Pollen limitation in fruit and seed production was analysed by supplementary hand pollination in five wild populations. Pollinator activity and identity were recorded while carrying out supplementary pollination to assess the effect of pollinators on the degree of pollen limitation. In two populations, pollen limitation was discriminated into quantitative and qualitative components by comparing supplementation and hand cross-pollination in fruit set and seed set. The effect of flower number per plant on the number of flowers pollinated per visitor per visit to a plant was examined in one of these populations as a possible cause of low-quality pollination by increasing geitonogamy. Results and Conclusions Although pollen limitation was evident along time and space, differences in magnitude were detected among populations and years that were greatly explained by pollinator activity, which was significantly different across populations. Floral display size had a significant effect on the visitation rate per flower. Limitation by quality clearly affected one population presumably due to a high proportion of geitonogamous pollen. The great inter-population variation in plant–pollinator interaction (both in pollinator assemblages composition and pollinator activity) and fitness consequences, suggests that this system should be viewed as a mosaic of locally selective processes and locally specialized interactions. PMID:18765440 3. Spatial distribution of limited resources and local density regulation in juvenile Atlantic salmon. PubMed Finstad, Anders G; Einum, Sigurd; Ugedal, Ola; Forseth, Torbjørn 2009-01-01 1. Spatial heterogeneity of resources may influence competition among individuals and thus have a fundamental role in shaping population dynamics and carrying capacity. In the present study, we identify shelter opportunities as a limiting resource for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Experimental and field studies are combined in order to demonstrate how the spatial distribution of shelters may influence population dynamics on both within and among population scales. 2. In closed experimental streams, fish performance scaled negatively with decreasing shelter availability and increasing densities. In contrast, the fish in open stream channels dispersed according to shelter availability and performance of fish remaining in the streams did not depend on initial density or shelters. 3. The field study confirmed that spatial variation in densities of 1-year-old juveniles was governed both by initial recruit density and shelter availability. Strength of density-dependent population regulation, measured as carrying capacity, increased with decreasing number of shelters. 4. Nine rivers were surveyed for spatial variation in shelter availability and increased shelter heterogeneity tended to decrease maximum observed population size (measured using catch statistics of adult salmon as a proxy). 5. Our studies highlight the importance of small-scale within-population spatial structure in population dynamics and demonstrate that not only the absolute amount of limiting resources but also their spatial arrangement can be an important factor influencing population carrying capacity. 4. The Critical Richardson Number and Limits of Applicability of Local Similarity Theory in the Stable Boundary Layer NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Grachev, Andrey A.; Andreas, Edgar L.; Fairall, Christopher W.; Guest, Peter S.; Persson, P. Ola G. 2013-04-01 Measurements of atmospheric turbulence made over the Arctic pack ice during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean experiment (SHEBA) are used to determine the limits of applicability of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (in the local scaling formulation) in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. Based on the spectral analysis of wind velocity and air temperature fluctuations, it is shown that, when both the gradient Richardson number, Ri, and the flux Richardson number, Rf, exceed a critical value' of about 0.20-0.25, the inertial subrange associated with the Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade dies out and vertical turbulent fluxes become small. Some small-scale turbulence survives even in this supercritical regime, but this is non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and it decays rapidly with further increasing stability. Similarity theory is based on the turbulent fluxes in the high-frequency part of the spectra that are associated with energy-containing/flux-carrying eddies. Spectral densities in this high-frequency band diminish as the Richardson-Kolmogorov energy cascade weakens; therefore, the applicability of local Monin-Obukhov similarity theory in stable conditions is limited by the inequalities Ri < Ri cr and Rf < Rf cr. However, it is found that Rf cr = 0.20-0.25 is a primary threshold for applicability. Applying this prerequisite shows that the data follow classical Monin-Obukhov local z-less predictions after the irrelevant cases (turbulence without the Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade) have been filtered out. 5. Theoretical limit of localized surface plasmon resonance sensitivity to local refractive index change and its comparison to conventional surface plasmon resonance sensor. PubMed Zalyubovskiy, Sergiy J; Bogdanova, Maria; Deinega, Alexei; Lozovik, Yurii; Pris, Andrew D; An, Kwang Hyup; Hall, W Paige; Potyrailo, Radislav A 2012-06-01 In this paper, the theoretical sensitivity limit of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to the surrounding dielectric environment is discussed. The presented theoretical analysis of the LSPR phenomenon is based on perturbation theory. Derived results can be further simplified assuming quasistatic limit. The developed theory shows that LSPR has a detection capability limit independent of the particle shape or arrangement. For a given structure, sensitivity is directly proportional to the resonance wavelength and depends on the fraction of the electromagnetic energy confined within the sensing volume. This fraction is always less than unity; therefore, one should not expect to find an optimized nanofeature geometry with a dramatic increase in sensitivity at a given wavelength. All theoretical results are supported by finite-difference time-domain calculations for gold nanoparticles of different geometries (rings, split rings, paired rings, and ring sandwiches). Numerical sensitivity calculations based on the shift of the extinction peak are in good agreement with values estimated by perturbation theory. Numerical analysis shows that, for thin (≤10 nm) analyte layers, sensitivity of the LSPR is comparable with a traditional surface plasmon resonance sensor and LSPR has the potential to be significantly less sensitive to temperature fluctuations. 6. Improved optical limiting performance of laser-ablation-generated metal nanoparticles due to silica-microsphere-induced local field enhancement. PubMed Du, Zheren; Chen, Lianwei; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Wu, Mengxue; Hong, Minghui 2015-01-01 For practical application, optical limiting materials must exhibit a fast response and a low threshold in order to be used for the protection of the human eye and electro-optical sensors against intense light. Many nanomaterials have been found to exhibit optical limiting properties. Laser ablation offers the possibility of fabricating nanoparticles from a wide range of target materials. For practical use of these materials, their optical limiting performance, including optical limiting threshold and the ability to efficiently attenuate high intensity light, needs to be improved. In this paper, we fabricate nanoparticles of different metals by laser ablation in liquid. We study the optical nonlinear properties of the laser-generated nanoparticle dispersion. Silica microspheres are used to enhance the optical limiting performance of the nanoparticle dispersion. The change in the optical nonlinear properties of the laser-generated nanoparticle dispersion caused by silica microspheres is studied. It is found that the incident laser beam is locally focused by the microspheres, leading to an increased optical nonlinearity of the nanoparticle dispersion. 7. Limited and localized outbreak of newly emergent type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Sichuan, China. PubMed Yan, Dongmei; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Chen, Na; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Hui; Tong, Wenbin; Xu, Wenbo 2014-07-01 From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (≥0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead. 8. PKA antagonizes CLASP-dependent microtubule stabilization to re-localize Pom1 and buffer cell size upon glucose limitation PubMed Central Kelkar, Manasi; Martin, Sophie G. 2015-01-01 Cells couple growth with division and regulate size in response to nutrient availability. In rod-shaped fission yeast, cell-size control occurs at mitotic commitment. An important regulator is the DYRK-family kinase Pom1, which forms gradients from cell poles and inhibits the mitotic activator Cdr2, itself localized at the medial cortex. Where and when Pom1 modulates Cdr2 activity is unclear as Pom1 medial cortical levels remain constant during cell elongation. Here we show that Pom1 re-localizes to cell sides upon environmental glucose limitation, where it strongly delays mitosis. This re-localization is caused by severe microtubule destabilization upon glucose starvation, with microtubules undergoing catastrophe and depositing the Pom1 gradient nucleator Tea4 at cell sides. Microtubule destabilization requires PKA/Pka1 activity, which negatively regulates the microtubule rescue factor CLASP/Cls1/Peg1, reducing CLASP's ability to stabilize microtubules. Thus, PKA signalling tunes CLASP's activity to promote Pom1 cell side localization and buffer cell size upon glucose starvation. PMID:26443240 9. On Liouville's theorem in fluid mechanics NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Morrison, P. J.; Bouchet, F.; Thalabard, S.; Zaboronski, O. V. 2011-11-01 Since the early work of Burgers it has been known that discretizations of fluid models possess a version of Liouville's theorem on conservation of phase space volume. In fact, spectral representations of two-dimensional turbulence are known to have a detailed version of this theorem. The existence of such Liouville theorems led many (e.g. Burgers, Lee, Kraichnan and Montgomery) to consider various statistical mechanical approaches to turbulence. We show how this theorem arises naturally from the Hamiltonian structure of inviscid fluid equations. 10. Cosmological perturbations and the Weinberg theorem SciTech Connect Akhshik, Mohammad; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Jazayeri, Sadra E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir 2015-12-01 The celebrated Weinberg theorem in cosmological perturbation theory states that there always exist two adiabatic scalar modes in which the comoving curvature perturbation is conserved on super-horizon scales. In particular, when the perturbations are generated from a single source, such as in single field models of inflation, both of the two allowed independent solutions are adiabatic and conserved on super-horizon scales. There are few known examples in literature which violate this theorem. We revisit the theorem and specify the loopholes in some technical assumptions which violate the theorem in models of non-attractor inflation, fluid inflation, solid inflation and in the model of pseudo conformal universe. 11. Fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Shiraishi, Naoto; Sagawa, Takahiro 2015-01-01 We establish a generalization of the fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics. We introduce a partial entropy production with a subset of all possible transitions, and show that the partial entropy production satisfies the integral fluctuation theorem. Our result reveals the fundamental properties of a broad class of autonomous as well as nonautonomous nanomachines. In particular, our result gives a unified fluctuation theorem for both autonomous and nonautonomous Maxwell's demons, where mutual information plays a crucial role. Furthermore, we derive a fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates nonequilibrium stationary current to two kinds of equilibrium fluctuations. 12. Fluctuation theorem for the renormalized entropy change in the strongly nonlinear nonequilibrium regime. PubMed Sughiyama, Yuki; Abe, Sumiyoshi 2008-08-01 A nonlinear relaxation process is considered for a macroscopic thermodynamic quantity, generalizing recent work by Taniguchi and Cohen [J. Stat. Phys. 126, 1 (2006)] that was based on the Onsager-Machlup theory. It is found that the fluctuation theorem holds in the nonlinear nonequilibrium regime if the change of entropy characterized by local equilibria is appropriately renormalized. The fluctuation theorem for the ordinary entropy change is recovered in the linear near-equilibrium case. 13. The matching theorems and coincidence theorems for generalized R-KKM mapping in topological spaces NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Huang, Jianhua 2005-12-01 In this paper we present some new matching theorems with open cover and closed cover by using the generalized R-KKM theorems [L. Deng, X. Xia, Generalized R-KKM theorem in topological space and their applications, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 285 (2003) 679-690] in the topological spaces with property (H). As applications, some coincidence theorems are established in topological spaces. Our results extend and generalize some known results. 14. INTERPOLATION THEOREMS FOR THE SPACES L_{p,q} NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ovchinnikov, V. I. 1989-02-01 A sharp or optimal interpolation theorem is proved for the Lorentz spaces L_{p,q}, generalizing the Marcinkiewicz theorem and refining the Riesz-Thorin theorem and the Stein-Weiss theorem. This theorem extends to the spaces \\overline{X}_{\\theta,p} of the real method constructed from any Banach pair; thus it extends also to Besov spaces.Bibliography: 12 titles. 15. 26 CFR 48.6427-6 - Limitation on credit or refund of tax paid on fuel used in intercity, local or school buses after... Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR 2012-04-01 ... fuel used in intercity, local or school buses after July 31, 1984. 48.6427-6 Section 48.6427-6 Internal... intercity, local or school buses after July 31, 1984. (a) Limitation on amount of credit or refund—(1) In... except where fuel is used in a bus while such bus is being operated as a “qualified local bus” in... 16. 26 CFR 48.6427-6 - Limitation on credit or refund of tax paid on fuel used in intercity, local or school buses after... Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR 2013-04-01 ... fuel used in intercity, local or school buses after July 31, 1984. 48.6427-6 Section 48.6427-6 Internal... intercity, local or school buses after July 31, 1984. (a) Limitation on amount of credit or refund—(1) In... except where fuel is used in a bus while such bus is being operated as a “qualified local bus” in... 17. 26 CFR 48.6427-6 - Limitation on credit or refund of tax paid on fuel used in intercity, local or school buses after... Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR 2011-04-01 ... fuel used in intercity, local or school buses after July 31, 1984. 48.6427-6 Section 48.6427-6 Internal... intercity, local or school buses after July 31, 1984. (a) Limitation on amount of credit or refund—(1) In... except where fuel is used in a bus while such bus is being operated as a “qualified local bus” in... 18. Uniqueness theorems in bioluminescence tomography. PubMed Wang, Ge; Li, Yi; Jiang, Ming 2004-08-01 Motivated by bioluminescent imaging needs for studies on gene therapy and other applications in the mouse models, a bioluminescence tomography (BLT) system is being developed in the University of Iowa. While the forward imaging model is described by the well-known diffusion equation, the inverse problem is to recover an internal bioluminescent source distribution subject to Cauchy data. Our primary goal in this paper is to establish the solution uniqueness for BLT under practical constraints despite the ill-posedness of the inverse problem in the general case. After a review on the inverse source literature, we demonstrate that in the general case the BLT solution is not unique by constructing the set of all the solutions to this inverse problem. Then, we show the uniqueness of the solution in the case of impulse sources. Finally, we present our main theorem that solid/hollow ball sources can be uniquely determined up to nonradiating sources. For better readability, the exact conditions for and rigorous proofs of the theorems are given in the Appendices. Further research directions are also discussed. 19. Impurity-limited resistance and phase interference of localized impurities under quasi-one dimensional nano-structures NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Sano, Nobuyuki 2015-12-01 The impurity-limited resistance and the effect of the phase interference among localized multiple impurities in the quasi-one dimensional (quasi-1D) nanowire structures are systematically investigated under the framework of the scattering theory. We derive theoretical expressions of the impurity-limited resistance in the nanowire under the linear response regime from the Landauer formula and from the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) with the relaxation time approximation. We show that the formula from the BTE exactly coincides with that from the Landauer approach with the weak-scattering limit when the energy spectrum of the in-coming electrons from the reservoirs is narrow and, thus, point out a possibility that the distinction of the impurity-limited resistances derived from the Landauer formula and that of the BTE could be made clear. The derived formulas are applied to the quasi-1D nanowires doped with multiple localized impurities with short-range scattering potential and the validity of various approximations on the resistance are discussed. It is shown that impurity scattering becomes so strong under the nanowire structures that the weak-scattering limit breaks down in most cases. Thus, both phase interference and phase randomization simultaneously play a crucial role in determining the impurity-limited resistance even under the fully coherent framework. When the impurity separation along the wire axis direction is small, the constructive phase interference dominates and the resistance is much greater than the average resistance. As the separation becomes larger, however, it approaches the series resistance of the single-impurity resistance due to the phase randomization. Furthermore, under the uniform configuration of impurities, the space-average resistance of multiple impurities at room temperature is very close to the series resistance of the single-impurity resistance, and thus, each impurity could be regarded as an independent scattering center. The 20. Impurity-limited resistance and phase interference of localized impurities under quasi-one dimensional nano-structures SciTech Connect Sano, Nobuyuki 2015-12-28 The impurity-limited resistance and the effect of the phase interference among localized multiple impurities in the quasi-one dimensional (quasi-1D) nanowire structures are systematically investigated under the framework of the scattering theory. We derive theoretical expressions of the impurity-limited resistance in the nanowire under the linear response regime from the Landauer formula and from the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) with the relaxation time approximation. We show that the formula from the BTE exactly coincides with that from the Landauer approach with the weak-scattering limit when the energy spectrum of the in-coming electrons from the reservoirs is narrow and, thus, point out a possibility that the distinction of the impurity-limited resistances derived from the Landauer formula and that of the BTE could be made clear. The derived formulas are applied to the quasi-1D nanowires doped with multiple localized impurities with short-range scattering potential and the validity of various approximations on the resistance are discussed. It is shown that impurity scattering becomes so strong under the nanowire structures that the weak-scattering limit breaks down in most cases. Thus, both phase interference and phase randomization simultaneously play a crucial role in determining the impurity-limited resistance even under the fully coherent framework. When the impurity separation along the wire axis direction is small, the constructive phase interference dominates and the resistance is much greater than the average resistance. As the separation becomes larger, however, it approaches the series resistance of the single-impurity resistance due to the phase randomization. Furthermore, under the uniform configuration of impurities, the space-average resistance of multiple impurities at room temperature is very close to the series resistance of the single-impurity resistance, and thus, each impurity could be regarded as an independent scattering center. The 1. Initiation of Combustion of a Gel-Like Condensed Substance by a Local Source of Limited Power NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Glushkov, D. O.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A. 2017-01-01 A physical and a mathematical model of the gas-phase ignition of a gel-like condensed substance, containing a combustible (hydrazine) and an oxidizer (liquefied oxygen) in its composition, at a cryogenic initial temperature have been developed. A numerical investigation of the integral characteristics of the interrelated physicochemical processes occurring in the initiation of combustion of such a substance by a typical energy source of limited heat content (an individual small-size particle heated to a high temperature) has been perfumed. The dependence of the delay time of ignition of the indicated substance on the heat content of a local heat source was determined. The minimum values of the main parameters of hot particles (their temperature and sizes), at which the ignition conditions are fulfilled, were estimated. It is shown that the delay time of ignition of a gel-like condensed substance depends mainly on the initial temperature of an energy source. The characteristic features of the conditions and regimes of initiation of combustion of condensed substances found in different aggregate states (solid, liquid, gel-like) under conditions of their local heating by a heat source of limiting power were analyzed. 2. High thermal tolerance of a rainbow trout population near its southern range limit suggests local thermal adjustment PubMed Central Verhille, Christine E.; English, Karl K.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Fangue, Nann A. 2016-01-01 Transformation of earth's ecosystems by anthropogenic climate change is predicted for the 21st century. In many regions, the associated increase in environmental temperatures and reduced precipitation will have direct effects on the physiological performance of terrestrial and aquatic ectotherms and have already threatened fish biodiversity and important fisheries. The threat of elevated environmental temperatures is particularly salient for members of the Oncorhynchus genus living in California, which is the southern limit of their range. Here, we report the first assessments of the aerobic capacity of a Californian population of wild Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum in relationship to water temperature. Our field measurements revealed that wild O. mykiss from the lower Tuolumne River, California maintained 95% of their peak aerobic scope across an impressive temperature range (17.8–24.6°C). The thermal range for peak performance corresponds to local high river temperatures, but represents an unusually high temperature tolerance compared with conspecifics and congeneric species from northern latitudes. This high thermal tolerance suggests that O. mykiss at the southern limit of their indigenous distribution may be locally adjusted relative to more northern populations. From fisheries management and conservation perspectives, these findings challenge the use of a single thermal criterion to regulate the habitat of the O. mykiss species along the entirety of its distribution range. PMID:27957333 3. Local and Regional Diversity Reveals Dispersal Limitation and Drift as Drivers for Groundwater Bacterial Communities from a Fractured Granite Formation. PubMed Beaton, E D; Stevenson, Bradley S; King-Sharp, Karen J; Stamps, Blake W; Nunn, Heather S; Stuart, Marilyne 2016-01-01 Microorganisms found in terrestrial subsurface environments make up a large proportion of the Earth's biomass. Biogeochemical cycles catalyzed by subsurface microbes have the potential to influence the speciation and transport of radionuclides managed in geological repositories. To gain insight on factors that constrain microbial processes within a formation with restricted groundwater flow we performed a meta-community analysis on groundwater collected from multiple discrete fractures underlying the Chalk River Laboratories site (located in Ontario, Canada). Bacterial taxa were numerically dominant in the groundwater. Although these were mainly uncultured, the closest cultivated representatives were from the phenotypically diverse Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes. Hundreds of taxa were identified but only a few were found in abundance (>1%) across all assemblages. The remainder of the taxa were low abundance. Within an ecological framework of selection, dispersal and drift, the local and regional diversity revealed fewer taxa within each assemblage relative to the meta-community, but the taxa that were present were more related than predicted by chance. The combination of dispersion at one phylogenetic depth and clustering at another phylogenetic depth suggest both niche (dispersion) and filtering (clustering) as drivers of local assembly. Distance decay of similarity reveals apparent biogeography of 1.5 km. Beta diversity revealed greater influence of selection at shallow sampling locations while the influences of dispersal limitation and randomness were greater at deeper sampling locations. Although selection has shaped each assemblage, the spatial scale of groundwater sampling favored detection of neutral processes over selective processes. Dispersal limitation between assemblages combined with local selection means the meta-community is subject to drift, and therefore, likely reflects the 4. Local and Regional Diversity Reveals Dispersal Limitation and Drift as Drivers for Groundwater Bacterial Communities from a Fractured Granite Formation PubMed Central Beaton, E. D.; Stevenson, Bradley S.; King-Sharp, Karen J.; Stamps, Blake W.; Nunn, Heather S.; Stuart, Marilyne 2016-01-01 Microorganisms found in terrestrial subsurface environments make up a large proportion of the Earth’s biomass. Biogeochemical cycles catalyzed by subsurface microbes have the potential to influence the speciation and transport of radionuclides managed in geological repositories. To gain insight on factors that constrain microbial processes within a formation with restricted groundwater flow we performed a meta-community analysis on groundwater collected from multiple discrete fractures underlying the Chalk River Laboratories site (located in Ontario, Canada). Bacterial taxa were numerically dominant in the groundwater. Although these were mainly uncultured, the closest cultivated representatives were from the phenotypically diverse Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes. Hundreds of taxa were identified but only a few were found in abundance (>1%) across all assemblages. The remainder of the taxa were low abundance. Within an ecological framework of selection, dispersal and drift, the local and regional diversity revealed fewer taxa within each assemblage relative to the meta-community, but the taxa that were present were more related than predicted by chance. The combination of dispersion at one phylogenetic depth and clustering at another phylogenetic depth suggest both niche (dispersion) and filtering (clustering) as drivers of local assembly. Distance decay of similarity reveals apparent biogeography of 1.5 km. Beta diversity revealed greater influence of selection at shallow sampling locations while the influences of dispersal limitation and randomness were greater at deeper sampling locations. Although selection has shaped each assemblage, the spatial scale of groundwater sampling favored detection of neutral processes over selective processes. Dispersal limitation between assemblages combined with local selection means the meta-community is subject to drift, and therefore, likely reflects the 5. Bring the Pythagorean Theorem "Full Circle" ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Benson, Christine C.; Malm, Cheryl G. 2011-01-01 Middle school mathematics generally explores applications of the Pythagorean theorem and lays the foundation for working with linear equations. The Grade 8 Curriculum Focal Points recommend that students "apply the Pythagorean theorem to find distances between points in the Cartesian coordinate plane to measure lengths and analyze polygons and… 6. TAUBERIAN THEOREMS FOR MATRIX REGULAR VARIATION PubMed Central MEERSCHAERT, M. M.; SCHEFFLER, H.-P. 2013-01-01 Karamata’s Tauberian theorem relates the asymptotics of a nondecreasing right-continuous function to that of its Laplace-Stieltjes transform, using regular variation. This paper establishes the analogous Tauberian theorem for matrix-valued functions. Some applications to time series analysis are indicated. PMID:24644367 7. The Pythagorean Theorem: I. The finite case PubMed Central Kadison, Richard V. 2002-01-01 The Pythagorean Theorem and variants of it are studied. The variations evolve to a formulation in terms of noncommutative, conditional expectations on von Neumann algebras that displays the theorem as the basic result of noncommutative, metric, Euclidean Geometry. The emphasis in the present article is finite dimensionality, both “discrete” and “continuous.” PMID:11929992 8. A Note on Morley's Triangle Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Mueller, Nancy; Tikoo, Mohan; Wang, Haohao 2012-01-01 In this note, we offer a proof of a variant of Morley's triangle theorem, when the exterior angles of a triangle are trisected. We also offer a generalization of Morley's theorem when angles of an "n"-gon are "n"-sected. (Contains 9 figures.) 9. The Classical Version of Stokes' Theorem Revisited ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Markvorsen, Steen 2008-01-01 Using only fairly simple and elementary considerations--essentially from first year undergraduate mathematics--we show how the classical Stokes' theorem for any given surface and vector field in R[superscript 3] follows from an application of Gauss' divergence theorem to a suitable modification of the vector field in a tubular shell around the… 10. General Theorems about Homogeneous Ellipsoidal Inclusions ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Korringa, J.; And Others 1978-01-01 Mathematical theorems about the properties of ellipsoids are developed. Included are Poisson's theorem concerning the magnetization of a homogeneous body of ellipsoidal shape, the polarization of a dielectric, the transport of heat or electricity through an ellipsoid, and other problems. (BB) 11. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis PubMed Central Liu, Han-Hsuan 2016-01-01 Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual 12. PET Cell Tracking Using 18F-FLT is Not Limited by Local Reuptake of Free Radiotracer PubMed Central MacAskill, Mark G.; Tavares, Adriana S.; Wu, Junxi; Lucatelli, Christophe; Mountford, Joanne C.; Baker, Andrew H.; Newby, David E.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F. 2017-01-01 Assessing the retention of cell therapies following implantation is vital and often achieved by labelling cells with 2′-[18F]-fluoro-2′-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG). However, this approach is limited by local retention of cell-effluxed radiotracer. Here, in a preclinical model of critical limb ischemia, we assessed a novel method of cell tracking using 3′-deoxy-3′-L-[18F]-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT); a clinically available radiotracer which we hypothesise will result in minimal local radiotracer reuptake and allow a more accurate estimation of cell retention. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with 18F-FDG or 18F-FLT and cell characteristics were evaluated. Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired post-injection of free 18F-FDG/18F-FLT or 18F-FDG/18F-FLT-labelled HUVECs, following the surgical induction of mouse hind-limb ischemia. In vitro, radiotracer incorporation and efflux was similar with no effect on cell viability, function or proliferation under optimised conditions (5 MBq/mL, 60 min). Injection of free radiotracer demonstrated a faster clearance of 18F-FLT from the injection site vs. 18F-FDG (p ≤ 0.001), indicating local cellular uptake. Using 18F-FLT-labelling, estimation of HUVEC retention within the engraftment site 4 hr post-administration was 24.5 ± 3.2%. PET cell tracking using 18F-FLT labelling is an improved approach vs. 18F-FDG as it is not susceptible to local host cell reuptake, resulting in a more accurate estimation of cell retention. PMID:28287126 13. Limited Pollen Dispersal Contributes to Population Genetic Structure but Not Local Adaptation in Quercus oleoides Forests of Costa Rica PubMed Central Deacon, Nicholas John; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine 2015-01-01 Background Quercus oleoides Cham. and Schlect., tropical live oak, is a species of conservation importance in its southern range limit of northwestern Costa Rica. It occurs in high-density stands across a fragmented landscape spanning a contrasting elevation and precipitation gradient. We examined genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure in this geographically isolated and genetically distinct population. We characterized population genetic diversity at 11 nuclear microsatellite loci in 260 individuals from 13 sites. We monitored flowering time at 10 sites, and characterized the local environment in order to compare observed spatial genetic structure to hypotheses of isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment. Finally, we quantified pollen dispersal distances and tested for local adaptation through a reciprocal transplant experiment in order to experimentally address these hypotheses. Results High genetic diversity is maintained in the population and the genetic variation is significantly structured among sampled sites. We identified 5 distinct genetic clusters and average pollen dispersal predominately occurred over short distances. Differences among sites in flowering phenology and environmental factors, however, were not strictly associated with genetic differentiation. Growth and survival of upland and lowland progeny in their native and foreign environments was expected to exhibit evidence of local adaptation due to the more extreme dry season in the lowlands. Seedlings planted in the lowland garden experienced much higher mortality than seedlings in the upland garden, but we did not identify evidence for local adaptation. Conclusion Overall, this study indicates that the Costa Rican Q. oleoides population has a rich population genetic history. Despite environmental heterogeneity and habitat fragmentation, isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment alone do not explain spatial genetic structure. These results add to studies of genetic 14. Using Pictures to Enhance Students' Understanding of Bayes' Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Trafimow, David 2011-01-01 Students often have difficulty understanding algebraic proofs of statistics theorems. However, it sometimes is possible to prove statistical theorems with pictures in which case students can gain understanding more easily. I provide examples for two versions of Bayes' theorem. 15. On the Theorem of Correspondence. PubMed Krøjgaard, Peter 2017-03-01 In a recent paper, Mammen (Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 50, 196-233, 2016a) brought novel arguments into the discussion concerning the importance of being able to single out and track objects through space and time. Mammen offered a formal account of two basic, yet distinct, ways in which we as human beings encounter objects in the real world, that is, sense and choice categories. In this paper I discuss aspects of his theory and in particular the Theorem of Correspondence. I shall attempt to argue that Mammen's formal account is indeed a novel and powerful analytical generic tool allowing us to see the important relevance in different domains of being able to establish choice categories. Meanwhile, I will attempt to show that evidence from the so-called multiple object tracking studies -- even though these use highly artificial stimuli -- provide compelling evidence in support of Mammen's formal account. 16. Singlet and triplet instability theorems SciTech Connect Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So 2015-09-21 A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree–Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree–Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund’s rule, a singlet instability in Jahn–Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions. 17. Posterior Probability and Fluctuation Theorem in Stochastic Processes NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ohkubo, Jun 2009-12-01 A generalization of fluctuation theorems in stochastic processes is proposed. The new theorem is written in terms of posterior probabilities, which are introduced via Bayes’ theorem. In conventional fluctuation theorems, a forward path and its time reversal play an important role, so that a microscopically reversible condition is essential. In contrast, the microscopically reversible condition is not necessary in the new theorem. It is shown that the new theorem recovers various theorems and relations previously known, such as the Gallavotti-Cohen-type fluctuation theorem, the Jarzynski equality, and the Hatano-Sasa relation, when suitable assumptions are employed. 18. Localized tip enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of impurity incorporated single GaN nanowire in the sub-diffraction limit SciTech Connect Patsha, Avinash E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, A. K. 2015-09-21 The localized effect of impurities in single GaN nanowires in the sub-diffraction limit is reported using the study of lattice vibrational modes in the evanescent field of Au nanoparticle assisted tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). GaN nanowires with the O impurity and the Mg dopants were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique in the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. Symmetry allowed Raman modes of wurtzite GaN are observed for undoped and doped nanowires. Unusually very strong intensity of the non-zone center zone boundary mode is observed for the TERS studies of both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN single nanowires. Surface optical mode of A{sub 1} symmetry is also observed for both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN samples. A strong coupling of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons with free electrons, however, is reported only in the O rich single nanowires with the asymmetric A{sub 1}(LO) mode. Study of the local vibration mode shows the presence of Mg as dopant in the single GaN nanowires. 19. Local density of electromagnetic states in plasmonic nanotapers: spatial resolution limits with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond nanospheres. PubMed Salas-Montiel, Rafael; Berthel, Martin; Beltrán-Madrigal, Josslyn; Huant, Serge; Drezet, Aurélien; Blaize, Sylvain 2017-03-21 One of the most explored single quantum emitters for the development of nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging is the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond. Indeed, a NV center does not experience fluorescence bleaching and blinking at room temperature. Furthermore, its optical properties are preserved when embedded into nanodiamond hosts. This letter focuses on the modeling of the local density of states (LDOS) in a plasmonic nanofocusing structure with NV center acting as local illumination sources. Numerical calculations of the LDOS near such nanostructure were done with a classical electric dipole radiation placed inside a diamond sphere as well as near-field optical fluorescence lifetime imaging of the structure. We found that Purcell factors higher than 10 can be reached with diamond nanospheres of radius less than 5 nm and at a distance of less than 20 nm from the surface of the structure. Although the spatial resolution of the experiment is limited by the size of the nanodiamond, our work supports the analysis and interpretation of single NV color center in nanodiamond as a probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy. 20. Precision atomic spectroscopy for improved limits on variation of the fine structure constant and local position invariance. PubMed Fortier, T M; Ashby, N; Bergquist, J C; Delaney, M J; Diddams, S A; Heavner, T P; Hollberg, L; Itano, W M; Jefferts, S R; Kim, K; Levi, F; Lorini, L; Oskay, W H; Parker, T E; Shirley, J; Stalnaker, J E 2007-02-16 We report tests of local position invariance and the variation of fundamental constants from measurements of the frequency ratio of the 282-nm 199Hg+ optical clock transition to the ground state hyperfine splitting in 133Cs. Analysis of the frequency ratio of the two clocks, extending over 6 yr at NIST, is used to place a limit on its fractional variation of <5.8x10(-6) per change in normalized solar gravitational potential. The same frequency ratio is also used to obtain 20-fold improvement over previous limits on the fractional variation of the fine structure constant of |alpha/alpha|<1.3x10(-16) yr-1, assuming invariance of other fundamental constants. Comparisons of our results with those previously reported for the absolute optical frequency measurements in H and 171Yb+ vs other 133Cs standards yield a coupled constraint of -1.5x10(-15) 1. Kato type operators and Weyl's theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Duggal, B. P.; Djordjevic, S. V.; Kubrusly, Carlos 2005-09-01 A Banach space operator T satisfies Weyl's theorem if and only if T or T* has SVEP at all complex numbers [lambda] in the complement of the Weyl spectrum of T and T is Kato type at all [lambda] which are isolated eigenvalues of T of finite algebraic multiplicity. If T* (respectively, T) has SVEP and T is Kato type at all [lambda] which are isolated eigenvalues of T of finite algebraic multiplicity (respectively, T is Kato type at all [lambda][set membership, variant]iso[sigma](T)), then T satisfies a-Weyl's theorem (respectively, T* satisfies a-Weyl's theorem). 