Science.gov

Sample records for local retarded off-shell

  1. Off-shell amplitudes and Grassmannians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, L. V.; Onishchenko, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    The Grassmannian representation for gauge-invariant amplitudes for arbitrary number of legs with one of them being off-shell is derived for the case of N = 4 SYM. The obtained formula are successfully checked against known BCFW results for MHV n , NMHV4 and NMHV5 amplitudes.

  2. Off-shell Poincaré supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Daniel Z.; Roest, Diederik; Van Proeyen, Antoine

    2017-02-01

    We present the action and transformation rules of Poincaré supergravity coupled to chiral multiplets ( z α , χ α , h α ) with off-shell auxiliary fields. Starting from the geometric formulation of the superconformal theory with auxiliary fields, we derive the Poincaré counterpart by gauge-fixing the Weyl and chiral symmetry and S-supersymmetry. We show how this transition is facilitated by retaining explicit target-space covariance. Our results form a convenient starting point to study models with constrained superfields, including general matter-coupled de Sitter supergravity.

  3. Off-shell hydrodynamics from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, Michael; Glorioso, Paolo; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yifan

    2016-02-18

    In this article, we outline a program for obtaining an action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics by considering the holographic Wilsonian renormalization group applied to systems with a gravity dual. As a first step, in this paper we restrict to systems with a non-dissipative horizon. By integrating out gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk gravitational system between an asymptotic boundary and a horizon, we are led to a formulation of hydrodynamics where the dynamical variables are not standard velocity and temperature fields, but the relative embedding of the boundary and horizon hypersurfaces. At zeroth order, this action reduces to that proposed by Dubovsky et al. as an off-shell formulation of ideal fluid dynamics.

  4. Off-shell hydrodynamics from holography

    DOE PAGES

    Crossley, Michael; Glorioso, Paolo; Liu, Hong; ...

    2016-02-18

    In this article, we outline a program for obtaining an action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics by considering the holographic Wilsonian renormalization group applied to systems with a gravity dual. As a first step, in this paper we restrict to systems with a non-dissipative horizon. By integrating out gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk gravitational system between an asymptotic boundary and a horizon, we are led to a formulation of hydrodynamics where the dynamical variables are not standard velocity and temperature fields, but the relative embedding of the boundary and horizon hypersurfaces. At zeroth order, this action reduces tomore » that proposed by Dubovsky et al. as an off-shell formulation of ideal fluid dynamics.« less

  5. Off-shell two-loop QCD vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracey, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the triple gluon, ghost-gluon and quark-gluon vertex functions at two loops in the MS¯ scheme in the chiral limit for an arbitrary linear covariant gauge when the external legs are all off shell.

  6. Off-Shell Amplitudes for Nonoriented Closed Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappiello, Luigi; Marotta, Raffaele; Pettorino, Roberto; Pezzella, Franco

    In the context of the bosonic closed string theory, by using the operatorial formalism, we give a simple expression of the off-shell amplitude with an arbitrary number of external massless states inserted on the Klein bottle.

  7. On the Green-functions of the classical off-shell electrodynamics under the manifestly covariant relativistic dynamics of Stueckelberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonovich, I.; Horwitz, L. P.

    2011-08-01

    In previous papers derivations of the Green function have been given for 5D off-shell electrodynamics in the framework of the manifestly covariant relativistic dynamics of Stueckelberg (with invariant evolution parameter τ). In this paper, we reconcile these derivations resulting in different explicit forms, and relate our results to the conventional fundamental solutions of linear 5D wave equations published in the mathematical literature. We give physical arguments for the choice of the Green function retarded in the fifth variable τ.

  8. Off-shell massive N = 1 supermultiplets in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tsulaia, Mirian

    2017-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the construction of new off-shell higher spin N = 1 supermultiplets in three spacetime dimensions. We elaborate on the gauge prepotentials and linearised super-Cotton tensors for higher spin N = 1 superconformal geometry and propose compensating superfields required to formulate off-shell massless higher spin supermultiplets. The corresponding gauge-invariant actions are worked out explicitly using an auxiliary oscillator realisation. We construct, for the first time, off-shell massive higher spin supermultiplets. The gauge-invariant actions for these supermultiplets are obtained by adding Chern-Simons like mass terms (that is, higher spin extensions of the linearised action for N = 1 conformal supergravity) to the actions for the massless supermultiplets. For each of the massive gravitino and supergravity multiplets, we propose two dually equivalent formulations.

  9. Off-Shell Supersymmetry versus Hermiticity in Superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Berkovits, N.

    1996-09-01

    We point out that off-shell four-dimensional spacetime supersymmetry implies strange Hermiticity properties for the {ital N}=1 Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz superstring. However, these Hermiticity properties become natural when the {ital N}=1 superstring is embedded into an {ital N}=2 superstring. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Off-shell superconformal higher spin multiplets in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Manvelyan, Ruben; Theisen, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    We formulate off-shell N = 1 superconformal higher spin multiplets in four spacetime dimensions and briefly discuss their coupling to conformal supergravity. As an example, we explicitly work out the coupling of the superconformal gravitino multiplet to conformal supergravity. The corresponding action is super-Weyl invariant for arbitrary supergravity backgrounds. However, it is gauge invariant only if the supersymmetric Bach tensor vanishes. This is similar to linearised conformal supergravity in curved background.

  11. Off-shell covariantization of algebroid gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, Ursula; Heller, Marc Andre; Ikeda, Noriaki; Kaneko, Tomokazu; Watamura, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    We present a generalized method to construct field strengths and gauge symmetries that yield a Yang-Mills-type action with Lie n-algebroid gauge symmetry. The procedure makes use of off-shell covariantization in a supergeometric setting. We apply this method to the system of a 1-form gauge field and scalar fields with Lie n-algebroid gauge symmetry. We work out some characteristic examples.

  12. Sensitivity of nucleon-nucleus scattering to the off-shell behavior of on-shell equivalent {ital NN} potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, H.F.; Brieva, F.A.; Sander, M.; von Geramb, H.V. |

    1996-11-01

    The sensitivity of nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering to the off-shell behavior of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions is investigated when on-shell equivalent nucleon-nucleon potentials are used. The study is based on applications of the full-folding optical model potential for an explicit treatment of the off-shell behavior of the nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. Applications were made at beam energies between 40 and 500 MeV for proton scattering from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 208}Pb. We use the momentum-dependent Paris potential and its local on-shell equivalent as obtained with the Gelfand-Levitan and Marchenko inversion formalism for the two nucleon Schr{umlt o}dinger equation. Full-folding calculations for nucleon-nucleus scattering show moderate fluctuations in the corresponding observables. This sets narrow margins within which off-shell features of the nucleon-nucleon interaction can be resolved. Based on these results, inversion potentials were also constructed directly from phenomenological phase shifts (SM94). Their use in nucleon-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies provides an improved description of the data relative to those obtained from current realistic potential models. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Leading singularities and off-shell conformal integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, James; Duhr, Claude; Eden, Burkhard; Heslop, Paul; Pennington, Jeffrey; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2013-08-01

    The three-loop four-point function of stress-tensor multiplets in super Yang-Mills theory contains two so far unknown, off-shell, conformal integrals, in addition to the known, ladder-type integrals. In this paper we evaluate the unknown integrals, thus obtaining the three-loop correlation function analytically. The integrals have the generic structure of rational functions multiplied by (multiple) polylogarithms. We use the idea of leading singularities to obtain the rational coefficients, the symbol — with an appropriate ansatz for its structure — as a means of characterising multiple polylogarithms, and the technique of asymptotic expansion of Feynman integrals to obtain the integrals in certain limits. The limiting behaviour uniquely fixes the symbols of the integrals, which we then lift to find the corresponding polylogarithmic functions. The final formulae are numerically confirmed. The techniques we develop can be applied more generally, and we illustrate this by analytically evaluating one of the integrals contributing to the same four-point function at four loops. This example shows a connection between the leading singularities and the entries of the symbol.

  14. Leading singularities and off-shell conformal integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, James; Duhr, Claude; Eden, Burkhard; Heslop, Paul; Pennington, Jeffrey; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2013-08-29

    The three-loop four-point function of stress-tensor multiplets in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory contains two so far unknown, off-shell, conformal integrals, in addition to the known, ladder-type integrals. In our paper we evaluate the unknown integrals, thus obtaining the three-loop correlation function analytically. The integrals have the generic structure of rational functions multiplied by (multiple) polylogarithms. We use the idea of leading singularities to obtain the rational coefficients, the symbol — with an appropriate ansatz for its structure — as a means of characterising multiple polylogarithms, and the technique of asymptotic expansion of Feynman integrals to obtain the integrals in certain limits. The limiting behaviour uniquely fixes the symbols of the integrals, which we then lift to find the corresponding polylogarithmic functions. The final formulae are numerically confirmed. Furthermore, we develop techniques that can be applied more generally, and we illustrate this by analytically evaluating one of the integrals contributing to the same four-point function at four loops. This example shows a connection between the leading singularities and the entries of the symbol.

  15. All (4,0): Sigma models with (4,0) off-shell supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Chris; Lindström, Ulf

    2017-08-01

    Off-shell (4, 0) supermultiplets in 2-dimensions are formulated. These are used to construct sigma models whose target spaces are vector bundles over manifolds that are hyperkähler with torsion. The off-shell supersymmetry implies that the complex structures are simultaneously integrable and allows us to write actions using extended superspace and projective superspace, giving an explicit construction of the target space geometries.

  16. Boundary behaviors for general off-shell amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Chen, Gang

    2013-07-01

    The boundary behavior of amplitudes—the amplitudes’ behavior under a large Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) momenta deformation for a pair of legs—in Yang-Mills theory is of great interest recently. In this article we analyze the boundary behavior of off-shell Yang-Mills amplitudes in Feynman gauge. The deformed legs can be either adjacent or nonadjacent. We find that a set of reduced vertices can be used to simplify the analysis and calculation of the boundary behavior of amplitudes. Boundary behavior for amplitudes with adjacent BCFW deformation is read off from the reduced vertices. Then we discover a relationship between a permutation sum with fixed color ordering of the legs and the improved boundary behavior for the off-shell amplitudes with a nonadjacent BCFW momenta deformation. Based on the boundary behavior, we generalize the BCFW recursion relation to calculate general tree-level off-shell amplitudes and analyze the relations between them.

  17. Off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like interactions in all partial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, U.; Bhoi, J.

    2013-01-15

    By exploiting the theory of ordinary differential equations, with judicious use of boundary conditions, interacting Green's functions and their integral transforms together with certain properties of higher transcendental functions, useful analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for motion in Coulomb and Coulomb-nuclear potentials are derived in maximal reduced form through different approaches to the problem in the representation space. The exact analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials are believed to be useful for the description of the charged particle scattering/reaction processes.

  18. One-loop pentagon integral with one off-shell leg in 6 -2 ɛ dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail G.

    2017-02-01

    We apply the differential equations technique to the calculation of the one-loop massless diagram with one off-shell leg. Using a reduction to the ɛ -form, we managed to obtain a simple onefold integral representation exact in space-time dimensionality. Expansion of the obtained result in ɛ and an analytical continuation to the physical region are discussed.

  19. Off-shell amplitudes as boundary integrals of analytically continued Wilson line slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotko, P.; Serino, M.; Stasto, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    One of the methods to calculate tree-level multi-gluon scattering amplitudes is to use the Berends-Giele recursion relation involving off-shell currents or off-shell amplitudes, if working in the light cone gauge. As shown in recent works using the light-front perturbation theory, solutions to these recursions naturally collapse into gauge invariant and gauge-dependent components, at least for some helicity configurations. In this work, we show that such structure is helicity independent and emerges from analytic properties of matrix elements of Wilson line operators, where the slope of the straight gauge path is shifted in a certain complex direction. This is similar to the procedure leading to the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion, however we apply a complex shift to the Wilson line slope instead of the external momenta. While in the original BCFW procedure the boundary integrals over the complex shift vanish for certain deformations, here they are non-zero and are equal to the off-shell amplitudes. The main result can thus be summarized as follows: we derive a decomposition of a helicity-fixed off-shell current into gauge invariant component given by a matrix element of a straight Wilson line plus a reminder given by a sum of products of gauge invariant and gauge dependent quantities. We give several examples realizing this relation, including the five-point next-to-MHV helicity configuration.

  20. Off-shell invariant D = N = 2 twisted super Yang-Mills theory with a gauged central charge without constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Keisuke; Kato, Junji; Kawamoto, Noboru; Miyake, Akiko

    2013-11-01

    We formulate N=2 twisted super Yang-Mills theory with a gauged central charge by superconnection formalism in two dimensions. We obtain off-shell invariant supermultiplets and actions with and without constraints, which is in contrast with the off-shell invariant D=N=4 super Yang-Mills formulation with unavoidable constraints.

  1. Self-consistent approach to off-shell transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yu. B.; Knoll, J.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2003-10-01

    The properties of two forms of the gradient expanded Kadanoff-Baym equations, i.e., the Kadanoff-Baym and Botermans-Malfliet forms, suitable for describing the transport dynamics of particles and resonances with broad spectral widths, are discussed in context of conservation laws, the definition of a kinetic entropy, and the possibility of numerical realization. Recent results on exact conservations of charge and energy-momentum within Kadanoff-Baym form of quantum kinetics based on local coupling schemes are extended to two cases relevant in many applications. These concern the interaction via a finite-range potential and, relevant in nuclear and hadron physics, e.g., for the pion-nucleon interaction, the case of derivative coupling.

  2. Holomorphic Chern-Simons theory coupled to off-shell Kodaira-Spencer gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusto, Stefano; Imbimbo, Camillo; Rosa, Dario

    2012-10-01

    We construct an action for holomorphic Chern-Simons theory that couples the gauge field to off-shell gravitational backgrounds, comprising the complex structure and the (3,0)-form of the target space. Gauge invariance of the off-shell action is achieved by enlarging the field space to include an appropriate system of Lagrange multipliers, ghost and ghost-for-ghost fields. Both the BRST transformations and the BV action are compactly and neatly written in terms of superfields which include fields, backgrounds and their antifields. We show that the anti-holomorphic target space derivative can be written as a BRST-commutator on a functional space containing the anti-fields of both the dynamical fields and the gravitational backgrounds. We derive from this result a Ward identity that determines the anti-holomorphic dependence of physical correlators.

  3. Off-shell spinor-helicity amplitudes from light-cone deformation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry

    2016-12-01

    We study the consistency conditions for interactions of massless fields of any spin in four-dimensional flat space using the light-cone approach. We show that they can be equivalently rewritten as the Ward identities for the off-shell light-cone amplitudes built from the light-cone Hamiltonian in the standard way. Then we find a general solution of these Ward identities. The solution admits a compact representation when written in the spinor-helicity form and is given by an arbitrary function of spinor products, satisfying wellknown homogeneity constraints. Thus, we show that the light-cone consistent deformation procedure inevitably leads to a certain off-shell version of the spinor-helicity approach. We discuss how the relation between the two approaches can be employed to facilitate the search of consistent interaction of massless higher-spin fields.

  4. Off-shell higher spin N =2 supermultiplets in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Ogburn, Daniel X.

    2016-11-01

    Off-shell higher spin N =2 supermultiplets in three spacetime dimensions (3D) are presented in this paper. We propose gauge prepotentials for higher spin superconformal gravity and construct the corresponding gauge-invariant field strengths, which are proved to be conformal primary superfields. These field strengths are higher spin generalizations of the (linearized) N =2 super-Cotton tensor, which controls the superspace geometry of conformal supergravity. We also construct the higher spin extensions of the linearized N =2 conformal supergravity action. We provide two dually equivalent off-shell formulations for massless higher spin N =2 supermultiplets. They involve one and the same superconformal prepotential but differ in the compensators used. For the lowest superspin value 3 /2 , these higher spin series terminate at the linearized actions for the (1,1) minimal and w =-1 nonminimal N =2 Poincaré supergravity theories constructed in S. M. Kuzenko and G. Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, arXiv:1109.0496. Similar to the pure 3D supergravity actions, their higher spin counterparts propagate no degrees of freedom. However, the massless higher spin supermultiplets are used to construct off-shell massive N =2 supermultiplets by combining the massless actions with those describing higher spin extensions of the linearized N =2 conformal supergravity. We also demonstrate that every higher spin super-Cotton tensor can be represented as a linear superposition of the equations of motion for the corresponding massless higher spin supermultiplet, with the coefficients being higher-derivative linear operators.

  5. Off-shell and nonlocal effects in proton-nucleus elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.; Wolfe, D. H.

    1984-04-01

    The influence of off-shell and nonlocal effects in the first-order nonrelativistic microscopic optical potential is investigated for elastic proton scattering above 100 MeV. With the free nucleon-nucleon t matrix taken from the model of Love and Franey, these effects are significant only for scattering angles greater than about 60° and energies below about 300 MeV. The inadequacy of the standard first-order theory for predictions of spin observables at forward scattering angles remains unchanged when these effects are included and the need for higher order processes including medium and relativistic effects is reinforced.

  6. Normalization of off-shell boundary state, g-function and zeta function regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoyama, H.; Oota, T.

    2002-11-01

    We consider the model in two dimensions with boundary quadratic deformation (BQD), which has been discussed in tachyon condensation. The partition function of this model (BQD) on a cylinder is determined using the method of zeta function regularization. We show that, for closed channel partition function, a subtraction procedure must be introduced in order to reproduce the correct results at conformal points. The boundary entropy (g-function) is determined from the partition function and the off-shell boundary state. We propose and consider a supersymmetric generalization of the BQD model, which includes a boundary fermion mass term, and check the validity of the subtraction procedure.

  7. A Coulomb-Like Off-Shell T-Matrix with the Correct Coulomb Phase Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oryu, Shinsho; Watanabe, Takashi; Hiratsuka, Yasuhisa; Togawa, Yoshio

    2017-03-01

    We confirm the reliability of the well-known Coulomb renormalization method (CRM). It is found that the CRM is only available for a very-long-range screened Coulomb potential (SCP). However, such an SCP calculation in momentum space is considerably difficult because of the cancelation of significant digits. In contrast to the CRM, we propose a new method by using an on-shell equivalent SCP and the rest term. The two-potential theory with r-space is introduced, which defines fully the off-shell Coulomb amplitude.

  8. Off-shell behavior of relativistic NN effective interactions and charge symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersten, A.; Thomas, A. W.; Weyrauch, M.

    1990-04-01

    We examine in detail the suggestion of Iqbal et al. for calculating the class-four charge symmetry breaking amplitude in n-p scattering. By simplifying to a model problem, we show explicitly that the approximation scheme is unreliable if a phenomenological, effective nucleon-nucleon T matrix is used. Our results have wider implications for observables calculated in relativistic impulse approximation calculations. They reinforce the observation made in the literature that the procedure of fitting only positive energy matrix elements can lead to an NN interaction whose off-shell behavior is incorrect.

  9. "Project lifestyle" and new forms of living for the mentally retarded in the local community.

    PubMed

    Holm, P

    1993-09-01

    Since 1890, representatives of the Ministries and Departments of Social Security in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland and Denmark have been working to create a foundation and a framework for a common Scandinavian research and development project concerning the quality of life of the mentally retarded. In 1992, with financial support from The Nordic Council of Ministers, the exchange of information and the building up of a network was begun, involving those taking part in some 50 development projects in Scandinavian countries. The project has focussed on three themes central to efforts made on behalf of and with the cooperation of mentally retarded people in these countries: the mentally handicapped person in the local community, independence and the quality of life, and communication. The aim of the project is to establish a Scandinavian network of key persons in the field, to systematize and propagate promising developments and to cast light on differences and similarities between various Scandinavian models for research and development related to the mentally retarded.

  10. Off-shell dark matter: A cosmological relic of quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravani, Mehdi; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2017-02-01

    We study a novel proposal for the origin of cosmological cold dark matter (CDM) which is rooted in the quantum nature of spacetime. In this model, off-shell modes of quantum fields can exist in asymptotic states as a result of spacetime nonlocality (expected in generic theories of quantum gravity) and play the role of CDM, which we dub off-shell dark matter (O f DM ). However, their rate of production is suppressed by the scale of nonlocality (e.g. Planck length). As a result, we show that O f DM is only produced in the first moments of big bang, and then effectively decouples (except through its gravitational interactions). We examine the observational predictions of this model: In the context of cosmic inflation, we show that this proposal relates the reheating temperature to the inflaton mass, which narrows down the uncertainty in the number of e -foldings of specific inflationary scenarios. We also demonstrate that O f DM is indeed cold, and discuss potentially observable signatures on small scale matter power spectrum.

  11. Bordered surfaces, off-shell amplitudes, sewing, and string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlip, Steven

    1989-04-01

    These lectures will deal with the current status of the sewing problem. The rationale for this approach is that any nonperturbative string theory must reproduce the Polyakov path integral as a perturbation series. If our experience in ordinary field theory is a guide, and admittedly it may not be, the terms in such a perturbation series, like Feynman diagrams, are likely to be built up from simple vertices and propagators, which can themselves be represented as (off-shell) Polyakov amplitudes. Hence an understanding of how to put together simple components into more complicated world sheet amplitudes is likely to give us much-needed information about the structure of nonperturbative string theory. To understand sewing, we must first understand the building blocks, off-shell Polyakov amplitudes. This is the subject of my first lecture. Next, we will explore the sewing of conformal field theories at a fixed conformal structure, that is, the reconstruction of correlation functions for a fixed surface (Sigma) from those on a pair of surfaces (Sigma)(sub 1) and (Sigma)(sub 2) obtained by cutting (Sigma) along a closed curve. We will then look at the problem of sewing amplitudes, integrals of correlation functions over moduli space. This will necessitate an understanding of how to build the moduli space of a complicated surface from simpler moduli spaces. Finally, we will briefly examine vertices and string field theories.

  12. Bordered surfaces, off-shell amplitudes, sewing, and string field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Carlip, S.

    1989-04-01

    These lectures will deal with the current status of the sewing problem. The rationale for this approach is that any nonperturbative string theory must reproduce the Polyakov path integral as a perturbation series. If our experience in ordinary field theory is a guide --- and admittedly it may not be --- the terms in such a perturbation series, like Feynman diagrams, are likely to be built up from simple ''vertices'' and ''propagators,'' which can themselves be represented as (off-shell) Polyakov amplitudes. Hence an understanding of how to put together simple components into more complicated world sheet amplitudes is likely to give us much-needed information about the structure of nonperturbative string theory. To understand sewing, we must first understand the building blocks, off-shell Polyakov amplitudes. This is the subject of my first lecture. Next, we will explore the sewing of conformal field theories at a fixed conformal structure, that is, the reconstruction of correlation functions for a fixed surface /Sigma/ from those on a pair of surfaces /Sigma//sub 1/ and /Sigma//sub 2/ obtained by cutting /Sigma/ along a closed curve. We will then look at the problem of sewing amplitudes, integrals of correlation functions over moduli space. This will necessitate an understanding of how to build the moduli space of a complicated surface from simpler moduli spaces. Finally, we will briefly examine vertices and string field theories. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  13. X-linked mental retardation with heterozygous expression and macrocephaly: Pericentromeric gene localization

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, G.; Gedeon, A. |; Mulley, J.

    1994-07-15

    A family is described with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) with affected males in 2 generations. The manifestations are macrocephaly and heterozygous expression. Linkage analysis gives a 2-point lod score of 3.31 ({theta} = 0.0) at the AR, DXS991, and MAOB marker loci. The gene is localized by recombination events between DXS1068 (Xp) and DXS1125 (Xq). This condition in this family may be similar to that described by Atkin et al., 1985. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Off-shell single-top production at NLO matched to parton showers

    SciTech Connect

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papanastasiou, A. S.; Prestel, S.; Torrielli, P.

    2016-06-06

    We study the hadroproduction of a Wb pair in association with a light jet, focusing on the dominant t-channel contribution and including exactly at the matrix-element level all non-resonant and off-shell effects induced by the finite top-quark width. Our simulations are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, and are matched to the Herwig6 and Pythia8 parton showers through the MC@NLO method. We present phenomenological results relevant to the 8 TeV LHC, and carry out a thorough comparison to the case of on-shell t-channel single-top production. Furthermore, we formulate our approach so that it can be applied to the general case of matrix elements that feature coloured intermediate resonances and are matched to parton showers.

  15. Higher gauge theories from Lie n-algebras and off-shell covariantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, Ursula; Heller, Marc Andre; Ikeda, Noriaki; Kaneko, Yukio; Watamura, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    We analyze higher gauge theories in various dimensions using a supergeometric method based on a differential graded symplectic manifold, called a QP-manifold, which is closely related to the BRST-BV formalism in gauge theories. Extensions of the Lie 2-algebra gauge structure are formulated within the Lie n-algebra induced by the QP-structure. We find that in 5 and 6 dimensions there are special extensions of the gauge algebra. In these cases, a restriction of the gauge symmetry by imposing constraints on the auxiliary gauge fields leads to a covariantized theory. As an example we show that we can obtain an off-shell covariantized higher gauge theory in 5 dimensions, which is similar to the one proposed in [1].

  16. Off-shell single-top production at NLO matched to parton showers

    DOE PAGES

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papanastasiou, A. S.; ...

    2016-06-06

    We study the hadroproduction of a Wb pair in association with a light jet, focusing on the dominant t-channel contribution and including exactly at the matrix-element level all non-resonant and off-shell effects induced by the finite top-quark width. Our simulations are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, and are matched to the Herwig6 and Pythia8 parton showers through the MC@NLO method. We present phenomenological results relevant to the 8 TeV LHC, and carry out a thorough comparison to the case of on-shell t-channel single-top production. Furthermore, we formulate our approach so that it can be applied to the generalmore » case of matrix elements that feature coloured intermediate resonances and are matched to parton showers.« less

  17. Off-Shell Green Functions: One-Loop with Growing Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.; Delbourgo, R.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2008-07-02

    One loop calculations in gauge theories in arbitrary gauge and dimensions become exceedingly hard with growing number of external off-shell legs. Let alone higher point functions, such a calculation for even the three point one-loop vertices for quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been made available only recently. In this article, we discuss how Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identities (WFGTI) may provide a helpful tool in these computations. After providing a glimpse of our suggestion for the case of the 3-point vertex, we present our preliminary findings towards our similar efforts for the 4-point function. We restrict ourselves to the example of scalar quantum electrodynamics (SQED)

  18. Form factor of the B meson off-shell for the vertex B{sub s}*BK

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, A. Jr.; Bracco, M. E.

    2010-11-12

    In this work we evaluate the coupling constant and the form factor for the vertex B{sub s}*BK using the QCD Sum Rules. In this case we consider the B meson off shell. The only theoretical evaluation for the coupling constant was made using the Heavy Hadron Chiral Perturbation Theory (HHChPT) and we made comparison with this result.

  19. Nuclear Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein is localized to Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Dury, Alain Y; El Fatimy, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Rose, Timothy M; Côté, Jocelyn; De Koninck, Paul; Khandjian, Edouard W

    2013-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by loss of function of a single gene encoding the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). This RNA-binding protein, widely expressed in mammalian tissues, is particularly abundant in neurons and is a component of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes present within the translational apparatus. The absence of FMRP in neurons is believed to cause translation dysregulation and defects in mRNA transport essential for local protein synthesis and for synaptic development and maturation. A prevalent model posits that FMRP is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that transports its mRNA targets from the nucleus to the translation machinery. However, it is not known which of the multiple FMRP isoforms, resulting from the numerous alternatively spliced FMR1 transcripts variants, would be involved in such a process. Using a new generation of anti-FMRP antibodies and recombinant expression, we show here that the most commonly expressed human FMRP isoforms (ISO1 and 7) do not localize to the nucleus. Instead, specific FMRP isoforms 6 and 12 (ISO6 and 12), containing a novel C-terminal domain, were the only isoforms that localized to the nuclei in cultured human cells. These isoforms localized to specific p80-coilin and SMN positive structures that were identified as Cajal bodies. The Cajal body localization signal was confined to a 17 amino acid stretch in the C-terminus of human ISO6 and is lacking in a mouse Iso6 variant. As FMRP is an RNA-binding protein, its presence in Cajal bodies suggests additional functions in nuclear post-transcriptional RNA metabolism. Supporting this hypothesis, a missense mutation (I304N), known to alter the KH2-mediated RNA binding properties of FMRP, abolishes the localization of human FMRP ISO6 to Cajal bodies. These findings open unexplored avenues in search for new insights into the pathophysiology of Fragile X Syndrome.

  20. Plasmonic phase transition and phase retardation: essential optical characteristics of localized surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Wei-Ting

    2013-09-01

    Phase transition that occurs around the spectral position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has various applications for light manipulation and refractive index sensing. Previous studies focused on phase responses of specific plasmonic structures, whereas the general theoretical analysis remains inadequate. In this study, we analytically modeled the phase spectra and the intensity spectra of silver nanodots with temporal coupled-mode theory. The phase transition occurs at the transmission dip, whereas the phase of reflection varies much more gradually. We further derived the equation for the slope of the phase at the transmission dip, which is a function of the rates of Ohmic dissipation and emission. The theoretical analysis is also applicable for wide varieties of LSPR systems and provides an intuitive physical mechanism for phase properties. Then, based on the fundamental discussion, we further investigated plasmonic phase retardation in anisotropic nanodots for the application of boosting the figure of merit (FOM) of refractive index sensing. The anisotropic nanodots induce plasmonic phase transitions, which spectrally split, for transmission waves polarized along the symmetric axes. Thus, anisotropy induces relative phase retardation in the narrow spectral region between the wavelengths of the LSPRs. We numerically manipulated the full width at half maximum of the ellipsometric spectra by adjusting the aspect ratio of the nanodots and observed an FOM of 24.3. In addition, experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this arrangement.Phase transition that occurs around the spectral position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has various applications for light manipulation and refractive index sensing. Previous studies focused on phase responses of specific plasmonic structures, whereas the general theoretical analysis remains inadequate. In this study, we analytically modeled the phase spectra and the intensity spectra of

  1. General N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Supervariable approach to its off-shell nilpotent symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R.P.

    2014-12-15

    Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and θ-bar with θ{sup 2}=(θ-bar){sup 2}=0,θ(θ-bar)+(θ-bar)θ=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: • A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. • General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. • The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. • SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. • Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided.

  2. A Lorentz covariant holoraumy-induced "gadget" from minimal off-shell 4D, N=1 supermultiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. James; Grover, Tyler; Miller-Dickson, Miles David; Mondal, Benedict A.; Oskoui, Amir; Regmi, Shirash; Ross, Ethan; Shetty, Rajath

    2015-11-01

    Starting from three minimal off-shell 4D, N=1 supermultiplets, using constructions solely defined within the confines of the four dimensional field theory we show the existence of a "gadget" — a member of a class of metrics on the representation space of the supermultiplets — whose values directly and completely correspond to the values of a metric defined on the 1d, N = 4 adinkra networks adjacency matrices corresponding to the projections of the four dimensional supermultiplets.

  3. Higgs production in association with off-shell top-antitop pairs at NLO EW and QCD at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, Ansgar; Lang, Jean-Nicolas; Pellen, Mathieu; Uccirati, Sandro

    2017-02-01

    We present NLO electroweak corrections to Higgs production in association with off-shell top-antitop quark pairs. The full process ppto {e}+{ν}e{μ}-{overline{ν}}_{μ}boverline{b}H is considered, and hence all interference, off-shell, and non-resonant contributions are taken into account. The electroweak corrections turn out to be below one per cent for the integrated cross section but can exceed 10% in certain phase-space regions. In addition to its phenomenological relevance, the computation constitutes a major technical achievement as the full NLO virtual corrections involving up to 9-point functions have been computed exactly. The results of the full computation are supported by two calculations in the double-pole approximation. These also allow to infer the effect of off-shell contributions and emphasise their importance especially for the run II of the LHC. Finally, we present combined predictions featuring both NLO electroweak and QCD corrections in a common set-up that will help the experimental collaborations in their quest of precisely measuring the aforementioned process.

