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Sample records for local strain distribution

  1. Local Strain Distributions in Silicon-on-Insulator/Stressor-Film Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kalenci,O.; Murray, C.; Noyan, I.

    2008-01-01

    We have used scanning microdiffraction topography to determine the mismatch strains and local strain distributions in silicon-on-insulator substrates with overlying thin film stressor features. Analysis of the data using the edge-force model and the Ewald-von Laue dynamical diffraction theory shows the presence of an exponential strain gradient in the vicinity of the buried SiO2/Si-substrate interface. We show that, for simple geometries, it is possible to deduce the sign of the mismatch strain simply by inspecting the microdiffraction topograph.

  2. Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene’s G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials.

  3. Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation

    PubMed Central

    Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene’s G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials. PMID:27346485

  4. Three-Dimensional pore space and strain localization distribution in Majella limestone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yuntao; Hall, Stephen; Baud, Patrick; Wond, Teng-fong

    2015-04-01

    Warp code to perform 3D volumetric DIC on the pairs of images to derive the permanent displacement field and the full 3D strain tensor field of each sample. Our DIC analysis has revealed the structure of high-angle compacting shear bands in the transitional regime in Majella limestone. Our DIC data also indicate an increase of geometric complexity with increasing confinement - from a planar shear band, to a curvilinear band, and ultimately a diffuse multiplicity of bands, before shear localization is inhibited as the failure mode completes the transition to delocalized cataclastic flow.

  5. The influence of phase and grain size distribution on the dynamics of strain localization in polymineralic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaplińska, Daria; Piazolo, Sandra; Zibra, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Deformation microstructures of a quartzo-feldspathic pegmatite deformed at mid-crustal levels allow the study of the dynamics of strain localization in polymineralic rocks. Strain localization results from (i) difference in grain sizes between phases, both original and obtained during fluid present reactions and (ii) initial compositional banding. Due to original difference in grain size stress concentrates in the initially finer-grained phases resulting in their intense grain size reduction via subgrain rotation recrystallization (SGR). When the grain size is sufficiently reduced through either deformation or interphase coupled dissolution-precipitation replacement of the coarse grained feldspar, aggregates start to deform by dominantly diffusion accommodated grain boundary sliding (GBS). Phase mixing inhibits grain growth and sustains a grain size allowing GBS. Consequently, discontinuous microscale shear zones form locally within initially coarse grained areas. At the same time difference in strain rate between feldspar-rich and quartz-rich domains needs to be accommodated at domain boundaries. This results in the formation of continuous mesoscale shear zones deformed by GBS. Once these are formed, deformation in the coarse grained parts is arrested and strain is mainly accommodated in the mesoscale shear zones resulting in "superplastic" behaviour consistent with diffusion creep.

  6. How is strain localized in a meta-granitoid, mid-crustal basement section? Spatial distribution of deformation in the central Aar massif (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrens, P.; Baumberger, R.; Berger, A.; Herwegh, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates strain distribution in granitoid rocks formerly in the middle crust in the Central Aar massif, Switzerland and places the deformation behavior in the tectonic framework of the Alpine orogeny. Strain is heterogeneously distributed in terms of strain partitioning forming several hundreds of closely spaced shear zones (SZ) (>80 SZ/km with SZ thicknesses <10 cm; about 10 SZ/km with SZ thicknesses of 0.5-10 m) separating 3D bodies of low to moderate background strain. Both the degree of background-strain intensity as well as the number of shear zones increases from granitic to granodioritic host rocks and is controlled by primary variations in the mica content between 10 and 15 vol% (granodiorite) and <8 vol% (granite). Shear zones evolved from ductile shearing in granodiorites, whereas they often nucleated from fractures in the stronger granites. The majority of the steep shear zones preferentially accommodated upward motion by the southern block leading to an increase in peak metamorphic conditions from 250 °C in the North to 450 °C in the South of the Aar massif. The shear zones initiated at about 18-20 km depths during a stage of crustal thickening (Handegg phase). Subsequent deformation reactivated some shear zones with a gradual transition from reverse dip-slip over oblique-slip to strike-slip shear zones under local transpressional conditions (Oberaar phase).

  7. Subcellular localization and clues for the function of the HetN factor influencing heterocyst distribution in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Corrales-Guerrero, Laura; Mariscal, Vicente; Nürnberg, Dennis J; Elhai, Jeff; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

    2014-10-01

    In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, heterocysts are formed in the absence of combined nitrogen, following a specific distribution pattern along the filament. The PatS and HetN factors contribute to the heterocyst pattern by inhibiting the formation of consecutive heterocysts. Thus, inactivation of any of these factors produces the multiple contiguous heterocyst (Mch) phenotype. Upon N stepdown, a HetN protein with its C terminus fused to a superfolder version of green fluorescent protein (sf-GFP) or to GFP-mut2 was observed, localized first throughout the whole area of differentiating cells and later specifically on the peripheries and in the polar regions of mature heterocysts, coinciding with the location of the thylakoids. Polar localization required an N-terminal stretch comprising residues 2 to 27 that may represent an unconventional signal peptide. Anabaena strains expressing a version of HetN lacking this fragment from a mutant gene placed at the native hetN locus exhibited a mild Mch phenotype. In agreement with previous results, deletion of an internal ERGSGR sequence, which is identical to the C-terminal sequence of PatS, also led to the Mch phenotype. The subcellular localization in heterocysts of fluorescence resulting from the fusion of GFP to the C terminus of HetN suggests that a full HetN protein is present in these cells. Furthermore, the full HetN protein is more conserved among cyanobacteria than the internal ERGSGR sequence. These observations suggest that HetN anchored to thylakoid membranes in heterocysts may serve a function besides that of generating a regulatory (ERGSGR) peptide.

  8. Optical Fibers Would Sense Local Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed fiber-optic transducers measure local strains. Includes lead-in and lead-out lengths producing no changes in phase shifts, plus short sensing length in which phase shift is sensitive to strain. Phase shifts in single-mode fibers vary with strains. In alternative version, multiple portions of optical fiber sensitive to strains characteristic of specific vibrational mode of object. Same principle also used with two-mode fiber.

  9. Distribution of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aim Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) cause increasingly serious infections especially in immunosuppressive patients by direct transmission from the environment or after colonization. However, identification of these species is difficult because of the cost and difficulties in defining to species level. Identification and distribution of these species can help clinician in the choice of treatment. Materials and methods A total of 90 MOTT strains obtained from four different centers were included in the study. These strains were identified by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and Hsp65 genetic regions. Results Accordingly, within the 90 MOTT strains, 17 different species were identified. In order of frequency, these species were M. gordonea (n = 21), M. abscessus (n = 13), M. lentiflavum (n = 9), M. fortuitum (n = 8), M. intracellulare (n = 6), M. kumamotonense (n = 6), M. neoaurum (n = 5), M. chimaera (n = 5), M. alvei (n = 5), M. peregrinum (n = 3), M. canariasense (n = 3), M. flavescens (n = 1), M. mucogenicum (n = 1), M. chelona (n = 1), M. elephantis (n = 1), M. terrae (n = 1) and M. xenopi (n = 1). Most frequently identified MOTT species according to the geographical origin were as follows: M. abscessus was the most common species either in Istanbul or Malatya regions (n = 6, n = 6, consequently). While M. kumamotonense was the most frequent species isolated from Ankara region (n = 6), M. gordonea was the most common for Samsun region (n = 14). Conclusion Our study revealed that frequency of MOTT varies depending on the number of clinical samples and that frequency of these species were affected by the newly identified species as a result of the use of novel molecular methods. In conclusion, when establishing diagnosis and treatment methods, it is important to know that infections caused by unidentified MOTT species may vary according to the regions in Turkey. The results

  10. Granular materials: constitutive equations and strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, L.; Gu, C.

    2000-08-01

    Strain localization into shear bands is commonly observed in natural soil masses, as well as in human-built embankments, footings, retaining walls and other geotechnical structures. Numerical predictions for the process of shear band formation are critically dependent on the constitutive equations employed. In this paper, the plane strain "double-shearing" constitutive model (e.g., Spencer, A.J.M., 1964. A theory of the kinematics of ideal soils under plane strain conditions. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 12, 337-351; Spencer, A.J.M., 1982, Deformation of ideal granular materials. In: Hopkins, H.G., Sewell, M.J. (Eds.), Mechanics of Solids. Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York, pp. 607-652; Mehrabadi, M.M., Cowin, S.C., 1978. Initial planar deformation of dilatant granular materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 26, 269-284; Nemat-Nasser, S., Mehrabadi, M.M., Iwakuma, T. 1981. On certain macroscopic and microscopic aspects of plastic flow of ductile materials. In: Nemat-Nasser, S. (Ed.), Three-dimensional Constitutive Relations and Ductile Fracture. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 157-172; Anand, L., 1983. Plane deformations of ideal granular materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 31, 105-122) is generalized to three dimensions including the effects of elastic deformation and pre-peak behavior. The constitutive model is implemented in a finite element program and is used to predict the formation of shear bands in plane strain compression, and plane strain cylindrical cavity expansion. The predictions from the model are shown to be in good quantitative agreement with the recent experiments of Han, C., Drescher, A., (1993. Shear bands in biaxial tests on dry coarse sand. Soils and Foundations 33, 118-132) and Alsiny, H., Vardoulakis, I., Drescher, A., (1992. Deformation localization in cavity inflation experiments on dry sand. Geotechnique 42, 395-410) on a dry sand. The constitutive model is also used to predict the

  11. Time-resolved local strain tracking microscopy for cell mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, O.; Aksoy, B.; Akalin, O. B.; Bayraktar, H.; Alaca, B. E.

    2016-02-01

    A uniaxial cell stretching technique to measure time-resolved local substrate strain while simultaneously imaging adherent cells is presented. The experimental setup comprises a uniaxial stretcher platform compatible with inverted microscopy and transparent elastomer samples with embedded fluorescent beads. This integration enables the acquisition of real-time spatiotemporal data, which is then processed using a single-particle tracking algorithm to track the positions of fluorescent beads for the subsequent computation of local strain. The present local strain tracking method is demonstrated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) samples of rectangular and dogbone geometries. The comparison of experimental results and finite element simulations for the two sample geometries illustrates the capability of the present system to accurately quantify local deformation even when the strain distribution is non-uniform over the sample. For a regular dogbone sample, the experimentally obtained value of local strain at the center of the sample is 77%, while the average strain calculated using the applied cross-head displacement is 48%. This observation indicates that considerable errors may arise when cross-head measurement is utilized to estimate strain in the case of non-uniform sample geometry. Finally, the compatibility of the proposed platform with biological samples is tested using a unibody PDMS sample with a well to contain cells and culture media. HeLa S3 cells are plated on collagen-coated samples and cell adhesion and proliferation are observed. Samples with adherent cells are then stretched to demonstrate simultaneous cell imaging and tracking of embedded fluorescent beads.

  12. Distributed strain monitoring for bridges: temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regier, Ryan; Hoult, Neil A.

    2014-03-01

    To better manage infrastructure assets as they reach the end of their service lives, quantitative data is required to better assess structural behavior and allow for more informed decision making. Distributed fiber optic strain sensors are one sensing technology that could provide comprehensive data for use in structural assessments as these systems potentially allow for strain to be measured with the same accuracy and gage lengths as conventional strain sensors. However, as with many sensor technologies, temperature can play an important role in terms of both the structure's and sensor's performance. To investigate this issue a fiber optic distributed strain sensor system was installed on a section of a two span reinforced concrete bridge on the TransCanada Highway. Strain data was acquired several times a day as well as over the course of several months to explore the effects of changing temperature on the data. The results show that the strain measurements are affected by the bridge behavior as a whole. The strain measurements due to temperature are compared to strain measurements that were taken during a load test on the bridge. The results show that even a small change in temperature can produce crack width and strain changes similar to those due to a fully loaded transport truck. Future directions for research in this area are outlined.

  13. Transient dynamic distributed strain sensing using photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samad, Shafeek A.; Hegde, G. M.; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Hanagud, S.

    2014-02-01

    A technique to determine the strain field in one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) involving high strain rate, high temperature around shock or ballistic impact is proposed. Transient strain sensing is important in aerospace and other structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. We consider a MEMS based smart sensor design with photonic crystal integrated on a silicon substrate for dynamic strain correlation. Deeply etched silicon rib waveguides with distributed Bragg reflectors are suitable candidates for miniaturization of sensing elements, replacing the conventional FBG. Main objective here is to investigate the effect of non-uniform strain localization on the sensor output. Computational analysis is done to determine the static and dynamic strain sensing characteristics of the 1D photonic crystal based sensor. The structure is designed and modeled using Finite Element Method. Dynamic localization of strain field is observed. The distributed strain field is used to calculated the PC waveguide response. The sensitivity of the proposed sensor is estimated to be 0.6 pm/μɛ.

  14. Strain localization along micro-boudinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatziioannou, Eleftheria; Rogowitz, Anna; Grasemann, Bernhard; Habler, Gerlinde; Soukis, Konstantinos; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    The progressive development of boudinage strongly depends on the kinematic framework and the mechanical properties of the boudinaged layer and host rock. A common type of boudin, which can often be observed in natural examples, is the domino boudinage. This boudin type typically reflects a strong competency contrast of the interlayered rock sequences. Numerical models have shown that a relatively high amount of strain is necessary in order to develop separated boudin segments. With ongoing deformation and consequent rotation of the individual segments into the shear direction, the terminal sectors tend to experience a higher rotation rate, progressively resulting in isoclinal folding. Whereas most investigations of domino boudinage are cm- to dm-scale examples, we examined one order of magnitude smaller examples, where the deformation mechanism between the segments and the matrix could be directly investigated. The samples are from Kalymnos Island located in the southeastern Aegean Sea (Dodecanese islands-Greece). The analysed sample belongs to the upper unit of the pre-Alpidic basement, which consists of a succession of marbles, which were deformed under lower-greenschist facies conditions during the Variscan orogeny. 40Ar/39Ar geochronological dating on white micas in the adjacent upper quartz-mica schists unit yielded deformation ages between 240 and 334 Ma. The calcitic marble comprises boudinaged dolomite layers with thickness varying between 1 and 20 mm. Progressive deformation of the boudinaged layers resulted in the development of ptygmatic folds with fold axes parallel to the stretching lineation. The grain size from the host rock marbles (10 μm) decreases towards the boudinaged dolomite layer (5 μm) indicating strain localization adjacent to the dolomite layers. Furthermore, strain is localized within micro shear zones which nucleate in the necks of rotated boudin segments. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) derived from electron backscatter

  15. Deformation mechanisms of antigorite and strain localization during dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, B.; Hirth, G.

    2012-12-01

    Antigorite, the high temperature and pressure serpentine polytype, is thought to exist along subduction zones between the mantle wedge and the subducting oceanic crust (e.g., Wada et al., 2008). Understanding how the rheology of antigorite changes with depth along the slab may be key to understanding seismicity along the upper plate boundary (e.g., Hacker et al., 2003). To explore this phenomenon we are conducting constant strain rate general shear experiments on antigorite-rich serpentinite at shear strain rates of 5*10^-7/s to 10^-5/s, confining pressures from 1-2 GPa and temperatures from 400-700°C. We are using microstructural observations to constrain deformation mechanisms and investigate conditions where strain localization occurs. In some experiments we employ either strain rate stepping or temperature ramping to examine the stress dependence of viscosity (i.e., determine stress exponent) and syntectonic reaction during heating. The results of our general shear experiments suggest the rheologic behavior of antigorite varies significantly with changes in temperature and pressure, similar to previous work in axial compression (e.g., Chernak and Hirth, 2010). At 400°C and 1GPa confining pressure antigorite deforms initially via steady-state ductile flow with strengths as high as 1.4 GPa at a strain rate of 10^-5/s. With increasing strain we observe weakening events that correlate with the development of shear fractures within the sample. At 2GPa pressure, the flow strength of antigorite increases to ~1.8 GPa at 10^-6/s and deformation is distributed at low strain. Strain rate stepping at these conditions suggests a very weak strain rate dependence on strength with a 5-10% change in stress for an order of magnitude strain rate step. At 700C and 1 GPa, above the thermal stability of antigorite, the steady-state strength is ~120 MPa at 10^-5/s. In these samples olivine becomes the dominant phase as antigorite progressively reacts to olivine and pyroxene. At the

  16. Strain localization and dynamic recrystallization in the ice-air aggregate: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Griera, Albert; Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Roessiger, Jens; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-12-01

    We performed numerical simulations on the microdynamics of ice with air inclusions as a second phase. Our aim was to investigate the rheological effects of air inclusions and explain the onset of dynamic recrystallization in the permeable firn. The simulations employ a full-field theory crystal plasticity code coupled to codes simulating dynamic recrystallization processes and predict time-resolved microstructure evolution in terms of lattice orientations, strain distribution, grain sizes and grain-boundary network. Results show heterogeneous deformation throughout the simulations and indicate the importance of strain localization controlled by air inclusions. This strain localization gives rise to locally increased energies that drive dynamic recrystallization and induce heterogeneous microstructures that are coherent with natural firn microstructures from EPICA Dronning Maud Land ice coring site in Antarctica. We conclude that although overall strains and stresses in firn are low, strain localization associated with locally increased strain energies can explain the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization.

  17. Deformation-induced spatiotemporal fluctuation, evolution and localization of strain fields in a bulk metallic glass

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yuan; Bei, Hongbin; Wang, Yanli; ...

    2015-05-16

    Deformation behavior and local strain evolutions upon loading and unloading of a bulk metallic glass (BMG) were systematically investigated by in situ digital image correlation (DIC). Distinct fluctuations and irreversible local strains were observed before the onset of macroscopic yielding. Statistical analysis shows that these fluctuations might be related to intrinsic structural heterogeneities, and that the evolution history and characteristics of local strain fields play an important role in the subsequent initiation of shear bands. Effects of sample size, pre-strain, and loading conditions were systematically analyzed in terms of the probability distributions of the resulting local strain fields. It ismore » found that a higher degree of local shear strain heterogeneity corresponds to a more ductile stressestrain curve. Implications of these findings are discussed for the design of new materials.« less

  18. Deformation-induced spatiotemporal fluctuation, evolution and localization of strain fields in a bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuan; Bei, Hongbin; Wang, Yanli; Lu, Zhaoping; George, Easo P.; Gao, Yanfei

    2015-05-16

    Deformation behavior and local strain evolutions upon loading and unloading of a bulk metallic glass (BMG) were systematically investigated by in situ digital image correlation (DIC). Distinct fluctuations and irreversible local strains were observed before the onset of macroscopic yielding. Statistical analysis shows that these fluctuations might be related to intrinsic structural heterogeneities, and that the evolution history and characteristics of local strain fields play an important role in the subsequent initiation of shear bands. Effects of sample size, pre-strain, and loading conditions were systematically analyzed in terms of the probability distributions of the resulting local strain fields. It is found that a higher degree of local shear strain heterogeneity corresponds to a more ductile stressestrain curve. Implications of these findings are discussed for the design of new materials.

  19. Strain localization driven by structural relaxation in sheared amorphous solids.

    PubMed

    Jagla, E A

    2007-10-01

    A two dimensional amorphous material is modeled as an assembly of mesoscopic elemental pieces coupled together to form an elastically coherent structure. Plasticity is introduced as the existence of different minima in the energy landscape of the elemental constituents. Upon the application of an external strain rate, the material shears through the appearance of elemental slip events with quadrupolar symmetry. When the energy landscape of the elemental constituents is kept fixed, the slip events distribute uniformly throughout the sample, producing on average a uniform deformation. However, when the energy landscape at different spatial positions can be rearranged dynamically to account for structural relaxation, the system develops inhomogeneous deformation in the form of shear bands at low shear rates, and stick-slip-like motion at the shear bands for the lowest shear rates. The origin of strain localization is traced back to a region of negative correlation between strain rate and stress, which appears only if structural relaxation is present. The model also reproduces other well known effects in the rheology of amorphous materials, as a stress peak in a strain rate controlled experiment staring from rest, and the increase of the maximum of this peak with sample age.

  20. EVALUATION OF LOCAL STRAIN EVOLUTION FROM METALLIC WHISKER FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Lam, P.

    2011-05-11

    Evolution of local strain on electrodeposited tin films upon aging has been monitored by digital image correlation (DIC) for the first time. Maps of principal strains adjacent to whisker locations were constructed via comparing pre- and post-growth scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Results showed that the magnitude of the strain gradient plays an important role in whisker growth. DIC visualized the dynamic growth process in which the alteration of strain field has been identified to cause growth of subsequent whiskers.

  1. Interseismic Strain Localization in the San Jacinto Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Eric O.; Sahakian, Valerie J.; Fialko, Yuri; Bock, Yehuda; Barbot, Sylvain; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate interseismic deformation across the San Jacinto fault at Anza, California where previous geodetic observations have indicated an anomalously high shear strain rate. We present an updated set of secular velocities from GPS and InSAR observations that reveal a 2-3 km wide shear zone deforming at a rate that exceeds the background strain rate by more than a factor of two. GPS occupations of an alignment array installed in 1990 across the fault trace at Anza allow us to rule out shallow creep as a possible contributor to the observed strain rate. Using a dislocation model in a heterogeneous elastic half space, we show that a reduction in shear modulus within the fault zone by a factor of 1.2-1.6 as imaged tomographically by Allam and Ben-Zion (Geophys J Int 190:1181-1196, 2012) can explain about 50 % of the observed anomalous strain rate. However, the best-fitting locking depth in this case (10.4 ± 1.3 km) is significantly less than the local depth extent of seismicity (14-18 km). We show that a deep fault zone with a shear modulus reduction of at least a factor of 2.4 would be required to explain fully the geodetic strain rate, assuming the locking depth is 15 km. Two alternative possibilities include fault creep at a substantial fraction of the long-term slip rate within the region of deep microseismicity, or a reduced yield strength within the upper fault zone leading to distributed plastic failure during the interseismic period.

  2. Local anisotropy in strained turbulence at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, P. A.; Speziale, C. G.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the hypothesis of local isotropy is implausible in the presence of significant mean rates of strain. In fact, it appears that in uniform shear flow near equilibrium, local isotropy can never constitute a systematic approximation, even in the limit of infinite Reynolds number. An estimate of the level of mean strain rate for which local isotropy is formally a good approximation is provided.

  3. Strain localization and percolation of stable structure in amorphous solids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunfeng; Falk, Michael L

    2005-08-26

    Spontaneous strain localization occurs during mechanical tests of a model amorphous solid simulated using molecular dynamics. The degree of localization depends upon the extent of structural relaxation prior to mechanical testing. In the most rapidly quenched samples higher strain rates lead to increased localization, while the more gradually quenched samples exhibit the opposite strain rate dependence. This transition coincides with the k-core percolation of atoms with quasi-crystal-like short range order. The authors infer the existence of a related microstructural length scale.

  4. Formability Evaluation of Sheet Metals Based on Global Strain Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Lin, Jianping; Min, Junying; Ye, You; Kang, Liugen

    2016-06-01

    According to the conventional methods for formability evaluation, e.g., forming limit curve (FLC), limit dome height, and total elongation, inconsistent results are observed when comparing the formability of four advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) with an ultimate tensile strength grade of 1000 MPa. The strain distribution analysis with the aid of digital image correlation technique shows that different uniform deformation capabilities of sheet metals under the same loading conditions are responsible for this inconsistency. In addition, metallurgical analysis suggests that inhomogeneous microstructure distribution and phase transformation during deformation in some materials play important roles in the uniform deformation capability of sheet metal. Limit strains on the commonly used FLC only relate to the major and minor strains of local deforming elements associated with the onset of necking. However, the formability of a sheet metal component is determined by the strain magnitudes of all deforming elements involved during the forming process. Hence, the formability evaluation of sheet metals from a global aspect is more applicable for practical engineering. A new method based on two indices (i.e., which represent global formability and uniform deformation capability, respectively) is proposed to evaluate the formability of sheet metals based on global strain distribution. The formability and evolution of deformation uniformity of the investigated AHSS at different stress states are studied with this new method. Compared with other formability evaluation methods, the new method is demonstrated to be more appropriate for practical engineering, and it is applicable to both in-plane and out-of-plane deformation. Additionally, the global formability of sheet metals can be more comprehensively understood with this new method.

  5. Shear Weakening and Strain Localization in the Deeper Mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernlund, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Shear weakening and strain localization is an essential component of plate tectonics on Earth, and is ubiquitously observed in both crustal and mantle rocks exposed at Earth's surface at a variety of scales. However, it is commonly assumed that this process is only important in the lithosphere (because it would otherwise be strong and inhibit plate-like behavior), and that at greater depths the mantle's style of deformation is inherently diffuse and broadly distributed. This assumption strongly influences our view of processes in Earth's deep interior, such as styles of mantle mixing, and is the basis for the rheological formulation implemented in most mantle convection models. However, there are many possibilities that would permit shear localization at large scales, in a way that could alter our view of internal mantle deformation in important ways. One example is the possible presence of very weak rocks (e.g., owing to localized volatile enrichment) that may become sheared and stretched in flows to create effective weak zones between stronger bodies of rock. Another example is the possibility that weaker mineral phases in a rock can become sheared between stronger grains such that the weakest phase dominates the long-term dynamic processes operating in the mantle. Simple modeling of various scenarios reveals that differences in long-term behavior for shear localized mantle convection largely depend upon the scale of the shear zone. If the weak zones are large in scale, they acan persist over long time scales, and may be advected laterally away from the buoyancy centers where they are produced (giving rise to toroidal motion). On the other hand, if the weakening fabric occurs at the grain-scale, then the fabric can be healed by processes such as Ostwald ripening that operate on shorter time scales at higher temperatures. Regardless of the scale of shear zones, subduction of slabs through the lower mantle can occur relatively rapidly when accommodated by localized

  6. Structural biomechanics modulate intramuscular distribution of locally delivered drugs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peter I-Kung; Edelman, Elazer R

    2008-09-18

    As local drug delivery continues to emerge as a clinical force, so does understanding of its potentially narrow therapeutic window. Classic molecular transport studies are of value but do not typically account for the local nature of drug transport or the effects of regional dynamic function in target tissues like muscle that may undergo cyclical and variable mechanical motion and loading. We examined the impact of dynamic architecture on intramuscular drug distribution. We designed a tissue mounting technique and mechanical loading system that uniquely enables pharmacokinetics investigations in association with control of muscle biomechanics while preserving physiologic tissue architecture. The system was validated and used to elucidate the influence of architecture and controlled cyclic strain on intramuscular drug distribution. Rat soleus muscles underwent controlled deformations within a drug delivery chamber that preserved in vivo physiology. Penetration of 1mM 20 kDa FITC-dextran at planar surfaces of the soleus axial cross-section increased significantly from 0.52+/-0.09 mm under 80 min of static (0%) strain to 0.81+/-0.09 mm under cyclic (3 Hz, 0-20% peak-to-peak) strain, demonstrating the driving effect of cyclic loading on transport. Penetration at curved margins was 1.57- and 2.53-fold greater than at planar surfaces under static and cyclic strain, respectively, and was enhanced 1.6-fold more by cyclic strain, revealing architecturally dictated spatial heterogeneity in transport and modulation of motion dynamics. Architectural geometry and dynamics modulate the impact of mechanical loading on local drug penetration and intramuscular distribution. Future work will use the biomechanical test system to investigate mechanisms underlying transport effects of specific loading regimens. It is hoped that this work will initiate a broader understanding of intramuscular pharmacokinetics and guide local drug delivery strategies.

  7. Strain localization during deformation of Westerly granite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodsky, N. S.; Spetzler, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A specimen of Westerly granite was cyclically loaded to near failure at 50 MPa confining pressure. Holographic interferometry provided detailed measurements of localized surface deformations during loading and unloading. The data are consistent with deformation occurring primarily elastically at low differential stress; in conjunction with one incipient fault zone between approximately 350 and 520 MPa differential stress; and in conjunction with a second incipient fault zone above 580 MPa and/or during creep. During unloading only one fault zone, that which is active at the intermediate stress levels during loading, is seen to recede.

  8. Strain localization in polycrystalline material with second phase particles: Numerical modeling with application to ice mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyprych, D.; Brune, S.; Piazolo, S.; Quinteros, J.

    2016-09-01

    We use a centimeter-scale 2-D numerical model to investigate the effect of the presence of a second phase with various volume percent, shape, and orientation on strain localization in a viscoelastic matrix. In addition, the evolution of bulk rheological behavior of aggregates during uniaxial compression is analyzed. The rheological effect of dynamic recrystallization processes in the matrix is reproduced by viscous strain softening. We show that the presence of hard particles strengthens the aggregate, but also causes strain localization and the formation of ductile shear zones in the matrix. The presence of soft particles weakens the aggregate, while strain localizes within the particles and matrix between particles. The shape and the orientation of second phases control the orientation, geometry, and connectivity of ductile shear zones. We propose an analytical scaling method that translates the bulk stress measurements of our 2-D simulations to 3-D experiments. Comparing our model to the laboratory uniaxial compression experiments on ice cylinders with hard second phases allows the analysis of transient and steady-state strain distribution in ice matrix, and strain partitioning between ice and second phases through empirical calibration of viscous softening parameters. We find that the ice matrix in two-phase aggregates accommodates more strain than the applied bulk strain, while at faster strain rates some of the load is transferred into hard particles. Our study illustrates that dynamic recrystallization processes in the matrix are markedly influenced by the presence of a second phase.

  9. Distributed fiber optic strain sensor based on the Sagnac and Michelson interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udd, Eric

    1996-04-01

    By placing fiber optic gratings in a Sagnac loop a distributed strain sensor may be formed by using the light reflected from the fiber gratings as sources for balanced Michelson and Mach- Zehnder interferometers. In this manner the resulting fiber optic sensor is capable of measuring integrated strain over lengths determined by the fiber grating position, point strain and temperature at the fiber grating locations and localizing and measuring the position of a time varying signal such as an acoustic wave.

  10. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan Newman, Roger C.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved.

  11. Impact of elasticity on lithospheric shortening and strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaquet, Yoann; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Duretz, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    The initiation of subduction is not well understood and also the mechanisms of localization in a compressive domain are incompletely understood. In order to better understand what controls strain localization during compression, we perform two dimensional numerical simulations with a finite element code using the MILAMIN solver with the Triangle mesh generator. Our model configuration consists of a lithosphere composed of an upper crust, a lower crust and a mantle with each layer having its own non-Newtonian rheology. We add a thermal perturbation (+100°C) to the right bottom side of the model. The model is then shortened with a fixed strain rate (5*10-15s-1) and we vary both the bottom temperature and the shear modulus. The latter allows variations between two extreme rheological models: visco-elasto-plastic and visco-plastic. The results show that (1) the lithosphere is subjected to buckling, (2) localization caused by shear heating can occur in one of the folds during ongoing buckling, and (3) a lower basal temperature favors higher stresses so that localization is facilitated. The visco-elasto-plastic model shows faster and more intense localization than the visco-plastic model. Moreover, as soon as strain localization initiates, strain rates suddenly increase by several orders of magnitude (>2) during a short period of time (

  12. Local Strain Development and Property Variability in B2 Intermetallics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-19

    COVERED (From - To) 19092005 Final Report 15 Jan 2001 - 30 Apr 2005 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Local Strain Development and Property...Variability in B2 Intermetallics 5b. GRANT NUMBER F49620-01-1-0159 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Professor Tresa M. Pollock 5e... 4 3.0 The Strain Mapping Technique .............................................. 4 4.0 Intermetallic

  13. Restructuring local distribution services: Possibilities and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Duann, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is the last major step in the ``reconstitution`` of the natural gas industry and a critical clement in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that already have taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers because they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contribute to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies. Local distribution service is not one but a series of activities that start with commodity gas procurement and extend to transportation, load balancing, storage, and metering and billing of services provided. There are also considerable differences in the economies of scale and scope associated with these various activities. Thus, a mixture of supply arrangements (such as a competitive market or a monopoly) is required for the most efficient delivery of local distribution services. A distinction must be made between the supply of commodity gas and the provision of a bundled distribution service. This distinction and identification of the best supply arrangements for various distribution service components are the most critical factors in developing appropriate restructuring policies. For most state public utility commissions the criteria for service restructuring should include pursuing the economies of scale and scope in gas distribution, differentiating and matching gas service reliability and quality with customer requirements, and controlling costs associated with the search, negotiation, and contracting of gas services.

  14. Local operators in kinetic wealth distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrecut, M.

    2016-05-01

    The statistical mechanics approach to wealth distribution is based on the conservative kinetic multi-agent model for money exchange, where the local interaction rule between the agents is analogous to the elastic particle scattering process. Here, we discuss the role of a class of conservative local operators, and we show that, depending on the values of their parameters, they can be used to generate all the relevant distributions. We also show numerically that in order to generate the power-law tail, an heterogeneous risk aversion model is required. By changing the parameters of these operators, one can also fine tune the resulting distributions in order to provide support for the emergence of a more egalitarian wealth distribution.

  15. Distribution of critical temperature at Anderson localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammag, Rayda; Kim, Ki-Seok

    2016-05-01

    Based on a local mean-field theory approach at Anderson localization, we find a distribution function of critical temperature from that of disorder. An essential point of this local mean-field theory approach is that the information of the wave-function multifractality is introduced. The distribution function of the Kondo temperature (TK) shows a power-law tail in the limit of TK→0 regardless of the Kondo coupling constant. We also find that the distribution function of the ferromagnetic transition temperature (Tc) gives a power-law behavior in the limit of Tc→0 when an interaction parameter for ferromagnetic instability lies below a critical value. However, the Tc distribution function stops the power-law increasing behavior in the Tc→0 limit and vanishes beyond the critical interaction parameter inside the ferromagnetic phase. These results imply that the typical Kondo temperature given by a geometric average always vanishes due to finite density of the distribution function in the TK→0 limit while the typical ferromagnetic transition temperature shows a phase transition at the critical interaction parameter. We propose that the typical transition temperature serves a criterion for quantum Griffiths phenomena vs smeared transitions: Quantum Griffiths phenomena occur above the typical value of the critical temperature while smeared phase transitions result at low temperatures below the typical transition temperature. We speculate that the ferromagnetic transition at Anderson localization shows the evolution from quantum Griffiths phenomena to smeared transitions around the critical interaction parameter at low temperatures.

  16. Medial cortex strain distribution during noncemented total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elias, J J; Nagao, M; Chu, Y H; Carbone, J J; Lennox, D W; Chao, E Y

    2000-01-01

    Intraoperative proximal femur fractures are a significant concern during noncemented total hip arthroplasty. The current study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that broaching the femur and inserting the stem without using mallet applied impact loads will reduce the risk of intraoperative fracture. Rosette strain gauges were applied to the medial and anteromedial cortex of six human anatomic specimen femurs to compare the strain distribution for broaching and stem insertion. Eight additional femurs were used to compare the strain distribution for stem insertion using impact loading and constant rate stem insertion. For the impact loading stem insertions, the soft tissues surrounding the femur were modeled. Constant rate stem insertions were performed using a mechanical testing machine. The largest strains measured at the medial and anteromedial sites primarily were aligned with the femur hoop axis. The largest strain magnitude, orientation, and sign (tensile or compressive) varied widely among femurs. The stem insertion strains were significantly larger than the broaching strains (two-way analysis of variance with replication). The impact stem insertion strains were not significantly different from the constant rate stem insertion strains. The results indicate that the femur geometry and material properties have a greater influence on the strain distribution than does the implantation technique.

  17. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.

  18. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces.

    PubMed

    Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1+1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1+1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2+1 dimensions.

  19. Thermomechanical analysis of strain localization in a ductile detachment zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulch, A.; Teyssier, C.; Cosca, M. A.; Vennemann, T. W.

    2006-12-01

    At the latitude of the Thor-Odin dome (British Columbia) the Columbia River Detachment defines the eastern margin of the Shuswap metamorphic core complex and localizes in a 1 km thick muscovite-bearing quartzite mylonite. We present a combined 40Ar/39Ar, (micro)structural, and oxygen isotope study of the deformation history in the detachment and evaluate the spatial and temporal relationships between microstructure formation and localization of strain. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology from different levels in the mylonite delineates a pattern of increasingly younger (49.0 to 47.9 Ma) deformation ages in deeper levels of the mylonitic footwall. The correlation of 40Ar/39Ar ages with decreasing deformation temperatures (˜550°-400°C) in the top 200 m of the mylonite indicates that deformation migrated downward from the contact with the hanging wall. Strain localization was diachronous in progressively deeper levels of the footwall and was likely controlled by fluid-assisted strain hardening due to advective heat removal and contemporaneous reaction weakening due to dissolution-reprecipitation of white mica. The observed constant high-stress microstructures across the entire detachment indicate that flow stress was buffered by the interplay of strain rate and temperature, where high strain rates at elevated temperature produced the same microstructure as lower strain rates under decreasing temperature conditions. The combined data suggest that the complex interplay among temporally nonuniform rates of footwall exhumation, heat advection, and embrittlement by meteoric fluids strongly determines the thermomechanical behavior of extensional detachments.

  20. Local distribution of old neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Szolt; Huang, Xiaolan; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    The local distribution of old disk neutron stars is approximated with a 1D model, in which the steady state distribution in the direction perpendicular to the Galactic plane is calculated, assuming a variety of the initial radio pulsar positions and velocities, and various Galactic potentials. It is found that the local distribution of old neutron stars is dominated by those that were born with very low velocities. The high-velocity neutron stars spend most of their lifetime far in the Galactic halo and do not contribute much to the local density. Therefore, the rms velocity at birth is not a good indicator of the scale height of the old population. The most likely half-density scale height for the old disk neutron stars is approximately 350 pc, the same as for the old disk G, K, and M stars. If gamma-ray bursts originate on old disk neutron stars, then 350 pc should also be the scale height for the bursters.

  1. Guiding Spin Spirals by Local Uniaxial Strain Relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pin-Jui; Finco, Aurore; Schmidt, Lorenz; Kubetzka, André; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2016-01-01

    We report on the influence of uniaxial strain relief on the spin spiral state in the Fe double layer grown on Ir(111). Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements reveal areas with reconstruction lines resulting from uniaxial strain relief due to the lattice mismatch of Fe and Ir atoms, as well as pseudomorphic strained areas. Magnetic field-dependent spin-polarized STM measurements of the reconstructed Fe double layer reveal cycloidal spin spirals with a period on the nm scale. Globally, the spin spiral wave fronts are guided along symmetry-equivalent [11 2 ¯ ] crystallographic directions of the fcc(111) substrate. On an atomic scale the spin spiral propagation direction is linked to the [001] direction of the bcc(110)-like Fe, leading to a zigzag shaped wave front. The isotropically strained pseudomorphic areas also exhibit a preferred magnetic periodicity on the nm scale but no long-range order. We find that already for local strain relief with a single set of reconstruction lines a strict guiding of the spin spiral is realized.

  2. Strain Distribution Measurement in Stainless Steels by Convergent-Beam Electron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Masakazu; Aoyama, Takashi; Nakata, Kiyotomo; Suzuki, Takaya

    1995-01-01

    A convergent-beam electron diffraction technique was utilized to measure local strain distributions in stainless steels. Electron beams were focused into {210} crystal planes and the higher order Laue zone (HOLZ) lines diffracted from {375} and {119} planes were characterized by measuring the distances between the intersections of these HOLZ lines. Four parameters, including strains in three directions and one magnification factor, were calculated based on the least squares method. Strain distributions near a chromium carbide precipitate were measured in sensitized SUS 304 and it was confirmed that parallel tensile strain and vertical compressive strain to the edge of the precipitate existed and that they decreased with the distance from the edge of precipitate.

  3. Local oscillator distribution using a geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardin, Joseph; Weinreb, Sander; Bagri, Durga

    2004-01-01

    A satellite communication system suitable for distribution of local oscillator reference signals for a widely spaced microwave array has been developed and tested experimentally. The system uses a round-trip correction method of the satellite This experiment was carried out using Telstar-5, a commercial Ku-band geostationary satellite. For this initial experiment, both earth stations were located at the same site to facilitate direct comparison of the received signals. The local oscillator reference frequency was chosen to be 300MHz and was sent as the difference between two Ku-band tones. The residual error after applying the round trip correction has been measured to be better than 3psec for integration times ranging from 1 to 2000 seconds. For integration times greater then 500 seconds, the system outperforms a pair of hydrogen masers with the limitation believed to be ground-based equipment phase stability. The idea of distributing local oscillators using a geostationary satellite is not new; several researchers experimented with this technique in the eighties, but the achieved accuracy was 3 to 100 times worse than the present results. Since substantially and the performance of various components has improved. An important factor is the leasing of small amounts of satellite communication bandwidth. We lease three 100kHz bands at approximately one hundredth the cost of a full 36 MHz transponder. Further tests of the system using terminal separated by large distances and comparison tests with two hydrogen masers and radio interferometry is needed.

  4. Influence of vein fabric on strain distribution and fold kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torremans, Koen; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Abundant pre-folding, bedding-parallel fibrous dolomite veins in shale are found associated with the Nkana-Mindola stratiform Cu-Co deposit in the Central African Copperbelt, Zambia. These monomineralic veins extend for several meters along strike, with a fibrous infill orthogonal to low-tortuosity vein walls. Growth morphologies vary from antitaxial with a pronounced median surface to asymmetric syntaxial, always with small but quantifiable growth competition. Subsequently, these veins were folded. In this study, we aim to constrain the kinematic fold mechanism by which strain is accommodated in these veins, estimate paleorheology at time of deformation and investigate the influence of vein fabric on deformation during folding. Finally, the influence of the deformation on known metallogenetic stages is assessed. Various deformation styles are observed, ultimately related to vein attitude across tight to close lower-order, hectometre-scale folds. In fold hinges, at low to average dips, veins are (poly-)harmonically to disharmonically folded as parasitic folds in single or multilayer systems. With increasing distance from the fold hinge, parasitic fold amplitude decreases and asymmetry increases. At high dips in the limbs, low-displacement duplication thrusts of veins at low angles to bedding are abundant. Slickenfibres and slickenlines are sub-perpendicular to fold hinges and shallow-dipping slickenfibre-step lineations are parallel to local fold hinge lines. A dip isogon analysis of reconstructed fold geometries prior to homogeneous shortening reveals type 1B parallel folds for the veins and type 1C for the matrix. Two main deformation mechanisms are identified in folded veins. Firstly, undulatory extinction, subgrains and fluid inclusions planes parallel the fibre long axis, with deformation intensity increasing away from the fold hinges, indicate intracrystalline strain accumulation. Secondly, intergranular deformation through bookshelf rotation of fibres, via

  5. Distribution of phenotypes among Bacillus thuringiensis strains.

    PubMed

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E; Blackburn, Michael B

    2010-06-01

    An extensive collection of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from around the world were phenotypically profiled using standard biochemical tests. Six phenotypic traits occurred in 20-86% of the isolates and were useful in distinguishing isolates: production of urease (U; 20.5% of isolates), hydrolysis of esculin (E; 32.3% of isolates), acid production from salicin (A; 37.4% of isolates), acid production from sucrose (S; 34.0% of isolates), production of phospholipase C or lecithinase (L; 79.7% of isolates), and hydrolysis of starch (T; 85.8% of isolates). With the exception of acid production from salicin and hydrolysis of esculin, which were associated, the traits assorted independently. Of the 64 possible combinations of these six phenotypic characteristics, 15 combinations accounted for ca. 80% of all isolates, with the most common phenotype being TL (23.6% of isolates). Surprisingly, while the biochemical traits generally assorted independently, certain phenotypic traits associated with the parasporal crystal were correlated with certain combinations of biochemical traits. Crystals that remained attached to spores (which tended to be non-toxic to insects) were highly correlated with the phenotypes that included both L and S. Among the 15 most abundant phenotypes characterizing B. thuringiensis strains, amorphous crystals were associated with TLE, TL, T, and Ø (the absence of positive tested biochemical traits). Amorphous crystal types displayed a distinct bias toward toxicity to dipteran insects. Although all common phenotypes included B. thuringiensis isolates producing bipyramidal crystals toxic to lepidopteran insects, those with the highest abundance of these toxic crystals displayed phenotypes TLU, TLUA, TLUAE, and TLAE.

  6. Strain localization driven by thermal decomposition during seismic shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. D.; Brantut, N.; Rice, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    De Paola et al. [2008] analyzed a series of faults in the Northern Apennines, Italy, hosted in anhydrite and dolomite rocks. They found a highly localized band of less than 100 microns, contained within a broader damage zone. Recent High-Velocity Friction (HVF) experiments on kaolinite-bearing gouge samples (Brantut et al. [2008]) have also shown extreme localization in samples undergoing thermal decomposition. They performed microstructural analysis on HVF samples and found an "ultralocalized deformation zone", less than ten microns wide, interpreted to be the main slipping zone in the experiment. By measuring relative humidity in the sample chamber they were also able to observe the thermal dehydration of kaolinite. These laboratory and field observations indicate that straining is extremely localized in fault materials where thermal decomposition reactions may occur. During thermal decomposition reactions pore fluid is released, leading to increases in pore pressure, and a corresponding drop in frictional heating. The reactions are endothermic, so heat is also absorbed as the reactions progress. Previous work by Sulem and Famin [2009] has investigated how these effects influence the evolution of pore pressure and temperature in a uniformly sheared gouge layer. They found that accounting for thermal decomposition reactions leads to significant pore pressure increases, and that the endothermic nature of the reaction acts to cap the maximum temperature achieved. In previous work (Platt, Rudnicki and Rice [2010]) we investigated strain localization using a model for shearing of a fluid-saturated gouge material, finding a formula for the localized zone width as a function of physical properties of the gouge. We now extend this model to include thermal decomposition. Using linear stability methods and an idealized reaction kinetic we infer a new localized zone width when decomposition is accounted for. Numerical simulations then allow us to compare this prediction to

  7. Microstructural and mechanical effects of strong fine-grained muscovite in soft halite matrix: Shear strain localization in torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Burlini, L.; Burg, J.-P.

    2011-08-01

    Torsion experiments were performed on polymer jacketed samples of 80% halite + 20% fine mica at 373, 473, and 573 K; a confining pressure of 250 MPa; and a shear strain rate of 3 × 10-4 s-1. The strength of the aggregate depended on temperature, strain rate, mica distribution produced by cold pressing, and mica orientation emerging during experiments. Comparison with synthetic aggregates of pure halite shows that halite-mica mixtures were stronger in all cases. From strain rate stepping tests, we deduced stress exponents of 12 and 10 at 373 and 473 K, respectively, in contrast to values of approximately 4 and 3 for halite at the same temperatures. Strain localized only at 573 K, except for one run at 373 K, and high-strain shear bands formed parallel to the applied shear plane at 573 K. We infer that the strength contrast between halite and mica increased with temperature and promoted strain localization, which occurred where the local mica content was low, while unstrained domains persisted where the locally high mica content formed a strong framework. Mica reorientation and strain softening at 573 K increased with strain, from which we deduce that mica alignment promoted softening. We conclude that small amounts of a strong mineral phase can significantly increase the strength and stress dependence of a rock and that the heterogeneous connectivity between strong grains can trigger shear strain localization.

  8. Externally applied cyclic strain regulates localization of focal contact components in cultured smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, James J; Linderman, Jennifer J; Mooney, David J

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical regulators of cellular gene expression, yet little is understood of the mechanism whereby cells sense mechanical forces. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that mechanical strain applied to populations of cells via their adhesion substrate rapidly alters the cellular distribution of focal contact proteins. Focal contact-associated components (vinculin, a-actinin, paxillin) were assayed by immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative western blotting. Application of a single step increase in strain in multiple experiments caused overall a small change in focal contact-associated vinculin. In contrast, cyclic strain induced a large and very reproducible increase in detergent-insoluble vinculin (52% relative to static) after just 1 min of strain. Insoluble paxillin was transiently enriched with a similar time course, whereas insoluble a-actinin did not change significantly in response to cyclic strain. Rhodamine-labeled chicken vinculin added to permeabilized cells preferentially localized to focal contacts in response to cyclic strain, but not a single step increase in strain. These findings establish that insoluble levels of focal contact components are altered rapidly following application of an appropriate number of mechanical perturbations, and suggest that at least one component of the mechanism does not involve soluble intermediates.

  9. Strain localization in usnaturated soils with large deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Borja, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    Strain localization is a ubiquitous feature of granular materials undergoing nonhomogeneous deformation. In unsaturated porous media, how the localized deformation band is formed depends crucially on the degree of saturation, since fluid in the pores of a solid imposes a volume constraint on the deformation of the solid. When fluid flow is involved, the inception of the localized deformation band also depends on the heterogeneity of a material, which is quantified in terms of the spatial variation of density, the degree of saturation, and matric suction. We present a mathematical framework for coupled solid-deformation/fluid-diffusion in unsaturated porous media that takes into account material and geometric nonlinearities [1, 2]. The framework relies on the continuum principle of thermodynamics to identify an effective, or constitutive, stress for the solid matrix, and a water retention law that highlights the interdependence of degree of saturation, suction, and porosity of the material. We discuss the role of heterogeneity, quantified either deterministically or stochastically, on the development of a persistent shear band. We derive bifurcation conditions [3] governing the initiation of such a shear band. This research is inspired by current testing techniques that allow nondestructive and non-invasive measurement of density and the degree of saturation through high-resolution imaging [4]. The numerical simulations under plane strain condition demonstrate that the bifurcation not only manifests itself on the loading response curve and but also in the space of the degree of saturation, specific volume and suction stress. References[1] Song X, Borja RI, Mathematical framework for unsaturated flow in the finite deformation range. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2014; 97: 658-686. [2] Song X, Borja RI, Finite deformation and fluid flow in unsaturated soils with random heterogeneity. Vadose Zone Journal 2014; doi:10.2136/vzj2013.07.0131. [3] Song X, Borja RI, Instability

  10. Simulation of cemented granular materials. I. Macroscopic stress-strain response and strain localization.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Nicolas; Lizcano, Arcesio; Taboada, Alfredo

    2010-07-01

    This is the first of two papers investigating the mechanical response of cemented granular materials by means of contact dynamics simulations. In this paper, a two-dimensional polydisperse sample with high-void ratio is constructed and then sheared in a simple shear numerical device at different confinement levels. We study the macroscopic response of the material in terms of mean and deviatoric stresses and strains. We show that the introduction of a local force scale, i.e., the tensile strength of the cemented bonds, causes the material to behave in a rigid-plastic fashion, so that a yield surface can be easily determined. This yield surface has a concave-down shape in the mean:deviatoric stress plane and it approaches a straight line, i.e., a Coulomb strength envelope, in the limit of a very dense granular material. Beyond yielding, the cemented structure gradually degrades until the material eventually behaves as a cohesionless granular material. Strain localization is also investigated, showing that the strains concentrate in a shear band whose thickness increases with the confining stress. The void ratio inside the shear band at the steady state is shown to be a material property that depends only on contact parameters.