2. The Lax-Onsager regression theorem' revisited NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Lax, Melvin 2000-05-01 It is stated by Ford and O'Connell in this festschrift issue and elsewhere that "there is no quantum regression theorem" although Lax "obtained a formula for correlation in a driven quantum system that has come to be called the quantum regression theorem". This produces a puzzle: "How can it be that a non-existent theorem gives correct results?" Clarification will be provided in this paper by a description of the Lax procedure, with a quantitative estimate of the error for a damped harmonic oscillator based on expressions published in the 1960's. 3. 26 CFR 48.6427-6 - Limitation on credit or refund of tax paid on fuel used in intercity, local or school buses after... Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR 2010-04-01 ... fuel used in intercity, local or school buses after July 31, 1984. 48.6427-6 Section 48.6427-6 Internal... intercity, local or school buses after July 31, 1984. (a) Limitation on amount of credit or refund—(1) In general. In the case of fuel sold or used after July 31, 1984, on which tax was imposed under section... 4. Imbedding Locally Euclidean and Conformally Euclidean Metrics NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Aleksandrov, V. A. 1992-02-01 The possibility of imbedding n-dimensional locally Euclidean metrics in the large in Rn is studied by means of the global inverse function theorem in the forms suggested by Hadamard, John, Levy and Plastock. The imbeddability of conformally Euclidean metrics is studied by means of a theorem of Zorich on the removability of an isolated singularity of a locally quasiconformal mapping. 5. Duality Theorems in Ergodic Transport NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Lopes, Artur O.; Mengue, Jairo K. 2012-11-01 We analyze several problems of Optimal Transport Theory in the setting of Ergodic Theory. In a certain class of problems we consider questions in Ergodic Transport which are generalizations of the ones in Ergodic Optimization. Another class of problems is the following: suppose σ is the shift acting on Bernoulli space X={1,2,…, d}ℕ, and, consider a fixed continuous cost function c: X× X→ℝ. Denote by Π the set of all Borel probabilities π on X× X, such that, both its x and y marginals are σ-invariant probabilities. We are interested in the optimal plan π which minimizes ∫ c dπ among the probabilities in Π. We show, among other things, the analogous Kantorovich Duality Theorem. We also analyze uniqueness of the optimal plan under generic assumptions on c. We investigate the existence of a dual pair of Lipschitz functions which realizes the present dual Kantorovich problem under the assumption that the cost is Lipschitz continuous. For continuous costs c the corresponding results in the Classical Transport Theory and in Ergodic Transport Theory can be, eventually, different. We also consider the problem of approximating the optimal plan π by convex combinations of plans such that the support projects in periodic orbits. 6. ALGEBRAIC DEPENDENCE THEOREMS ON COMPLEX PSEUDOCONCAVE SPACES DTIC Science & Technology The notion of pseudoconcave space is introduced and classical theorems on algebraic dependence of meromorphic functions are extended for this new class of spaces and for sections in a coherent sheaf. (Author) 7. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid abundant vs fluid limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia) NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Spruzeniece, L.; Piazolo, S. 2015-04-01 This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia), a coarse-grained two feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts, in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data shows a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high and low strain fabrics represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. We suggest that the fabrics and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre have formed due to fluid influx probably along an initially brittle fracture. Here, hydration reactions dramatically changed the rheological properties of the rock. In the newly produced muscovite-quartz layers creep cavitation associated with grain boundary sliding and 8. Sahoo- and Wayment-Type Integral Mean Value Theorems ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Tiryaki, Aydin; Cakmak, Devrim 2010-01-01 In this article, by using Rolle's theorem, we establish some results related to the mean value theorem for integrals. Our results are different from the set of integral mean value theorems which are given by Wayment ["An integral mean value theorem", Math. Gazette 54 (1970), pp. 300-301] and Sahoo ["Some results related to the integral mean value… 9. The Great Emch Closure Theorem and a combinatorial proof of Poncelet's Theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Avksentyev, E. A. 2015-11-01 The relations between the classical closure theorems (Poncelet's, Steiner's, Emch's, and the zigzag theorems) and some of their generalizations are discussed. It is known that Emch's Theorem is the most general of these, while the others follow as special cases. A generalization of Emch's Theorem to pencils of circles is proved, which (by analogy with the Great Poncelet Theorem) can be called the Great Emch Theorem. It is shown that the Great Emch and Great Poncelet Theorems are equivalent and can be derived one from the other using elementary geometry, and also that both hold in the Lobachevsky plane as well. A new closure theorem is also obtained, in which the construction of closure is slightly more involved: closure occurs on a variable circle which is tangent to a fixed pair of circles. In conclusion, a combinatorial proof of Poncelet's Theorem is given, which deduces the closure principle for an arbitrary number of steps from the principle for three steps using combinatorics and number theory. Bibliography: 20 titles. 10. A Converse of Fermat's Little Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Bruckman, P. S. 2007-01-01 As the name of the paper implies, a converse of Fermat's Little Theorem (FLT) is stated and proved. FLT states the following: if p is any prime, and x any integer, then x[superscript p] [equivalent to] x (mod p). There is already a well-known converse of FLT, known as Lehmer's Theorem, which is as follows: if x is an integer coprime with m, such… 11. A Physical Proof of the Pythagorean Theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Treeby, David 2017-02-01 What proof of the Pythagorean theorem might appeal to a physics teacher? A proof that involved the notion of mass would surely be of interest. While various proofs of the Pythagorean theorem employ the circumcenter and incenter of a right-angled triangle, we are not aware of any proof that uses the triangle's center of mass. This note details one such proof. Though far from the most elegant approach, we believe it to be novel. 12. Littlewood-Paley Theorem for Schrodinger Operators DTIC Science & Technology 2006-07-26 26 JUL 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Littlewood -Paley theorem for Schrodinger operators...associated with H are well defined. We further give a Littlewood -Paley characterization of Lp spaces in terms of dyadic functions of H. This generalizes...unclassified c THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 LITTLEWOOD -PALEY THEOREM FOR SCHRÖDINGER 13. Localization and interaction effects of epitaxial Bi2Se3 bulk states in two-dimensional limit NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Dey, Rik; Roy, Anupam; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Guchhait, Samaresh; Sonde, Sushant; Rai, Amritesh; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. 2016-10-01 Quantum interference effects and electron-electron interactions are found to play an important role in two-dimensional (2D) bulk transport of topological insulator (TI) thin films, which were previously considered as 2D electron gas (2DEG) and explained on basis of Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka formula and Lee-Ramakrishnan theory. The distinct massive Dirac-type band structure of the TI bulk state gives rise to quantum corrections to conductivity due to interference and interaction effects, which are quite different from that of a 2DEG. We interpret the experimental findings employing Lu-Shen theory particularly derived for the TI system in the 2D limit. The surface and the bulk conductions are identified based on slopes of logarithmic temperature-dependent conductivities with magnetic fields. The perpendicular field magnetoresistance is analyzed considering suppression of weak antilocalization/localization of the surface/bulk electrons by the applied field. We propose corresponding theoretical models to explain the parallel and tilted field magnetoresistance. The effect of the band structure is found to be crucial for an accurate explanation of the magnetotransport results in the TI thin film. 14. Assessing Landscape Constraints on Species Abundance: Does the Neighborhood Limit Species Response to Local Habitat Conservation Programs? PubMed Central Jorgensen, Christopher F.; Powell, Larkin A.; Lusk, Jeffery J.; Bishop, Andrew A.; Fontaine, Joseph J. 2014-01-01 Landscapes in agricultural systems continue to undergo significant change, and the loss of biodiversity is an ever-increasing threat. Although habitat restoration is beneficial, management actions do not always result in the desired outcome. Managers must understand why management actions fail; yet, past studies have focused on assessing habitat attributes at a single spatial scale, and often fail to consider the importance of ecological mechanisms that act across spatial scales. We located survey sites across southern Nebraska, USA and conducted point counts to estimate Ring-necked Pheasant abundance, an economically important species to the region, while simultaneously quantifying landscape effects using a geographic information system. To identify suitable areas for allocating limited management resources, we assessed land cover relationships to our counts using a Bayesian binomial-Poisson hierarchical model to construct predictive Species Distribution Models of relative abundance. Our results indicated that landscape scale land cover variables severely constrained or, alternatively, facilitated the positive effects of local land management for Ring-necked Pheasants. PMID:24918779 15. The Nekhoroshev Theorem and Long-Term Stabilities in the Solar System NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Guzzo, M. 2015-06-01 The Nekhoroshev theorem has been often indicated in the last decades as the reference theorem for explaining the dynamics of several systems which are stable in the long-term. The Solar System dynamics provides a wide range of possible and useful applications. In fact, despite the complicated models which are used to numerically integrate realistic Solar System dynamics as accurately as possible, when the integrated solutions are chaotic the reliability of the numerical integrations is limited, and a theoretical long-term stability analysis is required. After the first formulation of Nekhoroshev's theorem in 1977, many theoretical improvements have been achieved. On the one hand, alternative proofs of the theorem itself led to consistent improvements of the stability estimates; on the other hand, the extensions which were necessary to apply the theorem to the systems of interest for Solar System Dynamics, in particular concerning the removal of degeneracies and the implementation of computer assisted proofs, have been developed. In this review paper we discuss some of the motivations and the results which have made Nekhoroshev's theorem a reference stability result for many applications in the Solar System dynamics. 16. Conditioned Limit Theorems for Some Null Recurrent Markov Processes DTIC Science & Technology 1976-08-01 this conlus ion is the lolloing Suppos I in Pt > t 0 for all (t - nd (iv) hold X10 I J -or each is arN > mtv ,x is an inureas tip function of St hen (v...Diffusion Processes and Their Sample Paths, Springer-Verlag, second printing, (1973). 39. Jacobsen , M., Splitting times for Markov processes and a 17. Central Limit Theorem: New SOCR Applet and Demonstration Activity ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Dinov, Ivo D.; Christou, Nicholas; Sanchez, Juana 2008-01-01 Modern approaches for information technology based blended education utilize a variety of novel instructional, computational and network resources. Such attempts employ technology to deliver integrated, dynamically linked, interactive content and multi-faceted learning environments, which may facilitate student comprehension and information… 18. Pedagogical Simulation of Sampling Distributions and the Central Limit Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari 2007-01-01 Students often find the fact that a sample statistic is a random variable very hard to grasp. Even more mysterious is why a sample mean should become ever more Normal as the sample size increases. This simulation tool is meant to illustrate the process, thereby giving students some intuitive grasp of the relationship between a parent population… 19. Determination of forming limit diagrams of AA6013-T6 aluminum alloy sheet using a time and position dependent localized necking criterion NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Dicecco, S.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Boettcher, E.; Chu, E.; Shi, C. 2016-11-01 The forming limit behaviour of AA6013-T6 aluminium alloy sheet was characterized under isothermal conditions at room temperature (RT) and 250°C using limiting dome height (LDH) tests. Full field strain measurements were acquired throughout testing using in situ stereoscopic digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. Limit strain data was generated from the resulting full field strain measurements using two localized necking criteria: ISO12004- 2:2008 and a time and position dependent criterion, termed the “Necking Zone” (NZ) approach in this paper, introduced by Martinez-Donaire et al. (2014). The limit strains resulting from the two localization detection schemes were compared. It was found that the ISO and NZ limit strains at RT are similar on the draw-side of the FLD, while the NZ approach yields a biaxial major limit strain 14.8% greater than the ISO generated major limit strain. At 250°C, the NZ generated major limit strains are 31-34% greater than the ISO generated major limit strains for near uniaxial, plane strain and biaxial loading conditions, respectively. The significant variance in limit strains between the two methodologies at 250°C highlights the need for a validation study regarding warm FLC determination. 20. Limited clonal heterogeneity of antigen-specific T cells localizing in the pleural space during mycobacterial infection. PubMed Central Manca, F; Rossi, G; Valle, M T; Lantero, S; Li Pira, G; Fenoglio, D; De Bruin, J; Costantini, M; Damiani, G; Balbi, B 1991-01-01 To detect possible differences in phenotype and fine specificity for mycobacterial antigens between CD4-positive T cells from peripheral blood (PB) and from inflammatory sites, we identified four patients presenting with a mycobacterial pleural exudate (PE) rich in PPD-specific lymphocytes and with a negative skin test to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) and a negative proliferative response of PB lymphocytes to PPD at the same time. Several weeks after chemotherapy, these patients converted to PPD responsiveness in the periphery, and PPD-specific clones could be generated from PB at this stage. The phenotypic comparison of PE lymphocytes and concomitant PB lymphocytes obtained before treatment showed an increase of CD8 cells and a high frequency of HLA-DR-positive activated T cells in PE. The frequency of tetanus toxoid-specific and Candida albicans-specific proliferating T cells was lower than that of PPD-specific cells in PE but not in PB. PPD-specific clones were derived initially from PE and from PB once the patients had converted to PPD responsiveness. The two sets of clones from each patient were compared for proliferative response to mycobacterial antigen clusters of defined molecular weight ranges. A large number of PE-derived clones (36%) responded to a fraction of 27 to 35 kDa, whereas only one clone from PB responded to the same fraction. The purified antigen P32 (32 kDa), a soluble mycobacterial protein, stimulated PE-derived clones that were responsive to the 37- to 27-kDa fraction but did not stimulate PB-derived clones. The data demonstrate that PE- and PB-derived lymphocytes differ both in phenotype and in fine specificity, suggesting a limited clonal heterogeneity of T cells localizing at the inflammatory site in tuberculous patients without a PPD response in the periphery. Therefore T cells compartmentalized at inflammatory sites provide information that is different from that provided by T cells in the periphery. PMID:1898906 1. A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd 2005-01-01 We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications. 2. Generalized parametric down conversion, many particle interferometry, and Bell's theorem NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Choi, Hyung Sup 1992-01-01 A new field of multi-particle interferometry is introduced using a nonlinear optical spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) of a photon into more than two photons. The study of SPDC using a realistic Hamiltonian in a multi-mode shows that at least a low conversion rate limit is possible. The down converted field exhibits many stronger nonclassical phenomena than the usual two photon parametric down conversion. Application of the multi-particle interferometry to a recently proposed many particle Bell's theorem on the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen problem is given. 3. Ergodic theorem, ergodic theory, and statistical mechanics PubMed Central Moore, Calvin C. 2015-01-01 This perspective highlights the mean ergodic theorem established by John von Neumann and the pointwise ergodic theorem established by George Birkhoff, proofs of which were published nearly simultaneously in PNAS in 1931 and 1932. These theorems were of great significance both in mathematics and in statistical mechanics. In statistical mechanics they provided a key insight into a 60-y-old fundamental problem of the subject—namely, the rationale for the hypothesis that time averages can be set equal to phase averages. The evolution of this problem is traced from the origins of statistical mechanics and Boltzman's ergodic hypothesis to the Ehrenfests' quasi-ergodic hypothesis, and then to the ergodic theorems. We discuss communications between von Neumann and Birkhoff in the Fall of 1931 leading up to the publication of these papers and related issues of priority. These ergodic theorems initiated a new field of mathematical-research called ergodic theory that has thrived ever since, and we discuss some of recent developments in ergodic theory that are relevant for statistical mechanics. PMID:25691697 4. Republication of: A theorem on Petrov types NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Goldberg, J. N.; Sachs, R. K. 2009-02-01 This is a republication of the paper “A Theorem on Petrov Types” by Goldberg and Sachs, Acta Phys. Pol. 22 (supplement), 13 (1962), in which they proved the Goldberg-Sachs theorem. The article has been selected for publication in the Golden Oldies series of General Relativity and Gravitation. Typographical errors of the original publication were corrected by the editor. The paper is accompanied by a Golden Oldie Editorial containing an editorial note written by Andrzej Krasiński and Maciej Przanowski and Goldberg’s brief autobiography. The editorial note explains some difficult parts of the proof of the theorem and discusses the influence of results of the paper on later research. 5. Fate of the Bose insulator in the limit of strong localization and low Cooper-pair density in ultrathin films NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Hollen, S. M.; Fernandes, G. E.; Xu, J. M.; Valles, J. M. 2014-10-01 A Bose insulator composed of a low density of strongly localized Cooper pairs develops at the two-dimensional superconductor to insulator transition (SIT) in a number of thin film systems. Investigations of ultrathin amorphous PbBi films far from the SIT described here provide evidence that the Bose insulator gives way to a second insulating phase with decreasing film thickness. At a critical film thickness dc the magnetoresistance changes sign from positive, as expected for boson transport, to negative, as expected for fermion transport, signs of local Cooper-pair phase coherence effects on transport vanish, and the transport activation energy exhibits a kink. Below dc pairing fluctuation effects remain visible in the high-temperature transport while the activation energy continues to rise. These features show that Cooper pairing persists and suggest that the localized unpaired electron states involved in transport are interspersed among regions of strongly localized Cooper pairs in this strongly localized, low Cooper-pair density phase. 6. Finite de Finetti theorem for conditional probability distributions describing physical theories NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Christandl, Matthias; Toner, Ben 2009-04-01 We work in a general framework where the state of a physical system is defined by its behavior under measurement and the global state is constrained by no-signaling conditions. We show that the marginals of symmetric states in such theories can be approximated by convex combinations of independent and identical conditional probability distributions, generalizing the classical finite de Finetti theorem of Diaconis and Freedman. Our results apply to correlations obtained from quantum states even when there is no bound on the local dimension, so that known quantum de Finetti theorems cannot be used. 7. An invariance theorem in acoustic scattering theory NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Ha-Duong, T. 1996-10-01 Karp's theorem states that if the far-field pattern corresponding to the scattering of a time-harmonic acoustic plane wave by a sound-soft obstacle is invariant under the group of orthogonal transformations in 0266-5611/12/5/007/img1 (rotations in 0266-5611/12/5/007/img2), then the scatterer is a sphere (circle). The theorem is generalized to the case where the invariant group of the far field pattern is only a subgroup of the orthogonal group, and for a class of mixed boundary conditions. 8. At math meetings, enormous theorem eclipses fermat. PubMed Cipra, B 1995-02-10 Hardly a word was said about Fermat's Last Theorem at the joint meetings of the American Mathematical Society and the Mathematical Association of America, held this year from 4 to 7 January in San Francisco. For Andrew Wiles's proof, no news is good news: There are no reports of mistakes. But mathematicians found plenty of other topics to discuss. Among them: a computational breakthrough in the study of turbulent diffusion and progress in slimming down the proof of an important result in group theory, whose original size makes checking the proof of Fermat's Last Theorem look like an afternoon's pastime. 9. Local fields in conductor surface electromigration: A first-principles study in the low-bias ballistic limit SciTech Connect Bevan, Kirk H; Zhu, Wenguang; Stocks, George Malcolm; Guo, Hong; Zhang, Zhenyu 2012-01-01 Utilizing first-principles quantum transport calculations, we investigate the role of local fields in conductor surface electromigration. A nanometer-thick Ag(100) thin film is adopted as our prototypical conductor, where we demonstrate the existence of intense local electric fields at atomic surface defects under an external bias. It is shown that such local fields can play an important role in driving surface electromigration and electrical breakdown. The intense fields originate from the relatively short (atomic-scale) screening lengths common to most elemental metals. This general short-range screening trend is established self-consistently within an intuitive picture of linear response electrostatics. The findings shed new light on the underlying physical origins of surface electromigration and point to the possibility of harnessing local fields to engineer electromigration at the nanoscale. 10. Fixed-point theorems for families of weakly non-expansive maps NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Mai, Jie-Hua; Liu, Xin-He 2007-10-01 In this paper, we present some fixed-point theorems for families of weakly non-expansive maps under some relatively weaker and more general conditions. Our results generalize and improve several results due to Jungck [G. Jungck, Fixed points via a generalized local commutativity, Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 25 (8) (2001) 497-507], Jachymski [J. Jachymski, A generalization of the theorem by Rhoades and Watson for contractive type mappings, Math. Japon. 38 (6) (1993) 1095-1102], Guo [C. Guo, An extension of fixed point theorem of Krasnoselski, Chinese J. Math. (P.O.C.) 21 (1) (1993) 13-20], Rhoades [B.E. Rhoades, A comparison of various definitions of contractive mappings, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 226 (1977) 257-290], and others. 11. Kochen-Specker theorem as a precondition for secure quantum key distribution SciTech Connect Nagata, Koji 2005-07-15 We show that (1) the violation of the Ekert 1991 inequality is a sufficient condition for certification of the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, and (2) the violation of the Bennett-Brassard-Mermin 1992 (BBM92) inequality is, also, a sufficient condition for certification of the KS theorem. Therefore the success in each quantum key distribution protocol reveals the nonclassical feature of quantum theory, in the sense that the KS realism is violated. Further, it turned out that the Ekert inequality and the BBM inequality are depictured by distillable entanglement witness inequalities. Here, we connect the success in these two key distribution processes into the no-hidden-variables theorem and into witness on distillable entanglement. We also discuss the explicit difference between the KS realism and Bell's local realism in the Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory. 12. 20 CFR 668.825 - Does the WIA administrative cost limit for States and local areas apply to section 166 grants? Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR 2012-04-01 ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does the WIA administrative cost limit for States and local areas apply to section 166 grants? 668.825 Section 668.825 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... 13. 20 CFR 668.825 - Does the WIA administrative cost limit for States and local areas apply to section 166 grants? Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR 2014-04-01 ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does the WIA administrative cost limit for States and local areas apply to section 166 grants? 668.825 Section 668.825 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... 14. 20 CFR 668.825 - Does the WIA administrative cost limit for States and local areas apply to section 166 grants? Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR 2013-04-01 ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does the WIA administrative cost limit for States and local areas apply to section 166 grants? 668.825 Section 668.825 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN... 15. General proof of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger theorem SciTech Connect Chen Zeqian 2004-09-01 It is proved that all states of three spin-(1/2) particles exhibiting an 'all versus nothing' contradiction between quantum mechanics and the local realism of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen are exactly the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the states obtained from them by local unitary transformations. The proof is obtained by showing that there are at most four elements (except for a different sign) in a set of mutually commuting nonlocal spin observables in the three-qubit system and using the certain algebraic properties that Pauli's matrices satisfy. We show that only does such a set of four nonlocal spin observables present a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Mermin-like argument. This also reveals the equivalence between the GHZ theorem and maximal violation of the Bell inequality. 16. Bell's theorem and quantum mechanics NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Rosen, Nathan 1994-02-01 Bell showed that assuming locality leads to a disagreement with quantum mechanics. Here the nature of the nonlocality that follows from quantum mechanics is investigated. Note by the Editor—Readers will recognize Professor Rosen, author of this paper, as one of the co-authors of the famous EPR paper, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen, Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be considered Complete?'', Phys. Rev. 47, 770-780 (1935). Robert H. Romer, Editor 17. Note on the theorems of Bjerknes and Crocco NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) Theodorsen, Theodore 1946-01-01 The theorems of Bjerknes and Crocco are of great interest in the theory of flow around airfoils at Mach numbers near and above unity. A brief note shows how both theorems are developed by short vector transformations. 18. Fluctuation theorem applied to the Nosé-Hoover thermostated Lorentz gas. PubMed Gilbert, Thomas 2006-03-01 We present numerical evidence supporting the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem applied to the driven Lorentz gas with Nosé-Hoover thermostating. It is moreover argued that the asymptotic form of the fluctuation formula is independent of the amplitude of the driving force in the limit where it is small. 19. Fluctuation theorem applied to the Nosé-Hoover thermostated Lorentz gas NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Gilbert, Thomas 2006-03-01 We present numerical evidence supporting the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem applied to the driven Lorentz gas with Nosé-Hoover thermostating. It is moreover argued that the asymptotic form of the fluctuation formula is independent of the amplitude of the driving force in the limit where it is small. 20. Student Research Project: Goursat's Other Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Petrillo, Joseph 2009-01-01 In an elementary undergraduate abstract algebra or group theory course, a student is introduced to a variety of methods for constructing and deconstructing groups. What seems to be missing from contemporary texts and syllabi is a theorem, first proved by Edouard Jean-Baptiste Goursat (1858-1936) in 1889, which completely describes the subgroups of… 1. The Pythagorean Theorem and the Solid State ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Kelly, Brenda S.; Splittgerber, Allan G. 2005-01-01 Packing efficiency and crystal density can be calculated from basic geometric principles employing the Pythagorean theorem, if the unit-cell structure is known. The procedures illustrated have applicability in courses such as general chemistry, intermediate and advanced inorganic, materials science, and solid-state physics. 2. Type Theory, Computation and Interactive Theorem Proving DTIC Science & Technology 2015-09-01 Springer, Heidelberg, 61-76, 2014. [9] Jeremy Avigad and John Harrison , “Formally verified mathematics,” Communications of the ACM, 57(4):66-75, 2014. [10...inequalities," in Gerwin Klein and Ruben Gamboa, eds., Interactive Theorem Proving 2014, Springer, Heidelberg, 61-76, 2014. 9) Jeremy Avigad and John Harrison 3. Generalized Friedland's theorem for C0-semigroups NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Cichon, Dariusz; Jung, Il Bong; Stochel, Jan 2008-07-01 Friedland's characterization of bounded normal operators is shown to hold for infinitesimal generators of C0-semigroups. New criteria for normality of bounded operators are furnished in terms of Hamburger moment problem. All this is achieved with the help of the celebrated Ando's theorem on paranormal operators. 4. On Viviani's Theorem and Its Extensions ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Abboud, Elias 2010-01-01 Viviani's theorem states that the sum of distances from any point inside an equilateral triangle to its sides is constant. Here, in an extension of this result, we show, using linear programming, that any convex polygon can be divided into parallel line segments on which the sum of the distances to the sides of the polygon is constant. Let us say… 5. Abel's Theorem Simplifies Reduction of Order ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Green, William R. 2011-01-01 We give an alternative to the standard method of reduction or order, in which one uses one solution of a homogeneous, linear, second order differential equation to find a second, linearly independent solution. Our method, based on Abel's Theorem, is shorter, less complex and extends to higher order equations. 6. Codimension- p Paley-Wiener theorems NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Yang, Yan; Qian, Tao; Sommen, Frank 2007-04-01 We obtain the generalized codimension- p Cauchy-Kovalevsky extension of the exponential function e^{i1, y,tinmathbf{R}q, and prove the corresponding codimension- p Paley-Wiener theorems. 7. Tennis Rackets and the Parallel Axis Theorem ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Christie, Derek 2014-01-01 This simple experiment uses an unusual graph straightening exercise to confirm the parallel axis theorem for an irregular object. Along the way, it estimates experimental values for g and the moment of inertia of a tennis racket. We use Excel to find a 95% confidence interval for the true values. 8. Fundamental Theorems of Algebra for the Perplexes ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Poodiak, Robert; LeClair, Kevin 2009-01-01 The fundamental theorem of algebra for the complex numbers states that a polynomial of degree n has n roots, counting multiplicity. This paper explores the "perplex number system" (also called the "hyperbolic number system" and the "spacetime number system") In this system (which has extra roots of +1 besides the usual [plus or minus]1 of the… 9. The soft photon theorem for bremsstrahlung SciTech Connect Heller, L. 1990-01-01 We review this theorem and discuss the possible importance of the second term in the expansion of the cross section in powers of the photon momentum, especially for radiation from particle coming from the decay of resonances. 10 refs., 4 figs. 10. A non-differentiable Noether's theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Cresson, Jacky; Greff, Isabelle 2011-02-01 In the framework of the nondifferentiable embedding of Lagrangian systems, defined by Cresson and Greff [non-dierentiable embedding of lagrangian systems and partial dierential equations. Preprint Max-Plank-Institut für Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Leipzig 16, 26 (2010)], we prove a Noether's theorem based on the lifting of one-parameter groups of diffeomorphisms. 11. Reflection theorem for Lorentz-Minkowski spaces NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Lee, Nam-Hoon 2016-07-01 We generalize the reflection theorem of the Lorentz-Minkowski plane to that of the Lorentz-Minkowski spaces of higher dimensions. As a result, we show that an isometry of the Lorentz-Minkowski spacetime is a composition of at most 5 reflections. 12. Ptolemy's Theorem and Familiar Trigonometric Identities. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Bidwell, James K. 1993-01-01 Integrates the sum, difference, and multiple angle identities into an examination of Ptolemy's Theorem, which states that the sum of the products of the lengths of the opposite sides of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle is equal to the product of the lengths of the diagonals. (MDH) 13. Canonical perturbation expansions to large order from classical hypervirial and Hellmann-Feynman theorems. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) McRae, S. M.; Vrscay, E. R. 1992-09-01 The classical hypervirial and Hellmann-Feynman theorems are used to formulate a "perturbation theory without Fourier series" that can be used to generate canonical series expansions for the energies of perturbed periodic orbits for separable classical Hamiltonians. Here, the method is applied to one-dimensional anharmonic oscillators and radial Kepler problems. In all cases, the classical series for energies and expectation values are seen to correspond to the expansions associated with their quantum mechanical counterparts through an appropriate action preserving classical limit. This "action fixing" is inherent in the classical Hellmann-Feynman theorem applied to periodic orbits. 14. The electric dipole moment of the electron: An intuitive explanation for the evasion of Schiff's theorem NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Commins, Eugene D.; Jackson, J. David; Demille, David P. 2007-06-01 In most experimental searches for the electron electric dipole moment, one searches for a linear Stark effect in a paramagnetic atom or molecule and interprets the result in terms of the electric dipole moment of the unpaired valence electron(s). Schiff's theorem states that in the limit of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, there can be no linear Stark effect to first order in the electric dipole moment. Sandars has shown that Schiff's theorem is not applicable when special relativity is taken into account. We give a heuristic explanation for this relativistic effect, which corrects a widespread misconception in the literature. 15. On a Theorem of Weinstein. DTIC Science & Technology 1986-02-01 literture - see e.g. [6 -81 so we will be rather sketchy. Suppose first that H 2 *Then n is determined as the solution of an ordinary differential equation ...finding periodic solutions of differential equations , Nonlinear Evolution Equations (M. G. Crandall, editor), Academic Press, New York, (1978), 225-251...in X.of the form: =-tw(r) !A() - n’’n (2.19) d nI(0,z) - z where )dn) =A (ri) ’’’()14~- *In (2.19), w is a locally Lipschitz continuous function 16. Applications of square-related theorems NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Srinivasan, V. K. 2014-04-01 The square centre of a given square is the point of intersection of its two diagonals. When two squares of different side lengths share the same square centre, there are in general four diagonals that go through the same square centre. The Two Squares Theorem developed in this paper summarizes some nice theoretical conclusions that can be obtained when two squares of different side lengths share the same square centre. These results provide the theoretical basis for two of the constructions given in the book of H.S. Hall and F.H. Stevens , 'A Shorter School Geometry, Part 1, Metric Edition'. In page 134 of this book, the authors present, in exercise 4, a practical construction which leads to a verification of the Pythagorean theorem. Subsequently in Theorems 29 and 30, the authors present the standard proofs of the Pythagorean theorem and its converse. In page 140, the authors present, in exercise 15, what amounts to a geometric construction, whose verification involves a simple algebraic identity. Both the constructions are of great importance and can be replicated by using the standard equipment provided in a 'geometry toolbox' carried by students in high schools. The author hopes that the results proved in this paper, in conjunction with the two constructions from the above-mentioned book, would provide high school students an appreciation of the celebrated theorem of Pythagoras. The diagrams that accompany this document are based on the free software GeoGebra. The author formally acknowledges his indebtedness to the creators of this free software at the end of this document. 17. A Simple Geometrical Derivation of the Spatial Averaging Theorem. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Whitaker, Stephen 1985-01-01 The connection between single phase transport phenomena and multiphase transport phenomena is easily accomplished by means of the spatial averaging theorem. Although different routes to the theorem have been used, this paper provides a route to the averaging theorem that can be used in undergraduate classes. (JN) 18. Extending the Principal Axis Theorem to Fields Other than R. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Friedberg, Stephen H. 1990-01-01 That the principal axis theorem does not extend to any finite field is demonstrated. Presented are four examples that illustrate the difficulty in extending the principal axis theorem to fields other than the field of real numbers. Included are a theorem and proof that uses only a simple counting argument. (KR) 19. Using Dynamic Geometry to Explore Non-Traditional Theorems ERIC Educational Resources Information Center Wares, Arsalan 2010-01-01 The purpose of this article is to provide examples of "non-traditional" theorems that can be explored in a dynamic geometry environment by university and high school students. These theorems were encountered in the dynamic geometry environment. The author believes that teachers can ask their students to construct proofs for these theorems. The… 20. A Health Impact Assessment of a Proposed Bill to Decrease Speed Limits on Local Roads in Massachusetts (U.S.A.) PubMed Central James, Peter; Ito, Kate; Banay, Rachel F.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Wood, Benjamin; Arcaya, Mariana C. 2014-01-01 Decreasing traffic speeds increases the amount of time drivers have to react to road hazards, potentially averting collisions, and makes crashes that do happen less severe. Boston’s regional planning agency, the Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC), in partnership with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) that examined the potential health impacts of a proposed bill in the state legislature to lower the default speed limits on local roads from 30 miles per hour (mph) to 25 mph. The aim was to reduce vehicle speeds on local roads to a limit that is safer for pedestrians, cyclists, and children. The passage of this proposed legislation could have had far-reaching and potentially important public health impacts. Lower default speed limits may prevent around 18 fatalities and 1200 serious injuries to motorists, cyclists and pedestrians each year, as well as promote active transportation by making local roads feel more hospitable to cyclists and pedestrians. While a lower speed limit would increase congestion and slightly worsen air quality, the benefits outweigh the costs from both a health and economic perspective and would save the state approximately$62 million annually from prevented fatalities and injuries. PMID:25279544