  4. The Stage- and Cell Type-Specific Localization of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Rat Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Tarumi, Wataru; Itoh, Masanori T; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2015-12-01

    Premutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are associated with increased risk of primary ovarian insufficiency. Here we examined the localization of the Fmr1 gene protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), in rat ovaries at different stages, including fetus, neonate, and old age. In ovaries dissected from 19 days postcoitum embryos, the germ cells were divided into 2 types: one with decondensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP positive in the cytoplasm, but the other with strongly condensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP negative in the cytoplasm. The FMRP was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm of oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. Levels of FMRP in oocytes from elderly (9 or 14 months of age) ovaries were lower than in those from younger ovaries. These results suggest that FMRP is associated with the activation of oogenesis and oocyte function. Especially, FMRP is likely to be implicated in germline development during oogenesis.

  5. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2015-07-17

    The measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the \\(2m_Z\\) and \\(2m_W\\) thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the \\(ZZ \\rightarrow 4\\ell \\), \\(ZZ\\rightarrow 2\\ell 2\

  6. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.

    2015-07-17

    The measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the \\(2m_Z\\) and \\(2m_W\\) thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the \\(ZZ \\rightarrow 4\\ell \\), \\(ZZ\\rightarrow 2\\ell 2\

  7. Retardations in fault creep rates before local moderate earthquakes along the San Andreas fault system, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burford, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Records of shallow aseismic slip (fault creep) obtained along parts of the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in central California demonstrate that significant changes in creep rates often have been associated with local moderate earthquakes. An immediate postearthquake increase followed by gradual, long-term decay back to a previous background rate is generally the most obvious earthquake effect on fault creep. This phenomenon, identified as aseismic afterslip, usually is characterized by above-average creep rates for several months to a few years. In several cases, minor step-like movements, called coseismic slip events, have occurred at or near the times of mainshocks. One extreme case of coseismic slip, recorded at Cienega Winery on the San Andreas fault 17.5 km southeast of San Juan Bautista, consisted of 11 mm of sudden displacement coincident with earthquakes of ML=5.3 and ML=5.2 that occurred 2.5 minutes apart on 9 April 1961. At least one of these shocks originated on the main fault beneath the winery. Creep activity subsequently stopped at the winery for 19 months, then gradually returned to a nearly steady rate slightly below the previous long-term average. The phenomena mentioned above can be explained in terms of simple models consisting of relatively weak material along shallow reaches of the fault responding to changes in load imposed by sudden slip within the underlying seismogenic zone. In addition to coseismic slip and afterslip phenomena, however, pre-earthquake retardations in creep rates also have been observed. Onsets of significant, persistent decreases in creep rates have occurred at several sites 12 months or more before the times of moderate earthquakes. A 44-month retardation before the 1979 ML=5.9 Coyote Lake earthquake on the Calaveras fault was recorded at the Shore Road creepmeter site 10 km northwest of Hollister. Creep retardation on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista has been evident in records from one creepmeter site for

  8. Zfrp8 forms a complex with fragile-X mental retardation protein and regulates its localization and function.

    PubMed

    Tan, William; Schauder, Curtis; Naryshkina, Tatyana; Minakhina, Svetlana; Steward, Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Fragile-X syndrome is the most commonly inherited cause of autism and mental disabilities. The Fmr1 (Fragile-X Mental Retardation 1) gene is essential in humans and Drosophila for the maintenance of neural stem cells, and Fmr1 loss results in neurological and reproductive developmental defects in humans and flies. FMRP (Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, involved in mRNA silencing and translational repression. Both Zfrp8 and Fmr1 have essential functions in the Drosophila ovary. In this study, we identified FMRP, Nufip (Nuclear Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein-interacting Protein) and Tral (Trailer Hitch) as components of a Zfrp8 protein complex. We show that Zfrp8 is required in the nucleus, and controls localization of FMRP in the cytoplasm. In addition, we demonstrate that Zfrp8 genetically interacts with Fmr1 and tral in an antagonistic manner. Zfrp8 and FMRP both control heterochromatin packaging, also in opposite ways. We propose that Zfrp8 functions as a chaperone, controlling protein complexes involved in RNA processing in the nucleus.

  9. NLO QCD+EW predictions for V + jets including off-shell vector-boson decays and multijet merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, S.; Lindert, J. M.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.; Schönherr, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present next-to-leading order (NLO) predictions including QCD and electroweak (EW) corrections for the production and decay of off-shell electroweak vector bosons in association with up to two jets at the 13 TeV LHC. All possible dilepton final states with zero, one or two charged leptons that can arise from off-shell W and Z bosons or photons are considered. All predictions are obtained using the automated implementation of NLO QCD+EW corrections in the O penLoops matrix-element generator combined with the Munich and Sherpa Monte Carlo frameworks. Electroweak corrections play an especially important role in the context of BSM searches, due to the presence of large EW Sudakov logarithms at the TeV scale. In this kinematic regime, important observables such as the jet transverse momentum or the total transverse energy are strongly sensitive to multijet emissions. As a result, fixed-order NLO QCD+EW predictions are plagued by huge QCD corrections and poor theoretical precision. To remedy this problem we present an approximate method that allows for a simple and reliable implementation of NLO EW corrections in the MePs@Nlo multijet merging framework. Using this general approach we present an inclusive simulation of vector-boson production in association with jets that guarantees NLO QCD+EW accuracy in all phase-space regions involving up to two resolved jets.

  10. Similarity and differences between the radion and Higgs boson production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Boos, E. E.; Keizerov, S. I.; Rahmetov, E. R.; Svirina, K. S.

    2015-12-15

    The radion is a scalar particle that occurs in brane world models and interacts with the trace of the energy–momentum tensor of the Standard Model (SM). The radion–SM fermion interaction Lagrangian differs from the Higgs boson–fermion interaction Lagrangian for off-shell fermions. It is shown that all additional, as compared to the Higgs boson, contributions to the amplitudes of radion production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions are canceled out for both massless and massive fermions. Thus, additional terms in the interaction Lagrangian do not change properties of these processes for the radion and the Higgs boson, except for the general normalization factors. This similarity is a consequence of gauge invariance for the processes with production of gauge bosons. When an additional scalar particle is produced, there are no apparent reasons for the above cancellation, as confirmed, for example, by the process with production of two scalar particles, which features an additional contribution of the radion in comparison with the Higgs boson.

  11. Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Jet with Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Off-Shell Effects at the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, G; Hartanto, H B; Kraus, M; Worek, M

    2016-02-05

    We present a complete description of top quark pair production in association with a jet in the dilepton channel. Our calculation is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD and includes all nonresonant diagrams, interferences, and off-shell effects of the top quark. Moreover, nonresonant and off-shell effects due to the finite W gauge boson width are taken into account. This calculation constitutes the first fully realistic NLO computation for top quark pair production with a final state jet in hadronic collisions. Numerical results for differential distributions as well as total cross sections are presented for the Large Hadron Collider at 8 TeV. With our inclusive cuts, NLO predictions reduce the unphysical scale dependence by more than a factor of 3 and lower the total rate by about 13% compared to leading-order QCD predictions. In addition, the size of the top quark off-shell effects is estimated to be below 2%.

  12. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han-Hsuan; Cline, Hollis T

    2016-07-06

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual conditioning

  13. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual

  14. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  15. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    DOE PAGES

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  16. Subcellular fractionation and localization studies reveal a direct interaction of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) with nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed S; Nouri, Kazem; Milroy, Lech G; Moll, Jens M; Herrmann, Christian; Brunsveld, Luc; Piekorz, Roland P; Ahmadian, Mohammad R

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is a well-known regulator of local translation of its mRNA targets in neurons. However, despite its ubiquitous expression, the role of FMRP remains ill-defined in other cell types. In this study we investigated the subcellular distribution of FMRP and its protein complexes in HeLa cells using confocal imaging as well as detergent-free fractionation and size exclusion protocols. We found FMRP localized exclusively to solid compartments, including cytosolic heavy and light membranes, mitochondria, nuclear membrane and nucleoli. Interestingly, FMRP was associated with nucleolin in both a high molecular weight ribosomal and translation-associated complex (≥6 MDa) in the cytosol, and a low molecular weight complex (∼200 kDa) in the nucleoli. Consistently, we identified two functional nucleolar localization signals (NoLSs) in FMRP that are responsible for a strong nucleolar colocalization of the C-terminus of FMRP with nucleolin, and a direct interaction of the N-terminus of FMRP with the arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) domain of nucleolin. Taken together, we propose a novel mechanism by which a transient nucleolar localization of FMRP underlies a strong nucleocytoplasmic translocation, most likely in a complex with nucleolin and possibly ribosomes, in order to regulate translation of its target mRNAs.

  17. Further linkage evidence for localization of mutational sites for nonsyndromic types of X-linked mental retardation at pericentromeric region

    SciTech Connect

    Robledo, R.; Melis, P.; Siniscalco, M.

    1996-07-12

    We used several microsatellite markers scattered along the X chromosome to search for linkage relationships in a large Sardinian pedigree segregating for nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX). Markers DXS573 and AR, located at chromosomal subregions Xp11.4-p11.22 and Xq11.2-q12, respectively, were found to segregate in full concordance with the disease, leading to a LOD score of 4.21 at zero recombination value. Recombination with the disease was found with markers MAOB and DXS454 located at Xp11.4-p11.3 and Xq21.1-q22, respectively; accordingly, markers distal to Xp11.4 and Xq22 also segregated independently of the disease. These findings provide strong linkage evidence in favor of the localization of one MRX mutational site in the pericentromeric region of the human X chromosome, justifying the assignment of a new symbol (MRX26) to our pedigree. Finally, on the basis of the recombinational events observed in the Xq21-q22 region, we have been able to refine the assignment of marker DXS456 to Xq21.33-q22. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Optically active N-acetyldopamine dimer of the crude drug "Zentai," the cast-off shell of the Cicada, Cryptotympana sp.

    PubMed

    Noda, N; Kubota, S; Miyata, Y; Miyahara, K

    2000-11-01

    Two optically active N-acetyldopamine dimers together with four phenolic monomers were isolated from the crude drug "Zentai," a cast-off shell of the cicada of Cryptotympana sp. (Cicadidae). The former two were 2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,4-benzodioxane derivatives carrying substituents at the 3 and 6 (or 7) positions, which are known to be components of sclerotized insect cuticles. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined on the basis of NMR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic data.

  19. Regional localization of an X-linked mental retardation gene to Xp21.1-Xp22.13 (MRX38)

    SciTech Connect

    Schutz, C.K.; Robinson, P.D.; White, B.N.

    1996-07-12

    A gene responsible for X-linked mental retardation with macrocephaly and seizures (MRX38) in a family with five affected males in three generations was localized to Xp21.1-p22.13 by linkage analysis. Recombination events placed the gene between DXS1226 distally and DXS1238 proximally, defining an interval of approximately 14 cM. A peak lod score of 2.71 was found with several loci in Xp21.1 (DXS992, DXS1236, DXS997, and DXS1036) at a recombination fraction of zero. The map intervals of 5 X-linked mental retardation loci, MRX2 (Xp22.1-p22.2), MRX19 (Xp22), MRX21 (Xp21.1-p22.3), MRX29 (Xp21.2-p22.1), and MRX32 (Xp21.2-p22.1), and two syndromal mental retardation loci, Partington syndrome (PRTS; Xp22) and Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS; Xp22.13-p22.2), overlap this region. As none of these display the same phenotype seen in the family reported here, this X-linked mental retardation locus may represent a new entity. 35 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Localization of MRX82: a new nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation locus to Xq24-q25 in a Basque family.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Garay, Isabel; Oltra, Silvestre; Moltó, María Dolores; Orellana, Carmen; Monfort, Sandra; Prieto, Félix; Tejada, Isabel

    2004-12-01

    Clinical and molecular studies are reported on a Basque family (MRX82) with nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in five affected males. A total of 38 microsatellite markers were typed. The XLMR locus has been linked to DXS8067, DXS1001, DXS425, DXS7877, and DXS1183 with a maximum LOD score of 2.4. The haplotype studies and multipoint linkage analysis suggest a localization of the MRX82 locus to an interval of 7.6 Mb defined by markers DXS6805 and DXS7346, in Xq24 and Xq25, respectively. No gene contained in this interval has been so far associated with nonsyndromic mental retardation, except for GRIA3, disrupted by a balanced translocation in a female patient with bipolar affective disorder and mental retardation. However, the search for mutations of this gene did not showed a pathogenic mutation in the present family. Given that there are other eight MRX families overlapping this interval, none of them with known mutation, we conclude that at least one new gene responsible for nonsyndromic mental retardation is located in this region.

  1. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Piqueras, D Álvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutouil, S; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Cano Bret, M; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelli, A; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Catastini, P; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerio, B C; Cerny, K; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chang, P; Chapleau, B; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chau, C C; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, L; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choi, K; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christodoulou, V; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Chuinard, A J; Chwastowski, J J; Chytka, L; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Cioara, I A; Ciocio, A; Citron, Z H; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, B L; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Cleland, W; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coffey, L; Cogan, J G; Cole, B; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Compostella, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Connell, S H; Connelly, I A; Consonni, S M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Côté, D; Cottin, G; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Cree, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Cribbs, W A; Crispin Ortuzar, M; Cristinziani, M; Croft, V; Crosetti, G; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Cuthbert, C; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J Da; Via, C Da; Dabrowski, W; Dafinca, A; Dai, T; Dale, O; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Dandoy, J R; Daniells, A C; Danninger, M; Dano Hoffmann, M; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J; Dattagupta, A; Davey, W; David, C; Davidek, T; Davies, E; Davies, M; Davison, P; Davygora, Y; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Nooij, L; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dedovich, D V; Deigaard, I; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delgove, D; Deliot, F; Delitzsch, C M; Deliyergiyev, M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Dell'Orso, M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; DeMarco, D A; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demilly, A; Denisov, S P; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deterre, C; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Mattia, A; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Di Valentino, D; Diaconu, C; Diamond, M; Dias, F A; Diaz, M A; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Diglio, S; Dimitrievska, A; Dingfelder, J; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Djuvsland, J I; do Vale, M A B; Dobos, D; Dobre, M; Doglioni, C; Dohmae, T; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dolgoshein, B A; Donadelli, M; Donati, S; Dondero, P; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Doyle, A T; Drechsler, E; Dris, M; Dubreuil, E; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Ducu, O A; Duda, D; Dudarev, A; Duflot, L; Duguid, L; Dührssen, M; Dunford, M; Duran Yildiz, H; Düren, M; Durglishvili, A; Duschinger, D; Dwuznik, M; Dyndal, M; Eckardt, C; Ecker, K M; Edson, W; Edwards, N C; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Ekelof, T; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Elliot, A A; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Enari, Y; Endner, O C; Endo, M; Engelmann, R; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Ernis, G; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Esposito, B; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evans, H; Ezhilov, A; Fabbri, L; Facini, G; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Falla, R J; Faltova, J; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Favareto, A; Fayard, L; Federic, P; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; Feigl, S; Feligioni, L; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Feng, H; Fenyuk, A B; Martinez, P Fernandez; Fernandez Perez, S; Ferrag, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira de Lima, D E; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Ferretti, C; Ferretto Parodi, A; Fiascaris, M; Fiedler, F; Filipčič, A; Filipuzzi, M; Filthaut, F; Fincke-Keeler, M; Finelli, K D; Fiolhais, M C N; Fiorini, L; Firan, A; Fischer, A; Fischer, C; Fischer, J; Fisher, W C; Fitzgerald, E A; Flechl, M; Fleck, I; Fleischmann, P; Fleischmann, S; Fletcher, G T; Fletcher, G; Flick, T; Floderus, A; Flores Castillo, L R; Flowerdew, M J; Formica, A; Forti, A; Fournier, D; Fox, H; Fracchia, S; Francavilla, P; Franchini, M; Francis, D; Franconi, L; Franklin, M; Fraternali, M; Freeborn, D; French, S T; Friedrich, F; Froidevaux, D; Frost, J A; Fukunaga, C; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fulsom, B G; Fuster, J; Gabaldon, C; Gabizon, O; Gabrielli, A; Gabrielli, A; Gadatsch, S; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Galea, C; Galhardo, B; Gallas, E J; Gallop, B J; Gallus, P; Galster, G; Gan, K K; Gao, J; Gao, Y; Gao, Y S; Garay Walls, F M; Garberson, F; García, C; García Navarro, J E; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gardner, R W; Garelli, N; Garonne, V; Gatti, C; Gaudiello, A; Gaudio, G; Gaur, B; Gauthier, L; Gauzzi, P; Gavrilenko, I L; Gay, C; Gaycken, G; Gazis, E N; Ge, P; Gecse, Z; Gee, C N P; Geerts, D A A; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Geisler, M P; Gemme, C; Genest, M H; Gentile, S; George, M; George, S; Gerbaudo, D; Gershon, A; Ghazlane, H; Ghodbane, N; Giacobbe, B; Giagu, S; Giangiobbe, V; Giannetti, P; Gibbard, B; Gibson, S M; Gilchriese, M; Gillam, T P S; Gillberg, D; Gilles, G; Gingrich, D M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M P; Giorgi, F M; Giorgi, F M; Giraud, P F; Giromini, P; Giugni, D; Giuliani, C; Giulini, M; Gjelsten, B K; Gkaitatzis, S; Gkialas, I; Gkougkousis, E L; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Glatzer, J; Glaysher, P C F; Glazov, A; Goblirsch-Kolb, M; Goddard, J R; Godlewski, J; Goldfarb, S; Golling, T; Golubkov, D; Gomes, A; Gonçalo, R; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J; Gonella, L; González de la Hoz, S; Gonzalez Parra, G; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goossens, L; Gorbounov, P A; Gordon, H A; Gorelov, I; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gorišek, A; Gornicki, E; Goshaw, A T; Gössling, C; Gostkin, M I; Goujdami, D; Goussiou, A G; Govender, N; Grabas, H M X; Graber, L; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grafström, P; Grahn, K-J; Gramling, J; Gramstad, E; Grancagnolo, S; Grassi, V; Gratchev, V; Gray, H M; Graziani, E; Greenwood, Z D; Gregersen, K; Gregor, I M; Grenier, P; Griffiths, J; Grillo, A A; Grimm, K; Grinstein, S; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohs, J P; Grohsjean, A; Gross, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grossi, G C; Grout, Z J; Guan, L; Guenther, J; Guescini, F; Guest, D; Gueta, O; Guido, E; Guillemin, T; Guindon, S; Gul, U; Gumpert, C; Guo, J; Gupta, S; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez Ortiz, N G; Gutschow, C; Guyot, C; Gwenlan, C; Gwilliam, C B; Haas, A; Haber, C; Hadavand, H K; Haddad, N; Haefner, P; Hageböck, S; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Haleem, M; Haley, J; Hall, D; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G D; Hamacher, K; Hamal, P; Hamano, K; Hamer, M; Hamilton, A; Hamilton, S; Hamity, G N; Hamnett, P G; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanawa, K; Hance, M; Hanke, P; Hann, R; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, M C; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Hard, A S; Harenberg, T; Hariri, F; Harkusha, S; Harrington, R D; Harrison, P F; Hartjes, F; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hasib, A; Hassani, S; Haug, S; Hauser, R; Hauswald, L; Havranek, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R J; Hawkins, A D; Hayashi, T; Hayden, D; Hays, C P; Hays, J M; Hayward, H S; Haywood, S J; Head, S J; Heck, T; Hedberg, V; Heelan, L; Heim, S; Heim, T; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, L; Hejbal, J; Helary, L; Hellman, S; Hellmich, D; Helsens, C; Henderson, J; Henderson, R C W; Heng, Y; Hengler, C; Henrichs, A; Henriques Correia, A M; Henrot-Versille, S; Herbert, G H; Hernández Jiménez, Y; Herrberg-Schubert, R; Herten, G; Hertenberger, R; Hervas, L; Hesketh, G G; Hessey, N P; Hetherly, J W; Hickling, R; Higón-Rodriguez, E; Hill, E; Hill, J C; Hiller, K H; Hillier, S J; Hinchliffe, I; Hines, E; Hinman, R R; Hirose, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hobbs, J; Hod, N; Hodgkinson, M C; Hodgson, P; Hoecker, A; Hoeferkamp, M R; Hoenig, F; Hohlfeld, M; Hohn, D; Holmes, T R; Hong, T M; Hooft van Huysduynen, L; Hopkins, W H; Horii, Y; Horton, A J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hou, S; Hoummada, A; Howard, J; Howarth, J; Hrabovsky, M; Hristova, I; Hrivnac, J; Hryn'ova, T; Hrynevich, A; Hsu, C; Hsu, P J; Hsu, S-C; Hu, D; Hu, Q; Hu, X; Huang, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Huffman, T B; Hughes, E W; Hughes, G; Huhtinen, M; Hülsing, T A; Huseynov, N; Huston, J; Huth, J; Iacobucci, G; Iakovidis, G; Ibragimov, I; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ideal, E; Idrissi, Z; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Iizawa, T; Ikegami, Y; Ikematsu, K; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Iliadis, D; Ilic, N; Inamaru, Y; Ince, T; Ioannou, P; Iodice, M; Iordanidou, K; Ippolito, V; Irles Quiles, A; Isaksson, C; Ishino, M; Ishitsuka, M; Ishmukhametov, R; Issever, C; Istin, S; Iturbe Ponce, J M; Iuppa, R; Ivarsson, J; Iwanski, W; Iwasaki, H; Izen, J M; Izzo, V; Jabbar, S; Jackson, B; Jackson, M; Jackson, P; Jaekel, M R; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jakobsen, S; Jakoubek, T; Jakubek, J; Jamin, D O; Jana, D K; Jansen, E; Jansky, R W; Janssen, J; Janus, M; Jarlskog, G; Javadov, N; Javůrek, T; Jeanty, L; Jejelava, J; Jeng, G-Y; Jennens, D; Jenni, P; Jentzsch, J; Jeske, C; Jézéquel, S; Ji, H; Jia, J; Jiang, Y; Jiggins, S; Jimenez Pena, J; Jin, S; Jinaru, A; Jinnouchi, O; Joergensen, M D; Johansson, P; Johns, K A; Jon-And, K; Jones, G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; Jongmanns, J; Jorge, P M; Joshi, K D; Jovicevic, J; Ju, X; Jung, C A; Jussel, P; Juste Rozas, A; Kaci, M; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Kagan, H; Kagan, M; Kahn, S J; Kajomovitz, E; Kalderon, C W; Kama, S; Kamenshchikov, A; Kanaya, N; Kaneda, M; Kaneti, S; Kantserov, V A; Kanzaki, J; Kaplan, B; Kapliy, A; Kar, D; Karakostas, K; Karamaoun, A; Karastathis, N; Kareem, M J; Karnevskiy, M; Karpov, S N; Karpova, Z M; Karthik, K; Kartvelishvili, V; Karyukhin, A N; Kashif, L; Kass, R D; Kastanas, A; Kataoka, Y; Katre, A; Katzy, J; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kawamura, G; Kazama, S; Kazanin, V F; Kazarinov, M Y; Keeler, R; Kehoe, R; Keller, J S; Kempster, J J; Keoshkerian, H; Kepka, O; Kerševan, B P; Kersten, S; Keyes, R A; Khalil-Zada, F; Khandanyan, H; Khanov, A; Kharlamov, A G; Khoo, T J; Khovanskiy, V; Khramov, E; Khubua, J; Kim, H Y; Kim, H; Kim, S H; Kim, Y; Kimura, N; Kind, O M; King, B T; King, M; King, R S B; King, S B; Kirk, J; Kiryunin, A E; Kishimoto, T; Kisielewska, D; Kiss, F; Kiuchi, K; Kivernyk, O; Kladiva, E; Klein, M H; Klein, M; Klein, U; Kleinknecht, K; Klimek, P; Klimentov, A; Klingenberg, R; Klinger, J A; Klioutchnikova, T; Klok, P F; Kluge, E-E; Kluit, P; Kluth, S; Kneringer, E; Knoops, E B F G; Knue, A; Kobayashi, D; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kocian, M; Kodys, P; Koffas, T; Koffeman, E; Kogan, L A; Kohlmann, S; Kohout, Z; Kohriki, T; Koi, T; Kolanoski, H; Koletsou, I; Komar, A A; Komori, Y; Kondo, T; Kondrashova, N; Köneke, K; König, A C; König, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kopeliansky, R; Koperny, S; Köpke, L; Kopp, A K; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korol, A A; Korolkov, I; Korolkova, E V; Kortner, O; Kortner, S; Kosek, T; Kostyukhin, V V; Kotov, V M; Kotwal, A; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouskoura, V; Koutsman, A; Kowalewski, R; Kowalski, T Z; Kozanecki, W; Kozhin, A S; Kramarenko, V A; Kramberger, G; Krasnopevtsev, D; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J K; Kravchenko, A; Kreiss, S; Kretz, M; Kretzschmar, J; Kreutzfeldt, K; Krieger, P; Krizka, K; Kroeninger, K; Kroha, H; Kroll, J; Kroseberg, J; Krstic, J; Kruchonak, U; Krüger, H; Krumnack, N; Krumshteyn, Z V; Kruse, A; Kruse, M C; Kruskal, M; Kubota, T; Kucuk, H; Kuday, S; Kuehn, S; Kugel, A; Kuger, F; Kuhl, A; Kuhl, T; Kukhtin, V; Kulchitsky, Y; Kuleshov, S; Kuna, M; Kunigo, T; Kupco, A; Kurashige, H; Kurochkin, Y A; Kurumida, R; Kus, V; Kuwertz, E S; Kuze, M; Kvita, J; Kwan, T; Kyriazopoulos, D; La Rosa, A; La Rosa Navarro, J L; La Rotonda, L; Lacasta, C; Lacava, F; Lacey, J; Lacker, H; Lacour, D; Lacuesta, V R; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lagouri, T; Lai, S; Lambourne, L; Lammers, S; Lampen, C L; Lampl, W; Lançon, E; Landgraf, U; Landon, M P J; Lang, V S; Lange, J C; Lankford, A J; Lanni, F; Lantzsch, K; Laplace, S; Lapoire, C; Laporte, J F; Lari, T; Manghi, F Lasagni; Lassnig, M; Laurelli, P; Lavrijsen, W; Law, A T; Laycock, P; Le Dortz, O; Le Guirriec, E; Le Menedeu, E; LeBlanc, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lee, C A; Lee, S C; Lee, L; Lefebvre, G; Lefebvre, M; Legger, F; Leggett, C; Lehan, A; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Leight, W A; Leisos, A; Leister, A G; Leite, M A L; Leitner, R; Lellouch, D; Lemmer, B; Leney, K J C; Lenz, T; Lenzi, B; Leone, R; Leone, S; Leonidopoulos, C; Leontsinis, S; Leroy, C; Lester, C G; Levchenko, M; Levêque, J; Levin, D; Levinson, L J; Levy, M; Lewis, A; Leyko, A M; Leyton, M; Li, B; Li, H; Li, H L; Li, L; Li, L; Li, S; Li, Y; Liang, Z; Liao, H; Liberti, B; Liblong, A; Lichard, P; Lie, K; Liebal, J; Liebig, W; Limbach, C; Limosani, A; Lin, S C; Lin, T H; Linde, F; Lindquist, B E; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lipniacka, A; Lisovyi, M; Liss, T M; Lissauer, D; Lister, A; Litke, A M; Liu, B; Liu, D; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, K; Liu, L; Liu, M; Liu, M; Liu, Y; Livan, M; Lleres, A; Llorente Merino, J; Lloyd, S L; Lo Sterzo, F; Lobodzinska, E; Loch, P; Lockman, W S; Loebinger, F K; Loevschall-Jensen, A E; Loginov, A; Lohse, T; Lohwasser, K; Lokajicek, M; Long, B A; Long, J D; Long, R E; Looper, K A; Lopes, L; Lopez Mateos, D; Lopez Paredes, B; Lopez Paz, I; Lorenz, J; Lorenzo Martinez, N; Losada, M; Loscutoff, P; Lösel, P J; Lou, X; Lounis, A; Love, J; Love, P A; Lu, N; Lubatti, H J; Luci, C; Lucotte, A; Luehring, F; Lukas, W; Luminari, L; Lundberg, O; Lund-Jensen, B; Lungwitz, M; Lynn, D; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Ma, H; Ma, L L; Maccarrone, G; Macchiolo, A; Macdonald, C M; Machado Miguens, J; Macina, D; Madaffari, D; Madar, R; Maddocks, H J; Mader, W F; Madsen, A; Maeland, S; Maeno, T; Maevskiy, A; Magradze, E; Mahboubi, K; Mahlstedt, J; Maiani, C; Maidantchik, C; Maier, A A; Maier, T; Maio, A; Majewski, S; Makida, Y; Makovec, N; Malaescu, B; Malecki, Pa; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mallik, U; Malon, D; Malone, C; Maltezos, S; Malyshev, V M; Malyukov, S; Mamuzic, J; Mancini, G; Mandelli, B; Mandelli, L; Mandić, I; Mandrysch, R; Maneira, J; Manfredini, A; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L; Manjarres Ramos, J; Mann, A; Manning, P M; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Mansoulie, B; Mantifel, R; Mantoani, M; Mapelli, L; March, L; Marchiori, G; Marcisovsky, M; Marino, C P; Marjanovic, M; Marroquim, F; Marsden, S P; Marshall, Z; Marti, L F; Marti-Garcia, S; Martin, B; Martin, T A; Martin, V J; Martin Dit Latour, B; Martinez, M; Martin-Haugh, S; Martoiu, V S; Martyniuk, A C; Marx, M; Marzano, F; Marzin, A; Masetti, L; Mashimo, T; Mashinistov, R; Masik, J; Maslennikov, A L; Massa, I; Massa, L; Massol, N; Mastrandrea, P; Mastroberardino, A; Masubuchi, T; Mättig, P; Mattmann, J; Maurer, J; Maxfield, S J; Maximov, D A; Mazini, R; Mazza, S M; Mazzaferro, L; Mc Goldrick, G; Mc Kee, S P; McCarn, A; McCarthy, R L; McCarthy, T G; McCubbin, N A; McFarlane, K W; Mcfayden, J A; Mchedlidze, G; McMahon, S J; McPherson, R A; Medinnis, M; Meehan, S; Mehlhase, S; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meineck, C; Meirose, B; Mellado Garcia, B R; Meloni, F; Mengarelli, A; Menke, S; Meoni, E; Mercurio, K M; Mergelmeyer, S; Mermod, P; Merola, L; Meroni, C; Merritt, F S; Messina, A; Metcalfe, J; Mete, A S; Meyer, C; Meyer, C; Meyer, J-P; Meyer, J; Middleton, R P; Miglioranzi, S; Mijović, L; Mikenberg, G; Mikestikova, M; Mikuž, M; Milesi, M; Milic, A; Miller, D W; Mills, C; Milov, A; Milstead, D A; Minaenko, A A; Minami, Y; Minashvili, I A; Mincer, A I; Mindur, B; Mineev, M; Ming, Y; Mir, L M; Mitani, T; Mitrevski, J; Mitsou, V A; Miucci, A; Miyagawa, P S; Mjörnmark, J U; Moa, T; Mochizuki, K; Mohapatra, S; Mohr, W; Molander, S; Moles-Valls, R; Mönig, K; Monini, C; Monk, J; Monnier, E; Montejo Berlingen, J; Monticelli, F; Monzani, S; Moore, R W; Morange, N; Moreno, D; Moreno Llácer, M; Morettini, P; Morgenstern, M; Morii, M; Morisbak, V; Moritz, S; Morley, A K; Mornacchi, G; Morris, J D; Mortensen, S S; Morton, A; Morvaj, L; Mosidze, M; Moss, J; Motohashi, K; Mount, R; Mountricha, E; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E J W; Muanza, S; Mudd, R D; Mueller, F; Mueller, J; Mueller, K; Mueller, R S P; Mueller, T; Muenstermann, D; Mullen, P; Munwes, Y; Murillo Quijada, J A; Murray, W J; Musheghyan, H; Musto, E; Myagkov, A G; Myska, M; Nackenhorst, O; Nadal, J; Nagai, K; Nagai, R; Nagai, Y; Nagano, K; Nagarkar, A; Nagasaka, Y; Nagata, K; Nagel, M; Nagy, E; Nairz, A M; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, T; Nakano, I; Namasivayam, H; Naranjo Garcia, R F; Narayan, R; Naumann, T; Navarro, G; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Nechaeva, P Yu; Neep, T J; Nef, P D; Negri, A; Negrini, M; Nektarijevic, S; Nellist, C; Nelson, A; Nemecek, S; Nemethy, P; Nepomuceno, A A; Nessi, M; Neubauer, M S; Neumann, M; Neves, R M; Nevski, P; Newman, P R; Nguyen, D H; Nickerson, R B; Nicolaidou, R; Nicquevert, B; Nielsen, J; Nikiforou, N; Nikiforov, A; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nikolopoulos, K; Nilsen, J K; Nilsson, P; Ninomiya, Y; Nisati, A; Nisius, R; Nobe, T; Nomachi, M; Nomidis, I; Nooney, T; Norberg, S; Nordberg, M; Novgorodova, O; Nowak, S; Nozaki, M; Nozka, L; Ntekas, K; Nunes Hanninger, G; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; Nuti, F; O'Brien, B J; O'grady, F; O'Neil, D C; O'Shea, V; Oakham, F G; Oberlack, H; Obermann, T; Ocariz, J; Ochi, A; Ochoa, I; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oda, S; Odaka, S; Ogren, H; Oh, A; Oh, S H; Ohm, C C; Ohman, H; Oide, H; Okamura, W; Okawa, H; Okumura, Y; Okuyama, T; Olariu, A; Olivares Pino, S A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Oliver Garcia, E; Olszewski, A; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Onyisi, P U E; Oram, C J; Oreglia, M J; Oren, Y; Orestano, D; Orlando, N; Oropeza Barrera, C; Orr, R S; Osculati, B; Ospanov, R; Otero Y Garzon, G; Otono, H; Ouchrif, M; Ouellette, E A; Ould-Saada, F; Ouraou, A; Oussoren, K P; Ouyang, Q; Ovcharova, A; Owen, M; Owen, R E; Ozcan, V E; Ozturk, N; Pachal, K; Pacheco Pages, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Pagáčová, M; Pagan Griso, S; Paganis, E; Pahl, C; Paige, F; Pais, P; Pajchel, K; Palacino, G; Palestini, S; Palka, M; Pallin, D; Palma, A; Pan, Y B; Panagiotopoulou, E; Pandini, C E; Panduro Vazquez, J G; Pani, P; Panitkin, S; Pantea, D; Paolozzi, L; Papadopoulou, Th D; Papageorgiou, K; Paramonov, A; Paredes Hernandez, D; Parker, M A; Parker, K A; Parodi, F; Parsons, J A; Parzefall, U; Pasqualucci, E; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F; Pastore, Fr; Pásztor, G; Pataraia, S; Patel, N D; Pater, J R; Pauly, T; Pearce, J; Pearson, B; Pedersen, L E; Pedersen, M; Lopez, S Pedraza; Pedro, R; Peleganchuk, S V; Pelikan, D; Peng, H; Penning, B; Penwell, J; Perepelitsa, D V; Perez Codina, E; Pérez García-Estañ, M T; Perini, L; Pernegger, H; Perrella, S; Peschke, R; Peshekhonov, V D; Peters, K; Peters, R F Y; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petit, E; Petridis, A; Petridou, C; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, F; Pettersson, N E; Pezoa, R; Phillips, P W; Piacquadio, G; Pianori, E; Picazio, A; Piccaro, E; Piccinini, M; Pickering, M A; Piegaia, R; Pignotti, D T; Pilcher, J E; Pilkington, A D; Pina, J; Pinamonti, M; Pinfold, J L; Pingel, A; Pinto, B; Pires, S; Pitt, M; Pizio, C; Plazak, L; Pleier, M-A; Pleskot, V; Plotnikova, E; Plucinski, P; Pluth, D; Poettgen, R; Poggioli, L; Pohl, D; Polesello, G; Policicchio, A; Polifka, R; Polini, A; Pollard, C S; Polychronakos, V; Pommès, K; Pontecorvo, L; Pope, B G; Popeneciu, G A; Popovic, D S; Poppleton, A; Pospisil, S; Potamianos, K; Potrap, I N; Potter, C J; Potter, C T; Poulard, G; Poveda, J; Pozdnyakov, V; Pralavorio, P; Pranko, A; Prasad, S; Prell, S; Price, D; Price, J; Price, L E; Primavera, M; Prince, S; Proissl, M; Prokofiev, K; Prokoshin, F; Protopapadaki, E; Protopopescu, S; Proudfoot, J; Przybycien, M; Ptacek, E; Puddu, D; Pueschel, E; Puldon, D; Purohit, M; Puzo, P; Qian, J; Qin, G; Qin, Y; Quadt, A; Quarrie, D R; Quayle, W B; Queitsch-Maitland, M; Quilty, D; Raddum, S; Radeka, V; Radescu, V; Radhakrishnan, S K; Radloff, P; Rados, P; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Rajagopalan, S; Rammensee, M; Rangel-Smith, C; Rauscher, F; Rave, S; Ravenscroft, T; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Readioff, N P; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reisin, H; Relich, M; Rembser, C; Ren, H; Renaud, A; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Rezanova, O L; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Richter, S; Richter-Was, E; Ricken, O; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Riegel, C J; Rieger, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rinaldi, L; Ristić, B; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Roda, C; Roe, S; Røhne, O; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Saez, S M Romano; Romero Adam, E; Rompotis, N; Ronzani, M; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, P; Rosendahl, P L; Rosenthal, O; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rubinskiy, I; Rud, V I; Rudolph, C; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Russell, H L; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryder, N C; Saavedra, A F; Sabato, G; Sacerdoti, S; Saddique, A; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Safai Tehrani, F; Saimpert, M; Sakamoto, H; Sakurai, Y; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saleem, M; Salek, D; Sales De Bruin, P H; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sampsonidis, D; Sanchez, A; Sánchez, J; Sanchez Martinez, V; Sandaker, H; Sandbach, R L; Sander, H G; Sanders, M P; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, C; Sandstroem, R; Sankey, D P C; Sannino, M; Sansoni, A; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Santoyo Castillo, I; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarrazin, B; Sasaki, O; Sasaki, Y; Sato, K; Sauvage, G; Sauvan, E; Savage, G; Savard, P; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Scarfone, V; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, R; Schaeffer, J; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Schiavi, C; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt, E; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schmitt, S; Schneider, B; Schnellbach, Y J; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schopf, E; Schorlemmer, A L S; Schott, M; Schouten, D; Schovancova, J; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schroeder, C; Schuh, N; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwarz, T A; Schwegler, Ph; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Schwoerer, M; Sciacca, F G; Scifo, E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Sedov, G; Sedykh, E; Seema, P; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekula, S J; Selbach, K E; Seliverstov, D M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Serre, T; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfiligoj, T; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shcherbakova, A; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Saadi, D Shoaleh; Shochet, M J; Shojaii, S; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Shushkevich, S; Sicho, P; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silver, Y; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simon, D; Simoniello, R; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Siragusa, G; Sisakyan, A N; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skinner, M B; Skottowe, H P; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Slawinska, M; Sliwa, K; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, M N K; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snidero, G; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Solans, C A; Solar, M; Solc, J; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Song, H Y; Soni, N; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sosebee, M; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soueid, P; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spanò, F; Spearman, W R; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Denis, R D St; Staerz, S; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Stavina, P; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Subramaniam, R; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tannenwald, B B; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, R J; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thun, R P; Tibbetts, M J; Torres, R E Ticse; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turra, R; Turvey, A J; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vannucci, F; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Velz, T; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, A; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    Measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] final states. The result is based on pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text] at a collision energy of [Formula: see text] TeV. Using the [Formula: see text] method, the observed 95 [Formula: see text] confidence level (CL) upper limit on the off-shell signal strength is in the range 5.1-8.6, with an expected range of 6.7-11.0. In each case the range is determined by varying the unknown [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] background K-factor from higher-order quantum chromodynamics corrections between half and twice the value of the known signal K-factor. Assuming the relevant Higgs boson couplings are independent of the energy scale of the Higgs boson production, a combination with the on-shell measurements yields an observed (expected) 95 [Formula: see text] CL upper limit on [Formula: see text] in the range 4.5-7.5 (6.5-11.2) using the same variations of the background K-factor. Assuming that the unknown [Formula: see text] background K-factor is equal to the signal K-factor, this translates into an observed (expected) 95 [Formula: see text] CL upper limit on the Higgs boson total width of 22.7 (33.0) MeV.