  11. Theoretical and numerical study of strain localization under high strain rate solicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranc, N.; Raynal, R.; Taravella, L.; Pina, V.; Hervé, P.

    2006-08-01

    Our study deals with the dynamic behavior of metallic materials and in particular of titanium alloy TA6V. For high strain rates, we can notice the occurrence of a phenomenon called adiabatic shearing. This phenomenon is about a plastic instability, which results in the appearance of a strain localization in narrow bands. In this paper we developed a thermo mechanical model to reproduce the formation and the propagation of adiabatic shear bands. A Johnson Cook thermo visco plastic behavior law was chosen for the titanium alloy TA6V. The law parameters were identified from static and dynamic torsion tests at various temperatures between ambient and 350circC. A 2D numerical simulation of torsion test was performed with the explicit finite elements code Abaqus. The thermo mechanical coupling and the heat conduction are taken into account. A roughness defect was inserted in the centre of a torsion specimen. The results showed that the strain of localization and the shear band speed increase when the amplitude and the size of the defect decrease.

  12. Local lattice strain measurements in semiconductor devices by using convergent-beam electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Akio; Ikarashi, Nobuyuki; Ono, Haruhiko

    2000-03-01

    We examined the lattice strain distribution around local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) in a semiconductor device by using highly accurate (1.8×10 -4 standard deviation) convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) at a nanometer-scale spatial resolution (10 nm in diameter). The nanometer-scale measurement was done by reducing the elastic relaxation using a thick (about 600 nm) sample and by removing the inelastically scattered electrons by means of an electron energy filter. A highly accurate measurement was achieved through the analysis of higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) patterns using the least-squares fitting of HOLZ line intersection distances between the observations and calculations. Our examination showed that the LOCOS structure gave singularities in strain distributions at the field edge. That is, compressive strain exists in both the vertical and horizontal directions of the substrate, and the shear strain increased there. Most notably, two-dimensional measurements revealed that the singularity of the normal strain in the horizontal direction of the substrate generated at the field edge propagated into the substrate.

  13. Evaluation of strain distribution in freestanding and buried lateral nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanenkov, A.; Darowski, N.; Grenzer, J.; Pietsch, U.; Wang, K. H.; Forchel, A.

    1999-12-01

    A free-standing lateral nanostructure based on GaAs[001] containing a Ga0.97In0.03As single quantum well and similar structures after the overgrowth with GaAs and AlAs, respectively, have been investigated by high-resolution x-ray grazing incidence diffraction (GID) and conventional x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The wire shape of the freestanding structure and the lateral density variation in the overgrown samples, were determined by running scans with constant length of the scattering vector (transverse scans) across the grating truncation rods (GTR's) close to the (2¯20) reflection. The in-plane strain distribution became available crossing the (220) GTR's by a scan in the longitudinal direction. Exploiting the capability of GID for depth resolution, the in-plane strain distribution was analyzed for different values of depth below the sample surface. The strain analysis was completed by HRXRD measurements close to the (004) reflection. The x-ray measurements were interpreted in terms of the distorted wave Born approximation applied for GID geometry. The strain distribution is determined by comparing the measured GTR intensities with the corresponding simulations containing the displacement fields obtained from finite-element calculations. At the freestanding wire structure we find laterally compressive strain of about Δa/a||=-2×10-3 at the single quantum well (SQW) with a steep strain gradient close to the wire side walls. Both overgrown samples show pronounced lateral strain variation within the overgrown layer, which still appears up to the completely planar surface. Within the SQW the in-plane strain is still compressive after GaAs overgrowth and of similar amount compared to the freestanding grating. The strain is increased by about 30% after overgrowth with AlAs. For both overgrown samples the strain gradient near the wire side walls is reduced, but reaches a maximum close to the SQW. Accompanied by the defect passivation, these findings explain the

  14. Probing local strain and composition in Ge nanowires by means of tip-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Reparaz, J S; Peica, N; Kirste, R; Goñi, A R; Wagner, M R; Callsen, G; Alonso, M I; Garriga, M; Marcus, I C; Ronda, A; Berbezier, I; Maultzsch, J; Thomsen, C; Hoffmann, A

    2013-05-10

    Local strain and Ge content distribution in self-assembled, in-plane Ge/Si nanowires grown by combining molecular beam epitaxy and the metal-catalyst assisted-growth method were investigated by tip-enhanced Raman scattering. We show that this technique is essential to study variations of physical properties of single wires at the nanoscale, a task which cannot be achieved with conventional micro-Raman scattering. As two major findings, we report that (i) the Ge distribution in the (001) crystallographic direction is inhomogeneous, displaying a gradient with a higher Ge content close to the top surface, and (ii) in contrast, the (uncapped) wires exhibit essentially the same small residual compressive strain everywhere along the wire.

  15. Application of advanced reliability methods to local strain fatigue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, T. T.; Wirsching, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    When design factors are considered as random variables and the failure condition cannot be expressed by a closed form algebraic inequality, computations of risk (or probability of failure) might become extremely difficult or very inefficient. This study suggests using a simple, and easily constructed, second degree polynomial to approximate the complicated limit state in the neighborhood of the design point; a computer analysis relates the design variables at selected points. Then a fast probability integration technique (i.e., the Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm) can be used to estimate risk. The capability of the proposed method is demonstrated in an example of a low cycle fatigue problem for which a computer analysis is required to perform local strain analysis to relate the design variables. A comparison of the performance of this method is made with a far more costly Monte Carlo solution. Agreement of the proposed method with Monte Carlo is considered to be good.

  16. Ductility of metal alloys with grain size distribution in a wide range of strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Skripnyak, Nataliya V.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.

    Ductility of ultrafine grained (UFG) metal alloys with a distribution of grain size was investigated in wide loading conditions by numerical simulation. The multiscale models with a unimodal and a bimodal grain size distributions were developed using the data of structure research of hexagonal close packed and face center cubic UFG alloys. Macroscopic fracture is considered as a result of the formation of percolation clusters of damage at the mesoscopic level. The critical fracture strain of UFG alloys on the mesoscale level depends on the relative volumes of coarse grains. The nucleation of damages at quasi-static and dynamic loading is associated with strain localization in UFG partial volumes with bimodal grain size distribution. The concentration of damages arise in the vicinity of the boundaries of coarse and ultrafine grains. The occurrence of a bimodal grain size distributions causes the increase of UFG alloys' ductility, but decrease of their tensile strength. Linkoping University, Sweden.

  17. Local changes in rates of group A Streptococcus disease and antibiotic resistance are associated with geographically widespread strain turnover events.

    PubMed

    Metzgar, David; McDonough, Erin A; Hansen, Christian J; Blaesing, Carl R; Baynes, Darcie; Hawksworth, Anthony W; Blair, Patrick J; Faix, Dennis J; Russell, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the effects of dynamic strain turnover and antibiotic prophylaxis on rates of group A Streptococcus (GAS) antibiotic resistance and disease. The authors analyzed the strain distributions, disease rates, and patterns of antibiotic resistance of 802 GAS isolates collected from 2002 through 2007. These samples were collected from patients with GAS infection symptoms at 10 military facilities. Macrolide resistance peaked at 25% during 2004, due to the geographically widespread dominance of a single resistant strain (M75). The resistant strain was not retained regardless of local patterns of macrolide use, and resistance rates decreased upon replacement of M75 with macrolide-susceptible strains. Disease rates were similarly correlated with dominance of specific M types. Statistical analysis revealed temporal correlations between strain distributions at multiple locations. Only the most common strains yielded enough data at multiple sites for statistically significant comparison of temporal fluctuations in dominance, but these (including M44, M3, M18, M118, and M6) all yielded highly significant temporal correlations of 90% or greater on yearly scales. As expected given the complexity and variability of strain distributions on shorter time scales, analysis on a monthly scale yielded lower degrees of positive correlation (31-62%), but in this case all significant correlations were still positive. Shifts in antibiotic resistance profiles and disease rates at specific sites appear to be associated with strain replacements happening on larger scales, independent of antibiotic use at individual sites.

  18. Local Earthquake Distribution Off Valparaiso, Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierer, P. O.; Tilmann, F.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Comte, D.

    2003-04-01

    The SPOC experiment was carried out as a combined on- /offshore experiment using FS SONNE (cruise SO 161) to investigate the effects of subducting seamounts and fracture zones on the seismicity and structure of the Central Chilean margin off Valparaiso, Chile. The working area is characterised by the ongoing subduction of the oceanic Nazca Plate under the South American continent and shows highly segmentation. North of Valparaiso the subduction angle is very low (flat slab) and we observe only minor sediment input into the trench. In contrast we observe a steep dip angle and high sedimentation rates in the south. Segment boundaries commonly coincide with e.g. bathymetric highs as in this case the Juan Fernandez Ridge which interrupts the lateral, south-north going material flow along the trench. Local earthquake monitoring was carried out for a period of ten weeks using two marine subarrays totally comprising 23 ocean bottom instruments (OBH and OBS). Seismological land data from the Central Chilean Network (CCN) and a number of temporary land stations supplement the marine data set. We present results of about 600 hypocenter determinations detected on the marine OBH/S recordings and the temporary land stations. The hypocenter distribution shows a considerable seismic activity below the upper part of the continental margin. Due to the geometry of the arrays which focus on the transitional domain of the slope we can map the seaward termination of the seismogenic zone using a compilation of both data sets. The southern marine subarray registered a swarm of shallow earthquakes, located on top of the already subducted Topocalma Knoll. A relation to this seamount subduction is strongly indicated. Next to the Juan Fernandez Seamount on the outer rise, we observe considerable seismic activity.

  19. Distributed fibre optic strain measurements on a driven pile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woschitz, Helmut; Monsberger, Christoph; Hayden, Martin

    2016-05-01

    In civil engineering pile systems are used in unstable areas as a foundation of buildings or other structures. Among other parameters, the load capacity of the piles depends on their length. A better understanding of the mechanism of load-transfer to the soil would allow selective optimisation of the system. Thereby, the strain variations along the loaded pile are of major interest. In this paper, we report about a field trial using an optical backscatter reflectometer for distributed fibre-optic strain measurements along a driven pile. The most significant results gathered in a field trial with artificial pile loadings are presented. Calibration results show the performance of the fibre-optic system with variations in the strain-optic coefficient.

  20. Panoramic Measurement and Analysis of Strain Distribution in the Human ACL Using a Photoelastic Coating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirokawa, Shunji; Yamamoto, Kouji; Kawada, Takashi

    Large and highly variable deformations of the ACL cannot be adequately quantified by one-dimensional and/or localized measurements. Since the complex anatomy of the ACL makes uniform loading of all fiber bundles almost impossible, strains on specific portions being tested are considerably altered during knee movement. To observe the ACL's entire surface, we propose a photoelastic coating method. A simulator jig was used to allow a natural motion of the knee whose medial and lateral femoral bone parts were removed in order to expose the ACL for observation. The simulator jig with the knee was mounted on a universal stand which allows tilt and swivel rotations, so that the exposed ACL might be viewed from any direction. Measurements were performed on the strain distributions over the ACL at various knee angles. The panoramic images of the photoelastic fringe patterns yielded significant results. Special attention was paid for insight into the relation between strain distribution and the directions of fiber run.

  1. X-Ray Microbeam Measurement of Local Texture and Strain in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.-S.; Tamura, N.; Ice, G.E.; Larson, B.C.; Budai, J.D.; Lowe, W.

    1999-04-06

    Synchrotron x-ray sources provide high-brilliance beams that can be focused to submicron sizes with Fresnel zone-plate and x-ray mirror optics. With these intense, tunable or broad-bandpass x-ray microbeams, it is now possible to study texture and strain distributions in surfaces, and in buried or encapsulated thin films. The full strain tensor and local texture can be determined by measuring the unit cell parameters of strained material. With monochromatic or tunable radiation, at least three independent reflections are needed to determine the orientation and unit cell parameters of an unknown crystal. With broad-bandpass or white radiation, at least four reflections and one measured energy are required to determine the orientation and the unit cell parameters of an unknown crystal. Routine measurement of local texture and strain is made possible by automatic indexing of the Laue reflections combined with precision calibration of the monochromator-focusing mirrors-CCD detector system. Methods used in implementing these techniques on the MHA-IT-CAT beam line at the Advanced Photon Source will be discussed.

  2. Grana Padano cheese whey starters: microbial composition and strain distribution.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Lia; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Gatti, Monica; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2008-09-30

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the species composition and the genotypic strain heterogeneity of dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from whey starter cultures used to manufacture Grana Padano cheese. Twenty-four Grana Padano cheese whey starters collected from dairies located over a wide geographic production area in the north of Italy were analyzed. Total thermophilic LAB streptococci and lactobacilli were quantified by agar plate counting. Population structure of the dominant and metabolically active LAB species present in the starters was profiled by reverse transcriptase, length heterogeneity-PCR (RT-LH-PCR), a culture-independent technique successfully applied to study whey starter ecosystems. The dominant bacterial species were Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Diversity in the species composition allowed the whey cultures to be grouped into four main typologies, the one containing L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and S. thermophilus being the most frequent one (45% of the cultures analyzed), followed by that containing only the two lactobacilli (40%). Only a minor fraction of the cultures contained L. helveticus alone (4%) or all the four LAB species (11%). Five hundred and twelve strains were isolated from the 24 cultures and identified by M13-PCR fingerprinting coupled with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most of the strains were L. helveticus (190 strains; 37% of the total), L delbrueckii subsp. lactis (90 strains; 18%) and S. thermophilus (215 strains; 42%). This result was in good agreement with the qualitative whey starter composition observed by RT-LH-PCR. M13-PCR fingerprinting indicated a markedly low infra-species diversity, i.e. the same biotypes were often found in more than one culture. The distribution of the biotypes into the different cultures was mainly dairy plant-specific rather than correlated with the different production areas.

  3. Strain localization in glassy polymers under cylindrical confinement.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Amit; Riggleman, Robert A

    2014-06-14

    Although the origin of ductility in crystalline materials is well understood through the motion of dislocations and defects, a similar framework for understanding deformation in amorphous materials remains elusive. In particular, the difference in the mechanical response for small-molecule amorphous solids, such as organic glasses that are typically brittle, and polymer glasses, which are frequently very tough, has not been systematically explored. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the mechanical response of model glassy polymers confined to a nanoscopic pillar under tensile deformation. We vary the chain length, cooling rate for forming the glass, and the deformation rate and investigate the changes in the mechanical response. We find that samples that are cooled at a slower rate and deformed at a slower rate are more prone to localization of the strain response, or shear banding. Interestingly, this effect is independent of chain length over the range of parameters we have investigated so far, and we believe this is the first direct observation of shear banding in deformed polymer glasses under cylindrical confinement. Finally, by using the isoconfigurational ensemble approach, we provide evidence that the location where the shear band forms is due to structural features that are frozen in place during sample preparation.

  4. Experimental deformation of partially molten granite and implications for strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, L.; Hirth, G.; Alkmim, F.; Pedrosa-Soares, A.; Goncalves, C.

    2011-12-01

    To improve our understanding of partially molten systems we conducted a set of hydrostatic, general shear and axial compression experiments on sintered aggregates composed of equal amounts by weight of quartz, albite and microcline (grain size of 37-53μm). All experiments were conducted using a Griggs solid medium apparatus at T=900°C, P=1.5GPa and strain rates from 10-4/s to 10-6/s. Previous hydrostatic and axial compression experiments conducted on partial molten granitic rocks have shown that the initial grain size, amount of melt and strain rate are important parameters for the development of distinct microstructures, LPO, and melt distribution. In addition, some of these studies demonstrated that the strength of granite and aplite decrease significantly for melt contents up to 15%, when compared to similar melt-free rocks. The rock's strength deep within the Earth decreases owing to partial melting which brings up some questions: would strain localization take place when partial melt affects rheology? Would brittle and/or ductile shear zones act as potential regions for concentration of partial melt? Is there a critical fraction of melt responsible for strain localization? How is melt distribution influenced by deformation? How does the kinematics of deformation (i.e., axial compression versus general shear) affect melt distribution? The purpose of our experiments is to investigate the role of melting on the rheological properties of crustal rocks. In addition, we seek to provide new constraints on the grain scale processes that control the properties of partially molten rocks and the importance of these processes in understanding shear localization in the lithosphere. Samples were made from crushed Amelia albite (Ab97Or2An1), Hugo Microcline (Or90) and Black Hills quartzite, which have all been used in previous experimental deformation studies. The albite is essentially pure; the microcline contains ~ 1% of muscovite. The Black Hills quartzite contains < 1

  5. Mechanical anisotropy control on strain localization in upper mantle shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwegh, Marco; Mercolli, Ivan; Linckens, Jolien; Müntener, Othmar

    2016-05-01

    Mantle rocks at oceanic spreading centers reveal dramatic rheological changes from partially molten to solid-state ductile to brittle deformation with progressive cooling. Using the crustal-scale Wadi al Wasit mantle shear zone (SZ, Semail ophiolite, Oman), we monitor such changes based on quantitative field and microstructural investigations combined with petrological and geochemical analyses. The spatial distribution of magmatic dikes and high strain zones gives important information on the location of magmatic and tectonic activity. In the SZ, dikes derived from primitive melts (websterites) are distributed over the entire SZ but are more abundant in the center; dikes from more evolved, plagioclase saturated melts (gabbronorites) are restricted to the SZ center. Accordingly, harzburgite deformation fabrics show a transition from protomylonite (1100°C), mylonite (900-800°C) to ultramylonite (<700°C) and a serpentine foliation (<500°C) from the SZ rim to the center. The spatial correlation between solid-state deformation fabrics and magmatic features indicates progressive strain localization in the SZ on the cooling path. Three stages can be discriminated: (i) Cycles of melt injection (dunite channels and websterite dikes) and solid-state deformation (protomylonites-mylonites; 1100-900°C), (ii) dominant solid-state deformation in harzburgite mylonites (900-800°C) with some last melt injections (gabbronorites) and ultramylonites (<700°C), and (iii) infiltration of seawater inducing a serpentine foliation (<500°C) followed by cataclasis during obduction. The change of these processes in space and time indicates that early dike-related ridge-parallel deformation controls the onset of the entire strain localization history promoting nucleation sites for different strain weakening processes as a consequence of changing physicochemical conditions.

  6. Multi-scale strain localization within orthogneiss during subduction and exhumation (Tenda unit, Alpine Corsica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Alexandre; Augier, Romain; Jolivet, Laurent; Raimbourg, Hugues; Jourdon, Anthony; Scaillet, Stéphane; Cardello, Giovanni Luca

    2016-04-01

    Strain localization depends upon scale-related factors resulting in a gap between small-scale studies of deformation mechanisms and large-scale numerical and tectonic models. The former often ignore the variations in composition and water content across tectonic units, while the latter oversimplify the role of the deformation mechanisms. This study aims to heal this gap, by considering microstructures and strain localization not only at a single shear zone-scale but across a 40km-wide tectonic unit and throughout its complex polyphased evolution. The Tenda unit (Alpine Corsica) is an external continental unit mainly composed of granites, bounded by the East Tenda Shear Zone (ETSZ) that separates it from the overlying oceanic-derived HP tectonic units. Previous studies substantially agreed on (1) the burial of the Tenda unit down to blueschist-facies conditions associated with top-to-the-west shearing (D1) and (2) subsequent exhumation accommodated by a localized top-to-the-east shear zone (D2). Reaction-softening is the main localizing mechanism proposed in the literature, being associated with the transformation of K-feldspar into white-mica. In this work, the Tenda unit is reviewed through (1) the construction of a new field-based strain map accompanied by cross-sections representing volumes of rock deformed at different grades related to large-scale factors of strain localization and (2) the structural study of hand-specimens and thin-sections coupled with EBSD analysis in order to target the deformation processes. We aim to find how softening and localization are in relation to the map-scale distribution of strain. The large-scale study shows that the whole Tenda unit is affected by the two successive stages of deformation. However, a more intense deformation is observed along the eastern margin, which originally led to the definition of the ETSZ, with a present-day anastomosed geometry of deformation. Strain localization is clearly linked to rheological

  7. Strain localization in ultramylonitic calcite marbles by dislocation creep-accommodated grain boundary sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, Anna; Grasemann, Bernhard; Clancy White, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Strain localization in monomineralic rocks is often associated with brittle precursors, resulting in stress and strain concentration, followed by grain size reduction and activation of grain-size-sensitive deformation mechanisms such as diffusion creep, grain boundary sliding and cataclastic flow. The aforementioned mechanisms typically tend to produce a random crystallographic orientation or a decrease in intensity of a pre-existing texture. However, reports of fine grained polycrystalline materials showing a preferred crystallographic orientation indicate a need for subsequent grain re-organization by either static annealing or the activation of additional deformation mechanisms in conjunction with grain boundary sliding. We present observations from an almost pure calcite marble layer from Syros Island (Cyclades, Greece) deformed in lower greenschist facies conditions. The presence of a crack (i.e. cross-cutting element) that rotated during shear resulted in the formation of a flanking structure. At the location of maximum displacement (120 cm) along the cross-cutting element, the marble is extremely fine grained (3 µm) leading to anticipation of deformation by grain-size-sensitive mechanisms. Detailed microstructural analysis of the highly strained (80 < gamma < 1000) calcite ultramylonite by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy show that recrystallization by bulging results in small, strain-free grains. The change in grain size appears to be concomitant with increased activity of independent grain boundary sliding as indicated by a random misorientation angle distribution. At the same time, dislocation multiplication through Frank-Read sources produces high mean dislocation density (~ 5x10^13 m^-2) as well as a weak primary CPO; the latter all argue that grain boundary sliding was accommodated by dislocation activity. Theoretical and experimental determined relationships (paleowattmeter

  8. Local field distribution near corrugated interfaces: Green's function formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. W.; Wan, Jones T. K.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a Green's function formalism to compute the local field distribution near an interface separating two media of different dielectric constants. The Maxwell's equations are converted into a surface integral equation; thus it greatly simplifies the solutions and yields accurate results for interfaces of arbitrary shape. The integral equation is solved and the local field distribution is obtained for a periodic interface.

  9. Modeling and Simulation - The Effects of Grain Coarsening on Local Stresses and Strains in Solder Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Chanchani, R.

    1999-01-21

    A critical issue in the long-term reliability of solder connections used in electronic packages is the joint failure during thermal cycling. Presently in most finite element analysis to predict the solder joint fatigue failures, solder is assumed as a homogeneous single-phase metal. However in the last decade, several metallurgical studies have shown that solder microstructure may have a role in early solder joint failures (ref 1). Investigators have observed (ref 1) that solder microstructure coarsens in local bands during aging and during thermal cycle fatigue. In a failed solder joint, the fatigue cracks are found in these bands of coarse grains. It is speculated that the grain coarsening increases the local strains within the microstructure, thereby increasing the likelihood for a crack to initiate. The objective of this study is to model and simulate the effect of grain coarsening on local stresses and strains. During solidification of eutectic Pb/Sn solder, two types of microstructure form, namely lamellar and equiaxed. In this study, I have developed a computer code to generate both types of microstructures of varying grain coarseness. This code is incorporated into the finite element (FE) code that analyzes the local stresses and strains within the computer-generated microstructure. The FE code, specifically developed for this study, uses an algorithm involving the sparse matrix and iterative solver. This code on a typical single-processor machine will allow the analyst to use over 1 million degrees of freedom. For higher number of degrees of freedom, we have also developed a code to run on a parallel machine using message passing interface. The data reported in this paper were obtained using the single-processor code. The solder microstructure, if assumed to be homogeneous single phase, has gradual variation in local stresses and strains. In 2-phase solder, von mises stresses and strains are heterogeneously distributed. In general, the maximum von mises

  10. Object Management in Local Distributed Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    Theory, Vol. 2, Jack Minker et a.l. editors, Plenum Press, New York, IQ84. / A3/ Gottlob , G., P. Paolini, and R. Zicari, "Properties and Update Semantics...February 1980. /D3/ Enslow, P., "What is a ’distributed’ data processing system?" IEEE Computer, 11, 1, January 1978. /D4/ Gottlob , G. and R. Zicari

  11. Localization of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium sp. VKM Ac-1815D mutant strain.

    PubMed

    Egorova, O V; Nikolayeva, V M; Suzina, N E; Donova, M V

    2005-04-01

    The localization of mycobacterial 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-OH SDH) was studied using cell fractionation and cytochemical investigation. Mycobacterium sp. Et1 mutant strain derived from Mycobacterium sp. VKM Ac-1815D and characterized by increased 17beta-OH SDH activity was used as a model organism. Subcellular distribution study showed both soluble and membrane-bound forms of mycobacterial 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The cytochemical method based on a copper ferrocyanide procedure followed by electron microscopic visualization was applied in order to investigate the intracellular localization of bacterial 17beta-OH SDH in more detail. The enzyme was found to be located in the peripheral cytoplasmic zone adjoining the cytoplasmic membrane (CM). 17beta-OH SDH was loosely membrane bound and easily released into the environment under the cell integrity failure.

  12. Development of a pattern to measure multiscale deformation and strain distribution via in situ FE-SEM observations.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Naito, K; Kishimoto, S; Kagawa, Y

    2011-03-18

    We investigated a method for measuring deformation and strain distribution in a multiscale range from nanometers to millimeters via in situ FE-SEM observations. A multiscale pattern composed of a grid as well as random and nanocluster patterns was developed to measure the localized deformation at the specimen surface. Our in situ observations of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composite with a hierarchical microstructure subjected to loading were conducted to identify local deformation behaviors at various boundaries. We measured and analyzed the multiscale deformation and strain localizations during various stages of loading.

  13. Structural health monitoring of cylindrical bodies under impulsive hydrodynamic loading by distributed FBG strain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Pierluigi; Biscarini, Chiara; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Filippo; Ubertini, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Various mechanical, ocean, aerospace and civil engineering problems involve solid bodies impacting the water surface and often result in complex coupled dynamics, characterized by impulsive loading conditions, high amplitude vibrations and large local deformations. Monitoring in such problems for purposes such as remaining fatigue life estimation and real time damage detection is a technical and scientific challenge of primary concern in this context. Open issues include the need for developing distributed sensing systems able to operate at very high acquisition frequencies, to be utilized to study rapidly varying strain fields, with high resolution and very low noise, while scientific challenges mostly relate to the definition of appropriate signal processing and modeling tools enabling the extraction of useful information from distributed sensing signals. Building on previous work by some of the authors, we propose an enhanced method for real time deformed shape reconstruction using distributed FBG strain measurements in curved bodies subjected to impulsive loading and we establish a new framework for applying this method for structural health monitoring purposes, as the main focus of the work. Experiments are carried out on a cylinder impacting the water at various speeds, proving improved performance in displacement reconstruction of the enhanced method compared to its previous version. A numerical study is then carried out considering the same physical problem with different delamination damages affecting the body. The potential for detecting, localizing and quantifying this damage using the reconstruction algorithm is thoroughly investigated. Overall, the results presented in the paper show the potential of distributed FBG strain measurements for real time structural health monitoring of curved bodies under impulsive hydrodynamic loading, defining damage sensitive features in terms of strain or displacement reconstruction errors at selected locations along

  14. [Bound amino acids in local strains of Trichomonas vaginalis].

    PubMed

    Tsvetkova, A; Osinovski, E; Vasilevska, M

    1990-01-01

    Amino acid composition of water-soluble and water-insoluble proteins of 8 strains of Tr. vaginalis is studied. 17 amino acids are found in both protein hydrolyzates. Despite the complete coincidence of their qualitative compositions there are reliable differences in the quantitative contents of some amino acids. Differences in the contents of main amino acids of water-soluble proteins of different strains reflect the belonging of the latter to different sero-groups. No reliable differences in the quantitative contents of amino acids of both water-soluble and water-insoluble proteins in strains belonging to one sero-group are recognised.

  15. Ultrastructure and cytochemical localization of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Pollaci) Graham and Luttrell.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, L T; Bishop, D S; Hooper, G R

    1979-01-01

    Substrate specificity tests were used to identify the presence of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Poll.) Graham and Luttrell, an ascomycete which causes leaf spot in alfalfa. Cytochemical localization of monophenol monooxygenase (laccase) as well as the ultrastructures of the two strains were investigated. Laccase was observed in the outer layers of the cell walls of both strains. The ultrastructures of vegetative hyphae of both strains were typical of those found in most ascomycetes. Images PMID:104971

  16. Forming Ganymede’s grooves at smaller strain: Toward a self-consistent local and global strain history for Ganymede

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bland, Michael; McKinnon, W. B.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of tectonic features formed in extension, and the apparent absence of ones formed in contraction, has led to the hypothesis that Ganymede has undergone global expansion in its past. Determining the magnitude of such expansion is challenging however, and extrapolation of locally or regionally inferred strains to global scales often results in strain estimates that exceed those based on global constraints. Here we use numerical simulations of groove terrain formation to develop a strain history for Ganymede that is generally consistent at local, regional, and global scales. These simulations reproduce groove-like amplitudes, wavelengths, and average slopes at modest regional extensions (10–15%). The modest strains are more consistent with global constraints on Ganymede’s expansion. Yet locally, we also find that surface strains can be much larger (30–60%) in the same simulations, consistent with observations of highly-extended impact craters. Thus our simulations satisfy both the smallest-scale and largest-scale inferences of strain on Ganymede. The growth rate of the topography is consistent with (or exceeds) predictions of analytical models, and results from the use of a non-associated plastic rheology that naturally permits localization of brittle failure (plastic strain) into linear fault-like shear zones. These fault-like zones are organized into periodically-spaced graben-like structures with stepped, steeply-dipping faults. As in previous work, groove amplitudes and wavelengths depend on both the imposed heat flux and surface temperature, but because our brittle strength increases with depth, we find (for the parameters explored) that the growth rate of topography is initially faster for lower heat flows. We observe a transition to narrow rifting for higher heat flows and larger strains, which is a potential pathway for breakaway margin or band formation.

  17. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water.

  18. Effect of Local Tidal Lung Strain on Inflammation in Normal and Lipopolysaccharide-Exposed Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Tyler J.; Winkler, Tilo; Costa, Eduardo L.V.; Musch, Guido; Harris, R. Scott; Zheng, Hui; Venegas, Jose G.; Vidal Melo, Marcos F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regional tidal lung strain may trigger local inflammation during mechanical ventilation, particularly when additional inflammatory stimuli are present. However, it is unclear whether inflammation develops proportionally to tidal strain or only above a threshold. We aimed to: (1) assess the relationship between regional tidal strain and local inflammation in vivo during the early stages of lung injury in lungs with regional aeration heterogeneity comparable to that of humans; and (2) determine how this strain-inflammation relationship is affected by endotoxemia. Design Interventional animal study. Setting Experimental laboratory and positron emission tomography (PET) facility. Subjects Eighteen 2–4-month-old sheep. Interventions Three groups of sheep (n=6) were mechanically ventilated to the same plateau pressure (30–32 cmH2O) with High-Strain (VT=18.2±6.5 ml/kg, PEEP=0), High-Strain plus intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (VT=18.4±4.2 ml/kg, PEEP=0), or Low-Strain plus LPS (VT=8.1±0.2 ml/kg, PEEP=17±3 cmH2O). At baseline, we acquired respiratory-gated PET scans of inhaled 13NN to measure tidal strain from end-expiratory and end-inspiratory images in six regions of interest (ROIs). After 3 hours of mechanical ventilation, dynamic [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) scans were acquired to quantify metabolic activation, indicating local neutrophilic inflammation, in the same ROIs. Measurements and Main Results Baseline regional tidal strain had a significant effect on 18F-FDG net uptake rate Ki in High-Strain LPS (p=0.036) and on phosphorylation rate k3 in High-Strain (p=0.027) and High-Strain LPS (p=0.004). LPS exposure increased the k3-tidal strain slope 3-fold (p=0.009), without significant lung edema. The Low-Strain LPS group showed lower baseline regional tidal strain (0.33±0.17) than High-Strain (1.21±0.62; p<0.001) or High-Strain LPS (1.26±0.44; p<0.001), and lower k3 (p<0.001) and Ki (p<0.05) than High-Strain LPS. Conclusions Local

  19. Investigation of the Influence of Tool Geometry on Effective Strain Distribution in Full Forward Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merklein, Marion; Ndzomssi, Franck; Engel, Ulf

    2011-05-01

    Due to strain hardening of the material, the hardness of cold forged parts is considerably improved. It is well known that the hardness of cold forged parts is closely related to its deformation, and that this relation is not dependent on the deformation process. The effective strain defines the local deformation, and can be determined in simulation of the cold forming process. In order to reach the required or to set specific hardness distribution with cold forging without any heat treatment processes, it is necessary to find out which manufacturing parameters influence the effective strain, and determine the effects of these parameters. The research work covered in this paper investigates the influence of the die geometry (as manufacturing parameter) on the effective strain. For that, a full forward extrusion process was modeled using the FE-software Simufact. Forming and three parameters of the die geometry, namely the deformation ratio, the shoulder radius and the opening angle were varied. The maximum effective strain from each combination is determined, and the effects of each considered parameter as well as the effects of interactions between these factors are checked.

  20. Strain Localization in an Oscillating Maxwell Viscoelastic Cylinder.

    PubMed

    Massouros, Panagiotis G; Bayly, Philip V; Genin, Guy M

    2014-01-15

    The transient rotation responses of simple, axisymmetric, viscoelastic structures are of interest for interpretation of experiments designed to characterize materials and closed structures such as the brain using magnetic resonance techniques. Here, we studied the response of a Maxwell viscoelastic cylinder to small, sinusoidal displacement of its outer boundary. The transient strain field can be calculated in closed form using any of several conventional approaches. The solution is surprising: the strain field develops a singularity that appears when the wavefront leaves the center of the cylinder, and persists as the wavefront reflects to the outer boundary and back to the center of the cylinder. The singularity is alternately annihilated and reinitiated upon subsequent departures of the wavefront from the center of the cylinder until it disappears in the limit of steady state oscillations. We present the solution for this strain field, characterize the nature of this singularity, and discuss its potential role in the mechanical response and evolved morphology of the brain.

  1. Photobleaching as a tool to measure the local strain field in fibrous membranes of connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Jayyosi, C; Fargier, G; Coret, M; Bruyère-Garnier, K

    2014-06-01

    Connective tissues are complex structures which contain collagen and elastin fibers. These fiber-based structures have a great influence on material mechanical properties and need to be studied at the microscopic scale. Several microscopy techniques have been developed in order to image such microstructures; among them are two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy and second harmonic generation. These observations have been coupled with mechanical characterization to link microstructural kinematics to macroscopic material parameter evolution. In this study, we present a new approach to measure local strain in soft biological tissues using a side-effect of fluorescence microscopy: photobleaching. Controlling the loss of fluorescence induced by photobleaching, we create a pattern on our sample that we can monitor during mechanical loading. The image analysis allows three-dimensional displacements of the patterns at various loading levels to be computed. Then, local strain distribution is derived using the finite element discretization on a four-node element mesh created from our photobleached pattern. Photobleaching tests on a human liver capsule have revealed that this technique is non-destructive and does not have any impact on mechanical properties. This method is likely to have other applications in biological material studies, considering that all collagen-elastin fiber-based biological tissues possess autofluorescence properties and thus can be photobleached.

  2. Strain localization at the margins of strong lithospheric domains: Insights from analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Elisa; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst; Gueydan, Frédéric; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-03-01

    The lateral variation of the mechanical properties of continental lithosphere is an important factor controlling the localization of deformation and thus the deformation history and geometry of intraplate mountain belts. A series of three-layer lithospheric-scale analog models, with a strong domain (SD) embedded at various depths, are presented to investigate the development of topography and deformation patterns by having lateral heterogeneities within a weak continental lithosphere. The experiments, performed at a constant velocity and under normal gravity, indicate that the presence or absence of the SD controls whether deformation is localized or distributed at a lithospheric scale. Deformation and topography localize above the edges of the SD, while the SD region itself is characterized by minor amounts of surficial deformation and topography. The depth of the SD (within the ductile crust, ductile mantle lithosphere, or both) controls the pattern of deformation and thus the topography. The presence of a SD in the ductile crust or in the mantle results in limited surficial topographic effects but large variations in the Moho topography. Strong Moho deflection occurs when the SD is in the ductile crust, while the Moho remains almost flat when the SD is in the mantle. When the SD occupies the ductile lithosphere, the SD is tilted. These analog experiments provide insights into intraplate strain localization and could in particular explain the topography around the Tarim Basin, a lithospheric-scale heterogeneity north of the India-Asia collision zone.

  3. Strain distribution within a km-scale, mid-crustal shear zone: The Kuckaus Mylonite Zone, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, S. F.; Fagereng, Å.; Diener, J. F. A.

    2013-11-01

    The subvertical Kuckaus Mylonite Zone (KMZ) is a km-wide, crustal-scale, Proterozoic, dextral strike-slip shear zone in the Aus granulite terrain, SW Namibia. The KMZ was active under retrograde, amphibolite to greenschist facies conditions, and deformed felsic (and minor mafic) gneisses which had previously experienced granulite facies metamorphism during the Namaqua Orogeny. Lenses of pre- to syn-tectonic leucogranite bodies are also deformed in the shear zone. Pre-KMZ deformation (D1) is preserved as moderately dipping gneissic foliations and tightly folded migmatitic layering. Shear strain within the KMZ is heterogeneous, and the shear zone comprises anastomosing high strain ultramylonite zones wrapping around less deformed to nearly undeformed lozenges. Strain is localized along the edge of leucogranites and between gneissic lozenges preserving D1 migmatitic foliations. Strain localization appears controlled by pre-existing foliations, grain size, and compositional anisotropy between leucogranite and granulite. The local presence of retrograde minerals indicate that fluid infiltration occurred in places, but most ultramylonite in the KMZ is free of retrograde minerals. In particular, rock composition and D1 fabric heterogeneity are highlighted as major contributors to the strain distribution in time and space, with deformation localization along planes of rheological contrast and along pre-existing foliations. Therefore, the spatial distribution of strain in crustal-scale ductile shear zones may be highly dependent on lithology and the orientation of pre-existing fabric elements. In addition, foliation development and grain size reduction in high strain zones further localizes strain during progressive shear, maintaining the anastomosing shear zone network established by the pre-existing heterogeneity.

  4. Stick-slip instabilities and shear strain localization in amorphous materials.

    PubMed

    Daub, Eric G; Carlson, Jean M

    2009-12-01

    We study the impact of strain localization on the stability of frictional slipping in dense amorphous materials. We model the material using shear transformation zone (STZ) theory, a continuum approximation for plastic deformation in amorphous solids. In the STZ model, the internal state is quantified by an effective disorder temperature, and the effective temperature dynamics capture the spontaneous localization of strain. We study the effect of strain localization on stick-slip instabilities by coupling the STZ model to a noninertial spring slider system. We perform a linear stability analysis to generate a phase diagram that connects the small scale physics of strain localization to the macroscopic stability of sliding. Our calculations determine the values of spring stiffness and driving velocity where steady sliding becomes unstable and we confirm our results through numerical integration. We investigate both homogeneous deformation, where no shear band forms, and localized deformation, where a narrow shear band spontaneously forms and accommodates all of the deformation. Our results show that at a given velocity, strain localization leads to unstable frictional sliding at a much larger spring stiffness compared to homogeneous deformation, and that localized deformation cannot be approximated by a homogeneous model with a narrower material. We also find that strain localization provides a physical mechanism for irregular stick-slip cycles in certain parameter ranges. Our results quantitatively connect the internal physics of deformation in amorphous materials to the larger scale frictional dynamics of stick-slip.

  5. Analysis of local strain in aluminum interconnects by convergent beam electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Stephan; Mayer, Joachim

    1999-11-01

    Energy filtered convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) was used to investigate localized strain in aluminum interconnects. An analysis of the higher order Laue zone (HOLZ) line positions in CBED patterns makes it possible to measure the lattice strain with high accuracy (˜104) and high spatial resolution (10 to 100 nm). The strain development in a single grain was measured during thermal cycling between -170 °C and +100 °C. The grain showed reversible, elastic behavior over the whole temperature range building up large strains at low temperatures. By comparing with finite element simulations, a detailed understanding of the tri-axial strain state could be achieved.

  6. The effects of quartz recrystallization and reaction on weak phase interconnection, strain localization and evolution of microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Cristiane C.; Gonçalves, Leonardo; Hirth, Greg

    2015-02-01

    We conducted axial compression and general shear experiments, at T = 900 °C and P = 1.5 GPa, on samples of banded iron formation (BIF) and synthetic aggregates of quartz, hematite and magnetite to investigate how dynamic recrystallization of quartz promotes strain localization, and the role of weak second phases (oxides) on the rheology and microstructural evolution of the aggregates. Experiments showed strain localization into oxide rich layers, and that the oxide content and oxide distribution are key factors for the strength of the aggregate. Only 2-10 wt.% hematite leads to pronounced weakening and increasing hematite content above ˜10% has only a minor additional effect. Where oxide grains are dispersed, the initial strength contrast with quartz induces stress concentrations at their tips, promoting high stress recrystallization-accommodated dislocation creep of quartz. Fine recrystallized quartz reacts with oxide, forming trails of fine reaction product (ferrosilite/fayalite) leading to the interconnection/percolation of a weaker matrix. The strength contrast between the quartz framework and these fine-grained trails promotes strain localization into micro-shear zones, inducing drastic strain weakening. Thus dynamic recrystallization of quartz promotes syn-deformational reactions leading to a microstructurally-controlled evolution of phase strength contrast. It results in a rheologic transition from load-bearing framework to a matrix-controlled rheology, with transition from S-C‧ to S-C fabric with increasing strain.

  7. Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-02

    28-2012 Final Report 04/15/2009 - 11/30/2011 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization FA9550-09-1-0303 Alexander M...randomly placed sensors. MIMO radar, High-Resolution radar 19 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization Air Force Office...configured with its antennas collocated [6] or distributed over an area [7, 8]. We refer to radio elements of a MIMO radar as nodes. Nodes may be equipped

  8. Atomic mobility and strain localization in amorphous metals.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Francesco

    2008-02-22

    Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate the atomic mobility in Ni(50)Zr(50) amorphous alloys under both static conditions and shearing. Diffusion occurs under static conditions via cooperative stringlike motion involving atoms with large volumes. Atomic mobility is instead governed by rearrangements localized in shear transformation zones (STZs) under shearing. Local atomic volume plays in both cases a key role, the atomic ensembles involved in diffusion and STZ activity being strongly correlated.

  9. Effect of anharmonicity of interatomic potential on strain distribution in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarenkova, Olga L.; von Allmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Lee, Seungwoii; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    Experiments and theory have shown that the energy spectrum of nanostructures is extremely sensitive to the built-in strain. Knowledge of the strain distribution is therefore Experiments and theory have shown that the energy spectrum of nanostructures is extremely sensitive to the built-in strain. Knowledge of the strain distribution is therefore of utmost importance for the design of optical devices with prescribed light emission spectrum.

  10. An explicit finite element formulation for dynamic strain localization and damage evolution in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Hashem M; Bronkhorst, Curt A; Addessio, Francis L

    2010-12-16

    An explicit finite element formulation, used to study the behavior and failure mechanisms of metallic materials under high strain rate loading, is presented. The formulation is based on the assumed-strain approach of Fish and Belytschko [1988], which allows localization bands to be embedded within an element, thereby alleviating mesh sensitivity and reducing the required computational effort. The behavior of the material outside localization bands (and of the virgin material prior to the onset of strain localization) is represented using a Gurson-type coupled plasticity-damage model based on the work of Johnson and Addessio [1988]. Assuming adiabatic conditions, the response of the localization band material is represented by a set of constitutive equations for large elasticviscoplastic deformations in metals at high strain rates and high homologous temperatures (see Brown et al. [1989]). Computational results are compared to experimental data for different metallic alloys to illustrate the advantages of the proposed modeling strategy.

  11. Application of a Fiber Optic Distributed Strain Sensor System to Woven E-Glass Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Lopatin, Craig

    2001-01-01

    A distributed strain sensing system utilizing a series of identically written Bragg gratings along an optical fiber is examined for potential application to Composite Armored Vehicle health monitoring. A vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process was used to fabricate a woven fabric E-glass/composite panel with an embedded fiber optic strain sensor. Test samples machined from the panel were mechanically tested in 4-point bending. Experimental results are presented that show the mechanical strain from foil strain gages comparing well to optical strain from the embedded sensors. Also, it was found that the distributed strain along the sample length was consistent with the loading configuration.

  12. Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing.

    PubMed

    Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-01-01

    Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Three test conditions were evaluated: submerged, non-submerged and marker. Surface strains were calculated for the two non-marker conditions based on motion of virtual tracking points. Tracking algorithm parameters (grid resolution and template size) were varied to determine the effect on estimated strains. Accuracy of point tracking was assessed through a comparison of the non-marker conditions to a condition involving markers placed on tissue surface. Grid resolution had a larger effect on local strain than template size. Average local strain error ranged from 3% to 9.25% and 0.1% to 2.0%, for the non-submerged and submerged conditions, respectively. Local strain estimation has a relatively high potential for error. Submerging the tissue provided superior strain estimates.

  13. Polychromatic X-ray Microdiffraction Characterization of Local Crystallographic Structure and Defect Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, G.E.; Barabash, R.I.; Pang, J.W. L.

    2007-12-19

    Three-dimensional (3D), nondestructive, spatially resolved characterization of local crystal structure is conveniently made with polychromatic x-ray microdiffraction. In general, polychromatic microdiffraction provides information about the local (subgrain) orientation, unpaired-dislocation density, and elastic strain. This information can be used for direct comparison to theoretical models. Practical microbeams use intense synchrotron x-ray sources and advanced x-ray focusing optics. By employing polychromatic x-ray beams and a virtual pinhole camera method, called differential aperture microscopy, 3D distributions of the local crystalline phase, orientation (texture), and elastic and plastic strain tensors can be measured with submicron 3D resolution. The local elastic strain tensor elements can typically be determined with uncertainties less than 100 ppm. Orientations can be quantified to {approx} 0.01{sup o} and the local unpaired dislocation-density tensor can be simultaneously characterized. The spatial resolution limit for hard x-ray polychromatic microdiffraction is < 40nm and existing instruments operate with {approx} 500 to 1000nm resolution. Because the 3D x-ray crystal microscope is a penetrating nondestructive tool, it is ideal for studies of mesoscale evolution in materials.

  14. Imaging Local Electric Field Distribution by Plasmonic Impedance Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixian; Shan, Xiaonan; Wang, Shaopeng; Tao, Nongjian; Blanchard, Pierre-Yves; Hu, Keke; Mirkin, Michael V

    2016-02-02

    We report on imaging of local electric field on an electrode surface with plasmonic electrochemical impedance microscopy (P-EIM). The local electric field is created by putting an electrode inside a micropipet positioned over the electrode and applying a voltage between the two electrodes. We show that the distribution of the surface charge as well as the local electric field at the electrode surface can be imaged with P-EIM. The spatial distribution and the dependence of the local charge density and electric field on the distance between the micropipet and the surface are measured, and the results are compared with the finite element calculations. The work also demonstrates the possibility of integrating plasmonic imaging with scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) and other scanning probe microscopies.

  15. Characterization of nanoscale local lattice strains in silicon CMOS devices by TEM/CBED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiang

    Strained-Si technology has become one of the leading approaches to further improve the performance of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) as traditional device scaling faces its physical limitation. In particular, mechanical strain induced in the Si channel region is used to increase the carrier mobility and the transistor drive current. To be able to understand and engineer the local lattice strain incorporated in the nanoscale device region, a strain measurement technique with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity is essential. Currently, transmission electron microscope (TEM)/convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) is the only method to measure local changes in lattice parameters due to strain in advanced CMOS devices, because this technique provides nanometer spatial resolution and strain sensitivity on the order of 10-4. In this study, a novel experimental methodology is developed to measure the strain effectively and efficiently. Site-specific TEM samples are prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) with controlled thickness. Zone axes such as <230>, <340>, <560> and <910> are evaluated for obtaining CBED patterns. The specimen-tilt projection and dynamical effects related to the zone axis are discussed. CBED pattern simulation and matching procedures are explained to extract the strain tensors. The accuracy of the strain measurement depends on the clarity of the CBED pattern, which can be improved by using an energy-filter or sample cooling stage. The direct strain measurements are performed in sub-100 nm CMOS devices with either structure-induced or process-induced strains. It is found that the compressive strains are induced when the shallow trench structure (STI) is filled with isolation films. The compressive strains on the order of 10 -3 are observed under the gate region in a Si <110> PMOS transistor with a 37 nm gate length. One-dimensional quantitative strain-mapping is demonstrated using the nanometer probe. The

  16. Antibacterial effects of commercial essential oils over locally prevalent pathogenic strains in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hersch-Martínez, P; Leaños-Miranda, B E; Solórzano-Santos, F

    2005-07-01

    Locally prevalent pathogenic bacteria 189 Gram (-) and 135 Gram (+) strains, all isolated from pediatric patients severely infected, were tested in vitro against 11 essential oils from commercial origin. All the strains showed resistance to selected antibiotics. Cinnamomum verum, Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris exhibited the highest and broadest antibacterial activity. Emphasis is made in the potential implications of these resources, uncommon at the clinical setting of the study, employed against non-commercial, locally pathogenic strains, being a step to submit in the ensuing period essential oils from plants used in Mexican traditional medicine.

