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Sample records for local retarded off-shell

  1. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  2. Off-shell Poincaré supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Daniel Z.; Roest, Diederik; Van Proeyen, Antoine

    2017-02-01

    We present the action and transformation rules of Poincaré supergravity coupled to chiral multiplets ( z α , χ α , h α ) with off-shell auxiliary fields. Starting from the geometric formulation of the superconformal theory with auxiliary fields, we derive the Poincaré counterpart by gauge-fixing the Weyl and chiral symmetry and S-supersymmetry. We show how this transition is facilitated by retaining explicit target-space covariance. Our results form a convenient starting point to study models with constrained superfields, including general matter-coupled de Sitter supergravity.

  3. Off-shell hydrodynamics from holography

    DOE PAGES

    Crossley, Michael; Glorioso, Paolo; Liu, Hong; ...

    2016-02-18

    In this article, we outline a program for obtaining an action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics by considering the holographic Wilsonian renormalization group applied to systems with a gravity dual. As a first step, in this paper we restrict to systems with a non-dissipative horizon. By integrating out gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk gravitational system between an asymptotic boundary and a horizon, we are led to a formulation of hydrodynamics where the dynamical variables are not standard velocity and temperature fields, but the relative embedding of the boundary and horizon hypersurfaces. At zeroth order, this action reduces tomore » that proposed by Dubovsky et al. as an off-shell formulation of ideal fluid dynamics.« less

  4. Off-shell hydrodynamics from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, Michael; Glorioso, Paolo; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yifan

    2016-02-18

    In this article, we outline a program for obtaining an action principle for dissipative fluid dynamics by considering the holographic Wilsonian renormalization group applied to systems with a gravity dual. As a first step, in this paper we restrict to systems with a non-dissipative horizon. By integrating out gapped degrees of freedom in the bulk gravitational system between an asymptotic boundary and a horizon, we are led to a formulation of hydrodynamics where the dynamical variables are not standard velocity and temperature fields, but the relative embedding of the boundary and horizon hypersurfaces. At zeroth order, this action reduces to that proposed by Dubovsky et al. as an off-shell formulation of ideal fluid dynamics.

  5. Off-shell two-loop QCD vertices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracey, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the triple gluon, ghost-gluon and quark-gluon vertex functions at two loops in the MS¯ scheme in the chiral limit for an arbitrary linear covariant gauge when the external legs are all off shell.

  6. On the Green-functions of the classical off-shell electrodynamics under the manifestly covariant relativistic dynamics of Stueckelberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonovich, I.; Horwitz, L. P.

    2011-08-01

    In previous papers derivations of the Green function have been given for 5D off-shell electrodynamics in the framework of the manifestly covariant relativistic dynamics of Stueckelberg (with invariant evolution parameter τ). In this paper, we reconcile these derivations resulting in different explicit forms, and relate our results to the conventional fundamental solutions of linear 5D wave equations published in the mathematical literature. We give physical arguments for the choice of the Green function retarded in the fifth variable τ.

  7. Off-shell massive N = 1 supermultiplets in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tsulaia, Mirian

    2017-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the construction of new off-shell higher spin N = 1 supermultiplets in three spacetime dimensions. We elaborate on the gauge prepotentials and linearised super-Cotton tensors for higher spin N = 1 superconformal geometry and propose compensating superfields required to formulate off-shell massless higher spin supermultiplets. The corresponding gauge-invariant actions are worked out explicitly using an auxiliary oscillator realisation. We construct, for the first time, off-shell massive higher spin supermultiplets. The gauge-invariant actions for these supermultiplets are obtained by adding Chern-Simons like mass terms (that is, higher spin extensions of the linearised action for N = 1 conformal supergravity) to the actions for the massless supermultiplets. For each of the massive gravitino and supergravity multiplets, we propose two dually equivalent formulations.

  8. Off-Shell Supersymmetry versus Hermiticity in Superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Berkovits, N.

    1996-09-01

    We point out that off-shell four-dimensional spacetime supersymmetry implies strange Hermiticity properties for the {ital N}=1 Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz superstring. However, these Hermiticity properties become natural when the {ital N}=1 superstring is embedded into an {ital N}=2 superstring. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Leading singularities and off-shell conformal integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, James; Duhr, Claude; Eden, Burkhard; Heslop, Paul; Pennington, Jeffrey; Smirnov, Vladimir A.

    2013-08-29

    The three-loop four-point function of stress-tensor multiplets in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory contains two so far unknown, off-shell, conformal integrals, in addition to the known, ladder-type integrals. In our paper we evaluate the unknown integrals, thus obtaining the three-loop correlation function analytically. The integrals have the generic structure of rational functions multiplied by (multiple) polylogarithms. We use the idea of leading singularities to obtain the rational coefficients, the symbol — with an appropriate ansatz for its structure — as a means of characterising multiple polylogarithms, and the technique of asymptotic expansion of Feynman integrals to obtain the integrals in certain limits. The limiting behaviour uniquely fixes the symbols of the integrals, which we then lift to find the corresponding polylogarithmic functions. The final formulae are numerically confirmed. Furthermore, we develop techniques that can be applied more generally, and we illustrate this by analytically evaluating one of the integrals contributing to the same four-point function at four loops. This example shows a connection between the leading singularities and the entries of the symbol.

  10. Off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like interactions in all partial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, U.; Bhoi, J.

    2013-01-15

    By exploiting the theory of ordinary differential equations, with judicious use of boundary conditions, interacting Green's functions and their integral transforms together with certain properties of higher transcendental functions, useful analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for motion in Coulomb and Coulomb-nuclear potentials are derived in maximal reduced form through different approaches to the problem in the representation space. The exact analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials are believed to be useful for the description of the charged particle scattering/reaction processes.

  11. Off-shell amplitudes as boundary integrals of analytically continued Wilson line slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotko, P.; Serino, M.; Stasto, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    One of the methods to calculate tree-level multi-gluon scattering amplitudes is to use the Berends-Giele recursion relation involving off-shell currents or off-shell amplitudes, if working in the light cone gauge. As shown in recent works using the light-front perturbation theory, solutions to these recursions naturally collapse into gauge invariant and gauge-dependent components, at least for some helicity configurations. In this work, we show that such structure is helicity independent and emerges from analytic properties of matrix elements of Wilson line operators, where the slope of the straight gauge path is shifted in a certain complex direction. This is similar to the procedure leading to the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion, however we apply a complex shift to the Wilson line slope instead of the external momenta. While in the original BCFW procedure the boundary integrals over the complex shift vanish for certain deformations, here they are non-zero and are equal to the off-shell amplitudes. The main result can thus be summarized as follows: we derive a decomposition of a helicity-fixed off-shell current into gauge invariant component given by a matrix element of a straight Wilson line plus a reminder given by a sum of products of gauge invariant and gauge dependent quantities. We give several examples realizing this relation, including the five-point next-to-MHV helicity configuration.

  12. One-loop pentagon integral with one off-shell leg in 6 -2 ɛ dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Mikhail G.

    2017-02-01

    We apply the differential equations technique to the calculation of the one-loop massless diagram with one off-shell leg. Using a reduction to the ɛ -form, we managed to obtain a simple onefold integral representation exact in space-time dimensionality. Expansion of the obtained result in ɛ and an analytical continuation to the physical region are discussed.

  13. Off-shell spinor-helicity amplitudes from light-cone deformation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry

    2016-12-01

    We study the consistency conditions for interactions of massless fields of any spin in four-dimensional flat space using the light-cone approach. We show that they can be equivalently rewritten as the Ward identities for the off-shell light-cone amplitudes built from the light-cone Hamiltonian in the standard way. Then we find a general solution of these Ward identities. The solution admits a compact representation when written in the spinor-helicity form and is given by an arbitrary function of spinor products, satisfying wellknown homogeneity constraints. Thus, we show that the light-cone consistent deformation procedure inevitably leads to a certain off-shell version of the spinor-helicity approach. We discuss how the relation between the two approaches can be employed to facilitate the search of consistent interaction of massless higher-spin fields.

  14. Holomorphic Chern-Simons theory coupled to off-shell Kodaira-Spencer gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusto, Stefano; Imbimbo, Camillo; Rosa, Dario

    2012-10-01

    We construct an action for holomorphic Chern-Simons theory that couples the gauge field to off-shell gravitational backgrounds, comprising the complex structure and the (3,0)-form of the target space. Gauge invariance of the off-shell action is achieved by enlarging the field space to include an appropriate system of Lagrange multipliers, ghost and ghost-for-ghost fields. Both the BRST transformations and the BV action are compactly and neatly written in terms of superfields which include fields, backgrounds and their antifields. We show that the anti-holomorphic target space derivative can be written as a BRST-commutator on a functional space containing the anti-fields of both the dynamical fields and the gravitational backgrounds. We derive from this result a Ward identity that determines the anti-holomorphic dependence of physical correlators.

  15. Off-shell higher spin N =2 supermultiplets in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Ogburn, Daniel X.

    2016-11-01

    Off-shell higher spin N =2 supermultiplets in three spacetime dimensions (3D) are presented in this paper. We propose gauge prepotentials for higher spin superconformal gravity and construct the corresponding gauge-invariant field strengths, which are proved to be conformal primary superfields. These field strengths are higher spin generalizations of the (linearized) N =2 super-Cotton tensor, which controls the superspace geometry of conformal supergravity. We also construct the higher spin extensions of the linearized N =2 conformal supergravity action. We provide two dually equivalent off-shell formulations for massless higher spin N =2 supermultiplets. They involve one and the same superconformal prepotential but differ in the compensators used. For the lowest superspin value 3 /2 , these higher spin series terminate at the linearized actions for the (1,1) minimal and w =-1 nonminimal N =2 Poincaré supergravity theories constructed in S. M. Kuzenko and G. Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, arXiv:1109.0496. Similar to the pure 3D supergravity actions, their higher spin counterparts propagate no degrees of freedom. However, the massless higher spin supermultiplets are used to construct off-shell massive N =2 supermultiplets by combining the massless actions with those describing higher spin extensions of the linearized N =2 conformal supergravity. We also demonstrate that every higher spin super-Cotton tensor can be represented as a linear superposition of the equations of motion for the corresponding massless higher spin supermultiplet, with the coefficients being higher-derivative linear operators.

  16. "Project lifestyle" and new forms of living for the mentally retarded in the local community.

    PubMed

    Holm, P

    1993-09-01

    Since 1890, representatives of the Ministries and Departments of Social Security in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland and Denmark have been working to create a foundation and a framework for a common Scandinavian research and development project concerning the quality of life of the mentally retarded. In 1992, with financial support from The Nordic Council of Ministers, the exchange of information and the building up of a network was begun, involving those taking part in some 50 development projects in Scandinavian countries. The project has focussed on three themes central to efforts made on behalf of and with the cooperation of mentally retarded people in these countries: the mentally handicapped person in the local community, independence and the quality of life, and communication. The aim of the project is to establish a Scandinavian network of key persons in the field, to systematize and propagate promising developments and to cast light on differences and similarities between various Scandinavian models for research and development related to the mentally retarded.

  17. A Coulomb-Like Off-Shell T-Matrix with the Correct Coulomb Phase Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oryu, Shinsho; Watanabe, Takashi; Hiratsuka, Yasuhisa; Togawa, Yoshio

    2017-03-01

    We confirm the reliability of the well-known Coulomb renormalization method (CRM). It is found that the CRM is only available for a very-long-range screened Coulomb potential (SCP). However, such an SCP calculation in momentum space is considerably difficult because of the cancelation of significant digits. In contrast to the CRM, we propose a new method by using an on-shell equivalent SCP and the rest term. The two-potential theory with r-space is introduced, which defines fully the off-shell Coulomb amplitude.

  18. Off-shell behavior of relativistic NN effective interactions and charge symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersten, A.; Thomas, A. W.; Weyrauch, M.

    1990-04-01

    We examine in detail the suggestion of Iqbal et al. for calculating the class-four charge symmetry breaking amplitude in n-p scattering. By simplifying to a model problem, we show explicitly that the approximation scheme is unreliable if a phenomenological, effective nucleon-nucleon T matrix is used. Our results have wider implications for observables calculated in relativistic impulse approximation calculations. They reinforce the observation made in the literature that the procedure of fitting only positive energy matrix elements can lead to an NN interaction whose off-shell behavior is incorrect.

  19. Bordered surfaces, off-shell amplitudes, sewing, and string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlip, Steven

    1989-04-01

    These lectures will deal with the current status of the sewing problem. The rationale for this approach is that any nonperturbative string theory must reproduce the Polyakov path integral as a perturbation series. If our experience in ordinary field theory is a guide, and admittedly it may not be, the terms in such a perturbation series, like Feynman diagrams, are likely to be built up from simple vertices and propagators, which can themselves be represented as (off-shell) Polyakov amplitudes. Hence an understanding of how to put together simple components into more complicated world sheet amplitudes is likely to give us much-needed information about the structure of nonperturbative string theory. To understand sewing, we must first understand the building blocks, off-shell Polyakov amplitudes. This is the subject of my first lecture. Next, we will explore the sewing of conformal field theories at a fixed conformal structure, that is, the reconstruction of correlation functions for a fixed surface (Sigma) from those on a pair of surfaces (Sigma)(sub 1) and (Sigma)(sub 2) obtained by cutting (Sigma) along a closed curve. We will then look at the problem of sewing amplitudes, integrals of correlation functions over moduli space. This will necessitate an understanding of how to build the moduli space of a complicated surface from simpler moduli spaces. Finally, we will briefly examine vertices and string field theories.

  20. Bordered surfaces, off-shell amplitudes, sewing, and string field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Carlip, S.

    1989-04-01

    These lectures will deal with the current status of the sewing problem. The rationale for this approach is that any nonperturbative string theory must reproduce the Polyakov path integral as a perturbation series. If our experience in ordinary field theory is a guide --- and admittedly it may not be --- the terms in such a perturbation series, like Feynman diagrams, are likely to be built up from simple ''vertices'' and ''propagators,'' which can themselves be represented as (off-shell) Polyakov amplitudes. Hence an understanding of how to put together simple components into more complicated world sheet amplitudes is likely to give us much-needed information about the structure of nonperturbative string theory. To understand sewing, we must first understand the building blocks, off-shell Polyakov amplitudes. This is the subject of my first lecture. Next, we will explore the sewing of conformal field theories at a fixed conformal structure, that is, the reconstruction of correlation functions for a fixed surface /Sigma/ from those on a pair of surfaces /Sigma//sub 1/ and /Sigma//sub 2/ obtained by cutting /Sigma/ along a closed curve. We will then look at the problem of sewing amplitudes, integrals of correlation functions over moduli space. This will necessitate an understanding of how to build the moduli space of a complicated surface from simpler moduli spaces. Finally, we will briefly examine vertices and string field theories. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Off-shell dark matter: A cosmological relic of quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravani, Mehdi; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2017-02-01

    We study a novel proposal for the origin of cosmological cold dark matter (CDM) which is rooted in the quantum nature of spacetime. In this model, off-shell modes of quantum fields can exist in asymptotic states as a result of spacetime nonlocality (expected in generic theories of quantum gravity) and play the role of CDM, which we dub off-shell dark matter (O f DM ). However, their rate of production is suppressed by the scale of nonlocality (e.g. Planck length). As a result, we show that O f DM is only produced in the first moments of big bang, and then effectively decouples (except through its gravitational interactions). We examine the observational predictions of this model: In the context of cosmic inflation, we show that this proposal relates the reheating temperature to the inflaton mass, which narrows down the uncertainty in the number of e -foldings of specific inflationary scenarios. We also demonstrate that O f DM is indeed cold, and discuss potentially observable signatures on small scale matter power spectrum.

  2. Higher gauge theories from Lie n-algebras and off-shell covariantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, Ursula; Heller, Marc Andre; Ikeda, Noriaki; Kaneko, Yukio; Watamura, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    We analyze higher gauge theories in various dimensions using a supergeometric method based on a differential graded symplectic manifold, called a QP-manifold, which is closely related to the BRST-BV formalism in gauge theories. Extensions of the Lie 2-algebra gauge structure are formulated within the Lie n-algebra induced by the QP-structure. We find that in 5 and 6 dimensions there are special extensions of the gauge algebra. In these cases, a restriction of the gauge symmetry by imposing constraints on the auxiliary gauge fields leads to a covariantized theory. As an example we show that we can obtain an off-shell covariantized higher gauge theory in 5 dimensions, which is similar to the one proposed in [1].

  3. Off-shell single-top production at NLO matched to parton showers

    SciTech Connect

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papanastasiou, A. S.; Prestel, S.; Torrielli, P.

    2016-06-06

    We study the hadroproduction of a Wb pair in association with a light jet, focusing on the dominant t-channel contribution and including exactly at the matrix-element level all non-resonant and off-shell effects induced by the finite top-quark width. Our simulations are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, and are matched to the Herwig6 and Pythia8 parton showers through the MC@NLO method. We present phenomenological results relevant to the 8 TeV LHC, and carry out a thorough comparison to the case of on-shell t-channel single-top production. Furthermore, we formulate our approach so that it can be applied to the general case of matrix elements that feature coloured intermediate resonances and are matched to parton showers.

  4. Off-shell single-top production at NLO matched to parton showers

    DOE PAGES

    Frederix, R.; Frixione, S.; Papanastasiou, A. S.; ...

    2016-06-06

    We study the hadroproduction of a Wb pair in association with a light jet, focusing on the dominant t-channel contribution and including exactly at the matrix-element level all non-resonant and off-shell effects induced by the finite top-quark width. Our simulations are accurate to the next-to-leading order in QCD, and are matched to the Herwig6 and Pythia8 parton showers through the MC@NLO method. We present phenomenological results relevant to the 8 TeV LHC, and carry out a thorough comparison to the case of on-shell t-channel single-top production. Furthermore, we formulate our approach so that it can be applied to the generalmore » case of matrix elements that feature coloured intermediate resonances and are matched to parton showers.« less

  5. Off-Shell Green Functions: One-Loop with Growing Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Concha-Sanchez, Y.; Delbourgo, R.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2008-07-02

    One loop calculations in gauge theories in arbitrary gauge and dimensions become exceedingly hard with growing number of external off-shell legs. Let alone higher point functions, such a calculation for even the three point one-loop vertices for quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has been made available only recently. In this article, we discuss how Ward-Fradkin-Green-Takahashi identities (WFGTI) may provide a helpful tool in these computations. After providing a glimpse of our suggestion for the case of the 3-point vertex, we present our preliminary findings towards our similar efforts for the 4-point function. We restrict ourselves to the example of scalar quantum electrodynamics (SQED)

  6. Nuclear Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein is localized to Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Dury, Alain Y; El Fatimy, Rachid; Tremblay, Sandra; Rose, Timothy M; Côté, Jocelyn; De Koninck, Paul; Khandjian, Edouard W

    2013-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by loss of function of a single gene encoding the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). This RNA-binding protein, widely expressed in mammalian tissues, is particularly abundant in neurons and is a component of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes present within the translational apparatus. The absence of FMRP in neurons is believed to cause translation dysregulation and defects in mRNA transport essential for local protein synthesis and for synaptic development and maturation. A prevalent model posits that FMRP is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that transports its mRNA targets from the nucleus to the translation machinery. However, it is not known which of the multiple FMRP isoforms, resulting from the numerous alternatively spliced FMR1 transcripts variants, would be involved in such a process. Using a new generation of anti-FMRP antibodies and recombinant expression, we show here that the most commonly expressed human FMRP isoforms (ISO1 and 7) do not localize to the nucleus. Instead, specific FMRP isoforms 6 and 12 (ISO6 and 12), containing a novel C-terminal domain, were the only isoforms that localized to the nuclei in cultured human cells. These isoforms localized to specific p80-coilin and SMN positive structures that were identified as Cajal bodies. The Cajal body localization signal was confined to a 17 amino acid stretch in the C-terminus of human ISO6 and is lacking in a mouse Iso6 variant. As FMRP is an RNA-binding protein, its presence in Cajal bodies suggests additional functions in nuclear post-transcriptional RNA metabolism. Supporting this hypothesis, a missense mutation (I304N), known to alter the KH2-mediated RNA binding properties of FMRP, abolishes the localization of human FMRP ISO6 to Cajal bodies. These findings open unexplored avenues in search for new insights into the pathophysiology of Fragile X Syndrome.

  7. Plasmonic phase transition and phase retardation: essential optical characteristics of localized surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Wei-Ting

    2013-09-01

    Phase transition that occurs around the spectral position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has various applications for light manipulation and refractive index sensing. Previous studies focused on phase responses of specific plasmonic structures, whereas the general theoretical analysis remains inadequate. In this study, we analytically modeled the phase spectra and the intensity spectra of silver nanodots with temporal coupled-mode theory. The phase transition occurs at the transmission dip, whereas the phase of reflection varies much more gradually. We further derived the equation for the slope of the phase at the transmission dip, which is a function of the rates of Ohmic dissipation and emission. The theoretical analysis is also applicable for wide varieties of LSPR systems and provides an intuitive physical mechanism for phase properties. Then, based on the fundamental discussion, we further investigated plasmonic phase retardation in anisotropic nanodots for the application of boosting the figure of merit (FOM) of refractive index sensing. The anisotropic nanodots induce plasmonic phase transitions, which spectrally split, for transmission waves polarized along the symmetric axes. Thus, anisotropy induces relative phase retardation in the narrow spectral region between the wavelengths of the LSPRs. We numerically manipulated the full width at half maximum of the ellipsometric spectra by adjusting the aspect ratio of the nanodots and observed an FOM of 24.3. In addition, experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this arrangement.Phase transition that occurs around the spectral position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has various applications for light manipulation and refractive index sensing. Previous studies focused on phase responses of specific plasmonic structures, whereas the general theoretical analysis remains inadequate. In this study, we analytically modeled the phase spectra and the intensity spectra of

  8. General N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanical model: Supervariable approach to its off-shell nilpotent symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, S.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R.P.

    2014-12-15

    Using the supersymmetric (SUSY) invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral supervariables, we derive the off-shell nilpotent symmetries of the general one (0+1)-dimensional N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model which is considered on a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold (parametrized by a bosonic variable t and a pair of Grassmannian variables θ and θ-bar with θ{sup 2}=(θ-bar){sup 2}=0,θ(θ-bar)+(θ-bar)θ=0). We provide the geometrical meanings to the two SUSY transformations of our present theory which are valid for any arbitrary type of superpotential. We express the conserved charges and Lagrangian of the theory in terms of the supervariables (that are obtained after the application of SUSY invariant restrictions) and provide the geometrical interpretation for the nilpotency property and SUSY invariance of the Lagrangian for the general N=2 SUSY quantum theory. We also comment on the mathematical interpretation of the above symmetry transformations. - Highlights: • A novel method has been proposed for the derivation of N=2 SUSY transformations. • General N=2 SUSY quantum mechanical (QM) model with a general superpotential, is considered. • The above SUSY QM model is generalized onto a (1, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. • SUSY invariant restrictions are imposed on the (anti-)chiral supervariables. • Geometrical meaning of the nilpotency property is provided.

  9. A Lorentz covariant holoraumy-induced "gadget" from minimal off-shell 4D, N=1 supermultiplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. James; Grover, Tyler; Miller-Dickson, Miles David; Mondal, Benedict A.; Oskoui, Amir; Regmi, Shirash; Ross, Ethan; Shetty, Rajath

    2015-11-01

    Starting from three minimal off-shell 4D, N=1 supermultiplets, using constructions solely defined within the confines of the four dimensional field theory we show the existence of a "gadget" — a member of a class of metrics on the representation space of the supermultiplets — whose values directly and completely correspond to the values of a metric defined on the 1d, N = 4 adinkra networks adjacency matrices corresponding to the projections of the four dimensional supermultiplets.

  10. The Stage- and Cell Type-Specific Localization of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Rat Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Tarumi, Wataru; Itoh, Masanori T; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2015-12-01

    Premutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are associated with increased risk of primary ovarian insufficiency. Here we examined the localization of the Fmr1 gene protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), in rat ovaries at different stages, including fetus, neonate, and old age. In ovaries dissected from 19 days postcoitum embryos, the germ cells were divided into 2 types: one with decondensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP positive in the cytoplasm, but the other with strongly condensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP negative in the cytoplasm. The FMRP was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm of oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. Levels of FMRP in oocytes from elderly (9 or 14 months of age) ovaries were lower than in those from younger ovaries. These results suggest that FMRP is associated with the activation of oogenesis and oocyte function. Especially, FMRP is likely to be implicated in germline development during oogenesis.

  11. Higgs production in association with off-shell top-antitop pairs at NLO EW and QCD at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denner, Ansgar; Lang, Jean-Nicolas; Pellen, Mathieu; Uccirati, Sandro

    2017-02-01

    We present NLO electroweak corrections to Higgs production in association with off-shell top-antitop quark pairs. The full process ppto {e}+{ν}e{μ}-{overline{ν}}_{μ}boverline{b}H is considered, and hence all interference, off-shell, and non-resonant contributions are taken into account. The electroweak corrections turn out to be below one per cent for the integrated cross section but can exceed 10% in certain phase-space regions. In addition to its phenomenological relevance, the computation constitutes a major technical achievement as the full NLO virtual corrections involving up to 9-point functions have been computed exactly. The results of the full computation are supported by two calculations in the double-pole approximation. These also allow to infer the effect of off-shell contributions and emphasise their importance especially for the run II of the LHC. Finally, we present combined predictions featuring both NLO electroweak and QCD corrections in a common set-up that will help the experimental collaborations in their quest of precisely measuring the aforementioned process.

  12. Retardations in fault creep rates before local moderate earthquakes along the San Andreas fault system, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burford, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Records of shallow aseismic slip (fault creep) obtained along parts of the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in central California demonstrate that significant changes in creep rates often have been associated with local moderate earthquakes. An immediate postearthquake increase followed by gradual, long-term decay back to a previous background rate is generally the most obvious earthquake effect on fault creep. This phenomenon, identified as aseismic afterslip, usually is characterized by above-average creep rates for several months to a few years. In several cases, minor step-like movements, called coseismic slip events, have occurred at or near the times of mainshocks. One extreme case of coseismic slip, recorded at Cienega Winery on the San Andreas fault 17.5 km southeast of San Juan Bautista, consisted of 11 mm of sudden displacement coincident with earthquakes of ML=5.3 and ML=5.2 that occurred 2.5 minutes apart on 9 April 1961. At least one of these shocks originated on the main fault beneath the winery. Creep activity subsequently stopped at the winery for 19 months, then gradually returned to a nearly steady rate slightly below the previous long-term average. The phenomena mentioned above can be explained in terms of simple models consisting of relatively weak material along shallow reaches of the fault responding to changes in load imposed by sudden slip within the underlying seismogenic zone. In addition to coseismic slip and afterslip phenomena, however, pre-earthquake retardations in creep rates also have been observed. Onsets of significant, persistent decreases in creep rates have occurred at several sites 12 months or more before the times of moderate earthquakes. A 44-month retardation before the 1979 ML=5.9 Coyote Lake earthquake on the Calaveras fault was recorded at the Shore Road creepmeter site 10 km northwest of Hollister. Creep retardation on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista has been evident in records from one creepmeter site for

  13. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2015-07-17

    The measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the \\(2m_Z\\) and \\(2m_W\\) thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the \\(ZZ \\rightarrow 4\\ell \\), \\(ZZ\\rightarrow 2\\ell 2\

  14. Zfrp8 forms a complex with fragile-X mental retardation protein and regulates its localization and function.

    PubMed

    Tan, William; Schauder, Curtis; Naryshkina, Tatyana; Minakhina, Svetlana; Steward, Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Fragile-X syndrome is the most commonly inherited cause of autism and mental disabilities. The Fmr1 (Fragile-X Mental Retardation 1) gene is essential in humans and Drosophila for the maintenance of neural stem cells, and Fmr1 loss results in neurological and reproductive developmental defects in humans and flies. FMRP (Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein) is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, involved in mRNA silencing and translational repression. Both Zfrp8 and Fmr1 have essential functions in the Drosophila ovary. In this study, we identified FMRP, Nufip (Nuclear Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein-interacting Protein) and Tral (Trailer Hitch) as components of a Zfrp8 protein complex. We show that Zfrp8 is required in the nucleus, and controls localization of FMRP in the cytoplasm. In addition, we demonstrate that Zfrp8 genetically interacts with Fmr1 and tral in an antagonistic manner. Zfrp8 and FMRP both control heterochromatin packaging, also in opposite ways. We propose that Zfrp8 functions as a chaperone, controlling protein complexes involved in RNA processing in the nucleus.

  15. NLO QCD+EW predictions for V + jets including off-shell vector-boson decays and multijet merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallweit, S.; Lindert, J. M.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.; Schönherr, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present next-to-leading order (NLO) predictions including QCD and electroweak (EW) corrections for the production and decay of off-shell electroweak vector bosons in association with up to two jets at the 13 TeV LHC. All possible dilepton final states with zero, one or two charged leptons that can arise from off-shell W and Z bosons or photons are considered. All predictions are obtained using the automated implementation of NLO QCD+EW corrections in the O penLoops matrix-element generator combined with the Munich and Sherpa Monte Carlo frameworks. Electroweak corrections play an especially important role in the context of BSM searches, due to the presence of large EW Sudakov logarithms at the TeV scale. In this kinematic regime, important observables such as the jet transverse momentum or the total transverse energy are strongly sensitive to multijet emissions. As a result, fixed-order NLO QCD+EW predictions are plagued by huge QCD corrections and poor theoretical precision. To remedy this problem we present an approximate method that allows for a simple and reliable implementation of NLO EW corrections in the MePs@Nlo multijet merging framework. Using this general approach we present an inclusive simulation of vector-boson production in association with jets that guarantees NLO QCD+EW accuracy in all phase-space regions involving up to two resolved jets.

  16. Similarity and differences between the radion and Higgs boson production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Boos, E. E.; Keizerov, S. I.; Rahmetov, E. R.; Svirina, K. S.