  2. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  3. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  4. Localization of a gene for X-linked nonspecific mental retardation (MRX24) in Xp22.2-p22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, F.; Palau, F.; Prieto, F.

    1995-01-30

    Nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) includes several distinct genetic entities in which mental retardation is not associated with additional distinguishing physical changes. We report linkage data in a Spanish family with MRX, using polymorphic DNA markers distributed over the X chromosome. Two-point linkage analysis demonstrated close linkage between the MRX locus and DXS85 in Xp22.3 with a peak lod score of 2.28 at a {theta} = 0.00. Analysis of multiple informative meioses suggested a localization of the MRX locus (MRX24) between DXS278 and DXS207. Multipoint linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score of 2.45 at 3cM proximal to DXS85, and allowed us to reject a localization of the MRX24 gene in all other regions from Xp21-Xqter. These findings localize the MRX24 gene in the chromosomal region Xp22.2-p22.3. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Localization of a gene responsible for nonspecific mental retardation (MRX9) to the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Willems, P.; Vits, L.; Buntinx, I.; Raeymaekers, P.; Van Broeckhoven, C.; Ceulemans, B. )

    1993-11-01

    Nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) includes several distinct entities with mental retardation but without additional distinguishing features. The MRX family reported here has been classified previously as MRX9. In this study, the authors performed linkage analysis of MRX9 with a panel of 43 polymorphic DNA markers dispersed over chromosome X. Two-point linkage analysis revealed lod scores of 3.52 and 3.82 at 0% recombination for OATL1 and MAOA, both located in Xp11.2-p11.4. Lod scores for linkage with PGK1P1, DXS106, and DXS132, all located in Xq11-q13, were 3.83, 3.82, and 3.52, respectively, all at 0% recombination. Multipoint linkage analysis showed two peaks with MAOA and DXS132/DXS106, respectively. Analysis of recombinational events indicated a position of the MRX9 gene between DXS164 and DXS453. These findings are compatible with a location of the MRX9 gene in the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome at Xp21-q13. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. X-linked mental retardation exhibiting linkage to DXS255 and PGKP1: a new MRX family (MRX14) with localization in the pericentromeric region.

    PubMed

    Gendrot, C; Ronce, N; Toutain, A; Moizard, M P; Müh, J P; Raynaud, M; Dourlens, J; Briault, S; Moraine, C

    1994-03-01

    Gene localization was determined by linkage analysis in a large French family with X-linked mental retardation (MRX). Seven living affected males were clinically studied and the clinical picture was characterized by moderate to severe mental handicap with poor secondary speech acquisition. Seizures, slight microcephaly, simian crease, anteverted pinnae, and macroorchidism were observed in some patients only. Linkage analysis revealed no recombination between the MRX gene and two loci: DXS255 at Xp11.22 (Zmax = 3.31 at theta = 0.00) and PGKP1 at Xq11.2-q12 (Zmax = 3.08 at theta = 0.00). One recombination was observed between the gene and the two loci DXS164 at Xp21.2 and DXS441 at Xq13.3, respectively. These results suggested gene localization in the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome, and the LOD scores justified assignment of the symbol MRX14 to this family.

  7. X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: Phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G.; Nelen, M.R.; Zandvoort, P. van; Abeling, N.G.G.M.; Gennip, A.H. van; Ropers, H.H.; Oost, B.A. van ); Wolters, E.C.; Kuiper, M.A. )

    1993-06-01

    The authors have identified a large Dutch kindred with a new form of X-linked nondysmorphic mild mental retardation. All affected males in this family show very characteristic abnormal behavior, in particular aggressive and sometimes violent behavior. Other types of impulsive behavior include arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Attempted suicide has been reported in a single case. The locus for this disorder could be assigned to the Xp11-21 interval between DXS7 and DXS77 by linkage analysis using markers spanning the X chromosome. A maximal multipoint lod score of 3.69 was obtained at the monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) monoamine metabolism. These data are compatible with a primary defect in the structural gene for MAOA and/or monoamine oxidase type B (MAOB). Normal platelet MAOB activity suggests that the unusual behavior pattern in this family may be caused by isolated MAOA deficiency. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Localization of a novel locus for alopecia with mental retardation syndrome to chromosome 3q26.33-q27.3.

    PubMed

    John, Peter; Ali, Ghazanfar; Chishti, Muhammad S; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad S; Leal, Suzanne M; Ahmad, Wasim

    2006-01-01

    Alopecia with mental retardation syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by total or partial alopecia and mental retardation. In an effort to understand the molecular bases of this form of alopecia syndrome, large Pakistani consanguineous kindred with multiple affected individuals has been ascertained from a remote region in Pakistan. Genome wide scan mapped the disease locus on chromosome 3q26.33-q27.3. A maximum two-point LOD score of 3.05 (theta = 0.0) was obtained at marker D3S3583. Maximum multipoint LOD score exceeding 5.0, obtained with several markers, supported the linkage. Recombination events observed in affected individuals localized the disease locus between markers D3S1232 and D3S2436, spanning 11.49-cM region on chromosome 3q26.33-q27.3. Sequence analysis of a candidate gene ETS variant gene 5 from DNA samples of two affected individuals of the family revealed no mutation.

  9. X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, H G; Nelen, M R; van Zandvoort, P; Abeling, N G; van Gennip, A H; Wolters, E C; Kuiper, M A; Ropers, H H; van Oost, B A

    1993-01-01

    We have identified a large Dutch kindred with a new form of X-linked nondysmorphic mild mental retardation. All affected males in this family show very characteristic abnormal behavior, in particular aggressive and sometimes violent behavior. Other types of impulsive behavior include arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Attempted suicide has been reported in a single case. The locus for this disorder could be assigned to the Xp11-21 interval between DXS7 and DXS77 by linkage analysis using markers spanning the X chromosome. A maximal multipoint lod score of 3.69 was obtained at the monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) locus in Xp11.23-11.4. Results of 24-h urine analysis in three affected males indicated a marked disturbance of monoamine metabolism. These data are compatible with a primary defect in the structural gene for MAOA and/or monoamine oxidase type B (MAOB). Normal platelet MAOB activity suggests that the unusual behavior pattern in this family may be caused by isolated MAOA deficiency. PMID:8503438

  10. A gene for nonspecific mental retardation is localized to Xp22.2-p21.2 in a Belgian family

    SciTech Connect

    Raeymaekers, P.; Soekarman, G.D.; Van Zand, K.

    1994-09-01

    We report a family with 6 male individuals with moderate mental retardation (MR) and a nonspecific phenotype, one additional male individual with borderline to mild MR and two obligate female carriers with borderline MR. All family members tested were negative for the fragile X MR mutation. In order to localize the MR gene on the X chromosome, we used 16 highly polymorphic markers dispersed over the whole X-chromosome. Under the model of full penetrance in males and 20% penetrance in carrier females, moderate positive peak lod scores of 0.90 at 10%, 1.14 at 20% and 1.17 at 18% recombination were obtained with DXS999, DXS989 and DMD49, respectively. Al three markers are located in Xp22.2-p21.2. With markers located distal of DXS999, proximal of DMD49 and on Xq, close linkage in this family could be rejected. In multipoint linkage analysis, distinct negative lod scores were obtained in all intervals between markers proximal of Xp21 and on Xq. On the other hand, a disappointing peak lod score of 0.69 was obtained between DXS989 and DMD. This lod score by itself is not significant to justify definite localization of the MR gene in this chromosomal region. However, taken into account the exclusion data in other regions on the X-chromosome, the odds in favor of positioning the MR gene between DXS989 and DMD versus regions proximal of DMD49 are at least 160 to 1. The low peak lod score is explained by the inheritance of a different Xp haplotype in the borderline to mild mentally retarded male patient compared to his two affected brothers and his two carrier sisters. Linkage analysis in other families with nonspecific MR have suggested the existence of MR genes in Xp22.3-p22.2 (MRX2) and Xq21-q21 (MRX5, 10, 11, 12, 13). As these partially overlapping localizations have been obtained with different markers, it is not clear whether these families represent one single MR syndrome.

  11. Fully analytical O( α s ) results for on-shell and off-shell polarized W-boson decays into massive quark pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groote, S.; Körner, J. G.; Tuvike, P.

    2013-05-01

    We provide analytical O( α s ) results for the three polarized decay structure functions H ++, H 00 and H - that describe the decay of a polarized W boson into massive quark-antiquark pairs. As an application we consider the decay t→ b+ W + involving the helicity fractions ρ mm of the W + boson followed by the polarized decay W+(\\uparrow)to q1bar{q}2 described by the polarized decay structure functions H mm . We thereby determine the O( α s ) polar angle decay distribution of the cascade decay process tto b+W+(to q1bar{q}2). As a second example we analyze quark mass and off-shell effects in the cascade decays Hto W-+W^{ast+}(to q1bar{q}2) and Hto Z+Z^{ast}(to qbar{q}). For the decays Hto W-+W^{ast+}(to cbar{b}) and Hto Z+Z^{ast}(to bbar{b}) we find substantial deviations from the mass-zero approximation in particular in the vicinity of the threshold region.

  12. X-linked [alpha]-thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome: Localization to Xq12-q21. 31 by X inactivation and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, R.J.; Buckle, V.J.; Higgs, D.R.; Suthers, G.K. ); Wilkie, A.O.M. )

    1992-11-01

    The authors have examined seven pedigrees that include individuals with a recently described X-linked form of severe mental retardation associated with [alpha]-thalassemia (ATR-X syndrome). Using hematologic and molecular approaches, they have shown that intellectually normal female carriers of this syndrome may be identified by the presence of rare cells containing HbH (hemoglobin H) inclusions in their peripheral blood and by an extremely skewed pattern of X inactivation seen in cells from a variety of tissues. Linkage analysis has localized the ATR-X locus to an interval of approximately 11 cM between the loci DXS106 and DXYS1X (Xq12-q21.31), with a peak LOD score of 5.4 (recombination fraction of 0) at DCS72. These findings provide the basis for genetic counseling, assessment of carrier risk, and prenatal diagnosis of the ATR-X syndrome. Furthermore, they represent an important step in developing strategies to understand how the mutant ATR-X allele causes mental handicap, dysmorphism, and down-regulation of the [alpha]-globin genes. 54 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Intense and specialized dendritic localization of the fragile X mental retardation protein in binaural brainstem neurons: a comparative study in the alligator, chicken, gerbil, and human.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Sakano, Hitomi; Beebe, Karisa; Brown, Maile R; de Laat, Rian; Bothwell, Mark; Kulesza, Randy J; Rubel, Edwin W

    2014-06-15

    Neuronal dendrites are structurally and functionally dynamic in response to changes in afferent activity. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an mRNA binding protein that regulates activity-dependent protein synthesis and morphological dynamics of dendrites. Loss and abnormal expression of FMRP occur in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and some forms of autism spectrum disorders. To provide further understanding of how FMRP signaling regulates dendritic dynamics, we examined dendritic expression and localization of FMRP in the reptilian and avian nucleus laminaris (NL) and its mammalian analogue, the medial superior olive (MSO), in rodents and humans. NL/MSO neurons are specialized for temporal processing of low-frequency sounds for binaural hearing, which is impaired in FXS. Protein BLAST analyses first demonstrate that the FMRP amino acid sequences in the alligator and chicken are highly similar to human FMRP with identical mRNA-binding and phosphorylation sites, suggesting that FMRP functions similarly across vertebrates. Immunocytochemistry further reveals that NL/MSO neurons have very high levels of dendritic FMRP in low-frequency hearing vertebrates including alligator, chicken, gerbil, and human. Remarkably, dendritic FMRP in NL/MSO neurons often accumulates at branch points and enlarged distal tips, loci known to be critical for branch-specific dendritic arbor dynamics. These observations support an important role for FMRP in regulating dendritic properties of binaural neurons that are essential for low-frequency sound localization and auditory scene segregation, and support the relevance of studying this regulation in nonhuman vertebrates that use low frequencies in order to further understand human auditory processing disorders.

  14. Statistics on Mental Retardation in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Association for Retarded Citizens, Indianapolis.

    Presented are 19 tables of statistical data on prevalence of mental retardation, and services provided the estimated 158,724 mentally retarded (MR) persons in Indiana through 1973 by special education classes, vocational rehabilitation units, local organizations, and state hospitals and training centers. Given in tables 1 through 8 are data on…

  15. Localization of two X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) genes to Xp: MRX37 gene at Xp22.31-p22.32 and a putative MRX gene on Xp22.11-p22.2

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-David, S.; Lerer, I.; Sarfaty, C.K.

    1996-07-12

    MRX genes of 2 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) were localized by linkage analysis. In family A, the gene was mapped to Xp22.31-p22.32, with significant LOD scores to various Xp22 markers within a distance of 6 Mb between DXS1223 and DXS1224. The MRX gene of this family was designated MRX37. In a mentally retarded female who is a carrier of the MRX37 gene, a random pattern of X inactivation was demonstrated. In family B, a positive LOD score, although not significant (<+2), was found with the marker DXS1202 at Xp22.11-p22.2. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions.

  17. Quasi-local conserved charges in the Einstein-Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we consider the Einstein-Maxwell theory and define a combined transformation composed of diffeomorphism and U(1) gauge transformation. For generality, we assume that the generator χ of such transformation is field-dependent. We define the extended off-shell ADT current and then off-shell ADT charge such that they are conserved off-shell for the asymptotically field-dependent symmetry generator χ. Then, we define the conserved charge corresponding to the asymptotically field-dependent symmetry generator χ. We apply the presented method to find the conserved charges of the asymptotically AdS3 spacetimes in the context of the Einstein-Maxwell theory in three dimensions. Although the usual proposal for the quasi local charges provides divergent global charges for the Einstein-Maxwell theory with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions, here we avoid this problem by introducing proposed combined transformation χ

  18. Mentally Retarded Sex Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Jill; Hoover, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Critically reviews data about the behavioral characteristics of mentally retarded sexual offenders. Discusses possible interactions between mental retardation and the provision of services and directions for future research. (Author)

  19. The Successful Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albizu-Miranda, Carlos; And Others

    To study the prevalence of mental retardation in Puerto Rico, the proportional distribution of successful retardates, and the processes accounting for success and failure, a random sample of 4,771 adults between the ages of 23 and 49 was screened by the Stanford Binet Form L and a vocabulary test. From this sample, the estimated retardation rate…

  20. Depression and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Marie A.

    Mentally retarded people may be particularly vulnerable to depression and related emotional disturbances due to limited social skills, lack of friends, and negative self-esteem. A therapy group for depressed retarded clients provided an opportunity to collect information about depression in retarded individuals and to evaluate various treatment…

  1. Search for Higgs boson off-shell production in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV and derivation of constraints on its total decay width

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; ...

    2016-09-09

    A search is presented for the Higgs boson off-shell production in gluon fusion and vector boson fusion processes with the Higgs boson decaying into a WW pair and the W bosons decaying leptonically. The data observed in this analysis are used to constrain the Higgs boson total decay width. The analysis is based on the data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 inverse femtobarns at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 19.4 inverse femtobarns at 8 TeV, respectively. An observed (expected) upper limit on the off-shell Higgs boson event yield normalisedmore » to the standard model prediction of 2.4 (6.2) is obtained at the 95% CL for the gluon fusion process and of 19.3 (34.4) for the vector boson fusion process. Observed and expected limits on the total width of 26 and 66 MeV are found, respectively, at the 95% confidence level (CL). These limits are combined with the previous result in the ZZ channel leading to observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the width of 13 and 26 MeV, respectively.« less

  2. Search for Higgs boson off-shell production in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV and derivation of constraints on its total decay width

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D’Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Faltermann, N.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Vetere, M. Lo; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall’Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell’Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D’imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Korneeva, N.; Lokhtin, I.; Myagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodr´ıguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Berruti, G. M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cerminara, G.; D’Alfonso, M.; d’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, R.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R. -S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Cerci, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Zorbilmez, C.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova PANEVA, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O’Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y. -J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; SalfeldNebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. -J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2016-09-09

    A search is presented for the Higgs boson off-shell production in gluon fusion and vector boson fusion processes with the Higgs boson decaying into a WW pair and the W bosons decaying leptonically. The data observed in this analysis are used to constrain the Higgs boson total decay width. The analysis is based on the data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 inverse femtobarns at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 19.4 inverse femtobarns at 8 TeV, respectively. An observed (expected) upper limit on the off-shell Higgs boson event yield normalised to the standard model prediction of 2.4 (6.2) is obtained at the 95% CL for the gluon fusion process and of 19.3 (34.4) for the vector boson fusion process. Observed and expected limits on the total width of 26 and 66 MeV are found, respectively, at the 95% confidence level (CL). These limits are combined with the previous result in the ZZ channel leading to observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the width of 13 and 26 MeV, respectively.

  3. Search for Higgs boson off-shell production in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV and derivation of constraints on its total decay width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; de Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; de Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Jain, Sa.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; de Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'Imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Nam, S. K.; Butanov, K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Traczyk, P.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão da Cruz E Silva, C.; di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Yuldashev, B. S.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; de La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro de Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras de Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; de Castro Manzano, P.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Benhabib, L.; Berruti, G. M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; D'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; de Gruttola, M.; de Guio, F.; de Roeck, A.; di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; Du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; de Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. F.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; de Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Jesus, O.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon de La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; McLean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lewis, J.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bruner, C.; Castle, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; McBrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Rupprecht, N.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. T.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.

    2016-09-01

    A search is presented for the Higgs boson off-shell production in gluon fusion and vector boson fusion processes with the Higgs boson decaying into a W+W- pair and the W bosons decaying leptonically. The data observed in this analysis are used to constrain the Higgs boson total decay width. The analysis is based on the data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 fb-1 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 19.4 fb-1 at 8 TeV, respectively. An observed (expected) upper limit on the off-shell Higgs boson event yield normalised to the standard model prediction of 2.4 (6.2) is obtained at the 95% CL for the gluon fusion process and of 19.3 (34.4) for the vector boson fusion process. Observed and expected limits on the total width of 26 and 66 MeV are found, respectively, at the 95% confidence level (CL). These limits are combined with the previous result in the ZZ channel leading to observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the width of 13 and 26 MeV, respectively. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  5. [Genetics of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, A; Saugier-Veber, P

    2010-10-01

    Mental retardation affects nearly 3 % of the population. The causes of these disorders are various and are often not identified. Recent advances focused on the molecular basis of mental retardation. Nearly half of mental retardation syndromes have a genetic origin and the description of molecular, cytogenetic and metabolic alterations in these disorders led to the development of diagnostic tools. Indeed, identifying the precise origin of the mental retardation allows to improve patient care and to refine the prognosis. Moreover, these molecular tools will help the geneticist to evaluate the recurrence risk in the family in the genetic counseling step. On a fundamental point of view, the knowledge of molecular basis of mental retardation will help to understand the biological pathway which constitutes the first step before therapeutic strategies. Every patient with mental retardation should be investigated for causal origin of the disease. We will detail the diagnostic methods necessary to investigate a patient presenting with mental retardation. Then different examples of syndromes including a mental retardation will be chosen to illustrate different clinical situations. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  7. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  8. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  9. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  10. [Genetic mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Revenga Bodi, L; Madrigal-Bajo, I; Milà-Racasens, M

    2006-10-10

    Mental retardation is a frequently occurring disorder with a major impact on the life of the affected person, the family and society, with an estimated incidence of 1-3% in developed countries. Among the etiologies that cause mental retardation it would appear that 30% have a genetic origin, 15% have an environmental origin, and the rest have an unknown origin. AIM. To report the genetic causes of mental retardation and the new molecular techniques used in order to reach a diagnosis. The identification of the causes of mental retardation is of great interest due to the consequences it has in the intervention, prognosis, estimation of risk of recurrence and its prevention. Causes of mental retardation are extremely heterogeneous. Genetic causes can be classified as chromosomal alterations (aneuploidies, subtelomeric rearrangements, microdeletion or microduplication syndrome), monogenic, metabolic, or multifactorial alterations. Thanks to the development of high-resolution new techniques -comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays, and multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA)- now we are able to detect microdeletions and microduplication all over the genome, which might be related with mental retardation. The genetic causes of mental retardation are highly heterogeneous and complex. Nowadays and thanks to the new molecular techniques we are able to perform several studies, even though almost half of cases remain undiagnosed. In those undiagnosed cases with positive familial history a genetic counseling can be provided. However, in order to perform a prenatal or a preimplantational study a genetic diagnosis is required.

  11. X linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rejeb, Imen; Ben Jemaa, Lamia; Chaabouni, Habiba

    2009-05-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a group of heterogeneous clinical conditions. There are more than 900 genetic disorders associated with MR and it affects around 3% of the general population. Many MR conditions described are syndromic, fragile X syndrome being the most common clinical entity among them. X linked mental retardation (XLMR) is subdivided in two categories: syndromic XLMR (MRXS) when MR is associated with clinical features and non-syndromic XLMR (MRX) when MR is isolated. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to join together the results of several studies related to X linked mental retardation and to present various genes implicated in this disease. In this review, focus has been given on genes implicated in mental retardation, the clinical data and on phenotype-genotype correlations. An exhaustive electronic and library research of the recent literature was carried out on the Web sites "Science Direct" and "Interscience Wiley". The key words used were "mental retardation", "X chromosome", "gene", "syndromic mental retardation", "non-syndromic mental retardation". In this review a number of X linked genes, the clinical features associated with the gene abnormality, and the prevalence of the disease gene are discussed. We classified these genes by order of their first implication in MR. A table presented on the XLMR Update Web site who list the 82 known XLMR genes is available as XLMR Genes and corresponding proteins.

  12. X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome. Linkage analysis in a new family further supports localization in proximal Xq.