  17. Characterization of Local Strain around Through-Silicon Via Interconnects by Using X-ray Microdiffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Osamu; Kitada, Hideki; Kim, Youngsuk; Mizushima, Yoriko; Nakamura, Tomoji; Ohba, Takayuki; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2011-05-01

    We have demonstrated the characterization of the local strain structure in thinned Si layers for wafer-on-a-wafer (WOW) applications by using X-ray microdiffraction with a synchrotron radiation source. The microdiffraction reveals the fluctuation of strains in the thin Si layer around through-silicon via (TSV) interconnects with a sub-micrometer scale. We can separately estimated the in-plane and out-of-plane strain structures in the Si layer, and found that the anisotropic strain is induced in the Si layer between the TSV interconnects.

  18. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  19. Reconstructing the three-dimensional local dark matter velocity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; O'Hare, Ciaran A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Directionally sensitive dark matter (DM) direct detection experiments present the only way to observe the full three-dimensional velocity distribution of the Milky Way halo local to Earth. In this work we compare methods for extracting information about the local DM velocity distribution from a set of recoil directions and energies in a range of hypothetical directional and nondirectional experiments. We compare a model-independent empirical parametrization of the velocity distribution based on an angular discretization with a model-dependent approach which assumes knowledge of the functional form of the distribution. The methods are tested under three distinct halo models which cover a range of possible phase space structures for the local velocity distribution: a smooth Maxwellian halo, a tidal stream and a debris flow. In each case we use simulated directional data to attempt to reconstruct the shape and parameters describing each model as well as the DM particle properties. We find that the empirical parametrization is able to make accurate unbiased reconstructions of the DM mass and cross section as well as capture features in the underlying velocity distribution in certain directions without any assumptions about its true functional form. We also find that by extracting directionally averaged velocity parameters with this method one can discriminate between halo models with different classes of substructure.

  20. Localization of strain in the RNA backbone and its functional implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel; Rabitz, Herschel

    1992-07-01

    It is known that an RNA molecule capable of self-splicing shares a common pattern of Watson-Crick base paris with other RNA species endowed with the same capability. The aim of this work is to introduce a minimal model Hamiltonian which determines a localized strain in the RNA backbone as the search for the molecular conformation is subject to the constraint imposed by the concensus secondary structure. The site where the strain is localized is shown to coincide with the splicing site of the molecule. As justified posteriori, the level of structural complexity of the model is sufficient to account for energy localization in a nontrivial fashion.

  1. Statistical behavior and strain localization patterns in the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect

    SciTech Connect

    Lebyodkin, M.; Brechet, Y.; Estrin, Y.; Kubin, L.

    1996-11-01

    Statistics of the stress drops associated with the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect in an Al-Mg alloy were studied both experimentally and theoretically. It was shown that the character of the statistics changes from a peaked distribution of the stress drop magnitudes to a monotonically decreasing one as the imposed strain rate or the temperature are increased. A discrete model based on a micromechanically founded local constitutive equation combined with spatial coupling between the elements of the system was shown to reproduce the observed statistical behavior. The mechanism of spatial coupling is connected with elastic stresses due to local plastic incompatibilities. The model was further applied to simulate spatial deformation patterns including propagative deformation bands. The systematics of the bands reported in the literature as well as the observed dependence of the band velocity on the imposed deformation rate were recovered. It was concluded that the model proposed provides an adequate description of both the statistics of stress discontinuities and the spatial features of the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect.

  2. Strain distributions and electronic property modifications in Si/Ge axial nanowire heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Swadener, John Gregory; Picraux, Samuel T

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for Si/Ge axial nanowire heterostructures using modified effective atom method (MEAM) potentials. A Si-Ge MEAM interatomic cross potential was developed based on available experimental data and used for these studies. The atomic distortions and strain distributions near the Si/Ge interfaces are predicted for nanowires with their axes oriented along the [111] direction. The cases of 10 and 25 nm diameter SilGe biwires and of 25 nm diameter Si/Ge/Si axial heterostructures with the Ge disc 1 nm thick were studied. Substantial distortions in the height of the atoms adjacent to the interface were found for the biwires, but not for the Ge discs. Strains as high as 3.5% were found for the Ge disc and values of 2 to 2.5% were found at the Si and Ge interfacial layers in the biwires. Deformation potential theory was used to estimate the influence of the strains on the band gap, and reductions in band gap to as small as 40% of bulk values are predicted for the Ge discs. Localized regions of increased strain and resulting energy minima were also found within the Si/Ge biwire interfaces with the larger effects on the Ge side of the interface. The regions of strain maxima near and within the interfaces are anticipated to be useful for tailoring band gaps and producing quantum confinement of carriers. These results suggest nanowire heterostructures provide greater design flexibility in band structure modification than is possible with planar layer growth.

  3. A theoretical approach of strain localization within thin planar bands in porous ductile materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblond, Jean-Baptiste; Mottet, Gérard

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of cracks in ductile materials is well known to occur through two possible mechanisms: coalescence of cavities and formation of shear bands ('void sheet mechanism'). The classical Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) homogenized model for such materials incorporates some phenomenological modelling of coalescence, but not of formation of shear bands assisted by the presence of microvoids, and this generates a number of shortcomings. In order to solve these difficulties, this paper presents a unified model of both coalescence and formation of shear bands in porous plastic solids, including the possible couplings between the two. Both phenomena are viewed as expressions of the same basic effect, namely strain localization within thin planar bands, the only difference being the mode of deformation. The model is first developed assuming a periodic distribution of cavities, then critically assessed through comparison with some micromechanical numerical simulations based on the same assumption, and finally extended to the case of a random distribution of voids. To cite this article: J.-B. Leblond, G. Mottet, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  4. Gas-leak localization using distributed ultrasonic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huseynov, Javid; Baliga, Shankar; Dillencourt, Michael; Bic, Lubomir; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    2009-03-01

    We propose an ultrasonic gas leak localization system based on a distributed network of sensors. The system deploys highly sensitive miniature Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) microphones and uses a suite of energy-decay (ED) and time-delay of arrival (TDOA) algorithms for localizing a source of a gas leak. Statistical tools such as the maximum likelihood (ML) and the least squares (LS) estimators are used for approximating the source location when closed-form solutions fail in the presence of ambient background nuisance and inherent electronic noise. The proposed localization algorithms were implemented and tested using a Java-based simulation platform connected to four or more distributed MEMS microphones observing a broadband nitrogen leak from an orifice. The performance of centralized and decentralized algorithms under ED and TDOA schemes is analyzed and compared in terms of communication overhead and accuracy in presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).

  5. Local and nonlocal strain rate fields and vorticity alignment in turbulent flows.

    PubMed

    Hamlington, Peter E; Schumacher, Jörg; Dahm, Werner J A

    2008-02-01

    Local and nonlocal contributions to the total strain rate tensor S(ij) at any point x in a flow are formulated from an expansion of the vorticity field in a local spherical neighborhood of radius R centered on x. The resulting exact expression allows the nonlocal (background) strain rate tensor S(ij)(B)(x) to be obtained from S(ij)(x). In turbulent flows, where the vorticity naturally concentrates into relatively compact structures, this allows the local alignment of vorticity with the most extensional principal axis of the background strain rate tensor to be evaluated. In the vicinity of any vortical structure, the required radius R and corresponding order n to which the expansion must be carried are determined by the viscous length scale lambda(nu). We demonstrate the convergence to the background strain rate field with increasing R and n for an equilibrium Burgers vortex, and show that this resolves the anomalous alignment of vorticity with the intermediate eigenvector of the total strain rate tensor. We then evaluate the background strain field S(ij)(B)(x) in direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence where, even for the limited R and n corresponding to the truncated series expansion, the results show an increase in the expected equilibrium alignment of vorticity with the most extensional principal axis of the background strain rate tensor.

  6. Distributed job scheduling in SCI Local Area MultiProcessors

    SciTech Connect

    Agasaveeran, S.; Li, Qiang

    1996-12-31

    Local Area MultiProcessors (LAMP) is a network of personal workstations with distributed shared physical memory provided by high performance technologies such as SCI. LAMP is more tightly coupled than the traditional local area networks (LAN) but is more loosely coupled than the bus based multiprocessors. This paper presents a distributed scheduling algorithm which exploits the distributed shared memory in SCI-LAMP to schedule the idle remote processors among the requesting workstations. It considers fairness by allocating remote processing capacity to the requesting workstations based on their priorities according to the decay-usage scheduling approach. The performance of the algorithm in scheduling both sequential and parallel jobs is evaluated by simulation. It is found that the higher priority nodes achieve faster job response times and higher speedups than that of the lower priority nodes. Lower scheduling overhead allows finer granularity of remote processors sharing than in LAN.

  7. Microstructural Characterization of Deformation Localization at Small Strains in a Neutron Irradiated 304 Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Gussev, Maxim N; Busby, Jeremy T

    2014-01-01

    Deformation localization and structure evolution were investigated in an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel deformed to 0.8% strain. Using SEM-EBSD, it was shown local plastic deformation may reach significant levels even when the bulk averaged strain level remains below 1%. Local misorientation values up to 24 were observed in these regions of high local plastic deformation. EBSD analysis of FIB lift-out specimens demonstrated that local misorientation level was highest near the free surface and diminished with increasing depth. (S)TEM observations on the same specimen indicated the local density of dislocation channels may vary up to an order of magnitude depending on local grain configuration, distance to the surface and/or local grain boundary structure. It was found that in the case of RT deformation, dislocation defect-free channels may contain twin or may be twin-free with twinning occurring inside channels. Formation of BCC-phase colonies (martensite) was observed in near-surface layer whereas no transformation in the volume of the specimen was detected at this strain level. Martensite formation was associated with channel-grain boundary intersection points where high local misorientation was observed using EBSD.

  8. Slip distribution, strain accumulation and aseismic slip on the Chaman Fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelug, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Chaman fault system is a transcurrent fault system developed due to the oblique convergence of the India and Eurasia plates in the western boundary of the India plate. To evaluate the contemporary rates of strain accumulation along and across the Chaman Fault system, we use 2003-2011 Envisat SAR imagery and InSAR time-series methods to obtain a ground velocity field in radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction. We correct the InSAR data for different sources of systematic biases including the phase unwrapping errors, local oscillator drift, topographic residuals and stratified tropospheric delay and evaluate the uncertainty due to the residual delay using time-series of MODIS observations of precipitable water vapor. The InSAR velocity field and modeling demonstrates the distribution of deformation across the Chaman fault system. In the central Chaman fault system, the InSAR velocity shows clear strain localization on the Chaman and Ghazaband faults and modeling suggests a total slip rate of ~24 mm/yr distributed on the two faults with rates of 8 and 16 mm/yr, respectively corresponding to the 80% of the total ~3 cm/yr plate motion between India and Eurasia at these latitudes and consistent with the kinematic models which have predicted a slip rate of ~17-24 mm/yr for the Chaman Fault. In the northern Chaman fault system (north of 30.5N), ~6 mm/yr of the relative plate motion is accommodated across Chaman fault. North of 30.5 N where the topographic expression of the Ghazaband fault vanishes, its slip does not transfer to the Chaman fault but rather distributes among different faults in the Kirthar range and Sulaiman lobe. Observed surface creep on the southern Chaman fault between Nushki and north of City of Chaman, indicates that the fault is partially locked, consistent with the recorded M<7 earthquakes in last century on this segment. The Chaman fault between north of the City of Chaman to North of Kabul, does not show an increase in the rate of strain

  9. Influence of Aerodynamic Strain Rate on Local Extinction in Turbulent Non-premixed Jet Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Aravind; Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran; Lyons, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    2-D velocity field measurements obtained from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are used to obtain aerodynamic strain rate information in regions of local extinction in lifted turbulent non-premixed methane jet flames in coflow. Diluting the coflow to reduce the oxygen molefraction results in increased occurrences of local extinction. Statistical analysis is performed to correlate regions of high local strain rate with local extinctions in both air coflow and diluted coflow cases to study the influence of strain rate against vortical structures in extinguishing the flame front. A comparison is also made with heated and vitiated coflow cases, where autoignition is a flame stabilization mechanism and influenced by local strain rate. At high jet exit velocities (Ux > > Ur), the out-of-plane strain rate component can be neglected but the convection of extinguished pockets into the measurement plane needs to be resolved by stereoscopic (3-D) measurements which will be done in a future work. This work has been supported by the U.S. Army Research Office (Contracts W911NF1210140 and W911NF1610087) Dr. Ralph Anthenien, Technical Monitor, ARO.

  10. Distribution of local anesthetics between aqueous and liposome phases.

    PubMed

    Ruokonen, Suvi-Katriina; Duša, Filip; Rantamäki, Antti H; Robciuc, Alexandra; Holma, Paula; Holopainen, Juha M; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2017-01-06

    Liposomes were used as biomimetic models in capillary electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) for the determination of distribution constants (KD) of certain local anesthetics and a commonly used preservative. Synthetic liposomes comprised phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol phospholipids with and without cholesterol. In addition, ghost liposomes made from red blood cell (RBC) lipid extracts were used as pseudostationary phase to acquire information on how the liposome composition affects the interactions between anesthetics and liposomes. These results were compared with theoretical distribution coefficients at pH 7.4. In addition to 25°C, the distribution constants were determined at 37 and 42°C to simulate physiological conditions. Moreover, the usability of five electroosmotic flow markers in liposome (LEKC) and micellar EKC (MEKC) was studied. LEKC was proven to be a convenient and fast technique for obtaining data about the distribution constants of local anesthetics between liposome and aqueous phase. RBC liposomes can be utilized for more representative model of cellular membranes, and the results indicate that the distribution constants of the anesthetics are greatly dependent on the used liposome composition and the amount of cholesterol, while the effect of temperature on the distribution constants is less significant.

  11. Price Based Local Power Distribution Management System (Local Power Distribution Manager) v1.0

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, RICHARD E.; CZARNECKI, STEPHEN; SPEARS, MICHAEL; NORDMAN, BRUCE; BROUGHTON, ALEX; VON HIPPEL, MICHAEL; LIAO, ANNA

    2016-11-28

    A trans-active energy micro-grid controller is implemented in the VOLTTRON distributed control platform. The system uses the price of electricity as the mechanism for conducting transactions that are used to manage energy use and to balance supply and demand. In order to allow testing and analysis of the control system, the implementation is designed to run completely as a software simulation, while allowing the inclusion of selected hardware that physically manages power. Equipment to be integrated with the micro-grid controller must have an IP (Internet Protocol)-based network connection and a software "driver" must exist to translate data communications between the device and the controller.

  12. Local distribution and thermal ecology of two intertidal fishes.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Jose M; Bozinovic, Francisco; Ojeda, F Patricio

    2005-02-01

    Geographic variability in the physiological attributes of widely distributed species can be a result of phenotypic plasticity or can reflect evolutionary responses to a particular habitat. In the field, we assessed thermal variability in low and high intertidal pools and the distribution of resident fish species Scartichthys viridis and transitory Girella laevifrons along this vertical intertidal gradient at three localities along the Chilean coast: Antofagasta (the northernmost and warmest habitat), Carrizal Bajo (central coast) and Las Cruces (the southernmost and coldest habitat). In the laboratory, we evaluated the thermal sensitivity of fish captured from each locality. The response to temperature was estimated as the frequency of opercular movements and as thermal selectivity in a gradient; the former being a indirect indicator of energy costs in a particular environment and the latter revealing differential occupation of habitat. Seawater temperature in intertidal pools was greatest at Antofagasta, and within each site was greatest in high intertidal pools. The two intertidal fish species showed opposite patterns of local distribution, with S. viridis primarily inhabiting the lower sectors of the intertidal zone, and G. laevifrons occupying the higher sectors of the intertidal zone. This pattern was consistent for all three localities. Locality was found to be a very important factor determining the frequency of opercular movement and thermal selectivity of both S. viridis and G. laevifrons. Our results suggest that S. viridis and G. laevifrons respond according to: (1) the thermal history of the habitat from which they came, and (2) the immediate physical conditions of their habitat. These results suggest local adaptation rather than plasticity in thermoregulatory and energetic mechanisms.

  13. Strain localization in ultramylonitic marbles by simultaneous activation of dislocation motion and grain boundary sliding (Syros, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, A.; White, J. C.; Grasemann, B.

    2016-03-01

    Extreme strain localization occurred in the centre of the cross-cutting element of a flanking structure in almost pure calcite marbles from Syros, Greece. At the maximum displacement of 120 cm along the cross-cutting element, evidence of grain size sensitive deformation mechanisms can be found in the ultramylonitic marbles, which are characterized by (1) an extremely small grain size ( ˜ 3 µm), (2) grain boundary triple junctions with nearly 120° angles, (3) a weak crystallographic preferred orientation with very low texture index (J = 1.4), (4) a random misorientation angle distribution curve and (5) the presence of small cavities. Using transmission electron microscopy, a deformation sequence is observed comprising recrystallization dominantly by bulging, resulting in the development of the fine-grained ultramylonite followed by the development of a high dislocation density ( ˜ 1013 m-2) with ongoing deformation of the fine-grained ultramylonite. The arrangement of dislocations in the extremely fine-grain-sized calcite differs from microstructures created by classical dislocation creep mediated by combined glide and thermally activated climb. Instead, it exhibits extensive glide and dislocation networks characteristic of recovery accommodated by cross-slip and network-assisted dislocation movement without formation of idealized subgrain walls. The enabling of grain boundary sliding to dislocation activity is deemed central to initiating and sustaining strain softening and is argued to be an important strain localization process in calcite rocks, even at a high strain rate ( ˜ 10-9 s-1) and low temperature (300 °C).

  14. Strain localization in ultramylonitic marbles by simultaneous activation of dislocation motion and grain boundary sliding (Syros, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowitz, A.; White, J. C.; Grasemann, B.

    2015-09-01

    Extreme strain localization occurred in the center of the cross-cutting element of a flanking structure in almost pure calcite marbles from Syros, Greece. At the maximum displacement of 120 cm along the cross-cutting element evidence of grain size sensitive deformation mechanisms can be found in the ultramylonitic marbles, which are characterized by (1) an extremely small grain size (∼3 μm), (2) grain boundary triple junctions with nearly 120° angles, (3) a weak crystallographic preferred orientation with very low texture index (J=1.4), (4) a random misorientation angle distribution curve and (5) the presence of small cavities. Using transmission electron microscopy a deformation sequence is observed comprising, first recrystallization by bulging resulting in the development of the fine-grained ultramylonite followed by the evolution of a high dislocation density (∼1013 m-2) with ongoing deformation of the fine-grained ultramylonite. The arrangement of dislocations in the extremely fine grain sized calcite differs from microstructures created by classical dislocation creep mediated by combined glide and thermally activated climb. Instead, it exhibits extensive glide and dislocation networks characteristic of recovery accommodated by cross-slip and network-assisted dislocation movement without formation of idealized subgrain walls. The enabling of grain boundary sliding to dislocation activity is deemed central to initiating and sustaining strain softening and is argued to be an important strain localization process in calcite rocks, even at high strain rate (10-9 s-1) and low temperature (300 °C).

  15. Distribution of elastic strains appearing in gallium arsenide as a result of doping with isovalent impurities of phosphorus and indium

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, D. A.; Bidus, N. V.; Bobrov, A. I.; Vikhrova, O. V.; Volkova, E. I.; Zvonkov, B. N.; Malekhonova, N. V.; Sorokin, D. S.

    2015-01-15

    The distribution of elastic strains in a system consisting of a quantum-dot layer and a buried GaAs{sub x}P{sub 1−x} layer is studied using geometric phase analysis. A hypothesis is offered concerning the possibility of controlling the process of the formation of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs matrix using a local isovalent phosphorus impurity.

  16. Escherichia coli strains from pregnant women and neonates: intraspecies genetic distribution and prevalence of virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Watt, Stéphane; Lanotte, Philippe; Mereghetti, Laurent; Moulin-Schouleur, Maryvonne; Picard, Bertrand; Quentin, Roland

    2003-05-01

    To determine the extent to which the vagina, endocervix, and amniotic fluid screen the Escherichia coli strains responsible for neonatal infections, we studied the genetic relationships among 105 E. coli strains isolated from all of the ecosystems involved in this infectious process. Twenty-four strains were isolated from the intestinal flora, and 25 strains were isolated from the vaginas of pregnant women. Twenty-seven strains were isolated from the amniotic fluid, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infected neonates. The intraspecies genetic characteristics of all of the isolates were determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, PCR ECOR (E. coli reference) grouping, and PCR virulence genotyping. A correlation was found between the intraspecies distributions of the strains in the A, B1, B2, and D ECOR groups and in the two major RAPD groups (I and II). Nevertheless, the distribution of the E. coli strains in the RAPD groups according to their anatomical origins was more significant than their distribution in the ECOR groups. This may be explained by the existence of an E. coli subpopulation, defined by the RAPD I group, within the ECOR B2 group. This RAPD I group presents a major risk for neonates: 75% of the strains isolated from patients with meningitis and 100% of the strains isolated from patients with bacteremia were in this group. The vagina and the amniotic fluid are two barriers that favor colonization by highly infectious strains. Indeed, only 17% of fecal strains belonged to the RAPD I group, whereas 52% of vaginal strains and 67% of amniotic fluid strains belonged to this subpopulation. The ibeA and iucC genes were significantly associated with CSF strains, whereas the hly and sfa/foc genes were more frequent in blood strains. These findings could serve as a basis for developing tools to recognize vaginal strains, which present a high risk for neonates, for use in prophylaxis programs.

  17. Task decomposition, distribution, and localization for intelligent robot coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Vasilios G.; Stephanou, Harry E.

    1991-02-01

    Robotic applications in unstructured environments in general and in space in particular require robot systems that possess a high degree of autonomy. To achieve such a degree of autonomy a robot system must possess (I) robots with a versatile physical structure (ii) perception and (iii) elaborate techniques for (a) task decomposition distribution and localization and (b) the dynamic specification of the distributed semantics involved in sensorimotor synchronization and the coordination of multiple robots. In this paper we present our developments for the dynamic specification of the distributed semantics of hierarchical multiagent systems and the synchronization of their component agents during task execution. More specifically we present a distributed model of concurrency based on Petri net theory. The model is then applied to the hierarchical decomposition distribution and localization of a bracket assembly task. Each level of the resulting hierarchy horizontally contains the synchronization-structure of task execution and vertically is a generalization ofthe level below and a specialization ofthe level above. The horizontal synchronization-structures developed bythe Petri net model maintain the desirable properties of safeness and liveness by construction.

  18. Evidence for lower crustal ductile strain localization in southern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.D.; Prescott, W.H.; Krueger, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Historic triangulation data have been analysed to determine whether intraplate seismicity is associated with ongoing ductile deformation in the lower crust. The model we have attempted to test is basically analogous to strain accumulation and release along plate-boundary strike-slip faults like the San Andreas Fault in California. That is, beneath an elastic-seismogenic upper crust ???20 km thick, strain is preferentially localized within ductile shear zones in the lower crust due to broad-scale plate driving forces. The localized lower-crustal ductile strain causes stress and strain to accumulate elastically in the brittle crust which is eventually released in crustal earthquakes. At greater depths, this localized shear deformation probably develops into pervasive ductile flow. Numerous geodetic measurements along the San Andreas Fault confirm that earthquakes in the brittle upper crust are produced by the release of elastic strain that results from ongoing ductile shear or slip in the lower crust1,2. We have found evidence of high rates of crustal deformation in southern New York which suggest that localized ductile shear is occurring in the lower crust. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  19. Patterns of strain localization in heterogeneous, polycrystalline rocks - a numerical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Robyn; Piazolo, Sandra; Evans, Lynn; Daczko, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns of strain localization in materials with pre-existing heterogeneities are investigated via a series of two-dimensional numerical models. Models include (i) a dynamic feedback process, to simulate rheological weakening in response to the transition from non-linear flow (dislocation creep) to linear flow (diffusion creep/grain boundary sliding), and (ii) a time dependent strengthening process, counteracting the weakening process. Different load bearing framework geometries with 20% weak component are used to evaluate the impact of geometry on the strength of the material and its ability to localize strain into an interconnected weak layer (IWL). Our results highlight that during simple shear, if dynamic weakening with or without strengthening feedbacks is present, strain is quickly localized into an IWL, where an increasing proportion of weak material increases the interconnections between the IWLs, thereby increasing the anastomosing character of the shear zones. We establish that not only bulk strain localization patterns but also their temporal patterns are sensitive to the dominance of the weakening or strengthening process. Consequently, shear zones are dynamic in time and space within a single deformation event. Hence, the pattern of finite strain can be an incomplete representation of the evolution of a shear zone network.

  20. Digital volume correlation can be used to estimate local strains in natural and augmented vertebrae: An organ-level study.

    PubMed

    Palanca, Marco; Cristofolini, Luca; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Curto, Marco; Innocente, Federica; Danesi, Valentina; Tozzi, Gianluca

    2016-12-08

    Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) has become popular for measuring the strain distribution inside bone structures. A number of methodological questions are still open: the reliability of DVC to investigate augmented bone tissue, the variability of the errors between different specimens of the same type, the distribution of measurement errors inside a bone, and the possible presence of preferential directions. To address these issues, five augmented and five natural porcine vertebrae were subjected to repeated zero-strain micro-CT scan (39μm voxel size). The acquired images were processed with two independent DVC approaches (a local and a global one), considering different computation sub-volume sizes, in order to assess the strain measurement uncertainties. The systematic errors generally ranged within ±100 microstrain and did not depend on the computational sub-volume. The random error was higher than 1000 microstrain for the smallest sub-volume and rapidly decreased: with a sub-volume of 48 voxels the random errors were typically within 200 microstrain for both DVC approaches. While these trends were rather consistent within the sample, two individual specimens had unpredictably larger errors. For this reason, a zero-strain check on each specimen should always be performed before any in-situ micro-CT testing campaign. This study clearly shows that, when sufficient care is dedicated to preliminary methodological work, different DVC computation approaches allow measuring the strain with a reduced overall error (approximately 200 microstrain). Therefore, DVC is a viable technique to investigate strain in the elastic regime in natural and augmented bones.

  1. Experimental study on strain distribution of ionic polymer-metal composite actuator using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongguang; Xiong, Ke; Wang, Man; Bian, Kan; Zhu, Kongjun

    2017-02-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) cantilever actuators demonstrate significant bending deformation upon application of excitation voltage across the electrodes. In this paper a cantilever beam shaped IPMC actuator with platinum (Pt) electrodes is fabricated to investigate the micro-scale lateral deformation behavior under DC voltages using a digital microscope to measure the deformation. The digital image correlation (DIC) method is utilized to analyze the displacement and strain fields of the sample. The experimental results indicate that the longitudinal normal strain is linearly distributed along the thickness direction and the strain gradient is approximately exponential with excitation voltage. The amplitude of the transverse strain is bigger than the longitudinal strain, and the strains are also found to decrease along the length direction of the IPMC cantilever actuator. The longitudinal and transverse normal strains of the IPMC actuator under DC voltages are compressive strains due to water loss effect in the air.

  2. Strain localization parameters of AlCu4MgSi processed by high-energy electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lunev, A. G. Nadezhkin, M. V.; Konovalov, S. V.; Teresov, A. D.

    2015-10-27

    The influence of the electron beam surface treatment of AlCu4MgSi on the strain localization parameters and on the critical strain value of the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect has been considered. The strain localization parameters were measured using speckle imaging of the specimens subjected to the constant strain rate uniaxial tension at a room temperature. Impact of the surface treatment on the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect has been investigated.

  3. Colwellia psychrerythraea strains from distant deep sea basins show adaptation to local conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Fitzgerald, Kathleen S.; Stelling, Savannah C.; ...

    2016-05-09

    Many studies have shown that microbes, which share nearly identical 16S rRNA genes, can have highly divergent genomes. Microbes from distinct parts of the ocean also exhibit biogeographic patterning. Here in this study we seek to better understand how certain microbes from the same species have adapted for growth under local conditions. The phenotypic and genomic heterogeneity of three strains of Colwellia psychrerythraea was investigated in order to understand adaptions to local environments. Colwellia are psychrophilic heterotrophic marine bacteria ubiquitous in cold marine ecosystems. We have recently isolated two Colwellia strains: ND2E from the Eastern Mediterranean and GAB14E from themore » Great Australian Bight. The 16S rRNA sequence of these two strains were greater than 98.2% identical to the well-characterized C. psychrerythraea 34H, which was isolated from arctic sediments. Salt tolerance, and carbon source utilization profiles for these strains were determined using Biolog Phenotype MicoArrays. These strains exhibited distinct salt tolerance, which was not associated with the salinity of sites of isolation. The carbon source utilization profiles were distinct with less than half of the tested carbon sources being metabolized by all three strains. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the genomes of these three strains were quite diverse with some genomes having up to 1600 strain-specific genes. Many genes involved in degrading strain-specific carbon sources were identified. Finally, there appears to be a link between carbon source utilization and location of isolation with distinctions observed between the Colwellia isolate recovered from sediment compared to water column isolates.« less

  4. Kinetics of vertical transport and localization of electrons in strained semiconductor supperlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Gerchikov, L. G. Mamaev, Yu. A.; Yashin, Yu. P.

    2015-08-15

    The kinetics of vertical electron transport in a semiconductor superlattice is considered taking into account partial localization of electrons. The time dependences of photoemission currents from samples based on a strained semiconductor superlattice calculated by numerically solving the kinetic equation are in good agreement with experimental data. Comparison of the theory with experiment makes it possible to determine the characteristic electron localization and thermoactivation times, the diffusion length, and losses of photoelectrons in the superlattice.

  5. Local Raman spectroscopic study of BiFeO3 strained states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yen-Chin; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chu, Feng-Nan; Liang, Wen-I.; Chen, Hsiang-Jung; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2012-02-01

    Among single-phase multiferroic materials, BiFeO3 (BFO) has relatively high Curie and N'eel temperatures, which possesses ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic couplings at room temperature, so is motivated for novel device applications. Recent studies had shown piezoelectric and magnetic properties of BFO in strained states varied significantly. For BFO epitaxial films grown on LaAlO3 substrate, high piezoelectric coefficient and spontaneous ferromagnetic moments had been demonstrated in a new kind of morphotropic tetragonal-rhombohedral phase boundary driven by substrate strain. In this study, we used Raman spectrum to investigate the local BFO distorted structure under substrate strain or strain caused by external electric fields. The crystal structure of BFO under compressive substrate strain is monoclinically distorted. The ordering of the monoclinic structures could also be controlled by electric field. These two kinds of strained states were locally studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with on-axis Raman measurement. This study provided the basic physical insight of unique physical properties depended on distorted structures.

  6. Size effects and strain localization in atomic-scale cleavage modeling.

    PubMed

    Elsner, B A M; Müller, S

    2015-09-04

    In this work, we study the adhesion and decohesion of Cu(1 0 0) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. An upper stress to surface decohesion is obtained via the universal binding energy relation (UBER), but the model is limited to rigid separation of bulk-terminated surfaces. When structural relaxations are included, an unphysical size effect arises if decohesion is considered to occur as soon as the strain energy equals the energy of the newly formed surfaces. We employ the nudged elastic band (NEB) method to show that this size effect is opposed by a size-dependency of the energy barriers involved in the transition. Further, we find that the transition occurs via a localization of bond strain in the vicinity of the cleavage plane, which resembles the strain localization at the tip of a sharp crack that is predicted by linear elastic fracture mechanics.

  7. A fiber optic strain measurement and quench localization system for use in superconducting accelerator dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    van Oort, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    1994-10-17

    A novel fiber-optic measurement system for superconducting accelerator magnets is described. The principal component is an extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer to determine localized strain and stress in coil windings. The system can be used either as a sensitive relative strain measurement system or as an absolute strain detector. Combined, one can monitor the mechanical behaviour of the magnet system over time during construction, long time storage and operation. The sensing mechanism is described, together with various tests in laboratory environments. The test results of a multichannel test matrix to be incorporated first in the dummy coils and then in the final version of a 13T Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator dipole magnet are presented. Finally, the possible use of this system as a quench localization system is proposed.

  8. Modelling strain localization in granular materials using micropolar theory: mathematical formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaleh, Mustafa I.; Voyiadjis, George Z.; Alshibli, Khalid A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been known that classical continuum mechanics laws fail to describe strain localization in granular materials due to the mathematical ill-posedness and mesh dependency. Therefore, a non-local theory with internal length scales is needed to overcome such problems. The micropolar and high-order gradient theories can be considered as good examples to characterize the strain localization in granular materials. The fact that internal length scales are needed requires micromechanical models or laws; however, the classical constitutive models can be enhanced through the stress invariants to incorporate the Micropolar effects. In this paper, Lade's single hardening model is enhanced to account for the couple stress and Cosserat rotation and the internal length scales are incorporated accordingly. The enhanced Lade's model and its material properties are discussed in detail; then the finite element formulations in the Updated Lagrangian Frame (UL) are used. The finite element formulations were implemented into a user element subroutine for ABAQUS (UEL) and the solution method is discussed in the companion paper. The model was found to predict the strain localization in granular materials with low dependency on the finite element mesh size. The shear band was found to reflect on a certain angle when it hit a rigid boundary. Applications for the model on plane strain specimens tested in the laboratory are discussed in the companion paper. Copyright

  9. Strain-induced suppression of weak localization in CVD-grown graphene.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaochang; Tongay, Sefaattin; Hebard, Arthur F

    2012-11-28

    We investigate the magnetic-field- and temperature-dependent transport properties of CVD-grown graphene transferred to a flexible substrate (Kapton) and subjected to externally applied strain. In zero magnetic field, a logarithmic temperature-dependent conductivity correction, resulting from strong electron-electron interaction, becomes weaker with the application of strains as large as 0.6% because of an increased rate of chiral-symmetry-breaking scattering. With the application of a perpendicular magnetic field, we also observe positive magnetoconductance at low temperature (T = 5 K) due to weak localization. This magnetoconductance is suppressed with increasing strain, concomitant with a rapid decrease of the intervalley scattering rate (τ(i)(-1)). Our results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and are consistent with a strain-induced decoupling between graphene and its underlying Kapton substrate.

  10. Number and localization of the implants for the fixed prosthetic reconstructions: on the strain in the anterior maxillary region.

    PubMed

    Bölükbaşı, Nilüfer; Yeniyol, Sinem

    2015-04-01

    Resorption following tooth loss and poor bone quality affect the success of implants in the anterior maxilla. Inappropriate planning can cause implant loss and aesthetics problems that are difficult to resolve. There is a limited literature on the optimum number and location of implants in anterior maxilla for fabricating fixed prosthesis in biomechanical terms. This study investigated the effect of dental implant localizations in anterior maxilla on the strain values around implants using a three dimensional finite elements analysis method. Obtained strain values were compared to the data in Frost's mechanostat theory. The entire totally edentulous maxilla was modeled using computer tomography images and five models were prepared representing different implant localizations. The distribution of implants in the models was as follows: two canines in the first model, two canines and one central incisor in the second model, two canines and central incisor in the third model, two canines and one lateral incisor in the fourth model and two canines and two lateral incisors in the fifth model. Anatomic abutments with a gingival height of 2 mm and angle of 15° were used as the abutments to fabricate one piece cemented metal fused to porcelain restoration. A chewing strength of 100 N was applied to the cingulum of all crowns at a 45° angle. Maximum strain values in all models were measured in cortical bone in implant necks. The highest strain value was measured in the first model at the cortical bone area (3037 microstrain). Except the first model, all models showed micro strain values within 1000-3000 microstrain. The fifth model was the least risky method in biomechanical terms. The results of this study should be compared with different clinical scenarios (for example different implant designs and sizes). Due to the limitations of three-dimensional finite elements analysis studies, the findings of the study need to be supported by clinical studies.

  11. The Correlation Between the Percussive Sound and the Residual Stress/Strain Distributions in a Cymbal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osamura, Kozo; Kuratani, Fumiyasu; Koide, Toshio; Ogawa, Wataru; Taniguchi, Hiroyasu; Monju, Yoshiyuki; Mizuta, Taiji; Shobu, Takahisa

    2016-12-01

    The artistic sound of a cymbal is produced by employing a special copper alloy as well as incorporating complicated and heterogeneous residual stress/strain distributions. In order to establish a modern engineering process that achieves high-quality control for the cymbals, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of the residual stresses/strains in the cymbal and their quantitative relation with the frequency characteristics of the sound generated from the cymbal. In the present study, we have successfully used synchrotron radiation to measure the distribution of residual strain in two kinds of cymbals—after spinforming as well as after hammering. The microstructure and the mechanical properties of the cymbals were measured as well their acoustic response. Based on our experimental data, the inhomogeneous residual stress/strain distributions in the cymbals were deduced in detail and their influence on the frequency characteristics of the sound produced by the cymbals was identified.

  12. Strain and localization effects in InGaAs(N) quantum wells: Tuning the magnetic response

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Oliveira, V. Herval, L. K. S.; Orsi Gordo, V.; Cesar, D. F.; Godoy, M. P. F. de; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Henini, M.; Khatab, A.; Sadeghi, M.; Wang, S.; Schmidbauer, M.

    2014-12-21

    We investigated effects of localization and strain on the optical and magneto-optical properties of diluted nitrogen III–V quantum wells theoretically and experimentally. High-resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL), and magneto-PL measurements under high magnetic fields up to 15 T were performed at low temperatures. Bir-Pikus Hamiltonian formalism was used to study the influence of strain, confinement, and localization effects. The circularly polarized magneto-PL was interpreted considering localization aspects in the valence band ground state. An anomalous behavior of the electron-hole pair magnetic shift was observed at low magnetic fields, ascribed to the increase in the exciton reduced mass due to the negative effective mass of the valence band ground state.

  13. Measurement-dependent locality beyond independent and identically distributed runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ernest Y.-Z.; Cai, Yu; Scarani, Valerio

    2016-09-01

    When conducting a Bell test, it is normal to assume that the preparation of the quantum state is independent of the measurements performed on it. Remarkably, the violation of local realism by entangled quantum systems can be certified even if this assumption is partially relaxed. Here, we allow such measurement dependence to correlate multiple runs of the experiment, going beyond previous studies that considered independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) runs. To do so, we study the polytope defined by block-i.i.d. measurement-dependent local models. We prove that non-i.i.d. models are strictly more powerful than i.i.d. ones, and comment on the relevance of this work for the study of randomness amplification in simple Bell scenarios with suitably optimized inequalities.

  14. Fluid-assisted strain localization in the shallow subcontinental lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidas, Károly; Tommasi, Andréa; Garrido, Carlos J.; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Mainprice, David; Vauchez, Alain; Barou, Fabrice; Marchesi, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    We report microstructural evidence for fluid-assisted ductile strain localization in a ≤ 50 m-wide mylonitic-ultramylonitic shear zone in the Ronda Peridotite massif, Southern Spain. Strain localization occurred at relatively low pressure (< 0.8 GPa) and moderate temperature (750-1000 °C). Initial deformation by dislocation creep resulted in formation of mylonites. Focusing of aqueous fluids in the shear zone favored the activation of dissolution-precipitation creep, resulting in further strain localization. This process is recorded by two generations of ultramylonitic bands composed of fine-grained, well-mixed olivine-orthopyroxene aggregates. Microstructural observations in the ultramylonites suggest alternating dissolution and precipitation of olivine and orthopyroxene, which may be explained by local changes in silica molality of the percolating fluid (disequilibrium and mass transfer at scales > mm). In the mylonites, olivine shows a crystal preferred orientation (CPO) coherent with dominant (001)[100] glide, probably due to the presence of interstitial fluids during deformation. In the ultramylonites, olivine CPO is weak to very weak, consistently with a decreasing contribution of dislocation creep to deformation. In contrast, fine-grained orthopyroxene in both mylonites and ultramylonites displays a clear CPO characterized by a [001] maximum normal to the foliation, which is not consistent with dislocation glide in any known slip system for orthopyroxene. We interpret this CPO as formed by oriented crystallization during dissolution-precipitation. In the present study, dissolution-precipitation creep predominates only in small-scale ultramylonite bands due to limited fluid availability and localized dynamic permeability. However, this process may be important in intermediate temperature domains of subduction zones, where it may lead to a feedback between strain localization and fluid transport.

  15. Residual Strain Distribution in Bent Composite Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, Camden R; Gorti, Sarma B; Tang, Fei; Keiser, James R

    2006-01-01

    Kraft recovery boilers are typically constructed of carbon steel boiler tubes clad with a corrosion resistant layer, and these composite tubes are bent and welded together to form air port panels which enable the combustion air to enter the boiler. In this paper, the through-thickness residual strain in the carbon steel layer of non-heat-treated and heat-treated composite bent tubes were measured by neutron diffraction techniques and modeled by finite element modeling. The results can be used to optimize material selection and manufacturing processes to prevent stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue cracking in the boiler tubes.

  16. LaRC local area networks to support distributed computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, E. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Local Area Network (LAN) effort is discussed. LaRC initiated the development of a LAN to support a growing distributed computing environment at the Center. The purpose of the network is to provide an improved capability (over inteactive and RJE terminal access) for sharing multivendor computer resources. Specifically, the network will provide a data highway for the transfer of files between mainframe computers, minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers. An important influence on the overall network design was the vital need of LaRC researchers to efficiently utilize the large CDC mainframe computers in the central scientific computing facility. Although there was a steady migration from a centralized to a distributed computing environment at LaRC in recent years, the work load on the central resources increased. Major emphasis in the network design was on communication with the central resources within the distributed environment. The network to be implemented will allow researchers to utilize the central resources, distributed minicomputers, work stations, and personal computers to obtain the proper level of computing power to efficiently perform their jobs.

  17. Strain distribution and crack detection in thin unbonded concrete pavement overlays with fully distributed fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Genda

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the feasibility of strain measurement and crack detection in thin unbonded concrete pavement overlays with pulse prepump Brillouin optical time domain analysis. Single-mode optical fibers with two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively, were applied as fully distributed sensors, their performances were compared with analytical predictions. They were successfully protected from damage during concrete casting of three full-scale concrete panels when 5 to 10-cm-thick protective mortar covers had been set for 2 h. Experimental results from three-point loading tests of the panels indicated that the strain distributions measured from the two types of sensors were in good agreement, and cracks can be detected at sharp peaks of the measured strain distributions. The two-layer and three-layer coated fibers can be used to measure strains up to 2.33% and 2.42% with a corresponding sensitivity of 5.43×10-5 and 4.66×10-5 GHz/μɛ, respectively. Two cracks as close as 7 to 9 cm can be clearly detected. The measured strains in optical fiber were lower than the analytical prediction by 10% to 25%. Their difference likely resulted from strain transfer through various coatings, idealized point loading, varying optical fiber embedment, and concrete heterogeneity.

  18. Strain-Induced Localized States Within the Matrix Continuum of Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, V.; Bester, G.; Zunger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Quantum dot-based infrared detectors often involve transitions from confined states of the dot to states above the minimum of the conduction band continuum of the matrix. We discuss the existence of two types of resonant states within this continuum in self-assembled dots: (i) virtual bound states, which characterize square wells even without strain and (ii) strain-induced localized states. The latter emerge due to the appearance of 'potential wings' near the dot, related to the curvature of the dots. While states (i) do couple to the continuum, states (ii) are sheltered by the wings, giving rise to sharp absorption peaks.

  19. Strain localization in <111> single crystals of Hadfield steel under compressive load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafurova, E. G.; Zakharova, G. G.; Melnikov, E. V.

    2010-07-01

    A study of strain localization under compression of <111> Hadfield steel single crystals at room temperature was done by light and transmission electron microscopy. At epsilon<1%, macro shear bands (MSB) form that have non-crystallographic and complex non-linear habit planes and are the results of the interaction of dislocation slip on conjugate slip planes. Mechanical twinning was experimentally found inside the MSB. After the stage of MSBs formation, deformation develops with high strain hardening coefficient and corresponds to interaction of slip and twinning inside as well as outside the MSBs.

  20. Simultaneous temperature and strain sensing using distributed Raman optical time-domain reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, B. G.; Gorshkov, G. B.; Taranov, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    A novel method of simultaneous distributed temperature and strain sensing in optical fibers is proposed. The method is based on the dependence of spontaneous Raman scattering intensity on the applied stress. A simple Raman reflectometry arrangement similar to distributed temperature sensors is used. 30 µ strain and 0.02 K root mean square errors of the simultaneously measured strain and temperature, respectively, are demonstrated for a spatial resolution of 2 m. Realization through this method is simple and can compete with the one based on Brillouin scattering for some applications.

  1. Revealing ultralarge and localized elastic lattice strains in Nb nanowires embedded in NiTi matrix.

    PubMed

    Zang, Ketao; Mao, Shengcheng; Cai, Jixiang; Liu, Yinong; Li, Haixin; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan

    2015-12-02

    Freestanding nanowires have been found to exhibit ultra-large elastic strains (4 to 7%) and ultra-high strengths, but exploiting their intrinsic superior mechanical properties in bulk forms has proven to be difficult. A recent study has demonstrated that ultra-large elastic strains of ~6% can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix, on the principle of lattice strain matching. To verify this hypothesis, this study investigated the elastic deformation behavior of a Nb nanowire embedded in NiTi matrix by means of in situ transmission electron microscopic measurement during tensile deformation. The experimental work revealed that ultra-large local elastic lattice strains of up to 8% are induced in the Nb nanowire in regions adjacent to stress-induced martensite domains in the NiTi matrix, whilst other parts of the nanowires exhibit much reduced lattice strains when adjacent to the untransformed austenite in the NiTi matrix. These observations provide a direct evidence of the proposed mechanism of lattice strain matching, thus a novel approach to designing nanocomposites of superior mechanical properties.

  2. Revealing ultralarge and localized elastic lattice strains in Nb nanowires embedded in NiTi matrix

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Ketao; Mao, Shengcheng; Cai, Jixiang; Liu, Yinong; Li, Haixin; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan

    2015-01-01

    Freestanding nanowires have been found to exhibit ultra-large elastic strains (4 to 7%) and ultra-high strengths, but exploiting their intrinsic superior mechanical properties in bulk forms has proven to be difficult. A recent study has demonstrated that ultra-large elastic strains of ~6% can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix, on the principle of lattice strain matching. To verify this hypothesis, this study investigated the elastic deformation behavior of a Nb nanowire embedded in NiTi matrix by means of in situ transmission electron microscopic measurement during tensile deformation. The experimental work revealed that ultra-large local elastic lattice strains of up to 8% are induced in the Nb nanowire in regions adjacent to stress-induced martensite domains in the NiTi matrix, whilst other parts of the nanowires exhibit much reduced lattice strains when adjacent to the untransformed austenite in the NiTi matrix. These observations provide a direct evidence of the proposed mechanism of lattice strain matching, thus a novel approach to designing nanocomposites of superior mechanical properties. PMID:26625854

  3. Improved Displacement Transfer Functions for Structure Deformed Shape Predictions Using Discretely Distributed Surface Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2012-01-01

    In the formulations of earlier Displacement Transfer Functions for structure shape predictions, the surface strain distributions, along a strain-sensing line, were represented with piecewise linear functions. To improve the shape-prediction accuracies, Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated using piecewise nonlinear strain representations. Through discretization of an embedded beam (depth-wise cross section of a structure along a strain-sensing line) into multiple small domains, piecewise nonlinear functions were used to describe the surface strain distributions along the discretized embedded beam. Such piecewise approach enabled the piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations to yield slope and deflection equations in recursive forms. The resulting Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, written in summation forms, were expressed in terms of beam geometrical parameters and surface strains along the strain-sensing line. By feeding the surface strains into the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, structural deflections could be calculated at multiple points for mapping out the overall structural deformed shapes for visual display. The shape-prediction accuracies of the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were then examined in view of finite-element-calculated deflections using different tapered cantilever tubular beams. It was found that by using the piecewise nonlinear strain representations, the shape-prediction accuracies could be greatly improved, especially for highly-tapered cantilever tubular beams.

  4. Method for Estimating Operational Loads on Aerospace Structures Using Span-Wisely Distributed Surface Strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a new method for estimating operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, and torques) acting on slender aerospace structures using distributed surface strains (unidirectional strains). The surface strain-sensing stations are to be evenly distributed along each span-wise strain-sensing line. A depth-wise cross section of the structure along each strain-sensing line can then be considered as an imaginary embedded beam. The embedded beam was first evenly divided into multiple small domains with domain junctures matching the strain-sensing stations. The new method is comprised of two steps. The first step is to determine the structure stiffness (bending or torsion) using surface strains obtained from a simple bending (or torsion) loading case, for which the applied bending moment (or torque) is known. The second step is to use the strain-determined structural stiffness (bending or torsion), and a new set of surface strains induced by any other loading case to calculate the associated operational loads (bending moments, shear loads, or torques). Performance of the new method for estimating operational loads was studied in light of finite-element analyses of several example structures subjected to different loading conditions. The new method for estimating operational loads was found to be fairly accurate, and is very promising for applications to the flight load monitoring of flying vehicles with slender wings.

  5. Influence of grain size distribution on the mechanical behavior of light alloys in wide range of strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Skripnyak, Natalia V.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Skripnyak, Vladimir V.