    2015-12-15

    The radion is a scalar particle that occurs in brane world models and interacts with the trace of the energy–momentum tensor of the Standard Model (SM). The radion–SM fermion interaction Lagrangian differs from the Higgs boson–fermion interaction Lagrangian for off-shell fermions. It is shown that all additional, as compared to the Higgs boson, contributions to the amplitudes of radion production and decay processes involving off-shell fermions are canceled out for both massless and massive fermions. Thus, additional terms in the interaction Lagrangian do not change properties of these processes for the radion and the Higgs boson, except for the general normalization factors. This similarity is a consequence of gauge invariance for the processes with production of gauge bosons. When an additional scalar particle is produced, there are no apparent reasons for the above cancellation, as confirmed, for example, by the process with production of two scalar particles, which features an additional contribution of the radion in comparison with the Higgs boson.

  17. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual

  18. Top Quark Pair Production in Association with a Jet with Next-to-Leading-Order QCD Off-Shell Effects at the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, G; Hartanto, H B; Kraus, M; Worek, M

    2016-02-05

    We present a complete description of top quark pair production in association with a jet in the dilepton channel. Our calculation is accurate to next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD and includes all nonresonant diagrams, interferences, and off-shell effects of the top quark. Moreover, nonresonant and off-shell effects due to the finite W gauge boson width are taken into account. This calculation constitutes the first fully realistic NLO computation for top quark pair production with a final state jet in hadronic collisions. Numerical results for differential distributions as well as total cross sections are presented for the Large Hadron Collider at 8 TeV. With our inclusive cuts, NLO predictions reduce the unphysical scale dependence by more than a factor of 3 and lower the total rate by about 13% compared to leading-order QCD predictions. In addition, the size of the top quark off-shell effects is estimated to be below 2%.

  19. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  20. Off-shell extrapolation of Regge-model NN scattering amplitudes describing final state interactions in 2H(e,e'p)

    DOE PAGES

    Ford, William Paul; van Orden, Wally

    2013-11-25

    In this work, an off-shell extrapolation is proposed for the Regge-model NN amplitudes presented in a paper by Ford and Van Orden [ Phys. Rev. C 87 014004 (2013)] and in an eprint by Ford (arXiv:1310.0871 [nucl-th]). The prescriptions for extrapolating these amplitudes for one nucleon off-shell in the initial state are presented. Application of these amplitudes to calculations of deuteron electrodisintegration are presented and compared to the limited available precision data in the kinematical region covered by the Regge model.

  1. Subcellular fractionation and localization studies reveal a direct interaction of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) with nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed S; Nouri, Kazem; Milroy, Lech G; Moll, Jens M; Herrmann, Christian; Brunsveld, Luc; Piekorz, Roland P; Ahmadian, Mohammad R

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is a well-known regulator of local translation of its mRNA targets in neurons. However, despite its ubiquitous expression, the role of FMRP remains ill-defined in other cell types. In this study we investigated the subcellular distribution of FMRP and its protein complexes in HeLa cells using confocal imaging as well as detergent-free fractionation and size exclusion protocols. We found FMRP localized exclusively to solid compartments, including cytosolic heavy and light membranes, mitochondria, nuclear membrane and nucleoli. Interestingly, FMRP was associated with nucleolin in both a high molecular weight ribosomal and translation-associated complex (≥6 MDa) in the cytosol, and a low molecular weight complex (∼200 kDa) in the nucleoli. Consistently, we identified two functional nucleolar localization signals (NoLSs) in FMRP that are responsible for a strong nucleolar colocalization of the C-terminus of FMRP with nucleolin, and a direct interaction of the N-terminus of FMRP with the arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) domain of nucleolin. Taken together, we propose a novel mechanism by which a transient nucleolar localization of FMRP underlies a strong nucleocytoplasmic translocation, most likely in a complex with nucleolin and possibly ribosomes, in order to regulate translation of its target mRNAs.

  2. Further linkage evidence for localization of mutational sites for nonsyndromic types of X-linked mental retardation at pericentromeric region

    SciTech Connect

    Robledo, R.; Melis, P.; Siniscalco, M.

    1996-07-12

    We used several microsatellite markers scattered along the X chromosome to search for linkage relationships in a large Sardinian pedigree segregating for nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX). Markers DXS573 and AR, located at chromosomal subregions Xp11.4-p11.22 and Xq11.2-q12, respectively, were found to segregate in full concordance with the disease, leading to a LOD score of 4.21 at zero recombination value. Recombination with the disease was found with markers MAOB and DXS454 located at Xp11.4-p11.3 and Xq21.1-q22, respectively; accordingly, markers distal to Xp11.4 and Xq22 also segregated independently of the disease. These findings provide strong linkage evidence in favor of the localization of one MRX mutational site in the pericentromeric region of the human X chromosome, justifying the assignment of a new symbol (MRX26) to our pedigree. Finally, on the basis of the recombinational events observed in the Xq21-q22 region, we have been able to refine the assignment of marker DXS456 to Xq21.33-q22. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Optically active N-acetyldopamine dimer of the crude drug "Zentai," the cast-off shell of the Cicada, Cryptotympana sp.

    PubMed

    Noda, N; Kubota, S; Miyata, Y; Miyahara, K

    2000-11-01

    Two optically active N-acetyldopamine dimers together with four phenolic monomers were isolated from the crude drug "Zentai," a cast-off shell of the cicada of Cryptotympana sp. (Cicadidae). The former two were 2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,4-benzodioxane derivatives carrying substituents at the 3 and 6 (or 7) positions, which are known to be components of sclerotized insect cuticles. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined on the basis of NMR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic data.

  4. Localization of MRX82: a new nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation locus to Xq24-q25 in a Basque family.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Garay, Isabel; Oltra, Silvestre; Moltó, María Dolores; Orellana, Carmen; Monfort, Sandra; Prieto, Félix; Tejada, Isabel

    2004-12-01

    Clinical and molecular studies are reported on a Basque family (MRX82) with nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) in five affected males. A total of 38 microsatellite markers were typed. The XLMR locus has been linked to DXS8067, DXS1001, DXS425, DXS7877, and DXS1183 with a maximum LOD score of 2.4. The haplotype studies and multipoint linkage analysis suggest a localization of the MRX82 locus to an interval of 7.6 Mb defined by markers DXS6805 and DXS7346, in Xq24 and Xq25, respectively. No gene contained in this interval has been so far associated with nonsyndromic mental retardation, except for GRIA3, disrupted by a balanced translocation in a female patient with bipolar affective disorder and mental retardation. However, the search for mutations of this gene did not showed a pathogenic mutation in the present family. Given that there are other eight MRX families overlapping this interval, none of them with known mutation, we conclude that at least one new gene responsible for nonsyndromic mental retardation is located in this region.

  5. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  6. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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    Measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] final states. The result is based on pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text] at a collision energy of [Formula: see text] TeV. Using the [Formula: see text] method, the observed 95 [Formula: see text] confidence level (CL) upper limit on the off-shell signal strength is in the range 5.1-8.6, with an expected range of 6.7-11.0. In each case the range is determined by varying the unknown [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] background K-factor from higher-order quantum chromodynamics corrections between half and twice the value of the known signal K-factor. Assuming the relevant Higgs boson couplings are independent of the energy scale of the Higgs boson production, a combination with the on-shell measurements yields an observed (expected) 95 [Formula: see text] CL upper limit on [Formula: see text] in the range 4.5-7.5 (6.5-11.2) using the same variations of the background K-factor. Assuming that the unknown [Formula: see text] background K-factor is equal to the signal K-factor, this translates into an observed (expected) 95 [Formula: see text] CL upper limit on the Higgs boson total width of 22.7 (33.0) MeV.

  7. X-linked borderline mental retardation with prominent behavioral disturbance: Phenotype, genetic localization, and evidence for disturbed monoamine metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G.; Nelen, M.R.; Zandvoort, P. van; Abeling, N.G.G.M.; Gennip, A.H. van; Ropers, H.H.; Oost, B.A. van ); Wolters, E.C.; Kuiper, M.A. )

    1993-06-01

    The authors have identified a large Dutch kindred with a new form of X-linked nondysmorphic mild mental retardation. All affected males in this family show very characteristic abnormal behavior, in particular aggressive and sometimes violent behavior. Other types of impulsive behavior include arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Attempted suicide has been reported in a single case. The locus for this disorder could be assigned to the Xp11-21 interval between DXS7 and DXS77 by linkage analysis using markers spanning the X chromosome. A maximal multipoint lod score of 3.69 was obtained at the monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) monoamine metabolism. These data are compatible with a primary defect in the structural gene for MAOA and/or monoamine oxidase type B (MAOB). Normal platelet MAOB activity suggests that the unusual behavior pattern in this family may be caused by isolated MAOA deficiency. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Localization of a novel locus for alopecia with mental retardation syndrome to chromosome 3q26.33-q27.3.

    PubMed

    John, Peter; Ali, Ghazanfar; Chishti, Muhammad S; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad S; Leal, Suzanne M; Ahmad, Wasim

    2006-01-01

    Alopecia with mental retardation syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by total or partial alopecia and mental retardation. In an effort to understand the molecular bases of this form of alopecia syndrome, large Pakistani consanguineous kindred with multiple affected individuals has been ascertained from a remote region in Pakistan. Genome wide scan mapped the disease locus on chromosome 3q26.33-q27.3. A maximum two-point LOD score of 3.05 (theta = 0.0) was obtained at marker D3S3583. Maximum multipoint LOD score exceeding 5.0, obtained with several markers, supported the linkage. Recombination events observed in affected individuals localized the disease locus between markers D3S1232 and D3S2436, spanning 11.49-cM region on chromosome 3q26.33-q27.3. Sequence analysis of a candidate gene ETS variant gene 5 from DNA samples of two affected individuals of the family revealed no mutation.

  9. A gene for nonspecific mental retardation is localized to Xp22.2-p21.2 in a Belgian family

    SciTech Connect

    Raeymaekers, P.; Soekarman, G.D.; Van Zand, K.

    1994-09-01

    We report a family with 6 male individuals with moderate mental retardation (MR) and a nonspecific phenotype, one additional male individual with borderline to mild MR and two obligate female carriers with borderline MR. All family members tested were negative for the fragile X MR mutation. In order to localize the MR gene on the X chromosome, we used 16 highly polymorphic markers dispersed over the whole X-chromosome. Under the model of full penetrance in males and 20% penetrance in carrier females, moderate positive peak lod scores of 0.90 at 10%, 1.14 at 20% and 1.17 at 18% recombination were obtained with DXS999, DXS989 and DMD49, respectively. Al three markers are located in Xp22.2-p21.2. With markers located distal of DXS999, proximal of DMD49 and on Xq, close linkage in this family could be rejected. In multipoint linkage analysis, distinct negative lod scores were obtained in all intervals between markers proximal of Xp21 and on Xq. On the other hand, a disappointing peak lod score of 0.69 was obtained between DXS989 and DMD. This lod score by itself is not significant to justify definite localization of the MR gene in this chromosomal region. However, taken into account the exclusion data in other regions on the X-chromosome, the odds in favor of positioning the MR gene between DXS989 and DMD versus regions proximal of DMD49 are at least 160 to 1. The low peak lod score is explained by the inheritance of a different Xp haplotype in the borderline to mild mentally retarded male patient compared to his two affected brothers and his two carrier sisters. Linkage analysis in other families with nonspecific MR have suggested the existence of MR genes in Xp22.3-p22.2 (MRX2) and Xq21-q21 (MRX5, 10, 11, 12, 13). As these partially overlapping localizations have been obtained with different markers, it is not clear whether these families represent one single MR syndrome.

  10. Fully analytical O( α s ) results for on-shell and off-shell polarized W-boson decays into massive quark pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groote, S.; Körner, J. G.; Tuvike, P.

    2013-05-01

    We provide analytical O( α s ) results for the three polarized decay structure functions H ++, H 00 and H - that describe the decay of a polarized W boson into massive quark-antiquark pairs. As an application we consider the decay t→ b+ W + involving the helicity fractions ρ mm of the W + boson followed by the polarized decay W+(\\uparrow)to q1bar{q}2 described by the polarized decay structure functions H mm . We thereby determine the O( α s ) polar angle decay distribution of the cascade decay process tto b+W+(to q1bar{q}2). As a second example we analyze quark mass and off-shell effects in the cascade decays Hto W-+W^{ast+}(to q1bar{q}2) and Hto Z+Z^{ast}(to qbar{q}). For the decays Hto W-+W^{ast+}(to cbar{b}) and Hto Z+Z^{ast}(to bbar{b}) we find substantial deviations from the mass-zero approximation in particular in the vicinity of the threshold region.

  11. X-linked [alpha]-thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome: Localization to Xq12-q21. 31 by X inactivation and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, R.J.; Buckle, V.J.; Higgs, D.R.; Suthers, G.K. ); Wilkie, A.O.M. )

    1992-11-01

    The authors have examined seven pedigrees that include individuals with a recently described X-linked form of severe mental retardation associated with [alpha]-thalassemia (ATR-X syndrome). Using hematologic and molecular approaches, they have shown that intellectually normal female carriers of this syndrome may be identified by the presence of rare cells containing HbH (hemoglobin H) inclusions in their peripheral blood and by an extremely skewed pattern of X inactivation seen in cells from a variety of tissues. Linkage analysis has localized the ATR-X locus to an interval of approximately 11 cM between the loci DXS106 and DXYS1X (Xq12-q21.31), with a peak LOD score of 5.4 (recombination fraction of 0) at DCS72. These findings provide the basis for genetic counseling, assessment of carrier risk, and prenatal diagnosis of the ATR-X syndrome. Furthermore, they represent an important step in developing strategies to understand how the mutant ATR-X allele causes mental handicap, dysmorphism, and down-regulation of the [alpha]-globin genes. 54 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Intense and specialized dendritic localization of the fragile X mental retardation protein in binaural brainstem neurons: a comparative study in the alligator, chicken, gerbil, and human.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Sakano, Hitomi; Beebe, Karisa; Brown, Maile R; de Laat, Rian; Bothwell, Mark; Kulesza, Randy J; Rubel, Edwin W

    2014-06-15

    Neuronal dendrites are structurally and functionally dynamic in response to changes in afferent activity. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an mRNA binding protein that regulates activity-dependent protein synthesis and morphological dynamics of dendrites. Loss and abnormal expression of FMRP occur in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and some forms of autism spectrum disorders. To provide further understanding of how FMRP signaling regulates dendritic dynamics, we examined dendritic expression and localization of FMRP in the reptilian and avian nucleus laminaris (NL) and its mammalian analogue, the medial superior olive (MSO), in rodents and humans. NL/MSO neurons are specialized for temporal processing of low-frequency sounds for binaural hearing, which is impaired in FXS. Protein BLAST analyses first demonstrate that the FMRP amino acid sequences in the alligator and chicken are highly similar to human FMRP with identical mRNA-binding and phosphorylation sites, suggesting that FMRP functions similarly across vertebrates. Immunocytochemistry further reveals that NL/MSO neurons have very high levels of dendritic FMRP in low-frequency hearing vertebrates including alligator, chicken, gerbil, and human. Remarkably, dendritic FMRP in NL/MSO neurons often accumulates at branch points and enlarged distal tips, loci known to be critical for branch-specific dendritic arbor dynamics. These observations support an important role for FMRP in regulating dendritic properties of binaural neurons that are essential for low-frequency sound localization and auditory scene segregation, and support the relevance of studying this regulation in nonhuman vertebrates that use low frequencies in order to further understand human auditory processing disorders.

  13. Upper airway loading induces growth retardation and change in local chondrocyte IGF-I expression is reversed by stimulation of GH release in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Segev, Yael; Berdugo-Boura, Nilly; Porati, Orit; Tarasiuk, Ariel

    2008-11-01

    Chronic resistive airway loading (CAL) impairs growth in juvenile rats. The effects of CAL on epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) structure and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I gene expression have not been explored. Little is known about whether stimulants of endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion can normalize this growth impairment. This study explored the effect of CAL on circulating and EGP GH/IGF-I pathway GH and the effect of ritanserin (endogenous GH stimulant) on somatic growth and the GH/IGF-I axis. We hypothesized that CAL would lead to a decrease in body temperature (Tb) and alterations of GH/IGF-I pathways, consequently leading to growth retardation. The tracheae of 22-day-old male rats were obstructed by tracheal banding (38 sham-operated control, 42 CAL). Tibial EGP morphometry, liver and EGP IGF mRNA, and serum GH and IGF-I levels were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. Tb and locomotion activity (MA) were measured with telemetric transmitters inserted into the abdominal cavity. CAL animals had lower Tb and MA despite preserved food consumption. CAL impaired both tibial and tail length gains. Tail and tibial length gains inversely correlated with tracheal resistance. Circulating GH and IGF-I, liver and EGP IGF-I mRNA, and EGP width were decreased in the CAL group. Ritanserin administration to CAL animals normalized circulating and local EGP GH and IGF-I levels and minimized the longitudinal growth impairment. We conclude that CAL causes growth delay associated with alterations in the GH/IGF-I axis. Stimulation of GH release by ritanserin restored both global and local GH/IGF-I pathways, yet growth parameters were only partially restored.

  14. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions.

  15. The Successful Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albizu-Miranda, Carlos; And Others

    To study the prevalence of mental retardation in Puerto Rico, the proportional distribution of successful retardates, and the processes accounting for success and failure, a random sample of 4,771 adults between the ages of 23 and 49 was screened by the Stanford Binet Form L and a vocabulary test. From this sample, the estimated retardation rate…

  16. Search for Higgs boson off-shell production in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV and derivation of constraints on its total decay width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; de Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.

    2016-09-01

    A search is presented for the Higgs boson off-shell production in gluon fusion and vector boson fusion processes with the Higgs boson decaying into a W+W- pair and the W bosons decaying leptonically. The data observed in this analysis are used to constrain the Higgs boson total decay width. The analysis is based on the data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 fb-1 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 19.4 fb-1 at 8 TeV, respectively. An observed (expected) upper limit on the off-shell Higgs boson event yield normalised to the standard model prediction of 2.4 (6.2) is obtained at the 95% CL for the gluon fusion process and of 19.3 (34.4) for the vector boson fusion process. Observed and expected limits on the total width of 26 and 66 MeV are found, respectively, at the 95% confidence level (CL). These limits are combined with the previous result in the ZZ channel leading to observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the width of 13 and 26 MeV, respectively. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Search for Higgs boson off-shell production in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV and derivation of constraints on its total decay width

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; ...

    2016-09-09

    A search is presented for the Higgs boson off-shell production in gluon fusion and vector boson fusion processes with the Higgs boson decaying into a WW pair and the W bosons decaying leptonically. The data observed in this analysis are used to constrain the Higgs boson total decay width. The analysis is based on the data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 inverse femtobarns at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 19.4 inverse femtobarns at 8 TeV, respectively. An observed (expected) upper limit on the off-shell Higgs boson event yield normalisedmore » to the standard model prediction of 2.4 (6.2) is obtained at the 95% CL for the gluon fusion process and of 19.3 (34.4) for the vector boson fusion process. Observed and expected limits on the total width of 26 and 66 MeV are found, respectively, at the 95% confidence level (CL). These limits are combined with the previous result in the ZZ channel leading to observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the width of 13 and 26 MeV, respectively.« less

  18. Search for Higgs boson off-shell production in proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV and derivation of constraints on its total decay width

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D’Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. 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D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova PANEVA, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O’Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y. -J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; SalfeldNebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. -J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2016-09-09

    A search is presented for the Higgs boson off-shell production in gluon fusion and vector boson fusion processes with the Higgs boson decaying into a WW pair and the W bosons decaying leptonically. The data observed in this analysis are used to constrain the Higgs boson total decay width. The analysis is based on the data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9 inverse femtobarns at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and 19.4 inverse femtobarns at 8 TeV, respectively. An observed (expected) upper limit on the off-shell Higgs boson event yield normalised to the standard model prediction of 2.4 (6.2) is obtained at the 95% CL for the gluon fusion process and of 19.3 (34.4) for the vector boson fusion process. Observed and expected limits on the total width of 26 and 66 MeV are found, respectively, at the 95% confidence level (CL). These limits are combined with the previous result in the ZZ channel leading to observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the width of 13 and 26 MeV, respectively.

  19. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  20. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  1. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  2. EPILEPSY AND MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Thuppal; Narayan, Jayanthi

    1992-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequently associated conditions with mental retardation which interferes with the learning process. Vie present study investigates the 1207 cases (Male -8I4, Female-393) registered at NIMH, Secunderabad, over a period of two years. Vie factors studied were the prevalence of epilepsy, degree of mental retardation, aetiology and associated factors. Ten mentally retarded persons with epilepsy were followed up longitudinally to study the effect of epilepsy on learning. It was observed that an attack of seizure resulted in a setback in the learning of skills. The results are discussed. PMID:21776089

  3. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  4. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  5. Fire retardant polyetherimide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Takekoshi, T.; Giannelis, E.P.

    1997-09-01

    Polyetherimide-layered silicates nanocomposites with increased char yield and fire retardancy are described. The use of nanocomposites is a new, environmentally-benign approach to improve fire resistance of polymers. An increase in the aromaticity yields high char residues that normally correlate with higher oxygen index and lower flammability. The often high cost of these materials and the specialized processing techniques required, however, have limited the use of these polymers to certain specialized applications. The effectiveness of fire retardant fillers is also limited since the large amounts required make processing difficult and might inadvertently affect mechanical properties.

  6. [Nosology of mental retardation].

    PubMed

    González Castañón, Diego; Aznar, Andrea S; Wahlberg, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    The classificatory systems used through history. The analysis of their criteria for categorization allowed the authors to deduce the nosologic considerations and the paradigms underlying the conceptions of mental retardation sustained in each time period, not always from psychiatric origins. The effects of considering mental retardation as a disorder or a disability are discussed together with the correlation with the type of interventions and instituted social practices (related to mental health, social participation, education). The characteristics of the supports' paradigm and its consequences in the classifications and intervention plans are analyzed with more detail.

  7. The Forward Look: The Severely Retarded Child Goes to School. Bulletin, 1952, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Arthur S.

    1952-01-01

    The provision of school services for severely mentally retarded children presents a problem of considerable importance in many States and local communities. In general the problem involves children whose extreme retardation prevents them from benefiting from the existing special classes for retarded pupils and who range downward in competence for…

  8. Deafness and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Larry G., Ed.

    Nine selected proceedings from a study institute discuss program alternatives for the education of deaf mentally retarded (MR) children along with such related issues as identification, size and scope of the problem, instructional approaches, curricular planning, instructional media, program funding sources, and vocational rehabilitation. The…

  9. Flame retardant polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.; Atlas, S.M.; Pearce, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The flame retardation of polyolefins is the focus of this volume. Methods for reduction of smoke and experimental evaluation of flammability parameters for polymeric materials are discussed. The flammability evaluation methods for textiles and the use of mass spectrometry for analysis of polymers and their degradation products are also presented.

  10. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  11. Localization to Xq22 and clinical update of a family with X-linked recessive mental retardation with progression sensorineural deafness, progressive tapeto-retinal degeneration and dystonia

    SciTech Connect

    Tranebjaerg, L.; Schwartz, C.; Huggins, K.; Barker, D.; Stevenson, R.; Arena, J.F.; Gedde-Dahl, T.; Mikkelsen, M.; Mellgren, S.; Anderson, K. ||||

    1994-07-15

    In a reinvestigation of a six-generation Norwegian family, originally reported with non-syndromic X-linked recessive deafness by Mohr and Mageroy, we have demonstrated several syndromic manifestations. The 10 clinically characterized affected males range in age from 14-61 years, and show progressive mental deterioration and visual disability. Ophthalmological and electrophysiological studies showed myopia, decreased visual acuity, combined cone-rod dystrophy as well as central areolar dystrophy by means of ERG. Brain CT-scans showed cortical and central atrophy without predilection to specific areas. Linkage analysis, using X-chromosomal RFLPs and CA-repeats, yielded a maximum LOD score of 4.37 with linkage to DXS17. DXS17 is localized to Xq22. One recombinant with COL4A5 (deficient in Alport syndrome) was observed. Results from the studies of this family will be important in reclassification of non-syndromic X-linked deafness since the family now represents syndromic deafness and XLMR with a specific phenotype.

  12. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  13. Mental Retardation, Selected Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.

    A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…

  14. Multiband retardation control using multi-twist retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornburg, Kathryn J.; Komanduri, Ravi K.; Escuti, Michael J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce and demonstrate an approach to create highly chromatic retardation spectra across various wave­ lengths. The design approach is based on Multi-Twist Retarder (MTR) principle where multiple liquid crystal polymer layers are coated on top of each other on a single substrate. Previous MTRs have been applied to develop broadband achromatic retarders, but here we show that MTRs are quite flexible, and their retardation spectrum can be tuned to create arbitrary profiles. As a representative example, we show this tailorability by creating a retarder which produces approximately zero retardation in visible (500-900 nm) and half-wave retardation in near- infrared (1-2.7 μm) wavelength region. This would provide enhancement in remote sensing, telecom, and spectroscopy systems where it is advantageous to have an optical element which affects only one band, but is largely transparent otherwise.

  15. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  16. Fire and smoke retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  17. Fire-retardant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  18. Retarded gravitation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    We propose a Lorentz-covariant theory of gravity, and explain its theoretical origins in the problem of time in Newtonian physics. In this retarded gravitation theory (RGT), the gravitational force depends upon both retarded position and velocity, and the equations of motion are time-asymmetric retarded functional differential equations. We explicitly solve these equations, under simplifying assumptions, for various NASA spacecraft. This shows that the differences from Newtonian gravity, though tiny within the solar system, are just appropriate to explain the flyby anomaly as a ν/c effect due to earth's rotation. The differences can, however, be large in the case of a spiral galaxy, and we show that the combined velocity drag from a large number of co-rotating stars enormously speeds up a test particle. Thus, the non-Newtonian behaviour of rotation curves in a spiral galaxy may be explained as being due to velocity drag rather than dark matter. RGT can also be tested in the laboratory. It necessitates a reappraisal of current laboratory methods of determining the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Since RGT makes no speculative assumptions, its refutation would have serious implications across physics.

  19. Mental Retardation Is Dead: Long Live Mental Retardation!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, David

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. The history of the term "mental retardation" is reviewed and it is argued that any new term will take on similar risks. The need to involve self-advocates in any terminology change is stressed. (Contains 5 references.) (CR)

  20. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  1. Flame retarded asphalt blend composition

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.B.

    1987-04-21

    This patent describes a flame retarded asphalt composition consisting essentially of a blend of: (a) thermoplastic elastomer modified bitumen; (b) 20-30 wt % inert filler; (c) 1-20 wt % of at least one halogenated flame retardant; and (d) 1-5 wt % of at least one inorganic phosphorus containing compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium phosphate compounds and red phosphorus.

  2. Playtherapy with the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broekgaarden, R.; And Others

    The use of play therapy with mentally retarded children and adults is examined. The lack of research on the topic is noted, and information on psychoanalytically oriented play therapy approaches are reviewed. Application of play therapy to mentally retarded clients is explored in terms of two questions: (1) at what level do mentally retarded…

  3. The Mentally Retarded in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunewald, Karl

    Described are residential and educational services provided for mentally retarded (MC) children and adults in Sweden. Normalization is the focus of the services which make maximum use of mental and physical capacities to reduce the handicap of mental retardation. Described are general principles, and four stages involving development of services…

  4. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  5. Children's Knowledge of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, Milton; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 1,142 normal students in grades 4 through 12 indicated that they knew very little about mental retardation and the mentally retarded. Only about half of the respondents made reference to "subaverage general intellectual functioning," while references to physical impairment were frequent. (DLS)

  6. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  7. Educable Mentally Retarded; Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie A; Willemin, Helen

    An introduction of the curriculum guide for educable retarded children with mental ages from 5.0 to 6.6 discusses the philosophy of educating the retarded, goals, the educable program, the readiness program, use of the guide, and a suggested daily schedule. Suggested units treat the following: citizenship and patriotism, family and school,…

  8. Schizophrenia in the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and mental retardation is examined. Historical associations between symptoms of the two disorders are reviewed, and a 3-year study of the incidence (14%) of mental illness in 798 retarded individuals in a community based program is described. Information on the etiological, developmental, and phenomenological…

  9. Lorentz-diffeomorphism quasi-local conserved charges and Virasoro algebra in Chern-Simons-like theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2016-08-01

    The Chern-Simons-like theories of gravity (CSLTG) are formulated at first order formalism. In this formalism, the derivation of the entropy of a black hole on bifurcation surface, as a quasi-local conserved charge is problematic. In this paper we overcome these problems by considering the concept of total variation and the Lorentz-Lie derivative. We firstly find an expression for the ADT conserved current in the context of the CSLTG which is based on the concept of the Killing vector fields. Then, we generalize it to be conserved for all diffeomorphism generators. Thus, we can extract an off-shell conserved charge for any vector field which generates a diffeomorphism. The formalism presented here is based on the concept of quasi-local conserved charges which are off-shell. The charges can be calculated on any codimension two space-like surface surrounding a black hole and the results are independent of the chosen surface. By using the off-shell quasi-local conserved charge, we investigate the Virasoro algebra and find a formula to calculate the central extension term. We apply the formalism to the BTZ black hole solution in the context of the Einstein gravity and the Generalized massive gravity, then we find the eigenvalues of their Virasoro generators as well as the corresponding central charges. Eventually, we calculate the entropy of the BTZ black hole by the Cardy formula and we show that the result exactly matches the one obtained by the concept of the off-shell conserved charges.

  10. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  11. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  12. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  13. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  14. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  15. Development of novel fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  16. Program Budgeting and the Mentally Retarded. Perspective Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded, Arlington, VA.

    Reported are 1973 conference proceedings of the National Association of Coordinators of State Programs for the Mentally Retarded (MR), which address the economics of service delivery to mentally handicapped children and adults. Conference speakers included a state legislator, a state budget official, an economist, and state and local officials.…

  17. Sorption-capacity limited retardation of radionuclides transport in water-saturated packing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclides breakthrough times as calculated through constant retardation factors obtained in dilute solutions are non-conservative. The constant retardation approach regards the solid as having infinite sorption capacity throughout the solid. However, as the solid becomes locally saturated, such as in the proximity of the waste form-packing materials interface, it will exhibit no retardation properties, and transport will take place as if the radionuclides were locally non-reactive. The magnitude of the effect of finite sorption capacity of the packing materials on radionuclide transport is discussed with reference to high-level waste package performance. An example based on literature sorption data indicates that the breakthrough time may be overpredicted by orders of magnitude using a constant retardation factor as compared to using the entire sorption isotherm to obtain a concentration-dependent retardation factor. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  19. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  20. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  1. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  2. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  3. Toilet Training the Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey K.