1. Quantum Stratonovich calculus and the quantum Wong-Zakai theorem

SciTech Connect

Gough, John

2006-11-15

We extend the Ito(bar sign)-to-Stratonovich analysis or quantum stochastic differential equations, introduced by Gardiner and Collett for emission (creation), absorption (annihilation) processes, to include scattering (conservation) processes. Working within the framework of quantum stochastic calculus, we define Stratonovich calculus as an algebraic modification of the Ito(bar sign) one and give conditions for the existence of Stratonovich time-ordered exponentials. We show that conversion formula for the coefficients has a striking resemblance to Green's function formulas from standard perturbation theory. We show that the calculus conveniently describes the Markov limit of regular open quantum dynamical systems in much the same way as in the Wong-Zakai approximation theorems of classical stochastic analysis. We extend previous limit results to multiple-dimensions with a proof that makes use of diagrammatic conventions.

2. Revisiting MHD stability comparison theorems: Some surprising new results

Cerfon, Antoine; Freidberg, Jeffrey

2009-05-01

The classic MHD stability comparison theorems (Kruskal-Oberman, Rosenbluth-Rostoker) show that ideal MHD yields the most stringent stability limits according to the hierarchy δWCGL>δWKIN>δWMHD. This has long justified the use of ideal MHD for conservative predictions of MHD stability boundaries. We reexamine these theorems, with the following conclusions:(1) It is crucial to distinguish between ergodic and closed field line systems.(2) It is essential to account for resonant particles in the kinetic MHD model.(3) For ergodic systems the original kinetic MHD analysis over-estimates stability: δWKIN>δWMHD. Our new result predicts δWKIN=δWMHD.(4) For closed line systems plasma compressibility effects become important, and resonant particle effects vanish. Both the original and new analysis predict δWKIN>δWMHD. However, using a Vlasov-Fluid model with Vlasov ions and fluid electrons we show that both δWKIN and δWMHD, while mathematically correct, yield the wrong physical result. The V-F model shows that at marginal stability the compressibility stabilization term vanishes identically! For ergodic systems, marginal stability is always incompressible, so δWKIN=δWMHD=δWVF. For compressible modes in closed line systems, however, perpendicular resonant particle effects cancel the stabilizing effect of plasma compressibility predicted by ideal and kinetic MHD: δWKIN>δWMHD>δWVF.

3. Generalized virial theorem in Palatini f(R) gravity

SciTech Connect

Sefiedgar, A. S.; Atazadeh, K.; Sepangi, H. R.

2009-09-15

We use the collision-free Boltzmann equation in Palatini f(R) gravity to derive the virial theorem within the context of the Palatini approach. It is shown that the virial mass is proportional to certain geometrical terms appearing in the Einstein field equations which contributes to gravitational energy and that such geometric mass can be attributed to the virial mass discrepancy in a cluster of galaxies. We then derive the velocity dispersion relation for clusters, followed by the metric tensor components inside the cluster as well as the f(R) Lagrangian in terms of the observational parameters. Since these quantities may also be obtained experimentally, the f(R) virial theorem is a convenient tool to test the viability of f(R) theories in different models. Finally, we discuss the limitations of our approach in light of the cosmological averaging used and questions that have been raised in the literature against such averaging procedures in the context of the present work.

4. Bosonization Theorem and a Model of High-Tc Superconductor.

Ren, Hai-Cang

1996-03-01

For a purely fermionic system on a lattice, there exists a different, but well defined system on the same lattice, consisting both of bona fide fermions and bosons with an interaction depending on a parameter G characterizing on-site repulsion between particles(R. Friedberg, T. D. Lee and H. C. Ren, Phys. Rev. B50, 10190 (1994).). The energy spectrum and the scattering matrix of the former are identical to those in the finite-energy sector of the latter in the hard-core limit, G→∞. This theorem is particularly useful for the description of a fermionic system whose low-lying spectrum consists of bosonic resonances. We argue that the high-Tc superconductors belong to this category and the long-range order in the superphase can be identified with the condensation of resonance bosons. A short coherence length, results from μSR experiments, measurements of the Hall number and the anomalous behavior of H_c2 near T=0 can be understood in terms of this resonance-boson model(R. Friedberg, T. D. Lee and H. C. Ren, Phys. Rev. B42, 4122 (1990).). We have also examined the possibility of a bosonic d-wave resonance(O.Tchernyshyov, A.S.Blaer and H.Ren, in the current Proceedings.). In this case, the bosonization theorem predicts coexistence of an s-wave bosonic condensate and a d-wave gap parameter for fermions.

5. Gradient estimates for u=ΔF(u) on manifolds and some Liouville-type theorems

Xu, Xiangjin

In this paper, we first prove a localized Hamilton-type gradient estimate for the positive solutions of Porous Media type equations: u=ΔF(u), with F(u)>0, on a complete Riemannian manifold with Ricci curvature bounded from below. In the second part, we study Fast Diffusion Equation (FDE) and Porous Media Equation (PME): u=Δ(u), p>0, and obtain localized Hamilton-type gradient estimates for FDE and PME in a larger range of p than that for Aronson-Bénilan estimate, Harnack inequalities and Cauchy problems in the literature. Applying the localized gradient estimates for FDE and PME, we prove some Liouville-type theorems for positive global solutions of FDE and PME on noncompact complete manifolds with nonnegative Ricci curvature, generalizing Yau's celebrated Liouville theorem for positive harmonic functions.

6. The Need for, and Limits of, Scientific Information in Local Decision Making on Unconventional Oil and Gas Development

Phartiyal, P.; Field, P.; Kansal, T.

2014-12-01

Scientific information on, and regulatory oversight of, the U.S. oil and gas extraction have been outpaced by the scale and extent of development, particularly in states like Pennsylvania. Through recent convenings and focus groups with local officials from municipalities and counties facing such development, we asked how scientific information can be gathered and communicated to help policymakers make decisions on whether to proceed with development and, if so, what regulatory and non-regulatory approaches to consider to manage the risks from such activity. We found that the highly technical nature of unconventional oil and gas development can make conveying information difficult and public conversations harder. And, although there is scientific agreement on areas of greater risk, such as air, water, and socioeconomics effects, communities vary widely in their perceptions and concerns about these. Local leaders expressed concerns about the availability and accessibility of information: much of it is scattered, sourced from a variety of sources and viewpoints, and is viewed with confusion, skepticism, or disbelief among various stakeholders. In order to generate independent and trusted information, baseline testing, monitoring and enforcement, and data sharing are needed - but the specifics of who would do the studies, who would fund them, and how much data one would need before decisions can be made remain largely unclear. One reason for this uncertainty is the patchwork and contested nature of regulation between local, state, tribal, and federal authorities. Another is the fragmented operations disbursed across the landscape, numerous kinds and scales of operators, and the host of actors involved in land access, well development, production, and piping, lead to disjointed sources of studies, data, and communication. Another reason is that the impacts of oil and gas development activities are nested and complex, each affecting the other at varied levels, local to

7. Limited segregation of different types of sound localization information among classes of units in the inferior colliculus.

PubMed

Chase, Steven M; Young, Eric D

2005-08-17

The auditory system uses three cues to decode sound location: interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs), and spectral notches (SNs). Initial processing of these cues is done in separate brainstem nuclei, with ITDs in the medial superior olive, ILDs in the lateral superior olive, and SNs in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. This work addresses the nature of the convergence of localization information in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Ramachandran et al. (1999) argued that ICC neurons of types V, I, and O, respectively, receive their predominant inputs from ITD-, ILD-, and SN-sensitive brainstem nuclei, suggesting that these ICC response types should be differentially sensitive to localization cues. Here, single-unit responses to simultaneous manipulation of pairs of localization cues were recorded, and the mutual information between discharge rate and individual cues was quantified. Although rate responses to cue variation were generally consistent with those expected from the hypothesized anatomical connections, the differences in information were not as large as expected. Type I units provide the most information, especially about SNs in the physiologically useful range. Type I and O units provide information about ILDs, even at low frequencies at which actual ILDs are very small. ITD information is provided by a subset of all low-frequency neurons. Type V neurons provide information mainly about ITDs and the average binaural intensity. These results are the first to quantify the relative representation of cues in terms of information and suggest a variety of degrees of cue integration in the ICC.