    2017-01-01

    Inelastic deformation and damage at the mesoscale level of ultrafine grained (UFG) light alloys with distribution of grain size were investigated in wide loading conditions by experimental and computer simulation methods. The computational multiscale models of representative volume element (RVE) with the unimodal and bimodal grain size distributions were developed using the data of structure researches aluminum and magnesium UFG alloys. The critical fracture stress of UFG alloys on mesoscale level depends on relative volumes of coarse grains. Microcracks nucleation at quasi-static and dynamic loading is associated with strain localization in UFG partial volumes with bimodal grain size distribution. Microcracks arise in the vicinity of coarse and ultrafine grains boundaries. It is revealed that the occurrence of bimodal grain size distributions causes the increasing of UFG alloys ductility, but decreasing of the tensile strength.

  6. The star formation rate distribution function of the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, M. S.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Johnson, B. D.; Wu, Y.; Lee, J. C.; Dale, D.; Engelbracht, C.; Calzetti, D.; Skillman, E.

    2011-08-01

    We present total infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions derived from large representative samples of galaxies at z˜ 0, selected at IR and UV wavelengths from the Imperial IRAS Faint Source Catalogue redshift data base (IIFSCz) catalogue, and the GALEX All-Sky Imaging Survey (AIS), respectively. We augment these with deep Spitzer and GALEX imaging of galaxies in the 11 Mpc Local Volume Legacy (LVL) Survey, allowing us to extend these luminosity functions to lower luminosities (˜106 L⊙), and providing good constraints on the slope of the luminosity function at the extreme faint end for the first time. Using conventional star formation prescriptions, we generate from our data the star formation rate (SFR) distribution function for the local Universe. We find that it has a Schechter form, the faint-end slope has a constant value (to the limits of our data) of α=-1.51 ± 0.08 and the ‘characteristic’ SFR ψ* is 9.2 M⊙ yr-1. We also show the distribution function of the SFR volume density; we then use this to calculate a value for the total SFR volume density at z˜ 0 of 0.025 ± 0.0016 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3, of which ˜20 per cent is occurring in starbursts. Decomposing the total star formation by infrared luminosity, it can be seen that 9 ± 1 per cent is due to LIRGs, and 0.7 ± 0.2 per cent is occurring in ULIRGs. By comparing UV and IR emission for galaxies in our sample, we also calculate the fraction of star formation occurring in dust-obscured environments, and examine the distribution of dusty star formation: we find a very shallow slope at the highly extincted end, which may be attributable to line-of-sight orientation effects as well as conventional internal extinction.

  7. Isolation and purification of Gallid herpesvirus 2 strains currently distributed in Japan.

    PubMed

    Machida, Yuka; Murata, Shiro; Matsuyama-Kato, Ayumi; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Taneno, Akira; Sakai, Eishi; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-20

    Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) causes malignant lymphomas in chickens (Marek's disease, MD). Although MD is controlled through vaccination efforts, field isolates of GaHV-2 have increased in virulence worldwide and even cause MD in vaccinated chickens. GaHV-2 strains are classified into four categories (mild, virulent, very virulent and very virulent +) based on the virulence exhibited in experimental infection in unvaccinated or MD-vaccinated susceptible chickens. Although MD cases are sporadically reported in Japan, the recent field strains of GaHV-2 in Japan have not been characterized. During isolation of recent field strains by using primary chicken kidney cell cultures, a method classically used for GaHV-2 isolation, vaccine strains were simultaneously isolated. Therefore, it is necessary to separate vaccine strains to characterize the virulence and pathogenicity of the GaHV-2 strains currently distributed in Japan. In this study, we prepared cell suspensions from the spleens of MD-symptomatic chickens, inoculated day-old-chicks and isolated GaHV-2 strains by primary chicken kidney cell cultures at 2-3 weeks post inoculation. The isolated strains were passaged several times on chicken embryo fibroblast cells, and PCR analysis revealed that the isolated strains were not contaminated with vaccine strains. Moreover, the contaminant vaccine strains were completely removed by the purification of plaques observed in chicken kidney cells. These procedures are necessary to isolate GaHV-2 field strains from vaccine strains in order to carry out future studies to characterize these strains and glean insights into GaHV-2 virulence and pathogenicity.

  8. Highly toxic and broad-spectrum insecticidal local Bacillus strains engineered using protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    El-Kawokgy, Tahany M A; Hussein, Hashem A; Aly, Nariman A H; Mohamed, Shereen A H

    2015-01-01

    Protoplast fusion was performed between a local Bacillus thuringiensis UV-resistant mutant 66/1a (Bt) and Bacillus sphaericus GHAI (Bs) to produce new Bacillus strains with a wider spectrum of action against different insects. Bt is characterized as sensitive to polymyxin and streptomycin and resistant to rifampicin and has shown 87% mortality against Spodoptera littoralis larvae at concentration of 1.5 × 10(7) cells/mL after 7 days of feeding; Bs is characterized as resistant to polymyxin and streptomycin and sensitive to rifampicin and has been shown to have 100% mortality against Culex pipiens after 1 day of feeding at the same concentration as that of Bt. Among a total of 64 Bt::Bs fusants produced on the selective medium containing polymyxin, streptomycin, and rifampicin, 17 fusants were selected because of their high mortality percentages against S. littoralis (Lepidoptera) and C. pipiens (Diptera). While Bt harboured 3 plasmids (600, 350, and 173 bp) and Bs had 2 plasmids (544 and 291 bp), all the selected fusants acquired plasmids from both parental strains. SDS-PAGE protein analysis of the 17 selected fusants and their parental strains confirmed that all fusant strains acquired and expressed many specific protein bands from the 2 parental strains, especially the larvicidal proteins to both lepidopteran and dipteran species with molecular masses of 65, 70, 80, 88, 100, and 135 kDa. Four protein bands with high molecular masses of 281, 263, 220, and 190 kDa, which existed in the Bt parental strain and did not exist in the Bs parental strain, and 2 other protein bands with high molecular masses of 185 and 180 kDa, which existed in the Bs parental strain and did not exist in the Bt parental strain, were expressed in most fusants. The results indicated the expression of some cry genes encoded for insecticidal crystal proteins from Bt and the binary toxin genes from Bs in all fusant strains. The recombinant fusants have more efficient and potential values for

  9. Local fluid flow and borehole strain in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsson, S.; Segall, P.; Ágústsson, K.; Agnew, D.

    2003-12-01

    Installation of 175 borehole strainmeters is planned for PBO. It is therefore vital to understand the behavior of existing strainmeter installations. We investigate signals recorded by three borehole dilatometers in the south Iceland seismic zone following two Mw6.5 earthquakes in June 2000. Poroelastic relaxation has been documented following these events based on InSAR and water level data [Jónsson et al., 2003, Nature]. According to poroelastic theory for a homogeneous isotropic (unfractured) medium, the anticipated post-seismic volumetric strain has the same sign as the coseismic strain step. For example, coseismic compression results in pore-pressure increases; post-earthquake fluid drainage causes additional compression. However, we find that observed strain changes vary considerably between different instruments after the earthquakes. One instrument (HEL) behaves as expected with transient strain increasing with the same sign as the coseismic strain step. Another instrument (SAU) shows partial strain relaxation, opposite in sign to the coseismic signal. The third (BUR) exhibits complete strain relaxation by 3-4 days after the earthquakes (i.e., BUR does not record any permanent strain). BUR has responded in the same fashion to three different earthquakes and two volcanic eruptions, demonstrating conclusively that the transient response is due to processes local to the borehole. Fluid drainage from cracks can explain these observations. Rapid straining results in compression (extension) of the rock and strainmeter. Fluid filled fractures near the borehole transmit normal stress, due to the relative incompressibility of water. Thus, at short time scales the instrument records a coseismic strain step. With time, however, fluid flows out of (in to) the fractures, and the normal stress transmitted across the fractures decreases (increases). As the stress relaxes the strainmeter expands (contracts), reversing the coseismic strain. Barometric responses are

  10. Local strain and damage mapping in single trabeculae during three-point bending tests.

    PubMed

    Jungmann, R; Szabo, M E; Schitter, G; Tang, Raymond Yue-Sing; Vashishth, D; Hansma, P K; Thurner, P J

    2011-05-01

    The use of bone mineral density as a surrogate to diagnose bone fracture risk in individuals is of limited value. However, there is growing evidence that information on trabecular microarchitecture can improve the assessment of fracture risk. One current strategy is to exploit finite element analysis (FEA) applied to 3D image data of several mm-sized trabecular bone structures obtained from non-invasive imaging modalities for the prediction of apparent mechanical properties. However, there is a lack of FE damage models, based on solid experimental facts, which are needed to validate such approaches and to provide criteria marking elastic-plastic deformation transitions as well as microdamage initiation and accumulation. In this communication, we present a strategy that could elegantly lead to future damage models for FEA: direct measurements of local strains involved in microdamage initiation and plastic deformation in single trabeculae. We use digital image correlation to link stress whitening in bone, reported to be correlated to microdamage, to quantitative local strain values. Our results show that the whitening zones, i.e. damage formation, in the presented loading case of a three-point bending test correlate best with areas of elevated tensile strains oriented parallel to the long axis of the samples. The average local strains along this axis were determined to be (1.6±0.9)% at whitening onset and (12±4)% just prior to failure. Overall, our data suggest that damage initiation in trabecular bone is asymmetric in tension and compression, with failure originating and propagating over a large range of tensile strains.

  11. Local strain and damage mapping in single trabeculae during three-point bending tests

    PubMed Central

    Jungmann, R.; Szabo, M.E.; Schitter, G.; Tang, Raymond Yue-Sing; Vashishth, D.; Hansma, P.K.; Thurner, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of bone mineral density as a surrogate to diagnose bone fracture risk in individuals is of limited value. However, there is growing evidence that information on trabecular microarchitecture can improve the assessment of fracture risk. One current strategy is to exploit finite element analysis (FEA) applied to 3D image data of several mm-sized trabecular bone structures obtained from non-invasive imaging modalities for the prediction of apparent mechanical properties. However, there is a lack of FE damage models, based on solid experimental facts, which are needed to validate such approaches and to provide criteria marking elastic–plastic deformation transitions as well as microdamage initiation and accumulation. In this communication, we present a strategy that could elegantly lead to future damage models for FEA: direct measurements of local strains involved in microdamage initiation and plastic deformation in single trabeculae. We use digital image correlation to link stress whitening in bone, reported to be correlated to microdamage, to quantitative local strain values. Our results show that the whitening zones, i.e. damage formation, in the presented loading case of a three-point bending test correlate best with areas of elevated tensile strains oriented parallel to the long axis of the samples. The average local strains along this axis were determined to be (1.6 ± 0.9)% at whitening onset and (12 ± 4)% just prior to failure. Overall, our data suggest that damage initiation in trabecular bone is asymmetric in tension and compression, with failure originating and propagating over a large range of tensile strains. PMID:21396601

  12. Stress and strain localization in stretched collagenous tissues via a multiscale modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Marino, Michele; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Mechanobiology of cells in soft collagenous tissues is highly affected by both tissue response at the macroscale and stress/strain localization mechanisms due to features at lower scales. In this paper, the macroscale mechanical behaviour of soft collagenous tissues is modelled by a three-level multiscale approach, based on a multi-step homogenisation technique from nanoscale up to the macroscale. Nanoscale effects, related to both intermolecular cross-links and collagen mechanics, are accounted for, together with geometric nonlinearities at the microscale. Moreover, an effective submodelling procedure is conceived in order to evaluate the local stress and strain fields at the microscale, which is around and within cells. Numerical results, obtained by using an incremental finite element formulation and addressing stretched tendinous tissues, prove consistency and accuracy of the model at both macroscale and microscale, confirming also the effectiveness of the multiscale modelling concept for successfully analysing physiopathological processes in biological tissues.

  13. Damage localization in beam-like structures using changes in modal strain energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouali, M.; Mellel, N.; Dougdag, M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the application and reliability of using modal strain energy in damage localization estimation of beam-like structures. This is based on the fact that damage often cause a loss of stiffness that increase the modal displacement of two ends of beam element containing the damage, So the modal strain energy after damage will be increased and Modal Strain Energy Change Ratio (MSECR) in this element is larger than other elements and the location of damage is detected by finding the element with higher MSECR. To conduct this investigation, an experimental modal analysis program was carried out on a cantilever beam subjected to a controlled crack levels and the first seven mode shapes were extracted and used to calculate the modal strain energy change. The experimental MSECR was computed and the location of the damage was accurately identified especially for crack sizing as small as 10% of the beam height. Finally, finite elements models were built and validated, MSE change method was applied and the results demonstrate that the method is capable of localizing the damage for beam structure.

  14. Valorization of solid olive mill wastes by cultivation of a local strain of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mansour-Benamar, Malika; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Chavant, Louis

    2013-08-01

    Olive oil industry generates huge quantities of solid olive mill wastes (SOMW), causing environmental damage. Cultivation of edible mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus is a valuable approach for SOMW valorization. A local strain mycelium (Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria) of P. ostreatus (LPO) was isolated from castor oil plants. Oyster mushroom spawn, produced on barley grains, was used to inoculate wet SOMW, steamed in a traditional steamer during 45 min. The mycelium growth rate on SOMW was first estimated in Petri dish by measuring the surface colonized by the mycelium. The fruit body yields were estimated on culture bags containing 2 kg each of SOMW inoculated at 7% (w/w). The local strain potential was compared with that of a commercial one. Both strains produced high-quality mushrooms, but with low yields. The supplementation of the SOMW with wheat straw at the rate of 10% and 2% of CaCO3 had significantly enhanced the productivity of the two strains, multiplying it by 3.2 for LPO and by 2.6 for CPO.

  15. Sporadic Distribution and Distinctive Variations of Cylindrospermopsin Genes in Cyanobacterial Strains and Environmental Samples from Chinese Freshwater Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yongguang; Xiao, Peng; Yu, Gongliang; Shao, Jihai; Liu, Deming; Azevedo, Sandra M. F. O.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing reports of cylindrospermopsins (CYNs) in freshwater ecosystems have promoted the demand for identifying all of the potential CYN-producing cyanobacterial species. The present study explored the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of cyr genes in cyanobacterial strains and water samples from China. Four Cylindrospermopsis strains and two Raphidiopsis strains were confirmed to produce CYNs. Mutant cyrI and cyrK genes were observed in these strains. Cloned cyr gene sequences from eight water bodies were clustered with cyr genes from Cylindrospermopsis and Raphidiopsis (C/R group) in the phylogenetic trees with high similarities (99%). Four cyrI sequence types and three cyrJ sequence types were observed to have different sequence insertions and repeats. Phylogenetic analysis of the rpoC1 sequences of the C/R group revealed four conserved clades, namely, clade I, clade II, clade III, and clade V. High sequence similarities (>97%) in each clade and a divergent clade IV were observed. Therefore, CYN producers were sporadically distributed in congeneric and paraphyletic C/R group species in Chinese freshwater ecosystems. In the evolution of cyr genes, intragenomic translocations and intergenomic transfer between local Cylindrospermopsis and Raphidiopsis were emphasized and probably mediated by transposases. This research confirms the existence of CYN-producing Cylindrospermopsis in China and reveals the distinctive variations of cyr genes. PMID:24928879

  16. Strain localization in a shear transformation zone model for amorphous solids.

    PubMed

    Manning, M L; Langer, J S; Carlson, J M

    2007-11-01

    We model a sheared disordered solid using the theory of shear transformation zones (STZs). In this mean-field continuum model the density of zones is governed by an effective temperature that approaches a steady state value as energy is dissipated. We compare the STZ model to simulations by Shi [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 185505 (2007)], finding that the model generates solutions that fit the data, exhibit strain localization, and capture important features of the localization process. We show that perturbations to the effective temperature grow due to an instability in the transient dynamics, but unstable systems do not always develop shear bands. Nonlinear energy dissipation processes interact with perturbation growth to determine whether a material exhibits strain localization. By estimating the effects of these interactions, we derive a criterion that determines which materials exhibit shear bands based on the initial conditions alone. We also show that the shear band width is not set by an inherent diffusion length scale but instead by a dynamical scale that depends on the imposed strain rate.

  17. Disruption of thermally-stable nanoscale grain structures by strain localization.

    PubMed

    Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein; Rupert, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystalline metals with average grain sizes of only a few nanometers have recently been observed to fail through the formation of shear bands. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in nanocrystalline Ni which has had its grain structure stabilized by doping with W, with a specific focus on understanding how strain localization drives evolution of the nanoscale grain structure. Shear banding was initiated with both microcompression and nanoindentation experiments, followed by site-specific transmission electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure. Grain growth and texture formation were observed inside the shear bands, which had a wide variety of thicknesses. These evolved regions have well-defined edges, which rules out local temperature rise as a possible formation mechanism. No structural evolution was found in areas away from the shear bands, even in locations where significant plastic deformation had occurred, showing that plastic strain alone is not enough to cause evolution. Rather, intense strain localization is needed to induce mechanically-driven grain growth in a thermally-stable nanocrystalline alloy.

  18. Error localization of finite element updating model based on element strain energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zi; Zang, Chaoping; Wang, Xiaowei; Jiang, Yuying

    2016-09-01

    An error localization indicator based on modal strain energy changes is proposed and used for selecting design parameters to be updated in model updating process. Taking an aeroengine combustor casing structure as an example, the ‘supermodel’ of combustor casing was established and validated with the test data and the reduced model (also called the design model) was built with the simplification of modelling. By comparing the modal strain energy changes between ‘supermodel’ and design model of combustor casing, the error locations of the reduced combustor casing modelling was highlighted by the error localization indicator. Then, the updating parameters of the design model were selected as the areas with significant variations of modal strain energy changes based on the error localization indicator. Defining the updating object function with the minimum of natural frequency errors between the FE model prediction and the modal test data, model updating of the design combustor casing model based sensitivity analysis method was carried out using the experimental modal data. After model updating, the maximum frequency error of the first ten modes was decreased from 27.1% to 1.2%, compared with the test data. The result shows the effectiveness of the proposed method and certain significance in parameter selection for model updating.

  19. Disruption of Thermally-Stable Nanoscale Grain Structures by Strain Localization

    PubMed Central

    Khalajhedayati, Amirhossein; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline metals with average grain sizes of only a few nanometers have recently been observed to fail through the formation of shear bands. Here, we investigate this phenomenon in nanocrystalline Ni which has had its grain structure stabilized by doping with W, with a specific focus on understanding how strain localization drives evolution of the nanoscale grain structure. Shear banding was initiated with both microcompression and nanoindentation experiments, followed by site-specific transmission electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure. Grain growth and texture formation were observed inside the shear bands, which had a wide variety of thicknesses. These evolved regions have well-defined edges, which rules out local temperature rise as a possible formation mechanism. No structural evolution was found in areas away from the shear bands, even in locations where significant plastic deformation had occurred, showing that plastic strain alone is not enough to cause evolution. Rather, intense strain localization is needed to induce mechanically-driven grain growth in a thermally-stable nanocrystalline alloy. PMID:26030826

  20. CHARACTERIZING LOCALIZED STRAIN OF IN0.83Al0.17As/In0.83Ga0.17As DETECTOR USING LOW FREQUENCY ATOMIC FORCE ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weitao; Dou, Honglei; Huo, Dexuan; Yu, Guolin; Dai, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Localized strain accumulation and related defects strongly affect the performance of optoelectronic detectors. However, characterizing distribution of the localized strain and defects still challenges usability and spatial resolution of many measurements. In current study, the defects and surface strain accumulation of In0.83Al0.17As/In0.83Ga0.17As multilayer detectors are investigated using low-frequency atomic force acoustic microscope (AFAM) and Raman spectroscopy. With AFAM, the strain accumulation and defects can be easily identified and measured with spatial resolution as good as that of atomic force microscope (AFM).

  1. Strength Profiles of the Continental Lithosphere: Fabric Dependence, Strain Dependence, and Implications for Stability and Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesi, L.; Gueydan, F.

    2014-12-01

    -independent strain rate after the structural changes are in place. In both approaches, the enhancement of strain rate corresponds to a measure of localization achieved by the structural change.

  2. Functional brain networks develop from a "local to distributed" organization.

    PubMed

    Fair, Damien A; Cohen, Alexander L; Power, Jonathan D; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Church, Jessica A; Miezin, Francis M; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Petersen, Steven E

    2009-05-01

    The mature human brain is organized into a collection of specialized functional networks that flexibly interact to support various cognitive functions. Studies of development often attempt to identify the organizing principles that guide the maturation of these functional networks. In this report, we combine resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI), graph analysis, community detection, and spring-embedding visualization techniques to analyze four separate networks defined in earlier studies. As we have previously reported, we find, across development, a trend toward 'segregation' (a general decrease in correlation strength) between regions close in anatomical space and 'integration' (an increased correlation strength) between selected regions distant in space. The generalization of these earlier trends across multiple networks suggests that this is a general developmental principle for changes in functional connectivity that would extend to large-scale graph theoretic analyses of large-scale brain networks. Communities in children are predominantly arranged by anatomical proximity, while communities in adults predominantly reflect functional relationships, as defined from adult fMRI studies. In sum, over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more "distributed" architecture in young adults. We argue that this "local to distributed" developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition. Further, graph metrics (e.g., clustering coefficients and average path lengths) are similar in child and adult graphs, with both showing "small-world"-like properties, while community detection by modularity optimization reveals stable communities within the graphs that are clearly different between young children and young adults. These observations suggest that early school age children and adults both have

  3. Localizing and extracting filament distributions from microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Liu, C; Rohde, G K

    2015-04-01

    Detailed quantitative measurements of biological filament networks represent a crucial step in understanding architecture and structure of cells and tissues, which in turn explain important biological events such as wound healing and cancer metastases. Microscopic images of biological specimens marked for different structural proteins constitute an important source for observing and measuring meaningful parameters of biological networks. Unfortunately, current efforts at quantitative estimation of architecture and orientation of biological filament networks from microscopy images are predominantly limited to visual estimation and indirect experimental inference. Here, we describe a new method for localizing and extracting filament distributions from 2D microscopy images of different modalities. The method combines a filter-based detection of pixels likely to contain a filament with a constrained reverse diffusion-based approach for localizing the filaments centrelines. We show with qualitative and quantitative experiments, using both simulated and real data, that the new method can provide more accurate centreline estimates of filament in comparison to other approaches currently available. In addition, we show the algorithm is more robust with respect to variations in the initial filter-based filament detection step often used. We demonstrate the application of the method in extracting quantitative parameters from confocal microscopy images of actin filaments and atomic force microscopy images of DNA fragments.

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation of Strain Distribution and Fatigue Distribution from Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Magnetic Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M.; Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T.

    2007-03-21

    Austenitic stainless steel transforms from austenitic crystal structure to martensitic crystal structure after applying strain or stress. Because martensitic crystal structures have magnetization, strain evaluation and fatigue evaluation can be performed by measuring magnetic properties. This paper describes the measurement of leakage magnetic flux density of remanent magnetization for the strain evaluation and the fatigue evaluation by a typical Hall element sensor for SUS 304 and SUS 304L and by a high-sensitivity thin-film flux-gate magnetic sensor for SUS 316 and SUS 316L.

  5. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of hyaluronan synthase isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Kari; Nikunen, Kaisa; Kärnä, Riikka; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Rilla, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) are unique plasma membrane glycosyltransferases secreting this glycosaminoglycan directly to the extracellular space. The three HAS isoenzymes (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) expressed in mammalian cells differ in their enzymatic properties and regulation by external stimuli, but clearly distinct functions have not been established. To overview the expression of different HAS isoenzymes during embryonic development and their subcellular localization, we immunostained mouse embryonic samples and cultured cells with HAS antibodies, correlating their distribution to hyaluronan staining. Their subcellular localization was further studied by GFP-HAS fusion proteins. Intense hyaluronan staining was observed throughout the development in the tissues of mesodermal origin, like heart and cartilages, but also for example during the maturation of kidneys and stratified epithelia. In general, staining for one or several HASs correlated with hyaluronan staining. The staining of HAS2 was most widespread, both spatially and temporally, correlating with hyaluronan staining especially in early mesenchymal tissues and heart. While epithelial cells were mostly negative for HASs, stratified epithelia became HAS positive during differentiation. All HAS isoenzymes showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity, both in tissue sections and cultured cells, while plasma membrane staining was also detected, often in cellular extensions. HAS1 had brightest signal in Golgi, HAS3 in Golgi and microvillous protrusions, whereas most of the endogenous HAS2 immunoreactivity was localized in the ER. This differential pattern was also observed with transfected GFP-HASs. The large proportion of intracellular HASs suggests that HAS forms a reserve that is transported to the plasma membrane for rapid activation of hyaluronan synthesis.

  6. Measuring Local Strain Rates In Ductile Shear Zones: A New Approach From Deformed Syntectonic Dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassier, C.; Leloup, P.; Rubatto, D.; Galland, O.; Yue, Y.; Ding, L.

    2006-12-01

    At the Earth surface, deformation is mostly localized in fault zones in between tectonic plates. In the upper crust, the deformation is brittle and the faults are narrow and produce earthquakes. In contrast, deformation in the lower ductile crust results in larger shear zones. While it is relatively easy to measure in situ deformation rates at the surface using for example GPS data, it is more difficult to determinate in situ values of strain rate in the ductile crust. Such strain rates can only be estimated in paleo-shear zones. Various methods have been used to assess paleo-strain rates in paleo-shear zones. For instance, cooling and/or decompression rates associated with assumptions on geothermic gradients and shear zone geometry can lead to such estimates. Another way to estimate strain rates is the integration of paleo-stress measurements in a power flow law. But these methods are indirect and imply strong assumptions. Dating of helicitic garnets or syntectonic fibres are more direct estimates. However these last techniques have been only applied in zones of low deformation and not in major shear zones. We propose a new direct method to measure local strain rates in major ductile shear zones from syntectonic dykes by coupling quantification of deformation and geochronology. We test our method in a major shear zone in a well constrained tectonic setting: the Ailao-Shan - Red River Shear Zone (ASRRsz) located in SE Asia. For this 10 km wide shear zone, large-scale fault rates, determined in three independent ways, imply strain rates between 1.17×10^{-13 s-1 and 1.52×10^{-13 s-1 between 35 and 16 Ma. Our study focused on one outcrop where different generations of syntectonic dykes are observed. First, we quantified the minimum shear strain γ for each dyke using several methods: (1) by measuring the stretching of dykes with a surface restoration method (2) by measuring the final angle of the dykes with respect to the shear direction and (3) by combining the two

  7. Strain Localization Within a Syn-Tectonic Pluton in a Back-Arc Extensional Context: the Naxos granodiorite (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessiere, Eloïse; Rabillard, Aurélien; Arbaret, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Augier, Romain; Menant, Armel

    2016-04-01

    Naxos Island is part of the central Cyclades (Aegean Sea, Greece) where a series of migmatite-cored metamorphic domes were exhumed below large-scale detachment systems during a Cenozoic back-arc extension. On Naxos, the Miocene exhumation history of the high-temperature metamorphic dome was notably achieved through two anastomosing and closely spaced top-to-the-north detachments belonging to the Naxos-Paros detachment system. According to previous contributions, the late exhumation stages were accompanied by the emplacement of a syn-kinematic I-type granodiorite that intruded a ductile-then-brittle detachment. Later the detachment migrated at the interface between the pluton and the metamorphic unit under ductile-to-brittle conditions. To clarify how extensional deformation was precisely distributed within the pluton, a multi-scale approach from field observations to laboratory investigations was undertaken. Through macro- to micro-structural observations, we show a continuous deformation history from magmatic to solid-state ductile/brittle conditions under an overall north-directed shearing deformation. The early magmatic or sub-solidus deformation is evidenced in a large part of the granodiorite, notably in its southern part where the original intrusive contact is still preserved. Solid-state deformation is recorded further north when approaching the detachment zone, highlighted by a thicker cataclastic zone and numerous pseudotachylite veins. From these field observations, we defined six strain facies, leading us to propose a qualitative strain map of the Naxos granodiorite. Based on field pictures and X-ray tomography of oriented samples collected along the strain gradient, we quantified the intensity of mineralogical fabrics in 2D and 3D. This step required the treatment of 600 rocks samples and pictures using SPO2003 (Shape Preferred Orientation) and Intercepts2003. Measured shape variations of the strain ellipsoid thus corroborate the large-scale strain

  8. Distribution of AdeABC efflux system genes in genotypically diverse strains of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Sacha, Paweł; Czaban, Sławomir; Hauschild, Tomasz; Ojdana, Dominika; Kowalczuk, Oksana; Milewski, Robert; Poniatowski, Bogusław; Nikliński, Jacek; Tryniszewska, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a highly problematic hospital-associated pathogen. Different mechanisms contribute to the formation of multidrug resistance in A. baumannii, including the AdeABC efflux system. Distribution of the structural and regulatory genes encoding the AdeABC efflux system among genetically diverse clinical A. baumannii strains was achieved by using PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques. The distribution of adeABRS genes is extremely high among our A. baumannii strains, except the adeC gene. We have observed a large proportion of strains presenting multidrug-resistance phenotype for several years. The efflux pump could be an important mechanism in these strains in resistance to antibiotics.

  9. 18 CFR 284.224 - Certain transportation and sales by local distribution companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and sales by local distribution companies. 284.224 Section 284.224 Conservation of Power and Water... Transportation by Interstate Pipelines on Behalf of Others and Services by Local Distribution Companies § 284.224 Certain transportation and sales by local distribution companies. (a) Applicability. This section...

  10. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... local distribution company emergency sales rates. 284.269 Section 284.269 Conservation of Power and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  11. Note: Improving distributed strain sensing sensitivity in OFDR by reduced-cladding single mode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yang, Di; Du, Yang; Zhou, Yonghan; Xu, Zhexi; Liu, Kun; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Tiegen

    2016-12-01

    We present a method to improve distributed strain sensing sensitivity by a reduced-cladding single mode fiber (RC SMF) using a Rayleigh backscattering spectra shift in optical frequency domain reflectometry. Comparing with a standard SMF with 250 μm diameter, a commercial low attenuation RC SMF with 165 μm diameter is shown to enhance the strain sensing sensitivity by about four-fold. Using this property, the system using the RC SMF can achieve smaller minimal measurable strain (MMS) in the same sensing spatial resolution (SSR) or smaller SSR in the same MMS than using the standard SMF. In our experiment, the system using RC SMF can achieve the MMS of 15 μstrain with a SSR of 4.5 cm or the MMS of 3 μstrain with a SSR of 18 cm.

  12. Note: Improving distributed strain sensing sensitivity in OFDR by reduced-cladding single mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yang, Di; Du, Yang; Zhou, Yonghan; Xu, Zhexi; Liu, Kun; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Tiegen

    2016-12-01

    We present a method to improve distributed strain sensing sensitivity by a reduced-cladding single mode fiber (RC SMF) using a Rayleigh backscattering spectra shift in optical frequency domain reflectometry. Comparing with a standard SMF with 250 μm diameter, a commercial low attenuation RC SMF with 165 μm diameter is shown to enhance the strain sensing sensitivity by about four-fold. Using this property, the system using the RC SMF can achieve smaller minimal measurable strain (MMS) in the same sensing spatial resolution (SSR) or smaller SSR in the same MMS than using the standard SMF. In our experiment, the system using RC SMF can achieve the MMS of 15 μstrain with a SSR of 4.5 cm or the MMS of 3 μstrain with a SSR of 18 cm.

  13. Load/Strain Distribution between Ulna and Radius in the Mouse Forearm Compression Loading Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yunkai; Thiagarajan, Ganesh; Nicolella, Daniel P.; Johnson, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) of the mouse forearm compression loading model is used to relate strain distributions with downstream changes in bone formation and responses of bone cells. The objective of this study was to develop two FEA models – the first one with the traditional ulna only and the second one in which both the ulna and radius are included, in order to examine the effect of the inclusion of the radius on the strain distributions in the ulna. The entire mouse forearm was scanned using microCT and images were converted into FEA tetrahedral meshes using a suite of software programs. The performance of both linear and quadratic tetrahedral elements and coarse and fine meshes were studied. A load of 2 N was applied to the ulna/radius model and a 1.3 N load (based on previous investigations of load sharing between the ulna and radius in rats) was applied to the ulna only model for subsequent simulations. The results showed differences in the cross sectional strain distributions and magnitude within the ulna for the combined ulna/radius model versus the ulna only model. The maximal strain in the combined model occurred about 4 mm towards the distal end from the ulna mid-shaft in both models. Results from the FEA model simulations were also compared to experimentally determined strain values. We conclude that inclusion of the radius in FE models to predict strains during in vivo forearm loading increases the magnitude of the estimated ulna strains compared to those predicted from a model of the ulna alone but the distribution was similar. This has important ramifications for future studies to understand strain thresholds needed to activate bone cell responses to mechanical loading. PMID:21903442

  14. Tunable optical-path correlator for distributed strain or temperature-sensing application.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yonggui; Wu, Bing; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2010-10-15

    Based on a cavity-length tunable fiber-loop resonator, a multibeam optical path difference is generated. It can be used to match and correlate the reflective signals from the partial reflective ends of each sensing fiber gauge. The correlation signals correspond to the sensing gauge lengths, and the shift of the correlation peak is related with the fiber sensing gauge elongation caused by strain or temperature. Therefore, it can be used to measure distributed strain or deformation for smart structural monitoring.

  15. Characterization of the process of the strain localization in some porous rocks in plane strain condition using a new true triaxial apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besuelle, P.

    2012-04-01

    Failure by strain localization is commonly observed in geomaterials. Generaly, experimental characterization of the localization in a porous sandstone are performed with classical axisymmetric triaxial compression tests. The effect of the confining pressure is observed on several aspects: onset of localization, pattern of localization, porosity evolution inside bands, grain scale mechanisms of deformation. Complex patterns of localization can be observed at high confining pressure in the transition between the brittle and ductile regime, showing several deformation bands in the specimens ([1]). However the history (time evolution) of the localization is not accessible because the observations are post-mortem. Strain field measurement and evolution in time of the strain field are particularly useful to study the strain localization (initiation of the deformation bands) and the post-localization regime. Such tools have been developed for soils (e.g., sand specimens in plane strain condition [2] or in triaxial conditions using X-ray tomography [3]). Similar developments for rocks are still difficult, especially because the pertinent confining pressure to reproduce in situ stresses are higher than for soils. We present here first results obtained in a new true triaxial apparatus that allows observation of the rock specimen under loading and especially the complex development of deformation bands and faults. As for [4] and [5], the three principal stresses are different, however the intermediate stress is controlled in order to impose a plane strain condition (zero strain in this direction). Observation of a specimen under load is possible as one surface of the prismatic specimen, which is orthogonal to the plane strain direction, is in contact with a hard transparent window. The deformation of this surface is representative of the deformation in the whole specimen, up to and beyond strain localization. Therefore the evolution of the strain field in the sample can be

  16. Ribotyping of Erwinia chrysanthemi Strains in Relation to Their Pathogenic and Geographic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Atef; Bertheau, Yves; Dervin, Catherine; Narcy, Jean-Paul; Lemattre, Monique

    1994-01-01

    16S and 23S rRNAs from Escherichia coli were used to study the relationship among a representative collection of strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi differing in their original host and geographical origin. Phenetic analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms allowed the distribution of the studied strains into seven clusters. These clusters were similar to those obtained by cladistic methods and appeared to correlate well with the established pathovars and biovars but to a lesser extent with geographical distribution. Except for two groups of strains defined as tropical and temperate isolates (clusters 3 and 4, respectively), our clustering correlated well with botanical classifications of host plants. However, the rRNA groupings were shown to be more discriminative than biovar analysis. To assess the relationship between rRNA clusters and pathogenicity, 12 representative strains from different clusters were tested for pathogenicity on different plants. The two typical symptoms, maceration and wilting, were observed for these strains. The occurrence of the tobacco hypersensitivity reaction for a subset of these strains is discussed in light of recent results concerning the presence of an hrp gene. Considering symptom expression only, rather than the capacity for plant infection, strains from the same cluster were shown to induce similar symptoms in test plants. Thus, since host specificity is still quite controversial, rRNA patterns may constitute a useful tool in taxonomic and epidemiological studies of Erwinia chrysanthemi species. Images PMID:16349416

  17. Vibration monitoring of a helicopter blade model using the optical fiber distributed strain sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka; Kasai, Tokio

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a dynamic distributed monitoring technique using a long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogated by optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) that measures strain at a speed of 150 Hz, spatial resolution of 1 mm, and measurement range of 20 m. A 5 m FBG is bonded to a 5.5 m helicopter blade model, and vibration is applied by the step relaxation method. The time domain responses of the strain distributions are measured, and the blade deflections are calculated based on the strain distributions. Frequency response functions are obtained using the time domain responses of the calculated deflection induced by the preload release, and the modal parameters are retrieved. Experimental results demonstrated the dynamic monitoring performances and the applicability to the modal analysis of the OFDR-FBG technique.

  18. Hollow Cylinder Tests on Boom Clay: Modelling of Strain Localization in the Anisotropic Excavation Damaged Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Bertrand; Labiouse, Vincent; Dizier, Arnaud; Marinelli, Ferdinando; Charlier, Robert; Collin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Boom Clay is extensively studied as a potential candidate to host underground nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. To guarantee the safety of such a disposal, the mechanical behaviour of the clay during gallery excavation must be properly predicted. In that purpose, a hollow cylinder experiment on Boom Clay has been designed to reproduce, in a small-scale test, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) as experienced during the excavation of a disposal gallery in the underground. In this article, the focus is made on the hydro-mechanical constitutive interpretation of the displacement (experimentally obtained by medium resolution X-ray tomography scanning). The coupled hydro-mechanical response of Boom Clay in this experiment is addressed through finite element computations with a constitutive model including strain hardening/softening, elastic and plastic cross-anisotropy and a regularization method for the modelling of strain localization processes. The obtained results evidence the directional dependency of the mechanical response of the clay. The softening behaviour induces transient strain localization processes, addressed through a hydro-mechanical second grade model. The shape of the obtained damaged zone is clearly affected by the anisotropy of the materials, evidencing an eye-shaped EDZ. The modelling results agree with experiments not only qualitatively (in terms of the shape of the induced damaged zone), but also quantitatively (for the obtained displacement in three particular radial directions).

  19. Deformation temperature, strain rate, and irradiation microstructure effects on localized plasticity in 304L SS

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.I.; Brimhall, J.L.; Vetrano, J.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    The present study examines the deformation behavior of ion-irradiated, low-carbon 304L stainless steel to investigate the influence of irradiation microstructure, deformation temperature and strain rate on localized plasticity. Dislocation loop character, size and density are linked to changes in deformation character. Lower doses produce small faulted loops and stacking fault tetrahedra that impede dislocation mobility. Dislocations are pinned at defects and require higher stress to break free from the defects. Larger defects take the form of faulted Frank loops that can interact with glide dislocations to form microtwins at lower temperatures and faster strain rates. Deformation at higher temperatures and slower strain rates promotes interactions between glide dislocations and loops leading to loop annihilation. Dislocation free zones or ``channels`` form where further plastic deformation is highly localized. Results are compared to limited observations for neutron-irradiated materials. These irradiation-induced changes can be an important concern for light-water reactor (LWR) stainless steel (SS) structural components due to a reduced damage tolerance, and potential susceptibility to environmental cracking such as irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC).

  20. Localized slip and distributed deformation in oblique settings: the example of the Denali fault system, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallage, Amaury; Devès, Maud H.; Klinger, Yann; King, Geoffrey C. P.; Ruppert, Natalia A.

    2014-06-01

    In most fault systems the direction of the relative plate motion is oblique to the azimuth of the existing faults. Hence, during earthquakes the displacement may be partitioned between several faults that accommodate different components of the total motion. Here, we quantify the effect of the obliquity of the fault system relatively to the plate-motion direction on the distribution of the deformation in the fault system, during distinct periods of the seismic cycle. The 2002 November, Mw 7.9, Denali strike-slip earthquake ruptured 341 km of the Denali fault. The azimuth of the fault varies by more than 50° over the total rupture length, making the Denali fault an ideal system to test the effect of obliquity. From west to east, thrust dominates the first part of the rupture while strike-slip dominates the central and eastern sections. Using a kinematic model that considers the obliquity of the plate-motion direction relative to the local fault azimuth, we explored how much of the far-field tectonic loading is accommodated on the main strike-slip fault during the earthquake, and how much is accommodated by distributed deformation off the main fault, on secondary structures. Using a dataset of 735 focal mechanisms, we represent the deformation using strain rosettes and we compare seismological data with model results using the areal strain. Then we developed the parameter Ca, the coefficient of accommodation, which allows a direct quantification of the efficiency of a fault to accommodate oblique motion. Using these indicators, we show that in oblique setting, such as in the Denali case, the aftershocks and the background seismicity are organized to accommodate a significant part of the deformation that is not taken on the Denali strike-slip fault during the main earthquakes. The westward increase of the obliquity actually increases the amount of such deformation accommodated through distributed thrust faults, leading to the westward widening of the Alaska Range

  1. Biocontrol Activity of the Local Strain of Metschnikowia pulcherrima on Different Postharvest Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Türkel, Sezai; Korukluoğlu, Mihriban; Yavuz, Mümine

    2014-01-01

    The strains of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima have strong biocontrol activity against various microorganisms. Biocontrol activity of M. pulcherrima largely depends on its iron immobilizing pigment pulcherrimin. Biocontrol activity of pulcherrimin producing strain, M. pulcherrima UMY15, isolated from local vineyards, was tested on different molds that cause food spoilage. M. pulcherrima UMY15 was a very effective biocontrol agent against Penicillium roqueforti, P. italicum, P. expansum, and Aspergillus oryzae in in-vitro plate tests. However, the inhibitory activity of M. pulcherrima UMY15 was less effective on Fusarium sp. and A. niger species in biocontrol assays. In addition, M. pulcherrima UMY15 strain completely inhibited the germination and mycelia growth of A. oryzae, A. parasiticus, and Fusarium sp. spores on artificial wounds of apples when they coinoculated with M. pulcherrima UMY15. Moreover, when coinoculated, M. pulcherrima UMY15 strain also inhibited the growth of P. roqueforti, P. italicum, P. expansum, A. oryzae, Fusarium sp., and Rhizopus sp. in grape juice, indicating that M. pulcherrima UMY15 can be used as a very effective biocontrol yeast against various species of postharvest pathogens, including Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Rhizopus.

  2. Biocontrol Activity of the Local Strain of Metschnikowia pulcherrima on Different Postharvest Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Türkel, Sezai; Korukluoğlu, Mihriban; Yavuz, Mümine

    2014-01-01

    The strains of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima have strong biocontrol activity against various microorganisms. Biocontrol activity of M. pulcherrima largely depends on its iron immobilizing pigment pulcherrimin. Biocontrol activity of pulcherrimin producing strain, M. pulcherrima UMY15, isolated from local vineyards, was tested on different molds that cause food spoilage. M. pulcherrima UMY15 was a very effective biocontrol agent against Penicillium roqueforti, P. italicum, P. expansum, and Aspergillus oryzae in in-vitro plate tests. However, the inhibitory activity of M. pulcherrima UMY15 was less effective on Fusarium sp. and A. niger species in biocontrol assays. In addition, M. pulcherrima UMY15 strain completely inhibited the germination and mycelia growth of A. oryzae, A. parasiticus, and Fusarium sp. spores on artificial wounds of apples when they coinoculated with M. pulcherrima UMY15. Moreover, when coinoculated, M. pulcherrima UMY15 strain also inhibited the growth of P. roqueforti, P. italicum, P. expansum, A. oryzae, Fusarium sp., and Rhizopus sp. in grape juice, indicating that M. pulcherrima UMY15 can be used as a very effective biocontrol yeast against various species of postharvest pathogens, including Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Rhizopus. PMID:24860671

  3. Analysis of local lattice strain around oxygen precipitates in silicon crystals using CBED technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemura, Mitsuharu; Sueoka, Koji; Kamei, Kazuhito

    1998-06-01

    Oxygen precipitates (SiO x) in Czochralski-grown silicon single crystals (CZ-Si) have been used for the `getter' sink for impurities introduced during the LSI wafer manufacturing process. In order to understand the `gettering' phenomena, lattice strain fields around the precipitates have been measured quantitatively using convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED). The local lattice strain can be measured from higher order Laue zone (HOLZ) patterns since the HOLZ pattern in the bright field disk is sensitive to the lattice displacement. As a result, a tetragonal distortion of silicon lattices was found in the vicinity of a platelet of an oxygen precipitate. That is, the strain due to the displacement of (001) Si planes is compressive along the direction normal to [001] Si and is tensile along the direction parallel to [001] Si. The normal strain is estimated to be about 0.3% near the flat plane of the platelet and 0.1% near the edge of the platelet whose edge length is about 500 nm. The results are discussed and compared to those from the finite element method (FEM) simulation.

  4. Dislocation structures in the bands of localized cyclic plastic strain in austenitic 316L and austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kruml, T.; Polak, J.; Obrtlik, K.; Degallaix, S.

    1997-12-01

    Dislocation structures in bands corresponding to cyclic strain localization have been studied in two types of stainless steels, single phase austenitic 316L steel and two-phase austenitic-ferritic duplex steel. Dislocation structures are documented in thin foils oriented approximately perpendicular to the active slip plane of individual grains and parallel to the primary Burgers vector. Persistent slip bands, with the structure more or less reminiscent of the well-known ladder structure, were found in austenitic grains of both steels. These bands can be correlated with the distinct surface relief consisting of extrusions, intrusions and shallow surface cracks in austenitic grains were found. The distribution of the wall and labyrinth structure embedded in the matrix structure in ferritic grains, which was proposed to be responsible for the localization of the cyclic strain, however, does not correspond to the distribution of the distinct surface slip lines on the surface.

  5. Role of Prion Replication in the Strain-dependent Brain Regional Distribution of Prions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping Ping; Morales, Rodrigo; Duran-Aniotz, Claudia; Moreno-Gonzalez, Ines; Khan, Uffaf; Soto, Claudio

    2016-06-10

    One intriguing feature of prion diseases is their strain variation. Prion strains are differentiated by the clinical consequences they generate in the host, their biochemical properties, and their potential to infect other animal species. The selective targeting of these agents to specific brain structures have been extensively used to characterize prion strains. However, the molecular basis dictating strain-specific neurotropism are still elusive. In this study, isolated brain structures from animals infected with four hamster prion strains (HY, DY, 139H, and SSLOW) were analyzed for their content of protease-resistant PrP(Sc) Our data show that these strains have different profiles of PrP deposition along the brain. These patterns of accumulation, which were independent of regional PrP(C) production, were not reproduced by in vitro replication when different brain regions were used as substrate for the misfolding-amplification reaction. On the contrary, our results show that in vitro replication efficiency depended exclusively on the amount of PrP(C) present in each part of the brain. Our results suggest that the variable regional distribution of PrP(Sc) in distinct strains is not determined by differences on prion formation, but on other factors or cellular pathways. Our findings may contribute to understand the molecular mechanisms of prion pathogenesis and strain diversity.

  6. Strain Modal Analysis of Small and Light Pipes Using Distributed Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhou, Zude; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Juntao; Ji, Chunqian; Pham, Duc Truong

    2016-09-25

    Vibration fatigue failure is a critical problem of hydraulic pipes under severe working conditions. Strain modal testing of small and light pipes is a good option for dynamic characteristic evaluation, structural health monitoring and damage identification. Unique features such as small size, light weight, and high multiplexing capability enable Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors to measure structural dynamic responses where sensor size and placement are critical. In this paper, experimental strain modal analysis of pipes using distributed FBG sensors ispresented. Strain modal analysis and parameter identification methods are introduced. Experimental strain modal testing and finite element analysis for a cantilever pipe have been carried out. The analysis results indicate that the natural frequencies and strain mode shapes of the tested pipe acquired by FBG sensors are in good agreement with the results obtained by a reference accelerometer and simulation outputs. The strain modal parameters of a hydraulic pipe were obtained by the proposed strain modal testing method. FBG sensors have been shown to be useful in the experimental strain modal analysis of small and light pipes in mechanical, aeronautic and aerospace applications.

  7. Strain Modal Analysis of Small and Light Pipes Using Distributed Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jun; Zhou, Zude; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Juntao; Ji, Chunqian; Pham, Duc Truong

    2016-01-01

    Vibration fatigue failure is a critical problem of hydraulic pipes under severe working conditions. Strain modal testing of small and light pipes is a good option for dynamic characteristic evaluation, structural health monitoring and damage identification. Unique features such as small size, light weight, and high multiplexing capability enable Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors to measure structural dynamic responses where sensor size and placement are critical. In this paper, experimental strain modal analysis of pipes using distributed FBG sensors ispresented. Strain modal analysis and parameter identification methods are introduced. Experimental strain modal testing and finite element analysis for a cantilever pipe have been carried out. The analysis results indicate that the natural frequencies and strain mode shapes of the tested pipe acquired by FBG sensors are in good agreement with the results obtained by a reference accelerometer and simulation outputs. The strain modal parameters of a hydraulic pipe were obtained by the proposed strain modal testing method. FBG sensors have been shown to be useful in the experimental strain modal analysis of small and light pipes in mechanical, aeronautic and aerospace applications. PMID:27681728

  8. The distribution of parasite strains among hosts affects disease spread in a social insect.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Yuko; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Social insects present highly interesting and experimentally amenable systems for the study of disease transmission because they naturally live in dense groups of frequently interacting individuals. Using experimental inoculations of five trypanosomatid strains into groups of its natural host, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, we investigate the effects of the initial parasite strain distribution across group members on the establishment and transmission success of the different strains to new hosts. For a given number of parasite strains circulating within a host group, transmission to new hosts was increased when the strains were initially inoculated as mixed infections (as opposed to separate single infections), presumably because mixed infections generally favored fast replicating strains. In contrast, separate single infections reduced transmission at least in part through a precedence effect, whereby weak strains appeared to persist by making their host unavailable to superinfection. These results suggest that host groups could benefit from 'compartmentalizing' infections by different parasite strains across different group members, which might be achieved in social insects, for example, by division of labor.