    The booklet offers guidelines in both Spanish and English to parents who are toilet training a mentally retarded child. The toilet training process is broken down into tasks that the child must learn, and the importance of positive reinforcement for each successfully accomplished task is emphasized. It is recommended that parents keep charts…

  4. Books for Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.

    Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…

  5. Transportation and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…

  6. Scouting for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, New Brunswick, NJ.

    The handbook for leaders discusses ways in which scouting helps and how the unit serves the boys. Advancement, rank, and the boys are discussed; boy scout tests (tenderfoot and second class interpretation for mentally retarded boys), group activities, and a sample ceremony are detailed. Listings are given of membership provisions, helps for…

  7. Scholarly Productivity in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The most productive institutions in social, educational, and psychological research in mental retardation were identified by noting the affiliations of authors who have published recently (1978-84) in the field. Thirty of the 35 highest ranked institutions were state-assisted universities in the United States. (Author/DB)

  8. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  9. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  10. Mental Retardation: Prevention Strategies That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report by the President's Committee on Mental Retardation reviews the current state of knowledge in the area of biological and environmental prevention of mental retardation and describes programs on the frontiers of research or service delivery. Section I examines programs that are effectively preventing mental retardation through biomedical…

  11. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R., Ed.

    The text of Volume 4 represents an international review of research in mental retardation dealing primarily with human and animal laboratory behavior. The contents range through the following topics: memory processes in retardates and normals by Norman Ellis; a theory of primary and secondary familial mental retardation by Arthur Jensen;…

  12. Non-Verbal Communication in Retarded Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Evan R.; Dennis, Virginia Collier

    Thirty educable mentally retarded (EMR) and 20 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) black or white pupils were observed interacting with classmates and 25 teachers in a retardation center. Multi-modal communicative behavior was noted, with focus on interpersonal spatial distance as one index of relationship and affect between interacting partners.…

  13. MENTAL RETARDATION--THE PRESENT PROBLEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAFTER, ALBERT J.

    MENTAL RETARDATION IS DEFINED AS A MENTAL DEFECT, NOT A DISEASE. LEVELS OF SEVERITY IN MENTAL RETARDATION ARE CAUSED BY AN INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT. ONE OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS CONCERNS THE LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY OF THE RETARDATE DUE TO IMPROVEMENTS IN MODERN MEDICINE. THIS IS CREATING A SITUATION WHERE RESIDENTIAL…

  14. Energy Conservation and Mentally Retarded Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogelman, Charles J.; And Others

    Suggested are some principles of developing energy conservation programs where retarded persons might be particularly affected, ways to conserve energy, and pertinent references. It is thought that the retarded, particularly the retarded in institutions, are more likely to suffer from energy conservation measures than members of the larger…

  15. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  16. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  17. Fire retardancy using applied materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, R.

    1971-01-01

    An example of advanced technology transfer from the Little Joe, Surveyor, Comsat, re-entry and Apollo age to everyday fire protection needs is presented. Utilizing the principle of sublimation cooling for thermostatic temperature control, the material meets a wide range of fire retardancy and heat transmission control requirements. Properties vary from flexible tape for conduits and electrical cables to rigid coatings for column protection, with a broad spectrum of sublimation temperatures available. The material can be applied in the field or in the factory, utilizing mass production techniques, yielding a product that is reliable, effective, widely available and low in cost.

  18. Orthopaedic Problems of the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons treating the mentally retarded are identified, and cooperation among pediatricians, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and orthopedic surgeons is recommended. (GW)

  19. Intumescent Coatings as Fire Retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Fohlen, G. M.; Sawko, P. M.; Fish, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    The development of fire-retardant coatings to protect surfaces which may be exposed to fire or extreme heat is a subject of intense interest to many industries. A fire-retardant paint has been developed which represents a new chemical approach for preparing intumescent coatings, and potentially, is very important to fire-prevention authorities. The requirements for a superior coating include ease of application, suitability to a wide variety of surfaces and finishes, and stability over an extended period of time within a broad range of ambient temperature and humidity conditions. These innovative coatings, when activated by the heat of a fire, react to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction. Two fire-protection mechanisms thus become available: (1) the char layer retards the flow of heat, due to the extremely low thermal conductivity; and (2) water vapor and sulfur dioxide are released, providing fire quenching properties. Still another mechanism functions in cases where the char, by virtue of its high oxidation resistance and low thermal conductivity, reaches a sufficiently high temperature to re-radiate much of the incident heat load. The coatings consist of dispersions of selective salts of a nitro-amino-arornatic compound. Specifically, para-nitroaniline bisulfate and the ammonium salt of para-nitroaniline-ortho sulphuric acid (2-amino-5-nitrobenzenesulphuric acid) are used. Suitable vehicles are cellulose nitrate of lacquer grade, a nitrite-phenolic modified rubber, or epoxy-polysulfide copolymer. Three separate formulations have been developed. A solvent is usually employed, such as methylethyl ketone, butyl acetate, or toluene, which renders the coatings suitably thin and which evaporates after the coatings are applied. Generally, the intumescent material is treated as insoluble in the vehicle, and is ground and dispersed in the vehicle and solvent like an

  20. Yellow Book File of Program Procedures in Education for the Mentally Retarded. Administrative Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka. Div. of Education Services.

    The document is a brief collection of materials which provide a framework whereby local Kansas education units can individually and collectively identify ways to use the statewide effort to strengthen existing programs of service or develop new approaches at the local level for educating the mentally retarded. Part I introduces the process systems…

  1. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  2. Teaching Physical Education to Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Patricia A.

    Methods for teaching physical education activities and skills to mentally retarded children are presented. General objectives are listed and the physical education program is outlined. Hints are offered for teaching the retarded child; and basic skills and rhythms are described. The following are then described; rhythm games, a volleyball unit and…

  3. Poverty and Mental Retardation: A Causal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Rodger L.

    The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…

  4. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…

  5. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  6. Innovations in Vocational Rehabilitation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, George E., Ed.

    Conference proceedings of the Vocational Rehabilitation Subdivision Meetings held at the American Association on Mental Deficiency contain discussions of innovative aspects of vocational rehabilitation and mental retardation. In the area of training rehabilitation counselors, George Baroff describes the Mental Retardation Training Institute in…

  7. Defining Mental Retardation from an Instructional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    A definition of mental retardation is presented to clarify perceptions of what should happen to persons with mental retardation after identification and program placement. The definition refers to the need for specific skill training and the development of independence. A rationale and six corollaries to the definition are discussed. (JDD)

  8. Severe Mental Retardation: From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Diane, Ed.; Filler, John, Ed.

    Fourteen papers examine current issues and practices in the education of students with severe mental retardation (SMR). Papers touch upon the broad context of education for SMR students, programs for the SMR population, and critical issues. The following papers are presented: "The Severely Mentally Retarded Individual: Philosophical and…

  9. The Effects of Retardation on Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Brian R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploratory behavior of educationally mentally retarded 7- to 12-year-old children was compared to that of two independent groups of normal children matched on chronological and mental age. In a multidimensional assessment of exploration, results suggested that delays in exploratory behavior in retarded children are developmental in nature, and…

  10. Aetiology of mild mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, M A; Dennis, N R

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and family study was carried out in 169 children attending schools for the mildly mentally retarded in Southampton to assess the prevalence of recognised medical risk factors; 71 children (42%) had such risk factors. These were prenatal in 22, perinatal in 41, and postnatal in eight. Risk factors of possible, but less certain, significance were found in a further 63 children (37%). In 86 families (51%) there was a history of serious educational problems in both parents. The prevalence of both types of risk factor was higher in the children whose parents had no educational problems. There were, however, 25 children (15%) whose parents had no history of educational problems and in whom medical risk factors were either absent or minimal. PMID:3178264

  11. Care Of The Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810

  12. New scheme for finite-retardation limitations of linear retarders with fixed axes in polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Mo; Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Dong; He, De-Yong; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Finite retardation ranges of linear retarders with fixed axes limit their applications in polarization control. In this work, we present a simple and efficient constraint scheme for this finite-retardation limitation. Its theoretical basis is given geometrically and mathematically. The new polarization control algorithm combines the constraint scheme and a widely-used maximum-search algorithm. Both simulations and experiments confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed scheme and control algorithm. In experiments, the control system uses four cascaded linear retarders with fast axes alternately oriented at 0° and 45°. Each retarder (fiber squeezer) has a finite retardation range of 4π. For a 15-min test, the mean (maximum) polarization error angle is 0.09 (0.28) rad while stabilizing a polarization fluctuation at an average speed of 26 rad/s. Furthermore, no events of hitting retardation limits occur.

  13. Public health implications of components of plastics manufacture. Flame retardants.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, E M; Liepins, R

    1975-01-01

    The four processes involved in the flammability of materials are described and related to the various flame retardance mechanisms that may operate. Following this the four practical approaches used in improving flame retardance of materials are described. Each approach is illustrated with a number of typical examples of flame retardants or synthetic procedures used. This overview of flammability, flame retardance, and flame retardants used is followed by a more detailed examination of most of the plastics manufactured in the United States during 1973, their consumption patterns, and the primary types of flame retardants used in the flame retardance of the most used plastics. The main types of flame retardants are illustrated with a number of typical commercial examples. Statistical data on flame retardant market size, flame retardant growth in plastics, and price ranges of common flame retardants are presented. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:1175568

  14. A polymeric flame retardant additive for rubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N.; Maiti, S.

    1993-12-31

    Synthesis of a polyphosphonate by the interfacial polymerization of bisphenol-A (BPA) and dichloro-phenyl phosphine oxide (DCPO) using cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (TMAC) as phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was reported. The polyphosphonate was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, DSC and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The flame retardancy of the polymer was done by OI study. The polymer was used as a fire retardant additive to rubbers such as natural rubber (NR), styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR), nitrile rubber (NBR) and chloroprene rubber (CR). The efficiency of the fire retardant property of this additive was determined by LOI measurements of the various rubber samples.

  15. [Correlations between vocal qualities and mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Biondi, S; Zappala, M; Amato, G; Consoli, F

    1990-01-01

    This research is intended to verify the existence of vocal spectrographic alterations, with particular reference to the values of Fundamental Frequency, in patients with different levels of Mental Retardation. The results show the existence of a direct correspondence between the values of the Fundamental Frequency and the level of Mental Retardation: the spectrographic characteristics appear to be more altered in subjects with severe Mental Retardation. The spectrographics patterns are characterized by the presence of bi-phonation particularly at the onset time and at the end, and by a noise signal on constant frequency. The shifts of Fundamental Frequency and voice breakage are rarely detected.

  16. Engineering Flame Retardant Biodegradable Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Yang, Kai; Guo, Yichen; Zhang, Linxi; Pack, Seongchan; Davis, Rachel; Lewin, Menahem; Ade, Harald; Korach, Chad; Kashiwagi, Takashi; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2013-03-01

    Cellulose-based PLA/PBAT polymer blends can potentially be a promising class of biodegradable nanocomposites. Adding cellulose fiber reinforcement can improve mechanical properties of biodegradable plastics, but homogeneously dispersing hydrophilic cellulose in the hydrophobic polymer matrix poses a significant challenge. We here show that resorcinol diphenyl phosphates (RDP) can be used to modify the surface energy, not only reducing phase separation between two polymer kinds but also allowing the cellulose particles and the Halloysite clay to be easily dispersed within polymer matrices to achieve synergy effect using melt blending. Here in this study we describe the use of cellulose fiber and Halloysite clay, coated with RDP surfactant, in producing the flame retardant polymer blends of PBAT(Ecoflex) and PLA which can pass the stringent UL-94 V0 test. We also utilized FTIR, SEM and AFM nanoindentation to elucidate the role RDP plays in improving the compatibility of biodegradable polymers, and to determine structure property of chars that resulted in composites that could have optimized mechanical and thermal properties. Supported by Garcia Polymer Center and NSF Foundation.

  17. Genomic imbalances in mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kriek, M; White, S; Bouma, M; Dauwerse, H; Hansson, K; Nijhuis, J; Bakker, B; van Ommen, G-J B; den Dunnen, J T; Breuning, M

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: It has been estimated that cytogenetically visible rearrangements are present in ~1% of newborns. These chromosomal changes can cause a wide range of deleterious developmental effects, including mental retardation (MR). It is assumed that many other cases exist where the cause is a submicroscopic deletion or duplication. To facilitate the detection of such cases, different techniques have been developed, which have differing efficiency as to the number of loci and patients that can be tested. Methods: We implemented multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH) to test areas known to be rearranged in MR patients (for example, subtelomeric/pericentromeric regions and those affected in microdeletion syndromes) and to look for new regions that might be related to MR. Results: In this study, over 30 000 screens for duplications and deletions were carried out; 162 different loci tested in each of 188 developmentally delayed patients. The analysis resulted in the detection of 19 rearrangements, of which ~65% would not have been detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis. A significant fraction (46%) of the rearrangements found were interstitial, despite the fact that only a limited number of these loci have so far been tested. Discussion: Our results strengthen the arguments for whole genome screening within this population, as it can be assumed that many more interstitial rearrangements would be detected. The strengths of MAPH for this analysis are the simplicity, the high throughput potential, and the high resolution of analysis. This combination should help in the future identification of the specific genes that are responsible for MR. PMID:15060096

  18. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  19. Retardation Measurements of Infrared PVA Wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Z, H.; W, D.; D, Y.; Z, Z.; S, J.

    The wave plate made of Polyvinyl Alcohol PVA plastic film has several advantages such as its lower cost and insensitivity to temperature and incidence angle so it has been used in the Solar Multi-Channel Telescope SMCT in China But the important parameter retardations of PVA wave plates in the near infrared wavelength have never been provided In this paper a convenient and high precise instrument to get the retardations of discrete wavelengths or a continuous function of wavelength in near infrared is developed In this method the retardations of wave plates have been determined through calculating the maximum and minimum of light intensity The instrument error has been shown Additionally we can get the continuous direction of wavelength retardations in the ultraviolet visible or infrared spectral in another way

  20. PCBs, PBBs and Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...

  1. Galactosaemia: A Preventable Form of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Galectosaemia, a treatable and potentially preventable cause of brain damage and mental retardation is discussed with emphasis on neonatal screening tests, treatment with a galactose-free diet, and evidence of treatment effectiveness. (DB)

  2. Video Tape and the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Three uses of video tape recordings with the mentally retarded; discussed briefly are staff training or teacher education, parental involvement in the child's education, and therapeutic uses by psychiatrists and psychologists. (CB)

  3. Physical Education: Equipment for Teaching the Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaya, John

    1976-01-01

    Equipment designed to help mentally retarded students develop flexibility, eye-hand and eye-foot coordination, muscle coordination, body balance and control, and social involvement in their peer group. (Author/MLF)

  4. Epilepsy, Mental Retardation, and Anticonvulsant Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kenneth Roland; Katz-Garris, Lynda

    1979-01-01

    Inappropriate or inadequately documented medication for patients in mental retardation institutions is a major medical and economic problem. Within a 127-patient ward, 41 patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Of these patients, 24 had no documented indications for usage. (Author)

  5. Retardation analytical model to extend service life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D.

    1984-01-01

    A fatigue crack growth model that incorporates crack growth retardation effects and is applicable to the materials characteristics and service environments of high performance LH2/LO2 engine systems was developed and tested.

  6. Daphnia emergence: a sensitive indicator of fire-retardant stress in temporary wetlands.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Martín, Silvia; Moreno, José M

    2005-05-01

    Fire-retardant formulations are increasingly used by fire managers to control wildland fires. Their extensive use requires an assessment of their impacts in those ecosystems that could be affected by them. Recent studies indicate the potential for environmental impacts when accidentally delivered to surface waters. Yet the response of temporary wetlands, such as vernal pools, typical in Mediterranean areas, is unknown. This study reports on the emergence response of a wetland population of Daphnia curvirostris Eylmann (Cladocera, Crustacea) from sediments that were treated with a commercial fire retardant (Fire-Trol 934). Three application levels were used: 1, 3 and 5 L m(-2). The low and medium levels are in the range of manufacturer's recommendations of use in the field based on the fuel characteristics. The high level simulates local elevated concentrations that may result from inhomogeneous retardant delivery. Results indicate that emergence success decreases with increasing application rate, leading to a complete failure with application levels of 5 L m(-2). This suggests that benthic-pelagic interactions in temporary wetlands-often the primary way by which recolonization of isolated wetlands occurs-can be significantly impacted by fire retardants once they fill with fall/winter rains, thereby serving as a sensitive indicator of fire-retardant contamination. Results highlight a research need for establishing of criteria for effective, but environmentally safe use of fire retardants in the environment.

  7. CesrTA Retarding Field Analyzer Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    Calvey, J.R.; Celata, C.M.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.F.; Greenwald, S.; Leong, Z.; Livezey, J.; Palmer, M.A.; Furman, M.; Venturini, M.; Harkay, K.

    2010-05-23

    Retarding field analyzers (RFAs) provide an effective measure of the local electron cloud density and energy distribution. Proper interpretation of RFA data can yield information about the behavior of the cloud, as well as the surface properties of the instrumented vacuum chamber. However, due to the complex interaction of the cloud with the RFA itself, understanding these measurements can be nontrivial. This paper examines different methods for interpreting RFA data via cloud simulation programs. Techniques include postprocessing the output of a simulation code to predict the RFA response; and incorporating an RFA model into the cloud modeling program itself.

  8. Influence of Retardants to Burning Lignocellulosic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tureková, Ivana; Harangozó, Jozef; Martinka, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with monitoring retardant changes of lignocellulosic materials. Combustion of lignocellulosic materials and fire-technical characteristics are described. In assessing the retarding effect of salt NH4H2PO4, fire-technical characteristics as limiting oxygen index (LOI) were measured, and by using thermoanalytical TG and DSC methods. High-temperature process of cellulose degradation at various flame concentrations was studied.

  9. Musical aptitudes, musical interests and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K

    1991-08-01

    A modified version of the Bentley scales of musical aptitude was given to a sample of mild and moderately retarded adults chosen on the basis of alleged musical interest or experience. Several comparison groups were also given the assessment battery. The musical nominees generally performed more accurately than both matched retarded subjects with no particular musical interests and a group of normal children matched on (Wechsler) vocabulary scores. The musical nominees showed especially high performance on the subtest assessing voice analysis in chords.

  10. Gitelman's syndrome: Rare presentation with growth retardation

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, A.; Ambey, R.; Gaur, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    Gitelman's syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hyperreninemia and without hypertension. Gitelman's syndrome is caused by mutations of the SLC12A3 gene, which encodes the Na/Cl co-transporter (NCCT) in the distal convoluted tubule. Majority of cases manifest during adolescence or adulthood and growth retardation is not the common feature. We report a rare presentation of Gitelman's syndrome in a four-year-old boy with growth retardation. PMID:24574637

  11. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  12. Multistage Pressure-Retarded Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadwaj, Devesh; Fyles, Thomas M.; Struchtrup, Henning

    2016-10-01

    One promising sustainable energy source is the chemical potential difference between salt and freshwater. The membrane process of pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) has been the most widely investigated means to harvest salinity gradient energy. In this report, we analyse the thermodynamic efficiency of multistage PRO systems to optimize energy recovery from a salinity gradient. We establish a unified description of the efficiencies of the component pumps (P), turbines (T), pressure exchangers (PX), and membrane modules (M) and exploit this model to determine the maximum available work with respect to the volume of the brine produced, the volume of the sea water consumed, or the volume of the freshwater that permeates the membrane. In an idealized series configuration of 1-20 modules (P-M-T), the three optimization conditions have significantly different intermediate operating pressures in the modules, but demonstrate that multistage systems can recover a significantly larger fraction of the available work compared to single-stage PRO. The biggest proportional advantage occurs for one to three modules in series. The available work depends upon the component efficiencies, but the proportional advantage of multistage PRO is retained. We also optimize one- and two-stage PX-M-T and P-M-T configurations with respect to the three volume parameters, and again significantly different optimal operating conditions are found. PX-M-T systems are more efficient than P-M-T systems, and two-stage systems have efficiency advantages that transcend assumed component efficiencies. The results indicate that overall system design with a clear focus on critical optimization parameters has the potential to significantly improve the near-term practical feasibility of PRO.

  13. Off-shell {N} = 2 linear multiplets in five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkan, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    We present a superconformal tensor calculus for an arbitrary number of five dimensional {N} = 2 linear multiplets. We also demonstrate how to construct higher derivative invariants, and produce higher order supersymmetric off-diagonal models. Finally, we show the procedure required for the derivation of the supersymmetric completion of the non-Abelian F 4 action.

  14. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  15. New supersymmetric localizations from topological gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jinbeom; Imbimbo, Camillo; Rey, Soo-Jong; Rosa, Dario

    2016-03-01

    Supersymmetric field theories can be studied exactly on off-shell "localizing" supergravity backgrounds. We show that these supergravity configurations can be identified with BRST invariant configurations of background topological gravity coupled to background topological gauge multiplets. We apply this topological point of view to two-dimensional {N}=left(2,2right) supersymmetric matter theories to obtain, in a simple and straightforward way, a complete classification of localizing supersymmetric backgrounds in two dimensions. We recover all known localizing backgrounds and (infinitely) many more that have not been explored so far. The newly found localizing backgrounds are characterized by quantized fluxes for both graviphotons of the {N}=left(2,2right) supergravity multiplet. The BRST invariant topological backgrounds are parametrized by both Killing vectors and {{S}}^1 -equivariant cohomology of the two-dimensional spacetime. We completely reconstruct the supergravity backgrounds from the topological data: some of the supergravity fields are twisted versions of the topological backgrounds, but others are composite, in that they are nonlinear functionals of topological fields. Moreover, we show that the supersymmetric Ω-deformation is nothing but the background value of the ghost-for-ghost of topological gravity, a result which holds for higher dimensions too.

  16. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Retarded and Non-Retarded Children at Two Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Millard C.; Connor, Catherine

    Cooperative and competitive interaction (interpersonal relationship) between pairs of retarded and nonretarded children of ages 6 to 7 and 11 to 12 were assessed in a situation involving a marble pull apparatus in which competitive interaction was nonadaptive in terms of reward attainment. The retarded group was significantly more cooperative than…

  17. Reactions to the Labels "Institutionalized" and "Mentally Retarded" by Retarded and Nonretarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gibbons, Barbara N.

    The effects of labels, "mentally retarded" and "institutionalized" on the evaluations and causal attributions of nonretarded persons, and on the social distance preferences of EMR persons, were assessed. In addition, each group was asked to predict the likelihood of a labeled (mentally retarded) or a nonlabeled target person achieving success at a…

  18. Mental Retardation Publications of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    Superseding the 1966 issue of "Mental Retardation Publications" and its supplement of 1967, this bibliography annotates 189 items. No publications of private agencies or state and local governments are included. The bibliography is organized into the following sections: general; legislative and federal programs; specific hand capping conditions…

  19. X linked mental retardation: a clinical guide.

    PubMed

    Raymond, F L

    2006-03-01

    Mental retardation is more common in males than females in the population, assumed to be due to mutations on the X chromosome. The prevalence of the 24 genes identified to date is low and less common than expansions in FMR1, which cause Fragile X syndrome. Systematic screening of all other X linked genes in X linked families with mental retardation is currently not feasible in a clinical setting. The phenotypes of genes causing syndromic and non-syndromic mental retardation (NLGN3, NLGN4, RPS6KA3(RSK2), OPHN1, ATRX, SLC6A8, ARX, SYN1, AGTR2, MECP2, PQBP1, SMCX, and SLC16A2) are first discussed, as these may be the focus of more targeted mutation analysis. Secondly, the relative prevalence of genes causing only non-syndromic mental retardation (IL1RAPL1, TM4SF2, ZNF41, FTSJ1, DLG3, FACL4, PAK3, ARHGEF6, FMR2, and GDI) is summarised. Thirdly, the problem of recurrence risk where a molecular genetics diagnosis has not been made and what proportion of the male excess of mental retardation is due to monogenic disorders of the X chromosome are discussed.

  20. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  1. Mentally retarded workers' reactions to their jobs.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Z; Cnaan, R A; Cnaan, A

    1985-09-01

    Reactions of 34 mentally retarded employees to their jobs were examined in a field study conducted at a sheltered workshop. Three experienced social workers observed a group of retarded employees whose job was assembling toys. The workers were then interviewed on their perceptions of and reactions to their job characteristics and supervision, and these were related to performance data that included performance time, productivity, and effort ratings. Results showed that performance measures were related to perceived job characteristics and that growth-need strength (people's needs for personal development and achievement) affected these relationships. On the basis of these results, we discussed the feasibility of using motivation models for retarded workers that were designed for nonretarded workers.

  2. [Considerations of psychopathology in mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Masi, G

    1994-06-01

    There is a high incidence of psychiatric disorders in mentally retarded subjects: one third to two thirds of mentally retarded subjects exhibit psychiatric disorders, a proportion which is much higher than that found in subjects with normal intelligence. The issue is to clarify the nature of the relationship between cognitive and psychiatric disorders (generally analyzed in a dichotomous approach). A way to analyze the phenomenon is to consider a psychopathological approach, which can define the underlying mechanisms responsible for this incidence. The aim of this paper is to analyze the explicatory value of deficient cognitive development, as the main factor determining a specific personality organization. Direct and indirect effects of cognitive impairment on the development of personality disorders are described: the first, in terms of how cognitive deficit (i.e. severity, homogeneity in several cognitive domains, pattern of development) disorganizes personality; the second, in terms of impact that cognitive deficit could have on the child's relationship with the external world, especially with the mother. In order to illustrate these viewpoint, the paper discusses the role of cognitive functions in the development of personality. Specifically, the way the normal child processes his perceptual and motor experiences is analyzed, that is pursuit of new causal links in his knowledge seeking activity of mastering the world. The child's primitive relationship with the world is then aimed at learning, exploring and searching for new causal links. In the light of these considerations, what the child with Mental Retardation experiences is discussed. A series of psychopathological mechanisms in Mental Retardation are postulated. The organization of the Mentally Retarded child's internal world is described, as reflected in Rorschach protocols, which outline a chaotic and primitive internal world, but with a specificity of its own. Finally, the paper discusses the

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

    PubMed

    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  4. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  5. Mental Retardation Research Methods in Latino Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra M.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the research methods used in the recruitment and analysis of a sample of 72 Puerto Rican mothers of a child with mental retardation. Emphasis is on the importance of involving the community in order to: (1) ensure that the community benefits, (2) strengthen the scientific integrity of the study, and (3) facilitate sample…

  6. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Phillip J., Ed.; Wehman, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents 19 chapters on life span perspectives and service issues for people with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. The book presents best practices and provides a view of the range of services necessary to work with people who have those disabilities. It is intended to provide a core reference for providers in the…

  7. Drugs in Mental Retardation: Treatment or Tragedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.

    1985-01-01

    Treatment of mentally retarded persons with psychotropic and anticonvulsant drugs is discussed in terms of drug classification, rationale for use, attitudes toward use, and clinical research findings. The literature on neuroleptic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and cerebral stimulant drugs is summarized. Controversial reports that some medications…

  8. Novel additives to retard permeable flow

    SciTech Connect

    Golombok, Michael; Crane, Carel; Ineke, Erik; Welling, Marco; Harris, Jon

    2008-09-15

    Low concentrations of surfactant and cosolute in water, can selectively retard permeable flow in high permeability rocks compared to low permeability ones. This represents a way forward for more efficient areal sweep efficiency when water flooding a reservoir during improved oil recovery. (author)

  9. Bibliographic Instruction for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Dennis A.

    Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…

  10. Flame retardant cotton barrier nonwovens for mattresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to regulation CPSC 16 CFR 1633, every new residential mattress sold in the United States since July 2007 must resist ignition by open flame. An environmentally benign “green”, inexpensive way to meet this regulation is to use a low-cost flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric. In this study, a...

  11. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  12. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  13. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  14. Teaching Mending Skills to Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Cuvo, Anthony J.

    1979-01-01

    A task analysis model for analyzing and teaching community living skills to the mentally handicapped was developed and validated with five moderately retarded youths (ages 17 to 20 years) who were taught mending skills (sewing hems, buttons, and seams). (Author/DLS)

  15. New fire retardant foams and intumescents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of fire retardant foams and intumescent paints for protection of commercial aircraft passengers in the event of fire is discussed. Recommended materials and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the materials are presented. Typical problems resulting from aircraft fires and the basic protective mechanisms to cope with these problems are examined.

  16. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  17. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  18. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  19. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  20. Throwing Patterns of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auxter, David

    This study explored developmental patterns in the acquisition of the gross motor skill of throwing among 110 educable, mentally retarded 7- to 12-year-olds. Each child was examined through cinematographic procedures to discover: a) variance in throwing patterns, b) elements composing throwing skills, and c) sequential integration of the elements…

  1. HEALTH ASPECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing bromine have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...

  2. Halfway Houses for the Mildly Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gia, Gilbert P.

    Investigated were number and location of community residences or halfway houses (of fewer than 61 persons) for the mildly retarded and their programing practices. Form letters and questionnaires uncovered 68 programs meeting internal delimitations of the study. Programs were categorized for analysis purposes into California Programs, New Programs…

  3. Pharmacotherapy in Mental Retardation and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews studies examining effects of pharmacological interventions for children with mental retardation and autism. Discusses information regarding stimulants, neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, antianxiety drugs, and antidepressant drugs as measured by their effects on laboratory and clinical measures of activity level, self-injurious behavior, and…

  4. Epilepsy and Mental Retardation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, David L.

    1993-01-01

    The comprehensive management of epilepsy in people with mental retardation requires consideration of four aspects of care: diagnosis and classification, anticonvulsant drug treatment, safety and protection from injury, and psychosocial functioning. This paper outlines what is known and unknown in these four areas and introduces articles in this…

  5. Automatic Memory Processes in Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Debra Kosteski; And Others

    Automatic memory processes were investigated in 10 mild and moderately retarded persons (21 years old) and in 10 chronological age-matched college level and 10 mental age-matched elementary grade control subjects through use of a frequency estimation task. This task required the subjects to view a series of slides, then estimate how many times…

  6. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  7. The Deaf Mentally Retarded: Understanding Their World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonies, Barbara C.