    PubMed

    Houdayer, C I; Toutain, A; Ronce, N; Lefort, G; Sarda, P; Taib, J; Briault, S; Lambert, J C; Moraine, C I

    1993-01-01

    Linkage analysis was performed in a three generation family with three males affected by the recently delineated X-linked form of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X). Results are in agreement with the linkage study reported by Gibbons et al in 1992 and further confirm that the ATR-X gene is located in proximal Xq. Positive LOD scores were obtained for several markers situated in the pericentromeric region. A maximum LOD score of 2.09 at a recombination fraction of 0 was obtained for DXS453 located at the boundary q12-q13.1. The nearest flanking loci demonstrating recombination with the disease locus were AR at Xq11.2-q12 on the centromeric side and DXS72 at Xq21.1 on the telomeric side. Consequently the authors were able to reduce the previously defined candidate region for the gene location. Their results are compatible with a distal boundary at Xq21.1 instead of q21.31.

  13. EPILEPSY AND MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Thuppal; Narayan, Jayanthi

    1992-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequently associated conditions with mental retardation which interferes with the learning process. Vie present study investigates the 1207 cases (Male -8I4, Female-393) registered at NIMH, Secunderabad, over a period of two years. Vie factors studied were the prevalence of epilepsy, degree of mental retardation, aetiology and associated factors. Ten mentally retarded persons with epilepsy were followed up longitudinally to study the effect of epilepsy on learning. It was observed that an attack of seizure resulted in a setback in the learning of skills. The results are discussed. PMID:21776089

  14. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  15. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  16. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  17. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein and Dendritic Local Translation of the Alpha Subunit of the Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II Messenger RNA Are Required for the Structural Plasticity Underlying Olfactory Learning.

    PubMed

    Daroles, Laura; Gribaudo, Simona; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Scotto-Lomassese, Sophie; Dubacq, Caroline; Mandairon, Nathalie; Greer, Charles August; Didier, Anne; Trembleau, Alain; Caillé, Isabelle

    2016-07-15

    In the adult brain, structural plasticity allowing gain or loss of synapses remodels circuits to support learning. In fragile X syndrome, the absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) leads to defects in plasticity and learning deficits. FMRP is a master regulator of local translation but its implication in learning-induced structural plasticity is unknown. Using an olfactory learning task requiring adult-born olfactory bulb neurons and cell-specific ablation of FMRP, we investigated whether learning shapes adult-born neuron morphology during their synaptic integration and its dependence on FMRP. We used alpha subunit of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (αCaMKII) mutant mice with altered dendritic localization of αCaMKII messenger RNA, as well as a reporter of αCaMKII local translation to investigate the role of this FMRP messenger RNA target in learning-dependent structural plasticity. Learning induces profound changes in dendritic architecture and spine morphology of adult-born neurons that are prevented by ablation of FMRP in adult-born neurons and rescued by an metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist. Moreover, dendritically translated αCaMKII is necessary for learning and associated structural modifications and learning triggers an FMRP-dependent increase of αCaMKII dendritic translation in adult-born neurons. Our results strongly suggest that FMRP mediates structural plasticity of olfactory bulb adult-born neurons to support olfactory learning through αCaMKII local translation. This reveals a new role for FMRP-regulated dendritic local translation in learning-induced structural plasticity. This might be of clinical relevance for the understanding of critical periods disruption in autism spectrum disorder patients, among which fragile X syndrome is the primary monogenic cause. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Forward Look: The Severely Retarded Child Goes to School. Bulletin, 1952, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Arthur S.

    1952-01-01

    The provision of school services for severely mentally retarded children presents a problem of considerable importance in many States and local communities. In general the problem involves children whose extreme retardation prevents them from benefiting from the existing special classes for retarded pupils and who range downward in competence for…

  19. [Nosology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.

  20. Fire retardant polyetherimide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Takekoshi, T.; Giannelis, E.P.

    1997-09-01

    Polyetherimide-layered silicates nanocomposites with increased char yield and fire retardancy are described. The use of nanocomposites is a new, environmentally-benign approach to improve fire resistance of polymers. An increase in the aromaticity yields high char residues that normally correlate with higher oxygen index and lower flammability. The often high cost of these materials and the specialized processing techniques required, however, have limited the use of these polymers to certain specialized applications. The effectiveness of fire retardant fillers is also limited since the large amounts required make processing difficult and might inadvertently affect mechanical properties.

  1. Mental Retardation Film List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    A list of films on mental retardation includes titles, publication information, physical descriptions, language revisions when other than English, series reference, technical description of film content, sale source, and distributor. Films intended for the general public are grouped under the heading Nonprofessional; others are listed as…

  2. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    Described are turn-of-the-century (1900) efforts of E. Johnstone, Vineland Training School for the mentally retarded; H. Goddard, psychologist (also at Vineland); and C. Davenport, Carnegie Foundation biological laboratory, Coldspring Harbor; to identify the roles of genetic heredity and environmental impact, and thus to eradicate or ameliorate…

  3. Flame retardant polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.; Atlas, S.M.; Pearce, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The flame retardation of polyolefins is the focus of this volume. Methods for reduction of smoke and experimental evaluation of flammability parameters for polymeric materials are discussed. The flammability evaluation methods for textiles and the use of mass spectrometry for analysis of polymers and their degradation products are also presented.

  4. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  5. Deafness and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Larry G., Ed.

    Nine selected proceedings from a study institute discuss program alternatives for the education of deaf mentally retarded (MR) children along with such related issues as identification, size and scope of the problem, instructional approaches, curricular planning, instructional media, program funding sources, and vocational rehabilitation. The…

  6. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  7. Localization to Xq22 and clinical update of a family with X-linked recessive mental retardation with progression sensorineural deafness, progressive tapeto-retinal degeneration and dystonia

    SciTech Connect

    Tranebjaerg, L.; Schwartz, C.; Huggins, K.; Barker, D.; Stevenson, R.; Arena, J.F.; Gedde-Dahl, T.; Mikkelsen, M.; Mellgren, S.; Anderson, K. ||||

    1994-07-15

    In a reinvestigation of a six-generation Norwegian family, originally reported with non-syndromic X-linked recessive deafness by Mohr and Mageroy, we have demonstrated several syndromic manifestations. The 10 clinically characterized affected males range in age from 14-61 years, and show progressive mental deterioration and visual disability. Ophthalmological and electrophysiological studies showed myopia, decreased visual acuity, combined cone-rod dystrophy as well as central areolar dystrophy by means of ERG. Brain CT-scans showed cortical and central atrophy without predilection to specific areas. Linkage analysis, using X-chromosomal RFLPs and CA-repeats, yielded a maximum LOD score of 4.37 with linkage to DXS17. DXS17 is localized to Xq22. One recombinant with COL4A5 (deficient in Alport syndrome) was observed. Results from the studies of this family will be important in reclassification of non-syndromic X-linked deafness since the family now represents syndromic deafness and XLMR with a specific phenotype.

  8. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  9. Mental Retardation, Selected Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.

    A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…

  10. Multiband retardation control using multi-twist retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornburg, Kathryn J.; Komanduri, Ravi K.; Escuti, Michael J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce and demonstrate an approach to create highly chromatic retardation spectra across various wave­ lengths. The design approach is based on Multi-Twist Retarder (MTR) principle where multiple liquid crystal polymer layers are coated on top of each other on a single substrate. Previous MTRs have been applied to develop broadband achromatic retarders, but here we show that MTRs are quite flexible, and their retardation spectrum can be tuned to create arbitrary profiles. As a representative example, we show this tailorability by creating a retarder which produces approximately zero retardation in visible (500-900 nm) and half-wave retardation in near- infrared (1-2.7 μm) wavelength region. This would provide enhancement in remote sensing, telecom, and spectroscopy systems where it is advantageous to have an optical element which affects only one band, but is largely transparent otherwise.

  11. Three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing calculus II: retardance.

    PubMed

    Yun, Garam; McClain, Stephen C; Chipman, Russell A

    2011-06-20

    The concept of retardance is critically analyzed for ray paths through optical systems described by a three-by-three polarization ray-tracing matrix. Algorithms are presented to separate the effects of retardance from geometric transformations. The geometric transformation described by a "parallel transport matrix" characterizes nonpolarizing propagation through an optical system, and also provides a proper relationship between sets of local coordinates along the ray path. The proper retardance is calculated by removing this geometric transformation from the three-by-three polarization ray-tracing matrix. Two rays with different ray paths through an optical system can have the same polarization ray-tracing matrix but different retardances. The retardance and diattenuation of an aluminum-coated three fold-mirror system are analyzed as an example.

  12. Fire and smoke retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  13. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  14. Fire-retardant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  15. Fire-retardant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  16. Retarded gravitation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    We propose a Lorentz-covariant theory of gravity, and explain its theoretical origins in the problem of time in Newtonian physics. In this retarded gravitation theory (RGT), the gravitational force depends upon both retarded position and velocity, and the equations of motion are time-asymmetric retarded functional differential equations. We explicitly solve these equations, under simplifying assumptions, for various NASA spacecraft. This shows that the differences from Newtonian gravity, though tiny within the solar system, are just appropriate to explain the flyby anomaly as a ν/c effect due to earth's rotation. The differences can, however, be large in the case of a spiral galaxy, and we show that the combined velocity drag from a large number of co-rotating stars enormously speeds up a test particle. Thus, the non-Newtonian behaviour of rotation curves in a spiral galaxy may be explained as being due to velocity drag rather than dark matter. RGT can also be tested in the laboratory. It necessitates a reappraisal of current laboratory methods of determining the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Since RGT makes no speculative assumptions, its refutation would have serious implications across physics.

  17. [Mental retardation and ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, Frank; Thome, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Hyperactivity syndromes and disorders (ADHD and HKD) include the symptoms of overactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, which occur in many other mental disorders as well, including mental retardation (MR). It is not surprising that symptoms of ADHD occur significantly higher in children with learning disabilities. Dekker and Koot (2003) found a prevalence of 14.8 % for ADHD in Dutch children attending special schools, and Emerson (2003) reported rates of 8.7 % for HKD in children with global learning disability, representing a 10-fold increased risk compared to the prevalence of hyperactivity (0.9 %) in the general population sample. Yet only very few studies have been published concerning ADHD in children with mental retardation. Several features distinguish the diagnoses of ADHD and MR. In contrast to the limited knowledge about the differences and similarities of ADHD and MR, many studies considered stimulant medication as a pharmacological management strategy for children suffering from ADHD, MR, or both. According to these studies, psychostimulants may improve the target symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, disinhibition, and inattention, albeit with caveats: ADHD symptoms in patients with MR may be less responsive to medical treatment than in patients without MR. Moreover, people with MR may be more susceptible to side effects.

  18. Mental Retardation Is Dead: Long Live Mental Retardation!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, David

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. The history of the term "mental retardation" is reviewed and it is argued that any new term will take on similar risks. The need to involve self-advocates in any terminology change is stressed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  19. Optical inspection of liquid crystal variable retarder inhomogeneities.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Javier; Uribe-Patarroyo, Néstor; Antonio Quiroga, Juan; Alvarez-Herrero, Alberto; Belenguer, Tomás

    2010-02-01

    Liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVRs) are starting to be widely used in optical systems because of their capacity to provide a controlled variable optical retardance between two orthogonal components of incident polarized light or to introduce a known phase shifting (PS) between coherent waves, both by means of an applied voltage. Typically, the retardance or PS introduced by an LCVR is not homogeneous across the aperture. On the one hand, the LCVR glass substrates present a global bend that causes an overall variation of the retardance or PS. On the other hand, in the manufacturing process of an LCVR, there sometimes appears a set of micro-air bubbles that causes local retardance or PS inhomogeneities. In this work, we present an interferometric technique based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that is insensitive to vibrations and capable of inspecting and characterizing the LCVR's retardance or PS inhomogeneities. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated in the experimental results, where the LCVR retardance is measured with an error of about 0.2 rad. The thickness of possible micro-air bubbles is obtained with a resolution of about 50 nm.

  20. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  1. Children's Knowledge of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, Milton; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 normal students in grades 4 through 12 indicated that they knew very little about mental retardation and the mentally retarded. Only about half of the respondents made reference to "subaverage general intellectual functioning," while references to physical impairment were frequent. (DLS)

  2. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  3. Playtherapy with the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broekgaarden, R.; And Others

    The use of play therapy with mentally retarded children and adults is examined. The lack of research on the topic is noted, and information on psychoanalytically oriented play therapy approaches are reviewed. Application of play therapy to mentally retarded clients is explored in terms of two questions: (1) at what level do mentally retarded…

  4. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  5. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  6. China's Approach to Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittman, Stephan

    History, tradition, culture, and superstition have played significant roles in influencing Chinese attitudes toward the mentally retarded. China's overwhelmingly rural, agricultural society has made it dependent upon a huge force of semi-skilled and unskilled labor, to which the retarded are capable of contribution. The stress on self-reliance,…

  7. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  8. Educable Mentally Retarded; Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie A; Willemin, Helen

    An introduction of the curriculum guide for educable retarded children with mental ages from 5.0 to 6.6 discusses the philosophy of educating the retarded, goals, the educable program, the readiness program, use of the guide, and a suggested daily schedule. Suggested units treat the following: citizenship and patriotism, family and school,…

  9. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  10. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  11. Lorentz-diffeomorphism quasi-local conserved charges and Virasoro algebra in Chern-Simons-like theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2016-08-01

    The Chern-Simons-like theories of gravity (CSLTG) are formulated at first order formalism. In this formalism, the derivation of the entropy of a black hole on bifurcation surface, as a quasi-local conserved charge is problematic. In this paper we overcome these problems by considering the concept of total variation and the Lorentz-Lie derivative. We firstly find an expression for the ADT conserved current in the context of the CSLTG which is based on the concept of the Killing vector fields. Then, we generalize it to be conserved for all diffeomorphism generators. Thus, we can extract an off-shell conserved charge for any vector field which generates a diffeomorphism. The formalism presented here is based on the concept of quasi-local conserved charges which are off-shell. The charges can be calculated on any codimension two space-like surface surrounding a black hole and the results are independent of the chosen surface. By using the off-shell quasi-local conserved charge, we investigate the Virasoro algebra and find a formula to calculate the central extension term. We apply the formalism to the BTZ black hole solution in the context of the Einstein gravity and the Generalized massive gravity, then we find the eigenvalues of their Virasoro generators as well as the corresponding central charges. Eventually, we calculate the entropy of the BTZ black hole by the Cardy formula and we show that the result exactly matches the one obtained by the concept of the off-shell conserved charges.

  12. X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Ropers, H-Hilger; Hamel, Ben C J

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to this rule, and this is one of the reasons why research into the genetic and molecular causes of mental retardation has focused almost entirely on the X-chromosome. Here, we review the remarkable recent progress in this field, its promise for understanding neural function, learning and memory, and the implications of this research for health care.

  13. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  14. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  15. Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Patricia

    Literature on deinstitutionalization of mentally retarded persons is reviewed. Cited are studies showing positive aspects, including improved communication abilities, increased adaptive behavior and personal satisfaction. Community adjustment findings focus on effects of involuntary relocation to another facility, age differences, and…

  16. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  17. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Anne; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Greengard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation is a common form of cognitive impairment affecting approximately 3% of the population in industrialized countries. The mental retardation syndrome incorporates a highly diverse group of mental disorders characterized by the combination of cognitive impairment and defective adaptive behavior. The genetic basis of the disease is strongly supported by identification of the genetic lesions associated with impaired cognition, learning, and social adaptation in many mental retardation syndromes. Several of the impaired genes encode epigenetic regulators of gene expression. These regulators exert their function through genome-wide posttranslational modification of histones or by mediating and/or recognizing DNA methylation. In this chapter, we review the most recent advances in the field of epigenetic mechanisms of mental retardation. In particular, we focus on animal models of the human diseases and the mechanism of transcriptional deregulation associated with changes in the cell epigenome.

  19. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  20. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  1. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  2. Balanced translocations in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Vandeweyer, Geert; Kooy, R Frank

    2009-07-01

    Over the past few decades, the knowledge on genetic defects causing mental retardation has dramatically increased. In this review, we discuss the importance of balanced chromosomal translocations in the identification of genes responsible for mental retardation. We present a database-search guided overview of balanced translocations identified in patients with mental retardation. We divide those in four categories: (1) balanced translocations that helped to identify a causative gene within a contiguous gene syndrome, (2) balanced translocations that led to the identification of a mental retardation gene confirmed by independent methods, (3) balanced translocations disrupting candidate genes that have not been confirmed by independent methods and (4) balanced translocations not reported to disrupt protein coding sequences. It can safely be concluded that balanced translocations have been instrumental in the identification of multiple genes that are involved in mental retardation. In addition, many more candidate genes were identified with a suspected but (as yet?) unconfirmed role in mental retardation. Some balanced translocations do not disrupt a protein coding gene and it can be speculated that in the light of recent findings concerning ncRNA's and ultra-conserved regions, such findings are worth further investigation as these potentially may lead us to the discovery of novel disease mechanisms.

  3. X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lisik, Małgorzata Zofia; Sieron, Aleksander L

    2008-11-01

    Mental retardation is a serious medical and social problem. The prevalence of mental retardation in Western countries is estimated to be between 2 and 3%. Establishing the cause of mental retardation is essential for prognosis, management, and genetic counseling. It is estimated that 25-35% of mental retardation might have a genetic background. Of these genetic causes, 25-30% are probably due to mutations on the X chromosome (X-linked mental retardation, XLMR). XLMR is a heterogeneous set of conditions involved in a large proportion of inherited mental retardation. More than 200 XLMR conditions have been reported and 76 genes has been linked to them. XLMR conditions are commonly subdivided into syndromic and nonsyndromic forms on the basis of clinical presentation. The distinction between these forms of XLMR is gradually becoming less clear as phenotypes are described for several of the genes. The spectrum of phenotypic variability in XLMR is so large that mutations in several XLMR genes have been found in both syndromic and nonsyndromic (XLMR) pedigrees. About 42% of patients from families with an XLMR history might have mutations in one of the known genes implicated in XLMR. However, in genetic counseling we have to use empiric recurrence risk.

  4. Development of novel fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  5. Program Budgeting and the Mentally Retarded. Perspective Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded, Arlington, VA.

    Reported are 1973 conference proceedings of the National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded (MR), which address the economics of service delivery to mentally handicapped children and adults. Conference speakers included a state legislator, a state budget official, an economist, and state and local officials.…

  6. Sorption-capacity limited retardation of radionuclides transport in water-saturated packing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclides breakthrough times as calculated through constant retardation factors obtained in dilute solutions are non-conservative. The constant retardation approach regards the solid as having infinite sorption capacity throughout the solid. However, as the solid becomes locally saturated, such as in the proximity of the waste form-packing materials interface, it will exhibit no retardation properties, and transport will take place as if the radionuclides were locally non-reactive. The magnitude of the effect of finite sorption capacity of the packing materials on radionuclide transport is discussed with reference to high-level waste package performance. An example based on literature sorption data indicates that the breakthrough time may be overpredicted by orders of magnitude using a constant retardation factor as compared to using the entire sorption isotherm to obtain a concentration-dependent retardation factor. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  7. The genetics of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Raymond, F Lucy; Tarpey, Patrick

    2006-10-15

    Genetic abnormalities frequently give rise to a mental retardation phenotype. Recent advances in resolution of comparative genomic hybridization and genomic sequence annotation has identified new syndromes at chromosome 3q29 and 9q34. The finding of a significant number of copy number polymorphisms in the genome in the normal population, means that assigning pathogenicity to deletions and duplications in patients with mental retardation can be difficult but has been identified for duplications of MECP2 and L1CAM. Novel autosomal genes that cause mental retardation have been identified recently including CC2D1A identified by homozygosity mapping. Several new genes and pathways have been identified in the field of X-linked mental retardation but many more still await identification. Analysis of families where only a single male is affected reveals that the chance of this being due to a single X-linked gene abnormality is significantly less than would be expected if the excess of males in the population is entirely due to X-linked disease. Recent identification of novel X-linked mental retardation genes has identified components of the post-synaptic density and multiple zinc finger transcription factors as disease causing suggesting new mechanisms of disease causation. The first therapeutic treatments of animal models of mental retardation have been reported, a Drosophila model of Fragile X syndrome has been treated with lithium or metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists and a mouse model of NF1 has been treated with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lavastatin, which improves the learning and memory skills in these models.

  8. Transportation and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…

  9. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  10. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  11. Scholarly Productivity in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The most productive institutions in social, educational, and psychological research in mental retardation were identified by noting the affiliations of authors who have published recently (1978-84) in the field. Thirty of the 35 highest ranked institutions were state-assisted universities in the United States. (Author/DB)

  12. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  13. Idiots Savants: Retarded and Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    The paper reviews the paradoxical nature of idiots savants, persons who, although retarded, have exceptional skills in certain areas. Various explanations for the phenomenon are discussed, such as a specific genetic endowment, a specialized compensatory response to general intellectual deficiency, and possession of an eidetic memory. Various…

  14. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  15. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  16. Scouting for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, New Brunswick, NJ.

    The handbook for leaders discusses ways in which scouting helps and how the unit serves the boys. Advancement, rank, and the boys are discussed; boy scout tests (tenderfoot and second class interpretation for mentally retarded boys), group activities, and a sample ceremony are detailed. Listings are given of membership provisions, helps for…

  17. Books for Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.

    Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…

  18. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  19. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  20. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  1. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  2. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  3. Toilet Training the Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey K.

    The booklet offers guidelines in both Spanish and English to parents who are toilet training a mentally retarded child. The toilet training process is broken down into tasks that the child must learn, and the importance of positive reinforcement for each successfully accomplished task is emphasized. It is recommended that parents keep charts…

  4. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  5. MENTAL RETARDATION--THE PRESENT PROBLEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAFTER, ALBERT J.

    MENTAL RETARDATION IS DEFINED AS A MENTAL DEFECT, NOT A DISEASE. LEVELS OF SEVERITY IN MENTAL RETARDATION ARE CAUSED BY AN INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT. ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS CONCERNS THE LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY OF THE RETARDATE DUE TO IMPROVEMENTS IN MODERN MEDICINE. THIS IS CREATING A SITUATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL…

  6. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R., Ed.

    The text of Volume 4 represents an international review of research in mental retardation dealing primarily with human and animal laboratory behavior. The contents range through the following topics: memory processes in retardates and normals by Norman Ellis; a theory of primary and secondary familial mental retardation by Arthur Jensen;…

  7. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  8. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  9. Non-Verbal Communication in Retarded Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Evan R.; Dennis, Virginia Collier

    Thirty educable mentally retarded (EMR) and 20 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) black or white pupils were observed interacting with classmates and 25 teachers in a retardation center. Multi-modal communicative behavior was noted, with focus on interpersonal spatial distance as one index of relationship and affect between interacting partners.…

  10. Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…

  11. Biological Factors in Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costeff, H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Children (N=434) with nonsyndromic mental retardation were analysed for frequency of prenatal, perinatal and infantile biological disturbances. Mildly retarded individuals of unrelated parentage, both idiopathic and familial, had a strikingly higher prevalence of disturbances than a control group of retarded individuals with consanguineous parents…

  12. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  13. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R., Ed.

    The text of Volume 4 represents an international review of research in mental retardation dealing primarily with human and animal laboratory behavior. The contents range through the following topics: memory processes in retardates and normals by Norman Ellis; a theory of primary and secondary familial mental retardation by Arthur Jensen;…

  14. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  15. On the physical meaning of retardation factor and velocity of a nonlinearly sorbing solute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojid, M. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2005-02-01

    This study investigated the variation of retardation factor and velocity of a lithium (a nonlinearly sorbing solute) plume in relation to the variation of lithium concentration in the plume by using field-measured breakthrough curves (BTCs). A concentration-dependent/time-dependent retardation factor ( Rc) and a cell-averaged retardation factor (R¯) (please see Section 2.1 for definitions) of the lithium plume were derived from the BTCs. The concentration-dependent retardation factor, Rc, is initially large at low concentration of the lithium plume, and it drops steadily with the increasing concentration to a minimum value at the highest concentration of the plume. After the peak concentration has passed away, Rc increases gradually with the decreasing concentration of the plume. The cell-averaged retardation factor, R¯, is close to a section of the concentration-dependent retardation factor, which is obtained at the few highest concentrations in a BTC. R¯ varies widely, especially at the low concentrations of the lithium plume, with the distribution coefficient K of lithium and exponent n of the Freundlich isotherm for lithium adsorption. Considerable variations in R¯ are also observed between the BTCs at different depths in a monitoring well. A single average retardation factor defined for a monitoring well is thus confounded with the variation of concentrations in the BTCs at different depths. The instantaneous velocity of the lithium plume, called the retarded velocity/local velocity (please see Section 2.2 for definitions), changes with the concentration of the plume in an opposite way from the retardation factor. The retarded velocity is, of necessity, always lower than the constant velocity of the groundwater flow in the aquifer. A cell-averaged velocity of the lithium plume, derived from the cell-averaged retardation factor, is an average velocity of the plume at any point on the travel path for the entire breakthrough time of the plume. This velocity

  16. Collective excitations and retarded interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. Y.; Huberman, B. A.

    1985-03-01

    We study the dynamics of many-body systems with retarded interactions and show how their non-Markovian character can lead to nonergodic behavior. This nonergodicity is characterized by the appearance of long periods or chaotic wanderings in phase space. We construct the phase diagrams for Ising-type systems with delayed interactions, and show the emergence of non-Gibbsian measures as a function of both interaction strengths and delays.

  17. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  18. Ocular disorder in children with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash; Somani, Abhishek Arun Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Ocular problems are common in mentally retarded children. Due to population growth these problems are increasing. Prevalence rate is variable from region to region. Data on ocular problems in mentally retarded school children is lacking in this region. The aim of the present study was to identify the ocular disorders in children with mental retardation attending special schools in a district and to study their relationship with the degree of retardation. A total of 241 mentally retarded school children in the age group of 6-16 years attending special schools for the mentally retarded children in a district in central India were examined by a team of ophthalmologist, psychiatrist, and a resident in ophthalmology department of a medical college. Complete ocular examination was done. Ocular problems were identified and categorized according to the intelligent quotient. One hundred and twenty four children (51.45%) had ocular problems. Strabismus (10.37%) and refractive error (20.75%) were the common ocular problems seen in this study. An association was found between the severity of mental retardation and ocular problems (P<0.005). However, no association was seen between the severity of mental retardation and strabismus and refractive error. A high prevalence of ocular problems was seen in mentally retarded school children. Children with mental retardation should undergo annual ophthalmological check up. Early detection and correction of ocular problems will prevent visual impairment in future.

  19. Fire retardancy using applied materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, R.

    1971-01-01

    An example of advanced technology transfer from the Little Joe, Surveyor, Comsat, re-entry and Apollo age to everyday fire protection needs is presented. Utilizing the principle of sublimation cooling for thermostatic temperature control, the material meets a wide range of fire retardancy and heat transmission control requirements. Properties vary from flexible tape for conduits and electrical cables to rigid coatings for column protection, with a broad spectrum of sublimation temperatures available. The material can be applied in the field or in the factory, utilizing mass production techniques, yielding a product that is reliable, effective, widely available and low in cost.

  20. Angular Limb Deformities: Growth Retardation.

    PubMed

    McCarrel, Taralyn M

    2017-08-01

    Angular limb deformities are common in foals; however, the importance of the deformity and if treatment is required depend on the degree of deformity relative to normal conformation for stage of growth, the breed and discipline expectations, age, and response to conservative therapies. This article addresses the importance of the foal conformation examination to determine which foals need surgical intervention to correct an angular deformity and when. Techniques for surgical growth retardation include the transphyseal staple, screw and wire transphyseal bridge, and transphyseal screw. Appropriate timing for intervention for each location and complications associated with each procedure are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  2. Hyperactive and Nonhyperactive Institutionalized Retarded Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talkington, Larry W.; Hutton, W. Oran

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-one predominantly adolescent institutionalized retarded residents, classified as hyperactive, were compared on 15 variables to a matched group classified as nonhyperactive. (Author/MC)

  3. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  4. Yellow Book File of Program Procedures in Education for the Mentally Retarded. Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka. Div. of Education Services.

    The document is a brief collection of materials which provide a framework whereby local Kansas education units can individually and collectively identify ways to use the statewide effort to strengthen existing programs of service or develop new approaches at the local level for educating the mentally retarded. Part I introduces the process systems…

  5. Yellow Book File of Program Procedures in Education for the Mentally Retarded. Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka. Div. of Education Services.

    The document is a brief collection of materials which provide a framework whereby local Kansas education units can individually and collectively identify ways to use the statewide effort to strengthen existing programs of service or develop new approaches at the local level for educating the mentally retarded. Part I introduces the process systems…

  6. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  7. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  8. Perceptions of Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, David R.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Open-ended questions of college students (N=60) indicated students clearly differentiated between the mentally retarded and mentally ill. Mental retardation was characterized by physical stigmata, brain damage, developmental delays, and cognitive deficits; mental illness by emotional lability due to environmental, hereditary, or mixed factors.…

  9. Recreation for Retarded Teenagers and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bernice Wells; Ginglend, David R.

    Intended for recreational leaders, classroom teachers, volunteers, and parents, the text presents guidelines for planning and conducting activities for mentally retarded youth and young adults. Consideration of understanding the maturing retardate and his social needs includes different kinds of beneficial social experiences, the maturing…

  10. Mental Retardation, Mental Illness, and Seizure Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pary, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Review of psychiatric hospital discharge summaries for 247 individuals with mental retardation and psychiatric disorders found that 39 had a seizure diagnosis. The only difference between the groups with and without seizures was level of mental retardation. No differences existed concerning length of stay, transfer to state hospital, psychiatric…

  11. The Texas Plan to Combat Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Governor's Advisory Committee on Mental Retardation Planning, Austin, TX.

    The Texas state plan of action against mental retardation is presented. Aspects considered include the evolution of the plan, the role of the health services, medical aspects of retardation, education and training, vocational rehabilitation and employment, and social welfare. Also surveyed are the following: residential and day care, manpower,…

  12. Manual Skill Training of Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, David J.

    1975-01-01

    In an on-going pilot study, training procedures previously found successful with moderately and severely retarded adolescents and adults have been adapted to teaching trainable retarded children (6-, 8-, and 10-years-old) to assemble a 14-piece coaster brake. Modifications in the carefully detailed task analysis approach have included the need for…

  13. Innovations in Vocational Rehabilitation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, George E., Ed.

    Conference proceedings of the Vocational Rehabilitation Subdivision Meetings held at the American Association on Mental Deficiency contain discussions of innovative aspects of vocational rehabilitation and mental retardation. In the area of training rehabilitation counselors, George Baroff describes the Mental Retardation Training Institute in…

  14. Effects of fire retardant on water quality

    Treesearch

    Logan A. Norris; Warren L. Webb

    1989-01-01

    Ammonium-based fire retardants are important in managing wildfires, but their use can adversely affect water quality. Their entry, fate, and impact were studied in five forest streams. Initial retardant concentrations in water approached levels which could damage fish, but no distressed fish were found. Concentrations decreased sharply with time after application and...