  9. Décollement controls on strain distribution in mountain belts: insights from numerical models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grool, Arjan R.; Huismans, Ritske S.; Ford, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Pyrenees, the décollement is missing in the model's retro-wedge, the required convergence would be reduced to 180 km. Assuming deformation localizes along the path of least resistance, meaning a force balance exists between the pro- and retro-wedge, anything that changes the force required to deform one side of the orogen will have direct consequences for the other side as the strain distribution adjusts. In our models a viscous décollement enables the sedimentary cover of the pro-wedge to be transported into the pro-foredeep, increasing the force required for pro-wedge frontal accretion and thus promoting shortening in the retro-wedge. In models with no décollement in the retro-wedge, higher friction along existing crustal shear zones will accelerate formation of a new, more external shear zone. This mechanism alone cannot explain frontal accretion in the retro-wedge after only 145 km of convergence, meaning other factors such as more pre-existing extensional shear zones may also play a role in the Eastern Pyrenees.

  10. Investigation of thermomechanical couplings, strain localization and shape memory properties in a shape memory polymer subjected to loading at various strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczyska, E. A.; Staszczak, M.; Maj, M.; Kowalczyk-Gajewska, K.; Golasiński, K.; Cristea, M.; Tobushi, H.; Hayashi, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents experimental and modeling results of the effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in a polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) subjected to tension at various strain rates within large strains. The SMP mechanical curves, recorded using a testing machine, and the related temperature changes, measured in a contactless manner using an IR camera, were used to investigate the polymer deformation process at various loading stages. The effects of thermomechanical couplings allowed the determination of the material yield point in the initial loading stage, the investigation of nucleation and development of the strain localization at larger strains and the estimation of the effects of thermoelastic behavior during the unloading process. The obtained stress-strain and thermal characteristics, the results of the dynamic mechanical analysis and estimated values of the shape fixity and shape recovery parameters confirmed that the shape memory polymer (T g = 45 °C) is characterized by good mechanical and shape memory properties, as well as high sensitivity to the strain rate. The mechanical response of the SMP subjected to tension was simulated using the finite element method and applying the large strain, two-phase model. Strain localization observed in the experiment was well reproduced in simulations and the temperature spots were correlated with the accumulated viscoplastic deformation of the SMP glassy phase.

  11. Study of plastic strain localization mechanisms caused by nonequilibrium transitions in mesodefect ensembles under high-speed loading

    SciTech Connect

    Sokovikov, Mikhail Chudinov, Vasiliy; Bilalov, Dmitry; Oborin, Vladimir; Uvarov, Sergey; Plekhov, Oleg; Naimark, Oleg

    2015-10-27

    The behavior of specimens dynamically loaded during split Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar tests in a regime close to simple shear conditions was studied. The lateral surface of the specimens was investigated in-situ using a high-speed infrared camera CEDIP Silver 450M. The temperature field distribution obtained at different time allowed one to trace the evolution of plastic strain localization. The process of target perforation involving plug formation and ejection was examined using a high-speed infrared camera and a VISAR velocity measurement system. The microstructure of tested specimens was analyzed using an optical interferometer-profiler and a scanning electron microscope. The development of plastic shear instability regions has been simulated numerically.

  12. Coupled deformation and metamorphism: Strain localization facilitated by solution mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, R. A.; Andronicos, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Vallecito Conglomerate of the Needle Mountains, Colorado, is a Paleoproterozoic conglomerate with interbedded layers of aluminous schist that experienced deformation and contact metamorphism associated with emplacement of a pluton with a U/Pb age of ~1.435 Ga. The well-defined contact aureole includes sillimanite close to the pluton, andalusite and sillimanite together in a diffuse zone ~2 km from the pluton, and andalusite alone at greater distance from the pluton. Samples bearing both andalusite and sillimanite show a high degree of strain partitioning along discrete shear zones. Samples of both high strain (N09-5A) and low strain (N09-5) regimes were collected. The high strain sample, N09-5A, is characterized by shear bands of sillimanite separated by lower strain regions of quartz and andalusite. Samples N09-5 and N09-5A contain identical mineral assemblages of muscovite, paragonite, chloritoid, quartz, andalusite, sillimanite, rutile and ilmenite and were collected from the same outcrop. Based on their mineral assemblages and proximity of the two samples, it was assumed that N09-5A and N09-5 initially had the same chemical composition. An isoconcentration diagram was created using whole rock chemical analyses. This diagram shows that N09-5A is enriched in Ti, Zr, Th and La - all high field strength elements (HFS) - when compared to N09-5. Under the assumption that HFS are immobile, we interpret this result as evidence for depletion of the major elements from N09-5A relative to N09-5. Electron microprobe X-ray element intensity maps support the interpretation of the isoconcentration diagram. X-ray maps of sample N09-5A cover high strain sillimanite shear bands and low strain regions of quartz and andalusite. Quantitative analysis of the abundance of elements in each region shows a significant depletion of K, Al, and Si in high strain regions relative to low strain regions. Textural observations made at the thin section scale suggest that strain localization

  13. Constraining particle dark matter using local galaxy distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Shin’ichiro; Ishiwata, Koji

    2016-06-27

    It has been long discussed that cosmic rays may contain signals of dark matter. In the last couple of years an anomaly of cosmic-ray positrons has drawn a lot of attentions, and recently an excess in cosmic-ray anti-proton has been reported by AMS-02 collaboration. Both excesses may indicate towards decaying or annihilating dark matter with a mass of around 1–10 TeV. In this article we study the gamma rays from dark matter and constraints from cross correlations with distribution of galaxies, particularly in a local volume. We find that gamma rays due to inverse-Compton process have large intensity, and hence they give stringent constraints on dark matter scenarios in the TeV scale mass regime. Taking the recent developments in modeling astrophysical gamma-ray sources as well as comprehensive possibilities of the final state products of dark matter decay or annihilation into account, we show that the parameter regions of decaying dark matter that are suggested to explain the excesses are excluded. We also discuss the constrains on annihilating scenarios.

  14. Cellular localization and tissue distribution of endogenous DFCP1 protein.

    PubMed

    Nanao, Tomohisa; Koike, Masato; Yamaguchi, Junji; Sasaki, Mitsuho; Uchiyama, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is essential for the maintenance of cellular metabolism. Once autophagy is induced in cells, the isolation membrane forms a so-called phagophore. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is one of several candidates for the membrane source for phagophores. Recently, LC3-positive isolation membranes were found to emerge from a DFCP1 (double FYVE domain-containing protein)-positive, ER-associated compartment called the omegasome. Although the GFP-tagged DFCP1 protein has been examined in cultured cells, little is known about the precise cellular and tissue distribution of this endogenous protein. To determine the expression of the endogenous DFCP1 protein, we produced antibodies specific to mouse DFCP1 protein. The antibody recognized both human and mouse DFCP1 proteins, both of which have molecular masses of approximately 87 kDa. In HeLa cells under normal conditions, immunoreactivity for DFCP1 was found dotted or tubular along Tom20-positive filamentous mitochondria and was only partially co-localized in the ER or Golgi apparatus. Moreover, under starved conditions, distinct DFCP1-positive structures became more dotted and scattered in the cytoplasm, while one part of the LC3-positive autophagosomes were immunopositive for DFCP1. These results indicate that an antibody raised against DFCP1 could be a useful tool in explaining the mechanism of phagophore formation from omegasome compartments.

  15. Flutter of wings involving a locally distributed flexible control surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari-Jovin, S.; Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Roshanian, J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper undertakes to facilitate appraisal of aeroelastic interaction of a locally distributed, flap-type control surface with aircraft wings operating in a subsonic potential flow field. The extended Hamilton's principle serves as a framework to ascertain the Euler-Lagrange equations for coupled bending-torsional-flap vibration. An analytical solution to this boundary-value problem is then accomplished by assumed modes and the extended Galerkin's method. The developed aeroelastic model considers both the inherent flexibility of the control surface displaced on the wing and the inertial coupling between these two flexible bodies. The structural deformations also obey the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, along with the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic constitutive law. Meanwhile, the unsteady thin-airfoil and strip theories are the tools of producing the three-dimensional airloads. The origin of aerodynamic instability undergoes analysis in light of the oscillatory loads as well as the loads owing to arbitrary motions. After successful verification of the model, a systematic flutter survey was conducted on the theoretical effects of various control surface parameters. The results obtained demonstrate that the flapping modes and parameters of the control surface can significantly impact the flutter characteristics of the wings, which leads to a series of pertinent conclusions.

  16. Phase mixing induced by granular fluid pump during mantle strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Précigout, Jacques; Prigent, Cécile; Palasse, Laurie; Pochon, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Mantle viscous strain localization is often attributed to feedbacks between grain boundary sliding (GBS) and phase mixing, as GBS could promote mixing through grain switching, and phase mixing would enhance grain-size-sensitive granular flow through grain boundary pinning. However, although GBS and phase mixing are intimately related, recent data show that GBS alone cannot end-up with randomly mixed phases. Here we show natural observations of an ultramylonitic shear zone from the Ronda peridotite (Spain) where both GBS and phase mixing occur. Microprobe analyses and coupled EDX/EBSD data first document enrichment in pyroxenes and amphibole concomitant with both phase mixing and complete randomization of the olivine fabric in fine-grained layers (5-20 microns) where strain has been localized. Both the fabric randomization and some microstructural observations indicate that these layers mostly deformed by granular flow, i.e., by GBS. Based on petrological pseudo-sections, we also show that phase enrichment does not result from metamorphic reaction, but instead from dissolution-precipitation phenomena. Finally, we document in adjacent areas a change of olivine fabric geometry that highlights syn-tectonic water draining towards fine-grained layers. While olivine fabric switches from E-type (moderately hydrated fabric) to C-type (highly hydrated fabric) towards fine-grained layers, it changes from E-type to D-type (highly hydrated fabric) in coarse-grained bands between E/C-type layers. Altogether, our findings suggest that water converges as a result of GBS-induced creep cavitation and subsequent granular fluid pump in fine-grained layers. We propose that phase mixing originates here from such a creep cavitation through dissolution-precipitation of secondary phases in newly formed cavities, giving rise to a key process for the relationships between GBS and phase mixing, and hence, for the origin of viscous strain localization in the upper mantle.

  17. Electrical Resistivity, Crustal Melting and Strain Localization beneath the Himalayan-Tibetan Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, L.; Gaillard, F.; Champallier, R.; Le Breton, N.; Arbaret, L.; Scaillet, B.

    2012-12-01

    The construction of mountain belts resulting from continental collisions involves crustal thickening, regional deformation and high-grade metamorphism. As observed in many ancient orogenic terrains, elevated temperatures locally induce melting and strain weakening, which may profoundly affect the rheology of the continental crust, its deformation regime and hence the development of these orogens. The Himalaya-Tibetan system is an active collisional belt allowing us to probe the three-dimensional thermo-mechanical distribution of an archetypal continent-continent orogen. Several magnetotelluric and seismic field campaigns (INDEPTH, Hi-CLIMB and HIMPROBE projects) have identified low resistivity layers with well-constrained tops at a depth of 10-15 km in southern Tibet (10 Ω.m) and 20-25 km in northwestern Himalaya (3 Ω.m), coincident with low velocity zones. Such electrical anomalies have been interpreted as evidence of high concentrations of interconnected fluids. Despite numerous field and numerical studies on the Himalayan range, identification and quantification of hydrous melting and potential strain weakening of the crust remains unaddressed by the appropriate experimental studies. Laboratory resistivity and viscosity measurements were performed in a gas-medium deformation apparatus (Paterson press), which was coupled to an impedance spectrometer. These measurements were conducted on natural muscovite-bearing metapelitic samples containing ca. 2 wt% water. Dehydration-melting of muscovite crystals leads to the production of hydrous melts. Electrical measurements show that with increasing temperature, the electrical resistivity decreases dramatically from 1830 Ω.m at 550°C to 8 Ω.m at 850°C. Image and chemical analyses of the partially molten samples after experiments indicate 23 vol.% hydrous melts, which are leucogranitic in composition. Our electrical measurements thus show that geophysical data clearly pinpoint ca. 25 vol.% partial melting at 750-800

  18. Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of Ceanothus-infective Frankia strains.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, N J; Myrold, D D

    1999-04-01

    Little is known about Ceanothus-infective Frankia strains because no Frankia strains that can reinfect the host plants have been isolated from Ceonothus spp. Therefore, we studied the diversity of the Ceonothus-infective Frankia strains by using molecular techniques. Frankia strains inhabiting root nodules of nine Ceanothus species were characterized. The Ceanothus species used represent the taxonomic diversity and geographic range of the genus; therefore, the breadth of the diversity of Frankia strains that infect Ceanothus spp. was studied. DNA was amplified directly from nodular material by using the PCR. The amplified region included the 3' end of the 16S rRNA gene, the intergenic spacer, and a large portion of the 23S rRNA gene. A series of restriction enzyme digestions of the PCR product allowed us to identify PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) groups among the Ceanothus-infective Frankia strains tested. Twelve different enzymes were used, which resulted in four different PCR-RFLP groups. The groups did not follow the taxonomic lines of the Ceanothus host species. Instead, the Frankia strains present were related to the sample collection locales.

  19. Distributed strain measurement with polymer optical fibers integrated into multifunctional geotextiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liehr, Sascha; Lenke, Philipp; Krebber, Katerina; Seeger, Monika; Thiele, Elke; Metschies, Heike; Gebreselassie, Berhane; Münich, Johannes Christian; Stempniewski, Lothar

    2008-04-01

    Fiber optic sensors based on polymer optical fibers (POF) have the advantage of being very elastic and robust at the same time. Unlike silica fibers, standard PMMA POF fibers can be strained to more than 40% while fully maintaining their light guiding properties. We investigated POF as a distributed strain sensor by analysing the backscatter increase at the strained section using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique. This sensing ability together with its high robustness and break-down strain makes POF well-suited for integration into technical textiles for structural health monitoring purposes. Within the European research project POLYTECT (Polyfunctional textiles against natural hazards) technical textiles with integrated POF sensors, among others sensors are being developed for online structural health monitoring of geotechnical structures. Mechanical deformation in slopes, dams, dikes, embankments and retrofitted masonry structures is to be detected before critical damage occurs. In this paper we present the POF strain sensor properties, reactions to disturbing influences as temperature and bends as well as the results of the different model tests we conducted within POLYTECT. We further show the potential of perfluorinated graded-index POF for distributed strain sensing with increased spatial resolution and measurement lengths.

  20. Quantification of the spatial strain distribution of scoliosis using a thin-plate spline method.

    PubMed

    Kiriyama, Yoshimori; Watanabe, Kota; Matsumoto, Morio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nagura, Takeo

    2014-01-03

    The objective of this study was to quantify the three-dimensional spatial strain distribution of a scoliotic spine by nonhomogeneous transformation without using a statistically averaged reference spine. The shape of the scoliotic spine was determined from computed tomography images from a female patient with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The shape of the scoliotic spine was enclosed in a rectangular grid, and symmetrized using a thin-plate spline method according to the node positions of the grid. The node positions of the grid were determined by numerical optimization to satisfy symmetry. The obtained symmetric spinal shape was enclosed within a new rectangular grid and distorted back to the original scoliotic shape using a thin-plate spline method. The distorted grid was compared to the rectangular grid that surrounded the symmetrical spine. Cobb's angle was reduced from 35° in the scoliotic spine to 7° in the symmetrized spine, and the scoliotic shape was almost fully symmetrized. The scoliotic spine showed a complex Green-Lagrange strain distribution in three dimensions. The vertical and transverse compressive/tensile strains in the frontal plane were consistent with the major scoliotic deformation. The compressive, tensile and shear strains on the convex side of the apical vertebra were opposite to those on the concave side. These results indicate that the proposed method can be used to quantify the three-dimensional spatial strain distribution of a scoliotic spine, and may be useful in quantifying the deformity of scoliosis.

  1. Extreme strain localization and sliding friction in physically associating polymer gels.

    PubMed

    Erk, Kendra A; Martin, Jeffrey D; Hu, Y Thomas; Shull, Kenneth R

    2012-03-06

    Model physically associating gels deformed in shear over a wide range of reduced rates displayed evidence of strain localization. The nonlinear stress responses and inhomogeneous velocity profiles observed during shear rheometry coupled with particle tracking velocimetry were associated with the occurrence of rate-dependent banding and fracture-like responses in the gel. Scaling law analysis from traditional sliding friction studies suggests that, at the molecular level, deformation is confined to a shear zone with thickness comparable to the mesh size of the gel, the smallest structurally relevant length scale in the gel.

  2. Dynamic monitoring of compliant bodies impacting the water surface through local strain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciroli, Riccardo; Biscarini, Chiara; Jannelli, Elio; Ubertini, Filippo; Ubertini, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The understanding and the experimental characterization of the evolution of impulsive loading is crucial in several fields in structural, mechanical and ocean engineering, naval architecture and aerospace. In this regards, we developed an experimental methodology to reconstruct the deformed shape of compliant bodies subjected to impulsive loadings, as those encountered in water entry events, starting from a finite number of local strain measurements performed through Fiber Bragg Gratings. The paper discusses the potential applications of the proposed methodology for: i) real-time damage detection and structural health monitoring, ii) fatigue assessment and iii) impulsive load estimation.

  3. Rock mechanics observations pertinent to the rheology of the continental lithosphere and the localization of strain along shear zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    the general phenomenon of ductile faulting in which ductile strains are localized into shear zones. Ductile faults have been produced in experiments of five different rock types and is generally expressed as strain softening in constant-strain-rate tests or as an accelerating-creep-rate stage at constant differential stress. A number of physical mechanisms have been identified that may be responsible for ductile faulting, including the onset of dynamic recrystallization, phase changes, hydrothermal alteration and hydrolytic weakening. Microscopic evidence for these processes as well as larger-scale geological and geophysical observations suggest that ductile faulting in the middle to lower crust and upper mantle may greatly influence the distribution and magnitudes of differential stresses and the style of deformation in the overlying upper continental lithosphere. ?? 1985.

  4. Early local cytokine profiles in strains of mice with different outcomes from chlamydial genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Sikes, J D; Fraley, P L; Rank, R G

    2001-06-01

    In this study, we expand on the examination of genetically determined differences in host responses that correlate with clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the genital tract. We infected C57BL/6, BALB/c, and C3H/HeN mice with the mouse pneumonitis agent of C. trachomatis (MoPn). C57BL/6 mice had the shortest course of infection (22 days) and the lowest incidence of severe hydrosalpinx. BALB/c mice also had a short course of infection (25 days), but all developed hydrosalpinx. C3H/HeN mice had the longest course of infection (38 days), and all developed severe hydrosalpinx. Determination of local cytokine responses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of genital tract secretions revealed that the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) were significantly increased in the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains compared to those in the C3H/HeN strain whereas the level of IL-6 was not different. The level of the neutrophil chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) was increased during the first week of infection in all three strains but was significantly higher in the BALB/c strain, the strain with the most rapid influx of neutrophils into the genital tract. Prolonged detection of MIP-2 in C3H/HeN mice was associated with a protracted presence of neutrophils in the genital tract. Early increases in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta are associated with earlier eradication of infection in the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains than in the C3H/HeN strain. Increased levels of MIP-2 and neutrophils in BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice relative to C57BL/6 mice suggest that these responses may contribute to pathology.

  5. Strain distribution and Raman spectroscopy in individual Ge/CdSe biaxial nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Chunrui; Xu, Jing; Wu, Binhe; Ouyang, Lizhi; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2015-02-01

    The interface property modulated by strain is one of the key factors that determine the performance of heterostructure nanowire devices. In this study, the strain distribution in a Ge/CdSe biaxial nanowire was calculated by a finite element method using boundary conditions. The components of the strain tensor of the biaxial nanowire show different characteristics from those of core-shell nanowires. The relationship between the strain and Raman mode of a Ge sub-nanowire is then revealed. The calculated and measured Raman modes of a Ge sub-nanowire in a Ge/CdSe biaxial nanowire have the same variation in redshift and wide peak as those of unstrained Ge nanowires.

  6. Distributed Temperature and Strain Discrimination with Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and Rayleigh Backscatter in an Optical Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Da-Peng; Li, Wenhai; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-01-01

    A distributed optical fiber sensor with the capability of simultaneously measuring temperature and strain is proposed using a large effective area non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (LEAF) with sub-meter spatial resolution. The Brillouin frequency shift is measured using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) with differential pulse-width pair technique, while the spectrum shift of the Rayleigh backscatter is measured using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). These shifts are the functions of both temperature and strain, and can be used as two independent parameters for the discrimination of temperature and strain. A 92 m measurable range with the spatial resolution of 50 cm is demonstrated experimentally, and accuracies of ±1.2 °C in temperature and ±15 με in strain could be achieved. PMID:23385406

  7. Distributed temperature and strain discrimination with stimulated brillouin scattering and rayleigh backscatter in an optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da-Peng; Li, Wenhai; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-01-31

    A distributed optical fiber sensor with the capability of simultaneously measuring temperature and strain is proposed using a large effective area non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (LEAF) with sub-meter spatial resolution. The Brillouin frequency shift is measured using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) with differential pulse-width pair technique, while the spectrum shift of the Rayleigh backscatter is measured using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). These shifts are the functions of both temperature and strain, and can be used as two independent parameters for the discrimination of temperature and strain. A 92 m measurable range with the spatial resolution of 50 cm is demonstrated experimentally, and accuracies of ±1.2 °C in temperature and ±15 με in strain could be achieved.

  8. Full scale strain monitoring of a suspension bridge using high performance distributed fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinlong; Dong, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Shunlong; He, Shaoyang; Li, Hui

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigated field monitoring of a 1108 m suspension bridge during an assessment load test, using integrated distributed fibre-optic sensors (DFOSs). In addition to the conventional Brillouin time domain analysis system, a high spatial resolution Brillouin system using the differential pulse-width pair (DPP) technique was adopted. Temperature compensation was achieved using a Raman distributed temperature sensing system. This is the first full scale field application of DFOSs using the Brillouin time domain analysis technique in a thousand-meter-scale suspension bridge. Measured strain distributions along the whole length of the bridge were presented. The interaction between the main cables and the steel-box-girder was highlighted. The Brillouin fibre-optic monitoring systems exhibited great facility for the purposes of long distance distributed strain monitoring, with up to 0.05 m spatial resolution, and 0.01 m/point sampling interval. The performance of the Brillouin system using DPP technique was discussed. The measured data was also employed for assessing bridge design and for the assessment of structural condition. The results show that the symmetrical design assumptions were consistent with the actual bridge, and that the strain values along the whole bridge were within the safety range. This trial field study serves as an example, demonstrating the feasibility of highly dense strain and temperature measurement for large scale civil infrastructures using integrated DFOSs.

  9. Grain fragmentation in sheared granular flow: weakening effects, energy dissipation, and strain localization.

    PubMed

    Lieou, Charles K C; Elbanna, Ahmed E; Carlson, Jean M

    2014-02-01

    We describe the shear flow of a disordered granular material in the presence of grain fracture using the shear-transformation-zone theory of amorphous plasticity adapted to systems with a hard-core interparticle interaction. To this end, we develop the equations of motion for this system within a statistical-thermodynamic framework analogous to that used in the analysis of molecular glasses. For hard-core systems, the amount of internal, configurational disorder is characterized by the compactivity X = ∂V / ∂S(C), where V and S(C) are, respectively, the volume and configurational entropy. Grain breakage is described by a constitutive equation for the temporal evolution of a characteristic grain size a, based on fracture mechanics. We show that grain breakage is a weakening mechanism, significantly lowering the flow stress at large strain rates, if the material is rate strengthening in character. We show in addition that if the granular material is sufficiently aged, spatial inhomogeneity in configurational disorder results in strain localization. We also show that grain splitting contributes significantly to comminution at small shear strains, while grain abrasion becomes dominant at large shear displacements.

  10. Critical length scales and strain localization govern the mechanical performance of multi-layer graphene assemblies.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wenjie; Ruiz, Luis; Pugno, Nicola M; Keten, Sinan

    2016-03-28

    Multi-layer graphene assemblies (MLGs) or fibers with a staggered architecture exhibit high toughness and failure strain that surpass those of the constituent single sheets. However, how the architectural parameters such as the sheet overlap length affect these mechanical properties remains unknown due in part to the limitations of mechanical continuum models. By exploring the mechanics of MLG assemblies under tensile deformation using our established coarse-grained molecular modeling framework, we have identified three different critical interlayer overlap lengths controlling the strength, plastic stress, and toughness of MLGs, respectively. The shortest critical length scale L(C)(S) governs the strength of the assembly as predicted by the shear-lag model. The intermediate critical length L(C)(P) is associated with a dynamic frictional process that governs the strain localization propensity of the assembly, and hence the failure strain. The largest critical length scale L(C)(T) corresponds to the overlap length necessary to achieve 90% of the maximum theoretical toughness of the material. Our analyses provide the general guidelines for tuning the constitutive properties and toughness of multilayer 2D nanomaterials using elasticity, interlayer adhesion energy and geometry as molecular design parameters.

  11. Grain fragmentation in sheared granular flow: weakening effects, energy dissipation, and strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieou, Charles K. C.; Elbanna, Ahmed E.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2014-03-01

    We describe the shear flow of a disordered granular material subject to grain fracture using the shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory of amorphous plasticity adapted to systems with a hard-core inter-particle interaction. To this end, we develop the equations of motion for this system within a statistical-thermodynamic framework analogous to that used in the analysis of molecular glasses. For hard-core systems, the amount of internal, configurational disorder is characterized by the compactivity X = ∂V / ∂SC , where V and SC are respectively the volume and configurational entropy. Grain breakage is described by a constitutive equation for the temporal evolution of a characteristic grain size a, based on fracture mechanics. We show that grain breakage is a weakening mechanism, significantly lowering the flow stress at large strain rates, if the material is rate-strengthening in character. We show in addition that if the granular material is sufficiently aged, spatial inhomogeneity in configurational disorder results in strain localization. We also show that grain splitting contributes significantly to comminution at small shear strains, while grain abrasion becomes dominant at large shear displacements.

  12. Grain fragmentation in sheared granular flow: Weakening effects, energy dissipation, and strain localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieou, Charles K. C.; Elbanna, Ahmed E.; Carlson, Jean M.

    2014-02-01

    We describe the shear flow of a disordered granular material in the presence of grain fracture using the shear-transformation-zone theory of amorphous plasticity adapted to systems with a hard-core interparticle interaction. To this end, we develop the equations of motion for this system within a statistical-thermodynamic framework analogous to that used in the analysis of molecular glasses. For hard-core systems, the amount of internal, configurational disorder is characterized by the compactivity X =∂V/∂SC, where V and SC are, respectively, the volume and configurational entropy. Grain breakage is described by a constitutive equation for the temporal evolution of a characteristic grain size a, based on fracture mechanics. We show that grain breakage is a weakening mechanism, significantly lowering the flow stress at large strain rates, if the material is rate strengthening in character. We show in addition that if the granular material is sufficiently aged, spatial inhomogeneity in configurational disorder results in strain localization. We also show that grain splitting contributes significantly to comminution at small shear strains, while grain abrasion becomes dominant at large shear displacements.

  13. Hybrid Tip-Enhanced Nanospectroscopy and Nanoimaging of Monolayer WSe2 with Local Strain Control.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Khatib, Omar; Kravtsov, Vasily; Clark, Genevieve; Xu, Xiaodong; Raschke, Markus B

    2016-04-13

    Many classes of two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as potential platforms for novel electronic and optical devices. However, their physical properties are strongly influenced by nanoscale heterogeneities in the form of edges, twin boundaries, and nucleation sites. Using combined tip-enhanced Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) nanospectroscopy and nanoimaging, we study the associated effects on the excitonic properties in monolayer WSe2 grown by physical vapor deposition. With ∼15 nm spatial resolution, we resolve nanoscale correlations of PL spectral intensity and shifts with crystal edges and internal twin boundaries associated with the expected exciton diffusion length. Through an active atomic force tip interaction we can control the crystal strain on the nanoscale and tune the local bandgap in reversible (up to 24 meV shift) and irreversible (up to 48 meV shift) fashion. This allows us to distinguish the effect of strain from the dominant influence of defects on the PL modification at the different structural heterogeneities. Hybrid nano-optical spectroscopy and imaging with nanomechanical strain control thus enables the systematic study of the coupling of structural and mechanical degrees of freedom to the nanoscale electronic and optical properties in layered 2D materials.

  14. Heterogeneous Distribution of Fetal Microchimerism in Local Breast Cancer Environment

    PubMed Central

    Nemescu, Dragos; Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Nemescu, Elena Roxana; Negura, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Fetal cells enter maternal circulation during pregnancy and persist in the woman’s body for decades, achieving a form of physiological microchimerism. These cells were also evidenced in tumors. We investigated the frequency and concentration of fetal microchimerism in the local breast cancer environment. From 19 patients with confirmed breast neoplasia, after breast surgical resection, we collected three fresh specimens from the tumor core, breast tissue at tumor periphery, and adjacent normal breast tissue. The presence of male DNA was analyzed with a quantitative PCR assay for the sex determining region gene (SRY) gene. In the group of women who had given birth to at least one son, we detected fetal microchimerism in 100% of samples from tumors and their periphery and in 64% (9 of 14) of those from normal breast tissue. The tissues from the tumor and its periphery carry a significantly increased number of SRY copies compared to its neighboring common breast tissue (p = 0.005). The median of the normalized SRY-signal was about 77 (range, 3.2–21467) and 14-fold (range, 1.3–2690) greater in the tumor and respectively in the periphery than in the normal breast tissue. In addition, the relative expression of the SRY gene had a median 5.5 times larger in the tumor than in its periphery (range, 1.1–389.4). We found a heterogeneous distribution of fetal microchimerism in breast cancer environment. In women with sons, breast neoplasia harbors male cells at significantly higher levels than in peripheral and normal breast tissue. PMID:26808509

  15. 18 CFR 284.268 - Local distribution company emergency transportation rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Exchange Transactions § 284.268 Local distribution company emergency transportation rates. (a) Rate on file. A local distribution company that has a rate on file with an appropriate state regulatory agency for... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local...

  16. Distribution of protein D, an immunoglobulin D-binding protein, in Haemophilus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Akkoyunlu, M; Ruan, M; Forsgren, A

    1991-01-01

    Protein D, a novel surface protein of the bacterial species Haemophilus influenzae with specific affinity for human immunoglobulin (Ig) D was detected in all 127 H. influenzae strains studied. All strains representing different serotypes of encapsulated strains and different biotypes of nonencapsulated strains bound 125I-labeled IgD to a high degree (38 to 74%). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis showed that protein D from all H. influenzae strains had the same apparent molecular weight (i.e., 42,000) and reacted with all three different anti-protein D monoclonal antibodies. By Scatchard analysis, the number of protein D residues on a nontypeable H. influenzae strain was estimated to be approximately 2,800 per organism. The equilibrium constant for the reaction between a human IgD myeloma protein and IgD was found to be 5.8 x 10(8) M-1. Also, all strains of H. haemolyticus and H. aegypticus strains tested bound IgD, 21 to 28% and 41 to 48%, respectively. In extracts of those bacteria, a 42,000-molecular-weight protein reactive with IgD and all three anti-protein D monoclonal antibodies was found. In H. parainfluenzae, H. aphrophilus, H. paraphrophilus, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a 42,000-molecular-weight protein that was reactive with one to three of three anti-protein D monoclonal antibodies but not reactive with human IgD was detected with Western blot analysis. Other Haemophilus species (H. ducreyi, H. parasuis, H. parahaemolyticus, H. segnis, and H. haemoglobinophilus) did not react with human monoclonal IgD or anti-protein D antibodies. On the basis of the wide distribution of protein D among H. influenzae strains, we suggest that protein D could be a vaccine candidate. Images PMID:1900807

  17. Strain distribution due to surface domains: a self-consistent approach with respect to surface elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Fuhr, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Summary Elastically mediated interactions between surface domains are classically described in terms of point forces. Such point forces lead to local strain divergences that are usually avoided by introducing a poorly defined cut-off length. In this work, we develop a self-consistent approach in which the strain field induced by the surface domains is expressed as the solution of an integral equation that contains surface elastic constants, S ij. For surfaces with positive S ij the new approach avoids the introduction of a cut-off length. The classical and the new approaches are compared in case of 1-D periodic ribbons. PMID:25821670

  18. Role of the interface between distributed fibre optic strain sensor and soil in ground deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Recently the distributed fibre optic strain sensing (DFOSS) technique has been applied to monitor deformations of various earth structures. However, the reliability of soil deformation measurements remains unclear. Here we present an integrated DFOSS- and photogrammetry-based test study on the deformation behaviour of a soil foundation model to highlight the role of strain sensing fibre–soil interface in DFOSS-based geotechnical monitoring. Then we investigate how the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour is influenced by environmental changes, and how the strain distribution along the fibre evolves during progressive interface failure. We observe that the fibre–soil interfacial bond is tightened and the measurement range of the fibre is extended under high densities or low water contents of soil. The plastic zone gradually occupies the whole fibre length when the soil deformation accumulates. Consequently, we derive a theoretical model to simulate the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour throughout the progressive failure process, which accords well with the experimental results. On this basis, we further propose that the reliability of measured strain can be determined by estimating the stress state of the fibre–soil interface. These findings may have important implications for interpreting and evaluating fibre optic strain measurements, and implementing reliable DFOSS-based geotechnical instrumentation.

  19. Limited geographic distribution of certain strains of the bioluminescent symbiont Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Urbanczyk, Henryk; Kiwaki, Naomi; Furukawa, Takashi; Iwatsuki, Yukio

    2012-08-01

    Photobacterium leiognathi is a facultative bioluminescent symbiont of marine animals. Strains of P. leiognathi that are merodiploid for the luminescence genes (lux-rib operon) have been previously obtained only from Japan. In contrast, strains bearing a single lux-rib operon have been obtained from all the areas sampled in Japan and the western Pacific. In this study, we tested whether distribution of merodiploid P. leiognathi is limited by physical barriers in the environment, or because fish in the western Pacific preferentially form symbiosis with bacteria bearing a single lux-rib operon. We collected light organ symbionts from Secutor indicius, a fish species that is typically found in the western Pacific and has only recently expanded its geographic range to Japan. We found that all S. indicius specimens collected from Japan formed symbiosis only with single lux-rib operon-bearing strains, although fish from other species collected from the same geographic area frequently contained merodiploid strains. This result shows that S. indicius were preferentially colonized by bacteria bearing a single lux-rib operon and suggests that the limited geographic distribution of merodiploid P. leiognathi can be attributed to preferential colonization of fish species found in the western Pacific by strains bearing only a single lux-rib operon.

  20. Role of the interface between distributed fibre optic strain sensor and soil in ground deformation measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Recently the distributed fibre optic strain sensing (DFOSS) technique has been applied to monitor deformations of various earth structures. However, the reliability of soil deformation measurements remains unclear. Here we present an integrated DFOSS- and photogrammetry-based test study on the deformation behaviour of a soil foundation model to highlight the role of strain sensing fibre–soil interface in DFOSS-based geotechnical monitoring. Then we investigate how the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour is influenced by environmental changes, and how the strain distribution along the fibre evolves during progressive interface failure. We observe that the fibre–soil interfacial bond is tightened and the measurement range of the fibre is extended under high densities or low water contents of soil. The plastic zone gradually occupies the whole fibre length when the soil deformation accumulates. Consequently, we derive a theoretical model to simulate the fibre–soil interfacial behaviour throughout the progressive failure process, which accords well with the experimental results. On this basis, we further propose that the reliability of measured strain can be determined by estimating the stress state of the fibre–soil interface. These findings may have important implications for interpreting and evaluating fibre optic strain measurements, and implementing reliable DFOSS-based geotechnical instrumentation. PMID:27827385

  1. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging local modulation of strain field in a hetero interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Oshima, Yoshifumi

    2014-10-13

    We present an innovative method for characterizing the strain field in three dimensions in a hetero interface. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy (LDP-STEM) was employed for imaging the inhomogeneous strain field in a germanium (Ge) layer deposited on a silicon (Si) substrate. In the LDP-STEM image, Ge-atomic columns that are relaxed or strained to the Si substrate in the Si/Ge hetero interface were observed to be distinguishable, allowing for the qualitative characterization of the coherency of the crystal growth. Our results revealed that the strain field is locally modulated along the in-plane direction in the Si/Ge hetero interface.

  2. Parameters driving strain localization in the lithosphere are highly scale-dependent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Modelling lithospheric deformation requires specifying mechanisms that promote strain localization. This can be done in different ways, such as the inclusion of weaker zones in the model setup (to initiate subduction or slab tearing, for instance) or using various sorts of weakening processes depending upon temperature, grain-size, fluid content or metamorphic reactions, among others. In most cases, this choice is ad hoc because the relevant parameters are largely unknown, especially at the scale of geodynamic models. Two lines of research have been developed, a traditional one which seeks to determine the rheological parameters of natural or synthetic rocks experimentally, and a more recent one, promoted by the development of fast computing, which aims at reproducing a natural tectonic or rheological evolution through time, not only geometries. The latter requires that the parameters allowing this reproduction are significant at the scale of the model, and which may be different from those obtained in the experimental lab, thus questioning the extrapolation through a wide range of scales of experimental parameters. This apparent discrepancy is due to the intrinsic complexity of the lithosphere, and even more so for the continental lithosphere with its highly heterogeneous crust and its long tectonic history, which implies the co-existence of many different parameters active in nature. In this presentation, we review the main localizing factors and look to the range of scales in which they are significant. Small-scale processes such as grain-size reduction, coexistence of several mineralogical phases with different strength and rheological behaviour, fluid-rock interactions and/or metamorphic reactions, often cannot initiate strain localization in nature but are all efficient to locally reduce the strength of rock material once localization has started. Some exceptions to this rule, however, exist, such as the mixing of ductile and brittle behaviour in the same

  3. Processing and Characterization of a Novel Distributed Strain Sensor Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Nonwoven Composites

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hongbo; Thostenson, Erik T.; Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an innovative carbon nanotube-based non-woven composite sensor that can be tailored for strain sensing properties and potentially offers a reliable and cost-effective sensing option for structural health monitoring (SHM). This novel strain sensor is fabricated using a readily scalable process of coating Carbon nanotubes (CNT) onto a nonwoven carrier fabric to form an electrically-isotropic conductive network. Epoxy is then infused into the CNT-modified fabric to form a free-standing nanocomposite strain sensor. By measuring the changes in the electrical properties of the sensing composite the deformation can be measured in real-time. The sensors are repeatable and linear up to 0.4% strain. Highest elastic strain gage factors of 1.9 and 4.0 have been achieved in the longitudinal and transverse direction, respectively. Although the longitudinal gage factor of the newly formed nanocomposite sensor is close to some metallic foil strain gages, the proposed sensing methodology offers spatial coverage, manufacturing customizability, distributed sensing capability as well as transverse sensitivity. PMID:26197323

  4. The Relationship Between Atomic Structure and Strain Distribution of Misfit Dislocation Cores at Cubic Heteroepitaxial Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wen, Cai

    2017-03-09

    The atomic reconstruction of a misfit dislocation (MD) core causes change in the strain distribution around the core. Several MD cores at the AlSb/GaAs (001) cubic zincblende interface, including a symmetrical glide set Lomer dislocation (LD), a left-displaced glide set LD, a glide set LD with an atomic step, a symmetrical shuffle set LD, and a 60° dislocation pair, were studied using simulated projected potential and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope images. Image deconvolution was also used to restore structure images from nonoptimum-defocus images. The corresponding biaxial strain maps, ε xx (in-plane) and ε yy (out-of-plane), were obtained by geometric phase analysis using the GaAs substrate as the reference lattice. The results show that atomic structure characteristics of MD cores can be revealed by the strain maps. The strain maps should be measured from optimum-defocus images or restored structure images. Furthermore, the ε xx strain map has been found more accurate than the ε yy strain map for MD cores, and the specimen thickness should be below the critical thickness due to the influence of dynamical scattering.

  5. Resonance line shape, strain and electric potential distributions of composite magnetoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Martina

    2013-06-01

    Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME) sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite) cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM) simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and electric potential distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced electric potential is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced electric potential also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line shape and a zero

  6. Strain distribution across the Greater Himalayan Sequence, Annapurna-Dhaulagiri, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. J.; Phillips, R. J.; Lloyd, G. E.; Searle, M. P.; Law, R. D.; Ferre, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Himalaya provides a unique natural laboratory to observe orogenic processes at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. The potential for these observations to serve as kinematic and geodynamic analogues for past orogens relies on a robust understanding of the evolution of the Himalayan mountain belt. Field structural data, supported by thermobaromety, geochronology and thermodynamic modelling, generally support a channel flow model in which a partially molten middle crust layer, the Greater Himalaya Sequence (GHS), was extruded to the south during Miocene time bounded by high-strain ductile shears above and below. This model suggests that the GHS, the metamorphic core of the orogen, represents an exhumed, rheologically weak, mid-crustal channel. Lateral flow of the channel was driven southwards by the lithostatic pressure gradient between the 5 km high Tibetan plateau and the < 1 km elevation and average crustal thickness of the Indian plate. The vertical distribution of strain across the GHS is one element of the channel flow hypothesis that is yet to be fully investigated. This project considers this issue by examining specifically, the vertical distribution and evolution of strain across the GHS and bounding units. A variety of techniques, that include SEM electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) will be used to analyse samples collected during recent field work in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himal, central Nepal. These samples were collected from two transects along the Modi Khola valley and the Kali Gandaki valley. EBSD will be used to measure the lattice preferred orientation of individual mineral phases of these samples, providing a proxy for strain and valuable information on deformation mechanisms. Given specific magnetic carriers, AMS will be used to provide a proxy for finite strain in samples that are too heterogeneous for EBSD. Combined EBSD and AMS data will be augmented by additional strain and

  7. Cloning, expression, and cell surface localization of Paenibacillus sp. strain W-61 xylanase 5, a multidomain xylanase.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yasuko; Tomita, Toshio; Roy, Narayan; Nakano, Akito; Sugawara-Tomita, Noriko; Watanabe, Seiji; Okai, Naoko; Abe, Naoki; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2003-12-01

    We have shown that a xylan-degrading bacterium, W-61, excretes multiple xylanases, including xylanase 5 with a molecular mass of 140 kDa. Here, we emend the previously used classification of the bacterium (i.e., Aeromonas caviae W-61) to Paenibacillus sp. strain W-61 on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, and we clone and express the xyn5 gene encoding xylanase 5 (Xyn5) in Escherichia coli and study the subcellular localization of Xyn5. xyn5 encodes 1,326 amino acid residues, including a 27-amino-acid signal sequence. Sequence analysis indicated that Xyn5 comprises two family 22 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM), a family 10 catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolases, a family 9 CBM, a domain similar to the lysine-rich region of Clostridium thermocellum SdbA, and three S-layer-homologous (SLH) domains. Recombinant Xyn5 bound to a crystalline cellulose, Avicel PH-101, while an N-terminal 90-kDa fragment of Xyn5, which lacks the C-terminal half of the family 9 CBM, did not bind to Avicel PH-101. Xyn5 was cell bound, and the cell-bound protein was digested by exogenous trypsin to produce immunoreactive and xylanolytic fragments with molecular masses of 80 and 60 kDa. Xyn5 was exclusively distributed in the cell envelope fraction consisting of a peptidoglycan-containing layer and an associated S layer. Thus, Paenibacillus sp. strain W-61 Xyn5 is a cell surface-anchored modular xylanase possessing a functional cellulose-binding module and SLH domains. Possible cooperative action of multiple xylanases produced by strain W-61 is discussed on the basis of the modular structure of Xyn5.

  8. Localized Slip and Distributed Deformation in Oblique Settings: The Example of the Denali Fault System, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallage, A.; Deves, M.; Klinger, Y.; King, G. C. P.; Ruppert, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes occurring in oblique tectonic settings often partition between several faults that accommodate different components of the total motion. The 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali strike-slip earthquake, which azimuth varies by more than 50° over the 341 km total rupture length, offers a unique opportunity to look at partitioning in details, thanks to a large seismological dataset. Using a kinematic model that incorporates the obliquity of the plate-motion direction relative to the local fault azimuth, we show that the co-seismic deformation is consistent with the general northwestward displacement of the Wrangell block relative to stable North America. Hence we quantify the efficiency of the Denali fault to accommodate such oblique far field tectonic conditions by defining a coefficient of accommodation Ca, and we evaluate how much remains to be accommodated by distributed deformation off the strike-slip fault. We represent the distributed deformation using strain rosette for a catalog of 735 focal mechanisms between 1987 and 2011. We show that in oblique settings, such as in the Denali case, the aftershocks and the background seismicity are organized to accommodate the deformation that is not localized on the Denali strike-slip fault during the main earthquakes. Actually the westward increase of the obliquity increases the amount of such deformation accommodated through distributed thrust faults, leading to the westward widening of the Alaska Range. In addition we use a simple 2D boundary element elastic model to investigate the difference between geodetic data, showing a rotation of the block south of the fault, and our oblique boundary conditions. We show that it is possible to reproduce the rotation of such block while it is subjected to a northwestward oblique displacement applied on the curved Denali fault system.

  9. In vitro bone strain distributions in a sample of primate pelves.

    PubMed

    Lewton, Kristi L

    2015-05-01

    The pelvis is a critical link in the hindlimb locomotor system and has a central role in resisting loads associated with locomotion, but our understanding of its structural biomechanics is quite limited. Empirical data on how the pelvis responds to the loads it encounters are important for understanding pelvic adaptation to locomotion, and for testing hypotheses regarding how the pelvis is adapted to its mechanical demands. This paper presents in vitro strain gauge data on a sample of monkey and ape cadaveric specimens (Macaca, Papio, Ateles, Hylobates), and assesses strain magnitudes and distributions through the bones of the pelvis: the ilium, ischium and pubis. Pelves were individually mounted in a materials testing system, loads were applied across three hindlimb angular positions, and strains were recorded from 18 locations on the pelvic girdle. Peak principal strains range from 2000 to 3000 με, similar to peak strains recorded from other mammals in vivo. Although previous work has suggested that the bones of the pelvis may act as bent beams, this study suggests that there are likely additional loading regimes superimposed on bending. Specifically, these data suggest that the ilium is loaded in axial compression and torsion, the ischium in torsion, the pubic rami in mediolateral bending, and the pubic symphysis is loaded in a combination of compression and torsion. Compressive strains dominate the pelves of all species representatives. Shear strains change with limb position; hip flexion at 45° induces smaller shear strains than mid-stance (90°) or hip extension (105°). The pelvic girdle is a complex structure that does not lend itself easily to modeling, but finite element analyses may prove useful to generate and refine hypotheses of pelvic biomechanics.

  10. Influence of Grain Size Distribution on the Mechanical Behavior of Light Alloys in Wide Range of Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Skripnyak, Natalia V.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Skripnyak, Vladimir V.

    2015-06-01

    Inelastic deformation and damage at the mesoscale level of ultrafine grained (UFG) Al 1560 aluminum and Ma2-1 magnesium alloys with distribution of grain size were investigated in wide loading conditions by experimental and computer simulation methods. The computational multiscale models of representative volume element (RVE) with the unimodal and bimodal grain size distributions were developed using the data of structure researches aluminum and magnesium UFG alloys. The critical fracture stress of UFG alloys on mesoscale level depends on relative volumes of coarse grains. Microcracks nucleation at quasi-static and dynamic loading is associated with strain localization in UFG partial volumes with bimodal grain size distribution. Microcracks arise in the vicinity of coarse and ultrafine grains boundaries. It is revealed that the occurrence of bimodal grain size distributions causes the increasing of UFG alloys ductility, but decreasing of the tensile strength. The increasing of fine precipitations concentration not only causes the hardening but increasing of ductility of UFG alloys with bimodal grain size distribution. This research carried out in 2014-2015 was supported by grant from ``The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program''.

  11. Allometric ecological distributions in a local community of Hymenoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2004-05-01

    The present paper describes basic ecological distributions in a community of beech forest Hymenoptera. It shows that the species diversity-body weight and the density-body weight distributions give rise to a new distribution that relates total community biomass to species diversity. For Hymenoptera this distribution follows a power function with a slope of 1.3. Combining this relation with the species-area and the individuals-area relations resulted in two other distributions that relate community biomass to area and individual numbers. It appeared that population densities decrease when computed over larger areas. The biomass-species diversity relation offers a new and simple way to estimate total community biomass from samples. The possible implications of this distribution to the productivity-diversity debate are discussed.

  12. Thermal strain along optical fiber in lightweight composite FOG : Brillouin-based distributed measurement and finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Sanada, Teruhisa; Takeda, Nobuo; Mitani, Shinji; Mizutani, Tadahito; Sasaki, Yoshinobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke

    2014-05-01

    Thermal strain significantly affects stability of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) performance. This study investigates thermal strain development in a lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) FOG under thermal vacuum condition simulating space environment. First, we measure thermal strain distribution along an optical fiber in a CFRP FOG using a Brillouin-based high-spatial resolution system. The key strain profile is clarified and the strain development is simulated using finite element analysis. Finally, several constituent materials for FOG are quantitatively compared from the aspect of the maximum thermal strain and the density, confirming the clear advantage of CFRP.

  13. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Neil; Jones, M. E. H.; Evans, S. E.; O'Higgins, P.; Fagan, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The skull is composed of many bones that come together at sutures. These sutures are important sites of growth, and as growth ceases some become fused while others remain patent. Their mechanical behaviour and how they interact with changing form and loadings to ensure balanced craniofacial development is still poorly understood. Early suture fusion often leads to disfiguring syndromes, thus is it imperative that we understand the function of sutures more clearly. By applying advanced engineering modelling techniques, we reveal for the first time that patent sutures generate a more widely distributed, high level of strain throughout the reptile skull. Without patent sutures, large regions of the skull are only subjected to infrequent low-level strains that could weaken the bone and result in abnormal development. Sutures are therefore not only sites of bone growth, but could also be essential for the modulation of strains necessary for normal growth and development in reptiles. PMID:23804444

  14. Data Locality via Coordinated Caching for Distributed Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M.; Kuehn, E.; Giffels, M.; Jung, C.