    Described photographically and textually in the brochure are the educational, vocational, and social needs of deaf mentally retarded (DMR) children and adults. The DMR person is discussed in relation to the double handicap which precludes educational benefits from a traditional program, secondary problems such as visual handicaps, and incidence…

  8. Brominated flame retardants as food contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews analytical methods for the three major brominated flame retardant (BFR) classes in use today, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a "legacy" BFR no longer in use, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and a...

  9. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  10. International Directory of Mental Retardation Resources. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybwad, Rosemary F., Ed.

    The document presents an international directory of mental retardation resources. International organizations pertaining to the mentally retarded are listed and described, including those affiliated with the United Nations, intergovernmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, international coordinating agencies, and regional nongovernmental…

  11. Gravitation is Retarded:Theory and Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Gravitation is Retarded:Theory and Evidence There were more than twenty times of observations about gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses since Maurice Allais’s pendulum test during the total solar eclipse of 1954 in Paris. All the theoretical modes are calculated according to Newton’s gravitation law. But due to the observation environments and conditions during above observations were not quite well, the platform for mounting the gravimeters were quite simple, so that the environment and human’s disturbance were unavoidable, therefore the data obtained from above observation where questionable. It is very hard to give a conclusion to say the gravity anomalies during the eclipses were really existing or not. The more important issue is that none of the suggested external factors could account for the magnitude and timing of observed anomalies, according to Chris Duif of University of Technology of Netherland. Since the total solar eclipse of Mohe, 1997, I have been working on a theory to explain the gravity anomalies. At Mohe, I was watching the image of the eclipse, and led a scientific term to conduct a comprehensive geophysical observation, including the gravity observation. The two kinds of observations were conducted at same location and same time. We noticed that solar light of the eclipse was emitted 500 seconds before the image reached to our eyes and cameras. It was reasonable to have similar idea that the gravitation emitted from the sun is also 500 seconds before our gravimeter received and recorded it; it means that gravitation is retarded. Based on either the Special Relativity or Leinard-Wiechert retarded potential, I have deduced the expressions for retarded gravitation; it is vector modification on Newton’s universal gravitation law. The retarded gravitation is gRT=-GM(R-Rβ)(1-β2)/R3(1-βr)3 For common cases, bodies move in a weak gravitation field along a quasi-straight light or with a slow speed, such as planets move around the

  12. 3d N = 1 Chern-Simons-matter theory and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimpis, Dimitrios; Zhu, Yaodong

    2016-10-01

    We consider the most general, classically-conformal, three-dimensional N = 1 Chern-Simons-matter theory with global symmetry Sp (2) and gauge group U (N) × U (N). We show that the Lagrangian in the on-shell formulation of the theory admits one more free parameter as compared to the theory formulated in off-shell N = 1 superspace. The theory on T3 can be formally localized. We partially carry out the localization procedure for the theory on T3 with periodic boundary conditions. In particular we show that restricting to the saddle points with vanishing gauge connection gives a trivial contribution to the partition function, i.e. the bosonic and fermionic contributions exactly cancel each other.

  13. Evaluating Achievement of the Mentally Retarded: A Comprehensive Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotick, Andrew L.

    Several factors should be considered in using standardized tests to measure achievement in the mentally retarded. Who should be included in the normative sample is a first consideration; this depends on the definition of mentally retarded being used. For achievement purposes the mentally retarded probably differ from one another as much as they do…

  14. Issues in Identification and Assessment in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Stanley H.; Polloway, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a rationale for and a discussion of the Council for Exceptional Children's Division on Mental Retardation's Board of Directors' position on assessment and identification in mental retardation, especially mild retardation. The historical foundations of identification and assessment, current practices, recommended practices, legal…

  15. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mild Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    To investigate the relation between low level lead absorption and mild mental retardation, hair lead concentrations were compared in a group of 40 mildly retarded children "etiology unknown" with a control group of 20 children. Children with probable cause for retardation were excluded from the sample as were children with a history of lead…

  16. Mental Retardation: The Search for Cures. Research Monograph Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.; Neman, Ronald

    The booklet describes the Association for Retarded Citizens' (ARC's) goal of coordinating efforts to seek a cure for mental retardation. Cures are defined as any intervention that would significantly increase intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beyond the upper level of retardation. It is explained that because of the variety of causes…

  17. Conjunctive Visual Search in Individuals with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Michael; Chrysler, Christina; Sullivan, Kate

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the basic visual and cognitive abilities of individuals with mental retardation is critical for understanding the basis of mental retardation and for the design of remediation programs. We assessed visual search abilities in individuals with mild mental retardation and in MA- and CA-matched comparison groups. Our…

  18. Placental leptin in normal, diabetic and fetal growth-retarded pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Lea, R G; Howe, D; Hannah, L T; Bonneau, O; Hunter, L; Hoggard, N

    2000-08-01

    Leptin expression in third trimester placenta (p) and leptin concentrations in umbilical cord blood (cb) were investigated in normal pregnancies [n = 10 (p), 31 (cb)] and abnormal pregnancies complicated with (i) maternal insulin-dependent diabetes [IDDM: n = 3 (p), 13 (cb)], (ii) gestational diabetes [GD: n = 2 (p), 10 (cb)] and (iii) fetal growth retardation [FGR: n = 5 (p), 5 (cb)]. By in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, placental leptin mRNA and protein were co-localized to the syncytiotrophoblast and villous vascular endothelial cells. Leptin receptor was immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast. Relative to controls, the FGR group was characterized by low concentrations of placental and cord blood leptin. In a twin pregnancy, the normal-sized infant exhibited more placental and cord blood leptin than its growth-retarded twin. In contrast, both diabetic groups exhibited high concentrations of placental leptin mRNA and protein. The IDDM group exhibited the highest concentrations of leptin in cord blood. No change was observed in the expression of the leptin receptor in either the growth-retarded or diabetic pregnancies. In conclusion, the localization of placental leptin suggests that it may be released into both maternal and fetal blood. Furthermore, in fetal growth-retarded and diabetic pregnancies, the changes in leptin expression in the placenta and in leptin concentrations in umbilical cord blood appear to be related.

  19. Fragile X mental retardation protein: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miri; Ceman, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    We begin by reviewing the first characterization of fragile X syndrome, which ultimately led to cloning of the FMR1 gene. Discovery of the molecular basis of this disorder, including expansion of a trinucleotide repeat, gave insight not only into fragile X syndrome but also into the premutation syndromes. Features of fragile X syndrome are discussed including the patient phenotype down to the neuronal phenotype. The domain features of the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP are described, as are the mRNAs bound by FMRP and the role of post-translational modifications as regulators of FMRP function. The relatively new role of FMRP in progenitor cells is reviewed, as is FMRP localization in cells and how FMRP is regulated by glutamatergic signaling in the brain. Understanding how metabotropic glutamate receptors impact FMRP has led to novel therapeutic approaches in treating this disorder.

  20. Methods for Quantitative Interpretation of Retarding Field Analyzer Data

    SciTech Connect

    Calvey, J.R.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.F.; Palmer, M.A.; Furman, M.; Harkay, K.

    2011-03-28

    Over the course of the CesrTA program at Cornell, over 30 Retarding Field Analyzers (RFAs) have been installed in the CESR storage ring, and a great deal of data has been taken with them. These devices measure the local electron cloud density and energy distribution, and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of different cloud mitigation techniques. Obtaining a quantitative understanding of RFA data requires use of cloud simulation programs, as well as a detailed model of the detector itself. In a drift region, the RFA can be modeled by postprocessing the output of a simulation code, and one can obtain best fit values for important simulation parameters with a chi-square minimization method.

  1. Retarding field analyzer for the EAST plasma boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Xiao, C.; Wang, H. Q.; Yan, N.; Wan, B. N.; Chen, L.; Liu, Y. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, W.; Wang, L.; Hu, G. H.; Chen, R.; Xu, J. C.; Ye, Y.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    A novel bi-directional Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) probe has been installed on a fast reciprocating drive system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to measure the ion temperature and fast electron fluxes. A Langmuir probe assembly was added on the top of the RFA head to control the RFA position relative to the last closed flux surface and to have a possibility to measure the electron density and temperature as well. Except the ion temperature, the fast electron fluxes from both ion and electron drift sides have been measured during lower hybrid current drive. The RFA probe has been also used to measure the fast electrons associated with edge localized modes (ELMs), indicating their substantial presence in the scrape-off-layer plasma of EAST.

  2. Retarding field analyzer for the EAST plasma boundary.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; Xu, G S; Xiao, C; Wang, H Q; Yan, N; Wan, B N; Chen, L; Liu, Y L; Zhang, H; Zhang, W; Wang, L; Hu, G H; Chen, R; Xu, J C; Ye, Y; Li, J

    2016-12-01

    A novel bi-directional Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) probe has been installed on a fast reciprocating drive system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to measure the ion temperature and fast electron fluxes. A Langmuir probe assembly was added on the top of the RFA head to control the RFA position relative to the last closed flux surface and to have a possibility to measure the electron density and temperature as well. Except the ion temperature, the fast electron fluxes from both ion and electron drift sides have been measured during lower hybrid current drive. The RFA probe has been also used to measure the fast electrons associated with edge localized modes (ELMs), indicating their substantial presence in the scrape-off-layer plasma of EAST.

  3. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of brominated flame retardants. PMID:14698924

  4. Chemistry and toxicity of flame retardants for plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Liepins, R; Pearce, E M

    1976-01-01

    An overview of commercially used flame retardants is give. The most used flame retardants are illustrated and the seven major markets, which use 96% of all flame-retarded polymers, are described. Annual flame retardant growth rate for each major market is also projected. Toxicity data are reviewed on only those compositions that are considered commercially significant today. This includes 18 compounds or families of compounds and four inherently flame-retarded polymers. Toxicological studies of flame retardants for most synthetic materials are of recent origin and only a few of the compounds have been evaluated in any great detail. Considerable toxicological problems may exist in the manufacturing of some flame retardants, their by-products, and possible decomposition products. PMID:1026419

  5. [Hearing function in children with speech retardation].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Povarova, M V

    2006-01-01

    Hearing function was studied in 140 children aged between 2 and 5 years with speech retardation and perinatal pathology for formulation of further treatment policy and rehabilitation. Impedance audiometry, SEAAE, game audiometry identified hearing loss of the first, second, third, forth degree in 6 (4%), 10 (7%), 24 (17%), 31 (21%) children respectively. Deafness was registered in 17 (12%) children, 52 (37%) examinees were audiologically normal.

  6. Walking Habits of Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2005-01-01

    The walking activity of men and women with mental retardation residing in community settings was described. Participants were 38 women (M age = 0.7, SD = 9.5) and 65 men (M age = 35.9, SD = 11.2). They wore pedometers for 7 days. A 2 ? 2 factorial ANOVA indicated no significant gender differences in total step counts or between participants with…

  7. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  8. The research of far infrared flame retardant polyester staple fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingshan; Zhang, Kaijun; Luo, Jinqong; Li, Ji’an; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Qianqian; Jin, Yongxia; Liu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Far infrared flame retardant slices was prepared, fiber with far infrared flame retardant composite function was also prepared by the method of melt spinning. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the fibrous microscopic structure. In the SEM images, functional ultrafine powder particle size and distribution in the fiber were visible. The results show that the functional ultrafine powder is evenly distributed on the fibrous surface, which is closely combined with fiber, and the far infrared emissivity is F, which is more than (8 to 14 microns) 0.88. Far infrared flame retardant polyester fiber has not only good flame retardant, but also environmental health effect: releasing negative ions and launch far-infrared, which shows wide application prospect. The fiber was processed into far-infrared flame retardant electric blanket, whose functional indicators and flame retardant properties are not reduced.

  9. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The exploitation of "new" effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  10. Electrode contamination effects of retarding potential analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fang, H K; Oyama, K-I; Cheng, C Z

    2014-01-01

    The electrode contamination in electrostatic analyzers such as Langmuir probes and retarding potential analyzers (RPA) is a serious problem for space measurements. The contamination layer acts as extra capacitance and resistance and leads to distortion in the measured I-V curve, which leads to erroneous measurement results. There are two main effects of the contamination layer: one is the impedance effect and the other is the charge attachment and accumulation due to the capacitance. The impedance effect can be reduced or eliminated by choosing the proper sweeping frequency. However, for RPA the charge accumulation effect becomes serious because the capacitance of the contamination layer is much larger than that of the Langmuir probe of similar dimension. The charge accumulation on the retarding potential grid causes the effective potential, that ions experience, to be changed from the applied voltage. Then, the number of ions that can pass through the retarding potential grid to reach the collector and, thus, the measured ion current are changed. This effect causes the measured ion drift velocity and ion temperature to be changed from the actual values. The error caused by the RPA electrode contamination is expected to be significant for sounding rocket measurements with low rocket velocity (1-2 km/s) and low ion temperature of 200-300 K in the height range of 100-300 km. In this paper we discuss the effects associated with the RPA contaminated electrodes based on theoretical analysis and experiments performed in a space plasma operation chamber. Finally, the development of a contamination-free RPA for sounding rocket missions is presented.

  11. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    SciTech Connect

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  12. Guidelines for Biomedical and Pharmacological Research Procedures and the Protection of Human Subjects in Residential Facilities for Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX. Research and Demonstration Inst.

    Guidelines are presented which were developed to aid federal, state, and local agencies prepare regulations concerning the use of mentally retarded subjects in biomedical and pharmacological research projects. Guidelines are set forth for the following topic areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): the formation of a Professional Review Committee…

  13. Scalable Preparation of Multifunctional Fire-Retardant Ultralight Graphene Foams.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Xue, Jiangli; Dong, Liye; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Xiaopeng; Qu, Liangti; Dai, Liming

    2016-01-26

    Traditional flame-retardant materials often show poor tolerance to oxidants, strong acidic/alkaline reagents, organic solvents, along with toxicity problems. Herein, highly fire-retardant ultralight graphene foam has been developed, which possesses not only ultralight and compressible characteristics but also efficient flame-retardant properties, outperforming those traditional polymer, metallic oxide, and metal hydroxide based flame retardant materials and their composites. The newly developed unconventional refractory materials are promising for specific applications as demonstrated by the observed high temperature resistant microwave absorption capability.

  14. Bender-Gestalt reproduction times for retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Andert, J N; Hustak, T L; Dinning, W D

    1978-10-01

    Examined the length of time required by retarded adults to complete the Bender-Gestalt test with a sample of 241 test administrations. In order to provide for normative comparisons among retarded adults, descriptive data are presented on the Bender reproduction times of adults in three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two ranges based on Stanford-Binet IQs. Negative correlations were found between the length of Bender times and the degree of retardation. The duration of Bender times was correlated positively with the number of errors in reproduction as measured by the Koppitz developmental scoring system.

  15. Rotatable broadband retarders for far infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, T.D.; Carr, G.; Zhou, T.; Kotelyanskii, M.; Sirenko, A.A.

    2010-12-09

    Rotatable retarders have been developed for applications in spectroscopic, full Mueller Matrix ellipsometry in the far-IR spectral range. Several materials, such as silicon, KRS-5, and a commercial polymer plastic (TOPAS) have been utilized to achieve a fully adjustable retardation between 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Experimental characteristics of the rotatable retarders that utilize three- and four-bounce designs are compared with calculations. We discuss the effect of light focusing on the performance of these rotatable retarders. Broadband optical retarders are required for spectroscopic ellipsometry in its full Mueller matrix (MM) realization. Performance of the MM ellipsometer depends on the capability to produce substantially linearly-independent Stokes vectors for the light incident onto the sample. As has been shown, the errors in the measuredMMof the sample are proportional to the condition number of the 4 x 4 matrix composed of the Stokes vectors of four polarization states incident at the sample. It can be proven that it is impossible to cover the Poincare sphere with linearly-independent Stokes vectors by only changing the linear polarization at the input surface of a stationary retarder. As we will illustrate further in this paper, total coverage of the Poincare sphere is possible by rotating a tandem of a linear polarizer and a retarder with a retardation of 90{sup o}. It is this goal that we are trying to achieve in the retarder designs described in this paper.

  16. TG-FTIR characterization of flame retardant polyurethane foams materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Tang, Y.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and trichloroethyl phosphtate (TCEP) have been used to enhance the flame retardancy of polyurethane foams materials (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the excellent flame retardancy can be achieved due to the presence of the flame retardant system containing DMMP and TCEP. TG-FTIR reveals that the addition of DMMP/TCEP can not only improve the thermal stability of PUF samples but can also affect the gaseous phase at high temperature.

  17. Polarization characterization of liquid-crystal variable retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Iván.; Bruce, Neil C.; López-Téllez, Juan M.

    2016-08-01

    A comparison between two experimental techniques to characterize retardance as a function of applied voltage of liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVR) is presented. In the first method the variable retarder was rotated between two polarizers with their transmission axes parallel, and the retardance was calculated from the Fourier series coefficients for each applied voltage. The second method involved using two polarizers with their transmission axes perpendicular to each other, the variable retarder was placed between the polarizers with its optical axis at 45° from the horizontal, and a final stage known as "phase unwrapping" is used on experimental data to obtain the voltage-retardance function. With these two experimental methods, the voltage-retardance relationship was obtained. To verify the accuracy of this characterization a second experiment involving the production of specific polarization states was performed as the basis of a Mueller polarimeter. A method based on measuring the optical signal resulting from the application of a predetermined set of fixed values of retardance in each retarder was used. 16 elements of the Mueller matrix of a polarizer with its transmission axis at 0° and 90° were measured, and the results are compared to the expected theoretical values.

  18. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened for possible use wiith acrylic printing inks on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants were selected according to their physical properties and thermostabilities. Thermostabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. A criterion was then established for selecting the more stable agent. Results show that some of the bromine-containing fire retardants are more thermostable than the acrylic ink, alone, used as a control. Also, the bromine-containing fire retardants yield even better limiting oxygen index values when tested after adding carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber.

  19. Flame retardants in indoor dust and air of a hotel in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Suzuki, Go; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Ishikawa, Yukari; Sunami, Masakiyo; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2009-05-01

    Occurrence of flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor environment of highly flame-retarded public facilities is an important concern from the viewpoint of exposure because it is likely that FRs are used to a greater degree in these facilities than in homes. For this study, brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame-retardants and plasticizers (OPs), and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/DFs) were measured in eight floor dust samples taken from a Japanese commercial hotel that was assumed to have many flame-retardant materials. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) varied by about two orders of magnitude, from 9.8-1700 ng/g (median of 1200 ng/g) and from 72-1300 ng/g (median of 740 ng/g), respectively. Concentrations of the two types of BFRs described above were most dominant among the investigated BFRs in the dust samples. It is inferred that BFR and PBDD/DF concentrations are on the same level as those in house and office dust samples reported based on past studies. Regarding concentrations of 11 OPs, 7 OPs were detected on the order of micrograms per gram, which are equivalent to or exceed the BFR concentrations such as PBDEs and HBCDs. Concentrations of the investigated compounds were not uniform among dust samples collected throughout the hotel: concentrations differed among floors, suggesting that localization of source products is associated with FR concentrations in dust. Passive air sampling was also conducted to monitor BFRs in the indoor air of hotel rooms: the performance of an air cleaner placed in the room was evaluated in terms of reducing airborne BFR concentrations. Monitoring results suggest that operation of an appropriate air cleaner can reduce both gaseous and particulate BFRs in indoor air.

  20. In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Nakari, Tarja; Pessala, Piia

    2005-09-10

    Estrogenicity of five brominated flame retardants (BFRs), namely BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-205, PBB-153 and technical Firemaster BP-6, were assessed by in vitro assays developed to detect chemicals with estrogenic properties. Recombinant yeast cells containing a human estrogen receptor gene failed to give any response to the chemicals tested. However, the positive control compound, estradiol-17beta, showed that the yeast cell assays had worked properly. The freshly separated fish hepatocyte assay based on the synthesis and secretion of vitellogenin from the isolated liver cells produced a clear dose-response curve in the presence of all tested flame retardants except Firemaster BP-6. The toxicity of the BFRs was detected by determining the cell ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD). The BFRs tested induced hepatic EROD activity at low test concentrations, but started to inhibit activity at higher concentrations. The decreased detoxification capacity of the hepatocytes resulted in a decrease in the vitellogenin production of the cells. The capability of in vitro assays to detect estrogenic properties of chemicals seems to vary. Thus, further work is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for these reactions.

  1. Are brominated flame retardants endocrine disruptors?

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Brouwer, Abraham

    2003-09-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a group of compounds that have received much attention recently due to their similarity with "old" classes of organohalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in terms of their fate, stability in the environment and accumulation in humans and wildlife. Toxic effects, including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity, have been observed for some BFR congeners, in particular the brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). This concise review focuses on the potency of BFRs and to disrupt endocrine systems, and attempts to answer the question whether or not BFRs are endocrine disruptors. Evidence is provided on the disruption of the thyroid hormone system by BFRs, with particular emphasis on the BDEs, as most recent data is available on this class of flame retardants. Similar to the hydroxylated PCBs, in vitro mechanistic studies as well as animal experiments have demonstrated the effects of BDEs on thyroid hormone transport and metabolism. An overview of possible effects of BFRs on the estrogen system is also provided. Research gaps are outlined, as well as ongoing and future studies in the European community aimed at contributing to comprehensive risk assessments based on the endocrine-disrupting effects of BFRs.

  2. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  3. Proposed mechanism of inheritance and expression of the human fragile-X syndrome of mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, C.D.

    1987-11-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the inheritance and expression of the fragile-X-linked syndrome of mental retardation in humans. Two independent events are required for expression of the syndrome: the fragile-X mutation, and X chromosome inactivation in pre-oogonial cells. The fragile-X mutation at site Xq27 has little or no effect until the chromosome is inactivated in a female as part of the process of dosage compensation. At a stage where the inactivated X chromosome would normally be reactivated in preparation for oogenesis, the mutation results in a local block to the reactivation process. This block to reactivation leads to mental retardation in progeny by reducing the level of products from the unreactivated Xq27 region in male cells, and, for a heterozygous female, in somatic cells in which the normal X chromosome has been inactivated. Published data relevant to this proposed mechanism are discussed.

  4. The fragile X mental retardation protein in circadian rhythmicity and memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal

    2009-04-01

    The control of new protein synthesis provides a means to locally regulate the availability of synaptic components necessary for dynamic neuronal processes. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding translational regulator, is a key player mediating appropriate synaptic protein synthesis in response to neuronal activity levels. Loss of FMRP causes fragile X syndrome (FraX), the most commonly inherited form of mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders. FraX-associated translational dysregulation causes wide-ranging neurological deficits including severe impairments of biological rhythms, learning processes, and memory consolidation. Dysfunction in cytoskeletal regulation and synaptic scaffolding disrupts neuronal architecture and functional synaptic connectivity. The understanding of this devastating disease and the implementation of meaningful treatment strategies require a thorough exploration of the temporal and spatial requirements for FMRP in establishing and maintaining neural circuit function.

  5. Educational Initiatives in Mental Retardation in Nineteenth-Century Holland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijers, Ido

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the educational initiatives in the Netherlands during the nineteenth century in relation to mental retardation. States that the optimism towards people with mental retardation that emerged in many countries in the second half of the nineteenth century did not emerge within the Netherlands. (CMK)

  6. Mental Retardation. Selected Articles from the Rehabilitation Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Presented are six articles on residential living, vocational education, employment recreation, deinstitutionalization, and workshop experience of mentally retarded children and adults. K. Grunewald discusses the planning of housing for five- to eight person groups of retarded children and adults in varying kinds of residential facilities in Sweden…

  7. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  8. New monomers for fire-retardant radiation curable polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, W.G.; Bush, R.W.; Ketley, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Novel photosensitive compositions are described which combine excellent UV curability and good flame-retardant properties. These compositions consist of halogenated allyl or methallyl esters, which, in combination with polythiols and photoinitiators and other additives, result in screenable liquids which can be applied to electronic circuit boards and cured with UV light to hard, fire-retardant coatings.

  9. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  10. Pre-Professional Training in Mental Retardation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Irving C., Jr.

    To interest students in mental retardation health services careers, 10 eligible prebaccalaureate students were selected to participate in a 10-week summer training program. The first 2 weeks involved orientation to informational and training aspects of mental retardation and exposure to the health services related disciplines of recreational and…

  11. Defining Mental Retardation: A Matter of Life or Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William; Simon, Elliot W.

    2007-01-01

    Because persons with mental retardation cannot be executed for murder, the diagnosis becomes a life and death matter. The American Association on Mental Retardation (now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) and other associations agree that IQ alone is an insufficient criterion and adaptive functioning also…

  12. Perceptual-Motor Attributes of Mentally Retarded Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    To evaluate six perceptual-motor attributes of trainable and educable mentally retarded children, a battery of tests was constructed which included body perception, gross agility, balance, locomotor ability, throwing, and tracking; 83 retarded subjects provided reliability data, and their scores, with those of 120 additional subjects, provided…

  13. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  14. Effects on Learning of Relaxation Training with Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranti, S. V.; Freedman, P. E.

    Research has documented that individuals with mental retardation can learn and benefit from relaxation training. To investigate the effects of anxiety reduction through relaxation training on the performance of a complex learning task, 15 mentally retarded adult males were studied. Following performance on an anxiety measure, subjects were…

  15. Novel phosphonates triazine derivative as economic flame retardant for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorous-containing flame retardants are widely used in standard and engineering plastics, polyurethane foams, thermosets, coatings, and textiles. Organophosphorous flame retardants have been known to be more effective when used in conjunction with nitrogen-containing systems. Their mixture produ...

  16. Estate Planning for Retarded Persons and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruge, Don L.; Green, Karen O.

    Intended for parents and legal guardians of mentally retarded persons, the manual provides guidelines for estate planning. An overview of definitions, causes, and prevalence factors in retardation is followed by reviews of the major financial assistance governmental programs such as Medicare, and Supplemental Security Income, and of legal…

  17. Association between the Diagnosis of Mental Retardation and Socioeconomic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Durrheim, Kevin; Lachman, Peter; Kaminer, Debra

    1998-01-01

    An examination of clinical data from the regional hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, over four years for 538 children with a diagnosis of mental retardation found mild mental retardation referrals were underrepresented in low socioeconomic areas and that paramedical agencies were the primary referral source in these areas. (Author/CR)

  18. The Mentally Retarded Inmate: Prison Adjustment and Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Craig; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether or not there were differences in the prison adaptation of mentally retarded and nonretarded inmates. Compared 439 retarded inmates, 439 matched nonretarded inmates, and 439 unmatched nonretarded inmates. Found statistically significant differences between groups in the areas of assaults on correctional officers and other…

  19. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  20. IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The use of flame retardant chemicals in furniture fabric could pose a potential health risk to consumers from dermal absorption of these compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro dermal absorption of two flame retardant chemicals, [14C]-d...

  1. Arizona's Comprehensive Plan to Help the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Health, Phoenix. Mental Retardation Section.

    To help combat mental retardation, 136 recommendations are made for the following: establishment by statute of a division of mental retardation, an advisory council, and a coordinating council of agencies; changes in laws governing the Arizona Children's Colony, additional public school legislation, and a study of civil and criminal law; immediate…

  2. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  3. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  4. Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flame retardant behavior of a cotton fabric treated with phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine compound was evaluated. It was found that cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) is an excellent starting material for the preparation of phosphonates flame retardants that interacts wel...

  5. RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPELAND, ROSS H.; SCHIEFELBUSCH, R.L.

    A REPORT OF A CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IS PRESENTED. THE MAIN AREAS INCLUDED ARE THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION, PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING LANGUAGE, AND SPECIAL METHODS FOR TREATMENT. SPECIFIC REPORTS GIVEN ARE--"PSYCHOLINGUISTICS IN THE STUDY OF MENTAL RETARDATION"…

  6. Community Care for People with Mental Retardation in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosen, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Services for people with mental retardation in the Netherlands are examined, with emphasis on normalization, placement options including group homes and institutionalization, guidance for families through the Social Pedological Service, and the care of mental illness in mentally retarded persons through special diagnostic and treatment centers.…

  7. Mental Retardation in the Caribbean: Needs, Resources, Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J., Ed.

    Presented are conference reports including an opening address on the economic benefits of programs for the mentally retarded (MR), and eight papers discussing the problem of mental retardation in the Caribbean. Two papers on preschool age children, respectively, consider the identification and assessment of MR children in the Caribbean and present…

  8. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  9. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Vapor Retarder Classification

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

  10. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  11. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  12. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  13. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  14. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or injuries... superimposed upon mental retardation or a personality disorder may be service-connected. (Authority: 38...

  15. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  16. Cognitive Development Among Retardates: Reanalysis of Inhelder's Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Valerie Barnes

    A reanalysis of B. Inhelder's (1968) data concerning cognitive development among retardates was performed by selecting from the original 159 subjects a sample of 104 educable mentally retarded Ss (7-19 years old) who were diagnosed as fixated or nonfixated at three of the cognitive stages postulated by Jean Piaget. The results indicated that among…

  17. Behavioral Treatment of Aggression in the Mentally Retarded: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Jerome H.

    The paper reviews 34 behavioral treatment studies (1967-1983) examining reduction of aggressive behavior in mentally retarded people. Research reviewed was limited to treatment of physically aggressive responses such as hits, kicks, bites, chokes, scratches, and throwing objects by persons designated as mentally retarded. Among results reported…

  18. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Ted; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  19. Crisis Intervention With the Mentally Retarded: The New Treatment Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlicht, Manny; Deutsch, Martin R.