  15. Severe Mental Retardation: From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane, Ed.; Filler, John, Ed.

    Fourteen papers examine current issues and practices in the education of students with severe mental retardation (SMR). Papers touch upon the broad context of education for SMR students, programs for the SMR population, and critical issues. The following papers are presented: "The Severely Mentally Retarded Individual: Philosophical and…

  16. Mental Retardation: Update 2002. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourcade, Jack

    This digest provides an overview of mental retardation in children and adults. It begins by discussing the definition of mental retardation and the three components that are required for an accurate diagnosis: an IQ score of approximately 70 or below, a determination of deficits in adaptive behavior, and origins of the disability prior to age 18.…

  17. MR 76. Mental Retardation: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The tenth annual report of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the history of America's services for the retarded from the 1850's to the present. Traced is governmental involvement through conferences on children and youth, and reviewed is the role of parents and volunteers in securing appropriate services. Among agencies…

  18. Problems of Psychology of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. Inst. of Defectology.

    Presented are 18 papers on problems in the psychology of mentally retarded children. Seven of the papers are in English, two in French, and nine in Russian. The English papers are concerned with the following topics: peculiarities of psychic functions in oligophrenic (retarded) children with pronounced underdevelopment of frontal lobes of cerebral…

  19. Interaction between Family Violence and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Heidi

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics that make individuals with mental retardation more vulnerable to family violence are discussed in the areas of child, adult, and sexual abuse. Common psychological effects of this trauma are then explored followed by implications for practice. A case study of a female with mental retardation is presented. (Contains references.)…

  20. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  1. Defining Mental Retardation from an Instructional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    A definition of mental retardation is presented to clarify perceptions of what should happen to persons with mental retardation after identification and program placement. The definition refers to the need for specific skill training and the development of independence. A rationale and six corollaries to the definition are discussed. (JDD)

  2. Teaching Physical Education to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Patricia A.

    Methods for teaching physical education activities and skills to mentally retarded children are presented. General objectives are listed and the physical education program is outlined. Hints are offered for teaching the retarded child; and basic skills and rhythms are described. The following are then described; rhythm games, a volleyball unit and…

  3. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  4. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  5. The Effects of Retardation on Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Brian R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploratory behavior of educationally mentally retarded 7- to 12-year-old children was compared to that of two independent groups of normal children matched on chronological and mental age. In a multidimensional assessment of exploration, results suggested that delays in exploratory behavior in retarded children are developmental in nature, and…

  6. UNDERSTANDING AND HELPING THE RETARDED READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRANG, RUTH, ED.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1962 STATEWIDE ARIZONA CONFERENCE ON READING DEVELOPMENT AND READING DIFFICULTIES INCLUDE 15 PAPERS. ARTICLES ON THE ABLE RETARDED READER ARE "UNDERSTANDING THE ABLE RETARDED READER" BY HELEN M. ROBINSON, AND "CLASSROOM PROCEDURES" BY ROSEMARY YOAKUM. PAPERS ON EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN ARE "IDENTIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL…

  7. Percutaneous permeation modifiers: enhancement versus retardation.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Diksha; Batheja, Priya; Kilfoyle, Brian; Rai, Vishwas; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2008-05-01

    The use of permeation enhancers to compromise the barrier properties of skin has been ongoing for decades. However, toxicity associated with certain xenobiotics has led to the development of permeation retardants. Since both enhancers and retardants modify the surface layer of the skin, they can be collectively referred to as penetration modifiers. This review attempts to outline a comparison of two types of penetration modifiers: enhancers and retardants. In addition to reports of enhancement and retardation by modifiers, we also provide evidence as to why we should group these compounds together, since we have found that retardants can become enhancers in different formulation environments. Since modifiers influence drug delivery, further exploration of these compounds is required to understand their modifying action on the properties of skin.

  8. Alternative routes to the retarded potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heras, Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Two procedures to introduce the familiar retarded potentials of Maxwell’s equations are reviewed. The first well-known procedure makes use of the Lorenz-gauge potentials of Maxwell’s equations. The second less-known procedure applies the retarded Helmholtz theorem to Maxwell’s equations. Both procedures are compared in the context of an undergraduate presentation of electrodynamics. The covariant form of both procedures is discussed for completeness. As a related discussion, two procedures to introduce the unfamiliar instantaneous potentials of Maxwell’s equations are also reviewed. The first procedure applies the standard Helmholtz theorem to Maxwell’s equations and the second one uses the Coulomb-gauge potentials of Maxwell’s equations. The retarded and instantaneous forms of the potentials of Maxwell’s equations are briefly commented upon. The retarded Helmholtz theorem is used to introduce the retarded potentials of Maxwell’s equations with magnetic monopoles.

  9. Social development of children with mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Indrabhushan; Singh, Amool R.; Akhtar, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social development of children with mental retardation has implications for prognosis. The present study evaluated whether the social maturity scale alone can reflect on the social maturity, intellectual level and consequent adjustment in family and society of children with mental retardation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five mentally retarded children were administered Vineland Social Maturity Scale and Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale. Results: It was found that there was significant relationship between the measures of social maturity scale and the IQ of the subjects. Further it was found that with increasing severity of retardation, social development also decreases and age does not have any effect on social development. Conclusion: Social quotient increases from profound to mild level of retardation. PMID:21234165

  10. Aetiology of mild mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, M A; Dennis, N R

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and family study was carried out in 169 children attending schools for the mildly mentally retarded in Southampton to assess the prevalence of recognised medical risk factors; 71 children (42%) had such risk factors. These were prenatal in 22, perinatal in 41, and postnatal in eight. Risk factors of possible, but less certain, significance were found in a further 63 children (37%). In 86 families (51%) there was a history of serious educational problems in both parents. The prevalence of both types of risk factor was higher in the children whose parents had no educational problems. There were, however, 25 children (15%) whose parents had no history of educational problems and in whom medical risk factors were either absent or minimal. PMID:3178264

  11. Care Of The Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810

  12. New scheme for finite-retardation limitations of linear retarders with fixed axes in polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Mo; Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Dong; He, De-Yong; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Finite retardation ranges of linear retarders with fixed axes limit their applications in polarization control. In this work, we present a simple and efficient constraint scheme for this finite-retardation limitation. Its theoretical basis is given geometrically and mathematically. The new polarization control algorithm combines the constraint scheme and a widely-used maximum-search algorithm. Both simulations and experiments confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed scheme and control algorithm. In experiments, the control system uses four cascaded linear retarders with fast axes alternately oriented at 0° and 45°. Each retarder (fiber squeezer) has a finite retardation range of 4π. For a 15-min test, the mean (maximum) polarization error angle is 0.09 (0.28) rad while stabilizing a polarization fluctuation at an average speed of 26 rad/s. Furthermore, no events of hitting retardation limits occur.

  13. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A child is classified as mentally retarded who exhibits significantly sub-average intellectual...

  14. Public health implications of components of plastics manufacture. Flame retardants.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, E M; Liepins, R

    1975-01-01

    The four processes involved in the flammability of materials are described and related to the various flame retardance mechanisms that may operate. Following this the four practical approaches used in improving flame retardance of materials are described. Each approach is illustrated with a number of typical examples of flame retardants or synthetic procedures used. This overview of flammability, flame retardance, and flame retardants used is followed by a more detailed examination of most of the plastics manufactured in the United States during 1973, their consumption patterns, and the primary types of flame retardants used in the flame retardance of the most used plastics. The main types of flame retardants are illustrated with a number of typical commercial examples. Statistical data on flame retardant market size, flame retardant growth in plastics, and price ranges of common flame retardants are presented. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:1175568

  15. Epilepsy, speech delay, and mental retardation in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Salvatore; Mostardini, Rosa; Di Bartolo, Rosanna Maria; Balestri, Paolo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common muscular dystrophies which is related to the deletion of tandem repeats on chromosome 4q35. Extramuscular features such as hearing loss, retinopathy, mental retardation, and epilepsy, may be observed in patients carrying large 4q35 deletions resulting in fragment sizes less than 12 kilobases (kb) (normal >35 kb). We report on a family affected by FSHD carrying a small 4q35 deletion and residual fragments length of 17 kb, presenting with epilepsy (three patients), speech delay (two), and mental retardation (one). In all patients semeiology of seizures and interictal EEG anomalies were congruent with a localization-related epilepsy possibly involving the temporal lobe. In conclusion, we provide further evidences that extramuscular findings such as epilepsy, speech delay, and mental retardation may occur in those patients carrying smaller 4q35 deletions, suggesting that a close correlation between 4q35 fragment size and clinical severity in FSHD is therefore not constant. Moreover, a review of the literature and our observations seem to suggest that focal epilepsies, likely related to the temporal lobe in the present family, represent the main type of epilepsy occurring in children with FSHD. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Correlations between vocal qualities and mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Biondi, S; Zappala, M; Amato, G; Consoli, F

    1990-01-01

    This research is intended to verify the existence of vocal spectrographic alterations, with particular reference to the values of Fundamental Frequency, in patients with different levels of Mental Retardation. The results show the existence of a direct correspondence between the values of the Fundamental Frequency and the level of Mental Retardation: the spectrographic characteristics appear to be more altered in subjects with severe Mental Retardation. The spectrographics patterns are characterized by the presence of bi-phonation particularly at the onset time and at the end, and by a noise signal on constant frequency. The shifts of Fundamental Frequency and voice breakage are rarely detected.

  17. A polymeric flame retardant additive for rubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N.; Maiti, S.

    1993-12-31

    Synthesis of a polyphosphonate by the interfacial polymerization of bisphenol-A (BPA) and dichloro-phenyl phosphine oxide (DCPO) using cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (TMAC) as phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was reported. The polyphosphonate was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, DSC and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The flame retardancy of the polymer was done by OI study. The polymer was used as a fire retardant additive to rubbers such as natural rubber (NR), styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR), nitrile rubber (NBR) and chloroprene rubber (CR). The efficiency of the fire retardant property of this additive was determined by LOI measurements of the various rubber samples.

  18. Role of retardation in three-dimensional relativistic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiff, A. D.; Afnan, I. R.

    1997-11-01

    Equal-time Green's function is used to derive a three-dimensional integral equation from the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The resultant equation, in the absence of antiparticles, is identical to the use of time-ordered diagrams, and has been used within the framework of φ2σ coupling to study the role of energy dependence and nonlocality when the two-body potential is the sum of σ exchange and crossed σ exchange. The results show that nonlocality and energy dependence make a substantial contribution to both the on-shell and off-shell amplitudes.

  19. Genomic imbalances in mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kriek, M; White, S; Bouma, M; Dauwerse, H; Hansson, K; Nijhuis, J; Bakker, B; van Ommen, G-J B; den Dunnen, J T; Breuning, M

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: It has been estimated that cytogenetically visible rearrangements are present in ~1% of newborns. These chromosomal changes can cause a wide range of deleterious developmental effects, including mental retardation (MR). It is assumed that many other cases exist where the cause is a submicroscopic deletion or duplication. To facilitate the detection of such cases, different techniques have been developed, which have differing efficiency as to the number of loci and patients that can be tested. Methods: We implemented multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH) to test areas known to be rearranged in MR patients (for example, subtelomeric/pericentromeric regions and those affected in microdeletion syndromes) and to look for new regions that might be related to MR. Results: In this study, over 30 000 screens for duplications and deletions were carried out; 162 different loci tested in each of 188 developmentally delayed patients. The analysis resulted in the detection of 19 rearrangements, of which ~65% would not have been detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis. A significant fraction (46%) of the rearrangements found were interstitial, despite the fact that only a limited number of these loci have so far been tested. Discussion: Our results strengthen the arguments for whole genome screening within this population, as it can be assumed that many more interstitial rearrangements would be detected. The strengths of MAPH for this analysis are the simplicity, the high throughput potential, and the high resolution of analysis. This combination should help in the future identification of the specific genes that are responsible for MR. PMID:15060096

  20. [X-linked mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Billuart, Pierre; Chelly, Jamel; Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2005-11-01

    X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) affects 1.8 per thousand male births and is usually categorized as "syndromic" (MRXS) or "non-specific" (MRX) forms according to the presence or absence of specific signs in addition to the MR. Up to 60 genes have been implicated in XLMR and certain mutations can alternatively lead to MRXS or MRX. Indeed the extreme phenotypic and allelic heterogeneity of XLMR makes the classification of most genes difficult. Therefore, following identification of new genes, accurate retrospective clinical evaluation of patients and their families is necessary to aid the molecular diagnosis and the classification of this heterogeneous group of disorders. Analyses of the protein products corresponding to XLMR genes show a great diversity of cellular pathways involved in MR. Common mechanisms are beginning to emerge : a first group of proteins belongs to the Rho and Rab GTPase signaling pathways involved in neuronal differentiation and synaptic plasticity and a second group is related to the regulation of gene expression. In this review, we illustrate the complexity of XLMR conditions and present recent data about the FMR1, ARX and Oligophrenin 1 genes.

  1. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  2. Daphnia emergence: a sensitive indicator of fire-retardant stress in temporary wetlands.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Martín, Silvia; Moreno, José M

    2005-05-01

    Fire-retardant formulations are increasingly used by fire managers to control wildland fires. Their extensive use requires an assessment of their impacts in those ecosystems that could be affected by them. Recent studies indicate the potential for environmental impacts when accidentally delivered to surface waters. Yet the response of temporary wetlands, such as vernal pools, typical in Mediterranean areas, is unknown. This study reports on the emergence response of a wetland population of Daphnia curvirostris Eylmann (Cladocera, Crustacea) from sediments that were treated with a commercial fire retardant (Fire-Trol 934). Three application levels were used: 1, 3 and 5 L m(-2). The low and medium levels are in the range of manufacturer's recommendations of use in the field based on the fuel characteristics. The high level simulates local elevated concentrations that may result from inhomogeneous retardant delivery. Results indicate that emergence success decreases with increasing application rate, leading to a complete failure with application levels of 5 L m(-2). This suggests that benthic-pelagic interactions in temporary wetlands-often the primary way by which recolonization of isolated wetlands occurs-can be significantly impacted by fire retardants once they fill with fall/winter rains, thereby serving as a sensitive indicator of fire-retardant contamination. Results highlight a research need for establishing of criteria for effective, but environmentally safe use of fire retardants in the environment.

  3. PCBs, PBBs and Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...

  4. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  5. Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, K A; Cuvo, A J

    1979-01-01

    This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents. A task analysis of three mending skills was developed and validated, aided by consultation with persons having expertise in home economics and mental retardation. The task analysis was modified to compensate for the constraints imposed by the trainees' disabilities. Five moderately retarded youths received training on sewing hems, buttons, and seams. Sewing skills were acquired rapidly and maintained. The behavior generalized from trained to untrained tasks on their common components for all subjects. A multiple baseline across participants combined with a multiple baseline across responses demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining community living skills with mentally retarded adolescents. PMID:117004

  6. Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cronin, K A; Cuvo, A J

    1979-01-01

    This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents. A task analysis of three mending skills was developed and validated, aided by consultation with persons having expertise in home economics and mental retardation. The task analysis was modified to compensate for the constraints imposed by the trainees' disabilities. Five moderately retarded youths received training on sewing hems, buttons, and seams. Sewing skills were acquired rapidly and maintained. The behavior generalized from trained to untrained tasks on their common components for all subjects. A multiple baseline across participants combined with a multiple baseline across responses demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining community living skills with mentally retarded adolescents.

  7. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  8. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  9. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  10. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  11. Physical Education: Equipment for Teaching the Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaya, John

    1976-01-01

    Equipment designed to help mentally retarded students develop flexibility, eye-hand and eye-foot coordination, muscle coordination, body balance and control, and social involvement in their peer group. (Author/MLF)

  12. PCBs, PBBs and Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...

  13. Retardation analytical model to extend service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D.

    1984-01-01

    A fatigue crack growth model that incorporates crack growth retardation effects and is applicable to the materials characteristics and service environments of high performance LH2/LO2 engine systems was developed and tested.

  14. Retardation Measurements of Infrared PVA Wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Z, H.; W, D.; D, Y.; Z, Z.; S, J.

    The wave plate made of Polyvinyl Alcohol PVA plastic film has several advantages such as its lower cost and insensitivity to temperature and incidence angle so it has been used in the Solar Multi-Channel Telescope SMCT in China But the important parameter retardations of PVA wave plates in the near infrared wavelength have never been provided In this paper a convenient and high precise instrument to get the retardations of discrete wavelengths or a continuous function of wavelength in near infrared is developed In this method the retardations of wave plates have been determined through calculating the maximum and minimum of light intensity The instrument error has been shown Additionally we can get the continuous direction of wavelength retardations in the ultraviolet visible or infrared spectral in another way

  15. Galactosaemia: A Preventable Form of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Galectosaemia, a treatable and potentially preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation is discussed with emphasis on neonatal screening tests, treatment with a galactose-free diet, and evidence of treatment effectiveness. (DB)

  16. Physical Education: Equipment for Teaching the Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaya, John

    1976-01-01

    Equipment designed to help mentally retarded students develop flexibility, eye-hand and eye-foot coordination, muscle coordination, body balance and control, and social involvement in their peer group. (Author/MLF)

  17. Job Enrichment and the Mentally Retarded Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effect of job enrichment on the production rate of 14 mentally retarded adult workers was evaluated. Job enrichment led to increases in standard rates of production for high IQ Ss and lower rates for low IQ Ss. (Author)

  18. Epilepsy, Mental Retardation, and Anticonvulsant Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kenneth Roland; Katz-Garris, Lynda

    1979-01-01

    Inappropriate or inadequately documented medication for patients in mental retardation institutions is a major medical and economic problem. Within a 127-patient ward, 41 patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Of these patients, 24 had no documented indications for usage. (Author)

  19. Epilepsy, Mental Retardation, and Anticonvulsant Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kenneth Roland; Katz-Garris, Lynda

    1979-01-01

    Inappropriate or inadequately documented medication for patients in mental retardation institutions is a major medical and economic problem. Within a 127-patient ward, 41 patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Of these patients, 24 had no documented indications for usage. (Author)

  20. Conformal anomaly and off-shell extensions of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann

    2017-08-01

    The gauge dependence of the conformal anomaly for spin-3/2 and spin-2 fields in nonconformal supergravities has been a long standing puzzle. In this paper we argue that the "correct" gauge choice is the one that follows from requiring all terms that would imply a violation of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition to be absent in the counterterm, because otherwise the usual link between the anomaly and the one-loop divergence becomes invalid. Remarkably, the "good" choice of gauge is the one that confirms our previous result [K. A. Meissner and H. Nicolai, Phys. Lett. B 772, 169 (2017)., 10.1016/j.physletb.2017.06.031] that a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in D =4 can only be achieved for N -extended (Poincaré) supergravities with N ≥5 .

  1. Off-shell {N} = 2 linear multiplets in five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkan, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    We present a superconformal tensor calculus for an arbitrary number of five dimensional {N} = 2 linear multiplets. We also demonstrate how to construct higher derivative invariants, and produce higher order supersymmetric off-diagonal models. Finally, we show the procedure required for the derivation of the supersymmetric completion of the non-Abelian F 4 action.

  2. CesrTA Retarding Field Analyzer Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Calvey, J.R.; Celata, C.M.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.F.; Greenwald, S.; Leong, Z.; Livezey, J.; Palmer, M.A.; Furman, M.; Venturini, M.; Harkay, K.

    2010-05-23

    Retarding field analyzers (RFAs) provide an effective measure of the local electron cloud density and energy distribution. Proper interpretation of RFA data can yield information about the behavior of the cloud, as well as the surface properties of the instrumented vacuum chamber. However, due to the complex interaction of the cloud with the RFA itself, understanding these measurements can be nontrivial. This paper examines different methods for interpreting RFA data via cloud simulation programs. Techniques include postprocessing the output of a simulation code to predict the RFA response; and incorporating an RFA model into the cloud modeling program itself.

  3. Musical aptitudes, musical interests and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K

    1991-08-01

    A modified version of the Bentley scales of musical aptitude was given to a sample of mild and moderately retarded adults chosen on the basis of alleged musical interest or experience. Several comparison groups were also given the assessment battery. The musical nominees generally performed more accurately than both matched retarded subjects with no particular musical interests and a group of normal children matched on (Wechsler) vocabulary scores. The musical nominees showed especially high performance on the subtest assessing voice analysis in chords.

  4. Influence of Retardants to Burning Lignocellulosic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tureková, Ivana; Harangozó, Jozef; Martinka, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with monitoring retardant changes of lignocellulosic materials. Combustion of lignocellulosic materials and fire-technical characteristics are described. In assessing the retarding effect of salt NH4H2PO4, fire-technical characteristics as limiting oxygen index (LOI) were measured, and by using thermoanalytical TG and DSC methods. High-temperature process of cellulose degradation at various flame concentrations was studied.

  5. Insulin secretion in children with growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Boscherini, B; Finocchi, G; Lostia, O; Mancuso, G; Montani, P; Pasquino, A M; Rezza, E; Rocchio, J; Taggi, F; Zorretta, D

    1977-12-30

    The effect of tolbutamide administration on insulin secretion was studied in 69 children with growth retardation. Diminished insulin secretion was found in all the patients, compared to the control group. This insulin deficit was most evident in patients with isolated, total GH deficiency and least evident in children with idiopathic short stature. Intermediate values were found in dwarfism due to isolated, partial GH deficiency. These results favour the hypothesis that hypoinsulinism contributes to the somatotropin deficiency in causing growth retardation.

  6. Gitelman's syndrome: Rare presentation with growth retardation

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, A.; Ambey, R.; Gaur, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    Gitelman's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hyperreninemia and without hypertension. Gitelman's syndrome is caused by mutations of the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the Na/Cl co-transporter (NCCT) in the distal convoluted tubule. Majority of cases manifest during adolescence or adulthood and growth retardation is not the common feature. We report a rare presentation of Gitelman's syndrome in a four-year-old boy with growth retardation. PMID:24574637

  7. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  8. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  9. Dendritic spine abnormalities in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver

    2010-12-01

    Abnormalities in dendritic spine morphologies are often associated with mental retardation. Since dendritic spines are thought to represent a morphological correlate of neuronal plasticity, altered spine morphologies may underlie or contribute to cognitive deficits seen in mental retardation. Signaling cascades that are important for cytoskeletal regulation may have an impact upon spine morphologies. The Rho GTPase signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and to play fundamental roles in the structural plasticity of dendritic spines. Moreover, alterations in the Rho GTPase signaling pathway have been shown to contribute to mental retardation. Recently, different mental retardation-associated genes have been identified that encode modulators of the Rho GTPases. Disturbances in these genes can lead to mental retardation and-on the morphological level-to alterations in dendritic spines. Thus, getting more insight into the Rho GTPase signaling pathways, and the molecules involved, would not only help in understanding the basic mechanisms by which the morphologies of dendritic spines are modulated but may also allow the development of therapeutic strategies to counteract some aspects of mental retardation.

  10. Glyoxalase I retards renal senescence.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoichiro; Inagi, Reiko; Miyata, Toshio; Nagai, Ryoji; Arai, Makoto; Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Itokawa, Masanari; Fujita, Toshiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2011-12-01

    Although kidney functions deteriorate with age, little is known about the general morphological alterations and mechanisms of renal senescence. We hypothesized that carbonyl stress causes senescence and investigated the possible role of glyoxalase I (GLO1), which detoxifies precursors of advanced glycation end products in the aging process of the kidney. We observed amelioration of senescence in GLO1-transgenic aged rats (assessed by expression levels of senescence markers such as p53, p21(WAF1/CIP1), and p16(INK4A)) and a positive rate of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SABG) staining, associated with reduction of renal advanced glycation end product accumulation (estimated by the amount of carboxyethyl lysine). GLO1-transgenic rats showed amelioration of interstitial thickening (observed as an age-related presentation in human renal biopsy specimens) and were protected against age-dependent decline of renal functions. We used GLO1 overexpression or knockdown in primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells to investigate the effect of GLO1 on cellular senescence. Senescence markers were significantly up-regulated in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells at late passage and in those treated with etoposide, a chemical inducer of senescence. GLO1 cellular overexpression ameliorated and knockdown enhanced the cellular senescence phenotypes. Furthermore, we confirmed the association of decreased GLO1 enzymatic activity and age-dependent deterioration of renal function in aged humans with GLO1 mutation. These findings indicate that GLO1 ameliorates carbonyl stress to retard renal senescence. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multistage Pressure-Retarded Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Devesh; Fyles, Thomas M.; Struchtrup, Henning

    2016-10-01

    One promising sustainable energy source is the chemical potential difference between salt and freshwater. The membrane process of pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has been the most widely investigated means to harvest salinity gradient energy. In this report, we analyse the thermodynamic efficiency of multistage PRO systems to optimize energy recovery from a salinity gradient. We establish a unified description of the efficiencies of the component pumps (P), turbines (T), pressure exchangers (PX), and membrane modules (M) and exploit this model to determine the maximum available work with respect to the volume of the brine produced, the volume of the sea water consumed, or the volume of the freshwater that permeates the membrane. In an idealized series configuration of 1-20 modules (P-M-T), the three optimization conditions have significantly different intermediate operating pressures in the modules, but demonstrate that multistage systems can recover a significantly larger fraction of the available work compared to single-stage PRO. The biggest proportional advantage occurs for one to three modules in series. The available work depends upon the component efficiencies, but the proportional advantage of multistage PRO is retained. We also optimize one- and two-stage PX-M-T and P-M-T configurations with respect to the three volume parameters, and again significantly different optimal operating conditions are found. PX-M-T systems are more efficient than P-M-T systems, and two-stage systems have efficiency advantages that transcend assumed component efficiencies. The results indicate that overall system design with a clear focus on critical optimization parameters has the potential to significantly improve the near-term practical feasibility of PRO.

  12. New supersymmetric localizations from topological gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jinbeom; Imbimbo, Camillo; Rey, Soo-Jong; Rosa, Dario

    2016-03-01

    Supersymmetric field theories can be studied exactly on off-shell "localizing" supergravity backgrounds. We show that these supergravity configurations can be identified with BRST invariant configurations of background topological gravity coupled to background topological gauge multiplets. We apply this topological point of view to two-dimensional {N}=left(2,2right) supersymmetric matter theories to obtain, in a simple and straightforward way, a complete classification of localizing supersymmetric backgrounds in two dimensions. We recover all known localizing backgrounds and (infinitely) many more that have not been explored so far. The newly found localizing backgrounds are characterized by quantized fluxes for both graviphotons of the {N}=left(2,2right) supergravity multiplet. The BRST invariant topological backgrounds are parametrized by both Killing vectors and {{S}}^1 -equivariant cohomology of the two-dimensional spacetime. We completely reconstruct the supergravity backgrounds from the topological data: some of the supergravity fields are twisted versions of the topological backgrounds, but others are composite, in that they are nonlinear functionals of topological fields. Moreover, we show that the supersymmetric Ω-deformation is nothing but the background value of the ghost-for-ghost of topological gravity, a result which holds for higher dimensions too.

  13. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  14. Reactions to the Labels "Institutionalized" and "Mentally Retarded" by Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.

    The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…

  15. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Retarded and Non-Retarded Children at Two Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Millard C.; Connor, Catherine

    Cooperative and competitive interaction (interpersonal relationship) between pairs of retarded and nonretarded children of ages 6 to 7 and 11 to 12 were assessed in a situation involving a marble pull apparatus in which competitive interaction was nonadaptive in terms of reward attainment. The retarded group was significantly more cooperative than…

  16. The Delivery of Services to Mentally Retarded Persons Living in Rural Areas: Context, Problems and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horejsi, Charles R.

    Strategies and techniques for developing community-based programs for mentally retarded persons in rural areas must take into consideration local circumstances, resources, and characteristics. Rural norms such as overt racial segregation, social conformity, the importance of church, and the stigma of obtaining human services for personal problems…

  17. The Effects of Stimulus Modification on Putting Accuracy for Adults with Severe or Profound Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Jenifer L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study found that, following a systematic fading of putting guides, three adults with severe/profound mental retardation increased accuracy in making putts during posttraining assessments on a practice green. Results also maintained at, or increased above, posttraining levels at a two-week maintenance check and were generalized to a local golf…

  18. Mental Retardation Publications of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Superseding the 1966 issue of "Mental Retardation Publications" and its supplement of 1967, this bibliography annotates 189 items. No publications of private agencies or state and local governments are included. The bibliography is organized into the following sections: general; legislative and federal programs; specific hand capping conditions…

  19. [Clinical features of strabismus in psychomotor retardation].

    PubMed

    Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. X linked mental retardation: a clinical guide.

    PubMed

    Raymond, F L

    2006-03-01

    Mental retardation is more common in males than females in the population, assumed to be due to mutations on the X chromosome. The prevalence of the 24 genes identified to date is low and less common than expansions in FMR1, which cause Fragile X syndrome. Systematic screening of all other X linked genes in X linked families with mental retardation is currently not feasible in a clinical setting. The phenotypes of genes causing syndromic and non-syndromic mental retardation (NLGN3, NLGN4, RPS6KA3(RSK2), OPHN1, ATRX, SLC6A8, ARX, SYN1, AGTR2, MECP2, PQBP1, SMCX, and SLC16A2) are first discussed, as these may be the focus of more targeted mutation analysis. Secondly, the relative prevalence of genes causing only non-syndromic mental retardation (IL1RAPL1, TM4SF2, ZNF41, FTSJ1, DLG3, FACL4, PAK3, ARHGEF6, FMR2, and GDI) is summarised. Thirdly, the problem of recurrence risk where a molecular genetics diagnosis has not been made and what proportion of the male excess of mental retardation is due to monogenic disorders of the X chromosome are discussed.

  1. Reduced Cortical Thickness in Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation is a developmental disorder associated with impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in adaptive behaviors. Many studies have addressed white matter abnormalities in patients with mental retardation, while the changes of the cerebral cortex have been studied to a lesser extent. Quantitative analysis of cortical integrity using cortical thickness measurement may provide new insights into the gray matter pathology. In this study, cortical thickness was compared between 13 patients with mental retardation and 26 demographically matched healthy controls. We found that patients with mental retardation had significantly reduced cortical thickness in multiple brain regions compared with healthy controls. These regions include the bilateral lingual gyrus, the bilateral fusiform gyrus, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the bilateral temporal pole, the left inferior temporal gyrus, the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the right precentral gyrus. The observed cortical thickness reductions might be the anatomical substrates for the impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in adaptive behaviors in patients with mental retardation. Cortical thickness measurement might provide a sensitive prospective surrogate marker for clinical trials of neuroprotective medications. PMID:22216343

  2. Advances in X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Roger E

    2005-12-01

    Mutations in genes on the X chromosome rival chromosome aberrations as a cause of mental retardation. Progress in the clinical and molecular delineation of X-linked mental retardation has outpaced progress in understanding autosomal mental retardation. This is a result in large part of the identification of large families in which mental retardation has segregated in an X-linked pattern and the greater ease with which molecular technologies can be applied to hemizygosity in males. About one-third of the estimated 165 genes associated with syndromal mutations of genes on the X chromosome and one-fourth of the estimated 100 genes associated with nonsyndromal mutations of genes on the X chromosome have been identified. In a number of instances, the same gene is responsible for syndromal and nonsyndromal mutations of genes on the X chromosome. The molecular delineation of mutations of genes on the X chromosome has allowed certain conditions to be lumped together on the basis of allelism and has caused others that appear clinical similar to remain separate. The clinical and molecular advances have allowed X-linked mental retardation to be more clearly delineated, have provided the means of confirmatory laboratory testing, and have ushered in an era of carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

  3. Flame-retardant carbon nanotube films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janas, Dawid; Rdest, Monika; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have demonstrated fire-retardancy properties of a polymer matrix-free CNT film for the first time. As compared with classical fire-retardant materials such as Kevlar, Twaron or Nomex, the CNT film showed a spectrum of advantages. The material is lightweight, flexible and well-adherent to even the most complicated shapes. The results have showed that by using CNTs for fire-retardancy we can extend the operational time almost two-fold, what makes CNTs a much better protection than the solutions employed nowadays. We believe that among other great properties of CNT, their macroscopic assemblies such as CNT films show significant potential for becoming a fire protective coating, which exhibits high performance in not sustaining fire.