8. A torus bifurcation theorem with symmetry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vangils, S. A.; Golubitsky, M.

1989-01-01

Hopf bifurcation in the presence of symmetry, in situations where the normal form equations decouple into phase/amplitude equations is described. A theorem showing that in general such degeneracies are expected to lead to secondary torus bifurcations is proved. By applying this theorem to the case of degenerate Hopf bifurcation with triangular symmetry it is proved that in codimension two there exist regions of parameter space where two branches of asymptotically stable two-tori coexist but where no stable periodic solutions are present. Although a theory was not derived for degenerate Hopf bifurcations in the presence of symmetry, examples are presented that would have to be accounted for by any such general theory.

9. H-theorem in quantum physics

PubMed Central

Lesovik, G. B.; Lebedev, A. V.; Sadovskyy, I. A.; Suslov, M. V.; Vinokur, V. M.

2016-01-01

Remarkable progress of quantum information theory (QIT) allowed to formulate mathematical theorems for conditions that data-transmitting or data-processing occurs with a non-negative entropy gain. However, relation of these results formulated in terms of entropy gain in quantum channels to temporal evolution of real physical systems is not thoroughly understood. Here we build on the mathematical formalism provided by QIT to formulate the quantum H-theorem in terms of physical observables. We discuss the manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics in quantum physics and uncover special situations where the second law can be violated. We further demonstrate that the typical evolution of energy-isolated quantum systems occurs with non-diminishing entropy. PMID:27616571

10. Aging and nonergodicity beyond the Khinchin theorem

PubMed Central

Burov, S.; Metzler, R.; Barkai, E.

2010-01-01

The Khinchin theorem provides the condition that a stationary process is ergodic, in terms of the behavior of the corresponding correlation function. Many physical systems are governed by nonstationary processes in which correlation functions exhibit aging. We classify the ergodic behavior of such systems and suggest a possible generalization of Khinchin’s theorem. Our work also quantifies deviations from ergodicity in terms of aging correlation functions. Using the framework of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, we obtain a simple analytical expression for the two-time correlation function of the particle displacement in a general binding potential, revealing universality in the sense that the binding potential only enters into the prefactor through the first two moments of the corresponding Boltzmann distribution. We discuss applications to experimental data from systems exhibiting anomalous dynamics. PMID:20624984

11. Fluctuation theorem for constrained equilibrium systems.

PubMed

Gilbert, Thomas; Dorfman, J Robert

2006-02-01

We discuss the fluctuation properties of equilibrium chaotic systems with constraints such as isokinetic and Nosé-Hoover thermostats. Although the dynamics of these systems does not typically preserve phase-space volumes, the average phase-space contraction rate vanishes, so that the stationary states are smooth. Nevertheless, finite-time averages of the phase-space contraction rate have nontrivial fluctuations which we show satisfy a simple version of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, complementary to the usual fluctuation theorem for nonequilibrium stationary states and appropriate to constrained equilibrium states. Moreover, we show that these fluctuations are distributed according to a Gaussian curve for long enough times. Three different systems are considered here: namely, (i) a fluid composed of particles interacting with Lennard-Jones potentials, (ii) a harmonic oscillator with Nosé-Hoover thermostatting, and (iii) a simple hyperbolic two-dimensional map.

12. Fluctuation theorem for constrained equilibrium systems

Gilbert, Thomas; Dorfman, J. Robert

2006-02-01

We discuss the fluctuation properties of equilibrium chaotic systems with constraints such as isokinetic and Nosé-Hoover thermostats. Although the dynamics of these systems does not typically preserve phase-space volumes, the average phase-space contraction rate vanishes, so that the stationary states are smooth. Nevertheless, finite-time averages of the phase-space contraction rate have nontrivial fluctuations which we show satisfy a simple version of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, complementary to the usual fluctuation theorem for nonequilibrium stationary states and appropriate to constrained equilibrium states. Moreover, we show that these fluctuations are distributed according to a Gaussian curve for long enough times. Three different systems are considered here: namely, (i) a fluid composed of particles interacting with Lennard-Jones potentials, (ii) a harmonic oscillator with Nosé-Hoover thermostatting, and (iii) a simple hyperbolic two-dimensional map.

13. H-theorem in quantum physics.

PubMed

Lesovik, G B; Lebedev, A V; Sadovskyy, I A; Suslov, M V; Vinokur, V M

2016-09-12

Remarkable progress of quantum information theory (QIT) allowed to formulate mathematical theorems for conditions that data-transmitting or data-processing occurs with a non-negative entropy gain. However, relation of these results formulated in terms of entropy gain in quantum channels to temporal evolution of real physical systems is not thoroughly understood. Here we build on the mathematical formalism provided by QIT to formulate the quantum H-theorem in terms of physical observables. We discuss the manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics in quantum physics and uncover special situations where the second law can be violated. We further demonstrate that the typical evolution of energy-isolated quantum systems occurs with non-diminishing entropy.

14. About the Stokes decomposition theorem of waves

Lacaze, B.

2011-06-01

The Stokes decomposition theorem deals with the electrical field E→=X,Y of a light beam. The theorem asserts that a beam can be viewed as the sum of two differently polarized parts. This result was recently discussed for light in the frame of the unified theory of coherence. We study the general case of an electromagnetic wave which can be in radio, radar, communications, or light. We assume stationary components with any power spectrum and finite or infinite bandwidth. We show that an accurate definition of polarization and unpolarization is a key parameter which rules the set of solutions of the problem. When dealing with a "strong definition" of unpolarization, the problem is treated in the frame of stationary processes and linear invariant filters. When dealing with a "weak definition", solutions are given by elementary properties of bidimensional random variables.

15. Construction of momentum theorem using cross moments

Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu; Diamond, P. H.

2009-11-01

Charney-Drazin theorem has been extended to Hasegawa Wakatani system for zonal flow problem in magnetic fusion [P.H. Diamond, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 124018 (2008)]. For this model, the guiding center density is the potential vorticity and zonal flow is influenced by the particle flux. In this work we construct momentum theorems in terms of a hierarchy of cross moments , , and . Then we show that the particle flux, momentum flux, and heat flux influence the zonal flow for each system respectively. This work was supported by U. S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE--AC02--09CH11466 (TSH, LW), China Scholarship Council (LW), U. S. DOE SciDAC center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas, and the U. S. DOE SciDAC-FSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (TSH).

16. Approaching the bulk limit with finite cluster calculations using local increments: the case of LiH.

PubMed

Stoll, Hermann; Doll, Klaus

2012-02-21

Finite-cluster calculations employing high-level wavefunction-based ab initio methods and extended atomic-orbital basis sets are used to determine local energy increments for bulk LiH. It is shown that these increments can be converged with respect to cluster size and point-charge embedding so as to yield bulk cohesive energies with an accuracy of better than 1 mE(h), both at the Hartree-Fock and at correlated levels. Instrumental for the efficiency of the scheme is the introduction of non-orthogonal orbitals, at an intermediate stage.

17. The Ultrathin Limit and Dead-layer Effects in Local Polarization Switching of BiFeO3

SciTech Connect

Maksymovych, Petro; Huijben, Mark; Pan, Minghu; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Chang, Hye Jung; Borisevich, Albina Y; Baddorf, Arthur P; Rijnders, Guus; Blank, Dave H. A.; Ramesh, R.; Kalinin, Sergei V

2012-01-01

Using piezoresponse force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum, polarization switching has been detected and quantified in epitaxial BiFeO3 films from 200 down to ~ 4 unit cells. Local remnant piezoresponse was used to infer the applied electric field inside the ferroelectric volume, and account for the elusive effect of dead-layers in ultrathin films. The dead-layer manifested itself in the slower than anticipated decrease of the switching bias with film thickness, yielding apparent Kay-Dunn scaling of the switching field, while the statistical analysis of hysteresis loops revealed lateral variation of the dead-layer with sub-10 nm resolution.

18. Characterizing Companions to Low-Mass Stars: A Large-Scale, Volume-Limited Survey of Local M-dwarfs

Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Patience, J.; De Rosa, R.; Rajan, A.

2013-01-01

M-dwarfs constitute the major fraction of stars within both the solar neighborhood and nearby star-forming regions. However, key M-dwarf companion characteristics - including multiplicity fraction, mass ratios, and separation distributions - are less certain for field stars, due to limited sample sizes and non-uniform selection criteria. Studies of star-forming regions often compare results to solar-type field stars due to the extensive population statistics available for G-dwarfs, but field M-dwarfs represent a more analogous population for comparison due to their prevalence. We present results on a stellar and substellar companion study covering separations from ~1 - 10,000 AU, based on a volume-limited survey of ~300 M-dwarfs within 15 pc. Our study constrains the frequency of binary companions and the shape of the companion separation and mass ratio distributions. Diffraction-limited, mid-to-near infrared archival data were obtained from the Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, to detect nearby companions to M-dwarfs from ~1 to 100 AU. To supplement the high-resolution data, wide-field archival plates were searched for companions with separations of 100 to 10,000 AU. The all-sky survey data include multiple epochs, and follow up observations at higher resolution will allow us to confirm or reject the new companion candidates detected during our analysis. These multi-epoch observations provide confirmation of common proper motions, thereby minimizing background contamination and providing comprehensive statistics for M-star binaries. Preliminary analysis of an initial subset of the sample suggests a lower limit to the multiplicity of 23 ± 7% within the restricted separation range. Characterizations of the binary frequency for M-dwarfs provide crucial insights into the low-mass star formation environment, and hold additional implications for the frequency and evolutionary histories of their associated disks and

19. [Objectivity of BSE symptoms using Bayes theorem].

PubMed

Hässig, M; Urech Hässig, B; Knubben-Schweizer, G

2011-12-01

In clinical epidemiology the Bayes theorem finds ever more use to render clinical acting more objective. It is shown that unusual examinations of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) as noise producing with ladle covers may quite objectively be evaluated. With the help of the likelihood ratio computed thereby, also a ranking of importance (clinical utility) of symptoms can be provided. The single most important symptom for BSE is photosensibility.

20. Volume integral theorem for exotic matter

SciTech Connect

Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang Yuanzhong; Kumar, K.B. Vijaya

2004-12-15

We answer an important question in general relativity about the volume integral theorem for exotic matter by suggesting an exact integral quantifier for matter violating Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC). It is checked against some well-known static, spherically symmetric traversable wormhole solutions of general relativity with a sign reversed kinetic term minimally coupled scalar field. The improved quantifier is consistent with the principle that traversable wormholes can be supported by arbitrarily small quantities of exotic matter.

1. Spontaneously broken spacetime symmetries and Goldstone's theorem.

PubMed

Low, Ian; Manohar, Aneesh V

2002-03-11

Goldstone's theorem states that there is a massless mode for each broken symmetry generator. It has been known for a long time that the naive generalization of this counting fails to give the correct number of massless modes for spontaneously broken spacetime symmetries. We explain how to get the right count of massless modes in the general case, and discuss examples involving spontaneously broken Poincaré and conformal invariance.

2. Infinite flag varieties and conjugacy theorems

PubMed Central

Peterson, Dale H.; Kac, Victor G.

1983-01-01

We study the orbit of a highest-weight vector in an integrable highest-weight module of the group G associated to a Kac-Moody algebra [unk](A). We obtain applications to the geometric structure of the associated flag varieties and to the algebraic structure of [unk](A). In particular, we prove conjugacy theorems for Cartan and Borel subalgebras of [unk](A), so that the Cartan matrix A is an invariant of [unk](A). PMID:16593298

3. Haag's theorem in noncommutative quantum field theory

SciTech Connect

Antipin, K. V.; Mnatsakanova, M. N.; Vernov, Yu. S.

2013-08-15

Haag's theorem was extended to the general case of noncommutative quantum field theory when time does not commute with spatial variables. It was proven that if S matrix is equal to unity in one of two theories related by unitary transformation, then the corresponding one in the other theory is equal to unity as well. In fact, this result is valid in any SO(1, 1)-invariant quantum field theory, an important example of which is noncommutative quantum field theory.

4. Asynchronous networks: modularization of dynamics theorem

Bick, Christian; Field, Michael

2017-02-01

Building on the first part of this paper, we develop the theory of functional asynchronous networks. We show that a large class of functional asynchronous networks can be (uniquely) represented as feedforward networks connecting events or dynamical modules. For these networks we can give a complete description of the network function in terms of the function of the events comprising the network: the modularization of dynamics theorem. We give examples to illustrate the main results.

5. A stability theorem for energy-balance climate models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cahalan, R. F.; North, G. R.

1979-01-01

The paper treats the stability of steady-state solutions of some simple, latitude-dependent, energy-balance climate models. For north-south symmetric solutions of models with an ice-cap-type albedo feedback, and for the sum of horizontal transport and infrared radiation given by a linear operator, it is possible to prove a 'slope stability' theorem, i.e., if the local slope of the steady-state iceline latitude versus solar constant curve is positive (negative) the steady-state solution is stable (unstable). Certain rather weak restrictions on the albedo function and on the heat transport are required for the proof, and their physical basis is discussed.

6. From Loops to Trees By-passing Feynman's Theorem

SciTech Connect

Catani, Stefano; Gleisberg, Tanju; Krauss, Frank; Rodrigo, German; Winter, Jan-Christopher

2008-04-22

We derive a duality relation between one-loop integrals and phase-space integrals emerging from them through single cuts. The duality relation is realized by a modification of the customary + i0 prescription of the Feynman propagators. The new prescription regularizing the propagators, which we write in a Lorentz covariant form, compensates for the absence of multiple cut contributions that appear in the Feynman Tree Theorem. The duality relation can be applied to generic one-loop quantities in any relativistic, local and unitary field theories. It is suitable for applications to the analytical calculation of one-loop scattering amplitudes, and to the numerical evaluation of cross-sections at next-to-leading order.

7. Boundary trace embedding theorems for variable exponent Sobolev spaces

Fan, Xianling

2008-03-01

We study boundary trace embedding theorems for variable exponent Sobolev space W1,p([dot operator])([Omega]). Let [Omega] be an open (bounded or unbounded)[thin space]domain in satisfying strong local Lipschitz condition. Under the hypotheses that p[set membership, variant]L[infinity]([Omega]), 1[less-than-or-equals, slant]infp(x)[less-than-or-equals, slant]supp(x)N, we prove that there is a continuous boundary trace embedding W1,p([dot operator])([Omega])-->Lq([dot operator])([not partial differential][Omega]) provided q([dot operator]), a measurable function on [not partial differential][Omega], satisfies condition for x[set membership, variant][not partial differential][Omega].

8. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

SciTech Connect

Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F.

1993-02-19

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

9. Delayed plastic relaxation limit in SiGe islands grown by Ge diffusion from a local source

SciTech Connect

Vanacore, G. M.; Zani, M.; Tagliaferri, A.; Nicotra, G.; Bollani, M.; Bonera, E.; Montalenti, F.; Picco, A.; Boioli, F.; Capellini, G.; Isella, G.; Osmond, J.

2015-03-14

The hetero-epitaxial strain relaxation in nano-scale systems plays a fundamental role in shaping their properties. Here, the elastic and plastic relaxation of self-assembled SiGe islands grown by surface-thermal-diffusion from a local Ge solid source on Si(100) are studied by atomic force and transmission electron microscopies, enabling the simultaneous investigation of the strain relaxation in different dynamical regimes. Islands grown by this technique remain dislocation-free and preserve a structural coherence with the substrate for a base width as large as 350 nm. The results indicate that a delay of the plastic relaxation is promoted by an enhanced Si-Ge intermixing, induced by the surface-thermal-diffusion, which takes place already in the SiGe overlayer before the formation of a critical nucleus. The local entropy of mixing dominates, leading the system toward a thermodynamic equilibrium, where non-dislocated, shallow islands with a low residual stress are energetically stable. These findings elucidate the role of the interface dynamics in modulating the lattice distortion at the nano-scale, and highlight the potential use of our growth strategy to create composition and strain-controlled nano-structures for new-generation devices.

10. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene

2002-01-01

The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

11. Haag's Theorem and Parameterized Quantum Field Theory

Seidewitz, Edwin

2017-01-01

Haag's theorem is very inconvenient; it means that the interaction picture exists only if there is no interaction''. In traditional quantum field theory (QFT), Haag's theorem states that any field unitarily equivalent to a free field must itself be a free field. But the derivation of the Dyson series perturbation expansion relies on the use of the interaction picture, in which the interacting field is unitarily equivalent to the free field, but which must still account for interactions. So, the usual derivation of the scattering matrix in QFT is mathematically ill defined. Nevertheless, perturbative QFT is currently the only practical approach for addressing realistic scattering, and it has been very successful in making empirical predictions. This success can be understood through an alternative derivation of the Dyson series in a covariant formulation of QFT using an invariant, fifth path parameter in addition to the usual four position parameters. The parameterization provides an additional degree of freedom that allows Haag's Theorem to be avoided, permitting the consistent use of a form of interaction picture in deriving the Dyson expansion. The extra symmetry so introduced is then broken by the choice of an interacting vacuum.

12. 3-D Ultrasound Localization Microscopy for Identifying Microvascular Morphology Features of Tumor Angiogenesis at a Resolution Beyond the Diffraction Limit of Conventional Ultrasound

PubMed Central

Lin, Fanglue; Shelton, Sarah E.; Espíndola, David; Rojas, Juan D.; Pinton, Gianmarco; Dayton, Paul A.

2017-01-01

Angiogenesis has been known as a hallmark of solid tumor cancers for decades, yet ultrasound has been limited in its ability to detect the microvascular changes associated with malignancy. Here, we demonstrate the potential of 'ultrasound localization microscopy' applied volumetrically in combination with quantitative analysis of microvascular morphology, as an approach to overcome this limitation. This pilot study demonstrates our ability to image complex microvascular patterns associated with tumor angiogenesis in-vivo at a resolution of tens of microns - substantially better than the diffraction limit of traditional clinical ultrasound, yet using an 8 MHz clinical ultrasound probe. Furthermore, it is observed that data from healthy and tumor-bearing tissue exhibit significant differences in microvascular pattern and density. Results suggests that with continued development of these novel technologies, ultrasound has the potential to detect biomarkers of cancer based on the microvascular 'fingerprint' of malignant angiogenesis rather than through imaging of blood flow dynamics or the tumor mass itself. PMID:28042327

13. Localized epigenetic silencing of a damage-activated WNT enhancer limits regeneration in mature Drosophila imaginal discs.

PubMed

Harris, Robin E; Setiawan, Linda; Saul, Josh; Hariharan, Iswar K

2016-02-03

Many organisms lose the capacity to regenerate damaged tissues as they mature. Damaged Drosophila imaginal discs regenerate efficiently early in the third larval instar (L3) but progressively lose this ability. This correlates with reduced damage-responsive expression of multiple genes, including the WNT genes wingless (wg) and Wnt6. We demonstrate that damage-responsive expression of both genes requires a bipartite enhancer whose activity declines during L3. Within this enhancer, a damage-responsive module stays active throughout L3, while an adjacent silencing element nucleates increasing levels of epigenetic silencing restricted to this enhancer. Cas9-mediated deletion of the silencing element alleviates WNT repression, but is, in itself, insufficient to promote regeneration. However, directing Myc expression to the blastema overcomes repression of multiple genes, including wg, and restores cellular responses necessary for regeneration. Localized epigenetic silencing of damage-responsive enhancers can therefore restrict regenerative capacity in maturing organisms without compromising gene functions regulated by developmental signals.

14. IgE Antibodies, FcεRIαand IgE-mediated Local Anaphylaxis Can Limit Snake Venom Toxicity

PubMed Central

Gaudenzio, Nicolas; Reber, Laurent Lionel; Sibilano, Riccardo; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen Joseph

2015-01-01

Background Type 2 cytokine-related (i.e., type 2) immune responses associated with development of antigen-specific Immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) can contribute to pathology in allergic diseases and to fatal anaphylaxis. However, recent findings in mice indicate that IgE also can enhance defense against honeybee venom. Objective We tested whether IgE antibodies, IgE-dependent effector mechanisms, and a local anaphylactic reaction to an unrelated antigen can enhance defense against Russell's viper venom (RVV) and determined whether such responses can be influenced by immunization protocol or mouse strain. Methods We compared the resistance of RVV-immunized wild-type, IgE-deficient, and Fcer1a-deficient mice following injection of a potentially lethal dose of RVV. Results A single prior exposure to RVV enhanced the ability of wild-type mice, but not mice lacking IgE or functional FcεRI, to survive challenge with a potentially lethal amount of RVV. Moreover, IgE-dependent local passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in response to challenge with an antigen not naturally present in RVV significantly enhanced resistance to the venom. Finally, we observed different effects on resistance to RVV or honeybee venoms in BALB/c versus C57BL/6 mice which had received a second exposure to that venom prior to challenge with a high dose of that venom. Conclusion These observations illustrate the potential benefit of IgE-dependent effector mechanisms in acquired host defense against venoms. The extent to which type 2 immune responses against venoms can decrease pathology associated with envenomation seems to be influenced by the type of venom, the frequency of venom exposure, and the genetic background of the host. PMID:26410782

15. Sea lamprey carcasses exert local and variable food web effects in a nutrient-limited Atlantic coastal stream

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weaver, Daniel M.; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

2016-01-01

Resource flows from adjacent ecosystems are critical in maintaining structure and function of freshwater food webs. Migrating sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) deliver a pulsed marine-derived nutrient subsidy to rivers in spring when the metabolic demand of producers and consumers are increasing. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of these nutrient subsidies are not well characterized. We used sea lamprey carcass additions in a small stream to examine changes in nutrients, primary productivity, and nutrient assimilation among consumers. Algal biomass increased 57%–71% immediately adjacent to carcasses; however, broader spatial changes from multiple-site carcass addition may have been influenced by canopy cover. We detected assimilation of nutrients (via δ13C and δ15N) among several macroinvertebrate families including Heptageniidae, Hydropsychidae, and Perlidae. Our research suggests that subsidies may evoke localized patch-scale effects on food webs, and the pathways of assimilation in streams are likely coupled to adjacent terrestrial systems. This research underscores the importance of connectivity in streams, which may influence sea lamprey spawning and elicit varying food web responses from carcass subsidies due to fine-scale habitat variables.

16. Localized epigenetic silencing of a damage-activated WNT enhancer limits regeneration in mature Drosophila imaginal discs

PubMed Central

Harris, Robin E; Setiawan, Linda; Saul, Josh; Hariharan, Iswar K

2016-01-01

Many organisms lose the capacity to regenerate damaged tissues as they mature. Damaged Drosophila imaginal discs regenerate efficiently early in the third larval instar (L3) but progressively lose this ability. This correlates with reduced damage-responsive expression of multiple genes, including the WNT genes wingless (wg) and Wnt6. We demonstrate that damage-responsive expression of both genes requires a bipartite enhancer whose activity declines during L3. Within this enhancer, a damage-responsive module stays active throughout L3, while an adjacent silencing element nucleates increasing levels of epigenetic silencing restricted to this enhancer. Cas9-mediated deletion of the silencing element alleviates WNT repression, but is, in itself, insufficient to promote regeneration. However, directing Myc expression to the blastema overcomes repression of multiple genes, including wg, and restores cellular responses necessary for regeneration. Localized epigenetic silencing of damage-responsive enhancers can therefore restrict regenerative capacity in maturing organisms without compromising gene functions regulated by developmental signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11588.001 PMID:26840050

17. Uniqueness theorem for black hole space-times with multiple disconnected horizons

Armas, Jay; Harmark, Troels

2010-05-01

We show uniqueness of stationary and asymptotically flat black hole spacetimes with multiple disconnected horizons and with two rotational Killing vector fields in the context of five-dimensional minimal supergravity (Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons gravity). The novelty in this work is the introduction in the uniqueness theorem of intrinsic local charges measured near each horizon as well as the measurement of local fluxes besides the asymptotic charges that characterize a particular solution. A systematic method of defining the boundary conditions on the fields that specify a black hole space-time is given based on the study of its rod structure (domain structure). Also, an analysis of known solutions with disconnected horizons is carried out as an example of an application of this theorem. ”But the perfect scientist is also a gardener: he believes that beauty is knowledge.” Gonçalo M. Tavares in Brief Notes on Science

18. Limiting the risk of cardiac toxicity with esophageal-sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced lung cancers

PubMed Central

Panettieri, Vanessa; Ruben, Jeremy D.; Senthi, Sashendra

2016-01-01

Background Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is routinely utilized in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). RTOG 0617 found that overall survival was impacted by increased low (5 Gy) and intermediate (30 Gy) cardiac doses. We evaluated the impact of esophageal-sparing IMRT on cardiac doses with and without the heart considered in the planning process and predicted toxicity compared to 3D-conventional radiotherapy (3DCRT). Methods Ten consecutive patients with N2 Stage III NSCLC treated to 60 Gy in 30 fractions, between February 2012 and September 2014, were evaluated. For each patient, 3DCRT and esophageal-sparing IMRT plans were generated. IMRT plans were then created with and without the heart considered in the optimization process. To compare plans, the dose delivered to 95% and 99% of the target (D95% and D99%), and doses to the esophagus, lung and heart were compared by determining the volume receiving X dose (VXGy) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculated. Results IMRT reduced maximum esophagus dose to below 60 Gy in all patients and produced significant reductions to V50Gy, V40Gy and esophageal NTCP. The cost of this reduction was a non-statistically, non-clinically significant increase in low dose (5 Gy) lung exposure that did not worsen lung NTCP. IMRT plans produced significant cardiac sparing, with the amount of improvement correlating to the amount of heart overlapping with the target. When included in plan optimization, for selected patients further sparing of the heart and improvement in heart NTCP was possible. Conclusions Esophageal-sparing IMRT can significantly spare the heart even if it is not considered in the optimization process. Further sparing can be achieved if plan optimization constrains low and intermediate heart doses, without compromising lung doses. PMID:27162670

19. Keeping It Local: Dispersal Limitations of Coral Larvae to the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

PubMed

Markey, Kathryn L; Abdo, Dave A; Evans, Scott N; Bosserelle, Cyprien

2016-01-01

In 2011 the first recorded bleaching event for the high latitude Houtman Abrolhos Islands (HAI) coral communities was documented. This bleaching event highlighted the question of whether a supply of 'heat tolerant' coral recruits from the tropical north would be sufficient to provide a level of resistance for these reefs to future warming events. Using Lagrangian modelling we showed that due to its regional isolation, large-scale larval input from potential tropical northern source populations to the HAI is unlikely, despite the southward flowing Leeuwin current. Successful recruitment to artificial substrates was recorded following the bleaching event. However, this was negligible (0.4 ± 0.1 recruits per tile) compared to 2013 post impact recruitment (128.8 ± 15.8 recruits per tile). Our data therefore provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the connectivity of the HAI with coral communities in the north is limited, and population maintenance and recovery is likely driven primarily by self-recruitment. Given the low thermal tolerance of the HAI coral communities, the dominance of Acropora, and the apparent reliance on self-recruitment, an increased frequency of thermally anomalous conditions at the HAI (such as experienced in 2011) has the potential to reduce the long-term stability of the HAI coral populations and species that depend upon them.