    2016-10-01

    To enable data locality, we have developed an approach of adding coordinated caches to existing compute clusters. Since the data stored locally is volatile and selected dynamically, only a fraction of local storage space is required. Our approach allows to freely select the degree at which data locality is provided. It may be used to work in conjunction with large network bandwidths, providing only highly used data to reduce peak loads. Alternatively, local storage may be scaled up to perform data analysis even with low network bandwidth. To prove the applicability of our approach, we have developed a prototype implementing all required functionality. It integrates seamlessly into batch systems, requiring practically no adjustments by users. We have now been actively using this prototype on a test cluster for HEP analyses. Specifically, it has been integral to our jet energy calibration analyses for CMS during run 2. The system has proven to be easily usable, while providing substantial performance improvements. Since confirming the applicability for our use case, we have investigated the design in a more general way. Simulations show that many infrastructure setups can benefit from our approach. For example, it may enable us to dynamically provide data locality in opportunistic cloud resources. The experience we have gained from our prototype enables us to realistically assess the feasibility for general production use.

  15. Three-Axis Distributed Fiber Optic Strain Measurement in 3D Woven Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading. Keywords: fiber optic, distributed strain sensing, Rayleigh scatter, optical frequency domain reflectometry

  16. Distributed Brillouin fiber optic strain monitoring applications in advanced composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianini, Filippo; Cargnelutti, Mario; Di Tommaso, Angelo; Toffanin, Massimo

    2003-08-01

    Composite materials based on glass, carbon and aramid fibers have many advantages such as fast application, lightweight and corrosion resistance, and are widely diffused for manufacturing of tanks, pipings and for restoration, upgrade and seismic retrofit of structures and historical heritage. As several questions regarding long term durability of composite strengthenings remains still unsolved, monitoring of strain and temperature is strongly recommended, respectively to assess proper load transfer and no glass phase transition of the polymeric matrix. In this research work strain and temperature distributed sensing trough Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers was used in different tests in order to understand the influence of different fiber coatings and embedding techniques. Pressure tests were performed on a GFRP piping with inhomogeneous strengthening layout and Brillouin strain data were compared with conventional strain gages. A smart CFRP material has been also developed and evaluated in a seismic retrofit application on an historical building dated 1500 that was seriously damaged in the earthquake of 1997. The developed embedding technique has been demonstrated successful to obtain fiber-optic smart composites with low optical losses, and the data comparison between Brillouin and resistive strain gauges confirms Brillouin technique is very effective for composite monitoring.

  17. Modified Michelson fiber-optic interferometer: A remote low-coherence distributed strain sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Libo

    2003-01-01

    A simple modified Michelson fiber-optic low-coherence interferometric quasi-distributed sensing system permitting absolute length measurement in remote reflective sensor array is proposed. The sensor reflective signals characteristics have been analyzed and the relationship between light signal intensities and sensors number was given for multiplexing potential evaluation. The proposed sensing scheme will be useful for the remote measurement of strain. An important application could be deformation sensing in smart structures. Experimentally, a three sensors array has been demonstrated.

  18. Quantum localization of chaotic eigenstates and the level spacing distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batistić, Benjamin; Robnik, Marko

    2013-11-01

    The phenomenon of quantum localization in classically chaotic eigenstates is one of the main issues in quantum chaos (or wave chaos), and thus plays an important role in general quantum mechanics or even in general wave mechanics. In this work we propose two different localization measures characterizing the degree of quantum localization, and study their relation to another fundamental aspect of quantum chaos, namely the (energy) spectral statistics. Our approach and method is quite general, and we apply it to billiard systems. One of the signatures of the localization of chaotic eigenstates is a fractional power-law repulsion between the nearest energy levels in the sense that the probability density to find successive levels on a distance S goes like ∝Sβ for small S, where 0≤β≤1, and β=1 corresponds to completely extended states. We show that there is a clear functional relation between the exponent β and the two different localization measures. One is based on the information entropy and the other one on the correlation properties of the Husimi functions. We show that the two definitions are surprisingly linearly equivalent. The approach is applied in the case of a mixed-type billiard system [M. Robnik, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.JPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/16/17/014 16, 3971 (1983)], in which the separation of regular and chaotic eigenstates is performed.

  19. Revealing Differences in Metabolic Flux Distributions between a Mutant Strain and Its Parent Strain Gluconacetobacter xylinus CGMCC 2955

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Xiao-Ning; Zhu, Hui-Xia; Jia, Yuan-Yuan; Jia, Shi-Ru; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of metabolic fluxes is important for manipulating microbial metabolism toward desired end products, or away from undesirable by-products. A mutant strain, Gluconacetobacter xylinus AX2-16, was obtained by combined chemical mutation of the parent strain (G. xylinus CGMCC 2955) using DEC (diethyl sulfate) and LiCl. The highest bacterial cellulose production for this mutant was obtained at about 11.75 g/L, which was an increase of 62% compared with that by the parent strain. In contrast, gluconic acid (the main byproduct) concentration was only 5.71 g/L for mutant strain, which was 55.7% lower than that of parent strain. Metabolic flux analysis indicated that 40.1% of the carbon source was transformed to bacterial cellulose in mutant strain, compared with 24.2% for parent strain. Only 32.7% and 4.0% of the carbon source were converted into gluconic acid and acetic acid in mutant strain, compared with 58.5% and 9.5% of that in parent strain. In addition, a higher flux of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was obtained in mutant strain (57.0%) compared with parent strain (17.0%). It was also indicated from the flux analysis that more ATP was produced in mutant strain from pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and TCA cycle. The enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which is one of the key enzymes in TCA cycle, was 1.65-fold higher in mutant strain than that in parent strain at the end of culture. It was further validated by the measurement of ATPase that 3.53–6.41 fold higher enzymatic activity was obtained from mutant strain compared with parent strain. PMID:24901455

  20. Evidence for strain-induced local conductance modulations in single-layer graphene on SiO2.

    PubMed

    Teague, M L; Lai, A P; Velasco, J; Hughes, C R; Beyer, A D; Bockrath, M W; Lau, C N; Yeh, N-C

    2009-07-01

    Graphene has emerged as an electronic material that is promising for device applications and for studying two-dimensional electron gases with relativistic dispersion near two Dirac points. Nonetheless, deviations from Dirac-like spectroscopy have been widely reported with varying interpretations. Here we show evidence for strain-induced spatial modulations in the local conductance of single-layer graphene on SiO(2) substrates from scanning tunneling microscopic (STM) studies. We find that strained graphene exhibits parabolic, U-shaped conductance vs bias voltage spectra rather than the V-shaped spectra expected for Dirac fermions, whereas V-shaped spectra are recovered in regions of relaxed graphene. Strain maps derived from the STM studies further reveal direct correlation with the local tunneling conductance. These results are attributed to a strain-induced frequency increase in the out-of-plane phonon mode that mediates the low-energy inelastic charge tunneling into graphene.

  1. Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in elastically and plastically bent metallic glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yuan; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Ren, Yang; ...

    2015-09-03

    In situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was conducted on elastically and plastically bent bulk metallic glass (BMG) thin plates, from which distinct local elastic strain fields were mapped spatially. These directly measured residual strain fields can be nicely interpreted by our stress analysis, and also validate a previously proposed indirect residual-stress-measurement method by relating nanoindentation hardness to residual stresses. Local shear strain variations on the cross sections of these thin plates were found in the plastically bent BMG, which however cannot be determined from the indirect indentation method. As a result, this study has important implications in designing and manipulatingmore » internal strain fields in BMGs for the purpose of ductility enhancement.« less

  2. Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in elastically and plastically bent metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuan; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Ren, Yang; Ma, Dong; Gao, Yanfei F.; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-09-03

    In situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was conducted on elastically and plastically bent bulk metallic glass (BMG) thin plates, from which distinct local elastic strain fields were mapped spatially. These directly measured residual strain fields can be nicely interpreted by our stress analysis, and also validate a previously proposed indirect residual-stress-measurement method by relating nanoindentation hardness to residual stresses. Local shear strain variations on the cross sections of these thin plates were found in the plastically bent BMG, which however cannot be determined from the indirect indentation method. As a result, this study has important implications in designing and manipulating internal strain fields in BMGs for the purpose of ductility enhancement.

  3. Influence of water on rheology and strain localization in the lower continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getsinger, A. J.; Hirth, G.; Stünitz, H.; Goergen, E. T.

    2013-07-01

    We investigated deformation processes within a lower crustal shear zone exposed in gabbros from Arnøya, Norway. Over a distance of ˜1 m, the gabbro progresses from nominally undeformed to highly sheared where it is adjacent to a hydrous pegmatite. With increasing proximity to the pegmatite, there is a significant increase in the abundance of amphibole and zoisite (which form at the expense of pyroxene and calcic plagioclase) and a slight increase in the strength of plagioclase lattice-preferred orientation, but there is little change in recrystallized plagioclase grain size. Phase diagrams, the presence of hydrous reaction products, and deformation mechanism maps all indicate that the water activity (aH2O) during deformation must have been high (˜1) in the sheared gabbro compared with the nonhydrated, surrounding host gabbro. These observations indicate that fluid intrusion into mafic lower crust initiates syn-deformational, water-consuming reactions, creating a rheological contrast between wet and dry lithologies that promote strain localization. Thus, deformation of lower continental crust can be accommodated in highly localized zones of enhanced fluid infiltration. These results provide an example of how fluid weakens lower continental crust lithologies at high pressures and temperatures.

  4. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  5. 18 CFR 284.269 - Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intrastate pipeline and..., Transportation, and Exchange Transactions § 284.269 Intrastate pipeline and local distribution company emergency sales rates. An intrastate pipeline or local distribution company must determine its rates for sales...

  6. CNS Cell Distribution and Axon Orientation Determine Local Spinal Cord Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Koser, David E.; Moeendarbary, Emad; Hanne, Janina; Kuerten, Stefanie; Franze, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical signaling plays an important role in cell physiology and pathology. Many cell types, including neurons and glial cells, respond to the mechanical properties of their environment. Yet, for spinal cord tissue, data on tissue stiffness are sparse. To investigate the regional and direction-dependent mechanical properties of spinal cord tissue at a spatial resolution relevant to individual cells, we conducted atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation and tensile measurements on acutely isolated mouse spinal cord tissue sectioned along the three major anatomical planes, and correlated local mechanical properties with the underlying cellular structures. Stiffness maps revealed that gray matter is significantly stiffer than white matter irrespective of directionality (transverse, coronal, and sagittal planes) and force direction (compression or tension) (Kg= ∼130 Pa vs. Kw= ∼70 Pa); both matters stiffened with increasing strain. When all data were pooled for each plane, gray matter behaved like an isotropic material under compression; however, subregions of the gray matter were rather heterogeneous and anisotropic. For example, in sagittal sections the dorsal horn was significantly stiffer than the ventral horn. In contrast, white matter behaved transversely isotropic, with the elastic stiffness along the craniocaudal (i.e., longitudinal) axis being lower than perpendicular to it. The stiffness distributions we found under compression strongly correlated with the orientation of axons, the areas of cell nuclei, and cellular in plane proximity. Based on these morphological parameters, we developed a phenomenological model to estimate local mechanical properties of central nervous system (CNS) tissue. Our study may thus ultimately help predicting local tissue stiffness, and hence cell behavior in response to mechanical signaling under physiological and pathological conditions, purely based on histological data. PMID:25954872

  7. Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus clinical strains from Maryland (2012–2013) and comparisons to a locally and globally diverse V. parahaemolyticus strains by whole-genome sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haendiges, Julie; Timme, Ruth; Allard, Marc W.; Myers, Robert A.; Brown, Eric W.; Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the US associated with the consumption of raw shellfish. Previous population studies of V. parahaemolyticus have used Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) or Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) provides a much higher level of resolution, but has been used to characterize only a few United States (US) clinical isolates. Here we report the WGS characterization of 34 genomes of V. parahaemolyticus strains that were isolated from clinical cases in the state of Maryland (MD) during 2 years (2012–2013). These 2 years saw an increase of V. parahaemolyticus cases compared to previous years. Among these MD isolates, 28% were negative for tdh and trh, 8% were tdh positive only, 11% were trh positive only, and 53% contained both genes. We compared this set of V. parahaemolyticus genomes to those of a collection of 17 archival strains from the US (10 previously sequenced strains and 7 from NCBI, collected between 1988 and 2004) and 15 international strains, isolated from geographically-diverse environmental and clinical sources (collected between 1980 and 2010). A WGS phylogenetic analysis of these strains revealed the regional outbreak strains from MD are highly diverse and yet genetically distinct from the international strains. Some MD strains caused outbreaks 2 years in a row, indicating a local source of contamination (e.g., ST631). Advances in WGS will enable this type of analysis to become routine, providing an excellent tool for improved surveillance. Databases built with phylogenetic data will help pinpoint sources of contamination in future outbreaks and contribute to faster outbreak control. PMID:25745421

  8. Strain localization in a fossilized subduction channel: Insights from the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (Syros, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Valentin; Jolivet, Laurent; Roche, Vincent; Augier, Romain; Scaillet, Stéphane; Cardello, Giovanni Luca

    2016-03-01

    Syros Island is worldwide known for its preservation of HP-LT parageneses in the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) providing one of the best case-studies to understand the tectonometamorphic evolution of a subduction channel. Conflicting structural interpretations have been proposed to explain the geological architecture of Syros, in part reflecting a lack of consensus about the tectonic structure of the CBU. In this study, the geological and tectonometamorphic maps of Syros have been entirely redrawn in order to decipher the structure of a fossilized subduction channel. Based on structural and petrological observations, the CBU has been subdivided into three subunits separated by major ductile shear zones. New observations of the Vari Unit confirm that it rests on top of the CBU through a detachment or exhumation fault. While retrograde top-to-the E/NE shearing overprinting prograde deformation is widespread across the island, the prograde deformation has been only locally preserved within the less retrograded units. We show that after the prograde top-to-the S/SW shearing deformation, the CBU was exhumed by an overall top-to-the E/NE shearing from the depth of the eclogite-facies all the way to the depth of the greenschist-facies and finally, to the brittle crust. The exhumation process encompassed the syn-orogenic stage (contemporaneous of subduction, within the subduction channel - Eocene) to the post-orogenic stage (contemporaneous with the formation of the Aegean Sea - Oligocene to Miocene). From syn-orogenic to post-orogenic exhumation, deformation progressively localized toward the base of the CBU, along large-scale ductile shear zones, allowing the preservation of earlier HP-LT structures and HP-LT metamorphic parageneses. Finally, this study brings new insights on the tectonometamorphic evolution of a subduction channel showing how strain localizes during the history of an accretionary complex, both during the prograde and retrograde history.

  9. Morphometry and strain distribution in guinea pig duodenum with reference to the zero-stress state.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, H; Kassab, G; Pallencaoe, E; Lee, C; Chien, S; Skalak, R; Fung, Y C

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the distribution of residual circumferential strains along the duodenum in anesthetized guinea pigs. A silicone elastomer was allowed to harden in the duodenal lumen under a pressure of 0.7 kPa. The duodenum was excised with the cast and photographed. The zero-stress state was obtained by cutting rings of duodenum radially. The geometric configuration at the zero-stress state is of fundamental importance, because it is the basic state with respect to which the physical stresses and strains are defined. A basic piece of information is the way the tangent vector rotates from one end of the circumference to the other. In the duodenum at zero-stress state, the total rotation of the tangent from one tip to the other is -500 to -850 , with the lowest absolute value in the proximal duodenum. In other words, the duodenum usually turns itself inside out on changing from a loaded state to the zero-stress state. The serosal circumference, the duodenal wall thickness, and the ratio of wall thickness to mucosal circumference decreased in the distal direction. In the pressurized state, the serosal Cauchy strain was tensile and increased in the distal direction; the mucosal Cauchy strain was compressive in the proximal half of the duodenum and tensile in the distal half. The large circumferential residual strains must be taken into account in a study of physiological problems in which the stresses and strains are important, e.g., the bolus transport function.

  10. Local strain evolution due to athermal γ→ε martensitic transformation in biomedical CoCrMo alloys.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kenta; Mori, Manami; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Chiba, Akihiko

    2014-04-01

    Locally developed strains caused by athermal γ face-centered cubic (fcc)→ε hexagonal close-packed (hcp) martensitic transformation were investigated for the γ matrix of Ni-free Co-29Cr-6Mo (wt%) alloys prepared with or without added nitrogen. Electron-backscatter-diffraction-(EBSD)-based strain analysis revealed that in addition to ε-martensite interiors, the N-free alloy that had a duplex microstructure consisting of the γ matrix and athermal ε-martensite plates showed larger magnitudes of both elastic and plastic strains in the γ phase matrix than the N-doped counterpart that did not have a ε-martensite phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that the ε-martensite microplates were aggregates of thin ε-layers, which were formed by three different {111}γ〈112¯〉γ Shockley partial dislocations in accordance with a previously proposed mechanism (Putaux and Chevalier, 1996) that canceled the shear strains of the individual variants. The plastic strains are believed to have originated from the martensitic transformation itself, and the activity of dislocations is believed to be the origin of the transformation. We have revealed that the elastic strains in the γ matrix originate from interactions among the ε-martensite phase, extended dislocations, and/or thin ε-layers. The dislocations highly dissociated into stacking faults, making stress relaxation at intersections difficult and further introducing local strain evolution.

  11. Development of a FBG based distributed strain sensor system for wind turbine structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Tyler J.; Achuthan, Ajit; Marzocca, Pier; Grappasonni, Chiara; Coppotelli, Giuliano

    2013-07-01

    The development of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based distributed strain sensor system for real time structural health monitoring of a wind turbine rotor and its validation under a laboratory scale test setup is discussed in this paper. A 1 kW, 1.6 m diameter rotor, horizontal axis wind turbine with three instrumented blades is used in this study. The sensor system consists of strain sensors, surface mounted at various locations on the blade. At first the sensors are calibrated under static loading conditions to validate the FBG mounting and the proposed data collection techniques. Then, the capability of the sensor system coupled with the operational modal analysis (OMA) methods to capture natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes in terms of distributed strains are validated under various non-rotating dynamic loading conditions. Finally, the sensor system is tested under rotating conditions using the wind flow from an open-jet wind tunnel, for both a baseline wind turbine and a wind turbine with a structurally modified blade. The blade was modified by attaching a lumped mass at the blade tip simulating structural damage or ice accretion. The dynamic characteristics of the baseline (healthy) blade and modified (altered) blade are compared to validate the sensor system’s ability for real time structural health monitoring of the rotor.

  12. Modeling for IFOG Vibration Error Based on the Strain Distribution of Quadrupolar Fiber Coil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhongxing; Zhang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yunhao

    2016-07-21

    Improving the performance of interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) in harsh environment, especially in vibrational environment, is necessary for its practical applications. This paper presents a mathematical model for IFOG to theoretically compute the short-term rate errors caused by mechanical vibration. The computational procedures are mainly based on the strain distribution of quadrupolar fiber coil measured by stress analyzer. The definition of asymmetry of strain distribution (ASD) is given in the paper to evaluate the winding quality of the coil. The established model reveals that the high ASD and the variable fiber elastic modulus in large strain situation are two dominant reasons that give rise to nonreciprocity phase shift in IFOG under vibration. Furthermore, theoretical analysis and computational results indicate that vibration errors of both open-loop and closed-loop IFOG increase with the raise of vibrational amplitude, vibrational frequency and ASD. Finally, an estimation of vibration-induced IFOG errors in aircraft is done according to the proposed model. Our work is meaningful in designing IFOG coils to achieve a better anti-vibration performance.

  13. Modeling for IFOG Vibration Error Based on the Strain Distribution of Quadrupolar Fiber Coil

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhongxing; Zhang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yunhao

    2016-01-01

    Improving the performance of interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG) in harsh environment, especially in vibrational environment, is necessary for its practical applications. This paper presents a mathematical model for IFOG to theoretically compute the short-term rate errors caused by mechanical vibration. The computational procedures are mainly based on the strain distribution of quadrupolar fiber coil measured by stress analyzer. The definition of asymmetry of strain distribution (ASD) is given in the paper to evaluate the winding quality of the coil. The established model reveals that the high ASD and the variable fiber elastic modulus in large strain situation are two dominant reasons that give rise to nonreciprocity phase shift in IFOG under vibration. Furthermore, theoretical analysis and computational results indicate that vibration errors of both open-loop and closed-loop IFOG increase with the raise of vibrational amplitude, vibrational frequency and ASD. Finally, an estimation of vibration-induced IFOG errors in aircraft is done according to the proposed model. Our work is meaningful in designing IFOG coils to achieve a better anti-vibration performance. PMID:27455257

  14. Impact of weightlessness on cardiac shape and left ventricular stress/strain distributions.

    PubMed

    Iskovitz, Ilana; Kassemi, Mohammad; Thomas, James D

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a finite element model of the heart is developed to investigate the impact of different gravitational loadings of Earth, Mars, Moon, and microgravity on the cardiac shape and strain/stress distributions in the left ventricle. The finite element model is based on realistic 3D heart geometry, detailed fiber/sheet micro-architecture, and a validated orthotropic cardiac tissue model and constitutive relationship that capture the passive behavior of the heart at end-diastole. The model predicts the trend and magnitude of cardiac shape change at different gravitational levels with great fidelity in comparison to recent cardiac sphericity measurements performed during simulated reduced-gravity parabolic flight experiments. Moreover, the numerical predictions indicate that although the left ventricular strain distributions remain relatively unaltered across the gravitational fields and the strain extrema values occur at the same relative locations, their values change noticeably with decreasing gravity. As for the stress, however, both the magnitude and location of the extrema change with a decrease in the gravitational field. Consequently, tension regions of the heart on Earth can change into compression regions in space.

  15. Long-gauge FBGs interrogated by DTR3 for dynamic distributed strain measurement of helicopter blade model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, M.; Igawa, H.; Kasai, T.; Watanabe, N.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we describe characteristics of distributed strain sensing based on a Delayed Transmission/Reflection Ratiometric Reflectometry (DTR3) scheme with a long-gauge Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG), which is attractive to dynamic structural deformation monitoring such as a helicopter blade and an airplane wing. The DTR3 interrogator using the longgauge FBG has capability of detecting distributed strain with 50 cm spatial resolution in 100 Hz sampling rate. We evaluated distributed strain sensing characteristics of the long-gauge FBG attached on a 5.5 m helicopter blade model in static tests and free vibration dynamic tests.

  16. Design of atomic step networks on Si(111) through strain distribution control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, Hiroo; Homma, Yoshikazu; Ogino, Toshio; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Tonchev, Vesselin

    2004-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to control atomic step networks on silicon for future wafer-scale integration of self-assembling nanostructures. The method is the strain-distribution-control method that we have recently proposed in [H. Omi, D. J. Bottomley, and T. Ogino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1073 (2002)], which we apply here to design atomic step networks on vicinal Si(111) wafer. Si(111) with its strain patterned by buried silicon oxide inclusions was annealed at 1230 °C in ultrahigh vacuum and observed by in situ secondary electron microscopy and ex situ atomic force microscopy. The images show that the method enables us to create the desired arrays of atomic step networks on an arbitrary area of planar silicon wafer. The arrays remain stable during the 1230 °C annealing.

  17. Pressure, stress, and strain distribution in the double-stage diamond anvil cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lobanov, Sergey S.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Prescher, Clemens; Konôpková, Zuzana; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Crispin, Katherine L.; Zhang, Chi; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2015-07-21

    Double stage diamond anvil cells (DACs) of two designs have been assembled and tested. We used a standard symmetric DAC with flat or beveled culets as a primary stage and CVD microanvils machined by a focused ion beam as a second. We evaluated pressure, stress, and strain distributions in gold and a mixture of gold and iron as well as in secondary anvils using synchrotron x-ray diffraction with a micro-focused beam. A maximum pressure of 240 GPa was reached independent of the first stage anvil culet size. We found that the stress field generated by the second stage anvils is typical of conventional DAC experiments. The maximum pressures reached are limited by strains developing in the secondary anvil and by cupping of the first stage diamond anvil in the presented experimental designs. Also, our experiments show that pressures of several megabars may be reached without sacrificing the first stage diamond anvils.

  18. Influence of protein or cystein deficiency on hepatic subcellular distribution of methyl mercury in two rat strains.

    PubMed

    Beije, B; Arrhenius, E

    1978-02-01

    The influence of protein deprivation and cystein deficiency on the distribution of methyl mercury between 4 subcellular fractions of liver was studied in 2 rat strains (Wistar, strain R and Sprague-Dawley). Kept on a standard diet, the 2 strains showed a similar distribution pattern, with the highest mercury level found in the cytosol, followed by the mitochondrial, microsomal and nuclei fractions. The protein free diet caused on increase in the total amount of bound mercury in both strains, the greatest increase, being found in livers from strain R rats. The cystein deficient diet, on the other hand, gave rise to diverging results. Whereas the level of mercury bound to the subcellular fractions was increased in livers from strain R rats, it was markedly reduced in livers from Sprague-Dawley rats.

  19. Colwellia psychrerythraea strains from distant deep sea basins show adaptation to local conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Fitzgerald, Kathleen S.; Stelling, Savannah C.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Harris, Austin P.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2016-05-09

    Many studies have shown that microbes, which share nearly identical 16S rRNA genes, can have highly divergent genomes. Microbes from distinct parts of the ocean also exhibit biogeographic patterning. Here in this study we seek to better understand how certain microbes from the same species have adapted for growth under local conditions. The phenotypic and genomic heterogeneity of three strains of Colwellia psychrerythraea was investigated in order to understand adaptions to local environments. Colwellia are psychrophilic heterotrophic marine bacteria ubiquitous in cold marine ecosystems. We have recently isolated two Colwellia strains: ND2E from the Eastern Mediterranean and GAB14E from the Great Australian Bight. The 16S rRNA sequence of these two strains were greater than 98.2% identical to the well-characterized C. psychrerythraea 34H, which was isolated from arctic sediments. Salt tolerance, and carbon source utilization profiles for these strains were determined using Biolog Phenotype MicoArrays. These strains exhibited distinct salt tolerance, which was not associated with the salinity of sites of isolation. The carbon source utilization profiles were distinct with less than half of the tested carbon sources being metabolized by all three strains. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the genomes of these three strains were quite diverse with some genomes having up to 1600 strain-specific genes. Many genes involved in degrading strain-specific carbon sources were identified. Finally, there appears to be a link between carbon source utilization and location of isolation with distinctions observed between the Colwellia isolate recovered from sediment compared to water column isolates.

  20. Local or distributed activation? The view from biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimers, Mark

    2011-06-01

    There is considerable disagreement among connectionist modellers over whether to represent distinct properties by distinct nodes of a network or whether properties should be represented by patterns of activity across all nodes. This paper draws on the literature of neuroscience to say that a more subtle way of describing how different brain regions contribute to a behaviour, in terms of individual learning and in terms of degrees of importance, may render the current debate moot: both sides of the 'localist' versus 'distributed' debate emphasise different aspects of biology.

  1. A distributed optical fiber sensing system for dynamic strain measurement based on artificial reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenhong; Shan, Yuanyuan; Li, Yanting; Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-10-01

    Phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) has been widely used in many applications for its distributed sensing ability on weak disturbance all along the sensing fiber. However, traditional Φ-OTDR cannot make quantitative measurement on the external disturbance due to the randomly distributed position and reflectivity of scatters within the optical fiber. Recently, some methods have been proposed to realize quantitative measurement of dynamic strain. In these literatures, the fiber with or without FBGs in practice was easily damaged and with difficulty of maintenance. PZT is employed to generate strain event in the fiber. There is a large gap compared with the real detecting environment, which will not reveal the full performance of the sensing system. In this paper, a distributed optical fiber sensing (DOFS) system for dynamic strain measurement based on artificial reflector is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The fiber under test (FUT) is composed by four 20-meter long single mode optical fiber patch cords (OFPCs), which are cascaded with ferrule contactor/physical contact (FC/PC) connectors via fiber flanges. The fiber facet of FC/PC connector forms an artificial reflector. When the interval between the two reflectors is changed, the phase of the interference signal will also be changed. A symmetric 3×3 coupler with table-look-up scheme is introduced to discriminate the phase change through interference intensity. In our experiment, the center 10m section of the second OFPC is attached to the bottom of an aluminum alloy plate. An ordinary loudspeaker box was located on the top of the aluminum alloy plate. The dynamic strain generated by the loudspeaker box is transmitted from the aluminum alloy plate to the OFPC. Experimental results show that the proposed method has a good frequency response characteristic up to 3.2 kHz and a linear intensity response of R2=0.9986 while the optical probe pulse width and repetition rate were 100ns

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Two Sphingopyxis sp. Strains, Dominant Members of the Bacterial Community Associated with a Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report the draft genome of two Sphingopyxis spp. strains isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator. Both strains are ubiquitous residents and early colonizers of water distribution systems. Genomic annotation identified a class 1 integron (in...

  3. Cutaneous distribution and localization of Cercopithifilaria sp. microfilariae in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Abramo, Francesca; Gaglio, Gabriella; Napoli, Ettore; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Ramos, Rafael Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Bain, Odile

    2012-11-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of microfilariae of a recently described Cercopithifilaria sp. and the relationship with the preferred attachment sites of its vector, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Skin samples from 20 dogs were collected from eight anatomical sites and soaked twice in saline solution at 37°C. All samples were also molecularly processed for the specific amplification of partial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene. Microfilariae were unevenly distributed on the body, with higher frequencies on interscapular region (n=13; 68.4%) and on the head (n=9; 47.4%). Larval abundance in dogs was positively correlated with the number of positive anatomical sites with a higher percentage of skin samples scoring positive at the microscopic examination of the first sediment (n=47; 30.9%) than of the second (n=8; 5.3%). Histological examination revealed that microfilariae were scattered in the dermis, in association with inflammatory cells. Molecular analysis of skin samples showed a lower frequency of positive sites (n=37; 24.3%) when compared to the microscopic examination (n=53; 34.9%) with five haplotypes sequenced. The results here presented suggested a close co-evolution of this filarioid with its vector.

  4. Strain localization in the lower crust: brittle precursors versus lithological heterogeneities (Musgrave Ranges, Central Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawemann, Friedrich; Mancktelow, Neil; Wex, Sebastian; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Camacho, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    The Davenport shear zone in Central Australia is a strike-slip ductile shear zone developed during the Petermann Orogeny (~ 550 Ma). The conditions of shearing are estimated to be amphibolite-eclogite facies (650 °C, 1.2 GPa). The up to seven kilometre thick mylonite zone encloses several large low strain domains with excellent exposure, thus allowing a thorough study of the initiation of shear zones. Quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and granitoids inherit a suite of lithological heterogeneities such as quartz-rich pegmatites, mafic layers and dykes. When in a favourable orientation to the shortening direction, these rheologically different pre-existing layers might be expected to localize deformation. However, with the singular exception of long, continuous and fine-grained dolerite dykes, this is not observed. Quartz-rich pegmatites are mostly unsheared, even if in a favourable orientation, and sometimes boudinaged or folded. There are instead many shear zones only a few mm to cm in width, extending up to tens of metres, which are in fact oriented at a very high angle to the shortening direction. Parallel to these, a network of little to moderately overprinted brittle fractures are observed, commonly marked by pseudotachylyte (pst) and sometimes new biotite. Shear reactivation of these precursor fractures is generally limited to the length of the initial fracture and typically re-uses and shears the pst. The recrystallized mineral assemblage in the sheared pst consists of Cpx+Grt+Fsp±Ky and is the same to that in the adjacent sheared gneiss, with the same PT estimates (650 °C, 1.2 GPa). In some cases, multiple generations of cross-cutting and sheared pst demonstrate alternating fracture and flow during progressive shear zone development and a clear tendency for subsequent pst formation to also localize in the existing shear zone. The latest pst may be both unsheared and unrecrystallized (no grt) and is probably related to a late stage, still localized within the

  5. The influence of metasomatic reactions on distributed vs. localized slip in ultramafic shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarling, Matthew S.; Tulley, Chris J.; Smith, Steven A. F.

    2016-04-01

    The Livingstone Fault is a >1000 km long terrane boundary in New Zealand that juxtaposes ultramafic rocks of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt against quartzofeldspathic rocks of the continental Caples Terrane. The fault is characterized by a zone of sheared serpentinite mélange tens to several hundreds of meters wide with a generally well-defined scaly fabric, containing entrained pods of massive serpentinite, volcanic rocks and quartzofeldspathic rocks. Talc- and tremolite- forming metasomatic reactions occurred frequently within the mélange zone, along the margins of the mélange and at the edges of entrained pods. These reactions were the result of the interaction between the serpentine minerals and silica bearing fluids derived from the quartzofeldspathic Caples Terrane. In the bulk of the mélange, structures such as distributed scaly fabrics, S-C fabrics, and networks of fibrous serpentine veins suggest a broad delocalization of strain, likely accommodated by pressure-solution mechanisms along the serpentinite- and talc-bearing fabrics. However, at the margins of the mélange zone and the edges of pods, layers of tremolite tens of centimeters thick are characterized by a highly indurated microstructure consisting of networks of tightly interwoven, acicular tremolite crystals forming a semi-nephritic to nephritic texture. In these metasomatic regions, discrete cataclastic slip zones associated with well-polished slickenlined surfaces are observed at the interfaces of the serpentinite and Caples Terrane quartzofeldspathics. In the Livingstone Fault, this style of highly-localized slip is uniquely associated withthe development of the indurated nephritic textures. Because tremolite is a frictionally-strong and generally velocity-weakening calc-silicate, we speculate that the tremolite-forming metasomatic reactions may have promoted localized and unstable fault slip within a shear zone that was otherwise deforming by creep. Employing scanning and transmission

  6. Method of Quantifying Three Dimensional Strain Distribution in Skeletal Muscle Using Cine Phase Contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Elisabeth R.; Morrow, Duane A.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Murthy, Naveen S.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP), a correlate of muscle tension, may fill an important clinical testing void. A barrier to implementing this measure clinically is its non-uniform distribution, which is not fully understood. Pressure is generated by changes in fluid mass and volume, therefore 3D volumetric strain distribution may affect IMP distribution. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for quantifying 3D volumetric strain distribution in the human tibialis anterior (TA) during passive tension using cine Phase Contrast (CPC) MRI and to assess its accuracy and precision. Five healthy subjects each participated in three data collections. A custom MRI-compatible apparatus repeatedly rotated the subjects’ ankle between 0 and 26 degrees plantarflexion while CPC MRI data were collected. Additionally, T2-weighted images of the lower leg were collected both before and after the CPC data collection with the ankle stationary at both 0 and 26 degrees plantarflexion for TA muscle segmentation. A 3D hexahedral mesh was generated based on the TA surface before CPC data collection with the ankle at 0 degrees plantarflexion and the node trajectories were tracked using the CPC data. The volumetric strain of each element was quantified. Three tests were employed to assess the measure accuracy and precision. First, to quantify leg position drift, the TA segmentations were compared before and after CPC data collection. This error was 1.5±0.7 mm. Second, to assess the surface node trajectory accuracy, the deformed mesh surface was compared to the TA segmented at 26 degrees of ankle plantarflexion. This error was 0.6±0.2 mm. Third, the standard deviation of volumetric strain across the three data collections was calculated for each element and subject. The median between-day variability across subjects and mesh elements was 0.06 mm3/mm3 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.18 mm3/mm3). Overall the results demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision. PMID:26595686

  7. Level set segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images based on local Gaussian distribution fitting energy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Yunjie; Pan, Xiaohua; Hong, Xunning; Xia, Deshen

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a variational level set approach in a multi-phase formulation to segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images with intensity inhomogeneity. In our model, the local image intensities are characterized by Gaussian distributions with different means and variances. We define a local Gaussian distribution fitting energy with level set functions and local means and variances as variables. The means and variances of local intensities are considered as spatially varying functions. Therefore, our method is able to deal with intensity inhomogeneity without inhomogeneity correction. Our method has been applied to 3T and 7T MR images with promising results.

  8. Energy gradients and the geographic distribution of local ant diversity.

    PubMed

    Kaspari, Michael; Ward, Philip S; Yuan, May

    2004-08-01

    Geographical diversity gradients, even among local communities, can ultimately arise from geographical differences in speciation and extinction rates. We evaluated three models--energy-speciation, energy-abundance, and area--that predict how geographic trends in net diversification rates generate trends in diversity. We sampled 96 litter ant communities from four provinces: Australia, Madagascar, North America, and South America. The energy-speciation hypothesis best predicted ant species richness by accurately predicting the slope of the temperature diversity curve, and accounting for most of the variation in diversity. The communities showed a strong latitudinal gradient in species richness as well as inter-province differences in diversity. The former vanished in the temperature-diversity residuals, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient arises primarily from higher diversification rates in the tropics. However, inter-province differences in diversity persisted in those residuals--South American communities remained more diverse than those in North America and Australia even after the effects of temperature were removed.

  9. [Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella strains recovered from environmental samples between 2008-2014].

    PubMed

    Güleşen, Revasiye; Levent, Belkıs; Üvey, Mehmet; Bayrak, Hasan; Akgeyik, Mesut

    2016-07-01

    Despite the measures taken and control applications worldwide, Salmonella infections continue to threat the public health. Since these infections also cause significant economical loss, the salmonellas continue to be forefront globally. The determination of Salmonella serotypes and their sources is important for epidemiological point of view. In this study, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of environmental isolates of Salmonella spp. recovered from the poultry farms, that were send for confirmation and serotyping between seven years period, 2008-2014, were evaluated. Strains isolated from environmental samples that were sent to Public Health Institute, Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory, National Reference Laboratory for Enteric Pathogens, were inoculated onto Salmonella-Shigella and Xylose Lysine Desoxycholate agar and evaluated after 18-24 hours of incubation at 37°C. The identification of the strains was performed by using standard biochemical tests from the suspected colonies. Strains compatible with Salmonella spp. were serotyped using polyvalent and monovalent Salmonella O and H antisera by slide agglutination method. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed and evaluated according to CLSI recommendation using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. In our study, a total of 2011 Salmonella strains were evaluated and 15 different serogroups and 75 different serotypes were identified. The most common Salmonella serotypes were S.Infantis (30.6%), followed by S.Enteritidis (21.8%), S.Typhimurium (6.5%), S.Kottbus (5.2%), S.Tennessee (4.3%), S.Mbandaka (4.1%), S.Indiana (3.9%), S.Kentucky (3%), S.Corvallis (2.5%), S.Paratyphi B (1.9%) and S.Hadar (1.7%). Among the isolates, 50.1% (1008/2011) were found susceptible to all of the tested antimicrobials. The rate of isolates that were resistant to only one drug was found to be 15.6%, whereas 30.9% of the strains showed multi-drug resistance (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial drugs

  10. Three-axis distributed fiber optic strain measurement in 3D woven composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellucci, Matt; Klute, Sandra; Lally, Evan M.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Lowry, David

    2013-03-01

    Recent advancements in composite materials technologies have broken further from traditional designs and require advanced instrumentation and analysis capabilities. Success or failure is highly dependent on design analysis and manufacturing processes. By monitoring smart structures throughout manufacturing and service life, residual and operational stresses can be assessed and structural integrity maintained. Composite smart structures can be manufactured by integrating fiber optic sensors into existing composite materials processes such as ply layup, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. In this work optical fiber was integrated into 3D woven composite parts at a commercial woven products manufacturing facility. The fiber was then used to monitor the structures during a VARTM manufacturing process, and subsequent static and dynamic testing. Low cost telecommunications-grade optical fiber acts as the sensor using a high resolution commercial Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR) system providing distributed strain measurement at spatial resolutions as low as 2mm. Strain measurements using the optical fiber sensors are correlated to resistive strain gage measurements during static structural loading.

  11. The role of silicon, vacancies, and strain in carbon distribution for low temperature bainite

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, S.; Rementeria, R.; Huang, X.; Caballero, Francesca G.; Janisch, R.; Poplawsky, J. D.; Garcia-Mateo, C.

    2016-02-19

    Here, we investigated the phenomenon of carbon supersaturation and carbon clustering in bainitic ferrite with atom probe tomography (APT) and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The experimental results show a homogeneous distribution of silicon in the microstructure, which contains both ferrite and retained austenite. This distribution is mimicked well by the computational approach. In addition, an accumulation of C in certain regions of the bainitic ferrite with C concentrations up to 13 at % is observed. Based on the DFT results, these clusters are explained as strained, tetragonal regions in the ferritic bainite, in which the solution enthalpy of C can reach large, negative values. It seems that Si itself only has a minor influence on this phenomenon.

  12. The role of silicon, vacancies, and strain in carbon distribution for low temperature bainite

    DOE PAGES

    Sampath, S.; Rementeria, R.; Huang, X.; ...

    2016-02-19

    Here, we investigated the phenomenon of carbon supersaturation and carbon clustering in bainitic ferrite with atom probe tomography (APT) and ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The experimental results show a homogeneous distribution of silicon in the microstructure, which contains both ferrite and retained austenite. This distribution is mimicked well by the computational approach. In addition, an accumulation of C in certain regions of the bainitic ferrite with C concentrations up to 13 at % is observed. Based on the DFT results, these clusters are explained as strained, tetragonal regions in the ferritic bainite, in which the solution enthalpy ofmore » C can reach large, negative values. It seems that Si itself only has a minor influence on this phenomenon.« less

  13. Modal analysis of a cantilever beam by use of Brillouin based distributed dynamic strain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Pirozzi, Salvatore; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    In this work we report an experimental modal analysis of a cantilever beam, carried out by use of a Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) setup operated at a fixed pump-probe frequency shift. The employed technique permitted us to carry out distributed strain measurements along the vibrating beam at a maximum acquisition rate of 108 Hz. The mode shapes of the first three bending modes (1.7, 10.8, 21.6 Hz) were measured for the structure under test. The good agreement between the experimental and numerical results based on a finite-element method (FEM) analysis demonstrates that Brillouin based distributed sensors are well suited to perform the modal analysis of a vibrating structure. This type of analysis may be useful for applications in structural health monitoring where changes in mode shapes are used as indicators of the damage to the structure.

  14. Microstructure evolution and strain localization in Cu and Cu-8Al single crystals subjected to channel-die compression.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Swiatnicki, Wiesław; Piatkowski, Andrzej; Jasienski, Zdzisław

    2006-09-01

    Single crystals of pure Cu and Cu-8%Al with two initial orientations, {112}111 and {112}110, were subjected to monotonic compression in channel-die at room temperature (293 K). The dislocation microstructure and local crystallography were investigated by transmission electron microscopy after different amounts of deformation. Various factors, such as initial single crystal orientation, chemical composition and amount of plastic deformation, were analysed in order to determine their influence on the microstructure evolution, local orientation variations and strain localization phenomena.

  15. Effect of the local clay distribution on the effective electrical conductivity of clay rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosenza, P.; Prêt, D.; Zamora, M.

    2015-01-01

    The "local porosity theory" proposed by Hilfer was revisited to develop a "local clay theory" (LCT) that establishes a quantitative relationship between the effective electrical conductivity and clay distribution in clay rocks. This theory is primarily based on a "local simplicity" assumption; under this assumption, the complexity of spatial clay distribution can be captured by two local functions, namely, the local clay distribution and the local percolation probability, which are calculated from a partitioning of a mineral map. The local clay distribution provides information about spatial clay fluctuations, and the local percolation probability describes the spatial fluctuations in the clay connectivity. This LCT was applied to (a) a mineral map made from a Callovo-Oxfordian mudstone sample and (b) (macroscopic) electrical conductivity measurements performed on the same sample. The direct and inverse modeling shows two results. First, the textural and classical model assuming that the electrical anisotropy of clay rock is mainly controlled by the anisotropy of the sole clay matrix provides inconsistent inverted values. Another textural effect, the anisotropy induced by elongated and oriented nonclayey grains, should be considered. Second, the effective conductivity values depend primarily on the choice of the inclusion-based models used in the LCT. The impact of local fluctuations of clay content and connectivity on the calculated effective conductivity is lower.

  16. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon; Saha, Abhijit; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J. E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  17. Stress and strain distribution in three different mini dental implant designs using in implant retained overdenture: a finite element analysis study

    PubMed Central

    AUNMEUNGTONG, W.; KHONGKHUNTHIAN, P.; RUNGSIYAKULL, P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used for prediction of stress and strain between dental implant components and bone in the implant design process. Purpose Purpose of this study was to characterize and analyze stress and strain distribution occurring in bone and implants and to compare stress and strain of three different implant designs. Materials and methods Three different mini dental implant designs were included in this study: 1. a mini dental implant with an internal implant-abutment connection (MDIi); 2. a mini dental implant with an external implant-abutment connection (MDIe); 3. a single piece mini dental implant (MDIs). All implant designs were scanned using micro-CT scans. The imaging details of the implants were used to simulate models for FEA. An artificial bone volume of 9×9 mm in size was constructed and each implant was placed separately at the center of each bone model. All bone-implant models were simulatively loaded under an axial compressive force of 100 N and a 45-degree force of 100 N loading at the top of the implants using computer software to evaluate stress and strain distribution. Results There was no difference in stress or strain between the three implant designs. The stress and strain occurring in all three mini dental implant designs were mainly localized at the cortical bone around the bone-implant interface. Oblique 45° loading caused increased deformation, magnitude and distribution of stress and strain in all implant models. Conclusions Within the limits of this study, the average stress and strain in bone and implant models with MDIi were similar to those with MDIe and MDIs. The oblique 45° load played an important role in dramatically increased average stress and strain in all bone-implant models. Clinical implications Mini dental implants with external or internal connections have similar stress distribution to single piece mini dental implants. In clinical situations, the three types of mini dental implant

  18. Detection and monitoring of FRP-concrete debonding using distributed fiber optic strain sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, M.; Feng, M.

    2009-03-01

    To develop a simple method for detecting and monitoring FRP-concrete debonding with the use of distributed Brillouinbased fiber optic strain sensor, this study proposes a model that takes into consideration both the steady and the transient Brillouin interaction states. Assuming that the transient term has an analogous effect on the steady state term, two parameters, the effective transient length and the intensity reduction ratio, are introduced. The proposed model shows that the stimulated Brillouin signal intensity distribution at the specific frequency, which corresponds to the maximum strain at the debonded region, is sensitive to the occurrence of debonding. For evaluation of the model, experiments are carried out on a reinforced concrete beam retrofitted with glass FRP sheets on which sensing fibers are mounted, and the results agree with the observation. This numerical and experimental study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed model that incorporates not only the steady Brillouin interaction state. The model enables debonding detection without baseline measurement, leveraging the stimulated Brillouin scattering principle with high spatial resolution and high accuracy.

  19. Distribution of stress and strain along the porcine aorta and coronary arterial tree.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaomei; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2004-06-01

    The existence of a homeostatic state of stresses and strains has been axiomatic in the cardiovascular system. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of circumferential stress and strain along the aorta and throughout the coronary arterial tree to test this hypothesis. Silicone elastomer was perfused through the porcine aorta and coronary arterial tree to cast the arteries at physiological pressure. The loaded and zero-stress dimensions of the vessels were measured. The aorta (1.8 cm) and its secondary branches were considered down to 1.5 mm diameter. The left anterior descending artery (4.5 mm) and its branches down to 10 microm were also measured. The Cauchy mean circumferential stress and midwall stretch ratio were calculated. Our results show that the stretch ratio and Cauchy stress were lower in the thoracic than in the abdominal aorta and its secondary branches. The opening angle (theta) and midwall stretch ratio (lambda) showed a linear variation with order number (n) as follows: theta = 10.2n + 63.4 (R(2) = 0.989) and lambda = 4.47 x 10(-2)n + 1.1 (R(2) = 0.995). Finally, the stretch ratio and stress varied between 1.2 and 1.6 and between 10 and 150 kPa, respectively, along the aorta and left anterior descending arterial tree. The relative uniformity of strain (50% variation) from the proximal aorta to a 10-microm arteriole implies that the vascular system closely regulates the degree of deformation. This suggests a homeostasis of strain in the cardiovascular system, which has important implications for mechanotransduction and for vascular growth and remodeling.

  20. Free-standing carbon nanotube composite sensing skin for distributed strain sensing in structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Andrew R.; Minegishi, Kaede; Kurata, Masahiro; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The technical challenges of managing the health of critical infrastructure systems necessitate greater structural sensing capabilities. Among these needs is the ability for quantitative, spatial damage detection on critical structural components. Advances in material science have now opened the door for novel and cost-effective spatial sensing solutions specially tailored for damage detection in structures. However, challenges remain before spatial damage detection can be realized. Some of the technical challenges include sensor installations and extensive signal processing requirements. This work addresses these challenges by developing a patterned carbon nanotube composite thin film sensor whose pattern has been optimized for measuring the spatial distribution of strain. The carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposite sensing material is fabricated on a flexible polyimide substrate using a layer-by-layer deposition process. The thin film sensors are then patterned into sensing elements using optical lithography processes common to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. The sensor array is designed as a series of sensing elements with varying width to provide insight on the limitations of such patterning and implications of pattern geometry on sensing signals. Once fabrication is complete, the substrate and attached sensor are epoxy bonded to a poly vinyl composite (PVC) bar that is then tested with a uniaxial, cyclic load pattern and mechanical response is characterized. The fabrication processes are then utilized on a larger-scale to develop and instrument a component-specific sensing skin in order to observe the strain distribution on the web of a steel beam. The instrumented beam is part of a larger steel beam-column connection with a concrete slab in composite action. The beam-column subassembly is laterally loaded and strain trends in the web are observed using the carbon nanotube composite sensing skin. The results are discussed in the context of

  1. Metallicity Distribution Functions of Four Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon; Saha, Abhijit; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.