  4. [Drug dependence, smoking and fetal growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Hanzal, E; Hoffmann, G; Kölbl, H

    1992-07-01

    Illicit drug abuse, as well as smoking, are known risk factors in the development of intrauterine growth retardation. In an attempt to clarify the influence of these two aetiological factors, a retrospective analysis was carried out. 35 drug- and nicotine-addicted pregnant women were compared to 104 smokers and 101 non-smoking controls with regard to foetal outcome. Relative risk estimates for intrauterine growth retardation of the drug and nicotine group were 3.14 (95% confidence limits 1.88-5.25; p = 0.0001) whereas the smoking group had 1.39 (95% confidence limits 0.96-2.02; p = 0.0482) compared to non-smoking controls. The foetal outcome was best in the latter group: children of drug-addicted mothers had a considerably higher morbidity and mortality rate. This study shows an almost threefold risk for intrauterine growth retardation in drug-addicts who smoke, compared to nicotine abuse alone.

  5. Biodegradation of brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Parsons, John R

    2016-04-01

    Brominated flame retardants account for about 21% of the total production of flame retardants and many of these have been identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Nevertheless, debromination of these chemicals under anaerobic conditions is well established, although this can increase their toxicity. Consequently, the production and use of these chemicals has been restricted and alternative products have been developed. Many of these are brominated compounds and share some of the disadvantages of the chemicals they are meant to replace. Therefore, other, nonbrominated, flame retardants such as organophosphorus compounds are also being used in increasing quantities, despite the fact that knowledge of their biodegradation and environmental fate is often lacking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  7. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Galasso, Cinzia; Lo-Castro, Adriana; El-Malhany, Nadia; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-02-14

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition.

  8. Mentally retarded workers' reactions to their jobs.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Z; Cnaan, R A; Cnaan, A

    1985-09-01

    Reactions of 34 mentally retarded employees to their jobs were examined in a field study conducted at a sheltered workshop. Three experienced social workers observed a group of retarded employees whose job was assembling toys. The workers were then interviewed on their perceptions of and reactions to their job characteristics and supervision, and these were related to performance data that included performance time, productivity, and effort ratings. Results showed that performance measures were related to perceived job characteristics and that growth-need strength (people's needs for personal development and achievement) affected these relationships. On the basis of these results, we discussed the feasibility of using motivation models for retarded workers that were designed for nonretarded workers.

  9. [Considerations of psychopathology in mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Masi, G

    1994-06-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded subjects: one third to two thirds of mentally retarded subjects exhibit psychiatric disorders, a proportion which is much higher than that found in subjects with normal intelligence. The issue is to clarify the nature of the relationship between cognitive and psychiatric disorders (generally analyzed in a dichotomous approach). A way to analyze the phenomenon is to consider a psychopathological approach, which can define the underlying mechanisms responsible for this incidence. The aim of this paper is to analyze the explicatory value of deficient cognitive development, as the main factor determining a specific personality organization. Direct and indirect effects of cognitive impairment on the development of personality disorders are described: the first, in terms of how cognitive deficit (i.e. severity, homogeneity in several cognitive domains, pattern of development) disorganizes personality; the second, in terms of impact that cognitive deficit could have on the child's relationship with the external world, especially with the mother. In order to illustrate these viewpoint, the paper discusses the role of cognitive functions in the development of personality. Specifically, the way the normal child processes his perceptual and motor experiences is analyzed, that is pursuit of new causal links in his knowledge seeking activity of mastering the world. The child's primitive relationship with the world is then aimed at learning, exploring and searching for new causal links. In the light of these considerations, what the child with Mental Retardation experiences is discussed. A series of psychopathological mechanisms in Mental Retardation are postulated. The organization of the Mentally Retarded child's internal world is described, as reflected in Rorschach protocols, which outline a chaotic and primitive internal world, but with a specificity of its own. Finally, the paper discusses the

  10. Fast quantitative retardance imaging of biological samples using quandri-wave interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Savatier, Julien; Bon, Pierre; Wattellier, Benoit; Monneret, Serge

    2017-02-01

    We describe a technique based on the use of a high-resolution quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometer to perform quantitative linear birefringence measurements on biological samples [1] such as living cells and tissues. The system combines QPI with different excitation polarizations to create retardance images. This creates a new kind of image contrast based on the local retardance, reveals the structure of sample anisotropic components and adds specificity to label-free phase images. We implemented this technique allowing us to take retardance images in less than 1 second which allows us to make high speed acquisitions to reconstruct tissues virtual slides with different modalities (i.e intensity, phase and retardance). Comparisons between healthy and tumoral 10 µm thick skin tissues and collagen orientation studies in the latter will be presented. [1] S. Aknoun, P. Bon, J. Savatier, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, "Quantitative retardance imaging of biological samples using quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry," Opt. Express 23, 16383-16406 (2015).

  11. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    PubMed

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  12. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  13. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  14. Automatic Memory Processes in Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Debra Kosteski; And Others

    Automatic memory processes were investigated in 10 mild and moderately retarded persons (21 years old) and in 10 chronological age-matched college level and 10 mental age-matched elementary grade control subjects through use of a frequency estimation task. This task required the subjects to view a series of slides, then estimate how many times…

  15. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  16. Teaching Mending Skills to Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1979-01-01

    A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)

  17. The Deaf Mentally Retarded: Understanding Their World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonies, Barbara C.

    Described photographically and textually in the brochure are the educational, vocational, and social needs of deaf mentally retarded (DMR) children and adults. The DMR person is discussed in relation to the double handicap which precludes educational benefits from a traditional program, secondary problems such as visual handicaps, and incidence…

  18. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  19. Implementing Programs for Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    Guidelines for the development of programs for trainable mentally retarded children are presented. Major task areas identified are the family group, communication skills, physical development, socialization, recreational interests and skills, and preparation for work oriented activity. Six papers are presented: precision teaching and behavior…

  20. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  1. Teaching Mending Skills to Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1979-01-01

    A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)

  2. Flame retardant cotton barrier nonwovens for mattresses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    According to regulation CPSC 16 CFR 1633, every new residential mattress sold in the United States since July 2007 must resist ignition by open flame. An environmentally benign “green”, inexpensive way to meet this regulation is to use a low-cost flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric. In this study, a...

  3. Thoughts on Changing the Term Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kevin K.

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. It offers some ideas on how society might think about elemental change in terminology so a healthy outcome can be achieved without simply rearranging prejudices. The term "cognitive- adaptive disability" is proposed. (Contains three…

  4. Computer Assisted Instruction for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Providence Coll., RI.

    Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for the mentally retarded is described; the advantages of CAI (which generally follows the pattern of programed instruction) are listed; and the roles of the teacher and the student are summarized. The coursewriter is explained, and its use as an experimental tool discussed. Guidelines are given covering…

  5. LANGUAGE ACHIEVEMENTS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DURRELL, DONALD D.; SULLIVAN, HELEN B.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE--(1) TO DISCOVER VARIATIONS IN LANGUAGE ACHIEVEMENTS OF CHILDREN AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) TO DISCOVER "OPEN CHANNELS" FOR CURRENT EDUCATION OF THESE CHILDREN, (3) TO CHART THE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC DIFFICULTIES IN THE INTAKE AND OUTPUT IDEAS THROUGH LANGUAGE, AND (4) TO IDENTIFY…

  6. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Phillip J., Ed.; Wehman, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents 19 chapters on life span perspectives and service issues for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. The book presents best practices and provides a view of the range of services necessary to work with people who have those disabilities. It is intended to provide a core reference for providers in the…

  7. HEALTH ASPECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing bromine have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...

  8. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  9. New fire retardant foams and intumescents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of fire retardant foams and intumescent paints for protection of commercial aircraft passengers in the event of fire is discussed. Recommended materials and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the materials are presented. Typical problems resulting from aircraft fires and the basic protective mechanisms to cope with these problems are examined.

  10. Prevention of Mental Retardation in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helge, Doris

    This paper describes causes of mental retardation in rural America, preventative methods, and factors impeding preventative approaches in rural settings and offers principles for tailoring traditional preventative methods for rural areas. Relevant findings of research conducted by the National Rural Project, American Council on Rural Special…

  11. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  12. Mental Retardation Research Methods in Latino Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the research methods used in the recruitment and analysis of a sample of 72 Puerto Rican mothers of a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is on the importance of involving the community in order to: (1) ensure that the community benefits, (2) strengthen the scientific integrity of the study, and (3) facilitate sample…

  13. Throwing Patterns of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auxter, David

    This study explored developmental patterns in the acquisition of the gross motor skill of throwing among 110 educable, mentally retarded 7- to 12-year-olds. Each child was examined through cinematographic procedures to discover: a) variance in throwing patterns, b) elements composing throwing skills, and c) sequential integration of the elements…

  14. Meta-Analyses in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews 26 meta-analyses in mental retardation in terms of selected hypotheses, sampling information, representative characteristics of the review, analysis of primary studies, interpretation of results, and reporting of the integrative view. Results indicate a wide variation in the amount of reported data similar to other analyses of…

  15. Bibliographic Instruction for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Dennis A.

    Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…

  16. HEALTH ASPECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing bromine have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...

  17. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  18. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  19. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  20. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  1. Ophthalmologic Screening of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Joel G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ophthalmological screening was conducted on 113 clients in a work activity center for adults with mental retardation. Abnormalities that were neither refractive nor strabismic were found in 32 percent of clients. Findings suggest the value of conducting screenings in settings familiar to such clients. (Author/DB)

  2. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  3. Novel additives to retard permeable flow

    SciTech Connect

    Golombok, Michael; Crane, Carel; Ineke, Erik; Welling, Marco; Harris, Jon

    2008-09-15

    Low concentrations of surfactant and cosolute in water, can selectively retard permeable flow in high permeability rocks compared to low permeability ones. This represents a way forward for more efficient areal sweep efficiency when water flooding a reservoir during improved oil recovery. (author)

  4. SUCCESS OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RETARDATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PECK, JOHN R.; AND OTHERS

    THE HABILITATION OF EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED YOUTH WAS STUDIED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PREDICTOR VARIABLES. TESTS AND INTERVIEWS BY QUESTIONNAIRES WERE MADE ON 5 GROUPS OF YOUTHS WITH 25 IN EACH GROUP. DATA WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE WEIGHTS OF EACH VARIABLE AND MEASURE. DIFFERENCES AMONG THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS WERE…

  5. MENTAL RETARDATION. CATALOG OF LIBRARY ACCESSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FEARON, ROSS E.

    LISTING ABOUT 570 ITEMS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY REPRESENTS THE MENTAL RETARDATION COLLECTION AT MANTOR LIBRARY, FARMINGTON STATE COLLEGE. ITEMS ARE LISTED BY DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION NUMBER OR VERTICAL FILE NUMBER, INCLUDED ARE CURRICULUM AND TEACHER GUIDES, PROGRAM DESCRIPTIONS, PARENT HANDBOOKS, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, DIRECTORIES, RESEARCH…

  6. Pharmacotherapy in Mental Retardation and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies examining effects of pharmacological interventions for children with mental retardation and autism. Discusses information regarding stimulants, neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, antianxiety drugs, and antidepressant drugs as measured by their effects on laboratory and clinical measures of activity level, self-injurious behavior, and…

  7. Epilepsy and Mental Retardation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive management of epilepsy in people with mental retardation requires consideration of four aspects of care: diagnosis and classification, anticonvulsant drug treatment, safety and protection from injury, and psychosocial functioning. This paper outlines what is known and unknown in these four areas and introduces articles in this…

  8. Drugs in Mental Retardation: Treatment or Tragedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of mentally retarded persons with psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs is discussed in terms of drug classification, rationale for use, attitudes toward use, and clinical research findings. The literature on neuroleptic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and cerebral stimulant drugs is summarized. Controversial reports that some medications…

  9. The Year 2000 Objective for Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houk, Vernon N.

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has begun a program for the prevention of disabilities, with one area of focus being developmental disabilities. An objective for the Year 2000 Health Objectives for the Nation has been proposed, stating: "By the year 2000, the prevalence of serious mental retardation (an intelligence quotient of less…

  10. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  11. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  12. Drugs in Mental Retardation: Treatment or Tragedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of mentally retarded persons with psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs is discussed in terms of drug classification, rationale for use, attitudes toward use, and clinical research findings. The literature on neuroleptic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and cerebral stimulant drugs is summarized. Controversial reports that some medications…

  13. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Phillip J., Ed.; Wehman, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents 19 chapters on life span perspectives and service issues for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. The book presents best practices and provides a view of the range of services necessary to work with people who have those disabilities. It is intended to provide a core reference for providers in the…

  14. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  15. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  16. Brominated flame retardants as food contaminants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter reviews analytical methods for the three major brominated flame retardant (BFR) classes in use today, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a "legacy" BFR no longer in use, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and a...

  17. Educating Students with Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, James R.; Polloway, Edward A.; Smith, Tom E. C.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the history of educating students with mild mental retardation and includes discussion of general demographic trends, contextual factors that influenced this process, assessment and instructional practices, and teacher roles and preparation. It then examines these same features currently and offers recommendations for…

  18. Pharmacotherapy in Mental Retardation and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies examining effects of pharmacological interventions for children with mental retardation and autism. Discusses information regarding stimulants, neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, antianxiety drugs, and antidepressant drugs as measured by their effects on laboratory and clinical measures of activity level, self-injurious behavior, and…

  19. Epilepsy and Mental Retardation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive management of epilepsy in people with mental retardation requires consideration of four aspects of care: diagnosis and classification, anticonvulsant drug treatment, safety and protection from injury, and psychosocial functioning. This paper outlines what is known and unknown in these four areas and introduces articles in this…

  20. Malnutrition as a cause of mental retardation: A population-based study from Sub-Himalayan India

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Shailja; Bhardwaj, Ashok; Singh, Mitasha; Chaudhary, Sanjeev; Kashyap, Vipasha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental retardation is one of the most common disabilities of childhood. The research on childhood malnutrition and its relationship with cognitive functioning suggests that malnutrition alone does not cause mental retardation. Objective: To identify the relation between malnutrition and cognition among children from a Sub-Himalayan state in North India. Materials and Methods: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural, urban, and slum area of district Kangra. A 30-cluster sampling technique was used to screen a population of children 1–10 years of age from five randomly selected panchayats (village government units) of district Kangra. The screening was based on a modified version of the ten questions screen, adapted to the local population. In the first phase, a door-to-door survey was done to identify suspects of mental retardation. In the second phase, the children found positive in the first phase were called for clinical examination to confirm mental retardation. Anthropometric assessment of all study children was done by measuring weight and height. The nutritional assessment was done by categorizing them according to Waterlow classification for malnutrition. Results: Out of the total 5300 children, 1.7% were diagnosed as mentally retarded. No positive association was reported with different types of malnutrition and mental retardation. A weakly positive association existed between nutritional status and mental retardation (correlation coefficient-0.04). Children who were both wasted and stunted had the highest risk (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval – 5.57, 2.29–10.36) of mental retardation as compared to normal. Conclusion: Malnutrition may be one of the causes but certainly not the only cause of mental retardation. Other causes may be contributing more significantly toward it. PMID:27365949

  1. International Directory of Mental Retardation Resources. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybwad, Rosemary F., Ed.

    The document presents an international directory of mental retardation resources. International organizations pertaining to the mentally retarded are listed and described, including those affiliated with the United Nations, intergovernmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, international coordinating agencies, and regional nongovernmental…

  2. The Performance of Cultural-Familial Retardates on Conservation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Harvey; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compared the performance of 29 institutionalized cultural-familial mental retardates on Piagetian conservation tasks. Examined the effects of age, sex, and degree of retardation on conservation performance. (BD)

  3. 3d N = 1 Chern-Simons-matter theory and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimpis, Dimitrios; Zhu, Yaodong

    2016-10-01

    We consider the most general, classically-conformal, three-dimensional N = 1 Chern-Simons-matter theory with global symmetry Sp (2) and gauge group U (N) × U (N). We show that the Lagrangian in the on-shell formulation of the theory admits one more free parameter as compared to the theory formulated in off-shell N = 1 superspace. The theory on T3 can be formally localized. We partially carry out the localization procedure for the theory on T3 with periodic boundary conditions. In particular we show that restricting to the saddle points with vanishing gauge connection gives a trivial contribution to the partition function, i.e. the bosonic and fermionic contributions exactly cancel each other.

  4. Gravitation is Retarded:Theory and Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Gravitation is Retarded:Theory and Evidence There were more than twenty times of observations about gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses since Maurice Allais’s pendulum test during the total solar eclipse of 1954 in Paris. All the theoretical modes are calculated according to Newton’s gravitation law. But due to the observation environments and conditions during above observations were not quite well, the platform for mounting the gravimeters were quite simple, so that the environment and human’s disturbance were unavoidable, therefore the data obtained from above observation where questionable. It is very hard to give a conclusion to say the gravity anomalies during the eclipses were really existing or not. The more important issue is that none of the suggested external factors could account for the magnitude and timing of observed anomalies, according to Chris Duif of University of Technology of Netherland. Since the total solar eclipse of Mohe, 1997, I have been working on a theory to explain the gravity anomalies. At Mohe, I was watching the image of the eclipse, and led a scientific term to conduct a comprehensive geophysical observation, including the gravity observation. The two kinds of observations were conducted at same location and same time. We noticed that solar light of the eclipse was emitted 500 seconds before the image reached to our eyes and cameras. It was reasonable to have similar idea that the gravitation emitted from the sun is also 500 seconds before our gravimeter received and recorded it; it means that gravitation is retarded. Based on either the Special Relativity or Leinard-Wiechert retarded potential, I have deduced the expressions for retarded gravitation; it is vector modification on Newton’s universal gravitation law. The retarded gravitation is gRT=-GM(R-Rβ)(1-β2)/R3(1-βr)3 For common cases, bodies move in a weak gravitation field along a quasi-straight light or with a slow speed, such as planets move around the

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  6. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  7. Preparation and characterizations of flame retardant polyamide 66 fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Y.; Liu, K.; Xiao, R.

    2017-06-01

    The polyamide 66 (PA66) is one of the most important thermoplastic materials, but it has the drawback of flammability. So the flame retardant PA66 was prepared by condensation polymerization using nylon salt and DOPO-based flame retardant in this paper. Then the flame retardant PA66 fiber was manufactured via melt spinning. The properties of flame retardant PA66 and flame retardant PA66 fiber were investigated by relative viscosity, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile test, vertical burning test (UL94) and limiting oxygen index (LOI) test. Although the loading of the DOPO-based flame retardant decreased the molecular weight, the melting temperature, the crystallinity and the mechanical properties of flame retardant PA66, the flame retardancy properties improved. The flame retardant PA66 loaded with 5.5 wt% of DOPO-based flame retardant can achieve a UL94 V-0 rating with a LOI value of 32.9%. The tenacity at break decreased from 4.51 cN·dtex-1 for PA66 fiber to 2.82 cN·dtex-1 for flame retardant PA66 fiber which still satisfied the requirements for fabrics. The flame retardant PA66 fiber expanded the application of PA66 materials which had a broad developing prospect.

  8. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  9. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  10. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  11. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  12. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  13. Issues in Identification and Assessment in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Stanley H.; Polloway, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a rationale for and a discussion of the Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Mental Retardation's Board of Directors' position on assessment and identification in mental retardation, especially mild retardation. The historical foundations of identification and assessment, current practices, recommended practices, legal…

  14. Evaluating Achievement of the Mentally Retarded: A Comprehensive Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotick, Andrew L.

    Several factors should be considered in using standardized tests to measure achievement in the mentally retarded. Who should be included in the normative sample is a first consideration; this depends on the definition of mentally retarded being used. For achievement purposes the mentally retarded probably differ from one another as much as they do…

  15. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  16. Placental leptin in normal, diabetic and fetal growth-retarded pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Lea, R G; Howe, D; Hannah, L T; Bonneau, O; Hunter, L; Hoggard, N

    2000-08-01

    Leptin expression in third trimester placenta (p) and leptin concentrations in umbilical cord blood (cb) were investigated in normal pregnancies [n = 10 (p), 31 (cb)] and abnormal pregnancies complicated with (i) maternal insulin-dependent diabetes [IDDM: n = 3 (p), 13 (cb)], (ii) gestational diabetes [GD: n = 2 (p), 10 (cb)] and (iii) fetal growth retardation [FGR: n = 5 (p), 5 (cb)]. By in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, placental leptin mRNA and protein were co-localized to the syncytiotrophoblast and villous vascular endothelial cells. Leptin receptor was immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast. Relative to controls, the FGR group was characterized by low concentrations of placental and cord blood leptin. In a twin pregnancy, the normal-sized infant exhibited more placental and cord blood leptin than its growth-retarded twin. In contrast, both diabetic groups exhibited high concentrations of placental leptin mRNA and protein. The IDDM group exhibited the highest concentrations of leptin in cord blood. No change was observed in the expression of the leptin receptor in either the growth-retarded or diabetic pregnancies. In conclusion, the localization of placental leptin suggests that it may be released into both maternal and fetal blood. Furthermore, in fetal growth-retarded and diabetic pregnancies, the changes in leptin expression in the placenta and in leptin concentrations in umbilical cord blood appear to be related.

  17. Fragile X mental retardation protein: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miri; Ceman, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    We begin by reviewing the first characterization of fragile X syndrome, which ultimately led to cloning of the FMR1 gene. Discovery of the molecular basis of this disorder, including expansion of a trinucleotide repeat, gave insight not only into fragile X syndrome but also into the premutation syndromes. Features of fragile X syndrome are discussed including the patient phenotype down to the neuronal phenotype. The domain features of the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP are described, as are the mRNAs bound by FMRP and the role of post-translational modifications as regulators of FMRP function. The relatively new role of FMRP in progenitor cells is reviewed, as is FMRP localization in cells and how FMRP is regulated by glutamatergic signaling in the brain. Understanding how metabotropic glutamate receptors impact FMRP has led to novel therapeutic approaches in treating this disorder.

  18. Methods for Quantitative Interpretation of Retarding Field Analyzer Data

    SciTech Connect

    Calvey, J.R.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.F.; Palmer, M.A.; Furman, M.; Harkay, K.

    2011-03-28

    Over the course of the CesrTA program at Cornell, over 30 Retarding Field Analyzers (RFAs) have been installed in the CESR storage ring, and a great deal of data has been taken with them. These devices measure the local electron cloud density and energy distribution, and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of different cloud mitigation techniques. Obtaining a quantitative understanding of RFA data requires use of cloud simulation programs, as well as a detailed model of the detector itself. In a drift region, the RFA can be modeled by postprocessing the output of a simulation code, and one can obtain best fit values for important simulation parameters with a chi-square minimization method.

  19. Retarding field analyzer for the EAST plasma boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Xiao, C.; Wang, H. Q.; Yan, N.; Wan, B. N.; Chen, L.; Liu, Y. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, W.; Wang, L.; Hu, G. H.; Chen, R.; Xu, J. C.; Ye, Y.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    A novel bi-directional Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) probe has been installed on a fast reciprocating drive system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to measure the ion temperature and fast electron fluxes. A Langmuir probe assembly was added on the top of the RFA head to control the RFA position relative to the last closed flux surface and to have a possibility to measure the electron density and temperature as well. Except the ion temperature, the fast electron fluxes from both ion and electron drift sides have been measured during lower hybrid current drive. The RFA probe has been also used to measure the fast electrons associated with edge localized modes (ELMs), indicating their substantial presence in the scrape-off-layer plasma of EAST.

  20. Retarding field analyzer for the EAST plasma boundary.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; Xu, G S; Xiao, C; Wang, H Q; Yan, N; Wan, B N; Chen, L; Liu, Y L; Zhang, H; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Hu, G H; Chen, R; Xu, J C; Ye, Y; Li, J

    2016-12-01

    A novel bi-directional Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) probe has been installed on a fast reciprocating drive system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to measure the ion temperature and fast electron fluxes. A Langmuir probe assembly was added on the top of the RFA head to control the RFA position relative to the last closed flux surface and to have a possibility to measure the electron density and temperature as well. Except the ion temperature, the fast electron fluxes from both ion and electron drift sides have been measured during lower hybrid current drive. The RFA probe has been also used to measure the fast electrons associated with edge localized modes (ELMs), indicating their substantial presence in the scrape-off-layer plasma of EAST.

  1. Chemistry and toxicity of flame retardants for plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Liepins, R; Pearce, E M

    1976-01-01

    An overview of commercially used flame retardants is give. The most used flame retardants are illustrated and the seven major markets, which use 96% of all flame-retarded polymers, are described. Annual flame retardant growth rate for each major market is also projected. Toxicity data are reviewed on only those compositions that are considered commercially significant today. This includes 18 compounds or families of compounds and four inherently flame-retarded polymers. Toxicological studies of flame retardants for most synthetic materials are of recent origin and only a few of the compounds have been evaluated in any great detail. Considerable toxicological problems may exist in the manufacturing of some flame retardants, their by-products, and possible decomposition products. PMID:1026419

  2. Genetics of non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Afroze, Bushra; Chaudhry, Bushra

    2013-01-01

    Non-syndromic mental retardation is one of the most serious neurodevelopmental disorders, which has a serious impact not only on the affected individuals and their families but also on the health care system and society. Previously research has been more focused on the X-linked mental retardation and only recently studies have shown that non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation is extremely heterogeneous and contributes much more than the X-linked mental retardation. But very little is known about the genes and loci involved in nonsyndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation than the X-linked mental retardation. To date only thirty loci and ten genes have been established associated with the non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation. This short review presents an overview of the current knowledge on clinical information available for the ten genes associated with this unexplored group of genetic disorder.

  3. Analysis of flame retarded polymers and recycling materials.

    PubMed

    Riess, M; Ernst, T; Popp, R; Müller, B; Thoma, H; Vierle, O; Wolf, M; van Eldik, R

    2000-01-01

    Recycling activities on polymeric materials are increasing and becoming more and more important in recent years. For polymers containing no flame retardants, suitable recycling strategies already exist. In order to investigate the recyclability of flame retarded polymers that contain brominated flame retardants, a number of samples were analysed as received from a recycling company. Following the identification and sorting of the samples according to type of polymers and flame retardants, material recycling was tested for the flame retarded polymers identified to occur most frequently. The reactivity of the flame retardants during the recycling procedure was studied by analysing for brominated dioxins and furans. The results demonstrate that flame retarded polymers can be recycled under certain experimental conditions.

  4. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of brominated flame retardants. PMID:14698924

  5. [Microcephalia vera. Genetic heterogeneity and mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Baldellou Váquez, A; Caro Rebollo, J; Bernad Usoz, J V; Tamparillas Salvador, M

    1988-11-01

    Genetic counseling has been carried in 30 families with 51 patients affected of microcephalia. An exogenous cause was determined in 13 cases. In two cases authors do not find a definite aetiology. Microcephalia vera AD can be demonstrated in seven families, and microcephalia vera AR eight. This last form showed always typical phenotype, but the former was present without any peculiar traits. Main observation is that mental retardation is not always conditioned by inheritance form.

  6. [Hearing function in children with speech retardation].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Povarova, M V

    2006-01-01

    Hearing function was studied in 140 children aged between 2 and 5 years with speech retardation and perinatal pathology for formulation of further treatment policy and rehabilitation. Impedance audiometry, SEAAE, game audiometry identified hearing loss of the first, second, third, forth degree in 6 (4%), 10 (7%), 24 (17%), 31 (21%) children respectively. Deafness was registered in 17 (12%) children, 52 (37%) examinees were audiologically normal.

  7. Walking Habits of Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2005-01-01

    The walking activity of men and women with mental retardation residing in community settings was described. Participants were 38 women (M age = 0.7, SD = 9.5) and 65 men (M age = 35.9, SD = 11.2). They wore pedometers for 7 days. A 2 ? 2 factorial ANOVA indicated no significant gender differences in total step counts or between participants with…

  8. [Mental retardation and sexual abuse. 65 mentally retarded men submitted to forensic psychiatric examination because of sex offences].

    PubMed

    Noreik, K; Grünfeld, B

    1993-06-20

    65 mentally impaired men charged with different sexual crimes were submitted to judicial psychiatric examination. 37% of these men had previously stayed in institutions for the mentally impaired, two thirds had worked for a period. Half of the charged men were functionally retarded and the rest were assessed as functioning at an even lower level. Approximately every third man suffered from serious behavioural symptoms and personality disturbances. Most of the abuse was towards acquaintances or persons in the local environment. Almost half of the men used violence in connection with the abuse. Two thirds of the victims were under the age of 16 years. About half of the men were charged with sexual abuse of minors, and a few with rape. The majority were charged, and almost half were placed under preventive detention.

  9. Parenting provided by adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Dowdney, L; Skuse, D

    1993-01-01

    Studies assessing the quality of parenting provided by adults with mental retardation present conflicting conclusions. Some consider the majority to be doing reasonably well, whilst others report frequently unsatisfactory caretaking. There are a number of reasons for such different views. First, inconsistent selection criteria make it hard to compare across studies. In particular, sample composition will be influenced by the recruitment source. For example, if parents have been chosen from voluntary educational programmes a rather different picture is likely to be found than if they have been selected from individuals known to, or referred by, statutory agencies. On the whole, authors working with subjects from the former source have been rather more optimistic than those working with parents referred because there were already serious concerns about parenting difficulties or about delayed child development. Secondly, the majority of studies have used poorly defined global measures of parenting, with variable criteria of what constitutes adequate care. Some have concentrated on physical care and hygiene, whilst others have looked for the presence of affection and warmth. A child's reception into care as the sole measure of the quality of parenting is an unsatisfactory criterion because parental retardation has itself occasionally been used as the basis for removal of a child into care, even in the absence of other evidence of neglect or abuse. Thirdly, methodological flaws are found in studies that have used observational assessments of parenting. Such studies have suggested mothers with mental retardation tend to lack interactive skills (such as high levels of praise and imitation, and low restrictiveness) which are known to be associated with optimal child development. Control groups have often not been matched on social and other variables which might be expected to exert a significant influence upon parenting practices. In addition, the generalisability of

  10. Transcription Factor SOX3 Is Involved in X-Linked Mental Retardation with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Laumonnier, Frédéric; Ronce, Nathalie; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Thomas, Paul; Lespinasse, James; Raynaud, Martine; Paringaux, Christine; van Bokhoven, Hans; Kalscheuer, Vera; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Chelly, Jamel; Moraine, Claude; Briault, Sylvain

    2002-01-01

    Physical mapping of the breakpoints of a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome (46,X,inv[X][p21q27]) in a female patient with mild mental retardation revealed localization of the Xp breakpoint in the IL1RAPL gene at Xp21.3 and the Xq breakpoint near the SOX3 gene (SRY [sex determining region Y]–box 3) (GenBank accession number NM_005634) at Xq26.3. Because carrier females with microdeletion in the IL1RAPL gene do not present any abnormal phenotype, we focused on the Xq breakpoint. However, we were unable to confirm the involvement of SOX3 in the mental retardation in this female patient. To validate SOX3 as an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) gene, we performed mutation analyses in families with XLMR whose causative gene mapped to Xq26-q27. We show here that the SOX3 gene is involved in a large family in which affected individuals have mental retardation and growth hormone deficiency. The mutation results in an in-frame duplication of 33 bp encoding for 11 alanines in a polyalanine tract of the SOX3 gene. The expression pattern during neural and pituitary development suggests that dysfunction of the SOX3 protein caused by the polyalanine expansion might disturb transcription pathways and the regulation of genes involved in cellular processes and functions required for cognitive and pituitary development. PMID:12428212

  11. Transcription factor SOX3 is involved in X-linked mental retardation with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Laumonnier, Frédéric; Ronce, Nathalie; Hamel, Ben C J; Thomas, Paul; Lespinasse, James; Raynaud, Martine; Paringaux, Christine; Van Bokhoven, Hans; Kalscheuer, Vera; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Chelly, Jamel; Moraine, Claude; Briault, Sylvain

    2002-12-01

    Physical mapping of the breakpoints of a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome (46,X,inv[X][p21q27]) in a female patient with mild mental retardation revealed localization of the Xp breakpoint in the IL1RAPL gene at Xp21.3 and the Xq breakpoint near the SOX3 gene (SRY [sex determining region Y]-box 3) (GenBank accession number NM_005634) at Xq26.3. Because carrier females with microdeletion in the IL1RAPL gene do not present any abnormal phenotype, we focused on the Xq breakpoint. However, we were unable to confirm the involvement of SOX3 in the mental retardation in this female patient. To validate SOX3 as an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) gene, we performed mutation analyses in families with XLMR whose causative gene mapped to Xq26-q27. We show here that the SOX3 gene is involved in a large family in which affected individuals have mental retardation and growth hormone deficiency. The mutation results in an in-frame duplication of 33 bp encoding for 11 alanines in a polyalanine tract of the SOX3 gene. The expression pattern during neural and pituitary development suggests that dysfunction of the SOX3 protein caused by the polyalanine expansion might disturb transcription pathways and the regulation of genes involved in cellular processes and functions required for cognitive and pituitary development.