20. Keeping It Local: Dispersal Limitations of Coral Larvae to the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

PubMed Central

Markey, Kathryn L.; Abdo, Dave A.; Evans, Scott N.; Bosserelle, Cyprien

2016-01-01

In 2011 the first recorded bleaching event for the high latitude Houtman Abrolhos Islands (HAI) coral communities was documented. This bleaching event highlighted the question of whether a supply of ‘heat tolerant’ coral recruits from the tropical north would be sufficient to provide a level of resistance for these reefs to future warming events. Using Lagrangian modelling we showed that due to its regional isolation, large-scale larval input from potential tropical northern source populations to the HAI is unlikely, despite the southward flowing Leeuwin current. Successful recruitment to artificial substrates was recorded following the bleaching event. However, this was negligible (0.4 ± 0.1 recruits per tile) compared to 2013 post impact recruitment (128.8 ± 15.8 recruits per tile). Our data therefore provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the connectivity of the HAI with coral communities in the north is limited, and population maintenance and recovery is likely driven primarily by self-recruitment. Given the low thermal tolerance of the HAI coral communities, the dominance of Acropora, and the apparent reliance on self-recruitment, an increased frequency of thermally anomalous conditions at the HAI (such as experienced in 2011) has the potential to reduce the long-term stability of the HAI coral populations and species that depend upon them. PMID:26812259

1. Limited proteolysis of human leukocyte interferon-. cap alpha. 2 and localization of the monoclonal antibody-binding antigenic determinant

SciTech Connect

Kostrov, S.V.; Chernovskaya, T.V.; Khodova, O.M.; Borukhov, S.I.; Ryzhavskaya, A.S.; Izotova, L.S.; Strongin, A.Ya.

1986-05-20

Large peptide fragments of human leukocyte interferon-..cap alpha..2 (INF-..cap alpha..2) were produced by limited proteolysis with trypsin, pepsin, thermolysin, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens serine proteinase, and the ability of the fragments to react with murine monoclonal antibodies NK2, directed toward INF-..cap alpha..2, was studied by the immunoblotting technique. The region of the sequence 110-149 is the most sensitive to proteinase attack and evidently is exposed on the surface of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule. The INF-..cap alpha..2 fragments 1-139, 1-147, and 1-149 react with antibodies, whereas the fragments 1-109 and 1-112 do not bind NK2 antibodies. A comparison of the primary structure of the families of human leukocyte and murine leukocyte INF in the region of the sequence 110-139 and an analysis of the ability of human INF differing in amino acid sequence to interact with NK2 antibodies suggested that the antigenic determinant that binds monoclonal antibodies NK2 is the sequence Glu/sub 114/-Asp/sub 115/-Ser/sub 116/-He/sub 117/ of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule.

2. Near distance approximation in astrodynamical applications of Lambert's theorem

Rauh, Alexander; Parisi, Jürgen

2014-01-01

The smallness parameter of the approximation method is defined in terms of the non-dimensional initial distance between target and chaser satellite. In the case of a circular target orbit, compact analytical expressions are obtained for the interception travel time up to third order. For eccentric target orbits, an explicit result is worked out to first order, and the tools are prepared for numerical evaluation of higher order contributions. The possible transfer orbits are examined within Lambert's theorem. For an eventual rendezvous it is assumed that the directions of the angular momenta of the two orbits enclose an acute angle. This assumption, together with the property that the travel time should vanish with vanishing initial distance, leads to a condition on the admissible initial positions of the chaser satellite. The condition is worked out explicitly in the general case of an eccentric target orbit and a non-coplanar transfer orbit. The condition is local. However, since during a rendezvous maneuver, the chaser eventually passes through the local space, the condition propagates to non-local initial distances. As to quantitative accuracy, the third order approximation reproduces the elements of Mars, in the historical problem treated by Gauss, to seven decimals accuracy, and in the case of the International Space Station, the method predicts an encounter error of about 12 m for an initial distance of 70 km.

3. On the Chern-Gauss-Bonnet theorem for the noncommutative 4-sphere

Arnlind, Joakim; Wilson, Mitsuru

2017-01-01

We construct a differential calculus over the noncommutative 4-sphere in the framework of pseudo-Riemannian calculi, and show that for every metric in a conformal class of perturbations of the round metric, there exists a unique metric and torsion-free connection. Furthermore, we find a localization of the projective module corresponding to the space of vector fields, which allows us to formulate a Chern-Gauss-Bonnet type theorem for the noncommutative 4-sphere.

4. Index Theorem for Topological Excitations on R^3 \\times S^1 and Chern-Simons Theory

SciTech Connect

Poppitz, Erich; Unsal, Mithat

2008-12-12

We derive an index theorem for the Dirac operator in the background of various topological excitations on an R{sup 3} x S{sup 1} geometry. The index theorem provides more refined data than the APS index for an instanton on R{sup 4} and reproduces it in decompactification limit. In the R{sup 3} limit, it reduces to the Callias index theorem. The index is expressed in terms of topological charge and the {eta}-invariant associated with the boundary Dirac operator. Neither topological charge nor {eta}-invariant is typically an integer, however, the non-integer parts cancel to give an integer-valued index. Our derivation is based on axial current non-conservation--an exact operator identity valid on any four-manifold--and on the existence of a center symmetric, or approximately center symmetric, boundary holonomy (Wilson line). We expect the index theorem to usefully apply to many physical systems of interest, such as low temperature (large S{sup 1}, confined) phases of gauge theories, center stabilized Yang-Mills theories with vector-like or chiral matter (at S{sup 1} of any size), and supersymmetric gauge theories with supersymmetry-preserving boundary conditions (also at any S{sup 1}). In QCD-like and chiral gauge theories, the index theorem should shed light into the nature of topological excitations responsible for chiral symmetry breaking and the generation of mass gap in the gauge sector. We also show that imposing chirally-twisted boundary condition in gauge theories with fermions induces a Chern-Simons term in the infrared. This suggests that some QCD-like gauge theories should possess components with a topological Chern-Simons phase in the small S{sup 1} regime.

5. Index theorem for topological excitations on R3 × S1 and Chern-Simons theory

Poppitz, Erich; Ünsal, Mithat

2009-03-01

We derive an index theorem for the Dirac operator in the background of various topological excitations on an R3 × S1 geometry. The index theorem provides more refined data than the APS index for an instanton on R4 and reproduces it in decompactification limit. In the R3 limit, it reduces to the Callias index theorem. The index is expressed in terms of topological charge and the η-invariant associated with the boundary Dirac operator. Neither topological charge nor η-invariant is typically an integer, however, the non-integer parts cancel to give an integer-valued index. Our derivation is based on axial current non-conservation — an exact operator identity valid on any four-manifold — and on the existence of a center symmetric, or approximately center symmetric, boundary holonomy (Wilson line). We expect the index theorem to usefully apply to many physical systems of interest, such as low temperature (large S1, confined) phases of gauge theories, center stabilized Yang-Mills theories with vector-like or chiral matter (at S1 of any size), and supersymmetric gauge theories with supersymmetry-preserving boundary conditions (also at any S1). In QCD-like and chiral gauge theories, the index theorem should shed light into the nature of topological excitations responsible for chiral symmetry breaking and the generation of mass gap in the gauge sector. We also show that imposing chirally-twisted boundary condition in gauge theories with fermions induces a Chern-Simons term in the infrared. This suggests that some QCD-like gauge theories should possess components with a topological Chern-Simons phase in the small S1 regime.

6. The van Cittert-Zernike theorem for electromagnetic fields.

PubMed

Ostrovsky, Andrey S; Martínez-Niconoff, Gabriel; Martínez-Vara, Patricia; Olvera-Santamaría, Miguel A

2009-02-02

The van Cittert-Zernike theorem, well known for the scalar optical fields, is generalized for the case of vector electromagnetic fields. The deduced theorem shows that the degree of coherence of the electromagnetic field produced by the completely incoherent vector source increases on propagation whereas the degree of polarization remains unchanged. The possible application of the deduced theorem is illustrated by an example of optical simulation of partially coherent and partially polarized secondary source with the controlled statistical properties.

7. Borsuk-Ulam theorem in infinite-dimensional Banach spaces

Gel'man, B. D.

2002-02-01

The well-known classical Borsuk-Ulam theorem has a broad range of applications to various problems. Its generalization to infinite-dimensional spaces runs across substantial difficulties because its statement is essentially finite-dimensional. A result established in the paper is a natural generalization of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem to infinite-dimensional Banach spaces. Applications of this theorem to various problems are discussed.

8. A Converse of the Mean Value Theorem Made Easy

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mortici, Cristinel

2011-01-01

The aim of this article is to discuss some results about the converse mean value theorem stated by Tong and Braza [J. Tong and P. Braza, "A converse of the mean value theorem", Amer. Math. Monthly 104(10), (1997), pp. 939-942] and Almeida [R. Almeida, "An elementary proof of a converse mean-value theorem", Internat. J. Math. Ed. Sci. Tech. 39(8)…

9. A qualitative approach to Bayes' theorem.

PubMed

Medow, Mitchell A; Lucey, Catherine R

2011-12-01

While decisions made according to Bayes' theorem are the academic normative standard, the theorem is rarely used explicitly in clinical practice. Yet the principles can be followed without intimidating mathematics. To do so, one can first categorise the prior-probability of the disease being tested for as very unlikely (less likely than 10%), unlikely (10-33%), uncertain (34-66%), likely (67-90%) or very likely (more likely than 90%). Usually, for disorders that are very unlikely or very likely, no further testing is needed. If the prior probability is unlikely, uncertain or likely, a test and a Bayesian-inspired update process incorporating the result can help. A positive result of a good test increases the probability of the disorder by one likelihood category (eg, from uncertain to likely) and a negative test decreases the probability by one category. If testing is needed to escape the extremes of likelihood (eg, a very unlikely but particularly dangerous condition or in the circumstance of population screening, or a very likely condition with a particularly noxious treatment), two tests may be needed to achieve. Negative results of tests with sensitivity ≥99% are sufficient to rule-out a diagnosis; positive results of tests with specificity ≥99% are sufficient to rule-in a diagnosis. This method overcomes some common heuristic errors: ignoring the base rate, probability adjustment errors and order effects. The simplicity of the method, while still adhering to the basic principles of Bayes' theorem, has the potential to increase its application in clinical practice.

10. Generating Test Templates via Automated Theorem Proving

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1997-01-01

Testing can be used during the software development process to maintain fidelity between evolving specifications, program designs, and code implementations. We use a form of specification-based testing that employs the use of an automated theorem prover to generate test templates. A similar approach was developed using a model checker on state-intensive systems. This method applies to systems with functional rather than state-based behaviors. This approach allows for the use of incomplete specifications to aid in generation of tests for potential failure cases. We illustrate the technique on the cannonical triangle testing problem and discuss its use on analysis of a spacecraft scheduling system.

11. Penrose's singularity theorem in a Finsler spacetime

Babak Aazami, Amir; Javaloyes, Miguel Angel

2016-01-01

We translate Penrose's singularity theorem to a Finsler spacetime. To that end, causal concepts in Lorentzian geometry are extended, including definitions and properties of focal points and trapped surfaces, with careful attention paid to the differences that arise in the Finslerian setting. This activity is supported by the programme 'Young leaders in research' 18942/JLI/13 by Fundación Séneca, Regional Agency for Science and Technology from the Region of Murcia, and by the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI), MEXT, Japan.

12. Generalizations of Brandl's theorem on Engel length

Quek, S. G.; Wong, K. B.; Wong, P. C.

2013-04-01

Let n < m be positive integers such that [g,nh] = [g,mh] and assume that n and m are chosen minimal with respect to this property. Let gi = [g,n+ih] where i = 1,2,…,m-n. Then π(g,h) = (g1,…,gm-n) is called the Engel cycle generated by g and h. The length of the Engel cycle is m-n. A group G is said to have Engel length r, if all the length of the Engel cycles in G divides r. In this paper we discuss the Brandl's theorem on Engel length and give some of its generalizations.

13. No-cloning theorem on quantum logics

SciTech Connect

2009-10-15

This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.

14. On the inversion of Fueter's theorem

Dong, Baohua; Kou, Kit Ian; Qian, Tao; Sabadini, Irene

2016-10-01

The well known Fueter theorem allows to construct quaternionic regular functions or monogenic functions with values in a Clifford algebra defined on open sets of Euclidean space R n + 1, starting from a holomorphic function in one complex variable or, more in general, from a slice hyperholomorphic function. Recently, the inversion of this theorem has been obtained for odd values of the dimension n. The present work extends the result to all dimensions n by using the Fourier multiplier method. More precisely, we show that for any axially monogenic function f defined in a suitable open set in R n + 1, where n is a positive integer, we can find a slice hyperholomorphic function f → such that f =Δ (n - 1) / 2 f →. Both the even and the odd dimensions are treated with the same, viz., the Fourier multiplier, method. For the odd dimensional cases the result obtained by the Fourier multiplier method coincides with the existing result obtained through the pointwise differential method.

15. Random numbers certified by Bell's theorem.

PubMed

Pironio, S; Acín, A; Massar, S; de la Giroday, A Boyer; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Olmschenk, S; Hayes, D; Luo, L; Manning, T A; Monroe, C

2010-04-15

Randomness is a fundamental feature of nature and a valuable resource for applications ranging from cryptography and gambling to numerical simulation of physical and biological systems. Random numbers, however, are difficult to characterize mathematically, and their generation must rely on an unpredictable physical process. Inaccuracies in the theoretical modelling of such processes or failures of the devices, possibly due to adversarial attacks, limit the reliability of random number generators in ways that are difficult to control and detect. Here, inspired by earlier work on non-locality-based and device-independent quantum information processing, we show that the non-local correlations of entangled quantum particles can be used to certify the presence of genuine randomness. It is thereby possible to design a cryptographically secure random number generator that does not require any assumption about the internal working of the device. Such a strong form of randomness generation is impossible classically and possible in quantum systems only if certified by a Bell inequality violation. We carry out a proof-of-concept demonstration of this proposal in a system of two entangled atoms separated by approximately one metre. The observed Bell inequality violation, featuring near perfect detection efficiency, guarantees that 42 new random numbers are generated with 99 per cent confidence. Our results lay the groundwork for future device-independent quantum information experiments and for addressing fundamental issues raised by the intrinsic randomness of quantum theory.

16. Group Theoretical Interpretation of von Neumann's Theorem on Composite Systems.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bergia, S.; And Others

1979-01-01

Shows that von Neumann's mathematical theorem on composite systems acquires a transparent physical meaning with reference to a suitable physical example; a composite system in a state of definite angular momentum. Gives an outline of the theorem, and the results are restated in Dirac's notation, thus generalizing von Neumann's results which were…

17. Generalizations of Karp's theorem to elastic scattering theory

Tuong, Ha-Duong

Karp's theorem states that if the far field pattern corresponding to the scattering of a time-harmonic acoustic plane wave by a sound-soft obstacle in R2 is invariant under the group of rotations, then the scatterer is a circle. The theorem is generalized to the elastic scattering problems and the axisymmetric scatterers in R3.

18. When 95% Accurate Isn't: Exploring Bayes's Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2011-01-01

Bayes's theorem is notorious for being a difficult topic to learn and to teach. Problems involving Bayes's theorem (either implicitly or explicitly) generally involve calculations based on two or more given probabilities and their complements. Further, a correct solution depends on students' ability to interpret the problem correctly. Most people…

19. Unique Factorization and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sprows, David

2017-01-01

The fundamental theorem of arithmetic is one of those topics in mathematics that somehow "falls through the cracks" in a student's education. When asked to state this theorem, those few students who are willing to give it a try (most have no idea of its content) will say something like "every natural number can be broken down into a…

20. On Euler's Theorem for Homogeneous Functions and Proofs Thereof.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tykodi, R. J.

1982-01-01

Euler's theorem for homogenous functions is useful when developing thermodynamic distinction between extensive and intensive variables of state and when deriving the Gibbs-Duhem relation. Discusses Euler's theorem and thermodynamic applications. Includes six-step instructional strategy for introducing the material to students. (Author/JN)

1. Solving boundary-value electrostatics problems using Green's reciprocity theorem

Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

2001-12-01

Formal solutions to electrostatics boundary-value problems are derived using Green's reciprocity theorem. This method provides a more transparent interpretation of the solutions than the standard Green's function derivation. An energy-based argument for the reciprocity theorem is also presented.

2. Estimating Filtering Errors Using the Peano Kernel Theorem

SciTech Connect

Jerome Blair

2009-02-20

The Peano Kernel Theorem is introduced and a frequency domain derivation is given. It is demonstrated that the application of this theorem yields simple and accurate formulas for estimating the error introduced into a signal by filtering it to reduce noise.

3. Leaning on Socrates to Derive the Pythagorean Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Percy, Andrew; Carr, Alistair

2010-01-01

The one theorem just about every student remembers from school is the theorem about the side lengths of a right angled triangle which Euclid attributed to Pythagoras when writing Proposition 47 of "The Elements". Usually first met in middle school, the student will be continually exposed throughout their mathematical education to the…

4. On the Weighted Mean Value Theorem for Integrals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Polezzi, M.

2006-01-01

The Mean Value Theorem for Integrals is a powerful tool, which can be used to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, and to obtain the average value of a function on an interval. On the other hand, its weighted version is very useful for evaluating inequalities for definite integrals. This article shows the solutions on applying the weighted…

5. Interactive Theorem Finding through Continuous Variation of Geometric Configurations.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schumann, Heinz

1991-01-01

Described and evaluated are microcomputers as a tool for construction in geometry education and heuristic theorem finding through interactive continuous variation of geometric configurations. Numerous examples of theorem finding processes are provided using the prototype graphics system CABRI-Geometer. (MDH)

6. Level reduction and the quantum threshold theorem

Aliferis, Panagiotis (Panos)

Computers have led society to the information age revolutionizing central aspects of our lives from production and communication to education and entertainment. There exist, however, important problems which are intractable with the computers available today and, experience teaches us, will remain so even with the more advanced computers we can envision for tomorrow.Quantum computers promise speedups to some of these important but classically intractable problems. Simulating physical systems, a problem of interest in a diverse range of areas from testing physical theories to understanding chemical reactions, and solving number factoring, a problem at the basis of cryptographic protocols that are used widely today on the internet, are examples of applications for which quantum computers, when built, will offer a great advantage over what is possible with classical computer technology.The construction of a quantum computer of sufficient scale to solve interesting problems is, however, especially challenging. The reason for this is that, by its very nature, operating a quantum computer will require the coherent control of the quantum state of a very large number of particles. Fortunately, the theory of quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation gives us confidence that such quantum states can be created, can be stored in memory and can also be manipulated provided the quantum computer can be isolated to a sufficient degree from sources of noise.One of the central results in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation, the quantum threshold theorem shows that a noisy quantum computer can accurately and efficiently simulate any ideal quantum computation provided that noise is weakly correlated and its strength is below a critical value known as the quantum accuracy threshold. This thesis provides a simpler and more transparent non-inductive proof of this theorem based on the concept of level reduction. This concept is also used in proving the

7. The virial theorem for the polarizable continuum model

SciTech Connect

Cammi, R.

2014-02-28

The electronic virial theorem is extended to molecular systems within the framework of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) to describe solvation effects. The theorem is given in the form of a relation involving the components of the energy (kinetic and potential) of a molecular solute and its electrostatic properties (potential and field) at the boundary of the cavity in the continuum medium. The virial theorem is also derived in the presence of the Pauli repulsion component of the solute-solvent interaction. Furthermore, it is shown that these forms of the PCM virial theorem may be related to the virial theorem of more simple systems as a molecule in the presence of fixed point charges, and as an atom in a spherical box with confining potential.

8. Quantum de Finetti Theorem under Fully-One-Way Adaptive Measurements.

PubMed

Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

2015-04-24

We prove a version of the quantum de Finetti theorem: permutation-invariant quantum states are well approximated as a probabilistic mixture of multifold product states. The approximation is measured by distinguishability under measurements that are implementable by fully-one-way local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our result strengthens Brandão and Harrow's de Finetti theorem where a kind of partially-one-way LOCC measurements was used for measuring the approximation, with essentially the same error bound. As main applications, we show (i) a quasipolynomial-time algorithm which detects multipartite entanglement with an amount larger than an arbitrarily small constant (measured with a variant of the relative entropy of entanglement), and (ii) a proof that in quantum Merlin-Arthur proof systems, polynomially many provers are not more powerful than a single prover when the verifier is restricted to one-way LOCC operations.

9. Quantum de Finetti Theorem under Fully-One-Way Adaptive Measurements

Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

2015-04-01

We prove a version of the quantum de Finetti theorem: permutation-invariant quantum states are well approximated as a probabilistic mixture of multifold product states. The approximation is measured by distinguishability under measurements that are implementable by fully-one-way local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our result strengthens Brandão and Harrow's de Finetti theorem where a kind of partially-one-way LOCC measurements was used for measuring the approximation, with essentially the same error bound. As main applications, we show (i) a quasipolynomial-time algorithm which detects multipartite entanglement with an amount larger than an arbitrarily small constant (measured with a variant of the relative entropy of entanglement), and (ii) a proof that in quantum Merlin-Arthur proof systems, polynomially many provers are not more powerful than a single prover when the verifier is restricted to one-way LOCC operations.

10. Test of the steady-state fluctuation theorem in turbulent Rayleigh-B'enard convection

Tong, Penger; Shang, Xiaodong

2005-03-01

Local convective heat flux in turbulent thermal convection is obtained from simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in an aspect-ratio-one cell filled with water. It is found that large positive fluctuations of the vertical heat flux occurs more often in the plume-dominated sidewall region and their histograms are highly asymmetric. The statistical properties of the time-averaged local flux fluctuations are analyzed and the results are compared with the predictions of the steady state fluctuation theorem of Gallavotti and Cohen. Work supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR under Grant Nos. HKUST603003 (P.T.) and CUHK403003 (K.Q.X.).

11. Test of steady-state fluctuation theorem in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

Shang, X.-D.; Tong, P.; Xia, K.-Q.

2005-07-01

The local entropy production rate σ(r,t) in turbulent thermal convection is obtained from simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in an aspect-ratio-one cell filled with water. The statistical properties of the time-averaged σ(r,t) are analyzed and the results are compared with the predictions of the steady-state fluctuation theorem (SSFT) of Gallavotti and Cohen. The experiment reveals that the SSFT can indeed be extended to the local variables, but further development is needed in order to incorporate the common dynamic complexities of far-from-equilibrium systems into the theory.

12. Test of steady-state fluctuation theorem in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

PubMed

Shang, X-D; Tong, P; Xia, K-Q

2005-07-01

The local entropy production rate sigma (r,t) in turbulent thermal convection is obtained from simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in an aspect-ratio-one cell filled with water. The statistical properties of the time-averaged sigma (r,t) are analyzed and the results are compared with the predictions of the steady-state fluctuation theorem (SSFT) of Gallavotti and Cohen. The experiment reveals that the SSFT can indeed be extended to the local variables, but further development is needed in order to incorporate the common dynamic complexities of far-from-equilibrium systems into the theory.