    The trend toward normalization of the mentally retarded has brought a new dimension to the problem of their adjustment. Within the past several years, large numbers of the mentally retarded have been discharged into the community from residential facilities; the stress and anxiety they experience at being thrust into a strange and alien world…

  20. Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

  1. Adoptive and Birth Family Adjustment to Rearing Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Bush, Beverly A.

    The study identified 81 families who adopted children with mental retardation or at risk for mental retardation, and compared them with 61 matched families with similar birth children. For birth families, the initial diagnosis was a time of crisis, with high depression scores, while scores at follow-up (an average of 5.3 years later) indicated no…

  2. A Practical Guide for Teaching the Mentally Retarded to Swim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    A guide for teaching the retarded to swim begins with a general discussion of retardation, the need for individualization, and staff qualifications. Factors discussed in program organization and administration include community agencies, staff training, examples of records and forms, and first aid procedures. Suggested methods consider perceptual…

  3. TEACHING THE MENTALLY RETARDED, A HANDBOOK FOR WARD PERSONNEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENSBERG, GERALD J.

    WRITTEN FOR ATTENDANTS, VOLUNTEERS, PROFESSIONAL PEOPLE, AND PARENTS, THIS MANUAL PRESENTS PRINCIPLES AND METHODS FOR TEACHING THE MENTALLY RETARDED TO BE AS INDEPENDENT AS POSSIBLE. THE FIRST SECTION PROVIDES GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NORMAL CHILDREN AND CONTRASTS THESE WITH SOME OF THE NEEDS OF THE RETARDED.…

  4. Behind the Wheel Training for Individuals Labeled Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zider, Steven J.; Gold, Marc W.

    1981-01-01

    The study investigated a strategy for teaching two moderately retarded adults to perform skills required for driving an automobile. Training consisted of two phases--simulator training and driving-range training. Data supported the claim that moderately mentally retarded individuals are capable of performing complex behaviors. (SB)

  5. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  6. Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) for Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, H. K.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2013-11-01

    Problems associated with Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA), which can be used to measure ion temperature/and density in the lower E region where ion temperature is 200-300 K, are discussed. Two major factors which need to be taken care of to get accurate ion temperature of extremely low values are the effect of mesh size of the grids to be used and the effect of electrode contamination. An electrode baking and vacuum sealing mechanisms are designed to keep the electrode surface clean. The effect of mesh sizes on the calculation of ion temperature is discussed by using simulation studies as well as laboratory experiments. The study suggests that the uniformity of the electric field in the RPA sensor is critical. The manuscript describes the principle of the RPA, the effect of the mesh size using computer simulation studies, and the mechanical design of the sensor sealing to remove electrode contamination.

  7. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  8. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  9. Mental retardation in a boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; González-Abarca, Sergio; Hernández-Rocha, Juan; García-Cruz, Diana; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2005-05-15

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis (ACH) is a rare form of localized hypertrichosis with 15 previously reported cases. ACH has been considered to be a dominant phenotype, either X-linked or autosomal [OMIM 600457]. ACH was associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) in one family, in which the proband also exhibited severe chorioretinal degeneration and optic atrophy, probably as a different entity [OMIM 239840]. A Mexican boy with congenital ACH associated with moderate mental retardation, abnormal EEG, mild microcephaly, hypertrichosis on the back, and hallux valgus is presented here. An equal sex ratio found in 16 reported cases as well as the suggestion of a paternal age effect in one report appear most consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for this trait. It remains unclear if isolated ACH, ACH-HMSN, or other associated findings reported in patients with ACH, including unusual features found in our case, are part of ACH or fortuitous associations, due to the small number of affected patients and different ascertainment biases present in previous reports.

  10. Interaction between chromatin proteins MECP2 and ATRX is disrupted by mutations that cause inherited mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Xinsheng; Hou, Jianghui; Maclean, Alan; Nasir, Jamal; Lafuente, Maria Jose; Shu, Xinhua; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas; Bird, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the human methyl-CpG-binding protein gene MECP2 cause the neurological disorder Rett syndrome and some cases of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). We report that MeCP2 interacts with ATRX, a SWI2/SNF2 DNA helicase/ATPase that is mutated in ATRX syndrome (α-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked). MeCP2 can recruit the helicase domain of ATRX to heterochromatic foci in living mouse cells in a DNA methylation-dependent manner. Also, ATRX localization is disrupted in neurons of Mecp2-null mice. Point mutations within the methylated DNA-binding domain of MeCP2 that cause Rett syndrome or X-linked mental retardation inhibit its interaction with ATRX in vitro and its localization in vivo without affecting methyl-CpG binding. We propose that disruption of the MeCP2–ATRX interaction leads to pathological changes that contribute to mental retardation. PMID:17296936

  11. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air. PMID:24804279

  12. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure.

    PubMed

    Keller, Alexander S; Raju, Nikhilesh P; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-02-11

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air.

  13. Pressure retarded osmosis as a controlling system for traditional renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carravetta, Armando; Fecarotta, Oreste; La Rocca, Michele; Martino, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a viable but still not diffused form of renewable energy (see Maisonneuve et al., 2015 for a recent literature review). In PRO, water from a low salinity feed solution permeates through a membrane into a pressurized, high salinity draw solution, giving rise to a positive pressure drop; then energy is obtained by depressurizing the permeate through a hydro-turbine and brackish water is discharged. Many technological, environmental and economical aspects are obstacles in the diffusion of PRO, like the vulnerability of the membranes to fouling, the impact of the brackish water on the local marine environment, the high cost of membranes, etc. We are interested in the use of PRO as a combined form of energy with other renewable energy source like solar, wind or mini hydro in water supply networks (WSN). For the wide diffusion of renewables one of the major concerns of commercial power companies is to obtain very stable form of energy to comply with prescriptions of electricity grid operators and with the instant energy demand curve. Renewables are generally very variable form of energy, for the influence of climatic conditions on available power, and of the fluctuation in water demand in WSN. PRO is a very flexible technology where with appropriate turbines and control system power can be varied continuously to compensate for variation of other source of energy. Therefore, PRO is suitable to be used as a balancing system for commercial power system. We will present a simulation of the performance of a PRO used in combination with three different renewables. In the first two scenarios PRO compensate the difference between energy demand and energy production of a solar power plant and hydro power plant in a WSN. In the third scenario PRO is used to compensate daily variation of energy production in a wind power plant. Standard curves of energy production and energy demand for southern Italy are used. In order to control PRO production an

  14. Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) regulates embryo development, seed maturation and plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Wang, Huanzhong

    2016-07-20

    Plant seeds accumulate large amounts of protein and carbohydrate as storage reserves during maturation. Thus, understanding the genetic control of embryo and seed development may provide bioengineering tools for yield improvement. In this study, we report the identification of Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) gene in Arabidopsis, whose two independent T-DNA insertion mutant lines, SALK_085642 (red1-1) and SALK_022583 (red1-2), show a retarded embryo development phenotype. The embryogenesis process ceases at the late heart stage in red1-1 and at the bent-cotyledon stage in red1-2, respectively, resulting in seed abortion in both lines. The retarded embryo development and seed abortion phenotypes reverted to normal when RED1 complementation constructs were introduced into mutant plants. Small red1-2 homozygous plants can be successfully rescued by culturing immature seeds, indicating that seed abortion likely results from compromised tolerance to the desiccation process associated with seed maturation. Consistent with this observation, red1-2 seeds accumulate less protein, and the expression of two late embryo development reporter transgenes, LEA::GUS and β-conglycinin::GUS, was significantly weak and started relatively late in the red1-2 mutant lines compared to the wild type. The RED1 gene encodes a plant specific novel protein that is localized in the nucleus. These results indicate that RED1 plays important roles in embryo development, seed maturation and plant growth.

  15. Leber's congenital amaurosis. Is mental retardation a frequent associated defect?

    PubMed

    Nickel, B; Hoyt, C S

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-one patients had Leber's congenital amaurosis. Only one was severely retarded, and three demonstrated hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis on computed tomographic scanning. These findings are in contrast to those of previous investigators, who have emphasized the high incidence of psychomotor retardation associated with Leber's amaurosis. Much of the psychomotor retardation that has been reported is probably secondary to the sensory deprivation and not necessarily a sign of structural CNS dysfunction. The diagnosis of Leber's congenital amaurosis does not, therefore, portend severe intellectual impairment and poor educability.

  16. Motivation, vocational interests and job satisfaction of mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Reiter, S; Friedman, L; Molcho, M

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults in a residential facility in Israel, their actual work and the factors which they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Two questionnaires were used: the Illustrated Vocational Inventory (Whelan & Reiter, 1980) and a specially designed questionnaire on motivation to work based on Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959). The results demonstrate the importance of taking into consideration mentally retarded persons' vocational interests when assignig them to different jobs. It further demonstrates the importance of the environment in influencing mentally retarded individuals to seek instrinsic or extrinsic rewards and satisfaction from work.

  17. Assessing Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge About Chemical Flame Retardants.

    PubMed

    Distelhorst, Laura; Bieda, Amy; DiMarco, Marguerite; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan

    Chemical flame retardants are routinely applied to children's products and are harmful to their health. Pediatric nurses are in a key position to provide education to caregivers on methods to decrease their children's exposure to these harmful chemicals. However, a critical barrier is the absence of any program to educate nurses about chemical flame retardants. In order to overcome this barrier, we must first assess their knowledge. This article provides key highlights every pediatric nurse should know about chemical flame retardants and reports the results of a knowledge assessment study.

  18. Fast quantitative retardance imaging of biological samples using quadri-wave interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Bon, Pierre; Savatier, Julien; Monneret, Serge; Wattellier, Benoit F.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the use of polarized spatially coherent illumination to perform linear retardance imaging and measurements of semi-transparent biological samples using a quantitative phase imaging technique [1]. Quantitative phase imaging techniques [2-5] are used in microscopy for the imaging of semi-transparent samples and gives information about the optical path difference (OPD). The strength of those techniques is their non-invasive (the sample is not labelled) and fast approach. However, this high contrast is non-specific and cannot be linked to specific properties of the sample. To overcome this limitation, we propose to use polarized light in combination with QPI. Indeed, anisotropy has been used to reveal ordered fibrous structures in biological samples without any staining or labelling with polarized light microscopy [6-8]. Recent studies have shown polarimetry as a potential diagnostic tool for various dermatological diseases on thick tissue samples [9]. Particularly, specific collagen fibers spatial distribution has been demonstrated to be a signature for the optical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in tissues [10]. In this paper, we describe a technical improvement of our technique based on high-resolution quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) and liquid crystal retarder to perform quantitative linear birefringence measurements on biological samples. The system combines a set of quantitative phase images with different excitation polarizations to create birefringence images. These give information about the local retardance and orientation of biological anisotropic components. We propose using a commercial QWLSI [11] (SID4Bio, Phasics SA, Saint Aubin, France) directly plugged onto a lateral video port of an inverted microscope (TE2000-U, Nikon, Japan). We are able to take retardance images in less than 1 second which allows us to record dynamic phenomena (living cells study) and make high speed acquisitions to reconstruct tissues virtual

  19. Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.

    PubMed

    Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke

    2014-12-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group.

  20. Inhibition of Complement Retards Ankylosing Spondylitis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaoqun; Ding, Peipei; Wang, Qingkai; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Jianquan; Xu, Enjie; Wang, Na; Chen, Jianfeng; Yang, Guang; Hu, Weiguo; Zhou, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) resulting in back pain and progressive spinal ankyloses. Currently, there are no effective therapeutics targeting AS largely due to elusive pathogenesis mechanisms, even as potential candidates such as HLA-B27 autoantigen have been identified. Herein, we employed a proteoglycan (PG)-induced AS mouse model together with clinical specimens, and found that the complement system was substantially activated in the spinal bone marrow, accompanied by a remarkable proportion alteration of neutrophils and macrophage in bone marrow and spleen, and by the significant increase of TGF-β1 in serum. The combined treatment with a bacteria-derived complement inhibitor Efb-C (C-terminal of extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein of Staphylococcus aureus) remarkably retarded the progression of mouse AS by reducing osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that two important modulators involved in AS disease, TGF-β1 and RANKL, were elevated upon in vitro complement attack in osteoblast and/or osteoclast cells. These findings further unravel that complement activation is closely related with the pathogenesis of AS, and suggest that complement inhibition may hold great potential for AS therapy. PMID:27698377

  1. Fire retardant effects of polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Hull, T Richard; Stec, Anna A; Nazare, Shonali

    2009-07-01

    Among the many and varied applications of nanotechnology, the dispersion of nanoscopic fillers to form polymer nanocomposites with improved fire behaviour illustrates the potential and diversity of nanoscience. Different polymers decompose in different ways and fire retardants act to inhibit the decomposition or flaming combustion processes. Polymer nanocomposites form barriers between the fuel and air, reducing the rate of burning, but beyond that there is little consistency in their effects. It is shown that the decomposition products of polypropylene are changed by the presence of nanoclay, although there is only a small influence on the mass loss rate. The rheological properties of molten polymer nanocomposites are radically different from those of virgin polymers, and these will profoundly affect the heat transfer through the material, resulting in a shorter time to ignition and lower peak in the heat release rate, typical of polymer nanocomposites. The dispersion of nanofillers within polymers is generally measured in the cold polymer, but since this does not reflect the condition at the time of ignition, it is proposed that temperature ramped rheological measurements are more appropriate indicators of dispersion. The influence of polymer nanocomposite formation on the yields of toxic products from fire is studied using the ISO 19700 steady state tube furnace, and it is found that under early stages of burning more carbon monoxide and organoirritants are formed, but under the more toxic under-ventilated conditions, less toxic products are formed.

  2. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beheydt, Lieve Lia; Schrijvers, Didier; Docx, Lise; Bouckaert, Filip; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, clinical ratings of PR, and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method multivariate analysis of variance to compare the clinical, cognitive, and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients performed worse on all clinical, cognitive, and PR measures. Both groups showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: Due to the restrictive inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric patients was found. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive load), it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression. PMID:25674065

  3. Oral Rehabilitation and Management of Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  4. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Richard

    2006-01-01

    X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s. PMID:16722615

  5. Fire retardant foams developed to suppress fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R.; Gilwee, W. J.; Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Heat insulating polyurethane foam retards and suppresses fuel fires. Uniformly dispersed in the foam is a halogenated polymer capable of splitting off hydrogen halide upon heating and charring of the polyurethane.

  6. Clinical Comparison of Haloperidol with Chlorpromazine in Mentally Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVann, Leonard J.

    1971-01-01

    In an 8-week double-blind comparison, haloperidol reduced the severity of the target symptoms impulsiveness, hostility, and aggressiveness in significantly more mentally retarded children than did chlorpromazine. (Author)

  7. Comparative approaches to the nonconsensual sterilization of the mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Price, D P

    1990-01-01

    Laws governing the sterilization of persons so mentally retarded as to be unable themselves to consent to the procedure have left a trail of manifest abuses right around the globe, and no less in North America than elsewhere. Ostensibly, as a kind of rebound effect, courts in North America, and most obviously in Canada, have erected substantial legal obstacles in the path of those seeking the sterilization of such a retarded individual. Historically, such abuses have been of a lesser scale, or at least have been much less manifest, in Great Britain. In the absence of any significant negative legacy, courts in Britain would seem to have developed a more balanced and equitable, although not necessarily more reasoned, approach to the determination of such cases to the seeming benefit of many seriously retarded persons. Ironically, these same courts hinder their own efforts in relation to retarded adults by denying jurisdiction in such cases and refusing to seek an adequate remedy for the lacuna.

  8. 40 CFR 201.14 - Standard for retarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulation shall operate retarders that exceed an adjusted average maximum A-weighted sound level of 83 dB at any receiving property measurement location, when measured with fast meter response in accordance...

  9. 40 CFR 201.14 - Standard for retarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulation shall operate retarders that exceed an adjusted average maximum A-weighted sound level of 83 dB at any receiving property measurement location, when measured with fast meter response in accordance...

  10. 40 CFR 201.14 - Standard for retarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulation shall operate retarders that exceed an adjusted average maximum A-weighted sound level of 83 dB at any receiving property measurement location, when measured with fast meter response in accordance...

  11. Reversal and Rotation Errors by Normal and Retarded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, F. William

    1973-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the incidence of and relationships among word and letter reversals in writing and Bender-Gestalt rotation errors in matched samples of normal and retarded readers. No significant diffenences were found in the two groups. (TO)

  12. Retarded boson-fermion interaction in atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Sambhu N.; Misra, Anirban

    2006-08-01

    The retarded interaction between an electron and a spin-0 nucleus is derived from electrodynamical perturbation theory. The contribution of retardation at order v2/c2 mimics the Breit interaction [Phys. Rev. 34, 553 (1929); 36, 388 (1930); 39, 616 (1932)] with the Dirac matrix α2 being replaced by p2/m2c where p2 is the linear momentum operator for the nucleus. An effective one-electron retardation operator is obtained in relative coordinates, and this can be used through all orders in perturbation theory without any problem of infinite degeneracy. A few steps of unitary transformation lead to the nonrelativistic limit. The leading terms in retardation corrections to energy are of order (me/mn)α2Z4(α2mec2). The implications for atomic systems are discussed.

  13. Aerobic Dance and the Mentally Retarded--A Winning Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bonnie J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study on an experimental dance program for mentally retarded children show that these children can improve in physical fitness and that success through physical activities can enhance their generally poor self-concept. (JN)

  14. An Analysis of Employer Evaluations of Workers with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Written employer evaluations of workers with mental retardation were analyzed regarding their relationship to employment retention and three such factors were identified: (1) workers' attendance, (2) punctuality patterns, and (3) consistency in task performance. (Author/DB)

  15. A simple analytical method to obtain achromatic waveplate retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Jose Luis; Lazarova-Lazarova, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    A new linear and analytical method to design achromatic retarders using waveplates is proposed. The root of this procedure is a generalization of the Hariharan method, which supposes a set of waveplates with fast axes aligned. Hence, it imposes a set of contour conditions over the overall retardation with the aim of determining the thicknesses of the waveplates. Our method proposes a polynomial approximation of the birefringences, thus removing the contour condition. Analytic expressions for calculating the thicknesses of the waveplates are then derived, showing a non-explicit dependence on the wavelength. Moreover, the overall retardation obtained by this method is close to the optimal retardation curve achieved by minimizing the merit function of the achromatism degree.

  16. Retardation in Mathematics: A Consideration of Multi-Factorial Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdown, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Discusses mathematical retardation as a construct and examines the possible contributions of emotional factors, socioeconomic factors, poor teaching, cognitive factors, and sex difference to low achievement in mathematics. (JB)

  17. Auditory Reinforcement in Profoundly Retarded Multiply Handicapped Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, R. E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Four profoundly retarded multiply handicapped children (with a mean age of 12 years) were placed in a situation where auditory stimulation was made contingent on a visually directed lever-pulling response. (Author/MH)

  18. The Assessment of Effectance Motivation in Normal and Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; Zigler, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Several measures of effectance motivation were constructed; their validity was assessed by administering them to groups of subjects whose effectance motivation was assumed to differ: normal, noninstitutionalized retarded, and institutionalized children matched on mental age. (CS)

  19. Sorption of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants (OPFRs) on Settled Dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are widely used as additives in industrial and consumer products such as electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textiles, and building/construction materials. Due to human exposure and potential health effects, OPFRs inc...

  20. Burning To Learn: An Introduction to Flame Retardants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity that demonstrates the effectiveness of flame retardants--substances added to combustible materials to slow down or hinder burning--that can be introduced when discussing combustion reactions or during a practical or everyday chemistry unit. (ASK)

  1. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  2. Promoting Social Play in Small Groups of Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo, Daniel M.; McGourty, David G.

    1983-01-01

    A method for fading object rewards for superordinate prerequisites to social play simultaneously with socially rewarded training on specific play was effective in teaching games to 15 institutionalized retarded adolescents. (Author/CL)

  3. Teaching about Older People with Mental Retardation: An Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropf, Nancy P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The University of Georgia model curriculum to prepare students to work with mentally retarded older adults has six units: population overview, physiological issues, mental health issues, social support systems, service delivery networks, and legal/ethical issues. (SK)

  4. Sorption of Organophosphorus Flame-Retardants on Settled Dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust is an important sink for indoor air pollutants, such as organophosphorus flame-retardants (OPFRs) that are used as additives in industrial and consumer products including electrical and electronic products, furniture, plastics, textile, and building/construction materials. T...

  5. Consumer Roulette: The Shopping Patterns of Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Randall D.; Ewing, Sheryl

    1981-01-01

    To develop information regarding the commercial product purchasing behavior of mildly mentally retarded adults, 11 participants were included in a mock shopping exercise. The results indicated several serious deficiencies in the purchasing strategies of the participants. (Author/SB)

  6. A Survey of Toxoplasmosis Among Mentally Retarded Children

    PubMed Central

    Labzoffsky, N. A.; Fish, N. A.; Gyulai, E.; Roughley, F.

    1965-01-01

    To determine what role, if any, toxoplasmosis plays in the mental retardation of children, sera from 345 mentally retarded children were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. The serological tests employed were the complement-fixation, the Sabin-Feldman dye test and the immunofluorescence test. The donors were also skin-tested with toxoplasmin. Of 345 mentally retarded donors nine gave a positive skin reaction, 15 possessed complement-fixing antibodies, 21 had immunofluorescent antibodies and 45 had dye test antibodies to T. gondii. The incidence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mentally retarded group was approximately the same as in the normal control group of the same age, and less than in the group suspected of having toxoplasmosis. It is concluded that in the children in this study toxoplasmosis played little or no role as a predisposing factor in the occurrence of congenital mental deficiency. PMID:14282158

  7. BRIEF IN-PATIENT FAMILY INTERVENTION IN MENTAL RETARDATION

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, H.S.; Girimaji, S.R.; Gandhi, D.H.; Raju, K. Maruthai; Rao, P. Madhu; Nardev, G.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY A novel programme of intervention - brief inpatient family intervention - was formulated to impart the training skills to the parents of mentally retarded children to optimise the development of their retarded child. During the period of this study. 106 mentally retarded children with different socio-demographic backgrounds and degrees of handicap participated in this programme, with encouraging results. The individualised management plan, spread over 2 weeks of inpatient stay, included intensive counselling, training of the parents in techniques of multisensory stimulation, speech, motor, and self-help skills training, behaviour modification and medical management, as required. The programme could serve as a suitable model for professionals working with the mentally retarded, to implement with limited resources. PMID:21927322

  8. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  9. CesrTA Retarding Field Analyzer Measurements in Drifts, Dipoles, Quadrupoles and Wigglers

    SciTech Connect

    Calvey, J.R.; Li, Y.; Livezey, J.A.; Makita, J.; Meller, R.E.; Palmer, M.A.; Schwartz, R.M.; Strohman, C.R.; Harkay, K.; Calatroni, S.; Rumolo, G.; Kanazawa, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2010-06-15

    Over the course of the CesrTA program, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been instrumented with several retarding field analyzers (RFAs), which measure the local density and energy distribution of the electron cloud. These RFAs have been installed in drifts, dipoles, quadrupoles, and wigglers; and data have been taken in a variety of beam conditions and bunch configurations. This paper will provide an overview of these results, and give a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of cloud mitigation techniques implemented in the instrumented vacuum chambers.

  10. 16 CFR 1630.32 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1630.32 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the...-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in the standard of subpart A of this...

  11. 16 CFR 1631.33 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1631.33 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the... in § 1631.1(c). (2) Fire-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in...

  12. 16 CFR 1630.32 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1630.32 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the...-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in the standard of subpart A of this...

  13. 16 CFR 1630.32 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1630.32 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the...-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in the standard of subpart A of this...

  14. 16 CFR 1631.33 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1631.33 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the... in § 1631.1(c). (2) Fire-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in...

  15. 16 CFR 1631.33 - Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant... Regulations § 1631.33 Carpets and rugs with fire-retardant treatment. (a) For the purposes of this section the... in § 1631.1(c). (2) Fire-retardant treatment means “fire-retardant treatment” as defined in...

  16. Genetic Causes of Mental Retardation. ARC Q&A #101-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about the genetic causes of mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: what genetics is; how a person's genes can cause mental retardation; how often mental retardation is inherited (up to 60 percent of severe mental retardation has genetic…

  17. Flame retardant exposure among collegiate United States gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Courtney C; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; McClean, Michael D; Roberts, Simon C; Stapleton, Heather M; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Thomas F

    2013-12-03

    Gymnastics training facilities contain large volumes of polyurethane foam, a material that often contains additive flame retardants such as PentaBDE. While investigations of human exposure to flame retardants have focused on the general population, potentially higher than background exposures may occur in gymnasts and certain occupational groups. Our objectives were to compare PentaBDE body burden among gymnasts to the general United States population and characterize flame retardants levels in gym equipment, air, and dust. We recruited 11 collegiate female gymnasts (ages 18-22) from one gym in the eastern United States. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of BDE-153 in gymnast sera (32.5 ng/g lipid) was 4-6.5 times higher than in the general United States population groups. Median concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB, and TBPH in paired handwipe samples were 2-3 times higher after practice compared to before, indicating the gymnasts contacted these flame retardants during practice. GM concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB, and TBPH were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in gym air and dust than in residences. Our findings suggest that these collegiate gymnasts experienced higher exposures to PentaBDE flame retardants compared to the general United States population and that gymnasts may also have increased exposure to other additive flame retardants used in polyurethane foam such as TBB and TBPH.

  18. Flame Retardant Exposure among Collegiate U.S. Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; McClean, Michael D.; Roberts, Simon C.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Gymnastics training facilities contain large volumes of polyurethane foam, a material that often contains additive flame retardants such as PentaBDE. While investigations of human exposure to flame retardants have focused on the general population, potentially higher than background exposures may occur in gymnasts and certain occupational groups. Our objectives were to compare PentaBDE body burden among gymnasts to the general U.S. population and characterize flame retardants levels in gym equipment, air and dust. We recruited 11 collegiate female gymnasts (ages 18–22) from one gym in the Eastern U.S. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of BDE-153 in gymnast sera (32.5 ng/g lipid) was 4–6.5 times higher than general U.S. population groups. Median concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB and TBPH in paired handwipe samples were 2–3 times higher after practice compared to before, indicating the gymnasts contacted these flame retardants during practice. GM concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB and TBPH were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in gym air and dust than in residences. Our findings suggest that these collegiate gymnasts experienced higher exposures to PentaBDE flame retardants compared to the general U.S. population and that gymnasts may also have increased exposure to other additive flame retardants used in polyurethane foam such as TBB and TBPH. PMID:24195753

  19. Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J.

    2006-03-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

  20. Molecular and comparative genetics of mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Inlow, Jennifer K; Restifo, Linda L

    2004-01-01

    Affecting 1-3% of the population, mental retardation (MR) poses significant challenges for clinicians and scientists. Understanding the biology of MR is complicated by the extraordinary heterogeneity of genetic MR disorders. Detailed analyses of >1000 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database entries and literature searches through September 2003 revealed 282 molecularly identified MR genes. We estimate that hundreds more MR genes remain to be identified. A novel test, in which we distributed unmapped MR disorders proportionately across the autosomes, failed to eliminate the well-known X-chromosome overrepresentation of MR genes and candidate genes. This evidence argues against ascertainment bias as the main cause of the skewed distribution. On the basis of a synthesis of clinical and laboratory data, we developed a biological functions classification scheme for MR genes. Metabolic pathways, signaling pathways, and transcription are the most common functions, but numerous other aspects of neuronal and glial biology are controlled by MR genes as well. Using protein sequence and domain-organization comparisons, we found a striking conservation of MR genes and genetic pathways across the approximately 700 million years that separate Homo sapiens and Drosophila melanogaster. Eighty-seven percent have one or more fruit fly homologs and 76% have at least one candidate functional ortholog. We propose that D. melanogaster can be used in a systematic manner to study MR and possibly to develop bioassays for therapeutic drug discovery. We selected 42 Drosophila orthologs as most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to MR. PMID:15020472

  1. Liquid crystal retarder spectral retardance characterization based on a Cauchy dispersion relation and a voltage transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Asticio; Donoso, Ramiro; Ramírez, Manuel; Carrión, José; del Mar Sánchez-López, María; Moreno, Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    We present a methodology for the spectral characterization of the optical modulation properties of a liquid crystal retarder (LCR). The method includes its complete description with a single Cauchy dispersion relation and a single voltage transfer function. As a result, an accurate description of the LCR retardance is achieved, both versus applied voltage and versus wavelength, with very few parameters. Finally, an imaging polarimetric system has also been developed to characterize the spatial variations in the device.

  2. Non-flammable elastomeric fiber from a fluorinated elastomer and containing an halogenated flame retardant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S. G.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions are described comprised of either spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain halogen containing polyols, conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture with flame retardant additives, or fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods are described for preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials and articles of manufacture comprised of the flame retardant clastomeric materials and non elastic materials such as polybenzimidazoles, fiberglass, nylons, etc.

  3. Duplication of 5q21 in a mildly retarded male and his non-retarded mother

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, R.; Zurcher, V.; Schwartz, S.

    1994-09-01

    Euchromatic autosomal additions to chromosomal complements are typically associated with global effects including mental retardation (MR) and dysmorphism. We report a familial duplication that does not appear to cause consistent, significant effects. A hyperactive male with mild MR was referred for fra(X) testing at 8 yrs. His karyotype was fra(X) negative and normal except for an addition in one 5q. The abnormal 5 was also in the maternal karyotype, but all other parental chromosomes were normal. The addition (=8.5% the length of a 5) was interpreted as a duplication of band 5q21. FISH with Coatasome 5 (Oncor) showed the addition was from 5. The proband`s karyotype was designated 46,XY,dup(5)(q15q22.1)mat; his mother`s, 46,XX,dup(5)(q15q22.1). Single copy probes are being used to test the cytogenetic interpretation. At 39 yrs, the non-retarded, somewhat inattentive mother, who has a high school diploma and subsequent secretarial courses, cares for the proband and his chromosomally normal, but learning disabled sister at home. The family situation is chaotic with reported paternal psychiatric illness and abuse of the proband and his sister. The mother`s father is dead, but her four younger siblings and mother are reportedly normal. Their chromosomes have not been available. The proband was born at 40 weeks following an uneventful pregnancy, with length and weight at the 5-10th centiles. He walked and talked at about one year. At 9 yrs, his ht/wt ratio was 10th centile. Foot length as <3rd centile; soft masses were present on the anterior ankles. He was otherwise physically normal. His estimated I.Q. was 75 and he was severely hyperactive despite Ritalin. This is the first report of a familial duplication in 5q; no identical, isolated case is known. Although additional family members need evaluation, the presence of the dup(5q) in the non-retarded mother suggests that it may not be associated with the proband`s MR.