    2015-06-01

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color-color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color-color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%-50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is

  2. Evolution of residual-strain distribution through an overload-induced retardation period during fatigue-crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Sun, Y.; An, K.; Choo, H.; Hubbard, C. R.; Liaw, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the crack-growth retardation phenomenon after a single tensile overload by mapping both one-dimensional and two-dimensional residual-strain distributions around the crack tip in a series of compact-tension specimens representing various crack-growth stages through an overload-induced retardation period. The results clearly show a large compressive residual-strain field near the crack tip immediately after the overload. As the fatigue crack propagates through the overload-induced plastic zone, the compressive residual strains are gradually relaxed, and a new compressive residual-strain field is developed around the propagating crack tip, illustrating that the subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone grows out of the large plastic zone caused by the overloading. The relationship between the overload-induced plastic zone and subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone, and its influence on the residual-strain distributions in the perturbed plastic zone are discussed.

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of locally isolated Salmonella strains used in preparation of Salmonella antigens in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Hazem Mohammed; El-Moaty, Dalia Ahmed Mohammed Abd; Ahmed, Hanan Ali; El-Enbaawy, Mona Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This work was conducted to study the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of locally isolated Salmonella strains (Salmonella Pullorum, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium) from poultry used in the preparation of Salmonella antigens in Egypt. Materials and Methods: The phenotypic characterization of Salmonella strains was done using standard microbiological, biochemical, and serological techniques. Molecular identification was done using different sets of primers on different genes using different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results: The phenotypic characterization of Salmonella strains was confirmed. Molecular identification revealed detection of 284 bp fragment of InvA gene in all studied Salmonella strains. Furthermore, multiplex PCR was used for more confirmation of being Salmonella spp., generally at 429 bp as well as genotyping of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis at 559 and 312 bp, respectively, in one reaction. Conclusion: The locally isolated field Salmonella strains were confirmed phenotypically and genotypically to be Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium and could be used for the preparation of Salmonella antigens. PMID:28096617

  4. Final Report: Hardening and Strain Localization in Single and Polycrystalline Materials Under Cyclic and Monotonic Deformation, January 11, 1985 - July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, Campbell; Bassani, John L.

    2000-03-03

    The subject program on substructure evolution initially focused on strain localization produced by fatigue cycling and especially how such localization affects the cyclic response of polycrystalline pure metal. The latter stages have dealt with strain localization in the heavy monotonic deformation of alloys, which eventually produces forms of localized deformation that include coarse slip bands (CSB's), which are aligned to slip planes and macroscopic shear bands (MSB's), which are not aligned to slip planes. These forms of strain localization are important in that they limit the usable ductility of the material in forming processes.

  5. Reliable local strain characterization in silicon/silicon-germanium based electronic materials system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenjun

    2007-12-01

    For the first time, we developed a new approach combined with CBED and finite element (FE) modeling and quantitatively investigated the correlation of the strain in a thin TEM sample with that in the bulk. The new method successfully determined the strain in the strained Si layer on a blanket strained Si/SiGe wafer, in a good agreement with other measurements. The new results also gave some insight in strain relaxation in a TEM sample. We found the [-1,-1,0] strain component which is perpendicular to the TEM sample thinning direction stays the same in the TEM sample and in the bulk, while the [001]) strain component is relaxed because it is along the same direction as the TEM sample thinning direction. This relaxation causes the deformation of the TEM foil and HOLZ line splitting. Therefore a clear CBED pattern can not be obtained from a TEM sample with a biaxial stain state. Our findings from a recessed SiGe PMOS test structure with a uniaxial compressive strain showed a different strain redistribution behavior. The data showed that the epsilonx [-1,1,0] strain is actually more than 20% higher in a TEM sample than in the bulk. The epsilony [-1,-1,0] strain which is parallel to the TEM sample thinning direction turns to tensile in the TEM sample due to the loss of constraints, while it is zero in the bulk. The new results can explain our experimental data and others' (which could not be explained before) and are consistent with UV Raman measurements.

  6. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    PubMed Central

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  7. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    PubMed

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A; Novak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1) and 7.74 km yr(-1) shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  8. Shape index distribution based local surface complexity applied to the human cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Fonov, Vladimir; Collins, D. Louis; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of local surface complexity in the human cortex has shown to be of interest in investigating population differences as well as developmental changes in neurodegenerative or neurodevelopment diseases. We propose a novel assessment method that represents local complexity as the difference between the observed distributions of local surface topology to its best-fit basic topology model within a given local neighborhood. This distribution difference is estimated via Earth Move Distance (EMD) over the histogram within the local neighborhood of the surface topology quantified via the Shape Index (SI) measure. The EMD scores have a range from simple complexity (0.0), which indicates a consistent local surface topology, up to high complexity (1.0), which indicates a highly variable local surface topology. The basic topology models are categorized as 9 geometric situation modeling situations such as crowns, ridges and fundi of cortical gyro and sulci. We apply a geodesic kernel to calculate the local SI histrogram distribution within a given region. In our experiments, we obtained the results of local complexity that shows generally higher complexity in the gyral/sulcal wall regions and lower complexity in some gyral ridges and lowest complexity in sulcal fundus areas. In addition, we show expected, preliminary results of increased surface complexity across most of the cortical surface within the first years of postnatal life, hypothesized to be due to the changes such as development of sulcal pits. PMID:26028803

  9. Creating periodic local strain in monolayer graphene with nanopillars patterned by self-assembled block copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, Hongyi; Mikael, Solomon; Seo, Jung-Hun; Gui, Gui; Ma, Alice L.; Ma, Zhenqiang E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.edu; Liu, Chi-Chun; Nealey, Paul F. E-mail: mazq@engr.wisc.edu

    2015-10-05

    A simple and viable method was developed to produce biaxial strain in monolayer graphene on an array of SiO{sub 2} nanopillars. The array of SiO{sub 2} nanopillars (1 cm{sup 2} in area, 80 nm in height, and 40 nm in pitch) was fabricated by employing self-assembled block copolymer through simple dry etching and deposition processes. According to high resolution micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses, 0.9% of maximum biaxial tensile strain and 0.17% of averaged biaxial tensile strain in graphene were created. This technique provides a simple and viable method to form biaxial tensile strain in graphene and offers a practical platform for future studies in graphene strain engineering.

  10. Strain localization in direct shear experiments on Solnhofen limestone at high temperature Effects of transpression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llana-Fúnez, Sergio; Rutter, Ernest H.

    2008-11-01

    Some features of natural shear zones formed under non-coaxial strain geometries, including some effects of transpression, can be simulated in the laboratory by using the direct shear experimental configuration. Slices of ˜1 mm thick Solnhofen limestone were deformed in direct shear between two stronger forcing blocks of cores of Tennessee sandstone pre-cut at 45° to the cylinder axis. Experiments were run dry at 600 °C, 200 MPa confining pressure and bulk shear strain rates of ˜5 × 10 -3 s -1, at which conditions Solnhofen limestone deformed by dislocation creep with a stress exponent of 4.7. When loaded, strain concentrates in the limestone band, producing non-coaxial deformation as one pre-cut block slides past the other. The orientation and intensity of the shape fabric developed in calcite grains indicate that strain is heterogeneous across the specimen, with the formation of two high-strain shear bands close to the limestone-sandstone interface, separated by a central zone of low strain. Crystallographic preferred orientation patterns in the calcite grains measured by electron backscatter diffraction are consistent with a switch in deformation geometry from flattening-dominated in the middle of the specimen towards shear-dominated in the high-strain bands. From tests on thin slices of the same material compressed axisymmetrically (without shearing) normal to the layer, heterogeneous thinning of the slice develops, from a maximum in the centre of the slice to zero at the edges. The formation of the paired shear zones observed in the sheared experiments is interpreted in terms of superposed strain fields, with shearing in the centre of the slice being inhibited by the strain hardening that accompanies the higher flattening strain in the centre of the specimen.

  11. Magma-assisted strain localization in an orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasi, AndréA.; Vauchez, Alain; Femandes, Luis A. D.; Porcher, Carla C.

    1994-04-01

    In a lithospheric-scale, orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of the Pan-African Dom Feliciano belt of southern Brazil, two successive generations of magmas, an early calc-alkaline and a late peraluminous, have been emplaced during deformation. Microstructures show that these granitoids experienced a progressive deformation from magmatic to solid state under decreasing temperature conditions. Magmatic deformation is indicated by the coexistence of aligned K-feldspar, plagioclase, micas, and/or tourmaline with undeformed quartz. Submagmatic deformation is characterized by strain features, such as fractures, lattice bending, or replacement reactions affecting only the early crystallized phases. High-temperature solid-state deformation is characterized by extensive grain boundary migration in quartz, myrmekitic K-feldspar replacement, and dynamic recrystallization of both K-feldspar and plagioclase. Decreasing temperature during solid-state deformation is inferred from changes in quartz crystallographic fabrics, decrease in grain size of recrystallized feldspars, and lower Ti amount in recrystallized biotites. Final low-temperature deformation is characterized by feldspar replacement by micas. The geochemical evolution of the synkinematic magmatism, from calc-alkaline metaluminous granodiorites with intermediate 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio to peraluminous granites with very high 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio, suggests an early lower crustal source or a mixed mantle/crustal source, followed by a middle to upper crustal source for the melts. Shearing in lithospheric faults may induce partial melting in the lower crust by shear heating in the upper mantle, but, whatever the process initiating partial melting, lithospheric transcurrent shear zones may collect melt at different depths. Because they enhance the vertical permeability of the crust, these zones may then act as heat conductors (by advection), promoting an upward propagation of partial melting in the crust

  12. An Adaptive Likelihood Distribution Algorithm for the Localization of Passive RFID Tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yuuki; Hori, Toshihiro; Onishi, Taiki; Wada, Tomotaka; Mutsuura, Kouichi; Okada, Hiromi

    The RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tag technology is expected as a tool of localization. By the localization of RFID tags, a mobile robot which installs in RFID readers can recognize surrounding environments. In addition, RFID tags can be applied to a navigation system for walkers. In this paper, we propose an adaptive likelihood distribution scheme for the localization of RFID tags. This method adjusts the likelihood distribution depending on the signal intensity from RFID tags. We carry out the performance evaluation of estimated position error by both computer simulations and implemental experiments. We show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional system.

  13. Cartilage Strain Distributions Are Different Under the Same Load in the Central and Peripheral Tibial Plateau Regions

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Paul; Bevill, Scott; Andriacchi, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the regional spatial variations in the biological and mechanical properties of articular cartilage are an important consideration in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis (OA) following kinematic changes at the knee due to joint destabilizing events (such as an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury). Thus, given the sensitivity of chondrocytes to the mechanical environment, understanding the internal mechanical strains in knee articular cartilage under macroscopic loads is an important element in understanding knee OA. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that cartilage from the central and peripheral regions of the tibial plateau has different internal strain distributions under the same applied load. The internal matrix strain distribution for each specimen was measured on osteochondral blocks from the tibial plateau of mature ovine stifle joints. Each specimen was loaded cyclically for 20 min, after which the specimen was cryofixed in its deformed position and freeze fractured. The internal matrix was viewed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and internal strains were measured by quantifying the deformation of the collagen fiber network. The peak surface tensile strain, maximum principal strain, and maximum shear strain were compared between the regions. The results demonstrated significantly different internal mechanical strain distributions between the central and peripheral regions of tibial plateau articular cartilage under both the same applied load and same applied nominal strain. These differences in the above strain measures were due to differences in the deformation patterns of the collagen network between the central and peripheral regions. Taken together with previous studies demonstrating differences in the biochemical response of chondrocytes from the central and peripheral regions of the tibial plateau to mechanical load, the differences in collagen network deformation observed in this

  14. The Distribution of 18 Enterotoxin and Enterotoxin-Like Genes in Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Different Sources in East China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinghua; Wang, Yan; Cao, Yongzhong; Yan, Wenguang; Niu, Xiaosai; Zhou, Liping; Chen, Jianhao; Sun, Ying; Li, Chenxi; Zhang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yantao

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of 18 staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) or SE-like (SEl) genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains from different sources in east China was investigated. Among all 496 S. aureus strains, 291 strains carried one or more SE genes. The more frequently occurred genes were sea, seb, seg, selk, sell, selm, selo, and seq; the less frequent occurred genes were sec, selj, and ser. The classic SE genes and the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) (seg, sei, selm, seln, selo, and/or selu) accounted for 25.67% and 61.68% of all detected genes, respectively. There were three gene clusters (egc, sea-sek-seq, and sed-sej-ser), of which the egc cluster was the important one that could generate novel complexes, and the sea-sek-seq cluster was a close relative to the hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The SE gene distributions were different among strains of different sources and formed diverse toxin gene profiles. The human- and foodborne-origin strains harbored classic and novel SE and SEl genes, whereas animal-origin strains harbored egc and other novel SE and SEl genes mainly. The foodborne- and human-origin strains were the main dangerous factors of classic staphylococcal foodborne poisoning, whereas the strains (especially from animals) that carried egc and other novel genes mainly should be new potential dangerous factors for food safety.

  15. Localization of WSN using Distributed Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm with precise references

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janapati, Ravi Chander; Balaswamy, Ch.; Soundararajan, K.

    2016-08-01

    Localization is the key research area in Wireless Sensor Networks. Finding the exact position of the node is known as localization. Different algorithms have been proposed. Here we consider a cooperative localization algorithm with censoring schemes using Crammer Rao Bound (CRB). This censoring scheme can improve the positioning accuracy and reduces computation complexity, traffic and latency. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population based search algorithm based on the swarm intelligence like social behavior of birds, bees or a school of fishes. To improve the algorithm efficiency and localization precision, this paper presents an objective function based on the normal distribution of ranging error and a method of obtaining the search space of particles. In this paper Distributed localization algorithm PSO with CRB is proposed. Proposed method shows better results in terms of position accuracy, latency and complexity.

  16. Strain distribution across magmatic margins during the breakup stage: Seismicity patterns in the Afar rift zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.; Gregg, T.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Aronovitz, A.; Campbell, E.

    2008-12-01

    Fault patterns record the strain history along passive continental margins, but geochronological constraints are, in general, too sparse to evaluate these patterns in 3D. The Afar depression in Ethiopia provides a unique setting to evaluate the time and space relations between faulting and magmatism across an incipient passive margin that formed above a mantle plume. The margin comprises a high elevation flood basalt province with thick, underplated continental crust, a narrow fault-line escarpment underlain by stretched and intruded crust, and a broad zone of highly intruded, mafic crust lying near sealevel. We analyze fault and seismicity patterns across and along the length of the Afar rift zone to determine the spatial distribution of strain during the final stages of continental breakup, and its relation to active magmatism and dike intrusions. Seismicity data include historic data and 2005-2007 data from the collaborative US-UK-Ethiopia Afar Geodynamics Project that includes the 2005-present Dabbahu rift episode. Earthquake epicenters cluster within discrete, 50 km-long magmatic segments that lack any fault linkage. Swarms also cluster along the fault-line scarp between the unstretched and highly stretched Afar rift zone; these earthquakes may signal release of stresses generated by large lateral density contrasts. We compare Coulomb static stress models with focal mechanisms and fault kinematics to discriminate between segmented magma intrusion and crank- arm models for the central Afar rift zone.

  17. Integration of distributed strain and temperature sensors in composite coiled tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Glisic, Branko

    2006-03-01

    Composite coiled tubing is an emerging technology in the oil and gas sector that presents important advantages compared to the steel coiled tubing and conventional drilling. The composite tube has reduced weight, allowing extended reach and improved fatigue life. An additional advantage resides in the fact that the coiled tube wall can contain and protect additional functional elements, such as electrical conductors and fiber optics for sensing and data communication. Sensing systems based on Brillouin and Raman scattering can be used to verify the pipe operational parameters, prevent failure, optimize oil production from the well, provide strain distribution along the tubing and detect hot-spots in high-power cables. The integration of such sensing elements into composite tubing presents additional advantages and challenges. On one hand the embedded sensors are protected by the composite material and can be installed during production, avoiding external installation that could interfere with the tubing operations. In the other hand, the integration of optical fiber sensors into the composite structure requires the development of appropriate packaging and installation techniques that allow easy handling during production and avoid and damage to the sensor and the composite structure itself. This contribution presents the sensing cable designs for temperature and strain sensing in a composite coiled tubing as well as testing results form initial field demonstrations.

  18. Fiber optic distributed temperature and strain sensing system based on Brillouin light scattering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tianying; Li, David Y; Koscica, Thomas E; Cui, Hong-Liang; Sui, Qingmei; Jia, Lei

    2008-11-20

    We present an original method to improve the spatial resolution of a Brillouin distributed temperature and strain sensing system (DTSS). This method is shown to substantially improve the spatial resolution, while simultaneously strengthening the Brillouin backscattered light, which is based on the combination of an internal modulation of the laser source and an external modulator to generate two separate light pulses with different central wavelengths and pulse widths. Moreover, a novel Brillouin signal detection method, which we called isogenous heterodyne detection, is introduced, which is equivalent to a heterodyne detection scheme but is only with Rayleigh and Brillouin backscattered light without the need of an extra reference light. These new technical approaches have been incorporated into a fiber optic DTSS with 13 km single-mode fiber, which clearly successfully demonstrated all the advantages over conventional DTSS approaches in theory and the feasibility in experiment.

  19. Clinical distribution and antibiotic sensitivities of staphylococcal strains isolated over an eight-month period.

    PubMed Central

    Varaldo, P E; Soro, O; Grazi, G; Biavasco, F

    1981-01-01

    A total of 842 staphylococci isolated from clinical material over an eight-month period and regarded as probable pathogens were identified according to lyogroup. Almost half the isolates belonged to lyogroups other than lyogroup I (Staphylococcus aureus), suggesting that coagulase-negative staphylococci are increasingly involved in human infections. All isolates were tested for sensitivity to 12 antibiotics. A greater resistance was observed in non-lyogroup I isolates, which again suggests a pathogenic significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Only lyogroup I strains, however, were obtained more frequently from clinical isolates than from healthy human skin. The distribution of the isolates in each lyogroup according to their clinical source is reported. PMID:7240433

  20. Inverse modeling of InSAR and ground leveling data for 3D volumetric strain distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L. A.; Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.

    2015-12-01

    Wide availability of modern Interferometric Synthetic aperture Radar (InSAR) data have made possible the extensive observation of differential surface displacements and are becoming an efficient tool for the detailed monitoring of terrain subsidence associated to reservoir dynamics, volcanic deformation and active tectonism. Unfortunately, this increasing popularity has not been matched by the availability of automated codes to estimate underground deformation, since many of them still rely on trial-error subsurface model building strategies. We posit that an efficient algorithm for the volumetric modeling of differential surface displacements should match the availability of current leveling and InSAR data and have developed an algorithm for the joint inversion of ground leveling and dInSAR data in 3D. We assume the ground displacements are originated by a stress free-volume strain distribution in a homogeneous elastic media and determined the displacement field associated to an ensemble of rectangular prisms. This formulation is then used to develop a 3D conjugate gradient inversion code that searches for the three-dimensional distribution of the volumetric strains that predict InSAR and leveling surface displacements simultaneously. The algorithm is regularized applying discontinuos first and zero order Thikonov constraints. For efficiency, the resulting computational code takes advantage of the resulting convolution integral associated to the deformation field and some basic tools for multithreading parallelization. We extensively test our algorithm on leveling and InSAR test and field data of the Northwest of Mexico and compare to some feasible geological scenarios of underground deformation.

  1. The effects of perturbations on the strain distribution in numerical simulations - elasto-viscoplastic modeling of boudinage as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Max; Karrech, Ali; Poulet, Thomas; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    During necking of a mechanically stiffer layer embedded in a weaker matrix, relatively large amounts of strain localize in small areas. As this deformation style appears under distinct geological conditions, necking phenomena, e.g. boudinaged veins, are associated with a variety of deformation modes. So far, there exists rather limited knowledge about the origin of instabilities and their role as precursory structures, i.e. strong localization of elastic energy affecting further plastic deformation (e.g. Regenauer-Lieb & Yuen, 1998; 2004; Karrech et al., 2011a). We applied the finite element solver ABAQUS in order to investigate the 2-D strain distribution in layers including different mechanical material properties during plane strain co-axial deformation. First, linear perturbation analyses were performed in order to evaluate the imperfection sensitivity in the elastic and viscous regimes. We perform a classical modal analysis to determine the natural mode shapes and frequencies of our geological structure during arbitrary vibrations. This analysis aims at detecting the eigenmodes of the geological structure, which are sinusoidal vibrations with geometry specific natural modal shapes and frequencies. The eigenvalues represent the nodal points where the onset of (visco)-elasto-plastic localization can initiate in the structure (Rice, 1977). The eigenmodes, eigenvalues and eigenvectors are highly sensitive to the layer-box' aspect ratio and differences in Young's moduli, or effective viscosity, respectively. Boundary effect-free strain propagation occurs for layer-box aspect ratios smaller than 1:10. Second, these preloading structures were used as seeds for imperfections in elasto-viscoplastic numerical modeling of continuous necking of a coarse-grained mineral layer embedded in a finer-grained matrix (pinch-and-swell type of boudinage), following the thermo-mechanical coupling of grain size evolutions by Herwegh et al. (in press). The evolution of symmetric necks

  2. Combining micro computed tomography and three-dimensional registration to evaluate local strains in shape memory scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Therese; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Beckmann, Felix; de Wild, Michael; Küffer, Jürg; Münch, Christoph; Hoffmann, Waldemar; Müller, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate mechanical stimulation of bony tissue enhances osseointegration of load-bearing implants. Uniaxial compression of porous implants locally results in tensile and compressive strains. Their experimental determination is the objective of this study. Selective laser melting is applied to produce open-porous NiTi scaffolds of cubic units. To measure displacement and strain fields within the compressed scaffold, the authors took advantage of synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography during temperature increase and non-rigid three-dimensional data registration. Uniaxial scaffold compression of 6% led to local compressive and tensile strains of up to 15%. The experiments validate modeling by means of the finite element method. Increasing the temperature during the tomography experiment from 15 to 37°C at a rate of 4 K h(-1), one can locally identify the phase transition from martensite to austenite. It starts at ≈ 24°C on the scaffolds bottom, proceeds up towards the top and terminates at ≈ 34°C on the periphery of the scaffold. The results allow not only design optimization of the scaffold architecture, but also estimation of maximal displacements before cracks are initiated and of optimized mechanical stimuli around porous metallic load-bearing implants within the physiological temperature range.

  3. Localization of polyamine enhancement of protein synthesis to subcellular components of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim.

    PubMed Central

    Rosano, C L; Bunce, S C; Hurwitz, C

    1983-01-01

    At 5 mM Mg2+, spermidine stimulation of polyphenylalanine synthesis by cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli was found to be about 30 times greater than that by extracts of Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim, a unique organism which lacks detectable levels of spermidine. By means of reconstitution experiments, the target of spermidine stimulation was localized to the protein fraction of the highspeed supernatant component (S-100) of E. coli and was absent from, or deficient in, the S-100 fraction of Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim. The spermidine stimulation did not appear to be due to the presence in the E. coli S-100 fraction of ribosomal protein S1, elongation factors, or E. coli aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The failure to observe spermidine stimulation by the Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim S-100 fraction was also not due to a spermidine-enhanced polyuridylic acid degradation. The synthesis of polyphenylalanine by Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim extracts was stimulated by putrescine and by S-(+)-2-hydroxyputrescine to a greater degree than was synthesis by E. coli extracts. The enhancement by putrescine and by S-(+)-2-hydroxyputrescine with Pseudomonas sp. strain Kim extracts was found to be due to effects on its ribosomes. PMID:6336736

  4. Strain distribution in an Si single crystal measured by interference fringes of X-ray mirage diffraction.

    PubMed

    Jongsukswat, Sukswat; Fukamachi, Tomoe; Ju, Dongying; Negishi, Riichirou; Hirano, Keiichi; Kawamura, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    In X-ray interference fringes accompanied by mirage diffraction, variations have been observed in the spacing and position of the fringes from a plane-parallel Si single crystal fixed at one end as a function of distance from the incident plane of the X-rays to the free crystal end. The variations can be explained by distortion of the sample crystal due to gravity. From the variations and positions of the fringes, the strain gradient of the crystal has been determined. The distribution of the observed strain agrees with that expected from rod theory except for residual strain. When the distortion is large, the observed strain distribution does not agree with that expected from rod theory.

  5. Strain distribution of confined Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles engineered by growth environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenyan; Yuan, Cailei; Luo, Xingfang; Yu, Ting; Wang, Gongping

    2016-02-01

    The strain distributions of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles confined in different host matrix grown by surface oxidation are investigated. The simulated results by finite element method demonstrated that the strains of the Ge core and the GeO2 shell strongly depend on the growth environments of the nanoparticles. Moreover, it can be found that there is a transformation of the strain on Ge core from tensile to compressive strain during the growth of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles. And, the transformation of the strain is closely related with the Young's modulus of surrounding materials of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles.

  6. Strain distribution in the intervertebral disc under unconfined compression and tension load by the optimized digital image correlation technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Tai-Yong; Yang, Xiu-Ping; Li, Kun; Gao, Li-Lan; Zhang, Chun-Qiu; Guo, Yue-Hong

    2014-05-01

    The unconfined compression and tension experiments of the intervertebral disc were conducted by applying an optimized digital image correlation technique, and the internal strain distribution was analysed for the disc. It was found that the axial strain values of different positions increased obviously with the increase in loads, while inner annulus fibrosus and posterior annulus fibrosus experienced higher axial strains than the outer annulus fibrosus and anterior annulus fibrosus. Deep annulus fibrosus exhibited higher compressive and tensile axial strains than superficial annulus fibrosus for the anterior region, while there was an opposite result for the posterior region. It was noted that all samples demonstrated a nonlinear stress-strain profile in the process of deforming, and an elastic region was shown once the sample was deformed beyond its toe region.

  7. Soleus aponeurosis strain distribution following chronic unloading in humans: an in vivo MR phase-contrast study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Dong; Finni, Taija; Hodgson, John A; Lai, Alex M; Edgerton, V Reggie; Sinha, Shantanu

    2006-06-01

    The in vivo strain properties of human skeletal muscle-tendon complexes are poorly understood, particularly following chronic periods of reduced load bearing. We studied eight healthy volunteers who underwent 4 wk of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) to induce chronic unloading. Before and after the ULLS, maximum isometric ankle plantar flexion torque was determined by using a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible dynamometry. Volumes of the triceps surae muscles and strain distribution of the soleus aponeurosis and the Achilles tendon at a constant submaximal plantar flexion (20% pre-maximal voluntary contraction) were measured by using MRI and velocity-encoded, phase-contrast MRI techniques. Following ULLS, volumes of the soleus and the medial gastrocnemius and the maximum isometric ankle plantar flexion (maximum voluntary contraction) decreased by 5.5+/-1.9, 7.5+/-2.7, and 48.1+/-6.1%, respectively. The strain of the aponeurosis along the length of the muscle before the ULLS was 0.3+/-0.3%, ranging from -1.5 to 2.7% in different locations of the aponeurosis. Following ULLS, the mean strain was -6.4+/-0.3%, ranging from -1.6 to 1.3%. The strain distribution of the midregion of the aponeurosis was significantly influenced by the ULLS, whereas the more distal component showed no consistent changes. Achilles tendon strain was not affected by the ULLS. These results raise the issue as to whether these changes in strain distribution affect the functional properties of the triceps surae and whether the probability of strain injuries within the triceps surae increases following chronic unloading in those regions of this muscle complex in which unusual strains occur.

  8. A practical approach for outdoors distributed target localization in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béjar, Benjamín; Zazo, Santiago

    2012-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks are posed as the new communication paradigm where the use of small, low-complexity, and low-power devices is preferred over costly centralized systems. The spectra of potential applications of sensor networks is very wide, ranging from monitoring, surveillance, and localization, among others. Localization is a key application in sensor networks and the use of simple, efficient, and distributed algorithms is of paramount practical importance. Combining convex optimization tools with consensus algorithms we propose a distributed localization algorithm for scenarios where received signal strength indicator readings are used. We approach the localization problem by formulating an alternative problem that uses distance estimates locally computed at each node. The formulated problem is solved by a relaxed version using semidefinite relaxation technique. Conditions under which the relaxed problem yields to the same solution as the original problem are given and a distributed consensus-based implementation of the algorithm is proposed based on an augmented Lagrangian approach and primal-dual decomposition methods. Although suboptimal, the proposed approach is very suitable for its implementation in real sensor networks, i.e., it is scalable, robust against node failures and requires only local communication among neighboring nodes. Simulation results show that running an additional local search around the found solution can yield performance close to the maximum likelihood estimate.

  9. XRD measurement of mean thickness, thickness distribution and strain for illite and illite-smectite crystallites by the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drits, V.A.; Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.

    1998-01-01

    A modified version of the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach (BWA) technique (Bertaut 1949, 1950; Warren and Averbach 1950) has been developed to measure coherent scattering domain (CSD) sizes and strains in minerals by analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. This method is used to measure CSD thickness distributions for calculated and experimental XRD patterns of illites and illite-smectites (I-S). The method almost exactly recovers CSD thickness distributions for calculated illite XRD patterns. Natural I-S samples contain swelling layers that lead to nonperiodic structures in the c* direction and to XRD peaks that are broadened and made asymmetric by mixed layering. Therefore, these peaks cannot be analyzed by the BWA method. These difficulties are overcome by K-saturation and heating prior to X-ray analysis in order to form 10-A?? periodic structures. BWA analysis yields the thickness distribution of mixed-layer crystals (coherently diffracting stacks of fundamental illite particles). For most I-S samples, CSD thickness distributions can be approximated by lognormal functions. Mixed-layer crystal mean thickness and expandability then can be used to calculate fundamental illite particle mean thickness. Analyses of the dehydrated, K-saturated samples indicate that basal XRD reflections are broadened by symmetrical strain that may be related to local variations in smectite interlayers caused by dehydration, and that the standard deviation of the strain increases regularly with expandability. The 001 and 002 reflections are affected only slightly by this strain and therefore are suited for CSD thickness analysis. Mean mixed-layer crystal thicknesses for dehydrated I-S measured by the BWA method are very close to those measured by an integral peak width method.

  10. Strains distribution in biaxial Ge/CdSe nanowire analyzed by a new finite element method based on boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Chunrui; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Shasha; Xu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Qinyu

    2013-12-01

    A new finite element method based on boundary conditions is proposed here to obtain the complete strains distribution in Ge/CdSe biaxial nanowires. The results show that the strains in nanowire is essentially uniform along the nanowire axis, whereas turn to be complex in cross-section. Additionally, Raman spectrum of Ge subnanowire was calculated on base of those strain data. Raman frequency shifts in Ge subnanowire in Ge/CdSe biaxial nanowires is a good agreement with that of Raman spectrum, which confirms the validity of this model.

  11. Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bülow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Larsson, T.; Malmberg, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2001-07-01

    In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker.

  12. SNP/RD typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains reveals local and worldwide disseminated clonal complexes.

    PubMed

    Schürch, Anita C; Kremer, Kristin; Hendriks, Amber C A; Freyee, Benthe; McEvoy, Christopher R E; van Crevel, Reinout; Boeree, Martin J; van Helden, Paul; Warren, Robin M; Siezen, Roland J; van Soolingen, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The Beijing strain is one of the most successful genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis worldwide and appears to be highly homogenous according to existing genotyping methods. To type Beijing strains reliably we developed a robust typing scheme using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and regions of difference (RDs) derived from whole-genome sequencing data of eight Beijing strains. SNP/RD typing of 259 M. tuberculosis isolates originating from 45 countries worldwide discriminated 27 clonal complexes within the Beijing genotype family. A total of 16 Beijing clonal complexes contained more than one isolate of known origin, of which two clonal complexes were strongly associated with South African origin. The remaining 14 clonal complexes encompassed isolates from different countries. Even highly resolved clonal complexes comprised isolates from distinct geographical sites. Our results suggest that Beijing strains spread globally on multiple occasions and that the tuberculosis epidemic caused by the Beijing genotype is at least partially driven by modern migration patterns. The SNPs and RDs presented in this study will facilitate future molecular epidemiological and phylogenetic studies on Beijing strains.

  13. The importance of beta diversity in local gall-inducing arthropod distribution.

    PubMed

    Medianero, Enrique; Ibáñez, Alicia; Nieves-Aldrey, José L

    2010-01-01

    Many studies over the past twenty years have documented the richness of arthropod galling species around the world, and some have proposed hypotheses to explain local and global patterns of galling species richness. However, few studies have been directed toward understanding how the gall-inducing species are locally distributed. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of gall-inducing arthropods species at Coiba National Park, a tropical habitat on the Pacific coast of Panama. Our results suggest that more gall-inducing species had an aggregated distribution, and gall-inducing arthropod diversity shows a strong beta diversity component. Geographic distance was not correlated with similarity in gall-inducing species composition between the studied sites. This fact has important implications when trying to estimate gall-inducing arthropod richness and general patterns, and could cause contradictory results for hypotheses that attempt to explain the local and global patterns of galling species richness.

  14. Measurements of Local Strain Variation in Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si Heterostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.; Manion, S. J.; Milliken, S. J.; Pike, W. T.; Fathauer, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    The energy splitting of the conduction-band minimum of Si(1-x), Ge(x), due to strain has been directly measured by the application of ballistic-electron-emission microscope (BEEM) spectroscopy to Ag/Si(1-x), Ge(x) structures. Experimental values for this conduction-band splitting agree well with calculations. For Au/Si(1-x), Ge(x), however, heterogeneity in the strain of the Si(1-x), Ge(x) layer is introduced by deposition of the Au. This variation is attributed to species interdiffusion, which produces a rough Si(1-x)Ge(x) surface. Preliminary modeling indicates that the observed roughness is consistent with the strain variation measured by BEEM.

  15. Isolation and characterisation of local strains of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Rekiki, Abdessalem; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; Souriau, Armel; Jemli, Jemaa; Hammami, Salah; Rodolakis, Annie

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiosis is one of the major diseases that can lead to abortion in ewes. Since 1997, in 5 regions of Tunisia, Chlamydia-related abortions have been reported in 15 sheep and goat flocks. One hundred and sixty-six sera and 50 vaginal swab samples were collected from adult ewes. Chlamydial antigens were detected in 29 (58%) of the vaginal swabs using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) while 9 (18%) were positive by cell culture. Five strains were recovered from 4 different sheep flocks. Monoclonal antibody profiles and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region showed that these isolates were C. abortus. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), these Tunisian strains were shown to exhibit the same pattern as strains isolated in France.

  16. On the local Hurst exponent of geomagnetic field fluctuations: Spatial distribution for different geomagnetic activity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelis, Paola De; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    This study attempts to characterize the spatial distribution of the scaling features of the short time scale magnetic field fluctuations obtained from 45 ground-based geomagnetic observatories distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate the changes of the scaling properties of the geomagnetic field fluctuations by evaluating the local Hurst exponent and reconstruct maps of this index as a function of the geomagnetic activity level. These maps permit us to localize the different latitudinal structures responsible for disturbances and related to the ionospheric current systems. We find that the geomagnetic field fluctuations associated with the different ionospheric current systems have different scaling features, which can be evidenced by the local Hurst exponent. We also find that in general, the local Hurst exponent for quiet magnetospheric periods is higher than that for more active periods suggesting that the dynamical processes that are activated during disturbed times are responsible for changes in the nature of the geomagnetic field fluctuations.

  17. Distributed Channel Selection in CRAHNs with Heterogeneous Spectrum Opportunities: A Local Congestion Game Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuhua; Wu, Qihui; Wang, Jinlong; Min, Neng; Anpalagan, Alagan

    This letter investigates the problem of distributed channel selection in cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) with heterogeneous spectrum opportunities. Firstly, we formulate this problem as a local congestion game, which is proved to be an exact potential game. Then, we propose a spatial best response dynamic (SBRD) to rapidly achieve Nash equilibrium via local information exchange. Moreover, the potential function of the game reflects the network collision level and can be used to achieve higher throughput.

  18. Distributed Transmitter Localization by Power Difference of Arrival (PDOA) on a Network of GNU Radio Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-03

    N. Patwari, J. Ash, S. Kyperountas, A. Hero, R. Moses, and N. Correal, “Locating the nodes: cooperative localization in wireless sensor networks ...volume 2, pp. 750–754 vol.2 (Sept 2002), doi: 10.1109/PIMRC.2002.1047322. 5. G. Mao, B. Fidan, and B. D. Anderson, “ Wireless sensor network localization...on a Network of GNU Radio Sensors February 3, 2015 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Andrew robertson sAstry KompellA Joe

  19. Modeling and simulation framework for dynamic strain localization in elasto-viscoplastic metallic materials subject to large deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Mourad, Hashem Mourad; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan; Livescu, Veronica; Plohr, JeeYeon Nam; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen

    2016-09-23

    This study describes a theoretical and computational framework for the treatment of adiabatic shear band formation in rate-sensitive polycrystalline metallic materials. From a computational perspective, accurate representation of strain localization behavior has been a long-standing challenge. In addition, the underlying physical mechanisms leading to the localization of plastic deformation are still not fully understood. The proposed framework is built around an enhanced-strain finite element formulation, designed to alleviate numerical pathologies known to arise in localization problems, by allowing a localization band of given finite width (weak discontinuity) to be embedded within individual elements. The mechanical threshold strength (MTS) model is used to represent the temperature and strain rate-dependent viscoplastic response of the material. This classical flow stress model employs an internal state variable to quantify the effect of dislocation structure evolution (work hardening and recovery). In light of growing evidence suggesting that the softening effect of dynamic recrystallization may play a significant role, alongside thermal softening, in the process of shear band formation and growth, a simple dynamic recrystallization model is proposed and cast within the context of the MTS model with the aid of the aforementioned internal state variable. An initiation criterion for shear localization in rate and temperature-sensitive materials is introduced and used in the present context of high-rate loading, where material rate-dependence is pronounced and substantial temperature increases are achieved due to the dissipative nature of viscoplastic processes. In addition, explicit time integration is adopted to facilitate treatment of the dynamic problems under consideration, where strain rates in excess of 104 s–1 are typically attained. Two series of experiments are conducted on AISI 316L stainless steel, employing the commonly used

  20. Modeling and simulation framework for dynamic strain localization in elasto-viscoplastic metallic materials subject to large deformations

    DOE PAGES

    Mourad, Hashem Mourad; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan; Livescu, Veronica; ...

    2016-09-23

    This study describes a theoretical and computational framework for the treatment of adiabatic shear band formation in rate-sensitive polycrystalline metallic materials. From a computational perspective, accurate representation of strain localization behavior has been a long-standing challenge. In addition, the underlying physical mechanisms leading to the localization of plastic deformation are still not fully understood. The proposed framework is built around an enhanced-strain finite element formulation, designed to alleviate numerical pathologies known to arise in localization problems, by allowing a localization band of given finite width (weak discontinuity) to be embedded within individual elements. The mechanical threshold strength (MTS) model ismore » used to represent the temperature and strain rate-dependent viscoplastic response of the material. This classical flow stress model employs an internal state variable to quantify the effect of dislocation structure evolution (work hardening and recovery). In light of growing evidence suggesting that the softening effect of dynamic recrystallization may play a significant role, alongside thermal softening, in the process of shear band formation and growth, a simple dynamic recrystallization model is proposed and cast within the context of the MTS model with the aid of the aforementioned internal state variable. An initiation criterion for shear localization in rate and temperature-sensitive materials is introduced and used in the present context of high-rate loading, where material rate-dependence is pronounced and substantial temperature increases are achieved due to the dissipative nature of viscoplastic processes. In addition, explicit time integration is adopted to facilitate treatment of the dynamic problems under consideration, where strain rates in excess of 104 s–1 are typically attained. Two series of experiments are conducted on AISI 316L stainless steel, employing the commonly used top-hat sample

  1. The Cora Lake Shear Zone: Strain Localization in an Ultramylonitic, Deep Crustal Shear Zone, Athabasca Granulite Terrain, Western Churchill Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.; Mahan, K. H.; Orlandini, O. F.; Jercinovic, M. J.; Leslie, S. R.; Holland, M.

    2012-12-01

    Ultramylonitic shear zones typically involve intense strain localization, and when developed over large regions can introduce considerable heterogeneity into the crust. The Cora Lake shear zone (CLsz) displays several 10's to 100's of meters-wide zones of ultramylonite distributed throughout its full 3-5 km mylonitized width. Detailed mapping, petrography, thermobarometry, and in-situ monazite geochronology suggest that it formed during the waning phases of granulite grade metamorphism and deformation, within one of North America's largest exposures of polydeformed lower continental crust. Anastomosing zones of ultramylonite contain recrystallized grain-sizes approaching the micron scale and might appear to suggest lower temperature mylonitization. However, feldspar and even clinopyroxene are dynamically recrystallized, and quantitative thermobarometry of syn-deformational assemblages indicate high P and T conditions ranging from 0.9 -10.6 GPa and 775-850 °C. Even at these high T's, dynamic recovery and recrystallization were extremely limited. Rocks with low modal quartz have extremely small equilibrium volumes. This is likely the result of inefficient diffusion, which is further supported by the unannealed nature of the crystals. Local carbonate veins suggests that H2O poor, CO2 rich conditions may have aided in the preservation of fine grain sizes, and may have inhibited dynamic recovery and recrystallization. The Cora Lake shear zone is interpreted to have been relatively strong and to have hardened during progressive deformation. Garnet is commonly fractured perpendicular to host rock fabric, and statically replaced by both biotite and muscovite. Pseudotachylite, with the same sense of shear, occurs in several ultramylonitized mafic granulites. Thus, cataclasis and frictional melt are interpreted to have been produced in the lower continental crust, not during later reactivation. We suggest that strengthening of rheologically stiffer lithologies led to

  2. Localized versus generalist phenotypes in a broadly distributed tropical mammal: how is intraspecific variation distributed across disparate environments?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent of phenotypic differentiation in response to local environmental conditions is a key component of species adaptation and persistence. Understanding the structuring of phenotypic diversity in response to local environmental pressures can provide important insights into species evolutionary dynamics and responses to environmental change. This work examines the influence of steep environmental gradients on intraspecific phenotypic variation and tests two hypotheses about how the tropical soft grass mouse, Akodon mollis (Cricetidae, Rodentia), contends with the disparate environmental conditions encompassed by its broad distribution. Specifically, we test if the species expresses a geographically unstructured, or generalist, phenotype throughout its range or if it shows geographically localized morphological differentiation across disparate environments. Results Using geometric morphometric and ecomorphological analyses of skull shape variation we found that despite distinct environmental conditions, geographically structured morphological variation is limited, with the notable exception of a distinct morphological disjunction at the high-elevation forest-grassland transition in the southern portion of A. mollis distribution. Based on genetic analyses, geographic isolation alone does not explain this localized phenotype, given that similar levels of genetic differentiation were also observed among individuals inhabiting other ecosystems that are nonetheless not distinct morphologically. Conclusions Instead of phenotypic specialization across environments in these tropical mountains, there was limited differentiation of skull shape and size across the broad range of A. mollis, with the exception of individuals from the puna, the highest-elevation ecosystem. The high morphological variance among individuals, together with a weak association with local environmental conditions, not only highlights the flexibility of A. mollis’ skull, but also

  3. Multiobjective Memetic Estimation of Distribution Algorithm Based on an Incremental Tournament Local Searcher

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kaifeng; Mu, Li; Yang, Dongdong; Zou, Feng; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Qiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid multiobjective algorithm is presented in this paper, which combines a new multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, an efficient local searcher and ε-dominance. Besides, two multiobjective problems with variable linkages strictly based on manifold distribution are proposed. The Pareto set to the continuous multiobjective optimization problems, in the decision space, is a piecewise low-dimensional continuous manifold. The regularity by the manifold features just build probability distribution model by globally statistical information from the population, yet, the efficiency of promising individuals is not well exploited, which is not beneficial to search and optimization process. Hereby, an incremental tournament local searcher is designed to exploit local information efficiently and accelerate convergence to the true Pareto-optimal front. Besides, since ε-dominance is a strategy that can make multiobjective algorithm gain well distributed solutions and has low computational complexity, ε-dominance and the incremental tournament local searcher are combined here. The novel memetic multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, MMEDA, was proposed accordingly. The algorithm is validated by experiment on twenty-two test problems with and without variable linkages of diverse complexities. Compared with three state-of-the-art multiobjective optimization algorithms, our algorithm achieves comparable results in terms of convergence and diversity metrics. PMID:25170526

  4. Stress and strain distribution in demineralized enamel: A micro-CT based finite element study.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline Almeida; Coutinho, Eduardo; Alves, Haimon Diniz Lopes; de Assis, Joaquim Teixeira

    2015-10-01

    Physiological oral mechanical forces may play a role on the progression of enamel carious lesions to cavitation. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe, by 3D finite element analysis, stress, and strain patterns in sound and carious enamel after a simulated occlusal load. Micro-CT based models were created and meshed with tetrahedral elements (based on an extracted third molar), namely: a sound (ST) and a carious tooth (CT). For the CT, enamel material properties were assigned according to the micro-CT gray values. Below the threshold corresponding to the enamel lesion (2.5 g/cm(3) ) lower and isotropic elastic modulus was assigned (E = 18 GPa against E1  = 80 GPa, E2  = E3  = 20 GPa for sound enamel). Both models were imported into a FE solver where boundary conditions were assigned and a pressure load (500 MPa) was applied at the occlusal surface. A linear static analysis was performed, considering anisotropy in sound enamel. ST showed a more efficient transfer of maximum principal stress from enamel to the dentin layer, while for the CT, enamel layer was subjected to higher and concentrated loads. Maximum principal strain distributions were seen at the carious enamel surface, especially at the central fossa, correlating to the enamel cavity seen at the original micro-CT model. It is possible to conclude that demineralized enamel compromises appropriate stress transfer from enamel to dentin, contributing to the odds of fracture and cavitation. Enamel fracture over a dentin lesion may happen as one of the normal pathways to caries progression and may act as a confounding factor during clinical diagnostic decisions.

  5. Local magnetic fields, uplift, gravity, and dilational strain changes in Southern California ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of regional magnetic field near the San Andreas fault at Cajon, Palmdale and Tejon are strongly correlated with changes in gravity, areal strain, and uplift in these regions during the period 1977-1984. Because the inferred relationships between these parameters are in approximate agreement with those obtained from simple deformation models, the preferred explanation appeals to short-term strain episodes independently detected in each data set. Transfer functions from magnetic to strain, gravity, and uplift perturbations, obtained by least-square linear fits to the data, are -0.98 nT/ppm, -0.03 nT/mu Gal, and 9.1 nT/m respectively. Tectonomagnetic model calculations underestimate the observed changes and those reported previously for dam loading and volcano-magnetic observations. A less likely alternative explanation of the observed data appeals to a common source of meteorologically generated crustal or instrumental noise in the strain, gravity, magnetic, and uplift data.-from Author

  6. Graph-Theoretic Statistical Methods for Detecting and Localizing Distributional Change in Multivariate Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    THEORETIC STATISTICAL METHODS FOR DETECTING AND LOCALIZING DISTRIBUTIONAL CHANGE IN MULTIVARIATE DATA by Matthew A. Hawks June 2015...existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this...DISTRIBUTIONAL CHANGE IN MULTIVARIATE DATA 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Hawks, Matthew A. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  7. Comparison of regional and local horizontal strain field on the area of Central Europe determined from GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, B.

    2012-04-01

    Permanent GPS observations on EPN stations are being continued already about 15 years and so velocities of horizontal and vertical movements of the sites are determined with the great credibility. However density of the EPN sites on the area of Central Europe allow to determine only a very general model of deformation field. For determining the local strain field epoch-making GPS observations in local research networks can be used. As en example the GEOSUD GPS Network located in the area of the Sudeten mountains in South-West Poland were used. Velocities of GPS points were estimated from observations of annually repeated two-day measuring campaigns, connected to the EPN stations. On the basis of these velocities local velocity field and local strain field were estimated. The toolbox grid_strain (Teza, Pesci and Galgaro, 2008) was used. Areas of the maximum compressions and extensions were outlined as well as they were confronted with the tectonic structure of area. In the picture of the deformation field clearly four principal zones of deformations are standing out. The presence of the Sudetic Marginal Fault is becoming scratched slightly in south-eastern his parts. Values of deformations in the vicinity of fault zone are generally smaller than in more distant area. It is proving the hypothesis on interseismic character of changes and the weak tectonic activity of the fault. Such an image of horizontal deformations in which extensions are perpendicular to main direction of the fault line, is matching with the hypothesis on normal character of the SMF. On the entire research area however compression deformations are dominating.

  8. Intragranular strain field in columnar ice during elasto-viscoplatic transient creep regime, and relation with the local microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grennerat, F.; Montagnat, M.; Duval, P.; Vacher, P.; Castelnau, O.