13. Differential diagnosis in immunohistochemistry with Bayes theorem.

PubMed

Vollmer, Robin T

2009-05-01

When immunohistochemical stains that are specific for specific tumor diagnoses do not yield diagnostic results, we often turn to less specific immunohistochemical stains and consider the resulting lists of possible tumor types. Typically, such lists are ordered according to tumor sensitivities for the stains. In probability terminology, sensitivity is the conditional probability of a positive stain given a specific tumor. Yet, the most useful probability to know is the probability of a specific tumor diagnosis, given a set of staining results. Bayes theorem provides this probability. To illustrate its use for differential diagnosis, I apply it here to the situation of carcinomas of uncertain primary site and use the information provided by stains for cytokeratin 7 and cytokeratin 20.

14. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

2015-04-01

Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

15. A Stochastic Tikhonov Theorem in Infinite Dimensions

SciTech Connect

Buckdahn, Rainer Guatteri, Giuseppina

2006-03-15

The present paper studies the problem of singular perturbation in the infinite-dimensional framework and gives a Hilbert-space-valued stochastic version of the Tikhonov theorem. We consider a nonlinear system of Hilbert-space-valued equations for a 'slow' and a 'fast' variable; the system is strongly coupled and driven by linear unbounded operators generating a C{sub 0}-semigroup and independent cylindrical Brownian motions. Under well-established assumptions to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of mild solutions, we deduce the required stability of the system from a dissipativity condition on the drift of the fast variable. We avoid differentiability assumptions on the coefficients which would be unnatural in the infinite-dimensional framework.

16. Walking Through the Impulse-Momentum Theorem

Haugland, Ole Anton

2013-02-01

Modern force platforms are handy tools for investigating forces during human motion. Earlier they were very expensive and were mostly used in research laboratories. But now even platforms that can measure in two directions are quite affordable. In this work we used the PASCO 2-Axis Force Platform. The analysis of the data can serve as a nice illustration of qualitative or quantitative use of the impulse-momentum theorem p - p0 = ∫t0t Fdt = I. The most common use of force platforms is to study the force from the base during the push-off period of a vertical jump. I think this is an activity of great value, and I would recommend it. The use of force platforms in teaching is well documented in research literature.1-4

17. Extended Ehrenfest theorem with radiative corrections

de la Peña, L.; Cetto, A. M.; Valdés-Hernández, A.

2015-10-01

A set of basic evolution equations for the mean values of dynamical variables is obtained from the Fokker-Planck equation applied to the general problem of a particle subject to a random force. The specific case of stochastic electrodynamics is then considered, in which the random force is due to the zero-point radiation field. Elsewhere it has been shown that when this system reaches a state of energy balance, it becomes controlled by an equation identical to Schrödinger’s, if the radiationless approximation is made. The Fokker-Planck equation was shown to lead to the Ehrenfest theorem under such an approximation. Here we show that when the radiative terms are not neglected, an extended form of the Ehrenfest equation is obtained, from which follow, among others, the correct formulas for the atomic lifetimes and the (nonrelativistic) Lamb shift.

18. Quantum violation of fluctuation-dissipation theorem

Shimizu, Akira; Fujikura, Kyota

2017-02-01

We study quantum measurements of temporal equilibrium fluctuations in macroscopic quantum systems. It is shown that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, as a relation between observed quantities, is partially violated in quantum systems, even if measurements are made in an ideal way that emulates classical ideal measurements as closely as possible. This is a genuine quantum effect that survives on a macroscopic scale. We also show that the state realized during measurements of temporal equilibrium fluctuations is a ‘squeezed equilibrium state’, which is macroscopically identical to the pre-measurement equilibrium state but is squeezed by the measurement. It is a time-evolving state, in which macrovariables fluctuate and relax. We also explain some of subtle but important points, careless treatments of which often lead to unphysical results, of the linear response theory.

19. Jarzynski equality, Crooks fluctuation theorem, and the fluctuation theorems of heat for arbitrary initial states

Gong, Zongping; Quan, H. T.

2015-07-01

By taking full advantage of the dynamic property imposed by the detailed balance condition, we derive a new refined unified fluctuation theorem (FT) for general stochastic thermodynamic systems. This FT involves the joint probability distribution functions of the final phase-space point and a thermodynamic variable. Jarzynski equality, Crooks fluctuation theorem, and the FTs of heat as well as the trajectory entropy production can be regarded as special cases of this refined unified FT, and all of them are generalized to arbitrary initial distributions. We also find that the refined unified FT can easily reproduce the FTs for processes with the feedback control, due to its unconventional structure that separates the thermodynamic variable from the choices of initial distributions. Our result is heuristic for further understanding of the relations and distinctions between all kinds of FTs and might be valuable for studying thermodynamic processes with information exchange.

20. Non-targeted profiling of semi-polar metabolites in Arabidopsis root exudates uncovers a role for coumarin secretion and lignification during the local response to phosphate limitation

PubMed Central

Ziegler, Jörg; Schmidt, Stephan; Chutia, Ranju; Müller, Jens; Böttcher, Christoph; Strehmel, Nadine; Scheel, Dierk; Abel, Steffen

2016-01-01

Plants have evolved two major strategies to cope with phosphate (Pi) limitation. The systemic response, mainly comprising increased Pi uptake and metabolic adjustments for more efficient Pi use, and the local response, enabling plants to explore Pi-rich soil patches by reorganization of the root system architecture. Unlike previous reports, this study focused on root exudation controlled by the local response to Pi deficiency. To approach this, a hydroponic system separating the local and systemic responses was developed. Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes exhibiting distinct sensitivities to Pi deficiency could be clearly distinguished by their root exudate composition as determined by non-targeted reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolite profiling. Compared with wild-type plants or insensitive low phosphate root 1 and 2 (lpr1 lpr2) double mutant plants, the hypersensitive phosphate deficiency response 2 (pdr2) mutant exhibited a reduced number of differential features in root exudates after Pi starvation, suggesting the involvement of PDR2-encoded P5-type ATPase in root exudation. Identification and analysis of coumarins revealed common and antagonistic regulatory pathways between Pi and Fe deficiency-induced coumarin secretion. The accumulation of oligolignols in root exudates after Pi deficiency was inversely correlated with Pi starvation-induced lignification at the root tips. The strongest oligolignol accumulation in root exudates was observed for the insensitive lpr1 lpr2 double mutant, which was accompanied by the absence of Pi deficiency-induced lignin deposition, suggesting a role of LPR ferroxidases in lignin polymerization during Pi starvation. PMID:26685189

1. On soft limits of inflationary correlation functions

Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel

2012-11-01

Soft limits of inflationary correlation functions are both observationally relevant and theoretically robust. Various theorems can be proven about them that are insensitive to detailed model-building assumptions. In this paper, we re-derive several of these theorems in a universal way. Our method makes manifest why soft limits are such an interesting probe of the spectrum of additional light fields during inflation. We illustrate these abstract results with a detailed case study of the soft limits of quasi-single-field inflation.

2. STABILITY OF GAS CLOUDS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI: AN EXTENDED VIRIAL THEOREM

SciTech Connect

2016-03-10

Cold gas entering the central 1–10{sup 2} pc of a galaxy fragments and condenses into clouds. The stability of the clouds determines whether they will be turned into stars or can be delivered to the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) to turn on an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The conventional criteria to assess the stability of these clouds, such as the Jeans criterion and Roche (or tidal) limit, are insufficient here, because they assume the dominance of self-gravity in binding a cloud, and neglect external agents, such as pressure and tidal forces, which are common in galactic nuclei. We formulate a new scheme for judging this stability. We first revisit the conventional Virial theorem, taking into account an external pressure, to identify the correct range of masses that lead to stable clouds. We then extend the theorem to further include an external tidal field, which is equally crucial for the stability in the region of our interest—in dense star clusters, around SMBHs. We apply our extended Virial theorem to find new solutions to controversial problems, namely, the stability of the gas clumps in AGN tori, the circum-nuclear disk in the Galactic Center, and the central molecular zone of the Milky Way. The masses we derive for these structures are orders of magnitude smaller than the commonly used Virial masses (equivalent to the Jeans mass). Moreover, we prove that these clumps are stable, contrary to what one would naively deduce from the Roche (tidal) limit.

3. Modeling state transition of hippocampal local field potential between theta rhythm and large irregular amplitude activity by bifurcation between a limit cycle and chaotic dynamics

Tokuda, K.; Katori, Y.; Aihara, K.

2013-01-01

Here we propose a possible mathematical structure of the state transition of the hippocampal local field potential (LFP) between theta rhythm and large irregular amplitude activity (LIA) in terms of nonlinear dynamics. The basic idea is that the alternation of the state between theta rhythm and LIA can be interpreted as a bifurcation of the attractor between a limit cycle and chaotic dynamics. Tsuda et al. reported that a network composed of simple class 1 model neurons connected with gap junctions shows both synchronous periodic behavior and asynchronous chaotic behavior [1]. Here we model the network of hippocampal interneurons extending their model. The network is composed of electrically coupled simple 2-dimensional neurons with natural resonant frequency in the theta frequency. We incorporate a periodic external force representing the medial septal afferent. The system converges on a limit cycle under this external force, but shows chaotic dynamics without this external force. Furthermore, the external noise realized rapid alteration of the state obeying the change of the amplitude of the septal input.

4. Generalized Optical Theorem Detection in Random and Complex Media

Tu, Jing

The problem of detecting changes of a medium or environment based on active, transmit-plus-receive wave sensor data is at the heart of many important applications including radar, surveillance, remote sensing, nondestructive testing, and cancer detection. This is a challenging problem because both the change or target and the surrounding background medium are in general unknown and can be quite complex. This Ph.D. dissertation presents a new wave physics-based approach for the detection of targets or changes in rather arbitrary backgrounds. The proposed methodology is rooted on a fundamental result of wave theory called the optical theorem, which gives real physical energy meaning to the statistics used for detection. This dissertation is composed of two main parts. The first part significantly expands the theory and understanding of the optical theorem for arbitrary probing fields and arbitrary media including nonreciprocal media, active media, as well as time-varying and nonlinear scatterers. The proposed formalism addresses both scalar and full vector electromagnetic fields. The second contribution of this dissertation is the application of the optical theorem to change detection with particular emphasis on random, complex, and active media, including single frequency probing fields and broadband probing fields. The first part of this work focuses on the generalization of the existing theoretical repertoire and interpretation of the scalar and electromagnetic optical theorem. Several fundamental generalizations of the optical theorem are developed. A new theory is developed for the optical theorem for scalar fields in nonhomogeneous media which can be bounded or unbounded. The bounded media context is essential for applications such as intrusion detection and surveillance in enclosed environments such as indoor facilities, caves, tunnels, as well as for nondestructive testing and communication systems based on wave-guiding structures. The developed scalar

5. Global stabilization using LSS-Theorem: Applications to Robotics and Aerospace Vehicles

Selman, AbdulRazzak

Underactuated mechanical systems are gaining interest as they can sometimes provide the desired motion or functionality at reduced cost due to their using fewer expensive actuators. The term "underactuated" refers to the fact that such mechanical systems have fewer actuators than degrees of freedom, which makes them very difficult to control. Moreover, underactuated robots have nonlinear dynamics which must be tackled with nonlinear control techniques. Furthermore, control theory for underactuated mechanical systems has been an active area of research for the past 15-20 years. Most of the research has focused on local and global asymptotic stabilization by feedback. Underactuated systems can either possess nonminimum phase or minimum phase characteristics. For minimum phase underactuated systems, the stabilization problem is rather simple and many existing control design methodologies have been proved powerful in providing a solution to this problem. For nonminimum phase underactuated systems, asymptotic stabilization problem has been, and still is, an attractive subject to the researchers in the field of nonlinear control system and theory. In particular, global asymptotic stabilization (GAS) at a desired equilibrium point of such systems by means of a single smooth static or dynamic state feedback law is still largely an open problem in the literature. In this thesis, the problem of GAS via a smooth static state feedback law is addressed for a class of an underactuated nonlinear system that is affine (possibly non affine) in the control, partially feedback linearizable, nonminimum phase and (possibly) has a non-integrable acceleration constraint. The core result of the thesis is formulated through a theorem that the author refers to through this thesis as the Legend of Salah Salman (LSS) Theorem. LSS theorem states the existence of a smooth static state feedback law that globally asymptotically stabilizes the origin of the nonlinear underactuated system that is

6. Entropy for quantum pure states and quantum H theorem

Han, Xizhi; Wu, Biao

2015-06-01

We construct a complete set of Wannier functions that are localized at both given positions and momenta. This allows us to introduce the quantum phase space, onto which a quantum pure state can be mapped unitarily. Using its probability distribution in quantum phase space, we define an entropy for a quantum pure state. We prove an inequality regarding the long-time behavior of our entropy's fluctuation. For a typical initial state, this inequality indicates that our entropy can relax dynamically to a maximized value and stay there most of time with small fluctuations. This result echoes the quantum H theorem proved by von Neumann [Zeitschrift für Physik 57, 30 (1929), 10.1007/BF01339852]. Our entropy is different from the standard von Neumann entropy, which is always zero for quantum pure states. According to our definition, a system always has bigger entropy than its subsystem even when the system is described by a pure state. As the construction of the Wannier basis can be implemented numerically, the dynamical evolution of our entropy is illustrated with an example.

7. An Almost Sure Ergodic Theorem for Quasistatic Dynamical Systems

Stenlund, Mikko

2016-09-01

We prove an almost sure ergodic theorem for abstract quasistatic dynamical systems, as an attempt of taking steps toward an ergodic theory of such systems. The result at issue is meant to serve as a working counterpart of Birkhoff's ergodic theorem which fails in the quasistatic setup. It is formulated so that the conditions, which essentially require sufficiently good memory-loss properties, could be verified in a straightforward way in physical applications. We also introduce the concept of a physical family of measures for a quasistatic dynamical system. These objects manifest themselves, for instance, in numerical experiments. We then illustrate the use of the theorem by examples.

8. Fluctuation theorem for Hamiltonian systems: Le Chatelier's principle.

PubMed

Evans, D J; Searles, D J; Mittag, E

2001-05-01

For thermostated dissipative systems, the fluctuation theorem gives an analytical expression for the ratio of probabilities that the time-averaged entropy production in a finite system observed for a finite time takes on a specified value compared to the negative of that value. In the past, it has been generally thought that the presence of some thermostating mechanism was an essential component of any system that satisfies a fluctuation theorem. In the present paper, we point out that a fluctuation theorem can be derived for purely Hamiltonian systems, with or without applied dissipative fields.

9. Fluctuation theorem for Hamiltonian Systems: Le Chatelier's principle

Evans, Denis J.; Searles, Debra J.; Mittag, Emil

2001-05-01

For thermostated dissipative systems, the fluctuation theorem gives an analytical expression for the ratio of probabilities that the time-averaged entropy production in a finite system observed for a finite time takes on a specified value compared to the negative of that value. In the past, it has been generally thought that the presence of some thermostating mechanism was an essential component of any system that satisfies a fluctuation theorem. In the present paper, we point out that a fluctuation theorem can be derived for purely Hamiltonian systems, with or without applied dissipative fields.

10. Localization and Dualities in Three-dimensional Superconformal Field Theories

Willett, Brian

In this thesis we apply the technique of localization to three-dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories. We consider both theories which are exactly superconformal, and those which are believed to flow to nontrivial superconformal fixed points, for which we consider implicitly these fixed points. We find that in such theories, the partition function and certain supersymmetric observables, such as Wilson loops, can be computed exactly by a matrix model. This matrix model consists of an integral over g , the Lie algebra of the gauge group of the theory, of a certain product of 1-loop factors and classical contributions. One can also consider a space of supersymmetric deformations of the partition function corresponding to the set of abelian global symmetries. In the second part of the thesis we apply these results to test dualities. We start with the case of ABJM theory, which is dual to M-theory on an asymptotically AdS4 x S7 background. We extract strong coupling results in the field theory, which can be compared to semiclassical, weak coupling results in the gravity theory, and a nontrivial agreement is found. We also consider several classes of dualities between two three-dimensional field theories, namely, 3D mirror symmetry, Aharony duality, and Giveon-Kutasov duality. Here the dualities are typically between the IR limits of two Yang-Mills theories, which are strongly coupled in three dimensions since Yang-Mills theory is asymptotically free here. Thus the comparison is again very nontrivial, and relies on the exactness of the localization computation. We also compare the deformed partition functions, which tests the mapping of global symmetries of the dual theories. Finally, we discuss some recent progress in the understanding of general three-dimensional theories in the form of the F-theorem, a conjectured analogy to the a-theorem in four dimensions and c-theorem in two dimensions, which is closely related to the localization computation.

11. Local source identification of trace metals in urban/industrial mixed land-use areas with daily PM10 limit value exceedances

Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Andecochea, Carlos; Ruiz, Sara; Fernández-Ferreras, José Antonio; Irabien, Angel

2016-05-01

This study presents the analysis of the concentration levels, inter-site variation and source identification of trace metals at three urban/industrial mixed land-use sites of the Cantabria region (northern Spain), where local air quality plans were recently approved because the number of exceedances of the daily PM10 limit value according to the Directive 2008/50/EC had been relatively high in the last decade (more than 35 instances per year). PM10 samples were collected for over three years at the Torrelavega (TORR) and Los Corrales (CORR) sites and for over two years at the Camargo (GUAR) site and analysed for the presence of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn). Analysis of enrichment factors revealed an anthropogenic origin of most of the studied elements; Zn, Cd, Mo, Pb and Cu were the most enriched elements at the three sites, with Fe and V as the least enriched elements. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) and pollutant roses (Cu at TORR, Zn at CORR and Mn at GUAR) were used to identify the local sources of the studied metals. Analysis of PMF results revealed the main sources of trace metals at each site as road traffic at the TORR site, iron foundry and casting industry at the CORR site and a ferro-manganese alloy industry at the GUAR site. Other sources were also identified at these sites, but with much lower contributions, such as minor industrial sources, combustion and traffic mixed with the previous sources.

12. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid-abundant vs. fluid-limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia)

Spruzeniece, L.; Piazolo, S.

2015-07-01

This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia), a coarse-grained two-feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium-grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized, showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data show a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high- and low-strain microstructures in the shear zone represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. Instead, we propose that the microstructural and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre arise from a local metasomatic alteration around a brittle precursor. When the weaker fine-grained microstructure is established, the further flow is controlled by transient porosity created at (i) grain boundaries in fine

13. The Pythagorean Theorem and the Solid State

Kelly, Brenda S.; Splittgerber, Allen G.

2005-05-01

Solid-state parameters such as radius ratios, packing efficiencies, and crystal densities may be calculated for various crystal structures from basic Euclidean geometry relating to the Pythagorean theorem of right triangles. Because simpler cases are often discussed in the standard inorganic chemistry texts, this article only presents calculations for closest-packed A-type lattices (one type of particle) and several compound AB lattices (A and B particles) including sodium chloride, cesium chloride, zinc blende (sphalerite), wurtzite, and fluorite. For A-type metallic crystals, the use of recommended values of atomic radii results in calculated densities within 1% of observed values. For AB lattices, assuming ionic crystals, the use of recommended values of ionic radii results in density determinations that are usually but not always close to observed values. When there is covalent character to the bonding, the use of covalent radii results in calculated densities that correlate well with observed values. If interionic or interatomic spacings are used, the calculated densities are always close to the observed values. As indicated by a survey of the standard inorganic texts, these calculations are generally not presented. However, as an illustration of the application of simple mathematical principles to the study of chemistry, discussion of the methods presented in this manuscript may be of value in classroom presentations pertaining to the solid state.

14. Digital superresolution and the generalized sampling theorem

2007-02-01

The technique of reconstructing a higher-resolution (HR) image of size ML×ML by digitally processing L×L subpixel-shifted lower-resolution (LR) copies of it, each of size M×M, has now become well established. This particular digital superresolution problem is analyzed from the standpoint of the generalized sampling theorem. It is shown both theoretically and by computer simulation that the choice of regularly spaced subpixel shifts for the LR images tends to maximize the robustness and minimize the error of reconstruction of the HR image. In practice, since subpixel-level control of LR image shifts may be nearly impossible to achieve, however, a more likely scenario, which is also discussed, is one involving random subpixel shifts. It is shown that without reasonably tight bounds on the range of random shifts, the reconstruction is likely to fail in the presence of even small amounts of noise unless either reliable prior information or additional data are available.

15. On the Spin-Statistics Theorem

Peshkin, Murray

2002-05-01

M.V. Berry and J.M. Robbins* (B) have explained the spin-statistics theorem (SST) within nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (QM), without using relativity or field theory. For two identical spinless particles, their starting point is a coordinate space which consists of unordered pairs r,r' where r and r' represent two points in space, not particle labels. The point r,r' is the point r',r\\. That has topological consequences for the 6D configuration space and for the wave functions |r,r'>. More generally, spin variables are appended and there are N vectors. B gave a beautiful mathematical analysis to go from there to the usual SST under stated assumptions of QM. They also explored alternative assumptions that give unusual results but that may not be physical. I seek additional insight by recasting B's analysis into a form that emphasizes the relative orbital angular momenta of pairs of particles. I report here on the spinless case, where boson statistics emerges in a transparent way. This approach appears to exclude unusual possibilities. Work supported by U.S. DOE contract W-31-109-ENG-38. *Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 453, 1771 (1997).

16. Generalized Browder's and Weyl's theorems for Banach space operators

Curto, Raúl E.; Han, Young Min

2007-12-01

We find necessary and sufficient conditions for a Banach space operator T to satisfy the generalized Browder's theorem. We also prove that the spectral mapping theorem holds for the Drazin spectrum and for analytic functions on an open neighborhood of [sigma](T). As applications, we show that if T is algebraically M-hyponormal, or if T is algebraically paranormal, then the generalized Weyl's theorem holds for f(T), where f[set membership, variant]H((T)), the space of functions analytic on an open neighborhood of [sigma](T). We also show that if T is reduced by each of its eigenspaces, then the generalized Browder's theorem holds for f(T), for each f[set membership, variant]H([sigma](T)).

17. Gibbs Paradox Revisited from the Fluctuation Theorem with Absolute Irreversibility

Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito

2017-02-01

The inclusion of the factor ln (1 /N !) in the thermodynamic entropy proposed by Gibbs is shown to be equivalent to the validity of the fluctuation theorem with absolute irreversibility for gas mixing.

18. The Pythagorean Theorem: II. The infinite discrete case

PubMed Central

2002-01-01

The study of the Pythagorean Theorem and variants of it as the basic result of noncommutative, metric, Euclidean Geometry is continued. The emphasis in the present article is the case of infinite discrete dimensionality. PMID:16578869

19. Comparison theorems for neutral stochastic functional differential equations

Bai, Xiaoming; Jiang, Jifa

2016-05-01

The comparison theorems under Wu and Freedman's order are proved for neutral stochastic functional differential equations with finite or infinite delay whose drift terms satisfy the quasimonotone condition and diffusion term is the same.

20. Forest Carbon Uptake and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zobitz, John

2013-01-01

Using the fundamental theorem of calculus and numerical integration, we investigate carbon absorption of ecosystems with measurements from a global database. The results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecosystems and their ability to absorb atmospheric carbon.

1. Fluctuation theorem in driven nonthermal systems with quenched disorder

SciTech Connect

Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, C J; Drocco, J A

2009-01-01

We demonstrate that the fluctuation theorem of Evans and Searles can be used to characterize the class of dynamics that arises in nonthermal systems of collectively interacting particles driven over random quenched disorder. By observing the frequency of entropy-destroying trajectories, we show that there are specific dynamical regimes near depinning in which this theorem holds. Hence the fluctuation theorem can be used to characterize a significantly wider class of non-equilibrium systems than previously considered. We discuss how the fluctuation theorem could be tested in specific systems where noisy dynamics appear at the transition from a pinned to a moving phase such as in vortices in type-II superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and dislocation dynamics.

2. A Computer Science Version of Goedel’s Theorem.

DTIC Science & Technology

1983-08-01

The author presents a simplified proof of Godel’s theorem by appealing to well-known programming concepts. The significance of Goedel’s result to computer science , mathematics and logic is discussed. (Author)

3. Two time physics and Hamiltonian Noether theorem for gauge systems

SciTech Connect

Nieto, J. A.; Ruiz, L.; Silvas, J.; Villanueva, V. M.

2006-09-25

Motivated by two time physics theory we revisited the Noether theorem for Hamiltonian constrained systems. Our review presents a novel method to show that the gauge transformations are generated by the conserved quantities associated with the first class constraints.

4. Conformal frames and the validity of Birkhoff's theorem

Capozziello, S.; Sáez-Gómez, D.

2012-07-01

Birkhoff's theorem is one of the most important statements of Einstein's general relativity, which generally can not be extended to modified theories of gravity. Here we study the validity of the theorem in scalar-tensor theories using a perturbative approach, and compare the results in the so-called Einstein and Jordan frames. The implications of the results question the physical equivalence between both frames, at least in perturbations.

5. No-broadcasting theorem and its classical counterpart.

PubMed

Kalev, Amir; Hen, Itay

2008-05-30

Although it is widely accepted that "no-broadcasting"-the nonclonability of quantum information-is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics, an impossibility theorem for the broadcasting of general density matrices has not yet been formulated. In this Letter, we present a general proof for the no-broadcasting theorem, which applies to arbitrary density matrices. The proof relies on entropic considerations, and as such can also be directly linked to its classical counterpart, which applies to probabilistic distributions of statistical ensembles.