  4. Current Issues in Mental Retardation and Human Development: Selected Papers from the 1970 Staff Development Conferences of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation (Washington, D.C., 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald J., Ed.

    Six papers discuss some of the current issues in the field of mental retardation and human development. Epidemiology of mental retardation from a sociological and clinical point of view is analyzed by Jane R. Mercer, based on studies of mental retardation in the community in Pomona, California. The role of genetics and intra-uterine diagnosis of…

  5. Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flame retardant chemicals are used in materials on airplanes to slow the propagation of fire. These chemicals migrate from their source products and can be found in the dust of airplanes, creating the potential for exposure. Methods To characterize exposure to flame retardant chemicals in airplane dust, we collected dust samples from locations inside 19 commercial airplanes parked overnight at airport gates. In addition, hand-wipe samples were also collected from 9 flight attendants and 1 passenger who had just taken a cross-country (USA) flight. The samples were analyzed for a suite of flame retardant chemicals. To identify the possible sources for the brominated flame retardants, we used a portable XRF analyzer to quantify bromine concentrations in materials inside the airplanes. Results A wide range of flame retardant compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples collected from airplanes, including BDEs 47, 99, 153, 183 and 209, tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromo-phthalate (TBPH). Airplane dust contained elevated concentrations of BDE 209 (GM: 500 ug/g; range: 2,600 ug/g) relative to other indoor environments, such as residential and commercial buildings, and the hands of participants after a cross-country flight contained elevated BDE 209 concentrations relative to the general population. TDCPP, a known carcinogen that was removed from use in children’s pajamas in the 1970’s although still used today in other consumer products, was detected on 100% of airplanes in concentrations similar to those found in residential and commercial locations. Conclusion This study adds to the limited body of knowledge regarding exposure to flame retardants on commercial aircraft, an environment long hypothesized to be at risk for maximum exposures due to strict flame retardant standards for aircraft materials. Our findings indicate that flame retardants are widely used in many

  6. Bidirectional regulation of dendritic voltage-gated potassium channels by the fragile X mental retardation protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Young; Ge, Woo-Ping; Huang, Wendy; He, Ye; Wang, Gordon X; Rowson-Baldwin, Ashley; Smith, Stephen J; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2011-11-17

    How transmitter receptors modulate neuronal signaling by regulating voltage-gated ion channel expression remains an open question. Here we report dendritic localization of mRNA of Kv4.2 voltage-gated potassium channel, which regulates synaptic plasticity, and its local translational regulation by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) linked to fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable mental retardation. FMRP suppression of Kv4.2 is revealed by elevation of Kv4.2 in neurons from fmr1 knockout (KO) mice and in neurons expressing Kv4.2-3'UTR that binds FMRP. Moreover, treating hippocampal slices from fmr1 KO mice with Kv4 channel blocker restores long-term potentiation induced by moderate stimuli. Surprisingly, recovery of Kv4.2 after N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced degradation also requires FMRP, likely due to NMDAR-induced FMRP dephosphorylation, which turns off FMRP suppression of Kv4.2. Our study of FMRP regulation of Kv4.2 deepens our knowledge of NMDAR signaling and reveals a FMRP target of potential relevance to FXS.

  7. Sex between people with "mental retardation": an ethical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Spiecker, Ben; Steutel, Jan

    2002-06-01

    Is sex between people with "mental retardation" [1] morally permissible and, if at all, under what conditions? This paper tries to answer this question, but only with regard to sex between biologically mature individuals with mild or moderate mental retardation. First, the concepts of "sexual activity" and mental retardation" are analysed briefly, which is challenging given the widely divergent and sometimes rather awkward definitions of these concepts. On the basis of this analysis, it is argued that the liberal principle of mutual consent, if taken as a necessary condition of permissible sex, has unacceptable consequences for people with mental retardation. Many forms of sex between them would be morally impermissible, given the fact that their limited powers of practical reasoning will often make valid consent well-nigh impossible. As an alternative to the liberal principle of permissible sex, conditions are specified that include the additional consent of caretakers. If people with mental retardation do not have the capacities of practical deliberation required for valid consent, care providers with mature reasoning powers should act as their substitutes. Finally, some important implications for the moral education of future care professionals are spelled out.

  8. Severe growth retardation following limb lengthening: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Price, C. T.; Carantzas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The first limb lengthening was reported by Codivilla in 1905. Common complications reported with this procedure include pain tract infections, angulation deformities, joint contractures, and residual limb length discrepancies. Growth arrest or severe growth retardation in the lengthened bones has rarely been reported. We report a case of a skeletally immature patient with right sided hemihypertrophy who underwent lengthening of the left lower extremity by the method of DeBastiani using Orthofix external fixators. Postoperatively he developed severe growth retardation in the lengthened limb, as evidenced by the Mosely straight line graph, and recurrence of his limb length discrepancy. The reason for this growth retardation remains unknown; however, we hypothesize that premature closure at one or more of the physes occurred because of increased tension across the growth plates. The practice of over-lengthening a congenitally short limb prior to physeal closure should be questioned because resumption of growth after lengthening may be unpredictable. PMID:9129286

  9. WEEE recycling: Pyrolysis of fire retardant model polymers.

    PubMed

    Luda, M P; Euringer, N; Moratti, U; Zanetti, M

    2005-01-01

    Pyrolysis treatments of model polymers were made with the aim of studying the recycling of wastes from electronic, electric equipment containing brominated flame retardants. Pyrolysis of flame retarded high impact polystyrene and epoxy resins were made both in flow and closed systems. Products of pyrolysis were analysed with FT-IR spectroscopy and GC-MS and the evolution of bromine was followed with a bromine ion specific electrode. The effect of alkali on pyrolysis was also studied demonstrating, as far epoxy resin is concerned, to be effective on decreasing bromine content in oil and volatile products leading to the recovery of bromine from the residue by washing. The alkali treatment was shown to be less effective in styrenic polymers containing brominated flame retardants.

  10. Eye movements and conservation acceleration in mildly retarded children.

    PubMed

    Boersma, F J; Wilton, K M

    1976-05-01

    Thirty mildly retarded elementary-school children, 15 of whom had received perceptual/attentional training, were tested on four Piagetian conservation tasks (number, length, and continuous quantity solid/liquid) presented on 16 mm movie film with taped instructions. Eye movements were recorded during the response period for each task. Subsequent analyses of eye-movement patterns showed clear differences between the training and control groups. Trained conservers showed more visual exploratory activity and less perceptual centration than control group subjects. Moreover the eye-movement patterns of trained conservers closely approximated those shown by natural (i.e., untrained) retarded conservers in a previous study. The findings were discussed in terms of possible cognitive structural changes resulting from training and possible cognitive structural differences between mildly retarded and nonretarded children.

  11. Halogenated flame retardants in bobcats from the midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Esmarie; Tan, Hongli; Wu, Yan; Nielsen, Clayton K; Shen, Li; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Da

    2017-02-01

    In response to the restrictions of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in various consumer products, alternative halogenated flame retardants have been subjected to increased use. Compared to aquatic ecosystems, relatively little information is available on the contamination of alternative flame retardants in terrestrial ecosystems, especially with regards to mammalian wildlife. In this study we used a top terrestrial carnivore, the bobcat (Lynx rufus), as a unique biomonitoring species for assessing flame retardant contamination in the Midwestern United States (U.S.) terrestrial ecosystems. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs (including all detectable PBDE congeners) ranged from 8.3 to 1920 ng/g lipid weight (median: 50.3 ng/g lw) in livers from 44 bobcats collected during 2013-2014 in Illinois. Among a variety of alternative flame retardants screened, Dechloranes (including anti- and syn-Dechlorane Plus and Dechlorane-602, 603, and 604), tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene (TBCT), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were also frequently detected, with median concentrations of 28.7, 5.2, and 11.8 ng/g lw, respectively. Dechlorane analogue compositions in bobcats were different from what has been reported in other studies, suggesting species- or analogue-dependent bioaccumulation, biomagnification, or metabolism of Dechlorane chemicals in different food webs. Our findings, along with previously reported food web models, suggest Dechloranes may possess substantial bioaccumulation and biomagnification potencies in terrestrial mammalian food webs. Thus, attention should be given to these highly bioavailable flame retardants in future environmental biomonitoring and risk assessments in a post-PBDE era.

  12. Characterization of fragile X mental retardation protein recruitment and dynamics in Drosophila stress granules.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Cristina; Houssin, Elise; Martel, David; Coudert, Laetitia; Mellaoui, Samia; Huot, Marc-Etienne; Laprise, Patrick; Mazroui, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Fragile X Mental Retardation (FMRP) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that is particularly abundant in the brain due to its high expression in neurons. FMRP deficiency causes fragile X mental retardation syndrome. In neurons, FMRP controls the translation of target mRNAs in part by promoting dynamic transport in and out neuronal RNA granules. We and others have previously shown that upon stress, mammalian FMRP dissociates from translating polysomes to localize into neuronal-like granules termed stress granules (SG). This localization of FMRP in SG is conserved in Drosophila. Whether FMRP plays a key role in SG formation, how FMRP is recruited into SG, and whether its association with SG is dynamic are currently unknown. In contrast with mammalian FMRP, which has two paralog proteins, Drosophila FMR1 (dFMRP) is encoded by a single gene that has no paralog. Using this genetically simple model, we assessed the role of dFMRP in SG formation and defined the determinants required for its recruitment in SG as well as its dynamics in SG. We show that dFMRP is dispensable for SG formation in vitro and ex vivo. FRAP experiments showed that dFMRP shuttles in and out SG. The shuttling activity of dFMRP is mediated by a protein-protein interaction domain located at the N-terminus of the protein. This domain is, however, dispensable for the localization of dFMRP in SG. This localization of dFMRP in SG requires the KH and RGG motifs which are known to mediate RNA binding, as well as the C-terminal glutamine/asparagine rich domain. Our studies thus suggest that the mechanisms controlling the recruitment of FMRP into SG and those that promote its shuttling between granules and the cytosol are uncoupled. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the regulated shuttling activity of a SG component between RNA granules and the cytosol.

  13. Retardation effects in induced atomic dipole-dipole interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, S. D.; McGuirk, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    We present mean-field calculations of azimuthally averaged retarded dipole-dipole interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate induced by a laser, at both long and short wavelengths. Our calculations demonstrate that dipole-dipole interactions become significantly stronger at shorter wavelengths, by as much as 30-fold, due to retardation effects. This enhancement, along with the inclusion of the dynamic polarizability, indicate a method of inducing long-range interatomic interactions in neutral atom condensates at significantly lower intensities than previously realized.

  14. Environmental impact of flame retardants (persistence and biodegradability).

    PubMed

    Segev, Osnat; Kushmaro, Ariel; Brenner, Asher

    2009-02-01

    Flame-retardants (FR) are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes.

  15. Fire-Retardant Decorative Inks For Aircraft Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes testing of commercial and experimental fire retardants for incorporation into acrylic printing inks used on aircraft-interior sandwich panels. Films of acrylic ink containing fire-retardant additives prepared by casting on glass plates. Solvent evaporated in vacuum, cast films cured at 80 to 100 degree C for 30 minutes in air-circulating oven. Thermochemical properties of films examined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples of inks cast on sheets of polyvinylfloride (PVF), and their limiting oxygen indices and smoke evolution measured.

  16. The Retarding Potential Analyzer for Dynamics Explorer-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.; Power, R. A.; Lippincott, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. R.; Holt, B. J.; Harmon, L. H.; Sanatani, S.

    1981-01-01

    The Retarding Potential Analyzer for Dynamics Explorer B measures the bulk ion velocity in the direction of the spacecraft motion, the constituent ion concentrations and the ion temperature along the satellite path. These parameters are derived from a least squares fit to the ion number flux versus energy curve obtained by sweeping or stepping the voltage applied to the internal retarding grids of the RPA. In addition, the spectral characteristics of irregularities in the total ion concentration are determined by high time resolution measurements and by use of a comb filter. These data are obtained from a separate wide aperture-sensor.

  17. Medicaid-financed residential care for persons with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lakin, K C; Hall, M J

    1990-12-01

    Two sources of Medicaid support for persons with mental retardation and related conditions (MR/RC) are examined, the intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded (ICF/MR) program and the home and community-based services (HCBS) waiver. Results indicate that Medicaid support through the ICF/MR program has shown little recent growth in terms of number of persons served, although expenditures continue to increase. Medicaid's HCBS waiver is being used increasingly by States to support residential placement because of its greater flexibility and more individualized approach relative to ICF/MR care. Use of Medicaid to finance care for persons with MR/RC varies considerably across States.

  18. Fragile X mental retardation protein and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qurashi, Abrar; Li, Xuekun; Jin, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells, which can self-renew and produce different cell types, are regulated by both extrinsic signals and intrinsic factors. Fragile X syndrome, one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the functional loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is a selective RNA-binding protein that forms a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex that associates with polyribosomes. Recently, the role of Fmrp in stem cell biology has been explored in both Drosophila and the mouse. In this chapter, we discuss the role of FMRP in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells.

  19. A retarding ion mass spectrometer for the Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  20. Detection of 34 plasticizers and 25 flame retardants in indoor air from houses in Sapporo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ikue; Jin, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto

    2014-09-01

    Various plasticizers and flame retardants are contained in building materials and furniture produced for indoor environments. However, some of these material inclusions have been reported to cause endocrine-disrupting and mucosa-irritating effects. Because of the local climate, buildings in Sapporo are better insulated against cold weather than those in many other areas in Japan. In this study, we measured 59 compounds, including plasticizers (phthalates, adipates, and others) and flame retardants (organo-phosphates and brominated compounds), from indoor air samples from six houses in Sapporo. These compounds were measured separately in the gas phase and the particle phase using a two-stage cartridge equipped with a quartz fiber filter (1 μm mesh) and C18 solid-phase extraction disk for sampling and analyzed by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS (for the detection of brominated flame retardants). Among the 59 compounds measured in this study, 34 compounds were detected from the indoor air of the six houses. The highest concentration among the 34 compounds found in a newly built house was 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TXIB) at 20.8 μg/m(3). Di(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)terephthalate (DEHT), which has been used in recent years as an alternative to di(2-ethyl-1-hexyl)phthalate (DEHP), was found in all six houses, although at low concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.027 μg/m(3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of DEHT in indoor air in Japan. Among the compounds detected in this study, those with lower molecular weights tended to be captured in the C18 solid-phase extraction disk rather than in the quartz fiber filter. These results suggest that compounds with higher volatility exist preferentially in the gas phase, whereas compounds with lower volatility exist preferentially in the particulate phase in indoor air.

  1. A method for quantitatively analyzing the angle of direction for arbitral c-axis alignment with retardation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoi, Norihiro; Tanaka, Yasumitsu

    2015-01-01

    c-axis alignment in a polymer or crystal structure has drawn attention in numerous scientific and technological applications, including crystals, thin film growth, electro-optic devices, and phase difference optics. We here demonstrate a new approach based on retardation measurement that can obtain the direction of the c-axis alignment. This is employed to visualize the three-dimensional direction of continuous crystals as a thin optical film utilizing a liquid crystal panel, using retardation analysis equipment with high resolution measurement capability. The direction of the c-axis alignment is shown so as to allow a detailed characterization of the direction perpendicular to the plane. In this analysis, the direction of the c-axis alignment is identified, and differences between molecules at inequivalent sites are quantified. The results suggest that the excellent lubrication properties of the c-axis alignment may be due to a significant localization in lateral directions.

  2. A gene for nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX41) is located in the distal segment of Xq28

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, B.C.J.; Kremer, H.; Helm, B. van den

    1996-07-12

    We report on a family in which non-syndromal mild to moderate mental retardation segregates as an X-linked trait (MRX41). Two point linkage analysis demonstrated linkage between the disorder and marker DXS3 in Xq21.33 with a lod score of 2.56 at {theta} = 0.0 and marker DXS1108 in Xq28 with a lod score of 3.82 at {theta} = 0.0. Multipoint linkage analysis showed that the odds for a location of the gene in Xq28 vs. Xq21.33 are 100:1. This is the fourth family with non-specific X-linked mental retardation with Xq28-qter as the most likely gene localization. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The effectiveness of interpersonal skills training on the social skill acquisition of moderately and mildly retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Bates, P

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen moderately and mildly retarded adults were selected from a group residential facility and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a 12-session interpersonal skills training program consisting of instruction in the following areas: (1) Introduction and Small Talk, (2) Asking for Help, (3) Differing with Others, and (4) Handling Criticism. The social skills instructional package included verbal instruction, modeling, role playing, feedback, contingent incentives, and homework. As a result of this training program, moderately and mildly retarded adults acquired new social skills as evidenced by performance on a situation role play assessment. These gains generalized to untrained role play situations but did not result in significant group differences when assessed in a more natural setting (i.e., local grocery store).

  4. Heads-up: new roles for the fragile X mental retardation protein in neural stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Callan, Matthew A; Zarnescu, Daniela C

    2011-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation and is caused by the loss of function for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), a selective RNA-binding protein with a demonstrated role in the localized translation of target mRNAs at synapses. Several recent studies provide compelling evidence for a new role of FMRP in the development of the nervous system, during neurogenesis. Using a multi-faceted approach and a variety of model systems ranging from cultured neurospheres and progenitor cells to in vivo Drosophila and mouse models these reports indicate that FMRP is required for neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, as well as regulation of gene expression. Here we compare and contrast these recent reports and discuss the implications of FMRP's new role in embryonic and adult neurogenesis, including the development of novel therapeutic approaches to FXS and related neurological disorders such as autism.

  5. The Mentally Retarded and the Law Project CAMIO, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    Reviewed are statutory and case laws affecting arrest, prosecution, and treatment of the mentally retarded (MR) offender as part of Project CAMIO, (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the MR and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which…

  6. Educating Students with Mental Retardation in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; McLeskey, James; Hoppey, David; Rentz, Tarcha

    2006-01-01

    Empirical evidence and federal mandates support the notion that students with mental retardation (MR) should spend some or much of the school day in general education classrooms. This study investigated trends in state-level rates for placing students in different educational settings between 1989-90 and 1999-2000. The research utilized…

  7. Japanese Studies on Attitudes towards Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachibana, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    Review of Japanese studies on attitudes toward persons with mental retardation first notes origins in increased support for special classes in schools. Reported findings focus on items most affecting attitude differences, gender differences, effect of contact, educational differences, and age differences. A unique sociological study in a fishery…

  8. Predicting Adaptive Functioning of Mentally Retarded Persons in Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, John T.; Thompson, Joy C.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of a variety of individual, residential, and community variables on adaptive functioning of 369 retarded persons (18 to 73 years old) was examined using a multiple regression analysis. Individual characteristics (especially IQ) accounted for 21 percent of the variance, while environmental variables, primarily those related to…

  9. Programs and Services Received by Older Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, K. Charlie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A national sample of 370 older persons with mental retardation in 235 facilities (foster care, small group homes, large private facilities, and state-operated facilities) was surveyed. Information is presented on resident characteristics, day program participation, services received, and differences in programs and services by facility type. The…

  10. South Asian Indian Cultural Orientations toward Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The findings of a portion of a 2-year ethnographic study involving North Indian Hindu immigrants living in the mid-Western United States is discussed. These findings illuminate the ways in which participants think and talk about mental retardation, how this linguistic information was obtained, and the cultural context within which participants…

  11. Housekeeping Management Assistant Manual for Training of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation.

    Presented is an instructional guide for teaching mentally retarded persons to become housekeeping assistants. Listed are tasks, objectives, and background information for the following six units: general safety procedures; daily duties (general cleaning, use of supply carts, and bathroom cleaning); laundry procedures (including use of washer and…

  12. "School Retardation" in Mexico from 1920 to 1960: Conceptual Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Josefina Granja

    2012-01-01

    Educational concepts, such as enrolment, attendance, passing or failing students, school retardation, and school desertion, which made it possible to describe the course of children through the school system, went through a gradual process, beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century and throughout the first decades of the twentieth. In…

  13. Standards for Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Presented are standards for residential facilities for the mentally retarded that were developed by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals. The accreditation process is said to have two major objects: setting standards for services and determining the degree to which a specific services complies with the designated standards. The…

  14. Art Therapy to Promote Ego Development in Disturbed Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A.

    The paper discusses the six major ego functions, ego disturbances in mentally retarded children, and case examples of the use of art therapy to promote ego development. Identified are the following ego functions: control and regulation of instinctual drives, autonomous functions, reality testing, object relationships, defense, and synthesis. The…

  15. A CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED PUPILS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Public Schools, MI.

    DESIGNED TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES OF SELF REALIZATION, HUMAN RELATIONSHIP, ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY, AND CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY, THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS IS ORGANIZED INTO FIVE AREAS OF LIVING. THE AREA OF HOME AND FAMILY LIVING INCLUDES THE FAMILY, THE HOME, CHILD CARE AND TRAINING, AND FRIENDS. THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AREA…

  16. Individuals with Mental Retardation from the Perspective of Turkish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güner Yildiz, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the attitude of Turkish people towards the mentally retarded. The working group was composed of 329 male and female staff in various places of employment in Eskisehir provincial center, 87 non-working women living in Eskisehir provincial center and 49 non-working women living in Mugla provincial center. Research…

  17. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…

  18. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  19. Fire-and smoke-retardant polyesters and elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Ingham, J. D.; Lawson, D. D.; Mosesman, M.

    1978-01-01

    Test results indicate that most effective fire-and smoke-retardant fillers are inorganic hydrates and carbonates that release water and/or carbon dioxide. Most effective filler tested was hydrated sodium silicate. Effectiveness is due to high water content and formation of viscous molten glass when heated. Glass tends to inhibit polymer combustion and to promote formation of char residue.

  20. Saran film is fire-retardant in oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, J. T.; Herrera, W. R.

    1968-01-01

    Saran was tested for flammability as a wrapping on TFE-insulated electrical wire bundles in oxygen gas at pressures of 7.5 psia and 14.7 psia. It was found to be fire retardant or self-extinguishing in most instances.

  1. Teaching Mild to Moderately Retarded Students with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Robert

    The paper reviews the literature on use of computers with retarded students in three chapters dealing respectively with the historical context, current issues, and future directions. The chapter on the historical context reviews research on the efficacy of teaching machines with this population. Research on the effectiveness of computer-assisted…

  2. Motor Fitness of Mentally Retarded Boys to National Age Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, D. K.

    The study compared the physical fitness of 65 mentally retarded boys (mean age 14-years, mean IQ 60) at Austin (Texas) State School with national age scales for boys of the same chronological ages on the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation Youth Fitness Test, which measures strength, speed, agility, power,…

  3. Mental Retardation: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Daniel J., Ed.; Myers, Tracy G., Ed.; Hartel, Christine R., Ed.

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides income support and medical benefits for adults with mental retardation unable to perform substantial gainful activity through the Disability Insurance (DI) program and the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. SSI benefits are also provided to families of children and adolescents who evidence…

  4. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes physical, intellectual, and psychological characteristics of members of 29 families (N=129) affected either directly or as carriers of fragile X syndrome (a form of mental retardation). Little correlation was found between tested intellect and frequency of fragile sites on the chromosome. (Author/JW)

  5. Substituting Traditional Antipsychotics with Risperidone for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of risperidone for 10 individuals with mental retardation and mental health disturbances was evaluated using a case study approach to delineate the course of substitution of more traditional antipsychotic medications with risperidone. All participants showed improvement or resolution in side effects attributed to previous medication with…

  6. Musical Aptitude and Adaptive Behavior of People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.; Monroe, Melinda J.

    1990-01-01

    Musical aptitude and behavioral adjustment were assessed in 16 mentally retarded adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills. Evidence of difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, though results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental…

  7. Teaching the Severely Mentally Retarded and Elderly to Stand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auxter, David; And Others

    The study explored behavioral procedures for developing the skill of standing from a chair for a severely mentally retarded 11-year-old nonambulatory girl and an 86-year-old man residing in a nursing home for the elderly. Functional assessment and programing determined the specific instructional needs of each S. A changing criterion design was…

  8. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  9. Arts and Crafts for Use with Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Toni, Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Mentally retarded children of any age. SUBJECT MATTER: Arts and crafts. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into sections according to the material to be used. Section headings are: Paper, Fabrics, Wood, Metal, Nature, Miscellaneous, and Painting. Each section is laid out in three parallel columns, one each…

  10. Language Assessment Tools for Mentally Retarded Adults: Survey and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Joyce M.; Flynn, Pauline T.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys completed by 50 speech/language pathologists at facilities serving mentally retarded adults revealed that a wide array of language assessment instruments were used. The need to examine many commercial tests (developed and standardized on children) for adults is stressed. (CL)

  11. EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED PROJECT, ORANGE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALDEN, ROYCE B.

    PREPARED BY TEACHERS OF THE RETARDED, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE OUTLINES AN ELEMENTARY ACTIVITY UNIT ON HOME AND COMMUNITY LIVING AND A SECONDARY UNIT ON THE CITRUS INDUSTRY. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE LISTED. ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES ON CLASS UNITS, STUDENT PLACEMENT, AND TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS ARE INCLUDED. (MY)

  12. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  13. Preliminary Study of Imipramine in Profoundly Retarded Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of imipramine were assessed in 10 profoundly retarded subjects (aged 8-25 years) who exhibited either depressionlike symptoms or acting out behaviors. Results of observation, interval sampling, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist indicated behavioral deterioration on irritability, lethargy/social withdrawal, and hyperactivity…

  14. Administrative Issues in Institutions for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles C.; Swartz, Jon D.

    Designed primarily for administrators of both public and private institutions for the mentally retarded, the volume offers guidelines for coping with three areas of modification of institutional image, daily operational problems concerning manpower and equipment, and future demands upon institutions. Brief exercises following some of the readings…

  15. The Memory-Metamemory Connection in Retarded and Nonretarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukose, Sara

    Twenty mildly mentally retarded students were matched with two groups of normal students, one of the same chronological age (CA) and one of the same mental age (MA), to examine the influence of age indices and metamemory on memory behavior in terms of recall accuracy and recall time. This was achieved using a metamemory instrument which was…

  16. Space for the Mentally Retarded in South Dakota. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Health, Pierre. Mental Retardation Planning Office.

    The 10 priority recommendations for aiding the mentally retarded in South Dakota are presented. Summaries are provided of recommendations for federal and state legislative action and for state agencies, communities, state medical and hospital associations, and private organizations. The State and the method of planning are discussed; mental…

  17. Motivation, Vocational Interests and Job Satisfaction of Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Shunit; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Relationship between vocational interests of 83 mildly to moderately retarded adults, their work and factors they perceived as the most important motivators for them at work and job satisfaction were investigated. Results demonstrate the importance of considering vocational interests and of the environment in influencing mentally retarded…

  18. Quantitative Assessments of Sensitivity to Reinforcement Contingencies in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies was examined in six individuals with mental retardation using a concurrent operants procedure in the context of a computer game. Results included individual differences in sensitivity and differential sensitivity to rate and magnitude variation. Results suggest that comprehensive assessments of potential…

  19. Reducing Barriers to Sex Education for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Cristy F.; Benner, Susan M.

    1993-01-01

    Opinions of professionals from 16 agencies were obtained to identify techniques that agencies serving adults or adolescents with mental retardation could utilize to provide systematic sex education and counseling. Recommendations are offered in five areas: self-advocacy and self-determination, individual design, staff training and support,…

  20. Teaching and Training Relevant Community Skills to Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the major developments in teaching and training relevant community skills to mentally retarded persons. The following adaptive skills are discussed: (1) toilet use and bed wetting; (2) eating, dressing, and personal hygiene; (3) community survival; and (4) vocational and social skills. (BJV)

  1. Behavioral Coping Styles of Mentally Retarded and Learning Disabled Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II

    The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…

  2. Acceleration of Object Permanence with Severely and Profoundly Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, James V.

    Examined was the effectiveness of training four severely and profoundly retarded children (3-6 years old) to improve their level of functioning on a measure of object permanence and to demonstrate generalization to other areas of sensorimotor intelligence. Ss were given a pretest and posttest on the I. Uzgiris and J. Hunt instrument which consists…

  3. Music Training for Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Buford; Richmond, Bert O.

    Investigated were the effects of sex, ability and training method on the musical instrument playing ability of 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded persons ages 7 to 20 years. Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, and the time required to reach criterion playing a familiar tune was recorded. Data indicated…

  4. Practitioner Review: Psychopharmacology in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Gilchrist, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The use of psychotropic medication to treat children and adults with mental retardation (MR) has a long and extensive history. There are no identified medications to address specific cognitive deficits among persons with MR. Instead, psychotropic medications are used to treat specific behavioral symptoms and/or psychiatric syndromes.…

  5. Cognitive Patterns of "Retarded" and Below-Average Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che K.

    1980-01-01

    The cognitive patterns of 58 "retarded" and 38 below-average readers were compared with controls, according to Luria's simultaneous and successive modes of information processing. Factor Analysis showed different cognitive patterns for disabled and nondisabled readers. Reading skills, rather than cognitive ability, were shown to be…

  6. Phosphorus Containing Flame Retardants and Their Textile Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we discuss the new challenge phosphorus containing flame retardant compounds and the properties for covalently bonded cotton’s surface. We showed the design, synthesis, and characterization of (2-methyl-oxiranylmethyl)-phosphonic acid dimethyl ester and [2-(dimethoxy-phosphorylmethyl)...

  7. The Concept of Death in Preoperational Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternlicht, Manny

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen preoperational retarded boys and girls were interviewed for their concepts of death. Subjects did not have realistic concepts of when they would die, or of the permanence of death, but did have knowledge of how things die. Types of replies subjects made were significantly related to subjects' cognitive level. (Author/RH)

  8. Electrical power generation from salinity gradients using pressure retarded osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, A.F.; Yourstone, W.H.