  12. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  13. The research of far infrared flame retardant polyester staple fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingshan; Zhang, Kaijun; Luo, Jinqong; Li, Ji’an; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Qianqian; Jin, Yongxia; Liu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Far infrared flame retardant slices was prepared, fiber with far infrared flame retardant composite function was also prepared by the method of melt spinning. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the fibrous microscopic structure. In the SEM images, functional ultrafine powder particle size and distribution in the fiber were visible. The results show that the functional ultrafine powder is evenly distributed on the fibrous surface, which is closely combined with fiber, and the far infrared emissivity is F, which is more than (8 to 14 microns) 0.88. Far infrared flame retardant polyester fiber has not only good flame retardant, but also environmental health effect: releasing negative ions and launch far-infrared, which shows wide application prospect. The fiber was processed into far-infrared flame retardant electric blanket, whose functional indicators and flame retardant properties are not reduced.

  14. Gas generation retarded aluminum powder for oil field cements

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, D.L.; Burkhalter, J.F.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a method of forming a gas generation retarded oil field cement. It consists of the following steps: dry blending a hydraulic cement with an essentially dry gas generation retarded aluminum powder to form a mixture; the gas generation retarded aluminum powder being formed by: dissolving an effective amount of an aluminum reaction rate retarder in an organic solvent, the retarder being selected from the group consisting of sorbitan monooleate, glycerol monoricinoleate, sorbitan monoricinoleate, sorbitan monotallate, pentaerythritol monoricinoleate, sorbitan monoisostearate, glycerol monostearate, sorbitan monostearate and mixtures thereof; mixing aluminum powder with the resulting solution whereby the aluminum powder is wetted with the solution; and then drying the aluminum powder by vacuum evaporating and removing the organic solvent therefrom; and mixing the cement retarded aluminum powder mixture with a sufficient amount of water to form a pumpable cement slurry.

  15. Factors affecting social integration of noninstitutionalized mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Levi, A M

    1980-07-01

    The social integration of noninstitutionalized moderately and mildly mentally retarded young adults was investigated. A group of moderately and mildly retarded adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personality, and self-concept. Findings indicated that the study group was less well integrated at work and in society than was the control group and showed lack of social skills. The retarded adults who had nonretarded friends showed better social-educational skills than did the other subjects. Findings suggest that even retarded individuals who grow up in the community need help in order to become socially independent. The existence of a special social club for retarded adults was found to fulfill the functions of a sheltered framework. Participants in the club showed more positive self-concepts; however, the club did not seem to prepare them for social integration in the general community.

  16. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The exploitation of "new" effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  17. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    SciTech Connect

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  18. Electrode contamination effects of retarding potential analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fang, H K; Oyama, K-I; Cheng, C Z

    2014-01-01

    The electrode contamination in electrostatic analyzers such as Langmuir probes and retarding potential analyzers (RPA) is a serious problem for space measurements. The contamination layer acts as extra capacitance and resistance and leads to distortion in the measured I-V curve, which leads to erroneous measurement results. There are two main effects of the contamination layer: one is the impedance effect and the other is the charge attachment and accumulation due to the capacitance. The impedance effect can be reduced or eliminated by choosing the proper sweeping frequency. However, for RPA the charge accumulation effect becomes serious because the capacitance of the contamination layer is much larger than that of the Langmuir probe of similar dimension. The charge accumulation on the retarding potential grid causes the effective potential, that ions experience, to be changed from the applied voltage. Then, the number of ions that can pass through the retarding potential grid to reach the collector and, thus, the measured ion current are changed. This effect causes the measured ion drift velocity and ion temperature to be changed from the actual values. The error caused by the RPA electrode contamination is expected to be significant for sounding rocket measurements with low rocket velocity (1-2 km/s) and low ion temperature of 200-300 K in the height range of 100-300 km. In this paper we discuss the effects associated with the RPA contaminated electrodes based on theoretical analysis and experiments performed in a space plasma operation chamber. Finally, the development of a contamination-free RPA for sounding rocket missions is presented.

  19. Guidelines for Biomedical and Pharmacological Research Procedures and the Protection of Human Subjects in Residential Facilities for Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX. Research and Demonstration Inst.

    Guidelines are presented which were developed to aid federal, state, and local agencies prepare regulations concerning the use of mentally retarded subjects in biomedical and pharmacological research projects. Guidelines are set forth for the following topic areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): the formation of a Professional Review Committee…

  20. The Utility of Nanocomposites in Fire Retardancy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linjiang; He, Xuejun; Wilkie, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanocomposites have been shown to significantly reduce the peak heat release rate, as measured by cone calorimetry, for many polymers but they typically have no effect on the oxygen index or the UL-94 classification. In this review, we will cover what is known about the processes by which nanocomposite formation may bring this about. Montmorillonite will be the focus in this paper but attention will also be devoted to other materials, including carbon nanotubes and layered double hydroxides. A second section will be devoted to combinations of nanocomposite formation with conventional (and unconventional) fire retardants. The paper will conclude with a section attempting to forecast the future. PMID:28883342

  1. [Children with mental retardation after special education].

    PubMed

    Qu, C Y; Zhang, X L; Li, H

    1994-03-01

    44 children with mental retardation were tested 4 times with Hiskey-Nebraska test of learning aptitude (H-NTLA) and tested 2 times with personal and social self-sufficiency scales in a special education school in Taiyuan from 1989 to 1992. No significant difference of total IQ was found. The visual association, concept relationship, visual concentration and perceptual abilities were decreased consistently. The rising of IQ was positively associated with mother's higher education, child's higher IQ, mother's professional and technical occupation and child's younger age in beginning special education. The adaptive behavior was rising significantly.

  2. New definition of mental retardation for the American Association of Mental Retardation.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, D W; Williams, W L

    1998-01-01

    To describe the new definition of mental retardation developed by the American Association of Mental Retardation (AAMR) published in 1992. The previous definition was based on a deficiency model that identified "subaverage intelligence" using an intelligence quotient (IQ) score equal to or less than 70. The new definition places greater emphasis on adaptive skills and environmental support needs. Defining mental retardation according to AAMR criteria reflects a significant paradigm shift from an absolute trait to a functional conception. The new definition is dynamic, attends to context, is inherently holistic--and, therefore--closely aligned with nursing theory. Diagnosis is a three-step process by which functional strengths and weaknesses are identified along 4 dimensions and 10 adaptive-skill areas. Identification of needed supports is incorporated within the three-step process. Nurses can enhance holistic care by working to have AAMR's new definition adopted by government legislators and administrators of state and county agencies that provide mental-retardation services. Nurses should become active participants as interdisciplinary diagnostic team members as well as case managers. Nurse researchers and educators can contribute toward further developing AAMR's definition by standardizing assessment instruments, working to make diagnostic procedures more user-friendly, and researching the construct validity of adaptive-skill areas. Finally, nurses should help legislators and policy makers understand the sociocultural ramifications of AAMR's new definition.

  3. Travis County Mental Retardation Services Plan of the Travis County Mental Retardation Planning Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin - Travis County Mental Health - Mental Retardation Center, TX.

    Presented is a county wide (Travis County, Texas) plan developed by 12 human service agencies to provide comprehensive educational, maintenance, and prevention services to the mentally retarded of all ages. Described are three underlying principles: human ecology (which stresses an individual approach to fulfillment), normalization, and community…

  4. TG-FTIR characterization of flame retardant polyurethane foams materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Tang, Y.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and trichloroethyl phosphtate (TCEP) have been used to enhance the flame retardancy of polyurethane foams materials (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the excellent flame retardancy can be achieved due to the presence of the flame retardant system containing DMMP and TCEP. TG-FTIR reveals that the addition of DMMP/TCEP can not only improve the thermal stability of PUF samples but can also affect the gaseous phase at high temperature.

  5. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened for possible use wiith acrylic printing inks on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants were selected according to their physical properties and thermostabilities. Thermostabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. A criterion was then established for selecting the more stable agent. Results show that some of the bromine-containing fire retardants are more thermostable than the acrylic ink, alone, used as a control. Also, the bromine-containing fire retardants yield even better limiting oxygen index values when tested after adding carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber.

  6. Polarization characterization of liquid-crystal variable retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Iván.; Bruce, Neil C.; López-Téllez, Juan M.

    2016-08-01

    A comparison between two experimental techniques to characterize retardance as a function of applied voltage of liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVR) is presented. In the first method the variable retarder was rotated between two polarizers with their transmission axes parallel, and the retardance was calculated from the Fourier series coefficients for each applied voltage. The second method involved using two polarizers with their transmission axes perpendicular to each other, the variable retarder was placed between the polarizers with its optical axis at 45° from the horizontal, and a final stage known as "phase unwrapping" is used on experimental data to obtain the voltage-retardance function. With these two experimental methods, the voltage-retardance relationship was obtained. To verify the accuracy of this characterization a second experiment involving the production of specific polarization states was performed as the basis of a Mueller polarimeter. A method based on measuring the optical signal resulting from the application of a predetermined set of fixed values of retardance in each retarder was used. 16 elements of the Mueller matrix of a polarizer with its transmission axis at 0° and 90° were measured, and the results are compared to the expected theoretical values.

  7. Scalable Preparation of Multifunctional Fire-Retardant Ultralight Graphene Foams.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Xue, Jiangli; Dong, Liye; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Xiaopeng; Qu, Liangti; Dai, Liming

    2016-01-26

    Traditional flame-retardant materials often show poor tolerance to oxidants, strong acidic/alkaline reagents, organic solvents, along with toxicity problems. Herein, highly fire-retardant ultralight graphene foam has been developed, which possesses not only ultralight and compressible characteristics but also efficient flame-retardant properties, outperforming those traditional polymer, metallic oxide, and metal hydroxide based flame retardant materials and their composites. The newly developed unconventional refractory materials are promising for specific applications as demonstrated by the observed high temperature resistant microwave absorption capability.

  8. Bender-Gestalt reproduction times for retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Andert, J N; Hustak, T L; Dinning, W D

    1978-10-01

    Examined the length of time required by retarded adults to complete the Bender-Gestalt test with a sample of 241 test administrations. In order to provide for normative comparisons among retarded adults, descriptive data are presented on the Bender reproduction times of adults in three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two ranges based on Stanford-Binet IQs. Negative correlations were found between the length of Bender times and the degree of retardation. The duration of Bender times was correlated positively with the number of errors in reproduction as measured by the Koppitz developmental scoring system.

  9. [X-linked mental retardation--treatment scheme].

    PubMed

    Lisik, Małgorzata Z; Sieroń, Aleksander L

    2008-01-01

    Mental retardation is a serious medical and social problem. The prevalence of mental retardation is estimated at 2-3%. Establishing the cause of mental retardation is extremely important for prognosis, management, and genetic counseling. It is postulated that 25-35% of mental retardation cases may be of genetic background. Among the genetic causes 25-30% are probably result of mutations located in the X chromosome (X-linked mental retardation--XLMR). X-linked mental retardation is a heterogeneous set of conditions responsible for a large proportion of inherited mental retardation. More than 200 XLMR conditions and 45 cloned genes are listed in catalogue available on the Internet. Traditionally, based on clinical presentation, XLMR conditions were divided into specific and nonspecific forms or syndromic and nonsyndromic. The distinction between specific and non-specific forms of XLMR is gradually becoming less clear and spectrum of phenotypic variability is very large as both syndromic and nonsyndromic forms have been described for several of the XLMR genes. Mutations in patients suffering from X-linked mental retardation genes have been found only in a relatively limited number of cases. Up to 50% of the patients from XLMR families might have mutations in one of the known genes implicated in XLMR so far. However, current methods are generally too expensive or too unreliable to justify mutation screening of all known XLMR genes in diagnostic testing. Thus it is necessary to use empirical data of recurrence risk in genetic counseling of the family with mental retardation.

  10. Psychomotor retardation in depression: Biological underpinnings, measurement, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Buyukdura, Jeylan S.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation is a long established component of depression that can have significant clinical and therapeutic implications for treatment. Due to its negative impact on overall function in depressed patients, we review its biological correlates, optimal methods of measurement, and relevance in the context of therapeutic interventions. The aim of the paper is to provide a synthesis of the literature on psychomotor retardation in depression with the goal of enhanced awareness for clinicians and researchers. Increased knowledge and understanding of psychomotor retardation in major depressive disorder may lead to further research and better informed diagnosis in regards to psychomotor retardation. Manifestations of psychomotor retardation include slowed speech, decreased movement, and impaired cognitive function. It is common in patients with melancholic depression and those with psychotic features. Biological correlates may include abnormalities in the basal ganglia and dopaminergic pathways. Neurophysiologic tools such as neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation may play a role in the study of this symptom in the future. At present, there are three objective scales to evaluate psychomotor retardation severity. Studies examining the impact of psychomotor retardation on clinical outcome have found differential results. However, available evidence suggests that depressed patients with psychomotor retardation may respond well to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Current literature regarding antidepressants is inconclusive, though tricyclic antidepressants may be considered for treatment of patients with psychomotor retardation. Future work examining this objective aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD) is essential. This could further elucidate the biological underpinnings of depression and optimize its treatment. PMID:21044654

  11. Rotatable broadband retarders for far infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, T.D.; Carr, G.; Zhou, T.; Kotelyanskii, M.; Sirenko, A.A.

    2010-12-09

    Rotatable retarders have been developed for applications in spectroscopic, full Mueller Matrix ellipsometry in the far-IR spectral range. Several materials, such as silicon, KRS-5, and a commercial polymer plastic (TOPAS) have been utilized to achieve a fully adjustable retardation between 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Experimental characteristics of the rotatable retarders that utilize three- and four-bounce designs are compared with calculations. We discuss the effect of light focusing on the performance of these rotatable retarders. Broadband optical retarders are required for spectroscopic ellipsometry in its full Mueller matrix (MM) realization. Performance of the MM ellipsometer depends on the capability to produce substantially linearly-independent Stokes vectors for the light incident onto the sample. As has been shown, the errors in the measuredMMof the sample are proportional to the condition number of the 4 x 4 matrix composed of the Stokes vectors of four polarization states incident at the sample. It can be proven that it is impossible to cover the Poincare sphere with linearly-independent Stokes vectors by only changing the linear polarization at the input surface of a stationary retarder. As we will illustrate further in this paper, total coverage of the Poincare sphere is possible by rotating a tandem of a linear polarizer and a retarder with a retardation of 90{sup o}. It is this goal that we are trying to achieve in the retarder designs described in this paper.

  12. Flame retardants in indoor dust and air of a hotel in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Go; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Ishikawa, Yukari; Sunami, Masakiyo; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Occurrence of flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor environment of highly flame-retarded public facilities is an important concern from the viewpoint of exposure because it is likely that FRs are used to a greater degree in these facilities than in homes. For this study, brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame-retardants and plasticizers (OPs), and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/DFs) were measured in eight floor dust samples taken from a Japanese commercial hotel that was assumed to have many flame-retardant materials. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) varied by about two orders of magnitude, from 9.8-1700 ng/g (median of 1200 ng/g) and from 72-1300 ng/g (median of 740 ng/g), respectively. Concentrations of the two types of BFRs described above were most dominant among the investigated BFRs in the dust samples. It is inferred that BFR and PBDD/DF concentrations are on the same level as those in house and office dust samples reported based on past studies. Regarding concentrations of 11 OPs, 7 OPs were detected on the order of micrograms per gram, which are equivalent to or exceed the BFR concentrations such as PBDEs and HBCDs. Concentrations of the investigated compounds were not uniform among dust samples collected throughout the hotel: concentrations differed among floors, suggesting that localization of source products is associated with FR concentrations in dust. Passive air sampling was also conducted to monitor BFRs in the indoor air of hotel rooms: the performance of an air cleaner placed in the room was evaluated in terms of reducing airborne BFR concentrations. Monitoring results suggest that operation of an appropriate air cleaner can reduce both gaseous and particulate BFRs in indoor air.

  13. Brominated flame retardants in US food.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Harris, T Robert; Shah, Nirav; Musumba, Alice; Päpke, Olaf

    2008-02-01

    We and others recently began studying brominated flame retardant levels in various matrices in the US including human milk and other food. This paper reviews the food studies. In our studies, ten to thirteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured, usually including BDE 209. All US women's milk samples were contaminated with PBDEs from 6 to 419 ng/g, lipid, orders of magnitude higher than levels reported in European studies, and are the highest reported worldwide. We compared our market basket studies of meat, fish and dairy products with other US food studies of meat and fish. US studies showed somewhat higher levels of PBDEs than reported elsewhere. Fish were most highly contaminated (median 616 pg/g), then meat (median190 pg/g) and dairy products (median 32.2 pg/g). However, unlike some European countries where fish predominates, dietary intake of PBDEs in the US is mostly from meat, then fish and then dairy products. Broiling can decrease the amount of PBDEs per serving. We also measured levels of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), another brominated flame retardant, in human milk. The levels are lower than PBDEs, 0.16-1.2 ng/g, similar to European levels, unlike PBDEs where US levels are much higher than European levels.

  14. In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Nakari, Tarja; Pessala, Piia

    2005-09-10

    Estrogenicity of five brominated flame retardants (BFRs), namely BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-205, PBB-153 and technical Firemaster BP-6, were assessed by in vitro assays developed to detect chemicals with estrogenic properties. Recombinant yeast cells containing a human estrogen receptor gene failed to give any response to the chemicals tested. However, the positive control compound, estradiol-17beta, showed that the yeast cell assays had worked properly. The freshly separated fish hepatocyte assay based on the synthesis and secretion of vitellogenin from the isolated liver cells produced a clear dose-response curve in the presence of all tested flame retardants except Firemaster BP-6. The toxicity of the BFRs was detected by determining the cell ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD). The BFRs tested induced hepatic EROD activity at low test concentrations, but started to inhibit activity at higher concentrations. The decreased detoxification capacity of the hepatocytes resulted in a decrease in the vitellogenin production of the cells. The capability of in vitro assays to detect estrogenic properties of chemicals seems to vary. Thus, further work is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for these reactions.

  15. Are brominated flame retardants endocrine disruptors?

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Brouwer, Abraham

    2003-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a group of compounds that have received much attention recently due to their similarity with "old" classes of organohalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in terms of their fate, stability in the environment and accumulation in humans and wildlife. Toxic effects, including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity, have been observed for some BFR congeners, in particular the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). This concise review focuses on the potency of BFRs and to disrupt endocrine systems, and attempts to answer the question whether or not BFRs are endocrine disruptors. Evidence is provided on the disruption of the thyroid hormone system by BFRs, with particular emphasis on the BDEs, as most recent data is available on this class of flame retardants. Similar to the hydroxylated PCBs, in vitro mechanistic studies as well as animal experiments have demonstrated the effects of BDEs on thyroid hormone transport and metabolism. An overview of possible effects of BFRs on the estrogen system is also provided. Research gaps are outlined, as well as ongoing and future studies in the European community aimed at contributing to comprehensive risk assessments based on the endocrine-disrupting effects of BFRs.

  16. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  17. Proposed mechanism of inheritance and expression of the human fragile-X syndrome of mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, C.D.

    1987-11-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the inheritance and expression of the fragile-X-linked syndrome of mental retardation in humans. Two independent events are required for expression of the syndrome: the fragile-X mutation, and X chromosome inactivation in pre-oogonial cells. The fragile-X mutation at site Xq27 has little or no effect until the chromosome is inactivated in a female as part of the process of dosage compensation. At a stage where the inactivated X chromosome would normally be reactivated in preparation for oogenesis, the mutation results in a local block to the reactivation process. This block to reactivation leads to mental retardation in progeny by reducing the level of products from the unreactivated Xq27 region in male cells, and, for a heterozygous female, in somatic cells in which the normal X chromosome has been inactivated. Published data relevant to this proposed mechanism are discussed.

  18. The fragile X mental retardation protein in circadian rhythmicity and memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal

    2009-04-01

    The control of new protein synthesis provides a means to locally regulate the availability of synaptic components necessary for dynamic neuronal processes. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding translational regulator, is a key player mediating appropriate synaptic protein synthesis in response to neuronal activity levels. Loss of FMRP causes fragile X syndrome (FraX), the most commonly inherited form of mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders. FraX-associated translational dysregulation causes wide-ranging neurological deficits including severe impairments of biological rhythms, learning processes, and memory consolidation. Dysfunction in cytoskeletal regulation and synaptic scaffolding disrupts neuronal architecture and functional synaptic connectivity. The understanding of this devastating disease and the implementation of meaningful treatment strategies require a thorough exploration of the temporal and spatial requirements for FMRP in establishing and maintaining neural circuit function.

  19. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  20. Community Care for People with Mental Retardation in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosen, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Services for people with mental retardation in the Netherlands are examined, with emphasis on normalization, placement options including group homes and institutionalization, guidance for families through the Social Pedological Service, and the care of mental illness in mentally retarded persons through special diagnostic and treatment centers.…

  1. Mental Retardation in the Caribbean: Needs, Resources, Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J., Ed.

    Presented are conference reports including an opening address on the economic benefits of programs for the mentally retarded (MR), and eight papers discussing the problem of mental retardation in the Caribbean. Two papers on preschool age children, respectively, consider the identification and assessment of MR children in the Caribbean and present…

  2. Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The flame retardant behavior of a cotton fabric treated with phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine compound was evaluated. It was found that cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) is an excellent starting material for the preparation of phosphonates flame retardants that interacts wel...

  3. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  4. Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

  5. A Practical Guide for Teaching the Mentally Retarded to Swim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    A guide for teaching the retarded to swim begins with a general discussion of retardation, the need for individualization, and staff qualifications. Factors discussed in program organization and administration include community agencies, staff training, examples of records and forms, and first aid procedures. Suggested methods consider perceptual…

  6. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  7. Kansas Citizens Plan Comprehensive Mental Retardation Services. Summary and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Social Welfare, Topeka. Div. of Institutional Management.

    Summarized are the recommendations and findings of 1 1/2-year project to prepare a plan to combat mental retardation in Kansas. The study is said to have been based on the principle that needs rather than diagnostic labels should determine services provided. Outlined are mental retardation planning activities at the federal level and preplanning…

  8. Qualitative Differences in the Structure of Intelligence of Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Sheryl L.; Cleaves, Wallace T.

    To examine whether or not retarded individuals have the same structure of intelligence as normal IQ individuals, test scores from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), Reitan's Trail Making Test (TMT), and Beery's Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) for both a mildly retarded and normal IQ population of…

  9. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  10. Arizona's Comprehensive Plan to Help the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Health, Phoenix. Mental Retardation Section.

    To help combat mental retardation, 136 recommendations are made for the following: establishment by statute of a division of mental retardation, an advisory council, and a coordinating council of agencies; changes in laws governing the Arizona Children's Colony, additional public school legislation, and a study of civil and criminal law; immediate…

  11. IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The use of flame retardant chemicals in furniture fabric could pose a potential health risk to consumers from dermal absorption of these compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro dermal absorption of two flame retardant chemicals, [14C]-d...

  12. The Mentally Retarded Inmate: Prison Adjustment and Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Craig; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether or not there were differences in the prison adaptation of mentally retarded and nonretarded inmates. Compared 439 retarded inmates, 439 matched nonretarded inmates, and 439 unmatched nonretarded inmates. Found statistically significant differences between groups in the areas of assaults on correctional officers and other…

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Vapor Retarder Classification

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

  14. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  15. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  16. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  17. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  18. Fire-retardant-treated strandboard : properties and fire performance

    Treesearch

    Jerrold Winandy; Qingwen Wang; Robert H. White

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a series of single-layer, randomly oriented strandboard panels made with one resin type, a single resin loading level, and four fire-retardant-treatment levels. The fire retardant (FR) evaluated was a pH-buffered combination of boric acid and organic phosphate. Siberian larch strands were separated into five batches. One batch of strands served as...

  19. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  20. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  1. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  2. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  3. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  4. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38 U.S.C...

  5. CEC Selected Convention Papers; Annual International Convention: Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    The following articles on mental retardation are provided: translating research findings into classroom activity; camping programs; a measurement device for educable mentally retarded adolescents on their self-concept as a worker; an investigation of the Doman-Delacato Theory in a trainable program in the public schools; and problems of sex…

  6. Services for People with Mental Retardation or Related Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Mental Retardation, Columbia.

    Intended as a reference for chambers of commerce, physicians, public schools, and other agencies, this directory lists services for families of people with mental retardation or related disabilities in South Carolina. First, the South Carolina Department of Mental Retardation is described, including its service system, organization, case…

  7. Factors Affecting Social Integration of Noninstitutonalized Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Shunit; Levi, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 30 moderately and mildly retarded young adults (study group) was compared with a group of borderline retarded (control group) adults on employability, behavior at work, social integration and social skills, personaity, and self-concept. (Author/PHR)

  8. Defining Mental Retardation: A Matter of Life or Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William; Simon, Elliot W.

    2007-01-01

    Because persons with mental retardation cannot be executed for murder, the diagnosis becomes a life and death matter. The American Association on Mental Retardation (now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) and other associations agree that IQ alone is an insufficient criterion and adaptive functioning also…

  9. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  10. Cognitive Development Among Retardates: Reanalysis of Inhelder's Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Valerie Barnes

    A reanalysis of B. Inhelder's (1968) data concerning cognitive development among retardates was performed by selecting from the original 159 subjects a sample of 104 educable mentally retarded Ss (7-19 years old) who were diagnosed as fixated or nonfixated at three of the cognitive stages postulated by Jean Piaget. The results indicated that among…

  11. Mental Retardation. Selected Articles from the Rehabilitation Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Presented are six articles on residential living, vocational education, employment recreation, deinstitutionalization, and workshop experience of mentally retarded children and adults. K. Grunewald discusses the planning of housing for five- to eight person groups of retarded children and adults in varying kinds of residential facilities in Sweden…

  12. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  13. Effects on Learning of Relaxation Training with Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranti, S. V.; Freedman, P. E.

    Research has documented that individuals with mental retardation can learn and benefit from relaxation training. To investigate the effects of anxiety reduction through relaxation training on the performance of a complex learning task, 15 mentally retarded adult males were studied. Following performance on an anxiety measure, subjects were…

  14. Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

  15. Do lipids retard the evaporation of the tear fluid?

    PubMed

    Rantamäki, Antti H; Javanainen, Matti; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Holopainen, Juha M

    2012-09-21

    We examined in vitro the potential evaporation-retarding effect of the tear film lipid layer (TFLL). The artificial TFLL compositions used here were based on the present knowledge of TFLL composition. A custom-built system was developed to measure evaporation rates at 35°C. Lipids were applied to an air-water interface, and the evaporation rate through the lipid layer was defined as water loss from the interface. A thick layer of olive oil and a monolayer of long-chain alcohol were used as controls. The artificial TFLLs were composed of 1 to 4 lipid species: polar phosphatidylcholine (PC), nonpolar cholesteryl ester, triglycerides, and wax ester (WE). Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and interfacial shear rheometry (ISR) were used to assess the lateral structure and shear stress response of the lipid layers, respectively. Olive oil and long-chain alcohol decreased evaporation by 54% and 45%, respectively. The PC monolayer and the four-component mixtures did not retard evaporation. WE was the most important evaporation-retardant TFLL lipid (∼20% decrease). In PC/WE mixtures, an ∼90% proportion of WE was required for evaporation retardation. Based on BAM and ISR, WE resulted in more condensed layers than the non-retardant layers. Highly condensed, solid-like lipid layers, such as those containing high proportions of WEs, are evaporation-retardant. In multi-component lipid layers, the evaporation-retardant interactions between carbon chains decrease and, therefore, these lipid layers do not retard evaporation.

  16. Cone calorimeter evaluation of two flame retardant cotton fabrics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unbleached (grey) cotton needle punched nonwoven (NW) fabrics with 12.5% polypropylene scrim were treated with two phosphate-nitrogen based fire-retardant (FR) formulations, SRRC-1 and SRRC-2. The SRRC-1 formulation contains diammonium phosphate as the flame retardant chemical along with urea and d...

  17. New monomers for fire-retardant radiation curable polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, W.G.; Bush, R.W.; Ketley, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Novel photosensitive compositions are described which combine excellent UV curability and good flame-retardant properties. These compositions consist of halogenated allyl or methallyl esters, which, in combination with polythiols and photoinitiators and other additives, result in screenable liquids which can be applied to electronic circuit boards and cured with UV light to hard, fire-retardant coatings.

  18. Lessons from the Margins, Narrating Mental Retardation: A Review Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biklen, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    This essay argues that ideas circulated by Blatt and Dybwad, two scholars who exposed the plight of people labeled "retarded," can be illustrated in certain inclusive education practices and reinforced and refined in various critical narratives about mental retardation, particularly in autobiographical accounts of people with…

  19. Development of the Fear Survey for Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Lukenbill, James F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the fear survey for adults with mental retardation (FSAMR) and provides initial evidence of its psychometric properties. The FSAMR was designed to be sensitive to the assessment needs of individuals with mental retardation. The items were developed through open-ended interviews, a review of existing…

  20. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  1. Sex between People with "Mental Retardation": An Ethical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the issue of whether sex between mentally retarded individuals is morally permissable, and if so, under what conditions. Argues that mutual consent has unacceptable consequences for the mentally retarded. Specifies conditions where caregivers can grant permission for sexual activity. Describes the implications for future professionals'…

  2. Estate Planning for Retarded Persons and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruge, Don L.; Green, Karen O.

    Intended for parents and legal guardians of mentally retarded persons, the manual provides guidelines for estate planning. An overview of definitions, causes, and prevalence factors in retardation is followed by reviews of the major financial assistance governmental programs such as Medicare, and Supplemental Security Income, and of legal…

  3. Educational Initiatives in Mental Retardation in Nineteenth-Century Holland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijers, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the educational initiatives in the Netherlands during the nineteenth century in relation to mental retardation. States that the optimism towards people with mental retardation that emerged in many countries in the second half of the nineteenth century did not emerge within the Netherlands. (CMK)

  4. Speech and Prosody Characteristics of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Widder, Carol J.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of speech samples of 40 noninstitutionalized persons (ages 20-50) with mental retardation found that speech and prosody status were not statistically associated with gender or gross level of mental retardation but were associated with estimated probability of independent living. The existence of a cognitive capacity constraint and a…

  5. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  6. Pre-Professional Training in Mental Retardation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Irving C., Jr.