6. Levinson theorem for Aharonov-Bohm scattering in two dimensions

SciTech Connect

Sheka, Denis D.; Mertens, Franz G.

2006-11-15

We apply the recently generalized Levinson theorem for potentials with inverse-square singularities [Sheka et al., Phys. Rev. A 68, 012707 (2003)] to Aharonov-Bohm systems in two dimensions (2D). By this theorem, the number of bound states in a given mth partial wave is related to the phase shift and the magnetic flux. The results are applied to 2D soliton-magnon scattering.

7. Non-linear energy conservation theorem in the framework of special relativity

Pérez Teruel, Ginés R.

2015-07-01

In this work we revisit the study of the gravitational interaction in the context of the special theory of relativity. It is found that, as long as the equivalence principle is respected, a relativistic nonlinear energy conservation theorem arises in a natural way. We interpret that this nonlinear conservation law stresses the nonlinear character of the gravitational interaction. The theorem reproduces the energy conservation theorem of Newtonian mechanics in the corresponding low energy limit, but also allows to derive some standard results of post-Newtonian gravity, such as the formula of the gravitational redshift. Guided by this conservation law, we develop a Lagrangian formalism for a particle in a gravitational field. We realize that the Lagrangian can be written in an explicit covariant fashion, and turns out to be the geodesic Lagrangian of a curved Lorentzian manifold. Therefore, any attempt to describe gravity within the special theory, leads outside their own domains towards a curved space-time. Thus, the pedagogical content of the paper may be useful as a starting point to discuss the problem of gravitation in the context of the special theory, as a preliminary step before introducing general relativity.

8. Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem applied to refinements of the atomic pair distribution function

Farrow, Christopher L.; Shaw, Margaret; Kim, Hyunjeong; Juhás, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.

2011-10-01

We have systematically studied the optimal real-space sampling of atomic pair distribution (PDF) data by comparing refinement results from oversampled and resampled data. Based on nickel and a complex perovskite system, we show that not only is the optimal sampling bounded by the Nyquist interval described by the Nyquist-Shannon (NS) sampling theorem as expected, but near this sampling interval, the data points in the PDF are minimally correlated, which results in more reliable uncertainty estimates in the modeling. Surprisingly, we find that PDF refinements quickly become unstable for data on coarser grids. Although the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem is well known, it has not been applied to PDF refinements, despite the growing popularity of the PDF method and its adoption in a growing number of communities. Here, we give explicit expressions for the application of NS sampling theorem to the PDF case, and establish through modeling that it is working in practice, which lays the groundwork for this to become more widely adopted. This has implications for the speed and complexity of possible refinements that can be carried out many times faster than currently with no loss of information, and it establishes a theoretically sound limit on the amount of information contained in the PDF that will prevent over-parametrization during modeling.

9. Fluctuation Theorems for Entropy Production and Heat Dissipation in Periodically Driven Markov Chains

Shargel, Benjamin Hertz; Chou, Tom

2009-10-01

Asymptotic fluctuation theorems are statements of a Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry in the rate function of either the time-averaged entropy production or heat dissipation of a process. Such theorems have been proved for various general classes of continuous-time deterministic and stochastic processes, but always under the assumption that the forces driving the system are time independent, and often relying on the existence of a limiting ergodic distribution. In this paper we extend the asymptotic fluctuation theorem for the first time to inhomogeneous continuous-time processes without a stationary distribution, considering specifically a finite state Markov chain driven by periodic transition rates. We find that for both entropy production and heat dissipation, the usual Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry of the rate function is generalized to an analogous relation between the rate functions of the original process and its corresponding backward process, in which the trajectory and the driving protocol have been time-reversed. The effect is that spontaneous positive fluctuations in the long time average of each quantity in the forward process are exponentially more likely than spontaneous negative fluctuations in the backward process, and vice-versa, revealing that the distributions of fluctuations in universes in which time moves forward and backward are related. As an additional result, the asymptotic time-averaged entropy production is obtained as the integral of a periodic entropy production rate that generalizes the constant rate pertaining to homogeneous dynamics.

10. Exploring the limit of accuracy for density functionals based on the generalized gradient approximation: Local, global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals with and without dispersion corrections

SciTech Connect

2014-05-14

The limit of accuracy for semi-empirical generalized gradient approximation (GGA) density functionals is explored by parameterizing a variety of local, global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals. The training methodology employed differs from conventional approaches in 2 main ways: (1) Instead of uniformly truncating the exchange, same-spin correlation, and opposite-spin correlation functional inhomogeneity correction factors, all possible fits up to fourth order are considered, and (2) Instead of selecting the optimal functionals based solely on their training set performance, the fits are validated on an independent test set and ranked based on their overall performance on the training and test sets. The 3 different methods of accounting for exchange are trained both with and without dispersion corrections (DFT-D2 and VV10), resulting in a total of 491 508 candidate functionals. For each of the 9 functional classes considered, the results illustrate the trade-off between improved training set performance and diminished transferability. Since all 491 508 functionals are uniformly trained and tested, this methodology allows the relative strengths of each type of functional to be consistently compared and contrasted. The range-separated hybrid GGA functional paired with the VV10 nonlocal correlation functional emerges as the most accurate form for the present training and test sets, which span thermochemical energy differences, reaction barriers, and intermolecular interactions involving lighter main group elements.

11. Exploring the limit of accuracy for density functionals based on the generalized gradient approximation: Local, global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals with and without dispersion corrections

2014-05-01

The limit of accuracy for semi-empirical generalized gradient approximation (GGA) density functionals is explored by parameterizing a variety of local, global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals. The training methodology employed differs from conventional approaches in 2 main ways: (1) Instead of uniformly truncating the exchange, same-spin correlation, and opposite-spin correlation functional inhomogeneity correction factors, all possible fits up to fourth order are considered, and (2) Instead of selecting the optimal functionals based solely on their training set performance, the fits are validated on an independent test set and ranked based on their overall performance on the training and test sets. The 3 different methods of accounting for exchange are trained both with and without dispersion corrections (DFT-D2 and VV10), resulting in a total of 491 508 candidate functionals. For each of the 9 functional classes considered, the results illustrate the trade-off between improved training set performance and diminished transferability. Since all 491 508 functionals are uniformly trained and tested, this methodology allows the relative strengths of each type of functional to be consistently compared and contrasted. The range-separated hybrid GGA functional paired with the VV10 nonlocal correlation functional emerges as the most accurate form for the present training and test sets, which span thermochemical energy differences, reaction barriers, and intermolecular interactions involving lighter main group elements.

12. The PBR theorem: Whose side is it on?

Ben-Menahem, Yemima

2017-02-01

This paper examines the implications of the PBR theorem for the debate on the reality of the quantum state. The theorem seeks to undermine epistemic interpretations of the quantum state and support realist interpretations thereof, but there remains ambiguity about the precise nature of epistemic interpretations, and thus ambiguity about the implications of the theorem. The aim of this paper is to examine a radical epistemic interpretation that is not undermined by the theorem and is, arguably, strengthened by it. It is this radical interpretation, rather than the one assumed by the PBR theorem, that many epistemic theorists subscribe to. In order to distinguish the radical epistemic interpretation from alternative interpretations of quantum states-in particular, to distinguish it from instrumentalism-a historical comparison of different approaches to the meaning of quantum probabilities is provided. The comparison highlights, in particular, Schrödinger's work on the nature of quantum probabilities as distinct from probabilities in statistical mechanics, and the implications of this distinction for an epistemic interpretation of probability in the two areas. Schrödinger's work also helps to identify the difficulties in the PBR definition of an epistemic interpretation and is shown to anticipate the radical alternative that is not undermined by the theorem.

13. Inelastic light and electron scattering in parabolic quantum dots in magnetic field: Implications of generalized Kohn's theorem

Kushwaha, Manvir S.

2016-03-01

We investigate a one-component, quasi-zero-dimensional, quantum plasma exposed to a parabolic potential and an applied magnetic field in the symmetric gauge. If the size of such a system as can be realized in the semiconducting quantum dots is on the order of the de Broglie wavelength, the electronic and optical properties become highly tunable. Then the quantum size effects challenge the observation of many-particle phenomena such as the magneto-optical absorption, Raman intensity, and electron energy loss spectrum. An exact analytical solution of the problem leads us to infer that these many-particle phenomena are, in fact, dictated by the generalized Kohn's theorem in the long-wavelength limit. Maneuvering the confinement and/or the magnetic field furnishes the resonance energy capable of being explored with the FIR, Raman, or electron energy loss spectroscopy. This implies that either of these probes should be competent in observing the localized magnetoplasmons in the system. A deeper insight into the physics of quantum dots is paving the way for their implementation in diverse fields such as quantum computing and medical imaging.

14. Significant-Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Theorem with Entangled Photons

Giustina, Marissa; Versteegh, Marijn A. M.; Wengerowsky, Sören; Handsteiner, Johannes; Hochrainer, Armin; Phelan, Kevin; Steinlechner, Fabian; Kofler, Johannes; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Abellán, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W.; Beyer, Jörn; Gerrits, Thomas; Lita, Adriana E.; Shalm, Lynden K.; Nam, Sae Woo; Scheidl, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Wittmann, Bernhard; Zeilinger, Anton

2015-12-01

Local realism is the worldview in which physical properties of objects exist independently of measurement and where physical influences cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Bell's theorem states that this worldview is incompatible with the predictions of quantum mechanics, as is expressed in Bell's inequalities. Previous experiments convincingly supported the quantum predictions. Yet, every experiment requires assumptions that provide loopholes for a local realist explanation. Here, we report a Bell test that closes the most significant of these loopholes simultaneously. Using a well-optimized source of entangled photons, rapid setting generation, and highly efficient superconducting detectors, we observe a violation of a Bell inequality with high statistical significance. The purely statistical probability of our results to occur under local realism does not exceed 3.74 ×10-31 , corresponding to an 11.5 standard deviation effect.

15. Use of Lambert's theorem for the n-dimensional Coulomb problem

SciTech Connect

Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Kleber, Manfred; Kramer, Tobias

2009-07-15

We present the analytical solution in closed form for the semiclassical limit of the quantum-mechanical Coulomb Green's function in position space in n dimensions. We utilize a projection method which has its roots in Lambert's theorem and which allows us to treat the system as an essentially one-dimensional problem. The semiclassical result assumes a simple analytical form and is well suited for a numerical evaluation. The method can also be extended to classically forbidden space regions. Already for moderately large principal quantum numbers {nu}{>=}5, the semiclassical Green's function is found to be an excellent approximation to the quantum-mechanical Green's function.

16. Dynamical control of quantum systems in the context of mean ergodic theorems

Bernád, J. Z.

2017-02-01

Equidistant and non-equidistant single pulse ‘bang-bang’ dynamical controls are investigated in the context of mean ergodic theorems. We show the requirements in which the limit of infinite pulse control for both the equidistant and the non-equidistant dynamical control converges to the same unitary evolution. It is demonstrated that the generator of this evolution can be obtained by projecting the generator of the free evolution onto the commutant of the unitary operator representing the pulse. Inequalities are derived to prove this statement and in the case of non-equidistant approach these inequalities are optimised as a function of the time intervals.

17. Asymptotic behavior and Denjoy-Wolff theorems for Hilbert metric nonexpansive maps

Lins, Brian C.

We study the asymptotic behavior of fixed point free Hilbert metric nonexpansive maps on bounded convex domains. For such maps, we prove that the omega limit sets are contained in a convex subset of the boundary when the domain is either polyhedral or two dimensional. Similar results are obtained for several classes of positive operators defined on closed cones, including linear maps, affine linear maps, max-min operators, and reproduction-decimation operators. We discuss the relationship between these results and other Denjoy-Wolff type theorems. In particular, we investigate the interaction of nonexpansive maps with the horofunction boundary in the Hilbert geometry and in finite dimensional normed spaces.

18. The solution to the phase retrieval problem using the sampling theorem

Arsenault, H. H.; Chalasinska-Macukow, K.

1983-10-01

The 2D phase-retrieval problem is investigated analytically, and the solution is applied to an optics example. In the case considered, only the Fourier-transform modulus and the support of the object function are known. The approach taken is based on the Whittaker-Shannon sampling theorem (Goodman, 1968), using the sin c function as interpolator. The algorithm developed is shown to converge rapidly and give an accurate representation of band-limited objects if the two sampling grids are carefully chosen, as illustrated in a test calculation using a 5 x 5-pixel object.

19. Formalization of the Integral Calculus in the PVS Theorem Prover

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Butler, Ricky W.

2004-01-01

The PVS Theorem prover is a widely used formal verification tool used for the analysis of safety-critical systems. The PVS prover, though fully equipped to support deduction in a very general logic framework, namely higher-order logic, it must nevertheless, be augmented with the definitions and associated theorems for every branch of mathematics and Computer Science that is used in a verification. This is a formidable task, ultimately requiring the contributions of researchers and developers all over the world. This paper reports on the formalization of the integral calculus in the PVS theorem prover. All of the basic definitions and theorems covered in a first course on integral calculus have been completed.The theory and proofs were based on Rosenlicht's classic text on real analysis and follow the traditional epsilon-delta method. The goal of this work was to provide a practical set of PVS theories that could be used for verification of hybrid systems that arise in air traffic management systems and other aerospace applications. All of the basic linearity, integrability, boundedness, and continuity properties of the integral calculus were proved. The work culminated in the proof of the Fundamental Theorem Of Calculus. There is a brief discussion about why mechanically checked proofs are so much longer than standard mathematics textbook proofs.

20. Limit laws for Zipf's law

Eliazar, Iddo

2011-01-01

In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

1. Attractive Hubbard model with disorder and the generalized Anderson theorem

SciTech Connect

Kuchinskii, E. Z. Kuleeva, N. A. Sadovskii, M. V.

2015-06-15

Using the generalized DMFT+Σ approach, we study the influence of disorder on single-particle properties of the normal phase and the superconducting transition temperature in the attractive Hubbard model. A wide range of attractive potentials U is studied, from the weak coupling region, where both the instability of the normal phase and superconductivity are well described by the BCS model, to the strong-coupling region, where the superconducting transition is due to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of compact Cooper pairs, formed at temperatures much higher than the superconducting transition temperature. We study two typical models of the conduction band with semi-elliptic and flat densities of states, respectively appropriate for three-dimensional and two-dimensional systems. For the semi-elliptic density of states, the disorder influence on all single-particle properties (e.g., density of states) is universal for an arbitrary strength of electronic correlations and disorder and is due to only the general disorder widening of the conduction band. In the case of a flat density of states, universality is absent in the general case, but still the disorder influence is mainly due to band widening, and the universal behavior is restored for large enough disorder. Using the combination of DMFT+Σ and Nozieres-Schmitt-Rink approximations, we study the disorder influence on the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} for a range of characteristic values of U and disorder, including the BCS-BEC crossover region and the limit of strong-coupling. Disorder can either suppress T{sub c} (in the weak-coupling region) or significantly increase T{sub c} (in the strong-coupling region). However, in all cases, the generalized Anderson theorem is valid and all changes of the superconducting critical temperature are essentially due to only the general disorder widening of the conduction band.

2. Remarks on asymptotic symmetries and the subleading soft photon theorem

Conde, Eduardo; Mao, Pujian

2017-01-01

A deep connection has been recently established between soft theorems and symmetries at null infinity in gravity and gauge theories, recasting the former as Ward identities of the latter. In particular, different orders (in the frequency of the soft particle) in the soft theorems are believed to be controlled by different asymptotic symmetries. In this paper we argue that this need not be the case by focusing on the soft photon theorem. We argue that the subleading soft factor follows from the same symmetry responsible for the leading one, namely certain residual (large) gauge transformations of the gauge theory. In particular, expanding the associated charge in inverse powers of the radial coordinate, the (sub)leading charge yields the (sub)leading soft factor.

3. Noncommutative topology and the world’s simplest index theorem

PubMed Central

van Erp, Erik

2010-01-01

In this article we outline an approach to index theory on the basis of methods of noncommutative topology. We start with an explicit index theorem for second-order differential operators on 3-manifolds that are Fredholm but not elliptic. This low-brow index formula is expressed in terms of winding numbers. We then proceed to show how it is derived as a special case of an index theorem for hypoelliptic operators on contact manifolds. Finally, we discuss the noncommutative topology that is employed in the proof of this theorem. The article is intended to illustrate that noncommutative topology can be a powerful tool for proving results in classical analysis and geometry. PMID:20418506

4. Time dependent electromagnetic fields and 4-dimensional Stokes' theorem

Andosca, Ryan; Singleton, Douglas

2016-11-01

Stokes' theorem is central to many aspects of physics—electromagnetism, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and Wilson loops to name a few. However, the pedagogical examples and research work almost exclusively focus on situations where the fields are time-independent so that one need only deal with purely spatial line integrals (e.g., ∮ A . d x ) and purely spatial area integrals (e.g., ∫ ( ∇ × A ) . d a = ∫ B . d a ). Here, we address this gap by giving some explicit examples of how Stokes' theorem plays out with time-dependent fields in a full 4-dimensional spacetime context. We also discuss some unusual features of Stokes' theorem with time-dependent fields related to gauge transformations and non-simply connected topology.

5. Generalized Bezout's Theorem and its applications in coding theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Berg, Gene A.; Feng, Gui-Liang; Rao, T. R. N.

1996-01-01

This paper presents a generalized Bezout theorem which can be used to determine a tighter lower bound of the number of distinct points of intersection of two or more curves for a large class of plane curves. A new approach to determine a lower bound on the minimum distance (and also the generalized Hamming weights) for algebraic-geometric codes defined from a class of plane curves is introduced, based on the generalized Bezout theorem. Examples of more efficient linear codes are constructed using the generalized Bezout theorem and the new approach. For d = 4, the linear codes constructed by the new construction are better than or equal to the known linear codes. For d greater than 5, these new codes are better than the known codes. The Klein code over GF(2(sup 3)) is also constructed.

6. Formulation of Liouville's theorem for grand ensemble molecular simulations

Delle Site, Luigi

2016-02-01

Liouville's theorem in a grand ensemble, that is for situations where a system is in equilibrium with a reservoir of energy and particles, is a subject that, to our knowledge, has not been explicitly treated in literature related to molecular simulation. Instead, Liouville's theorem, a central concept for the correct employment of molecular simulation techniques, is implicitly considered only within the framework of systems where the total number of particles is fixed. However, the pressing demand of applied science in treating open systems leads to the question of the existence and possible exact formulation of Liouville's theorem when the number of particles changes during the dynamical evolution of the system. The intention of this paper is to stimulate a debate about this crucial issue for molecular simulation.

7. Quantum de Finetti theorem in phase-space representation

Leverrier, Anthony; Cerf, Nicolas J.

2009-07-01

The quantum versions of de Finetti’s theorem derived so far express the convergence of n -partite symmetric states, i.e., states that are invariant under permutations of their n parties, toward probabilistic mixtures of independent and identically distributed (IID) states of the form σ⊗n . Unfortunately, these theorems only hold in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and their direct generalization to infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces is known to fail. Here, we address this problem by considering invariance under orthogonal transformations in phase space instead of permutations in state space, which leads to a quantum de Finetti theorem particularly relevant to continuous-variable systems. Specifically, an n -mode bosonic state that is invariant with respect to this continuous symmetry in phase space is proven to converge toward a probabilistic mixture of IID Gaussian states (actually, n identical thermal states).

8. Strong Kochen-Specker theorem and incomputability of quantum randomness

Abbott, Alastair A.; Calude, Cristian S.; Conder, Jonathan; Svozil, Karl

2012-12-01

The Kochen-Specker theorem shows the impossibility for a hidden variable theory to consistently assign values to certain (finite) sets of observables in a way that is noncontextual and consistent with quantum mechanics. If we require noncontextuality, the consequence is that many observables must not have pre-existing definite values. However, the Kochen-Specker theorem does not allow one to determine which observables must be value indefinite. In this paper we present an improvement on the Kochen-Specker theorem which allows one to actually locate observables which are provably value indefinite. Various technical and subtle aspects relating to this formal proof and its connection to quantum mechanics are discussed. This result is then utilized for the proposal and certification of a dichotomic quantum random number generator operating in a three-dimensional Hilbert space.

9. Model Checking Failed Conjectures in Theorem Proving: A Case Study

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pike, Lee; Miner, Paul; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

2004-01-01

Interactive mechanical theorem proving can provide high assurance of correct design, but it can also be a slow iterative process. Much time is spent determining why a proof of a conjecture is not forthcoming. In some cases, the conjecture is false and in others, the attempted proof is insufficient. In this case study, we use the SAL family of model checkers to generate a concrete counterexample to an unproven conjecture specified in the mechanical theorem prover, PVS. The focus of our case study is the ROBUS Interactive Consistency Protocol. We combine the use of a mechanical theorem prover and a model checker to expose a subtle flaw in the protocol that occurs under a particular scenario of faults and processor states. Uncovering the flaw allows us to mend the protocol and complete its general verification in PVS.

10. Heat Capacity and the Equipartition Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dence, Joseph B.

1972-01-01

Limitations of classical mechanics in understanding molecular properties are discussed. Modifications introduced by quantum mechanics enable the instructor to include and integrate important concepts from thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, spectroscopy, and statistics. (DF)

11. Muonium Spectrum Beyond the Nonrelativistic Limit

SciTech Connect

Weber, Axel

2008-07-02

A generalization of the Gell-Mann-Low theorem is applied to the antimuon-electron system. The bound state spectrum is extracted numerically. As a result, fine and hyperfine structure are reproduced correctly near the nonrelativistic limit (and for arbitrary masses). We compare the spectrum for the relativistic value {alpha} = 0.3 with corresponding calculations in light-front quantization.

12. Reasoning by analogy as an aid to heuristic theorem proving.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kling, R. E.

1972-01-01

When heuristic problem-solving programs are faced with large data bases that contain numbers of facts far in excess of those needed to solve any particular problem, their performance rapidly deteriorates. In this paper, the correspondence between a new unsolved problem and a previously solved analogous problem is computed and invoked to tailor large data bases to manageable sizes. This paper outlines the design of an algorithm for generating and exploiting analogies between theorems posed to a resolution-logic system. These algorithms are believed to be the first computationally feasible development of reasoning by analogy to be applied to heuristic theorem proving.

13. Nonlinear Dynamic Maximum Power Theorem, with Numerical Method

DTIC Science & Technology

1983-09-01

Desoer , "The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for n-Ports," IEEE Trans. Circuit Theory , vol. CT-20, no. 3, pp. 328-330, May 1973. [2] J.L.Wyatt, Jr. and L.O...327-330, May 1974. [10] H. Flanders, "On the Maximal Power Transfer Theorem for n-Ports," Int. J. Circuit Theory and Applications, vol. 4, pp. 319-344...conditions in section 3.1), then the (noncausal) matched load has the form shown in Fig. 2. 3.3) Circuit Example Suppose the source takes the specific

14. Quantum Theory of Jaynes' Principle, Bayes' Theorem, and Information

Haken, Hermann

2014-12-01

After a reminder of Jaynes' maximum entropy principle and of my quantum theoretical extension, I consider two coupled quantum systems A,B and formulate a quantum version of Bayes' theorem. The application of Feynman's disentangling theorem allows me to calculate the conditional density matrix ρ (A|B) , if system A is an oscillator (or a set of them), linearly coupled to an arbitrary quantum system B. Expectation values can simply be calculated by means of the normalization factor of ρ (A|B) that is derived.

15. Fluidized Granular Medium as an Instance of the Fluctuation Theorem

Feitosa, Klebert; Menon, Narayanan

2004-04-01

We study the statistics of the power flux into a collection of inelastic beads maintained in a fluidized steady state by external mechanical driving. The power shows large fluctuations, including frequent large negative fluctuations, about its average value. The relative probabilities of positive and negative fluctuations in the power flux are in close accord with the fluctuation theorem of Gallavotti and Cohen, even at time scales shorter than those required by the theorem. We also compare an effective temperature that emerges from this analysis to the kinetic granular temperature.

16. Fluidized granular medium as an instance of the fluctuation theorem.

PubMed

Feitosa, Klebert; Menon, Narayanan

2004-04-23

We study the statistics of the power flux into a collection of inelastic beads maintained in a fluidized steady state by external mechanical driving. The power shows large fluctuations, including frequent large negative fluctuations, about its average value. The relative probabilities of positive and negative fluctuations in the power flux are in close accord with the fluctuation theorem of Gallavotti and Cohen, even at time scales shorter than those required by the theorem. We also compare an effective temperature that emerges from this analysis to the kinetic granular temperature.

17. Fluctuation theorems for total entropy production in generalized Langevin systems

Ghosh, Bappa; Chaudhury, Srabanti

2017-01-01

The validity of the fluctuation theorems for total entropy production of a colloidal particle embedded in a non-Markovian heat bath driven by a time-dependent force in a harmonic potential is probed here. The dynamics of the system is modeled by the generalized Langevin equation with colored noise. The distribution function of the total entropy production is calculated and the detailed fluctuation theorem contains a renormalized temperature term which arises due to the non-Markovian characteristics of the thermal bath.