    1983-08-01

    The use of a pressure retarded osmosis system (PRO) to generate electricity form naturally available or artificially generated salt is described. Variations in overall system efficiency are analyzed in terms of freshwater and brine flow rates, fluid pressure levels, and membrane permeability. It is shown that the PRO system is economically competitive with other alternative energy systems.

  9. Incidental Teaching of Mentally Retarded Students within a Token System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabry, Bernard D; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Six mentally retarded students (12-22 years old) were taught to name sight words during token-exchange periods of a token-reinforcement system. Sequential teaching of new sets of sight words via a multiple-baseline design evaluated the procedure. Five of the 6 students acquired sight-word vocabularies. Data support the educational use of…

  10. Attention and Concentration in Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Thomas W.

    Evaluated was the effectiveness of the TAC (Training in Attention and Concentration) Program with seven trainable retarded persons, 8- to 20-years-old. Pre- and posttest data were obtained on the Maze-trial test, a picture discrimination test, buttons test, and object sort test. The TAC Program consisted of 10 structured lessons on such tasks as…

  11. Features of Autism in Rett Syndrome and Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Rebecca H.; Charman, Tony; Hastings, Richard P.; Reilly, Sheena; Cass, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    The Autism Behavior Checklist measured autistic symptoms in 15 girls (ages 11-16) with Rett Syndrome (RS) and 14 with severe mental retardation. Girls with RS scored higher on the Sensory and Relating subscales. There were no differences on the Body and Object Use, Language, and Social and Self-Help subscales. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  12. New Neighbors: The Retarded Citizen in Quest of a Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherington, Carolyn, Ed.; Dybwad, Gunnar, Ed.

    The philosophical and practical aspects of the retarded citizen's need for a home in the community are discussed in 14 author contributed chapters dealing with people and communities, rights and independence, home and community, services and communities, and action and advocacy. Chapters cover the following topics: "Community Life and Individual…

  13. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Young Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2003-01-01

    Young adults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…

  14. International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Jean, Ed.

    Proceedings from the International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes are provided. After a list of participants and summary of the highlights of the conference, the keynote address by H. Moser is presented. The following 13 papers are provided along with workshop recommendations and a list of main points elicited…

  15. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  16. Novelty and Familiarity as Redundant Cues in Retardate Discrimination Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Daryl B.

    1976-01-01

    Forty retarded children, a Low Mental Age (MA) Group (mean MA 3-3 years) and a High MA Group (mean MA 5-7 years) were trained on 120 different two-choice visual discrimination problems. Initial performance differences were interpreted as a differential preference for novel and familiar stimuli. (JH)

  17. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  18. Services and Provisions for Persons with Mental Retardation in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Lennar

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on recent legislation providing special services and provisions for mentally retarded persons in Sweden. The paper describes the legislation's goal in normalizing their lives, the types of residential placements available, their educational and vocational activities, and their mental health problems. (JDD)

  19. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of the flame retardant TBPH or ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers as flame retardants in consumer products has been scrutinized increasingly due to their environmental persistence and potential toxicity; however, alternative replacement flame retardants may have similar drawbacks. The alternative brominated flame retardant bis(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) is a component of several commercial flame retardants, including Firemaster® 550, Firemaster® BZ-54 and DP-45. Here we investigate the bioaccumulation, bioenergetics and other adverse outcomes pathways (AOPs) predicted for dietary exposure to a carrier control, two levels of TBPH, or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153, a well-studied compound acting as a positive control for some aspects of the study). The TBPH concentrations chosen were at or well above the environmental concentrations documented in the literature, but similar to those causing toxicity in a previous study. Our experimental model is a small estuarine fish, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), exposed as individually tagged fish held in small groups (2 male, 2 female) in replicate tanks and fed contaminated food from day 0-28, followed by uncontaminated food from day 29-42. Throughout the experiment, individual growth was measured weekly, and at various time points, fish from replicate tanks were sacrificed, measured and dissected. To support putative AOPs, samples were obtained for analysis of hormone levels and transcriptomic responses

  20. Validation of a Weight Reduction Treatment Package for the Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

    Five studies are reviewed which indicated the effectiveness on weight loss by mentally retarded persons of a treatment program stressing self control. The intervention included procedures which increased the dieter's self awareness of overeating behavior patterns and body weight, reduced food cues, reduced eating rates, increased activity level…

  1. Innovative green technique for preparing of flame retardant cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, microwave-assisted or supercritical carbon dioxide high pressure reactors are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric ...

  2. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L. W.; Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Using the field emission retarding potential method true work functions have been measured for the following monocrystalline substrates: W(110), W(111), W(100), Nb(100), Ni(100), Cu(100), Ir(110) and Ir(111). The electron elastic and inelastic reflection coefficients from several of these surfaces have also been examined near zero primary beam energy.

  3. PBDE FLAME RETARDANTS: TOXICOLOGY, HEALTH EFFECTS, AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been routinely added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Global production of PBDEs has reached 67,000 metric tons per year. Recently concer...

  4. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    A clinical population of 39 families affected by fragile X syndrome, a sex-linked form of mental retardation, is described. Physical aspects, including such common features as prominent jaw and simple ears, are noted along with psychological aspects such as different mean IQs among various age groups. Findings of intellectual evaluation did not…

  5. A Job Retention Model for Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This structured literature review examines the literature and addresses issues of job retention for adult workers with moderate to mild mental retardation (MR), investigating the relationships between work-related social behaviors, self-determination, person-job congruency of individuals with MR, and their job performance and job satisfaction with…

  6. Families of Children with Mental Retardation: Effective Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…

  7. Mainstreaming: Educable Mentally Retarded Children in Regular Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Jack W.

    Described in the monograph are mainstreaming programs for educable mentally retarded (EMR) children in six variously sized school districts within five states. It is noted that mainstreaming is based on the principle of educating most children in the regular classroom and providing special education on the basis of learning needs rather than…

  8. Mental Retardation: Topics of Today--Issues of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The monograph examines issues affecting the future of handicapped people generally, and mentally retarded people specifically. E. Meyen introduces the volume and describes how the issues were identified. H. Turnbull and P. Barber, in "Perspectives on Public Policy," discuss such issues as defederalization, redefinition of handicaps, and…

  9. Recreation's Role in the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L., Ed.

    The monograph presents the proceedings from a conference sponsored by the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation of the University of Oregon (held May 19-21, 1969). Topics concerning recreation's role in the rehabilitation of the mentally handicapped include the following: the role of therapeutic recreation specialists,…

  10. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  11. Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Warren, Steven F., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents strategies for teaching students with mental retardation. An introduction by Robert A. Gable and Steven F. Warren titled "The Enduring Value of Instructional Research" reviews problems besetting special education instructional research and outlines the papers' approach to the field from both an empirical research…

  12. Behavior Disorders in Persons with Mental Retardation Receiving Antipsychotic Medication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Yoshiro

    1998-01-01

    The behavior disorders of 54 Japanese individuals with mental retardation receiving antipsychotic medication were compared to 52 subjects receiving anticonvulsants and 202 subjects without medication. Results found the problem behaviors of subjects receiving antipsychotic drugs were more severe and severity of disability was associated with higher…

  13. Teaching Moderately Mentally Retarded Children Basic Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoogeveen, Frans R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Four moderately mentally retarded students, aged 8-13, were instructed in a basic skills reading program which emphasized a phonemic alphabet, pictorial cueing, and stimulus manipulation techniques. The training improved the Dutch students' ability to read one- and two-syllable words, and was generalizable to untrained words of the same…

  14. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  15. Mental Retardation FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The paper reviews mental retardation research activities of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD) and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS). Research activities are cited to illustrate the scope of NICHHD's efforts in a variety of biomedial areas. Activities are…

  16. Varieties of Repetitive Behavior in Autism: Comparisons to Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodfish, James W.; Symons, Frank J.; Parker, Dawn E.; Lewis, Mark H.

    2000-01-01

    A study compared specific repetitive behaviors in 32 adults with autism with 34 controls with mental retardation. The occurrence of each behavior category, except dyskinesias, was higher in individuals with autism and they showed a greater number of topographies of stereotypy and compulsions. Repetitive behavior severity also predicated autism…

  17. PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CENTERWALL, WILLARD R.; CENTERWALL, SIEGRIED A.

    ADDRESSED TO PUBLIC HEALTH WORKERS AND PHYSICIANS IN GENERAL PRACTICE, THE PAMPHLET INTRODUCES METHODS OF DETECTING AND MANAGING PHENYLKETONURIA, AN INHERITED METABOLIC DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH MENTAL RETARDATION. INFORMATION, UPDATED FROM THE 1961 EDITION, IS INCLUDED ON THE INCIDENCE AND GENETICS, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND CLINICAL COURSE OF THE…

  18. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  19. Teaching the Retarded Visually Handicapped; Indeed They Are Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluhm, Donna L.

    Guidelines for a program of instruction with individual teaching for retarded blind children are provided. Areas covered are living skills, handwork, learning through music, reading readiness, recognition of the braille alphabet, mathematics, science, social studies, self expression and creativity, recreation, and suggested poetry and songs. Five…

  20. Automation in Vocational Training of the Mentally Retarded. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Henry; And Others

    Various uses of automation in teaching were studied with mentally retarded (IQ 70 to 90) and/or emotionally disturbed (IQ 80 to 90) youth aged 16 to 20. Programed instruction was presented by six audiovisual devices and techniques: the Devereux Model 50 Teaching Aid, the Learn-Ease Teaching Device, the Mast Teaching Machine, the Graflex…

  1. Psychomotor retardation - an unusual association of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans.

    PubMed

    Masood, Q; Manzoor, S; Hassan, I; Majid, I

    2000-01-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is one of a group of related disorders that shows keratosis pilaris with inflammation followed by atrophy. Here we report a case of this relatively rare disorder in a 6-year old boy who had associated psychomotor retardation.

  2. Everyday Cognition among Mildly Mentally Retarded Adults: An Ethnographic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Harold G.; Langness, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    Results of participant-observation techniques used to study the everyday cognition and problem-solving process in marketing tasks defined and organized by mildly mentally retarded adults, revealed five "composites" of strategic behavior. An association between composite and early life experiences was also shown. (Author/CL)

  3. Editorial: Trends in Mental Retardation in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowitz, Louis

    1989-01-01

    Issues in mental retardation to be addressed in the next decade include homogenization of disabilities, aging of the population, increasing information and research needs, diagnosis, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, legal and ethical problems, caregiving, adolescent care, health care delivery, lifelong disabilities, vocational opportunities,…

  4. Work Status Trends for People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Dana Scott; Butterworth, John

    1997-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes evidence on the work status of successful rehabilitations/closures for people with mental retardation in light of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992, which strengthened the focus of state vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs on community employment outcomes. Data analyzed were drawn from the Rehabilitation…

  5. Molecular Genetic Approaches to Human Diseases Involving Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latt, Samuel A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Recombinant DNA techniques provide new approaches to the diagnosis and analysis of inherited human diseases associated with mental retardation, such as Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, phenylketonauria, the Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and those associated with deletions or duplications of subchromosomal regions. (Author/CL)

  6. Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genetic Issues in Mental Retardation, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first six issues of a newsletter, which discusses current knowledge about and concerns related to genetics and mental retardation. The second issue addresses the problem of genetic discrimination. The third issue considers genetic testing, screening, and counseling. The fourth issue addresses genetic privacy issues.…

  7. The Participant-Observer Approach to Research in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    Participant-observation which calls for long-term immersion in the world of the persons being studied yet disciplined detachment from that world, allows investigators to learn how mentally retarded people a actually behave in a variety of contexts and to grasp the meaning these activities have for them. (Author/CL)

  8. Teaching Computation/Shopping Skills to Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Long, Sue

    1986-01-01

    Three moderately/mildly retarded adults were trained in adaptive community skills. Treatment involved instructions, performance feedback, social reinforcement, in-vivo modeling, self-evaluation, and social and tangible reinforcement. Rapid and dramatic improvements occurred soon after treatment began. Skills generalized to other shopping…

  9. 2. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING CONVEYOR (RIGHT), WITH LOADING ROOM (LEFT), SCREENING ROOM (LEFT CENTER), AND COAL STORAGE SILO (BACKGROUND), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  10. 3. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING CONVEYOR (LEFT), WITH SCREENING ROOM (CENTER), AND COAL STORAGE SILO (RIGHT), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  11. 9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR, DETAIL OF RETARDING CONVEYOR, SHOWING CAST IRON BUTTONS AND STEEL ROPE IN UPPER TROUGH IN CONVEYOR HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH; NOTE STEEL PLATES LINING WOODEN TROUGH - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  12. Establishment of Symbolic Communication in Persons with Severe Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romski, Mary Ann; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three of four severely retarded adolescents and young adults learned to use computer-based lexigrams to request foods and, subsequently, objects. Additional request experience with lexigrams resulted in consistent improvement on labeling and comprehension tasks, emergence of subject-initiated lexigram communications, and facilitation of spoken…

  13. 75 FR 28778 - Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan... Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, Arizona. FOR FURTHER... needed for this project. The project proposes to rehabilitate the Magma FRS to provide for...

  14. Family, Environmental and Developmental Variables in Mental Retardation: A Multi-Dimensional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, Dietrich

    1982-01-01

    To assess the mental abilities of mentally retarded children, 100 tests were tried out on more than 350 German Ss and the TBGB ("Test-batterie fur geistig behinderte Kinder"Test battery for mentally retarded children") was developed. (SW)

  15. Attentional Habituation and Mental Retardation. A Theoretical Interpretation of MA and IQ Differences in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furby, Lita

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical proposal is offered concerning individual differences in cognitive processes. The focus is on mental retardation and the comparative problem-solving performance of 'normal' and 'retarded' children. (Author/CS)

  16. Self-Image in Adolescents with Delayed Puberty and Growth Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apter, Alan; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Adolescents with varying combinations of pubertal delay and growth retardation were given the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. Delay in sexual maturation by itself had no deleterious effect on self-image but growth retardation did. (Author/GK)

  17. Hypothesis-testing from a limited set: an example of mentally retarded subjects outperforming college subjects.

    PubMed

    Spitz, H H; Carroll, J G; Johnson, S J

    1975-05-01

    By making a discrimination problem's solution equivalent to an hypothesis (response alternation) known to be more dominant in retarded subjects than college students, superior performance by retarded subjects can be accurately predicted.

  18. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  19. Linkage mapping of a severe X-linked mental retardation syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Malmgren, H.; Sundvall, M.; Steen-Bondeson, M.L.; Pettersson, U. ); Dahl, N. University Hospital, Uppsala ); Gustavson, K.H.; Anneren, G.; Wadelius, C. )

    1993-06-01

    A four-generation Swedish family with a new type of X-linked mental retardation syndrome was recently reported by Gustavson et al. The complex syndrome includes microcephaly, severe mental retardation, optical atrophy with decreased vision or blindness, severe hearing defect, characteristic facial features, spasticity, seizures, and restricted joint motility. The patients die during infancy or early in childhood. Twenty-one family members, including two affected males, were available for study. Linkage analysis was conducted in the family by using 11 RFLP markers and 10 VNTR markers spread along the X chromosome. A hypervariable short tandem repeat of DXS294 at Xq26 showed a peak two-point lod score of 3.35 at zero recombination fraction. Calculations using the same markers revealed a multipoint peak lod score of 3.65 at DXS294. Crossover events with the centromeric marker DXS424 and the telomeric marker DXS297 delimit a probable region for the gene localization. It is noteworthy that the disease loci of two other syndromes with overlapping clinical manifestations recently were shown by Turner et al. and Pettigrew et al. to be linked to markers at Xq26. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Process for spinning flame retardant elastomeric compositions. [fabricating synthetic fibers for high oxygen environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions comprised of either spandex type polyurethane having halogen containing polyols incorporated into the polymer chain, conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture with flame retardant additives, or fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives were developed. Methods are described for preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials and manufactured articles as well as nonelastic materials such as polybenzimidazoles, fiberglass, and nylons, for high oxygen environments.

  1. Neurotoxicity and risk assessment of brominated and alternative flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Hester S; Westerink, Remco H S

    2015-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widely used chemicals that prevent or slow the onset and spreading of fire. Unfortunately, many of these compounds pose serious threats for human health and the environment, indicating an urgent need for safe(r) and less persistent alternative flame retardants (AFRs). As previous research identified the nervous system as a sensitive target organ, the neurotoxicity of past and present flame retardants is reviewed. First, an overview of the neurotoxicity of BFRs in humans and experimental animals is provided, and some common in vitro neurotoxic mechanisms of action are discussed. The combined epidemiological and toxicological studies clearly underline the need for replacing BFRs. Many potentially suitable AFRs are already in use, despite the absence of a full profile of their environmental behavior and toxicological properties. To prioritize the suitability of some selected halogenated and non-halogenated organophosphorous flame retardants and inorganic halogen-free flame retardants, the available neurotoxic data of these AFRs are discussed. The suitability of the AFRs is rank-ordered and combined with human exposure data (serum concentrations, breast milk concentrations and house dust concentrations) and physicochemical properties (useful to predict e.g. bioavailability and persistence in the environment) for a first semi-quantitative risk assessment of the AFRs. As can be concluded from the reviewed data, several BFRs and AFRs share some neurotoxic effects and modes of action. Moreover, the available neurotoxicity data indicate that some AFRs may be suitable substitutes for BFRs. However, proper risk assessment is hampered by an overall scarcity of data, particularly regarding environmental persistence, human exposure levels, and the formation of breakdown products and possible metabolites as well as their toxicity. Until these data gaps in environmental behavioral and toxicological profiles are filled, large scale use of

  2. Ventricular ejection force in growth-retarded fetuses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Capponi, A; Rinaldo, D; Arduini, D; Romanini, C

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether in growth-retarded fetuses secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency the cardiac ventricles exert a force different from that of appropriately grown fetuses. Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed in 156 appropriately grown fetuses (gestational age 18-38 weeks) and in 72 growth-retarded fetuses (gestational age 24-36 weeks) free from structural and chromosomal abnormalities and characterized by Doppler changes in the umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery suggesting uteroplacental insufficiency as the most likely etiology of the growth defect. Right and left ventricular ejection force values were calculated from velocity waveforms recorded at the level of aortic and pulmonary valves, according to Newton's second law of motion. In appropriately grown fetuses, left and right ventricular ejection force values significantly increased with advancing gestation and the two ventricles exerted similar force. In growth-retarded fetuses, the ventricular ejection force was significantly and symmetrically decreased in both ventricles. Among growth-retarded fetuses, a poorer perinatal outcome was observed in those fetuses in which the ejection force of both ventricles was below the 5th centile of the normal limits for gestation. In 12 growth-retarded fetuses followed longitudinally during the last week preceding intrauterine death or Cesarean section due to antepartum heart-rate late decelerations, a significant decrease of ejection force was found in both ventricles. Finally, a significant relationship was found between the severity of acidosis and right and left ventricular ejection force values in 22 fetuses in which Doppler recordings were performed immediately before cordocentesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Organophosphate flame retardants and plasticisers in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J; Bester, K

    2004-07-01

    Previous studies have revealed that chlorinated and non-chlorinated organophosphorous flame retardants and plasticisers are important contaminants in German surface waters and it has been demonstrated that wastewater treatment plants contribute to the emission of these substances. In this study temporal development as well as elimination efficiency were determined in two wastewater treatment plants (STP) in the Ruhr/Rhine area at different stages of the wastewater treatment process. The samples were analysed for the non-chlorinated organophosphate esters tri-n-butylphosphate (TnBP), tri-iso-butylphosphate (TiBP), tris-(butoxyethyl)-phosphate (TBEP) and triphenylphosphate (TPP) and the chlorinated organophosphate esters tris-(2-chloro, 1-methylethyl)-phosphate (TCPP), tris-(2-chloro-, 1-chloromethylethyl)-phosphate (TDCP) and tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP). The study showed that there were significant differences in the elimination of chlorinated and non-chlorinated organophosphorous flame retardants. The elimination rates ranged from 57-86% for TiBP, TnBP and TBEP at both STP's. No elimination of the chlorinated flame retardants TCPP, TDCP and TCEP was observed in any of the sampled STPs. At both STPs the first treatment steps and the final filtration did not contribute to the elimination of the non-chlorinated organophosphorous flame retardants while the aeration step did. At both STPs the efficiency of the cleaning process concerning the flame retardants was comparable. Thus the type of construction of the STP was not relevant for the elimination of these substances. Additionally a strong day-to-day variation was observed, while in one STP a temporal trend for TCPP during the week was found.

  4. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  5. The Hearing Impaired Mentally/Retarded: A Survey of State Institutions for the Retarded. Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, A. Clark; And Others

    Reported is a survey of state institutions for the mentally handicapped in which information about hearing imparied mentally handicapped HI/MH persons was solicited. Existing data on hearing impairment and mental retardation, its diagnosis and related programing are reviewed briefly. It is explained that 158 of 212 surveyed institutions (75…

  6. Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

  7. Part I. improve flame retardant textile. Part II. novel approach layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textile.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical rea...

  8. Mental Retardation: The Known and the Unknown. Information as of February 1, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation deals with three goal areas: minimum occurrence of disability, adequate and humane service systems, and assurance of full citizenship for the retarded. Considered in an initial section are the background, definition, prevalence, and incidence of mental retardation. Reviewed is research…

  9. Mental Retardation Activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, January 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    The report describes the current mental retardation activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW). Discussed in the introductory section are the coordination of mental retardation programs and the categories of mental retardation activities of the Department: preventive services, basic and supportive services, training of…

  10. Koppitz errors on the Bender-Gestalt for adult retardates: normative data.

    PubMed

    Andert, J N; Dinning, W D; Hustak, T L

    1976-04-01

    Normative data on the Koppitz developmental scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt test were derived from a sample which included 510 protocols of adult resident retardates. Percentile norms are presented on Koppitz error scores for three AAMD ranges of retardation based on WAIS IQs and two AAMD ranges of retardation based on Stanford-Binet IQs.

  11. MOTHERS OF RETARDED CHILDREN, HOW THEY FEEL, WHERE THEY FIND HELP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EHLERS, WALTER H.

    THE RESEARCH STUDY INVESTIGATED HOW MOTHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN PERCEIVED THE RETARDATION, HOW THEY MADE DECISIONS IN SEEKING AND USING HELP, AND HOW THEY REACTED TO AND VALUED SERVICES RENDERED. THE 24 SUBJECTS WERE MOTHERS WHOSE RETARDED CHILDREN WERE CLASSIFIED BRAIN INJURED (INCLUDING MONGOLOID), HAD IQ'S BELOW 54, AND WERE LESS THAN…

  12. Weight Survey on Adult Persons with Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of underweight and obesity were investigated in 282 mentally retarded persons living on the West Coast of Norway. Data collected in this survey suggest that people with severe mental retardation were more likely to be underweight and people with mild mental retardation were more likely to be obese. Compared to persons of average…

  13. The Effects on Motor Performance of Setting an Overt Level of Aspiration by Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Bill

    This study investigates the effects of setting an overt level of aspiration on the standing long jump performance of mildly and moderately retarded institutionalized children. Thirty-three mildly retarded and seven moderately retarded students were randomly assigned to either an overt level of aspiration (OLA) group or a control group. Each…

  14. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Desmond J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  15. Creating a Technology Toolkit for Students with Mental Retardation: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Phil; Wojcik, Brian W.

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC) of the United States issued a position statement stating that assistive technology (AT) could be a useful tool for individuals with mental retardation. The Division on Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities of the Council for Exceptional Children published a position statement…

  16. The Establishment of Learned Reinforcers in Mildly Retarded Children. IMRID Behavioral Science Monograph No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, John C., Jr.

    Research regarding the establishment of learned reinforcement with mildly retarded children is reviewed. Noted are findings which indicate that educable retarded students, possibly due to cultural differences, are less responsive to social rewards than either nonretarded or more severely retarded children. Characteristics of primary and secondary…

  17. Assessing the Progress of Moderately Retarded Students in Applied Academic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiduson, Sandra; Mitacek, Barbara

    The Assessment Tool for Moderately Retarded Students in Academic Skills (1978) is designed for moderately retarded students (5-21 years) and mildly retarded students (3-14 years) who will be living in sheltered home and work settings. The assessment tool is based on a life centered curricular model concerned with developing--in a sequential…

  18. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  19. Local unit invariance, back-reacting tractors and the cosmological constant problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Waldron, A.

    2012-02-01

    When physics is expressed in a way that is independent of local choices of unit systems, Riemannian geometry is replaced by conformal geometry. Moreover masses become geometric, appearing as Weyl weights of tractors (conformal multiplets of fields necessary to keep local unit invariance manifest). The relationship between these weights and masses is through the scalar curvature. As a consequence mass terms are spacetime dependent for off-shell gravitational backgrounds, but happily constant for physical, Einstein manifolds. Unfortunately this introduces a naturalness problem because the scalar curvature is proportional to the cosmological constant. By writing down tractor stress tensors (multiplets built from the standard stress tensor and its first and second derivatives), we show how back-reaction solves this naturalness problem. We also show that classical back-reaction generates an interesting potential for scalar fields. We speculate that a proper description of how physical systems couple to scale, could improve our understanding of naturalness problems caused by the disparity between the particle physics and observed, cosmological constants. We further give some ideas how an ambient description of tractor calculus could lead to a Ricci-flat/CFT correspondence which generalizes the AdS side of Maldacena's duality to a Ricci-flat space of one higher dimension.

  20. Apelin retards the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Day, Robert T; Cavaglieri, Rita C; Feliers, Denis

    2013-03-15

    Apelin and its receptor APJ have pleiotropic effects in mice and humans and play a protective role in cardiovascular diseases at least partially by inhibiting oxidative stress. Our objective was to study the effect of apelin on the progression of kidney disease in mice with established type 1 diabetes. Ove26 mice with type 1 diabetes received daily subcutaneous injections of apelin for 2 or 14 wk. APJ localizes in the glomeruli and blood vessels of kidneys. Renal APJ expression was reduced in diabetic mice but increased after treatment with apelin. Apelin treatment did not affect glycemia, body weight, or blood pressure in diabetic mice. Whole kidney and glomerular hypertrophy, as well as renal inflammation, including monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression, NF-κB activation, and monocyte infiltration, was inhibited after short and long treatment with apelin. Apelin administration significantly reduced albuminuria at 6 mo. Short treatment with apelin was sufficient to reverse the downregulation of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Expression of angiotensin II and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1) in kidneys from diabetic mice treated was not affected by apelin. These findings show for the first time that apelin exerts a protective effect on the diabetic kidney. Short administration is sufficient to reduce kidney and glomerular hypertrophy as well as renal inflammation, but prolonged treatment is required to improve albuminuria. This effect was independent of the activation of the renin angiotensin system but correlated with upregulation of the antioxidant catalase. Apelin may represent a novel tool to treat diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of green flame retardant cellulosic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totolin, Vladimir

    The natural fiber-containing fabrics and composites are more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation (automobiles, aerospace), military applications, construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards), consumer products, etc. Therefore, the flammability characteristics of the composites based on polymers and natural fibers play an important role. This dissertation presents the development of plasma assisted - green flame retardant coatings for cellulosic substrates. The overall objective of this work was to generate durable flame retardant treatment on cellulosic materials. In the first approach sodium silicate layers were pre-deposited onto clean cotton substrates and cross linked using low pressure, non-equilibrium oxygen plasma. A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the plasma parameters. The modified cotton samples were tested for flammability using an automatic 45° angle flammability test chamber. Aging tests were conducted to evaluate the coating resistance during the accelerated laundry technique. The samples revealed a high flame retardant behavior and good thermal stability proved by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In the second approach flame retardant cellulosic materials have been produced using a silicon dioxide (SiO2) network coating. SiO 2 network armor was prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), prior coating the substrates, and was cross linked on the surface of the substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) technique. Due to protection effects of the SiO2 network armor, the cellulosic based fibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties and improved flame retardancy. In the third approach, the TEOS/APP treatments were extended to linen fabrics. The thermal analysis showed a higher char content and a strong endothermic process of the treated samples compared with control ones, indicating a good thermal stability. Also, the surface analysis proved

  2. Post-fire surface water quality: comparison of fire retardant versus wildfire-related effects.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Robert L; Timmenga, Hubert J; Barber, Timothy R; Fuchsman, Phyllis C

    2006-02-01

    An understanding of the environmental effects of the use of wildland fire retardant is needed to provide informed decision-making regarding forest management. We compiled data from all post-fire surface water monitoring programs where the fire retardant constituents ammonia, phosphorus, and cyanide were measured, and data were available in the public domain. For streams near four major wildfires, we evaluated whether these chemicals originated primarily from fire or from retardant use. We compared measured concentrations in streams where chemical wildland fire retardant was applied with concentrations in streams draining areas where retardant was not used. Correlations with calcium provided an additional line of evidence, because calcium concentrations in ash are much higher than in retardant. Ammonia, phosphorus, and total cyanide were found in streams in burned areas where retardant was not used, at concentrations similar to those found in areas where retardant was applied. Concentrations of weak acid dissociable cyanide were generally non-detected or very low, whether or not wildland fire retardant was used in the watershed. These results indicate that the application of wildland fire retardant had minimal effects on proximate surface water quality. Cyanide concentrations in post-fire stormwater runoff were not affected by the presence of ferrocyanide in the retardant formulas and were due to pyrogenic sources.