    To interest students in mental retardation health services careers, 10 eligible prebaccalaureate students were selected to participate in a 10-week summer training program. The first 2 weeks involved orientation to informational and training aspects of mental retardation and exposure to the health services related disciplines of recreational and…

  7. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  8. Mental Retardation in Rural Texas; An Examination of Selected Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standley, James O.

    The results of a mental health and mental retardation educational program were reported for the period January 1969 to June 1970. The objectives were to foster and enhance public awareness, interest, and concern for mental health and mental retardation; to inform the population of the services available to meet immediate needs; to educate the…

  9. Nutrition and Mental Retardation. An Annotated Bibliography, 1964-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ninfa Saturnino

    This annotated bibliography is primarily organized for nutritionists. It presents selected articles published from 1964 to the present. All aspects of nutrition in mental retardation are covered excepting inborn errors of metabolism. Sections are included on: (1) nutrition, birthweight, and mental retardation; (2) nutrition, growth, and mental…

  10. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Ted; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  11. Behavioral Treatment of Aggression in the Mentally Retarded: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.

    The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…

  12. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  13. Reaction Times of Down's Syndrome and Other Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, D. N.; Bankhead, I.

    1983-01-01

    Groups of mentally retarded subjects matched for sex, chronological age, mental age, and length of institutionalization were observed on three reaction time tasks for which pre-response complexity varied. Down's Syndrome subjects did not differ from epileptic and undifferentiated retarded subjects in reaction time performance on any of the tasks.…

  14. COGNITIVE TRAINING WITH RETARDED CHILDREN, I. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTER, HAROLD M.; MCKINNEY, JAMES D.

    THE MAJOR PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH WAS TO DETERMINE WHETHER TRAINING IN SPECIFIC COGNITIVE PROCESSES IS EFFECTIVE IN INCREASING THE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING OF RETARDED CHILDREN. IN PHASE I OF THE PROJECT, 51 EDUCABLE RETARDED AND 18 NORMAL SUBJECTS RECEIVED A 20-DAY PROGRAM IN SIMILARITIES-DIFFERENCES CONCEPT FORMATION AND WERE COMPARED WITH 42…

  15. Students with Mild Mental Retardation Participating in Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    The participation of a student with mild mental retardation in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with mild mental retardation and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these students in the recess setting. Initially the…

  16. IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The use of flame retardant chemicals in furniture fabric could pose a potential health risk to consumers from dermal absorption of these compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro dermal absorption of two flame retardant chemicals, [14C]-d...

  17. Association between the Diagnosis of Mental Retardation and Socioeconomic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra

    1998-01-01

    An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)

  18. Novel phosphonates triazine derivative as economic flame retardant for cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorous-containing flame retardants are widely used in standard and engineering plastics, polyurethane foams, thermosets, coatings, and textiles. Organophosphorous flame retardants have been known to be more effective when used in conjunction with nitrogen-containing systems. Their mixture produ...

  19. Adoptive and Birth Family Adjustment to Rearing Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Bush, Beverly A.

    The study identified 81 families who adopted children with mental retardation or at risk for mental retardation, and compared them with 61 matched families with similar birth children. For birth families, the initial diagnosis was a time of crisis, with high depression scores, while scores at follow-up (an average of 5.3 years later) indicated no…

  20. The role of boron in flame-retardant treatments

    Treesearch

    S. L. LeVan; H. C. Tran

    1990-01-01

    Flame retardants for wood alter the combustion properties of wood to reduce surface flame spread. Flame retardant chemicals cause acid catalyzed dehydration reactions in wood to facilitate the formation of char and reduce the effective heat of combustion, resulting in lower heat release and flame spread. Boron compounds can also form glassy fiis that may inhibit mass...

  1. TEACHING THE MENTALLY RETARDED, A HANDBOOK FOR WARD PERSONNEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENSBERG, GERALD J.

    WRITTEN FOR ATTENDANTS, VOLUNTEERS, PROFESSIONAL PEOPLE, AND PARENTS, THIS MANUAL PRESENTS PRINCIPLES AND METHODS FOR TEACHING THE MENTALLY RETARDED TO BE AS INDEPENDENT AS POSSIBLE. THE FIRST SECTION PROVIDES GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL CHILDREN AND CONTRASTS THESE WITH SOME OF THE NEEDS OF THE RETARDED.…

  2. Behavioral Treatment of Aggression in the Mentally Retarded: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.

    The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…

  3. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Ted; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  4. Crisis Intervention With the Mentally Retarded: The New Treatment Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlicht, Manny; Deutsch, Martin R.

    The trend toward normalization of the mentally retarded has brought a new dimension to the problem of their adjustment. Within the past several years, large numbers of the mentally retarded have been discharged into the community from residential facilities; the stress and anxiety they experience at being thrust into a strange and alien world…

  5. RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPELAND, ROSS H.; SCHIEFELBUSCH, R.L.

    A REPORT OF A CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IS PRESENTED. THE MAIN AREAS INCLUDED ARE THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION, PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING LANGUAGE, AND SPECIAL METHODS FOR TREATMENT. SPECIFIC REPORTS GIVEN ARE--"PSYCHOLINGUISTICS IN THE STUDY OF MENTAL RETARDATION"…

  6. Behind the Wheel Training for Individuals Labeled Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zider, Steven J.; Gold, Marc W.

    1981-01-01

    The study investigated a strategy for teaching two moderately retarded adults to perform skills required for driving an automobile. Training consisted of two phases--simulator training and driving-range training. Data supported the claim that moderately mentally retarded individuals are capable of performing complex behaviors. (SB)

  7. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  8. Optimization of retardance for a complete Stokes polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatke, D.S.; Descour, M.R.; Dereniak, E.L.; Sweatt, W.C.; Kemme, S.A.; Phipps, G.S.

    2000-01-13

    The authors present two figures of merit based on singular value decomposition which can be used to assess the noise immunity of a complete Stokes polarimeter. These are used to optimize a polarimeter consisting of a rotatable retarder and fixed polarizer. A retardance of 132{degree} (approximately three eights wave) and retarder orientation angles of {+-}51.7{degree} and {+-}15.1{degree} are found to be optimal when four measurements are used. Use of this retardance affords a factor of 1.5 improvement in signal-to-noise ratio over systems employing a quarter wave plate. A geometric means of visualizing the optimization process is discussed, and the advantages of the use of additional measurements are investigated. No advantage of using retarder orientation angles spaced uniformly through 360{degree} is found over repeated measurements made at the four angles given previously.

  9. Trisomy 21: from chromosomes to mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Kerdelhué, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    The first descriptions of the trisomy 21 phenotype were by Jean-Etienne-Dominique Esquirol (1838), Edouard Séguin (1846) and later by John L. H. Down in 1862. It took more than a century to discover the extra-chromosomal origin of the syndrome commonly called "Down's syndrome" and which, we suggest, should be referred to as "Trisomy 21". In this review we are presenting the landmarks, from the pioneering description of the syndrome in 1838 to Jérôme Lejeune's discovery of the first genetic substrate for mental retardation. The sequencing of HSA21 was a new starting point that generated transcriptome studies, and we have noted that studies of gene over-expression have provided the impetus for discovering the HSA21 genes associated with trisomy 21 cognitive impairment.

  10. Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) for Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. K.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Problems associated with Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA), which can be used to measure ion temperature/and density in the lower E region where ion temperature is 200-300 K, are discussed. Two major factors which need to be taken care of to get accurate ion temperature of extremely low values are the effect of mesh size of the grids to be used and the effect of electrode contamination. An electrode baking and vacuum sealing mechanisms are designed to keep the electrode surface clean. The effect of mesh sizes on the calculation of ion temperature is discussed by using simulation studies as well as laboratory experiments. The study suggests that the uniformity of the electric field in the RPA sensor is critical. The manuscript describes the principle of the RPA, the effect of the mesh size using computer simulation studies, and the mechanical design of the sensor sealing to remove electrode contamination.

  11. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  12. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  13. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  14. The Educational Meaning of Mental Retardation: Toward a More Helpful Construct. Mental Retardation and the Neglected Construct of Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switzky, Harvey N.

    This paper examines the role of motivation in the way mental retardation is defined and treated. It reviews evidence that mental retardation involves a motivational self-system and a self-regulatory influence which, interacting with cognitive and metacognitive factors, result in inefficient learning. It suggests that individuals with mental…

  15. Local Foods, Local Places

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Local Foods, Local Places technical assistance program protects human health and the environment, spurs revitalization, increases access to healthy foods, and creates economic opportunities by promoting local foods.

  16. Mental retardation in a boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; González-Abarca, Sergio; Hernández-Rocha, Juan; García-Cruz, Diana; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2005-05-15

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis (ACH) is a rare form of localized hypertrichosis with 15 previously reported cases. ACH has been considered to be a dominant phenotype, either X-linked or autosomal [OMIM 600457]. ACH was associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) in one family, in which the proband also exhibited severe chorioretinal degeneration and optic atrophy, probably as a different entity [OMIM 239840]. A Mexican boy with congenital ACH associated with moderate mental retardation, abnormal EEG, mild microcephaly, hypertrichosis on the back, and hallux valgus is presented here. An equal sex ratio found in 16 reported cases as well as the suggestion of a paternal age effect in one report appear most consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for this trait. It remains unclear if isolated ACH, ACH-HMSN, or other associated findings reported in patients with ACH, including unusual features found in our case, are part of ACH or fortuitous associations, due to the small number of affected patients and different ascertainment biases present in previous reports.

  17. Interaction between chromatin proteins MECP2 and ATRX is disrupted by mutations that cause inherited mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Xinsheng; Hou, Jianghui; Maclean, Alan; Nasir, Jamal; Lafuente, Maria Jose; Shu, Xinhua; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas; Bird, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the human methyl-CpG-binding protein gene MECP2 cause the neurological disorder Rett syndrome and some cases of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). We report that MeCP2 interacts with ATRX, a SWI2/SNF2 DNA helicase/ATPase that is mutated in ATRX syndrome (α-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked). MeCP2 can recruit the helicase domain of ATRX to heterochromatic foci in living mouse cells in a DNA methylation-dependent manner. Also, ATRX localization is disrupted in neurons of Mecp2-null mice. Point mutations within the methylated DNA-binding domain of MeCP2 that cause Rett syndrome or X-linked mental retardation inhibit its interaction with ATRX in vitro and its localization in vivo without affecting methyl-CpG binding. We propose that disruption of the MeCP2–ATRX interaction leads to pathological changes that contribute to mental retardation. PMID:17296936

  18. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure.

    PubMed

    Keller, Alexander S; Raju, Nikhilesh P; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-02-11

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air.

  19. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air. PMID:24804279

  20. Pressure retarded osmosis as a controlling system for traditional renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carravetta, Armando; Fecarotta, Oreste; La Rocca, Michele; Martino, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a viable but still not diffused form of renewable energy (see Maisonneuve et al., 2015 for a recent literature review). In PRO, water from a low salinity feed solution permeates through a membrane into a pressurized, high salinity draw solution, giving rise to a positive pressure drop; then energy is obtained by depressurizing the permeate through a hydro-turbine and brackish water is discharged. Many technological, environmental and economical aspects are obstacles in the diffusion of PRO, like the vulnerability of the membranes to fouling, the impact of the brackish water on the local marine environment, the high cost of membranes, etc. We are interested in the use of PRO as a combined form of energy with other renewable energy source like solar, wind or mini hydro in water supply networks (WSN). For the wide diffusion of renewables one of the major concerns of commercial power companies is to obtain very stable form of energy to comply with prescriptions of electricity grid operators and with the instant energy demand curve. Renewables are generally very variable form of energy, for the influence of climatic conditions on available power, and of the fluctuation in water demand in WSN. PRO is a very flexible technology where with appropriate turbines and control system power can be varied continuously to compensate for variation of other source of energy. Therefore, PRO is suitable to be used as a balancing system for commercial power system. We will present a simulation of the performance of a PRO used in combination with three different renewables. In the first two scenarios PRO compensate the difference between energy demand and energy production of a solar power plant and hydro power plant in a WSN. In the third scenario PRO is used to compensate daily variation of energy production in a wind power plant. Standard curves of energy production and energy demand for southern Italy are used. In order to control PRO production an

  1. Assessing Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge About Chemical Flame Retardants.

    PubMed

    Distelhorst, Laura; Bieda, Amy; DiMarco, Marguerite; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan

    Chemical flame retardants are routinely applied to children's products and are harmful to their health. Pediatric nurses are in a key position to provide education to caregivers on methods to decrease their children's exposure to these harmful chemicals. However, a critical barrier is the absence of any program to educate nurses about chemical flame retardants. In order to overcome this barrier, we must first assess their knowledge. This article provides key highlights every pediatric nurse should know about chemical flame retardants and reports the results of a knowledge assessment study.

  2. Critical flicker frequency of mentally retarded and normal persons.

    PubMed

    Ali, M R; Khaleque, A; Khanam, M; al-Shatti, A; Ahmed, R U

    1994-12-01

    Critical flicker frequency (CFF) of 40 men, 20 mentally retarded whose mean age was 22.0 yr. and 20 normal whose mean age was 21.5 yr., was measured under binocular viewing using the Lafayette Visual Perception Control with a display unit. Subjects had been previously tested for visual acuity and color blindness. Analysis showed a significant difference in CFF between mentally retarded persons and normal individuals, the former having lower CFF than the latter. This finding suggests lower perceptual sensitivity of the mentally retarded persons. Further research with provision for EEG recordings is suggested.

  3. PERSONALITY PATTERN OF PARENTS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN1

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Parents of fifty mentally retarded children were studied for their personality pattern with the help of Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. In fathers and mothers separately, none of the personality traits were observed to vary at statistically significant level in relation to the degree of retardation in their child, but both the parents of mildly retarded children obtained higher score on scale of anxiety, phobia and depression. Analysis of different factors when compared for fathers and mothers together, revealed a higher degree of neurotic traits in mothers. PMID:21965955

  4. Motivation, vocational interests and job satisfaction of mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Friedman, L; Molcho, M

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults in a residential facility in Israel, their actual work and the factors which they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Two questionnaires were used: the Illustrated Vocational Inventory (Whelan & Reiter, 1980) and a specially designed questionnaire on motivation to work based on Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959). The results demonstrate the importance of taking into consideration mentally retarded persons' vocational interests when assignig them to different jobs. It further demonstrates the importance of the environment in influencing mentally retarded individuals to seek instrinsic or extrinsic rewards and satisfaction from work.

  5. Research on mental retardation: an agenda for the future.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, M A

    2000-06-01

    This article summarizes the results of a study carried out on 12 scientific journals that deal with research on mental retardation. The purpose was to analyze the type of research currently being published. Data shows that, although most of research on mental retardation from 1991 to June, 1999 agrees with the multidimensional system proposed by the AAMR in 1992, research still tends to focus on a psychopathological model when considering people with mental retardation. We conclude by offering several suggestions on the need for a collaborative approach between researchers and professionals and the benefits of developing a supportive culture for research.

  6. Moral judgment in retarded and nonretarded school age children.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, R M; Sulick, J A

    1978-05-01

    The moral judgment of 135 normal, educable retarded, and trainable retarded boys and girls (ages 6-10, 11-13, and 14-16) was individually assessed to determine the significance of chronological age and IQ on moral development. The results indicated significant differences in mean normal judgment between the groups and each age level. The findings were interpreted as substantiating Piaget's stage theory of moral development and suggesting that within the retarded population, level of intellectual ability is also significantly related to moral judgment.

  7. Leber's congenital amaurosis. Is mental retardation a frequent associated defect?

    PubMed

    Nickel, B; Hoyt, C S

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-one patients had Leber's congenital amaurosis. Only one was severely retarded, and three demonstrated hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis on computed tomographic scanning. These findings are in contrast to those of previous investigators, who have emphasized the high incidence of psychomotor retardation associated with Leber's amaurosis. Much of the psychomotor retardation that has been reported is probably secondary to the sensory deprivation and not necessarily a sign of structural CNS dysfunction. The diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis does not, therefore, portend severe intellectual impairment and poor educability.

  8. Socio demography of mental retardation: A community-based study from a goitre zone in rural sub-Himalayan India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shailja; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Bhardwaj, Ashok Kumar; Chaudhary, Sanjeev; Kashyap, Vipasha; Chander, Vishav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mental retardation is one of the most common disabilities of childhood which can be prevented by timely identification of the causative agent and an adequate management accordingly. District Kangra lies in the sub-Himalayan belt and forms a part of the 2400 km long goitre belt along the southern slopes of the Himalayas. Objective: To study the prevalence of mental retardation among children (1–10) years of age. Materials and Methods: A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural area of district Kangra. A 30-cluster sampling technique was used to screen a population of children 1–10 years of age from five randomly selected panchayats (village government units) of district Kangra. The screening was based on a modified version of the ten questions screen, adapted to the local population. In the first phase a door to door survey was done to identify suspects of mental retardation. In the second phase, the children found positive in the first phase were called for examination by the pediatrician to confirm mental retardation. Results: A total of 2420 children were screened in the first phase of which 95 tested positive. About 52 of these children were found to be mentally retarded in the second phase giving a prevalence of 2.15%. The 69% of these children belonged to the lower middle class and 28.3% belonged to middle class families using the Uday Parekh scale for assessment of the socio-economic status. Conclusion: Prevalence of mental retardation is high in district Kangra of Himachal Pradesh in comparison to other states of India. This could be attributed to the good primary health care in Himachal Pradesh where institutional deliveries are about 70%. This may have led to better survival of children with congenital disorders and those that suffer perinatal trauma. PMID:25883473

  9. Fast quantitative retardance imaging of biological samples using quadri-wave interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Bon, Pierre; Savatier, Julien; Monneret, Serge; Wattellier, Benoit F.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the use of polarized spatially coherent illumination to perform linear retardance imaging and measurements of semi-transparent biological samples using a quantitative phase imaging technique [1]. Quantitative phase imaging techniques [2-5] are used in microscopy for the imaging of semi-transparent samples and gives information about the optical path difference (OPD). The strength of those techniques is their non-invasive (the sample is not labelled) and fast approach. However, this high contrast is non-specific and cannot be linked to specific properties of the sample. To overcome this limitation, we propose to use polarized light in combination with QPI. Indeed, anisotropy has been used to reveal ordered fibrous structures in biological samples without any staining or labelling with polarized light microscopy [6-8]. Recent studies have shown polarimetry as a potential diagnostic tool for various dermatological diseases on thick tissue samples [9]. Particularly, specific collagen fibers spatial distribution has been demonstrated to be a signature for the optical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in tissues [10]. In this paper, we describe a technical improvement of our technique based on high-resolution quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) and liquid crystal retarder to perform quantitative linear birefringence measurements on biological samples. The system combines a set of quantitative phase images with different excitation polarizations to create birefringence images. These give information about the local retardance and orientation of biological anisotropic components. We propose using a commercial QWLSI [11] (SID4Bio, Phasics SA, Saint Aubin, France) directly plugged onto a lateral video port of an inverted microscope (TE2000-U, Nikon, Japan). We are able to take retardance images in less than 1 second which allows us to record dynamic phenomena (living cells study) and make high speed acquisitions to reconstruct tissues virtual

  10. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Richard

    2006-01-01

    X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s. PMID:16722615

  11. The Needs Of The Retarded Adult

    PubMed Central

    Armour, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    This article deals primarily with the needs of people with a degree of mental retardation, from mild to moderately severe, who are able to live approximately normal lives with assistance by counselling, advice and family help. It has been found that they do much better living in the community, mixing with normal people, but also with access to the company of persons similarly affected. With adequate advice and counselling, they can become self-sustaining in a number of ways, such as self care, living in their own homes or in small groups, and working either in sheltered employment or in the labor force. Their needs, like those of all others, range from the material such as shelter, food, clothing, possessions, transportation, health care, through the pyschological such as self fulfillment, recreation and enjoyment, love, affection and sex, and social such as legal protection and responsibility. With appropriate arrangements, these needs can be better met in community living, probably at less cost than if they were living in the traditional large institutions. Continued training and rehabilitative measures can often improve their abilities to an astonishing degree. They are rarely unteachable. PMID:21297812

  12. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beheydt, Lieve Lia; Schrijvers, Didier; Docx, Lise; Bouckaert, Filip; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, clinical ratings of PR, and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method multivariate analysis of variance to compare the clinical, cognitive, and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients performed worse on all clinical, cognitive, and PR measures. Both groups showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: Due to the restrictive inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric patients was found. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive load), it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression. PMID:25674065

  13. Mesic retardation and the triton binding energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, R. A.; Chulick, G. S.; Machleidt, R.; Picklesimer, A.; Thaler, R. M.

    1988-09-01

    The relationship between the apparently successful result for the triton binding energy obtained from the static Bonn potentials and the underlying meson theory is investigated. The triton binding is shown to be strongly dependent upon mesic retardation and associated explicit energy dependences in the meson theory of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Because it is a much closer representation of the full interaction than are its energy-independent counterparts, the energy-dependent one-boson-exchange potential representation of the Bonn interaction is used to gauge the implications of the full interaction. This one-boson-exchange potential, with or without corrections to adapt it for use in conjunction with nonrelativistic (Schrödinger) three-body equations, predicts a triton binding of only ~6.7 MeV, as compared to a result of about 8.4 MeV obtained with the energy-independent potentials. This difference is traced to the combination of the explicit energy-dependence and the implicit energy dependence introduced through the tensor force, especially in the 3S1 partial wave. This provides a new perspective on the success of the static Bonn potentials relative to other realistic potentials and relative to the meson-theoretic framework. Implications, especially with regard to the need for investigations of consistent three-body forces, are discussed.

  14. Oral Rehabilitation and Management of Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  15. Fire retardant effects of polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Hull, T Richard; Stec, Anna A; Nazare, Shonali

    2009-07-01

    Among the many and varied applications of nanotechnology, the dispersion of nanoscopic fillers to form polymer nanocomposites with improved fire behaviour illustrates the potential and diversity of nanoscience. Different polymers decompose in different ways and fire retardants act to inhibit the decomposition or flaming combustion processes. Polymer nanocomposites form barriers between the fuel and air, reducing the rate of burning, but beyond that there is little consistency in their effects. It is shown that the decomposition products of polypropylene are changed by the presence of nanoclay, although there is only a small influence on the mass loss rate. The rheological properties of molten polymer nanocomposites are radically different from those of virgin polymers, and these will profoundly affect the heat transfer through the material, resulting in a shorter time to ignition and lower peak in the heat release rate, typical of polymer nanocomposites. The dispersion of nanofillers within polymers is generally measured in the cold polymer, but since this does not reflect the condition at the time of ignition, it is proposed that temperature ramped rheological measurements are more appropriate indicators of dispersion. The influence of polymer nanocomposite formation on the yields of toxic products from fire is studied using the ISO 19700 steady state tube furnace, and it is found that under early stages of burning more carbon monoxide and organoirritants are formed, but under the more toxic under-ventilated conditions, less toxic products are formed.

  16. Developmental abnormalities and mental retardation: diagnostic strategy.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Meral; Yalnizoğlu, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability formerly called mental retardation (MR) is defined as having an IQ score below 70; the term "developmental delay" (DD) is preferred for young children. A detailed clinical history including a three-generation pedigreee and physical examination are the fundamental steps in achieving an etiological diagnosis in MR. Physical examination should be performed with special emphasis on dysmorphological and neurological exam. Genetic studies have priority in the laboratory investigation of a child with MR. Routine karyotyping is recommended regardless of the degree of MR. Fragile X studies are strongly recommended in both females and males with unexplained MR, especially in patients with a positive family history and typical physical and behavioral features. FISH analysis of subtelomeric regions should be reserved for selected patients. Inborn errors of metabolism are seldom seen as the causes of isolated MR but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with MR/DD in populations where the rate of consanguineous marriages is high. Neuroimaging studies should be performed on an indication basis such as abnormal brain size or neurological findings. It is essential to diagnose the underlying etiology of MR for recognition of treatable disorders, determining prognosis, family counseling, and providing prenatal diagnosis when possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of Complement Retards Ankylosing Spondylitis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaoqun; Ding, Peipei; Wang, Qingkai; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Jianquan; Xu, Enjie; Wang, Na; Chen, Jianfeng; Yang, Guang; Hu, Weiguo; Zhou, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) resulting in back pain and progressive spinal ankyloses. Currently, there are no effective therapeutics targeting AS largely due to elusive pathogenesis mechanisms, even as potential candidates such as HLA-B27 autoantigen have been identified. Herein, we employed a proteoglycan (PG)-induced AS mouse model together with clinical specimens, and found that the complement system was substantially activated in the spinal bone marrow, accompanied by a remarkable proportion alteration of neutrophils and macrophage in bone marrow and spleen, and by the significant increase of TGF-β1 in serum. The combined treatment with a bacteria-derived complement inhibitor Efb-C (C-terminal of extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein of Staphylococcus aureus) remarkably retarded the progression of mouse AS by reducing osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that two important modulators involved in AS disease, TGF-β1 and RANKL, were elevated upon in vitro complement attack in osteoblast and/or osteoclast cells. These findings further unravel that complement activation is closely related with the pathogenesis of AS, and suggest that complement inhibition may hold great potential for AS therapy. PMID:27698377

  18. Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.

    PubMed

    Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke

    2014-12-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral rehabilitation and management of mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today's world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals.

  20. A simple analytical method to obtain achromatic waveplate retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Jose Luis; Lazarova-Lazarova, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    A new linear and analytical method to design achromatic retarders using waveplates is proposed. The root of this procedure is a generalization of the Hariharan method, which supposes a set of waveplates with fast axes aligned. Hence, it imposes a set of contour conditions over the overall retardation with the aim of determining the thicknesses of the waveplates. Our method proposes a polynomial approximation of the birefringences, thus removing the contour condition. Analytic expressions for calculating the thicknesses of the waveplates are then derived, showing a non-explicit dependence on the wavelength. Moreover, the overall retardation obtained by this method is close to the optimal retardation curve achieved by minimizing the merit function of the achromatism degree.

  1. Retardation in Mathematics: A Consideration of Multi-Factorial Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdown, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Discusses mathematical retardation as a construct and examines the possible contributions of emotional factors, socioeconomic factors, poor teaching, cognitive factors, and sex difference to low achievement in mathematics. (JB)

  2. Activational Peaking in Educable and Trainable Mentally Retarded Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard M.; Uno, Tad

    1977-01-01

    A study involving 10 educable and 10 trainable mentally retarded adolescents indicated that levels of intellectual functioning influenced patterns of autonomic activation as measured by magnitude of the galvanic skin response. (CL)

  3. Reality Therapy with Institutionalized Emotionally Disturbed Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolly, John P.; Page, D. Patricia

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated a reality therapy program used with 20 institutionalized mentally retarded (mild to profound) and emotionally disturbed adolescents residing in an institution. Results indicated that 17 of the Ss increased adaptive behaviors and all decreased maladaptive behaviors. (DB)

  4. Development of Flame Retardants for Engineering Polymers and Polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desikan, Anantha

    2013-03-01

    With a broad portfolio of brominated, organophosphorus and inorganic flame retardants, ICL Industrial Products (ICL-IP) is engaged in the development of new flame retardants by exploiting the synergism between bromine based, phosphorus based and other halogen-free flame retardants. ICL-IP is also focusing on the development of polymeric and reactive flame retardants. This presentation will give examples of existing and new polymeric and reactive products for applications in thermoplastics, thermosets and polyurethane foam. This presentation will also show examples of phosphorus-bromine synergism allowing partial or complete elimination of antimony trioxide in many thermoplastics for electronic applications. New synergistic combinations of magnesium hydroxide with phosphorus and other halogen-free FRs will be presented. Work done in collaboration with S. Levchik, ICL-IP America, 430 Saw Mill Rriver Rd., Ardsley, NY, 10502, USA and M. Leifer, ICL-IP, P. O. Box 180, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel.

  5. An Analysis of Employer Evaluations of Workers with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Written employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation were analyzed regarding their relationship to employment retention and three such factors were identified: (1) workers' attendance, (2) punctuality patterns, and (3) consistency in task performance. (Author/DB)

  6. Promoting Social Play in Small Groups of Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo, Daniel M.; McGourty, David G.

    1983-01-01

    A method for fading object rewards for superordinate prerequisites to social play simultaneously with socially rewarded training on specific play was effective in teaching games to 15 institutionalized retarded adolescents. (Author/CL)

  7. Teaching about Older People with Mental Retardation: An Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropf, Nancy P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The University of Georgia model curriculum to prepare students to work with mentally retarded older adults has six units: population overview, physiological issues, mental health issues, social support systems, service delivery networks, and legal/ethical issues. (SK)

  8. An Analysis of Employer Evaluations of Workers with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Written employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation were analyzed regarding their relationship to employment retention and three such factors were identified: (1) workers' attendance, (2) punctuality patterns, and (3) consistency in task performance. (Author/DB)

  9. Fire retardant foams developed to suppress fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R.; Gilwee, W. J.; Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Heat insulating polyurethane foam retards and suppresses fuel fires. Uniformly dispersed in the foam is a halogenated polymer capable of splitting off hydrogen halide upon heating and charring of the polyurethane.

  10. Auditory Reinforcement in Profoundly Retarded Multiply Handicapped Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, R. E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Four profoundly retarded multiply handicapped children (with a mean age of 12 years) were placed in a situation where auditory stimulation was made contingent on a visually directed lever-pulling response. (Author/MH)

  11. The Assessment of Effectance Motivation in Normal and Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Zigler, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Several measures of effectance motivation were constructed; their validity was assessed by administering them to groups of subjects whose effectance motivation was assumed to differ: normal, noninstitutionalized retarded, and institutionalized children matched on mental age. (CS)

  12. Sorption of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants (OPFRs) on Settled Dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are widely used as additives in industrial and consumer products such as electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textiles, and building/construction materials. Due to human exposure and potential health effects, OPFRs inc...

  13. Sorption of Organophosphorus Flame-Retardants on Settled Dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust is an important sink for indoor air pollutants, such as organophosphorus flame-retardants (OPFRs) that are used as additives in industrial and consumer products including electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textile, and building/construction materials. T...

  14. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  15. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  16. Aerobic Dance and the Mentally Retarded--A Winning Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bonnie J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study on an experimental dance program for mentally retarded children show that these children can improve in physical fitness and that success through physical activities can enhance their generally poor self-concept. (JN)

  17. Clinical Comparison of Haloperidol with Chlorpromazine in Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVann, Leonard J.

    1971-01-01

    In an 8-week double-blind comparison, haloperidol reduced the severity of the target symptoms impulsiveness, hostility, and aggressiveness in significantly more mentally retarded children than did chlorpromazine. (Author)

  18. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN) have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed. PMID:28883350

  19. Burning To Learn: An Introduction to Flame Retardants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity that demonstrates the effectiveness of flame retardants--substances added to combustible materials to slow down or hinder burning--that can be introduced when discussing combustion reactions or during a practical or everyday chemistry unit. (ASK)

  20. Reversal and Rotation Errors by Normal and Retarded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, F. William

    1973-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the incidence of and relationships among word and letter reversals in writing and Bender-Gestalt rotation errors in matched samples of normal and retarded readers. No significant diffenences were found in the two groups. (TO)