18. Extensions of the Feynman-Hellman theorem and applications

Singh, S. Brajamani; Singh, C. A.

1989-10-01

Epstein's [Am. J. Phys. 22, 613 (1954)] off-diagonal and higher-order extensions of the Feynman-Hellmann theorem, obtained by using the basic technique of parameter differentiation under the integral sign, are further pursued. Epstein's rederivation of the Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation expansion is also extended to include the degenerate case. The same approach is also used to obtain the Lennard-Jones-Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory. The quantum virial theorem and its off-diagonal generalization is deduced and its application is illustrated by taking the example of the linear harmonic oscillator. The semiclassical expression for the kinetic energy is obtained directly from the quantization condition.

19. Generalization of Carey's equality and a theorem on stationary population.

PubMed

Srinivasa Rao, Arni S R; Carey, James R

2015-09-01

Carey's Equality pertaining to stationary models is well known. In this paper, we have stated and proved a fundamental theorem related to the formation of this Equality. This theorem will provide an in-depth understanding of the role of each captive subject, and their corresponding follow-up duration in a stationary population. We have demonstrated a numerical example of a captive cohort and the survival pattern of medfly populations. These results can be adopted to understand age-structure and aging process in stationary and non-stationary population models.

20. General self-tuning solutions and no-go theorem

SciTech Connect

Förste, Stefan; Kim, Jihn E.; Lee, Hyun Min E-mail: jihnekim@gmail.com

2013-03-01

We consider brane world models with one extra dimension. In the bulk there is in addition to gravity a three form gauge potential or equivalently a scalar (by generalisation of electric magnetic duality). We find classical solutions for which the 4d effective cosmological constant is adjusted by choice of integration constants. No go theorems for such self-tuning mechanism are circumvented by unorthodox Lagrangians for the three form respectively the scalar. It is argued that the corresponding effective 4d theory always includes tachyonic Kaluza-Klein excitations or ghosts. Known no go theorems are extended to a general class of models with unorthodox Lagrangians.

1. Finite de Finetti theorem for infinite-dimensional systems.

PubMed

D'Cruz, Christian; Osborne, Tobias J; Schack, Rüdiger

2007-04-20

We formulate and prove a de Finetti representation theorem for finitely exchangeable states of a quantum system consisting of k infinite-dimensional subsystems. The theorem is valid for states that can be written as the partial trace of a pure state |Psi/Psi| chosen from a family of subsets {Cn} of the full symmetric subspace for n subsystems. We show that such states become arbitrarily close to mixtures of pure power states as n increases. We give a second equivalent characterization of the family {Cn}.

2. Distributed Online Judge System for Interactive Theorem Provers

Mizuno, Takahisa; Nishizaki, Shin-ya

2014-03-01

In this paper, we propose a new software design of an online judge system for interactive theorem proving. The distinctive feature of this architecture is that our online judge system is distributed on the network and especially involves volunteer computing. In volunteers' computers, network bots (software robots) are executed and donate computational resources to the central host of the online judge system. Our proposed design improves fault tolerance and security. We gave an implementation to two different styles of interactive theorem prover, Coq and ACL2, and evaluated our proposed architecture. From the experiment on the implementation, we concluded that our architecture is efficient enough to be used practically.

3. Quantum Locality?

SciTech Connect

Stapp, Henry

2011-11-10

vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

4. Test of the steady-state fluctuation theorem in turbulent Rayleigh-B'enard convection

Tong, Penger; Shang, Xiaodong

2005-11-01

Local entropy production rate σ(r,t) in turbulent thermal convection is obtained from simultaneous velocity and temperature measurements in an aspect-ratio-one cell filled with water. The statistical properties of the time-averaged σ(r,t) are analyzed and the results are compared with the predictions of the steady state fluctuation theorem (SSFT) of Gallavotti and Cohen. The experiment reveals that the SSFT can indeed be extended to the local variables, but further development is needed in order to incorporate the common dynamic complexities of far-from-equilibrium systems into the theory. *Work supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong SAR under Grant Nos. HKUST603504 (P.T.) and CUHK403003 (K.Q.X.).

5. Unifying Framework for Relaxations of the Causal Assumptions in Bell's Theorem

Chaves, R.; Kueng, R.; Brask, J. B.; Gross, D.

2015-04-01

Bell's theorem shows that quantum mechanical correlations can violate the constraints that the causal structure of certain experiments impose on any classical explanation. It is thus natural to ask to which degree the causal assumptions—e.g., locality or measurement independence—have to be relaxed in order to allow for a classical description of such experiments. Here we develop a conceptual and computational framework for treating this problem. We employ the language of Bayesian networks to systematically construct alternative causal structures and bound the degree of relaxation using quantitative measures that originate from the mathematical theory of causality. The main technical insight is that the resulting problems can often be expressed as computationally tractable linear programs. We demonstrate the versatility of the framework by applying it to a variety of scenarios, ranging from relaxations of the measurement independence, locality, and bilocality assumptions, to a novel causal interpretation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violations.

6. Modified Kantorovich theorem and asymptotic approximations of solutions to singularly perturbed systems of ordinary differential equations

Belolipetskii, A. A.; Ter-Krikorov, A. M.

2016-11-01

The functional equation f( x,ɛ) = 0 containing a small parameter ɛ and admitting regular and singular degeneracy as ɛ → 0 is considered. By the methods of small parameter, a function x n 0(ɛ) satisfying this equation within a residual error of O(ɛ n+1) is found. A modified Newton's sequence starting from the element x n 0(ɛ) is constructed. The existence of the limit of Newton's sequence is based on the NK theorem proven in this work (a new variant of the proof of the Kantorovich theorem substantiating the convergence of Newton's iterative sequence). The deviation of the limit of Newton's sequence from the initial approximation x n 0(ɛ) has the order of O(ɛ n+1), which proves the asymptotic character of the approximation x n 0(ɛ). The method proposed is implemented in constructing an asymptotic approximation of a system of ordinary differential equations on a finite or infinite time interval with a small parameter multiplying the derivatives, but it can be applied to a wider class of functional equations with a small parameters.

7. Index theorem and Majorana zero modes along a non-Abelian vortex in a color superconductor

SciTech Connect

Fujiwara, Takanori; Fukui, Takahiro; Nitta, Muneto; Yasui, Shigehiro

2011-10-01

Color superconductivity in high-density QCD exhibits the color-flavor-locked phase. To explore zero modes in the color-flavor-locked phase in the presence of a non-Abelian vortex with an SU(2) symmetry in the vortex core, we apply the index theorem to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) Hamiltonian. From the calculation of the topological index, we find that triplet, doublet and singlet sectors of SU(2) have certain number of chiral Majorana zero modes in the limit of vanishing chemical potential. We also solve the BdG equation by the use of the series expansion to show that the number of zero modes and their chirality match the result of the index theorem. From particle-hole symmetry of the BdG Hamiltonian, we conclude that if and only if the index of a given sector is odd, one zero mode survives generically for a finite chemical potential. We argue that this result should hold nonperturbatively even in the high-density limit.

8. Elliptical billiard systems and the full Poncelet's theorem in n dimensions

Chang, Shau-Jin; Crespi, Bruno; Shi, Kang-Jie

1993-06-01

In this work is presented a generalization of Poncelet's theorem to n dimensions which is refered to as the full Poncelet's theorem. The theorem states that if the reflections of a trajectory by a sequence of confocal quadrics lead to a closed skew polygon, then there exists an (n-1)-parameter family of polygons having the same property. A physical realization and a projective geometrical proof of this theorem are given. If all the reflecting quadrics coincide, the above theorem reduces to the n-dimensional Poncelet's theorem presented by Chang and Friedberg. The geometrical proof is a finite construction based on a preliminary theorem which extends Hart's lemma. The full Poncelet's theorem may thus be extended to projective geometries over most fields, including discrete ones.

9. No-scalar-hair theorem for spherically symmetric reflecting stars

Hod, Shahar

2016-11-01

It is proved that spherically symmetric compact reflecting objects cannot support static bound-state configurations made of scalar fields whose self-interaction potential V (ψ2) is a monotonically increasing function of its argument. Our theorem rules out, in particular, the existence of massive scalar hair outside the surface of a spherically symmetric compact reflecting star.

10. An Elementary Proof of a Converse Mean-Value Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almeida, Ricardo

2008-01-01

We present a new converse mean value theorem, with a rather elementary proof. [The work was supported by Centre for Research on Optimization and Control (CEOC) from the "Fundacaopara a Ciencia e a Tecnologia" FCT, co-financed by the European Community Fund FEDER/POCTI.

11. Kochen-Specker Theorem as a Precondition for Quantum Computing

2016-12-01

We study the relation between the Kochen-Specker theorem (the KS theorem) and quantum computing. The KS theorem rules out a realistic theory of the KS type. We consider the realistic theory of the KS type that the results of measurements are either +1 or -1. We discuss an inconsistency between the realistic theory of the KS type and the controllability of quantum computing. We have to give up the controllability if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type. We discuss an inconsistency between the realistic theory of the KS type and the observability of quantum computing. We discuss the inconsistency by using the double-slit experiment as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics. This experiment can be for an easy detector to a Pauli observable. We cannot accept the realistic theory of the KS type to simulate the double-slit experiment in a significant specific case. The realistic theory of the KS type can not depicture quantum detector. In short, we have to give up both the observability and the controllability if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type. Therefore, the KS theorem is a precondition for quantum computing, i.e., the realistic theory of the KS type should be ruled out.

12. Fermat's Last Theorem for Factional and Irrational Exponents

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morgan, Frank

2010-01-01

Fermat's Last Theorem says that for integers n greater than 2, there are no solutions to x[superscript n] + y[superscript n] = z[superscript n] among positive integers. What about rational exponents? Irrational n? Negative n? See what an undergraduate senior seminar discovered.

13. An Experiment on a Physical Pendulum and Steiner's Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Russeva, G. B.; Tsutsumanova, G. G.; Russev, S. C.

2010-01-01

Introductory physics laboratory curricula usually include experiments on the moment of inertia, the centre of gravity, the harmonic motion of a physical pendulum, and Steiner's theorem. We present a simple experiment using very low cost equipment for investigating these subjects in the general case of an asymmetrical test body. (Contains 3 figures…

14. Boltzmann's "H"-Theorem and the Assumption of Molecular Chaos

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boozer, A. D.

2011-01-01

We describe a simple dynamical model of a one-dimensional ideal gas and use computer simulations of the model to illustrate two fundamental results of kinetic theory: the Boltzmann transport equation and the Boltzmann "H"-theorem. Although the model is time-reversal invariant, both results predict that the behaviour of the gas is time-asymmetric.…

Marinho, Rubens M., Jr.

2009-09-01

This reply answers the issues raised in the comment on my paper (Marinho Jr 2007 Eur. J. Phys. 28 37-43), obtains the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector (Goldstein 2002 Classical Mechanics 3rd edn (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley)) using Noether's theorem and includes a Maple program used to derive the results.

16. Establishing Appropriate Conditions: Students Learning to Apply a Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scataglini-Belghitar, Giovanna; Mason, John

2012-01-01

During a sequence of tutorials conducted by the first author, it became evident that students were not seeing how to apply the theorem concerning a continuous function on a closed and bounded interval attaining its extreme values in situations in which it is necessary first to construct the closed and bounded interval by reasoning about properties…

17. An Extension of the Mean Value Theorem for Integrals

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Khalili, Parviz; Vasiliu, Daniel

2010-01-01

In this note we present an extension of the mean value theorem for integrals. The extension we consider is motivated by an older result (here referred as Corollary 2), which is quite classical for the literature of Mathematical Analysis or Calculus. We also show an interesting application for computing the sum of a harmonic series.

18. Null conformal Killing-Yano tensors and Birkhoff theorem

Ferrando, Joan Josep; Sáez, Juan Antonio

2016-04-01

We study the space-times admitting a null conformal Killing-Yano tensor whose divergence defines a Killing vector. We analyze the similarities and differences with the recently studied non null case (Ferrando and Sáez in Gen Relativ Gravit 47:1911, 2015). The results by Barnes concerning the Birkhoff theorem for the case of null orbits are analyzed and generalized.

19. The Unforgettable Experience of a Workshop on Pythagoras Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

2011-01-01

The author conducted a workshop with colleagues in which awareness of Pythagoras' theorem was raised. This workshop was an unforgettable event in the author's life because it was the first time that she had interacted with teachers from a different school system, and it allowed her to develop presentation skills and confidence in her own…

20. Hamiltonian Noether theorem for gauge systems and two time physics

Villanueva, V. M.; Nieto, J. A.; Ruiz, L.; Silvas, J.

2005-08-01

The Noether theorem for Hamiltonian constrained systems is revisited. In particular, our review presents a novel method to show that the gauge transformations are generated by the conserved quantities associated with the first class constraints. We apply our results to the relativistic point particle, to the Friedberg et al model and, with special emphasis, to two time physics.

1. Geometric Demonstration of the Fundamental Theorems of the Calculus

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sauerheber, Richard D.

2010-01-01

After the monumental discovery of the fundamental theorems of the calculus nearly 350 years ago, it became possible to answer extremely complex questions regarding the natural world. Here, a straightforward yet profound demonstration, employing geometrically symmetric functions, describes the validity of the general power rules for integration and…

2. Weak convergence theorems for a countable family of Lipschitzian mappings

Nilsrakoo, Weerayuth; Saejung, Satit

2009-08-01

This paper is concerned with convergence of an approximating common fixed point sequence of countable Lipschitzian mappings in a uniformly convex Banach space. We also establish weak convergence theorems for finding a common element of the set of fixed points, the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem, and the set of solutions of a variational inequality. With an appropriate setting, we obtain and improve the corresponding results recently proved by Moudafi [A. Moudafi, Weak convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings and equilibrium problems. J. Nonlinear Convex Anal. 9 (2008) 37-43], Tada-Takahashi [A. Tada and W. Takahashi, Weak and strong convergence theorems for a nonexpansive mapping and an equilibrium problem. J. Optim. Theory Appl. 133 (2007) 359-370], and Plubtieng-Kumam [S. Plubtieng and P. Kumam, Weak convergence theorem for monotone mappings and a countable family of nonexpansive mappings. J. Comput. Appl. Math. (2008) doi:10.1016/j.cam.2008.05.045]. Some of our results are established with weaker assumptions.

3. A fixed point theorem for certain operator valued maps

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brown, D. R.; Omalley, M. J.

1978-01-01

In this paper, we develop a family of Neuberger-like results to find points z epsilon H satisfying L(z)z = z and P(z) = z. This family includes Neuberger's theorem and has the additional property that most of the sequences q sub n converge to idempotent elements of B sub 1(H).

4. Thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem in relativistic Brownian motion.

PubMed

Koide, T; Kodama, T

2011-06-01

We extend the stochastic energetics to a relativistic system. The thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem are discussed for a relativistic Brownian particle and the first and the second law of thermodynamics in this formalism are derived. The relation between the relativistic equipartition relation and the rate of heat transfer is discussed in the relativistic case together with the nature of the noise term.

5. A Computer Algorithm from DeMoivre's Theorem.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boyd, James N.

1982-01-01

Details are given of a simple computer program written in BASIC which calculates the sine of an angle through an application of DeMoivre's Theorem. The program is included in the material, and the program's success is discussed in terms of why the approximation works. (MP)

6. On Feynman's Triangle Problem and the Routh Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2009-01-01

In this article, we give a brief history of the Feynman's Triangle problem and describe a simple method to solve a general version of this problem, which is called the Routh Theorem. This method could be found useful to school teachers, instructors or lecturers who are involved in teaching geometry.

7. A shape theorem for Riemannian first-passage percolation

LaGatta, T.; Wehr, J.

2010-05-01

Riemannian first-passage percolation is a continuum model, with a distance function arising from a random Riemannian metric in Rd. Our main result is a shape theorem for this model, which says that large balls under this metric converge to a deterministic shape under rescaling. As a consequence, we show that smooth random Riemannian metrics are geodesically complete with probability of 1.

8. Four Proofs of the Converse of the Chinese Remainder Theorem

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dobbs, D. E.

2008-01-01

Four proofs, designed for classroom use in varying levels of courses on abstract algebra, are given for the converse of the classical Chinese Remainder Theorem over the integers. In other words, it is proved that if m and n are integers greater than 1 such that the abelian groups [double-struck z][subscript m] [direct sum] [double-struck…

9. Two Theorems on Dissipative Energy Losses in Capacitor Systems

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Newburgh, Ronald

2005-01-01

This article examines energy losses in charge motion in two capacitor systems. In the first charge is transferred from a charged capacitor to an uncharged one through a resistor. In the second a battery charges an originally uncharged capacitor through a resistance. Analysis leads to two surprising general theorems. In the first case the fraction…

10. A Theorem and its Application to Finite Tampers

DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

Feynman, R. P.

1946-08-15

A theorem is derived which is useful in the analysis of neutron problems in which all neutrons have the same velocity. It is applied to determine extrapolated end-points, the asymptotic amplitude from a point source, and the neutron density at the surface of a medium. Formulas fro the effect of finite tampers are derived by its aid, and their accuracy discussed.

11. Fixed point theorems for generalized contractions in ordered metric spaces

2008-05-01

The purpose of this paper is to present some fixed point results for self-generalized contractions in ordered metric spaces. Our results generalize and extend some recent results of A.C.M. Ran, M.C. Reurings [A.C.M. Ran, MEC. Reurings, A fixed point theorem in partially ordered sets and some applications to matrix equations, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 132 (2004) 1435-1443], J.J. Nieto, R. Rodríguez-López [J.J. Nieto, R. Rodríguez-López, Contractive mapping theorems in partially ordered sets and applications to ordinary differential equations, Order 22 (2005) 223-239; J.J. Nieto, R. Rodríguez-López, Existence and uniqueness of fixed points in partially ordered sets and applications to ordinary differential equations, Acta Math. Sin. (Engl. Ser.) 23 (2007) 2205-2212], J.J. Nieto, R.L. Pouso, R. Rodríguez-López [J.J. Nieto, R.L. Pouso, R. Rodríguez-López, Fixed point theorem theorems in ordered abstract sets, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 135 (2007) 2505-2517], A. Petrusel, I.A. Rus [A. Petrusel, I.A. Rus, Fixed point theorems in ordered L-spaces, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 134 (2006) 411-418] and R.P. Agarwal, M.A. El-Gebeily, D. O'Regan [R.P. Agarwal, M.A. El-Gebeily, D. O'Regan, Generalized contractions in partially ordered metric spaces, Appl. Anal., in press]. As applications, existence and uniqueness results for Fredholm and Volterra type integral equations are given.

12. Two Familiar Theorems: Modified So Their Proofs Are Comprehensible to First Semester Calculus Students.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young, Anne Ludington

1996-01-01

Error estimates for tangent line approximations and for numerical integration are found using special cases of the error formulas for Taylor's Theorem and the Trapezoidal Rule, respectively. Proofs of these theorems rely on a modification of Rolle's Theorem. (Author/MKR)

13. A variational theorem for creep with applications to plates and columns

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sanders, J Lyell, Jr; Mccomb, Harvey G , Jr; Schlechte, Floyd R

1958-01-01

A variational theorem is presented for a body undergoing creep. Solutions to problems of the creep behavior of plates, columns, beams, and shells can be obtained by means of the direct methods of the calculus of variations in conjunction with the stated theorem. The application of the theorem is illustrated for plates and columns by the solution of two sample problems.

14. Limitations of a Research, Development and Diffusion (RD and D) Strategy in Diffusion: A Case Study of Nine Local Implementations of a State-Adopted Curriculum.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schumacher, Sally

This study of the first year of an inter-organizational diffusion effort by a national educational laboratory, a state department of education, and nine local school districts focuses on the implementation phase within the Research, Development and Diffusion (RD and D) strategy of an aesthetic education program which uses the arts as the…

15. On the logical structure of Bell theorems.

Walgate, Jonathan; Broadbent, Anne; Carteret, Hilary; Methot, Andre

2007-03-01

Some specific predictions of quantum mechanics are inconsistent with local realism, a phenomenon known as nonlocality. Despite overwhelming evidence for quantum mechanics, the practical difficulties of detector efficiency and coordinating space-like separated measurements have provided loopholes for a classical worldview. New experiments have been proposed to meet these challenges, based around a new kind of nonlocality proof called an `EPR Bell inequality''. Much investment is now being made to realize these proofs experimentally. We show all these proposals are fundamentally flawed. We focus on a series of designs that have appeared in PRL and PRA for loophole-free Bell experiments. These experiments use hyperentangled two-photon quantum states to generate experimental data supposedly at odds with local realism. We show how to produce identical results using a single coin, and explain where the logical flaw can be found. To understand our nonclassical world, we must understand precisely the experimental evidence for nonlocality. This tempting shortcut is a logical, theoretical and experimental dead end. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0512201.

16. Serre duality, Abel's theorem, and Jacobi inversion for supercurves over a thick superpoint

Rothstein, Mitchell J.; Rabin, Jeffrey M.

2015-04-01

The principal aim of this paper is to extend Abel's theorem to the setting of complex supermanifolds of dimension 1 | q over a finite-dimensional local supercommutative C-algebra. The theorem is proved by establishing a compatibility of Serre duality for the supercurve with Poincaré duality on the reduced curve. We include an elementary algebraic proof of the requisite form of Serre duality, closely based on the account of the reduced case given by Serre in Algebraic groups and class fields, combined with an invariance result for the topology on the dual of the space of répartitions. Our Abel map, taking Cartier divisors of degree zero to the dual of the space of sections of the Berezinian sheaf, modulo periods, is defined via Penkov's characterization of the Berezinian sheaf as the cohomology of the de Rham complex of the sheaf D of differential operators. We discuss the Jacobi inversion problem for the Abel map and give an example demonstrating that if n is an integer sufficiently large that the generic divisor of degree n is linearly equivalent to an effective divisor, this need not be the case for all divisors of degree n.

17. From Multileg Loops to Trees (by-passing Feynman's Tree Theorem)

SciTech Connect

Rodrigo, German; Catani, Stefano; Gleisberg, Tanju; Krauss, Frank; Winter, Jan-Christopher; /Fermilab

2011-10-14

We illustrate a duality relation between one-loop integrals and single-cut phase-space integrals. The duality relation is realised by a modification of the customary +i0 prescription of the Feynman propagators. The new prescription regularizing the propagators, which we write in a Lorentz covariant form, compensates for the absence of multiple-cut contributions that appear in the Feynman Tree Theorem. The duality relation can be extended to generic one-loop quantities, such as Green's functions, in any relativistic, local and unitary field theories. The physics program of LHC requires the evaluation of multi-leg signal and background processes at next-to-leading order (NLO). In the recent years, important efforts have been devoted to the calculation of many 2 {yields} 3 processes and some 2 {yields} 4 processes. We have recently proposed a method to compute multi-leg one-loop cross sections in perturbative field theories. The method uses combined analytical and numerical techniques. The starting point of the method is a duality relation between one-loop integrals and phase-space integrals. In this respect, the duality relation has analogies with the Feynman's Tree Theorem (FTT). The key difference with the FTT is that the duality relation involves only single cuts of the one-loop Feynman diagrams. In this talk, we illustrate the duality relation, and discuss its correspondence, similarities, and differences with the FTT.

18. On the notion of free will in the Free Will Theorem

Landsman, Klaas

2017-02-01

The (Strong) Free Will Theorem (FWT) of Conway and Kochen (2009) on the one hand follows from uncontroversial parts of modern physics and elementary mathematical and logical reasoning, but on the other hand seems predicated on an undefined notion of free will (allowing physicists to ;freely choose; the settings of their experiments). This makes the theorem philosophically vulnerable, especially if it is construed as a proof of indeterminism or even of libertarian free will (as Conway & Kochen suggest). However, Cator and Landsman (Foundations of Physics 44, 781-791, 2014) previously gave a reformulation of the FWT that does not presuppose indeterminism, but rather assumes a mathematically specific form of such ;free choices; even in a deterministic world (based on a non-probabilistic independence assumption). In the present paper, which is a philosophical sequel to the one just mentioned, I argue that the concept of free will used in the latter version of the FWT is essentially the one proposed by Lewis (1981), also known as 'local miracle compatibilism' (of which I give a mathematical interpretation that might be of some independent interest also beyond its application to the FWT). As such, the (reformulated) FWT in my view challenges compatibilist free will à la Lewis (albeit in a contrived way via bipartite EPR-type experiments), falling short of supporting libertarian free will.

19. Quantization of conductance minimum and index theorem

Ikegaya, Satoshi; Suzuki, Shu-Ichiro; Tanaka, Yukio; Asano, Yasuhiro

2016-08-01

We discuss the minimum value of the zero-bias differential conductance Gmin in a junction consisting of a normal metal and a nodal superconductor preserving time-reversal symmetry. Using the quasiclassical Green function method, we show that Gmin is quantized at (4 e2/h ) NZES in the limit of strong impurity scatterings in the normal metal at the zero temperature. The integer NZES represents the number of perfect transmission channels through the junction. An analysis of the chiral symmetry of the Hamiltonian indicates that NZES corresponds to the Atiyah-Singer index in mathematics.

20. The physical origins of the uncertainty theorem