  3. Reducing severe diurnal bruxism in two profoundly retarded females.

    PubMed Central

    Blount, R L; Drabman, R S; Wilson, N; Stewart, D

    1982-01-01

    Several diurnal audible teeth grinding (bruxism) was found to affect 21.5% of a profoundly retarded population. However, no previous research has treated bruxism in retarded individuals. In the current study a multiple baseline across subjects design was used to assess the effectiveness of contingent "icing," brief contingent tactile applications of ice, as a treatment for bruxism. Three 15-minute treatment periods and two 5-minute generalization periods were conducted 5 days per week. One resident displayed a 95% reduction in the percentage of intervals during which bruxism occurred during treatment periods and a 67% reduction during generalization periods. The other resident displayed a 94% reduction in the percentage of intervals during which bruxism occurred during treatment periods and a 53% reduction during generalization periods. PMID:6891381

  4. Environmental Impact of Flame Retardants (Persistence and Biodegradability)

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Osnat; Kushmaro, Ariel; Brenner, Asher

    2009-01-01

    Flame-retardants (FR) are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes. PMID:19440395

  5. Liquid-crystal variable retarders for aerospace polarimetry applications.

    PubMed

    Heredero, R L; Uribe-Patarroyo, N; Belenguer, T; Ramos, G; Sánchez, A; Reina, M; Pillet, V Martínez; Alvarez-Herrero, A

    2007-02-10

    We present the optical effects of different tests that simulate the aerospace environment on the liquid-crystal variable retarders (LCVRs) used in the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment postfocal instrument of the SUNRISE payload within the NASA Long Duration Balloon program. Analysis of the influence of vacuum, temperature, vibration, and gamma and ultraviolet radiation is performed by measuring the effects of these tests on the optical retardance, the response time, the wavefront distortion, and the transmittance, including some in situ measurements. Outgassing measurements of the different parts of the LCVRs are also shown. From the results obtained it can be concluded that these optical devices are suitable and seem to be excellent candidates for aerospace platforms.

  6. Efficient composite broadband polarization retarders and polarization filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova, E.; Ivanov, S. S.; Popkirov, G.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    A new type of broadband polarization half-wave retarder and narrowband polarization filters are described and experimentally tested. Both, the retarders and the filters are designed as composite stacks of standard optical half-wave plates, each of them twisted at specific angles. The theoretical background of the proposed optical devices was obtained by analogy with the method of composite pulses, known from the nuclear and quantum physics. We show that combining two composite filters built from different numbers and types of waveplates, the transmission spectrum is reduced from about 700 nm to about 10 nm width.We experimentally demonstrate that this method can be applied to different types of waveplates (broadband, zero-order, multiple order, etc.).

  7. Graphene phosphonic acid as an efficient flame retardant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jung; Jeon, In-Yup; Seo, Jeong-Min; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2014-03-25

    We report the preparation of graphene phosphonic acid (GPA) via a simple and versatile method and its use as an efficient flame retardant. In order to covalently attach phosphorus to the edges of graphene nanoplatelets, graphite was ball-milled with red phosphorus. The cleavage of graphitic C-C bonds during mechanochemical ball-milling generates reactive carbon species, which react with phosphorus in a sealed ball-mill crusher to form graphene phosphorus. Subsequent opening of the crusher in air moisture leads to violent oxidation of graphene phosphorus into GPA (highest oxidation state). The GPA is readily dispersible in many polar solvents, including neutral water, allowing for solution (spray) coating for high-performance, nontoxic flame-retardant applications.

  8. Training mentally retarded adolescents to brush their teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Horner, R D; Keilitz, I

    1975-01-01

    The need for self-care by retarded individuals in behaviors such as brushing teeth led to the development and evaluation of a comprehensive toothbrushing program that included a task analysis and training procedure specific to each component of the task analysis. Eight mentally retarded adolescents, in two groups, individually received acquisition training that included scheduled opportunities for independent performances, verbal instruction, modelling, demonstration, and physical assistance. The first group of four subjects received token plus social reinforcement; the second received only social reinforcement. All eight subjects showed improved toothbrushing behaviors when compared to baseline. Six of the eight subjects correctly performed all toothbrushing steps in two of three consecutive sessions. The study emphasizes the need for systematic program development and evaluation. PMID:1184494

  9. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

  10. Carotenemia in mentally retarded children I. Incidence and etiology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, H.; Dunn, H. G.; Tischler, B.; McBurney, A. Karaa

    1973-01-01

    The incidence and etiology of carotenemia in mentally retarded children were examined. Fasting serum carotenoid and vitamin A levels were measured in 77 profoundly mentally retarded children aged 3 to 19 years who were receiving a standard diet containing 2000 IU of carotene (expressed in terms of vitamin A activity) and supplemented by 2000 IU of vitamin A daily. Seventeen of the 77 patients had serum carotenoid levels of more than 300 μg./ml. The particulate size of food had a significant inverse relationship to serum carotenoid levels and was an important factor in determining carotenemia. The serum vitamin A level was also higher in children on homogenized diet than in those on pureed feeds, while the lowest level was noted among patients on a chopped diet. Besides particulate size of food, other factors may also be operative in determining carotenemia. PMID:4707231

  11. Health-promoting physical activity of adults with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi I; Temple, Viviene A; Frey, Georgia C

    2006-01-01

    This literature review describes the physical activity behavior of adults with mental retardation consistent with the U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on 5 or more days per week. The proportion of participants achieving this criterion ranges from 17.5 to 33%. These data are likely to be generous estimates of activity as individuals included in physical activity studies to date have been relatively young and healthy volunteers with mild to moderate limitations. Major sources of physical activity were walking and cycling for transport, chores and work, dancing, and Special Olympics. There is a pressing need to conduct studies using appropriately powered representative samples and to validate measures that assess physical activity less directly; including methodologies in which proxy respondents are used. Accurate information about existing patterns of behavior will enhance the development of effective strategies to promote physical activity among persons with mental retardation.

  12. Modeling and prediction of retardance in citric acid coated ferrofluid using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Fung; Sheu, Jer-Jia

    2016-06-01

    Citric acid coated (citrate-stabilized) magnetite (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles have been conducted and applied in the biomedical fields. Using Taguchi-based measured retardances as the training data, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the prediction of retardance in citric acid (CA) coated ferrofluid (FF). According to the ANN simulation results in the training stage, the correlation coefficient between predicted retardances and measured retardances was found to be as high as 0.9999998. Based on the well-trained ANN model, the predicted retardance at excellent program from Taguchi method showed less error of 2.17% compared with a multiple regression (MR) analysis of statistical significance. Meanwhile, the parameter analysis at excellent program by the ANN model had the guiding significance to find out a possible program for the maximum retardance. It was concluded that the proposed ANN model had high ability for the prediction of retardance in CA coated FF.

  13. Effects of TiO₂ and curing temperatures on flame retardant finishing of cotton.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chin-Kuen; Kan, Chi-Wai

    2015-05-05

    The performance of flame retardancy of cotton cellulose can be influenced by curing conditions. In this study, cotton cellulose was imparted durable flame retardant properties by a reaction between a flame retardant agent (Pyrovatex CP New) and a cross linking agent (Knittex CHN), in the presence of catalysts phosphoric acid and titanium dioxide (TiO2). After treating cotton fabrics at different curing temperatures for different curing time, its flame retardant performance was evaluated by 45° fabric flammability standard test method. For cotton fabrics cured at 150 and 170°C, good flame retardant characteristics were retained even after three home laundering cycles. The use of TiO2 as a co-catalyst in the treatment improved the flame retardant properties and reduced the loss of tearing strength of cotton fabrics. No significant negative effect in the whiteness index was observed, as compared with conventional flame retardant treatment.

  14. Spanish-Speaking Pupils Classified as Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, John T.; Plakos, John

    A total of 47 pupils enrolled in grades 3-8 was selected for this study. Of these pupils, 17 were from a rural area and 30 were from an urban area. The pupils selected had to (1) be of Mexican descent, (2) be currently enrolled in educable mentally retarded (EMR) classes, and (3) have evidenced a problem in using the English language due to their…

  15. Advanced-Retarded Differential Equations in Quantum Photonic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Perez-Leija, Armando; Egusquiza, Iñigo L.; Gräfe, Markus; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Szameit, Alexander; Solano, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    We propose the realization of photonic circuits whose dynamics is governed by advanced-retarded differential equations. Beyond their mathematical interest, these photonic configurations enable the implementation of quantum feedback and feedforward without requiring any intermediate measurement. We show how this protocol can be applied to implement interesting delay effects in the quantum regime, as well as in the classical limit. Our results elucidate the potential of the protocol as a promising route towards integrated quantum control systems on a chip.

  16. Musical aptitude and adaptive behavior of people with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Miller, L K; Monroe, M J

    1990-09-01

    Musical aptitude was assessed in 16 adults nominated as having special musical interests and/or skills and 16 matched comparison adults. Information pertaining to strengths and weaknesses in adjustment was also obtained. Musical target subjects scored higher on the test of musical aptitude, particularly if they played a musical instrument. Evidence for difficulties in adjustment associated with musical skill or interest was mixed, although, in general, the results suggested no pervasive maladjustment among those with exceptional skill combined with mental retardation.

  17. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  18. Evaluation of Phosphorylated Psyllium Seed Polysaccharide as a Release Retardant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Monica R. P.; Warrier, Deepa U.; Rao, Shivani H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed gum was modified using sodium trimetaphosphate as crosslinking agent. Sustained release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared by wet granulation using various drug-polymer ratios. The polymers investigated were psyllium polysaccharide, phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide and widely used release retardant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, swelling profile and in vitro dissolution studies. The matrix tablets containing 1:3 proportion of drug-phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide was found to have higher hardness as compared to tablets containing 1:1 and 1:2 proportions. The results of swelling behavior in water showed that the tablets containing 1:3 drug:phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide ratio had swelling comparable to that of tablets containing 1:3 drug:hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio. The in vitro dissolution studies shows that the dissolution rate was retarded from 98.41 to 37.6% in 6 h with increase in concentration of phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide from 100 to 300 mg. Formulations containing psyllium polysaccharide showed complete drug release in 8 h whereas those formulated with phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide exhibited extended drug release over the 12 h period. Drug release kinetic studies revealed that drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model. PMID:26798177

  19. Effects of retardation in relativistic equations with confining interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maung, Khin Maung; Kahana, David E.; Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for solving two body relativistic bound state equations in momentum space with a confining interaction. A total of six different three dimensional reductions of the Bethe-Salpeter equations are studied with particular emphasis placed on the competing roles of relativistic kinematics and retardation. The results indicate that these two effects counteract each other and this sheds some light on why nonrelativistic models of meson spectroscopy have been quite successful.

  20. State of Ohio Curriculum Guide for Moderately Mentally Retarded Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Maxine.

    Provided is a curriculum guide based on the lifelong learning needs of moderately retarded persons. Behavioral objectives are identified at each of six levels of functioning which approximate the mental age levels of 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 8.0 + (adult) years. Sections cover the following persisting life problem areas: (1) developing the…

  1. Comparison of the recyclability of flame-retarded plastics.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takaretu; Hamm, Stephan; Rothenbacher, Klaus P

    2003-02-01

    Mechanical recycling of plastics from waste from electrical and electronical equipment (WEEE) is increasingly expected by regulators and demanded by original equipment manufacturers (CEMs); however, mechanical recycling is generally recognized to be the most economically costly and technically challenging method of recovering WEEE plastics. With 12% of WEEE plastics requiring the use of flame-retardants in order to ensure appropriate levels of consumer fire safety, there is a distinct need for data from comparative tests on recyclability of various flame-retarded plastics. Ten commercially available flame-retarded plastic grades commonly used in electronic equipment (eight "halogen-free" grades and two grades containing brominated flame-retardants (BFRs)) were subjected to two different recycling scenarios. A standard recycling scenario was carried out by repeatedly extruding the materials and an accelerated hydrolysis scenario was carried out to study the influence of humidity from air during use on the process. Both, virgin and recycled materials were tested for a potential formation of polybrominated dibenzodioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), their mechanical properties were assessed and the fire safety rating was determined. Results indicate that none of the tested materials showed a potential to form the PBDD/Fs regulated by the German Chemicals Banning Ordinance. The halogen-free plastic grades showed a significant deterioration of mechanical properties after recycling, whereas those plastics containing BFRs were able to pass all test criteria, thus maintaining their original properties. With respect to the fire safety rating, none of the eight tested halogen-free plastic grades could maintain their fire safety rating after five recycling loops, whereas both BFR plastics continued to achieve their fire safety ratings. Therefore the tested BFR containing plastic materials showed superior recycling properties compared to the tested halogen-free plastic grades with

  2. Advanced-Retarded Differential Equations in Quantum Photonic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Perez-Leija, Armando; Egusquiza, Iñigo L.; Gräfe, Markus; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Szameit, Alexander; Solano, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    We propose the realization of photonic circuits whose dynamics is governed by advanced-retarded differential equations. Beyond their mathematical interest, these photonic configurations enable the implementation of quantum feedback and feedforward without requiring any intermediate measurement. We show how this protocol can be applied to implement interesting delay effects in the quantum regime, as well as in the classical limit. Our results elucidate the potential of the protocol as a promising route towards integrated quantum control systems on a chip. PMID:28230090

  3. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W.; Swanson, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the theoretical foundation of the field electron retarding potential method, and review of its experimental application to the measurement of single crystal face work functions. The results obtained from several substrates are discussed. An interesting and useful fallout from the experimental approach described is the ability to accurately measure the elastic and inelastic reflection coefficient for impinging electrons to near zero-volt energy.

  4. Analysis of Ah receptor pathway activation by brominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Brown, David J; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Goeyens, Leo; Denison, Michael S; De Vito, Michael J; Clark, George C

    2004-06-01

    Brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) are used as additives in plastics to decrease the rate of combustion of these materials, leading to greater consumer safety. As the use of plastics has increased, the production and use of flame-retardants has also grown. Many BFRs are persistent and have been detected in environmental samples, raising concerns about the biological/toxicological risk associated with their use. Most BFRs appear to be non-toxic, however there is still some concern that these compounds, or possible contaminants in BFRs mixtures could interact with cellular receptors. In this study we have examined the interaction of decabromodiphenyl ether, Firemaster BP4A (tetrabromobisphenol A), Firemaster PHT4 (tetrabromophthalic anhydride), hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, decabromobiphenyl, Firemaster BP-6 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl) and possible contaminants of BFR mixtures with the Ah receptor. Receptor binding and activation was examined using the Gel Retardation Assay and increased expression of dioxin responsive genes was detected using the reporter gene based CALUX assay. The results demonstrate the ability of BFRs to activate the AhR signal transduction pathway at moderate to high concentrations as assessed using both assays. AhR-dependent activation by BFRs may be due in part to contaminants present in commercial/technical mixtures. This was suggested by our comparative analysis of Firemaster BP-6 versus its primary component 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl. Some technical mixtures of brominated flame-retardants contain brominated biphenyls, dioxins or dibenzofurans as contaminants. When tested in the CALUX assay these compounds were found to be equivalent to, or more active than their chlorinated analogues. Relative effective potency values were determined from dose response curves for these brominated HAHs.

  5. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  6. Fire Retardant Coatings for Military Equipment - A Review,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    number of borates and the ammonium salts of sulphuric, phosphoric and hydrochloric acid were effective as fire retardant compounds. The first reference...produced by coatings containing chlorine derivatives are of far more concern than the flammability of the coatings themselves. The acid products are...Inorganic Coatings which form Glass-like Melts Paints made with alkali silicates or borax form glass-like melts luring a fire which form a barrier between

  7. Chemical regulation on fire: rapid policy advances on flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Mulcahy, Margaret; Brown, Phil

    2013-07-02

    Chemicals that are widely used in consumer products offer challenges to product manufacturers, risk managers, environmental regulators, environmental scientists, and the interested public. However, the factors that cause specific chemicals to rise to the level of regulatory, scientific, and social movement concern and scrutiny are not well documented, and scientists are frequently unclear about exactly how their research impacts policy. Through a case study of advocacy around flame retardant chemicals, this paper traces the pathways through which scientific evidence and concern is marshaled by both advocacy groups and media sources to affect policy change. We focus our analysis around a broad coalition of environmental and public health advocacy organizations and an investigative journalism series published in 2012 in the Chicago Tribune. We demonstrate that the Tribune series both brought the issue to a wider public audience and precipitated government action, including state policy revisions and federal Senate hearings. We also show how a broad and successful flame retardant coalition developed, leveraged a media event, and influenced policy at multiple institutional levels. The analysis draws on over 110 in-depth interviews, literature and Web site reviews, and observations at a flame retardant manufacturing company, government offices, and scientific and advocacy conferences.

  8. Flame retardants: Dust - And not food - Might be the risk.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J; Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Leslie, H A; Brandsma, S H; Leonards, P E G

    2016-05-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are used to delay ignition of materials such as furniture and electric and electronic instruments. Many FRs are persistent and end up in the environment. Environmental studies on flame retardants (FRs) took off in the late 1990s. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) appeared to be bioaccumulative and were found in many organisms all over the world. When PBDEs were banned or their production voluntarily terminated, alternatives appeared on the market that often had similar properties or were of more concern due to their toxicity such as halogenated phosphorus-based FRs. Here we show that in spite of the ban on PBDEs more brominated FRs are being produced, an increasing number of other FRs is being applied and FR levels in our homes are much higher than in the outdoor environment. While nowadays we live in better isolated houses and sit in front of the computer or television, on flame retarded upholstery, we are at risk due to the toxic effects of a suite of FRs. The high exposure to these substances indoors calls for better risk assessments that include mixture effects.

  9. Toxicity of new generation flame retardants to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Hartmann, Julia; Soeter, A Marieke; Helmus, Rick; Kools, Stefan A E; de Voogt, Pim; Admiraal, Wim; Parsons, John R; Kraak, Michiel H S

    2013-10-01

    There is a tendency to substitute frequently used, but relatively hazardous brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Consequently, information on the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of these HFFRs is urgently needed, but large data gaps and inconsistencies exist. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of a wide range of HFFRs to the water flea Daphnia magna was investigated. Our results revealed that four HFFRs were showing no effect at their Sw (saturated water concentration) and three had a low toxicity (EC50>10 mg L(-1)), suggesting that these compounds are not hazardous. Antimony trioxide had a moderate toxicity (EC50=3.01 mg L(-1), 95% CL: 2.76-3.25) and triphenyl phosphate and the brominated reference compound tetra bromobisphenol A were highly toxic to D. magna (EC50=0.55 mg L(-1), 95% CL: 0.53-0.55 and EC50=0.60 mg L(-1), 95% CL: 0.24-0.97 respectively). Aluminum trihydroxide and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) caused limited mortality at Sw (26 and 25% respectively) and have a low solubility (<10 mg L(-1)). Hence, increased toxicity of these compounds may be observed when for instance decreasing pH could increase solubility. By testing all compounds under identical conditions we provided missing insights in the environmental hazards of new generation flame retardants and propose as best candidates for BFR replacements: APP, ALPI, DOPO, MHO, MPP, ZHS and ZS.

  10. Flame retardants and legacy chemicals in Great Lakes' water.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Dove, Alice; Romanak, Kevin; Backus, Sean; Hites, Ronald

    2014-08-19

    The Great Lakes have been the focus of extensive environmental research, but recent data on the aquatic concentrations of emerging compounds, such as flame retardants, are scarce. Water samples from 18 stations on the five Great Lakes were collected in 2011 and 2012 using XAD-2 resin adsorption and analyzed for PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PAHs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and emerging flame retardants, including organophosphate flame retardants (OPEs). Total PCB concentrations ranged from 117 ± 18 pg/L in Lake Superior to 623 ± 113 pg/L in Lake Ontario. Among the organochlorine pesticides, the most abundant was dieldrin, with the highest average concentration of 99 ± 26 pg/L in Lake Erie, followed by p,p'-DDD with an average concentration of 37 ± 8 pg/L in Lake Ontario. Total PAH concentrations were higher in Lakes Erie and Ontario than in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior. Total PBDE concentrations were highest in Lake Ontario (227 ± 75 pg/L), and the most abundant congeners were BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-209. Total OPE concentrations ranged between 7.3 ± 4.5 ng/L in Lake Huron to 96 ± 43 ng/L in Lake Erie.

  11. How to use retarded Green's functions in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Cheong, Lee Yen

    2008-10-15

    We demonstrate in examples that the covariant retarded Green's functions in electromagnetism and linearized gravity work as expected in de Sitter spacetime. We first clarify how retarded Green's functions should be used in spacetimes with spacelike past infinity such as de Sitter spacetime. In particular, we remind the reader of a general formula which gives the field for given initial data on a Cauchy surface and a given source (a charge or stress-energy tensor distribution) in its future. We then apply this formula to three examples: (i) electromagnetism in the future of a Cauchy surface in Minkowski spacetime, (ii) electromagnetism in de Sitter spacetime, and (iii) linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime. In each example the field is reproduced correctly as predicted by the general argument. In the third example we construct a linearized gravitational field from two equal point masses located at the 'North and South Poles' which is nonsingular on the cosmological horizon and satisfies a covariant gauge condition and show that this field is reproduced by the retarded Green's function with corresponding gauge parameters.

  12. Interlaboratory study of novel halogenated flame retardants: INTERFLAB.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Goosey, Emma; Riddell, Nicole; Diamond, Miriam L

    2015-09-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) have come under considerable scientific and public scrutiny over the past decade. A lack of reference materials and standardized analytical methods has resulted in questions regarding the variation of measurements from different studies. We evaluated this variation by performing an international interlaboratory study assessing analytical capabilities as well as the accuracy and precision of results for a range of flame retardants (International Flame Retardant Laboratory Study, INTERFLAB). Thirteen international research laboratories participated in a blind interlaboratory comparison of 24 FRs. Results demonstrate good precision within replicates of test mixtures from individual laboratories, but problematic accuracy for several FRs and laboratories. Large ranges in the values reported for decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), tris(1,3-dichloropropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) (>50 % relative standard deviations among measured values) and large deviations from the reference values (>25 % bias in accuracy) suggest potential problems for comparability of results. DBDPE, HBCD, and TBBPA had significantly poorer accuracy and precision, suggesting that current analytical methods are not providing reliable results for these FRs.

  13. Neuroendocrine features of pubertal development in females with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Cento, R M; Ciampelli, M; Proto, C; Le Donne, M; Romano, C; Lanzone, A

    2001-06-01

    In order to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary effects of mental retardation during pubertal development, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration were evaluated at various pubertal stages in a female population with mental retardation (MR) compared to a healthy control group of adolescents. Fifty-six girls aged 8-16 years with MR and 146 normal females of the same age participated in the study. The analyzed subjects were divided into different pubertal stages, ranging from P2 to P5, in line with their degree of sexual maturation. Each patient underwent a GnRH test (100 micrograms); blood samples were collected basally and 15, 30, 60, 90 minutes after the GnRH injection. FSH and LH were assayed in each sample; the gonadotropin response to GnRH administration was evaluated as incremental area. No differences were found at any pubertal stage between the two studied groups with regard to the age, body mass index, or age at menarche. Patients with mental retardation during stages P2 and P3 showed lower FSH secretion in response to GnRH bolus compared with control subjects (P2, p < 0.05; P3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, our data show that MR is related to an impaired response of the FSH-secreting pituitary cells to their appropriate stimulus; this feature is present only in the initial pubertal stages, whereas it disappears during sexual development.

  14. Retarding field energy analyser ion current calibration and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denieffe, K.; Mahony, C. M. O.; Maguire, P. D.; Gahan, D.; Hopkins, M. B.

    2011-02-01

    Accurate measurement of ion current density and ion energy distributions (IEDs) is often critical for plasma processes in both industrial and research settings. Retarding field energy analysers (RFEAs) have been used to measure IEDs because they are considered accurate, relatively simple and cost effective. However, their usage for critical measurement of ion current density is less common due to difficulties in estimating the proportion of incident ion current reaching the current collector through the RFEA retarding grids. In this paper an RFEA has been calibrated to measure ion current density from an ion beam at pressures ranging from 0.5 to 50.0 mTorr. A unique method is presented where the currents generated at each of the retarding grids and the RFEA upper face are measured separately, allowing the reduction in ion current to be monitored and accounted for at each stage of ion transit to the collector. From these I-V measurements a physical model is described. Subsequently, a mathematical description is extracted which includes parameters to account for grid transmissions, upper face secondary electron emission and collisionality. Pressure-dependent calibration factors can be calculated from least mean square best fits of the collector current to the model allowing quantitative measurement of ion current density.

  15. Dynamical Diffraction Simulation of Transmission X-ray Phase Retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrander, A. T.; Lang, J. C.; Srajer, G.

    1996-03-01

    Circularly polarized photons couple with magnetic moments which makes them a useful probe of the magnetic properties of condensed matter. Circularly polarized photon beams can be created from linearly polarized undulator beams at the Advanced Photon Source using thin single-crystal transmission phase retarders. Tests of such phase retarders have been made and have been compared to dynamical diffraction calculations. (J.C. Lang and G. Srajer, Rev. Sci. Instrumen. 66,1540(1995).) In addition, a phase retarder was successfully used in a circular magnetic x-ray dichroism experiment. (J.C. Lang, G. Srajer, C. Detliefs, A.I. Goldman, H. Konig, X. Wang, B.N. Harmon, and R.W. McCallum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74,4935(1995).) The focus of this talk is on the calculations that were made using matrix techniques. ( D.W. Berreman and A.T. Macrander, Phys. Rev. B 37,6030(1988).) Such calculations are possible because not only the amplitude but also the phase of the fields are calculated. This work supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, BES-Materials Sciences, under contract no. W-31-109-ENG-38.

  16. Nabumetone induces less gastrointestinal mucosal changes than diclofenac retard.

    PubMed

    Becvár, R; Urbanová, Z; Vlasáková, V; Vítová, J; Rybár, I; Maldyk, H; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, A; Bernacka, K; Mackiewicz, S; Gömör, B; Rojkovich, B; Siro, B; Bereczki, J; Toth, K; Sukenik, S; Green, L; Ehrenfeld, M; Pavelka, K

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and the effects on the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of nabumetone and diclofenac retard in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). An open, multicentre, randomised, comparative, endoscopy-blind parallel group study included 201 patients with nabumetone and 193 patients with diclofenac retard suffering from moderate to severe OA of the knee or hip joint. Twelve clinical efficacy variables were assessed and a portion of the population underwent gastroduodenoscopy. All patients exhibited significant improvement in pain severity and pain relief (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively) but there were no differences between the groups for all the efficacy variables. Eleven per cent of patients on nabumetone and 19% on diclofenac experienced GIT side-effects. Sixty-nine patients with nabumetone and 61 with diclofenac underwent gastroduodenoscopy. The differences in the mucosal grade for the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum at baseline were not significant. In the oesophagus there were significantly less changes after treatment with nabumetone (p = 0.007) than with diclofenac; there were similar findings in the stomach (p < 0.001) but the difference in the duodenum was not significant. This study indicates that nabumetone and diclofenac retard have similar efficacy in the treatment of OA, but nabumetone has significantly fewer GIT side-effects.

  17. Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome: Structure of the KH1-KH2 Domains of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde,R.; Poznyakova, I.; Kajander, T.; Venkatraman, J.; Regan, L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans, with an estimated prevalence of about 1 in 4000 males. Although several observations indicate that the absence of functional Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is the underlying basis of Fragile X syndrome, the structure and function of FMRP are currently unknown. Here, we present an X-ray crystal structure of the tandem KH domains of human FMRP, which reveals the relative orientation of the KH1 and KH2 domains and the location of residue Ile304, whose mutation to Asn is associated with a particularly severe incidence of Fragile X syndrome. We show that the Ile304Asn mutation both perturbs the structure and destabilizes the protein.

  18. Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with mental retardation and syndactyly in boys: a new X-linked mental retardation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dobyns, W B; Guerrini, R; Czapansky-Beilman, D K; Pierpont, M E; Breningstall, G; Yock, D H; Bonanni, P; Truwit, C L

    1997-10-01

    Bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH) is a recently recognized malformation of neuronal migration, and perhaps proliferation, in which nodular masses of gray matter line the walls of the lateral ventricles. Most affected individuals have epilepsy and normal intelligence with no other congenital anomalies. A striking skew of the sex ratio has been observed because 31 of 38 probands have been female, and one gene associated with BPNH was recently mapped to chromosome Xq28. We report three unrelated boys with a new multiple congenital anomaly-mental retardation syndrome that consists of BPNH, cerebellar hypoplasia, severe mental retardation, epilepsy, and syndactyly. Variable abnormalities included focal or regional cortical dysplasia, cataracts, and hypospadius. We hypothesize that this syndrome involves the same Xq28 locus as isolated BPNH, and we review the expanding number of syndromes associated with BPNH.

  19. Mental Retardation: General Information. Fact Sheet Number 8 = El Retraso Mental; Informacion General. Fact Sheet Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interstate Research Associates, McLean, VA.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is offered in both English and Spanish. First it provides the federal definition of mental retardation and discusses components of the definition. Causes of mental retardation are briefly noted, and incidence figures are provided. Typical characteristics of people with mental retardation are mentioned.…

  20. The model of root graviresponse with retarded arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrachuk, Alexander

    The graviperception mechanism (GPM) of the roots of higher plants localized in the cap region of a root and supposedly related to statoliths sedimentation produces the signals in response to the change of the root axis orientation relative to the gravity vector G. Meanwhile, the regions (Distal Elongation Zone -DEZ and Central Elongation Zone-CEZ), where the signals initiate the changes of the growth rates of the upper and lower flanks of the root, are located at the significant distances from the cap (thousands microns for some plants). It causes the time delays between the relocation of statoliths in statocytes and the change of the growth rates in elongation zones. It is suggested that the signal targeting the CEZ modulates the initially uniform lateral distribution of some specific substances (S) in the cap region. Then already nonhomogeneous lateral distribution of S is transferred to the CEZ to initiate the change of the growth rates of the opposite flanks. It results in the bending of the root in the line of G and thus in the change of the GPM signal in the cap region. In the present model the kinetics of a root apex bending (angle A) in response to the time (t)-dependent change of the G orientation is described by the integro-differential equation in A(t). The main peculiarity of this model is the presence of retarded (time-delayed) arguments t-TCEZ and t-TDEZ . In this case the solutions of this equation depend on the preceding kinetics of A(t) during the time delays TCEZ and TDEZ . It is suggested that the signals activating the CEZ and DEZ are of different nature. The work is focused on two problems concerning the modeling of the effects of time-delay(s) on the root bending. The first problem supposes the existence of one zone (CEZ) and one time-delay TCEZ . This equation was studied and solved using analytical and numerical methods. We analyzed the model as to whether it can be used to describe the kinetics of root graviresponse in the case of different