    2009-12-01

    The viscoplastic behaviour of polycrystalline ice is strongly affected by the very strong anisotropy of ice crystals. Indeed, in the dislocations creep regime relevant e.g. for ice sheet flow, dislocation glide on the basal plane of ice single crystals leads to strain-rates ˜6 order of magnitude larger than strain-rates that might be obtain if only non-basal glide is activated. At the polycrystal scale, this behaviour is responsible for a strong mechanical interaction between grains in the secondary (stationary) creep regime, and strain-rate is essentially partitioned between soft grains well-oriented for basal glide and hard grains exhibiting an unfavourable orientation for basal slip. As a consequence, the macroscopic flow stress at the polycrystal scale essentially depends on the resistance of the hardest slip systems or on the associated accommodation processes such as climb of basal dislocation on non-basal planes. One therefore expects very strong strain localization in polycrystalline ice in this viscoplastic regime. On the other hand, during transient effects, elasticity comes in plays. But since elasticity of ice single crystal is almost isotropic, very different strain localizations are expected in purely elastic and purely viscoplastic deformation regimes. Consequently, strain-rate decreases by several orders of magnitude during the transient creep of polycrystalline ice. This effect is associated to stress redistribution between hard and soft grains, and is probably of great importance e.g. to understand transient regimes such as tide effects on ice shelves or on icy planets. It can be described by the coupling between elastic and viscoplastic responses, and the associated long-term memory effect. In view of a better understanding of such effects, and development of adapted micromechanical models, we are engaged in the measurement of intragranular strain field and field heterogeneities is columnar ices deformed under loading involving stress increments

  9. Distribution, persistence and interchange of Epstein-Barr virus strains among PBMC, plasma and saliva of primary infection subjects.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Hin; Chan, Koon Wing; Chan, Kwok Hung; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and saliva of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection subjects. Twelve infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients and eight asymptomatic individuals (AS) with primary EBV infection were followed longitudinally at several time points for one year from the time of diagnosis, when blood and saliva samples were collected and separated into PBMC, plasma and saliva, representing circulating B cell, plasma and epithelial cell compartments, respectively. To survey the viral strains, genotyping assays for the natural polymorphisms in two latent EBV genes, EBNA2 and LMP1, were performed and consisted of real-time PCR on EBNA2 to distinguish type 1 and 2 viruses, fluorescent-based 30-bp typing assay on LMP1 to distinguish deletion and wild type LMP1, and fluorescent-based heteroduplex tracking assays on both EBNA2 and LMP1 to distinguish defined polymorphic variants. No discernible differences were observed between IM patients and AS. Multiple viral strains were acquired early at the start of infection. Stable persistence of dominant EBV strains in the same tissue compartment was observed throughout the longitudinal samples. LMP1-defined strains, China 1, China 2 and Mediterranean+, were the most common strains observed. EBNA2-defined groups 1 and 3e predominated the PBMC and saliva compartments. Concordance of EBNA2 and LMP1 strains between PBMC and saliva suggested ready interchange of viruses between circulating B cell and epithelial cell pools, whilst discordance of viral strains observed between plasma and PBMC/saliva indicated presence of viral pools in other undetermined tissue compartments. Taken together, the results indicated that the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among the tissue compartments are more complex than those proposed by the current model of EBV life cycle.

  10. Characterization of three dimensional volumetric strain distribution during passive tension of the human tibialis anterior using Cine Phase Contrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Elisabeth R; Morrow, Duane A; Felmlee, Joel P; Murthy, Naveen S; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2016-10-03

    Intramuscular pressure correlates strongly with muscle tension and is a promising tool for quantifying individual muscle force. However, clinical application is impeded by measurement variability that is not fully understood. Previous studies point to regional differences in IMP, specifically increasing pressure with muscle depth. Based on conservation of mass, intramuscular pressure and volumetric strain distributions may be inversely related. Therefore, we hypothesized volumetric strain would decrease with muscle depth. To test this we quantified 3D volumetric strain in the tibialis anterior of 12 healthy subjects using Cine Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Cine Phase Contrast data were collected while a custom apparatus rotated the subjects' ankle continuously between neutral and plantarflexion. A T2-weighted image stack was used to define the resting tibials anterior position. Custom and commercial post-processing software were used to quantify the volumetric strain distribution. To characterize regional strain changes, the muscle was divided into superior-inferior sections and either medial-lateral or anterior-posterior slices. Mean volumetric strain was compared across the sections and slices. As hypothesized, volumetric strain demonstrated regional differences with a decreasing trend from the anterior (superficial) to the posterior (deep) muscle regions. Statistical tests showed significant main effects and interactions of superior-inferior and anterior-posterior position as well as superior-inferior and medial-lateral position on regional strain. These data support our hypothesis and imply a potential relationship between regional volumetric strain and intramuscular pressure. This finding may advance our understanding of intramuscular pressure variability sources and lead to more reliable measurement solutions in the future.

  11. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges. PMID:27275822

  12. Fire Source Localization Based on Distributed Temperature Sensing by a Dual-Line Optical Fiber System.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Tang, Yuquan; Yang, Shuang; Li, Jun; Sigrist, Markus W; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-06-06

    We propose a method for localizing a fire source using an optical fiber distributed temperature sensor system. A section of two parallel optical fibers employed as the sensing element is installed near the ceiling of a closed room in which the fire source is located. By measuring the temperature of hot air flows, the problem of three-dimensional fire source localization is transformed to two dimensions. The method of the source location is verified with experiments using burning alcohol as fire source, and it is demonstrated that the method represents a robust and reliable technique for localizing a fire source also for long sensing ranges.

  13. How breadth of degree distribution influences network robustness: Comparing localized and random attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-09-01

    The stability of networks is greatly influenced by their degree distributions and in particular by their breadth. Networks with broader degree distributions are usually more robust to random failures but less robust to localized attacks. To better understand the effect of the breadth of the degree distribution we study two models in which the breadth is controlled and compare their robustness against localized attacks (LA) and random attacks (RA). We study analytically and by numerical simulations the cases where the degrees in the networks follow a bi-Poisson distribution, P (k ) =α e-λ1λ/1kk ! +(1 -α ) e-λ2λ/2kk ! ,α ∈[0 ,1 ] , and a Gaussian distribution, P (k ) =A exp(-(k/-μ) 22 σ2 ), with a normalization constant A where k ≥0 . In the bi-Poisson distribution the breadth is controlled by the values of α , λ1, and λ2, while in the Gaussian distribution it is controlled by the standard deviation, σ . We find that only when α =0 or α =1 , i.e., degrees obeying a pure Poisson distribution, are LA and RA the same. In all other cases networks are more vulnerable under LA than under RA. For a Gaussian distribution with an average degree μ fixed, we find that when σ2 is smaller than μ the network is more vulnerable against random attack. When σ2 is larger than μ , however, the network becomes more vulnerable against localized attack. Similar qualitative results are also shown for interdependent networks.

  14. Diversity, persistence, and virulence of Aeromonas strains isolated from drinking water distribution systems in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, I; Allestam, G; Huys, G; Janssen, P; Kersters, K; Krovacek, K; Stenström, T A

    1997-01-01

    isolates that produced cytotoxin. Thus, the data presented here show that although raw water may contain very diverse Aeromonas populations, the populations seemed to be remarkably stable within the studied water distribution systems, and that some potentially pathogenic Aeromonas strains could persist for several months in drinking water. PMID:11799982

  15. Influence of genetic strain and access to litter on spatial distribution of 4 strains of laying hens in an aviary system1

    PubMed Central

    Ali, A. B. A.; Campbell, D. L. M.; Karcher, D. M.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Many laying hen producers are transitioning from conventional cages to new housing systems including multi-tier aviaries. Aviary resources, such as litter areas, are intended to encourage hens’ expression of natural behaviors to improve their welfare. Little research has examined the influence of laying hen strain on distribution and behavior inside aviaries, yet differences could influence a strain's suitability for an aviary design. This research examined how laying hens of 4 strains (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW], and Hy-Line W36) distributed themselves among 3 enclosed aviary tiers and 2 litter areas at peak lay (25 to 28 wk of age) and after gaining access to litter on the floor (26 wk). Observations of hens’ spatial distribution were conducted immediately before and after, and 3 wk after hens gained access to litter. More HB and BB hens were in upper tiers in morning compared to DW and W36 (all P ≤ 0.05). However, DW and W36 hens roosted in upper tiers in larger numbers than HB and BB during evening (all P ≤ 0.05). More DW and W36 hens were on litter compared to BB and HB, particularly when litter was first accessible (all P ≤ 0.05). The number of hens on litter increased over time for all strains (P ≤ 0.06). White hens on litter occupied open areas in higher numbers (P ≤ 0.05), while more brown hens occupied litter under the aviary after acclimation (P ≤ 0.05). In the dark period, W36 and DW hens were present in higher numbers in upper tiers than HB and BB, while HB and BB showed higher tier-to-tier movement than DW and W36 (P ≤ 0.05). In general, more white hens roosted higher at night and explored litter sooner, while more brown hens were near or in nests in the morning and moved at night. Distinct strain differences indicate that attention should be paid to the match between configuration of the aviary design and strain of laying hen. PMID:27444438

  16. Influence of genetic strain and access to litter on spatial distribution of 4 strains of laying hens in an aviary system.

    PubMed

    Ali, A B A; Campbell, D L M; Karcher, D M; Siegford, J M

    2016-11-01

    Many laying hen producers are transitioning from conventional cages to new housing systems including multi-tier aviaries. Aviary resources, such as litter areas, are intended to encourage hens' expression of natural behaviors to improve their welfare. Little research has examined the influence of laying hen strain on distribution and behavior inside aviaries, yet differences could influence a strain's suitability for an aviary design. This research examined how laying hens of 4 strains (Hy-Line Brown [HB], Bovans Brown [BB], DeKalb White [DW], and Hy-Line W36) distributed themselves among 3 enclosed aviary tiers and 2 litter areas at peak lay (25 to 28 wk of age) and after gaining access to litter on the floor (26 wk). Observations of hens' spatial distribution were conducted immediately before and after, and 3 wk after hens gained access to litter. More HB and BB hens were in upper tiers in morning compared to DW and W36 (all P ≤ 0.05). However, DW and W36 hens roosted in upper tiers in larger numbers than HB and BB during evening (all P ≤ 0.05). More DW and W36 hens were on litter compared to BB and HB, particularly when litter was first accessible (all P ≤ 0.05). The number of hens on litter increased over time for all strains (P ≤ 0.06). White hens on litter occupied open areas in higher numbers (P ≤ 0.05), while more brown hens occupied litter under the aviary after acclimation (P ≤ 0.05). In the dark period, W36 and DW hens were present in higher numbers in upper tiers than HB and BB, while HB and BB showed higher tier-to-tier movement than DW and W36 (P ≤ 0.05). In general, more white hens roosted higher at night and explored litter sooner, while more brown hens were near or in nests in the morning and moved at night. Distinct strain differences indicate that attention should be paid to the match between configuration of the aviary design and strain of laying hen.

  17. Generation of localized strain in a thin film piezoelectric to control individual magnetoelectric heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Jizhai; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Sepulveda, Abdon; Carman, Gregory P.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.

    2015-08-31

    Experimental results demonstrate the ability of a surface electrode pattern to produce sufficient in-plane strain in a PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film clamped by a Si substrate to control magnetism in a 1000 nm diameter Ni ring. The electrode pattern and the Ni ring/PZT thin film heterostructure were designed using a finite element based micromagnetics code. The magnetoelectric heterostructures were fabricated on the PZT film using e-beam lithography and characterized using magnetic force microscopy. Application of voltage to the electrodes moved one of the “onion” state domain walls. This method enables the development of complex architectures incorporating strain-mediated multiferroic devices.

  18. Schools, Choice and Reputation: Local School Markets and the Distribution of Symbolic Capital in Segregated Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunar, Nihad; Ambrose, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An exploration is presented of how urban spaces, polarized by class and ethnicity, structure the basic conditions of emerging local school markets. The authors investigate how the distribution of symbolic capital, or "hot knowledge" of the market, affects schools, the market, and the urban spaces themselves. The study is guided by…

  19. Speciation And Distribution Of Arsenic And Localization Of Nutrients In Rice Grains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice grains and the generally low concentration of micronutrients in rice have been recognized as a major concern for human health. Here, we investigated the speciation and localization of As and the distribution of (micro)nutrients in rice grains b...

  20. Impact of Higher Natural Gas Prices on Local Distribution Companies and Residential Customers

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    This report examines some of the problems faced by natural gas consumers as a result of increasing heating bills in recent years and problems associated with larger amounts of uncollectible revenue and lower throughput for the local distribution companies (LDCs) supplying the natural gas.

  1. Local host specialization, host-switching, and dispersal shape the regional distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Vincenzo A.; Collins, Michael D.; Medeiros, Matthew C. I.; Sari, Eloisa H. R.; Coffey, Elyse D.; Dickerson, Rebecca C.; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A.; Henry, Donata R.; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E.; Hanson, Alison A.; Roberts, Jackson R.; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R.; Ricklefs, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of small land birds in eastern North America to characterize a regional parasite community. Distributions of parasite populations generally reflected distributions of their hosts across the region. However, when the interdependence between hosts and parasites was controlled statistically, local host assemblages were related to regional climatic gradients, but parasite assemblages were not. Moreover, because parasite assemblage similarity does not decrease with distance when controlling for host assemblages and climate, parasites evidently disperse readily within the distributions of their hosts. The degree of specialization on hosts varied in some parasite lineages over short periods and small geographic distances independently of the diversity of available hosts and potentially competing parasite lineages. Nonrandom spatial turnover was apparent in parasite lineages infecting one host species that was well-sampled within a single year across its range, plausibly reflecting localized adaptations of hosts and parasites. Overall, populations of avian hosts generally determine the geographic distributions of haemosporidian parasites. However, parasites are not dispersal-limited within their host distributions, and they may switch hosts readily. PMID:26305975

  2. Local host specialization, host-switching, and dispersal shape the regional distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Vincenzo A; Collins, Michael D; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Sari, Eloisa H R; Coffey, Elyse D; Dickerson, Rebecca C; Lugarini, Camile; Stratford, Jeffrey A; Henry, Donata R; Merrill, Loren; Matthews, Alix E; Hanson, Alison A; Roberts, Jackson R; Joyce, Michael; Kunkel, Melanie R; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-09-08

    The drivers of regional parasite distributions are poorly understood, especially in comparison with those of free-living species. For vector-transmitted parasites, in particular, distributions might be influenced by host-switching and by parasite dispersal with primary hosts and vectors. We surveyed haemosporidian blood parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) of small land birds in eastern North America to characterize a regional parasite community. Distributions of parasite populations generally reflected distributions of their hosts across the region. However, when the interdependence between hosts and parasites was controlled statistically, local host assemblages were related to regional climatic gradients, but parasite assemblages were not. Moreover, because parasite assemblage similarity does not decrease with distance when controlling for host assemblages and climate, parasites evidently disperse readily within the distributions of their hosts. The degree of specialization on hosts varied in some parasite lineages over short periods and small geographic distances independently of the diversity of available hosts and potentially competing parasite lineages. Nonrandom spatial turnover was apparent in parasite lineages infecting one host species that was well-sampled within a single year across its range, plausibly reflecting localized adaptations of hosts and parasites. Overall, populations of avian hosts generally determine the geographic distributions of haemosporidian parasites. However, parasites are not dispersal-limited within their host distributions, and they may switch hosts readily.

  3. Monitoring Local Strain in a Thermal Barrier Coating System Under Thermal Mechanical Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manero, Albert; Sofronsky, Stephen; Knipe, Kevin; Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan; Karlsson, Anette M.; Raghavan, Seetha; Bartsch, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Advances in aircraft and land-based turbine engines have been increasing the extreme loading conditions on traditional engine components and have incited the need for improved performance with the use of protective coatings. These protective coatings shield the load-bearing super alloy blades from the high-temperature combustion gases by creating a thermal gradient over their thickness. This addition extends the life and performance of blades. A more complete understanding of the behavior, failure mechanics, and life expectancy for turbine blades and their coatings is needed to enhance and validate simulation models. As new thermal-barrier-coated materials and deposition methods are developed, strides to effectively test, evaluate, and prepare the technology for industry deployment are of paramount interest. Coupling the experience and expertise of researchers at the University of Central Florida, The German Aerospace Center, and Cleveland State University with the world-class synchrotron x-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Laboratory, the synergistic collaboration has yielded previously unseen measurements to look inside the coating layer system for in situ strain measurements during representative service loading. These findings quantify the in situ strain response on multilayer thermal barrier coatings and shed light on the elastic and nonelastic properties of the layers and the role of mechanical load and internal cooling variations on the response. The article discusses the experimental configuration and development of equipment to perform in situ strain measurements on multilayer thin coatings and provides an overview of the achievements thus far.

  4. Shear-enhanced compaction and strain localization in porous limestone: a study based on X-ray Computed Tomography and Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.; Baud, P.; Hall, S.; Wong, T.

    2011-12-01

    The brittle-ductile transition in porous sandstones has now been studied extensively. Microstructural studies combining various techniques on samples deformed in the laboratory documented the development of a wide variety on strain localization patterns and failure modes in overall agreement with the field observations in various sandstone formations. In contrast, there is a paucity of mechanical and microstructural laboratory data on the brittle-ductile transition in porous carbonates, particularly for the high porosity end-members. This lack of data is related to various specific difficulties associated with the study of inelastic deformation in high porosity limestones: the interplay between microcracking and crystal plasticity even at room temperature, dissolution of calcite in presence of water, etc... The question of strain localization is in particular hard to tackle as conventional microstructural analyses cannot as in sandstone be guided by acoustic emission statistics. In this context, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) imaging provides a promising technique to accurately describe the various failure modes associated with the brittle-ductile transition in porous limestone. In this study, we focused on a grainstone from the Majella Mountain, central Italy. Detailed field observations performed in this formation by Tondi et al. (2006) have revealed some complex interplay between deformation/compaction bands and stylolites. Our samples of Majella grainstone had a nominal porosity of 31% and were primarily composed of calcite. A series of hydrostatic and conventional triaxial experiments were performed at room temperature, constant strain rate and at confining pressures ranging from 5 to 50 MPa. Several sets of CT images at resolutions between 4 and 40 microns were acquired before and after deformation. Statistics on the macropores and spatial distribution of microporosity were characterized. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was performed on images of the intact

  5. Distributed model predictive control for constrained nonlinear systems with decoupled local dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Ding, Baocang

    2015-03-01

    This paper considers the distributed model predictive control (MPC) of nonlinear large-scale systems with dynamically decoupled subsystems. According to the coupled state in the overall cost function of centralized MPC, the neighbors are confirmed and fixed for each subsystem, and the overall objective function is disassembled into each local optimization. In order to guarantee the closed-loop stability of distributed MPC algorithm, the overall compatibility constraint for centralized MPC algorithm is decomposed into each local controller. The communication between each subsystem and its neighbors is relatively low, only the current states before optimization and the optimized input variables after optimization are being transferred. For each local controller, the quasi-infinite horizon MPC algorithm is adopted, and the global closed-loop system is proven to be exponentially stable.

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Mycobacterium immunogenum Strains Obtained from a Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Revetta, Randy P.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequences of six Mycobacterium immunogenum strains isolated from a chloraminated drinking water distribution system simulator subjected to changes in operational parameters. M. immunogenum, a rapidly growing mycobacterium previously reported to be the cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis from contaminated metalworking fluid aerosols, is becoming a public health concern. PMID:26744376

  7. Impact of local strain on Ti-L₂,₃ electron energy-loss near-edge structures of BaTiO₃: a first-principles multiplet study.

    PubMed

    Ootsuki, Shirou; Ikeno, Hidekazu; Umeda, Yuji; Yonezawa, Yu; Moriwake, Hiroki; Kuwabara, Akihide; Kido, Osamu; Ueda, Satoko; Tanaka, Isao; Fujikawa, Yoshinori; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2014-06-01

    Identification of local strains is crucial because the local strains largely influence the ferroelectric property of BaTiO₃. The effects of local strains induced by external pressures on the Ti-L₂,₃ electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of BaTiO₃ were theoretically investigated using first-principles multiplet calculations. We revealed that the effects appear in the position of the spectral threshold, namely the spectrum shifts to lower and higher energy sides by the tensile and compressive pressures, respectively. We concluded that conventional ELNES observations can identify only large strains induced by -10 GPa, and 0.1 eV energy resolution is required to identify ±2% of strains.

  8. Using Local Second Gradient Model and Shear Strain Localisation to Model the Excavation Damaged Zone in Unsaturated Claystone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoen, Benoît; Levasseur, Séverine; Collin, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    The drilling of galleries induces damage propagation in the surrounding medium and creates, around them, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The prediction of the extension and fracture structure of this zone remains a major issue, especially in the context of underground nuclear waste storage. Experimental studies on geomaterials indicate that localised deformation in shear band mode usually appears prior to fractures. Thus, the excavation damaged zone can be modelled by considering the development of shear strain localisation bands. In the classical finite element framework, strain localisation suffers a mesh-dependency problem. Therefore, an enhanced model with a regularisation method is required to correctly model the strain localisation behaviour. Among the existing methods, we choose the coupled local second gradient model. We extend it to unsaturated conditions and we include the solid grain compressibility. Furthermore, air ventilation inside underground galleries engenders a rock-atmosphere interaction that could influence the damaged zone. This interaction has to be investigated in order to predict the damaged zone behaviour. Finally, a hydro-mechanical modelling of a gallery excavation in claystone is presented and leads to a fairly good representation of the EDZ. The main objectives of this study are to model the fractures by considering shear strain localisation bands, and to investigate if an isotropic model accurately reproduces the in situ measurements. The numerical results provide information about the damaged zone extension, structure and behaviour that are in very good agreement with in situ measurements and observations. For instance, the strain localisation bands that develop in chevron pattern during the excavation and rock desaturation, due to air ventilation, are observed close to the gallery.

  9. Identification of defects and strain error estimation for bending steel beams using time domain Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernini, R.; Fraldi, M.; Minardo, A.; Minutolo, V.; Carannante, F.; Nunziante, L.; Zeni, L.

    2006-04-01

    In recent years the use of distributed optical fiber sensors for measurements of strain in beams, by means of the Brillouin scattering effect, has been proposed. Several works pointed out the practical difficulty of this kind of measurement, connected both to theoretical and to experimental problems, e.g. mechanical characterization of optical fibers, decaying of strains in the protective coatings, spatial resolution of the Brillouin scattering, brittleness of the glass core, elastic-plastic response of the polymeric jackets, end effects and the different responses of the fiber for dilatation and contraction. Dealing with each of the above problems still requires a great research effort. However, recent literature shows that distributed optical fiber measurement techniques are extremely useful for finding qualitative responses in terms of strains. Indeed, in spite of the above-mentioned uncertainties, the great advantage of the proposed distributed measurement of strains remains evident for the safety assessment of large structures, such as bridges, tunnels, dams and pipelines, over their whole lifetimes. In view of this, in the present paper the detection of defects or damage in bending beams—by using distributed optical fiber sensors in a method based on time domain stimulated Brillouin scattering—is proposed. In particular, laboratory tests were carried out to measure the strain profile along a steel beam. Two tests were performed: the first one involves an integral steel beam, while the second experiment is performed on a damaged beam. Comparison between these two tests allows the detection of the position and the establishing of bounds on the size of the defect. At the end, the quality and accuracy of the measurements are discussed and a sensitivity analysis of the strain readings taking into account the bonding conditions at the interface between the structure and the fiber is also carried out by means a parametric numerical simulation.

  10. On the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    The vertical distribution of local and remote sources of water for precipitation and total column water over the United States are evaluated in a general circulation model simulation. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) general circulation model (GCM) includes passive constituent tracers to determine the geographical sources of the water in the column. Results show that the local percentage of precipitable water and local percentage of precipitation can be very different. The transport of water vapor from remote oceanic sources at mid and upper levels is important to the total water in the column over the central United States, while the access of locally evaporated water in convective precipitation processes is important to the local precipitation ratio. This result resembles the conceptual formulation of the convective parameterization. However, the formulations of simple models of precipitation recycling include the assumption that the ratio of the local water in the column is equal to the ratio of the local precipitation. The present results demonstrate the uncertainty in that assumption, as locally evaporated water is more concentrated near the surface.

  11. Local Field Distribution Function and High Order Field Moments for metal-dielectric composites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genov, Dentcho A.; Sarychev, Andrey K.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.

    2001-11-01

    In a span of two decades the physics of nonlinear optics saw vast improvement in our understanding of optical properties for various inhomogeneous mediums. One such medium is the metal-dielectric composite, where the metal inclusions have a surface coverage fraction of p, while the rest (1-p) is assumed to represent the dielectric host. The computations carried out by using different theoretical models and the experimental data show existence of giant local electric and magnetic field fluctuations. In this presentation we will introduce a new developed 2D model that determines exactly the Local Field Distribution Function (LFDF) and all other relevant parameters of the film. The LFDF for small filling factors will be shown to transform from lognormal distribution into a single-dipole distribution function. We also will confirm the predictions of the scaling theory for the high field moments, which have a power law dependence on the loss factor.

  12. Local and Widely Distributed EEG Activity in Schizophrenia With Prevalence of Negative Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Grin-Yatsenko, Vera A; Ponomarev, Valery A; Pronina, Marina V; Poliakov, Yury I; Plotnikova, Irina V; Kropotov, Juri D

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated EEG frequency abnormalities in resting state (eyes closed and eyes open) EEG in a group of chronic schizophrenia patients as compared with healthy subjects. The study included 3 methods of analysis of deviation of EEG characteristics: genuine EEG, current source density (CSD), and group independent component (gIC). All 3 methods have shown that the EEG in schizophrenia patients is characterized by enhanced low-frequency (delta and theta) and high-frequency (beta) activity in comparison with the control group. However, the spatial pattern of differences was dependent on the type of method used. Comparative analysis has shown that increased EEG power in schizophrenia patients apparently concerns both widely spatially distributed components and local components of signal. Furthermore, the observed differences in the delta and theta range can be described mainly by the local components, and those in the beta range mostly by spatially widely distributed ones. The possible nature of the widely distributed activity is discussed.

  13. Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus strains in intensive cattle herds in Italy.

    PubMed

    Luzzago, C; Bandi, C; Bronzo, V; Ruffo, G; Zecconi, A

    2001-11-26

    The genetic variation of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was studied by comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of 26 Italian field strains collected during the period 1995-2000 in 18 cattle herds. A fragment within the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) was sequenced directly from gel-purified products obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. BVDV-1b (n=14), -1c (n=1), -1d (n=1) and BVDV-2 (n=2) strains have been isolated. Most herds were infected by BVDV-1b. Pairwise similarity and cluster analysis of the remaining BVDV-1 isolates (n=8) did not provide a clear-cut assignation to defined BVDV-1 groups. This is the first time that a BVDV-2 isolation was reported in Italy. Among BVDV-2 reference strains, Italian BVDV-2 isolates showed the highest sequence similarity with the CD87 strain. Both BVDV-2 strains were isolated in two healthy animals from different herds. The 5'-UTR sequence of one of the two BVDV-2 strains was identical to a German BVDV field strain. Complete nucleotide homology was found only among BVDV strains isolated from the same herd, showing a herd-specific clustering. Moreover, 99.6% homology was observed between strains from herds linked by livestock trade. Despite the small number of BVDV isolates analysed, it revealed a high level of genetic diversity among Italian field BVDV strains.

  14. Nanosecond Motions in Proteins Impose Bounds on the Timescale Distributions of Local Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Okan, Osman Burak; Atilgan, Ali Rana; Atilgan, Canan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We elucidate the physics of protein dynamical transition via 10–100-ns molecular dynamics simulations at temperatures spanning 160–300 K. By tracking the energy fluctuations, we show that the protein dynamical transition is marked by a crossover from nonstationary to stationary processes that underlie the dynamics of protein motions. A two-timescale function captures the nonexponential character of backbone structural relaxations. One timescale is attributed to the collective segmental motions and the other to local relaxations. The former is well defined by a single-exponential, nanosecond decay, operative at all temperatures. The latter is described by a set of processes that display a distribution of timescales. Although their average remains on the picosecond timescale, the distribution is markedly contracted at the onset of the transition. It is shown that the collective motions impose bounds on timescales spanned by local dynamical processes. The nonstationary character below the transition implicates the presence of a collection of substates whose interactions are restricted. At these temperatures, a wide distribution of local-motion timescales, extending beyond that of nanoseconds, is observed. At physiological temperatures, local motions are confined to timescales faster than nanoseconds. This relatively narrow window makes possible the appearance of multiple channels for the backbone dynamics to operate. PMID:19804740

  15. Plasmid localization and organization of melamine degradation genes in Rhodococcus sp. strain Mel.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Anthony G; Wackett, Lawrence P; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain Mel was isolated from soil by enrichment and grew in minimal medium with melamine as the sole N source with a doubling time of 3.5 h. Stoichiometry studies showed that all six nitrogen atoms of melamine were assimilated. The genome was sequenced by Roche 454 pyrosequencing to 13× coverage, and a 22.3-kb DNA region was found to contain a homolog to the melamine deaminase gene trzA. Mutagenesis studies showed that the cyanuric acid hydrolase and biuret hydrolase genes were clustered together on a different 17.9-kb contig. Curing and gene transfer studies indicated that 4 of 6 genes required for the complete degradation of melamine were located on an ∼265-kb self-transmissible linear plasmid (pMel2), but this plasmid was not required for ammeline deamination. The Rhodococcus sp. strain Mel melamine metabolic pathway genes were located in at least three noncontiguous regions of the genome, and the plasmid-borne genes encoding enzymes for melamine metabolism were likely recently acquired.

  16. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stüssi, Edgar; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r = 0.65–0.94). Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters. PMID:25695083

  17. [Distribution of blaOXA genes in Acinetobacter baumannii strains: a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Ihsan Hakkı; Aşık, Gülşah; Karakeçe, Engin; Oksüz, Lütfiye; Yağcı, Server; Sesli Çetin, Emel; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Atasoy, Ali Rıza; Koçoğlu, Esra; Gül, Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Muhammet Güzel; Köksal Çakırlar, Fatma; Seyrek, Adnan; Berktaş, Mustafa; Gültepe, Bilge; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2013-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the most important agent of nosocomial infections within the Acinetobacter genus. This gram-negative coccobacillus is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics used in antimicrobial therapy, and capable of developing resistance including carbapenems. The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) kit for OXA subgroups in A.baumannii, and to investigate the distribution of OXA subgroups in A.baumannii strains isolated from geographically different regions of Turkey. A total of 834 A.baumannii clinical isolates collected from different state and university medical centers in 13 provinces (Afyonkarahisar, Ankara, Bolu, Elazig, Erzurum, Isparta, Istanbul, Kahramanmaras, Konya, Sakarya, Van) between 2008-2011, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods and automated systems [Vitek2 (bioMerieux, ABD) and Phoenix (BD Diagnostic, MD)]. The susceptibility profiles of the isolates were studied with automated systems and standard disc diffusion method. All samples were subjected to qPCR to detect blaOXA-51-like, blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like genes. A conventional PCR method was also used to detect blaOXA-24-like gene. The resistance rates observed during the study period were as follows: 96.8% for amoxicillin-clavulanate, 86.8% for ciprofloxacin, 74.7% for gentamicin, 71.7% for amikacin, 73.5% for cefaperozone-sulbactam, 72.1% for imipenem and 73% for meropenem. Six hundred and two (72.2 %) isolates were resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Colistin was found to be the most effective antibiotic against A.baumannii isolates with 100% susceptibility rate. All isolates were positive for blaOXA-51-like, however blaOXA-24-like gene could not be demonstrated in any isolate. Total positivity rates of blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like genes were found as 53.7% and 12.5%, respectively, while these rates were 74.4% and 17.3% in carbapenem-resistant isolates

  18. Dipole versus distributed EEG source localization for single versus averaged spikes in focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Plummer, C; Wagner, M; Fuchs, M; Harvey, A S; Cook, M J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize and compare dipole and distributed EEG source localization (ESL) of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in focal epilepsy. Single and averaged scalp IEDs from eight patients-four with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BFEC) and four with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE)-underwent independent component analysis (ICA) from IED onset to peak. The boundary element method forward model was applied to one of four inverse models: two dipolar-moving regularized, rotating nonregularized and two distributed-standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography with rotating cortical sources or with fixed extended sources. Solutions were studied at IED onset, midupswing, peak; ESL strength maxima; ESL residual deviation minima (best fit). From 11,040 ESL parameter points and 960 ESL maps, best-fit dipole and distributed solutions fell at the IED midupswing in BFEC and MTLE when the dominant ICA component typically peaked, localizing to the lower Rolandic sulcus in BFEC and to basolateral or anterior temporal cortex in MTLE. Single-to-averaged ESL variability was high in MTLE. Dipole and distributed ESL are complementary; best-fit solutions for both occupy the IED midupswing and not the IED peak. ICA, a "blind" statistical operation, aids clinical interpretation of ESL fit quality. Single-to-averaged IED localization discordance can be high, a problem warranting further scrutiny if ESL is to earn a place in routine epilepsy care.

  19. Strain localization in brittle-ductile shear zones: fluid abundant vs fluid limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruzeniece, L.; Piazolo, S.

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on physiochemical processes occurring in a brittle-ductile shear zone at both fluid-present and fluid-limited conditions. In the studied shear zone (Wyangala, SE Australia), a coarse-grained two feldspar-quartz-biotite granite is transformed into a medium grained orthogneiss at the shear zone margins and a fine-grained quartz-muscovite phyllonite in the central parts. The orthogneiss displays cataclasis of feldspar and crystal-plastic deformation of quartz. Quartz accommodates most of the deformation and is extensively recrystallized showing distinct crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). Feldspar-to-muscovite, biotite-to-muscovite and albitization reactions occur locally at porphyroclasts' fracture surfaces and margins. However, the bulk rock composition shows very little change in respect to the wall rock composition. In contrast, in the shear zone centre quartz occurs as large, weakly deformed porphyroclasts, in sizes similar to that in the wall rock, suggesting that it has undergone little deformation. Feldspars and biotite are almost completely reacted to muscovite, which is arranged in a fine-grained interconnected matrix. Muscovite-rich layers contain significant amounts of fine-grained intermixed quartz with random CPO. These domains are interpreted to have accommodated most of the strain. Bulk rock chemistry data shows a significant increase in SiO2 and depletion in NaO content compared to the wall rock composition. We suggest that the high and low strain fabrics represent markedly different scenarios and cannot be interpreted as a simple sequential development with respect to strain. We suggest that the fabrics and mineralogical changes in the shear zone centre have formed due to fluid influx probably along an initially brittle fracture. Here, hydration reactions dramatically changed the rheological properties of the rock. In the newly produced muscovite-quartz layers creep cavitation associated with grain boundary sliding and

  20. Strain distribution in Si capping layers on SiGe islands: influence of cap thickness and footprint in reciprocal space.

    PubMed

    Hrauda, N; Zhang, J J; Süess, M J; Wintersberger, E; Holý, V; Stangl, J; Deiter, C; Seeck, O H; Bauer, G

    2012-11-23

    We present investigations on the strain properties of silicon capping layers on top of regular SiGe island arrays, in dependence on the Si-layer thickness. Such island arrays are used as stressors for the active channel in field-effect transistors where the desired tensile strain in the Si channel is a crucial parameter for the performance of the device. The thickness of the Si cap was varied from 0 to 30 nm. The results of high resolution x-ray diffraction experiments served as input to perform detailed strain calculations via finite element method models. Thus, detailed information on the Ge distribution within the buried islands and the strain interaction between the SiGe island and Si cap was obtained. It was found that the tensile strain within the Si capping layer strongly depends on its thickness, even if the Ge concentration of the buried dot remains unchanged, with tensile strains degrading if thicker Si layers are used.

  1. Localization and functional analysis of PepI, the immunity peptide of Pep5-producing Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 5.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Anja; Schneider, Tanja; Pag, Ulrike; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2004-06-01

    Pep5 is a cationic pore-forming lantibiotic produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 5. The producer strain protects itself from the lethal action of its own bacteriocin through the 69-amino-acid immunity peptide PepI. The N-terminal segment of PepI contains a 20-amino-acid stretch of apolar residues, whereas the C terminus is very hydrophilic, with a net positive charge. We used green fluorescent protein (GFP)-PepI fusions to obtain information on its localization in vivo. PepI was found to occur outside the cytoplasm and to accumulate at the membrane-cell wall interface. The extracellular localization appeared essential for conferring immunity. We analyzed the functional role of the specific segments by constructing various mutant peptides, which were also fused to GFP. When the hydrophobic N-terminal segment of PepI was disrupted by introducing charged amino acids, the export of PepI was blocked and clones expressing such mutant peptides were Pep5 sensitive. When PepI was successively shortened at the C terminus, in contrast, its export properties remained unchanged whereas its ability to confer immunity was gradually reduced. The results show that the N-terminal part is required for the transport of PepI and that the C-terminal part is important for conferring the immunity phenotype. A concept based on target shielding is proposed for the PepI immunity mechanism.

  2. An observationally centred method to quantify local climate change as a distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, David; Chapman, Sandra; Watkins, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    For planning and adaptation, guidance on trends in local climate is needed at the specific thresholds relevant to particular impact or policy endeavours. This requires quantifying trends at specific quantiles in distributions of variables such as daily temperature or precipitation. These non-normal distributions vary both geographically and in time. The trends in the relevant quantiles may not simply follow the trend in the distribution mean. We present a method[1] for analysing local climatic timeseries data to assess which quantiles of the local climatic distribution show the greatest and most robust trends. We demonstrate this approach using E-OBS gridded data[2] timeseries of local daily temperature from specific locations across Europe over the last 60 years. Our method extracts the changing cumulative distribution function over time and uses a simple mathematical deconstruction of how the difference between two observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural statistical variability and/or the consequences of secular climate change. This deconstruction facilitates an assessment of the sensitivity of different quantiles of the distributions to changing climate. Geographical location and temperature are treated as independent variables, we thus obtain as outputs how the trend or sensitivity varies with temperature (or occurrence likelihood), and with geographical location. These sensitivities are found to be geographically varying across Europe; as one would expect given the different influences on local climate between, say, Western Scotland and central Italy. We find as an output many regionally consistent patterns of response of potential value in adaptation planning. We discuss methods to quantify the robustness of these observed sensitivities and their statistical likelihood. This also quantifies the level of detail needed from climate models if they are to be used as tools to assess climate change impact. [1] S C

  3. Local Atomic Structure of Semiconductor Alloys Using Pair Distribution Function Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge, S.J.L.; Thorpe, M.F.

    2002-06-24

    We have been taking advantage of recent experimental developments, which involve utilizing diffraction data from x-rays or neutrons out to very large wave-vectors, to obtain a detailed structural characterization of semiconductor alloys. This approach allows an accurate Pair Distribution Function (PDF) to be obtained to 20A and beyond and reveals the local structure of the alloy directly. These data can be modeled explicitly to learn about local correlations and short-range order in materials. We are combining theory, modeling and experiments to study a range of materials from semiconductors to thermoelectrics and proton conductors.

  4. Local atomic structure in strained interfaces of InxGa1-xAs/InP heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscherini, F.; Lamberti, C.; Pascarelli, S.; Rigo, C.; Mobilio, S.

    1998-10-01

    We present a structural study of the interfaces between InxGa1-xAs and InP (and vice versa) by x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS); the samples investigated are a set of nominally matched InxGa1-xAs/InP short-period superlattices. We find that the coordination numbers around As and Ga deviate significantly from those expected in an abrupt superlattice structure even if interface bonds are taken into account; this demonstrates the presence of unwanted interface layers between InP and InxGaxAs (and vice versa). Based on the growth sequence employed and on indications from other techniques, we model the structure as composed of the two nominal layers plus InAsxP1-x and In0.53Ga0.47As1-yPy strained interface layers. XAFS is a chemically sensitive probe of the local structure in these strained layers. We find that each bond length measured (As-In, Ga-As, and Ga-P) has a different value, with small variations among the different samples. This implies the presence of structural distortions that accommodate strain at the local level. We find good agreement between the XAFS results and high-resolution x-ray diffraction data that probe the structure in an average way. The results are discussed also with reference to the problem of the band offsets at InxGa1-xAs/InP heterojunctions and to theoretical simulations.

  5. Measurement of strain distribution in cortical bone around miniscrew implants used for orthodontic anchorage using digital speckle pattern interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Rupali; Bhutani, Ravi; Shakher, Chandra

    2016-05-01

    An application of digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) for the measurement of deformations and strain-field distributions developed in cortical bone around orthodontic miniscrew implants inserted into the human maxilla is presented. The purpose of this study is to measure and compare the strain distribution in cortical bone/miniscrew interface of human maxilla around miniscrew implants of different diameters, different implant lengths, and implants of different commercially available companies. The technique is also used to measure tilt/rotation of canine caused due to the application of retraction springs. The proposed technique has high sensitivity and enables the observation of deformation/strain distribution. In DSPI, two specklegrams are recorded corresponding to pre- and postloading of the retraction spring. The DSPI fringe pattern is observed by subtracting these two specklegrams. Optical phase was extracted using Riesz transform and the monogenic signal from a single DSPI fringe pattern. The obtained phase is used to calculate the parameters of interest such as displacement/deformation and strain/stress. The experiment was conducted on a dry human skull fulfilling the criteria of intact dental arches and all teeth present. Eight different miniscrew implants were loaded with an insertion angulation of 45 deg in the inter-radicular region of the maxillary second premolar and molar region. The loading of miniscrew implants was done with force level (150 gf) by nickel-titanium closed-coil springs (9 mm). The obtained results from DSPI reveal that implant diameter and implant length affect the displacement and strain distribution in cortical bone layer surrounding the miniscrew implant.

  6. Simultaneous strain and temperature monitoring of the composite cure with a Brillouin-scattering-based distributed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xiaoyi; Huang, Chao; Zeng, Xiaodong; Arcand, Antoine; Sullivan, Pearl

    2002-07-01

    A Brillouin-scattering-based distributed sensing system has been used for in situ strain measurement during the curing of AS4-3501 composite panels. It has a pulse length of 1.5 ns, which is equivalent to spatial resolution of 15 cm and read-out resolution of 5 cm. Distributed Brillouin scattering sensors have been used to monitor either temperature or strain for concrete structures, dams, and fiber cables by NTT Transmission System Labs (Japan) and Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) groups with spatial resolutions > 1 m. We report the first application for a Brillouin scattering sensor in a composite curing process. The challenges for this application are the requirements of centimeter spatial resolution due to the small size of the composite material; simultaneous temperature and strain measurement during the fast temperature changing process of the curing, and short signal processing times. We present experimental results on strain measurements from optical fiber embedded in the eight-ply panels during the heat-up, isotherm, and cool-down stages of the cure process. The materials studied are 177 degree(s)C cure thermo-set materials used extensively in the manufacture of composite parts for the aerospace industry. The distributed sensor can detect the reaction advancement by measuring the cure shrinkage at the gelation and vitrification stages. Shrinkage is then correlated with the degree of cure data from a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The thermal response of the solidified composite during cooling is profiled. Details of the data processing of the Brillouin-scattering-based distributed sensor to obtain the strain variations as a function of cure temperature, time, and location are explained.

  7. Experimental Observations of Localization Phenomena in Sands: Plane Strain Versus Triaxial Compression Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Batiste, Susan N.; Sture, Stein; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental investigation was conducted to investigate the effects of loading condition and confining pressure on strength properties and instability phenomena in sands. A uniform sub-rounded to rounded natural silica sand known as F-75 Ottawa sand was used in the investigation. The results of a series on Conventional Triaxial Compression (CTC) experiments tested under very low confining pressures (0.05 - 1.30) kPa tested in a Microgravity environment abroad the NASA Space Shuttle are presented in addition to the results similar specimens tested in terrestrial laboratory to investigate the effect of confining pressure on the constitutive behavior of sands. The behavior of the CTC experiments is compared with the results of Plane Strain (PS) experiments. Computed tomography and other digital imaging techniques were used to study the development and evolution of shear bands.

  8. Bathythermal distribution, maturity, and growth of lake trout strains stocked in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario, 1978-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1996-01-01

    Bathythermal distributions, sexual maturity, and growth of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) strains stocked in Lake Ontario were determined for fish collected with trawls and gill nets in 1978-93. The purpose was to augment the basis for deciding which strains to continue stocking in an effort to reestablish a self-sustaining population. The Clearwater Lake (CWL) strain was found in shallower, warmer water than all other strains; the Seneca Lake (SEN) strain was usually shallower than the Jenny Lake (JEN) and Lake Superior (SUP) strains at ages 1 and 2 but was usually deeper at age 3 and older. Depth distribution of the 'Ontario strain'--from gametes of several strains that survived to maturity in Lake Ontario-- was similar to that of the SEN and SUP strains. About half the males matured at age 4 and half the females at age 5; males < 500 mm and females < 600 mm long were rarely mature. Least-sqaures mean lengths and weights of the CWL strain were greater than those of all other strains through age 4. At age 7 and older, CWL and JEN fish were generally smaller than all other strains. Means lengths and weights of males and females of the same age and strain frequently differed at age 4 and older. Growth in weight at age 4 and older was not associated with biomass indices of prey fishes. Differences in growth rates among strains were associated with bathythermal distribution which is a heritable trait. Weight-length regressions differed by year, sex, and stage of maturity but were rarely different among strains. Competition for space appeared to affect condition of large lake trout. Growth rates and maturity schedules provide little basis for recommending stocking one strain in preference to another. Depth ranges of strains overlapped widely, but lake trout occupied only about one-fourth of available bottom habitat. Stocking several strains should be continued to maximize use of sustainable habitat.

  9. Speciation and distribution of arsenic and localization of nutrients in rice grains

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, E.; Scheckel, K.G.; Pallon, J.; Carey, A.M.; Zhu, Y.G.; Meharg, A.A.

    2012-09-05

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice grains and the generally low concentration of micronutrients in rice have been recognized as a major concern for human health. Here, we investigated the speciation and localization of As and the distribution of (micro)nutrients in rice grains because these are key factors controlling bioavailability of nutrients and contaminants. Bulk total and speciation analyses using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was complemented by spatially resolved microspectroscopic techniques ({mu}-XANES, {mu}-X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)) to investigate both speciation and distribution of As and localization of nutrients in situ. The distribution of As and micronutrients varied between the various parts of the grains (husk, bran and endosperm) and was characterized by element-specific distribution patterns. The speciation of As in bran and endosperm was dominated by As(III)-thiol complexes. The results indicate that the translocation from the maternal to filial tissues may be a bottleneck for As accumulation in the grain. Strong similarities between the distribution of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and phosphorus (P) and between zinc (Zn) and sulphur (S) may be indicative of complexation mechanisms in rice grains.

  10. Recent Changes in the Local Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in South Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Hopperstad, K A; Reiskind, M H

    2016-07-01

    Disease transmission is directly tied to the spatial distribution of disease vectors. The distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.) in the United States has diminished since the introduction of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the 1980s. However, Ae. aegypti persists in some urban areas, particularly in south Florida. The pattern of habitat segregation of these two species is well documented, but the consistency of this phenomenon over time is unknown. To examine the dynamics of the local distributions of these two species, we studied the spatial pattern of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus over time at a fine landscape scale in Palm Beach County, FL. We compared patterns from 2006-2007 with their distributions in 2013, taking into account abiotic factors of microclimate and land cover. We found evidence for a local shift in Ae. aegypti distribution, but could not attribute this to changes in measured abiotic factors. Alternatively, the interaction between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus that initially resulted Ae. aegypti decline may be being attenuated through natural selection. This study confirms the importance of monitoring the changing ranges of these two important vector species.

  11. Speciation and distribution of arsenic and localization of nutrients in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Lombi, E; Scheckel, K G; Pallon, J; Carey, A M; Zhu, Y G; Meharg, A A

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of rice grains and the generally low concentration of micronutrients in rice have been recognized as a major concern for human health. Here, we investigated the speciation and localization of As and the distribution of (micro)nutrients in rice grains because these are key factors controlling bioavailability of nutrients and contaminants. Bulk total and speciation analyses using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was complemented by spatially resolved microspectroscopic techniques (micro-XANES, micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)) to investigate both speciation and distribution of As and localization of nutrients in situ. The distribution of As and micronutrients varied between the various parts of the grains (husk, bran and endosperm) and was characterized by element-specific distribution patterns. The speciation of As in bran and endosperm was dominated by As(III)-thiol complexes. The results indicate that the translocation from the maternal to filial tissues may be a bottleneck for As accumulation in the grain. Strong similarities between the distribution of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and phosphorus (P) and between zinc (Zn) and sulphur (S) may be indicative of complexation mechanisms in rice grains.

  12. Distribution and Content of Class 1 Integrons in Different Vibrio cholerae O-Serotype Strains Isolated in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Sandvang, Dorthe

    2000-01-01

    In this study, 176 clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae strains of different O serotypes isolated in Thailand from 1982 to 1995 were selected and studied for the presence of class 1 integrons, a new group of genetic elements which carry antibiotic resistance genes. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, we found that 44 isolates contained class 1 integrons harboring the aadB, aadA2, blaP1, dfrA1, and dfrA15 gene cassettes, which encode resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin; streptomycin and spectinomycin; β-lactams; and trimethoprim, respectively. Each cassette array contained only a single antibiotic resistance gene. Although resistance genes in class 1 integrons were found in strains from the same epidemic, as well as in unrelated non-O1, non-O139 strains isolated from children with diarrhea, they were found to encode only some of the antibiotic resistance expressed by the strains. Serotype O139 strains did not contain class 1 integrons. However, the appearance and disappearance of the O139 serotype in the coastal city Samutsakorn in 1992 and 1993 were associated with the emergence of a distinct V. cholerae O1 strain which contained the aadA2 resistance gene cassette. A 150-kb self-transmissible plasmid found in three O1 strains isolated in 1982 contained the aadB gene cassette. Surprisingly, several strains harbored two integrons containing different cassettes. Thus, class 1 integrons containing various resistance gene cassettes are distributed among different V. cholerae O serotypes of mainly clinical origin in Thailand. PMID:10770768

  13. Genetic diversity and distribution of Bradyrhizobium and Azorhizobium strains associated with the herb legume Zornia glochidiata sampled from across Senegal.

    PubMed

    Gueye, F; Moulin, L; Sylla, S; Ndoye, I; Béna, G

    2009-09-01

    Herb legumes have great potential for rehabilitation of semi-arid degraded soils in Sahelian ecosystems as they establish mutualistic symbiosis with N(2)-fixing rhizobia. A phylogenetic analysis was performed for 78 root nodule bacteria associated with the common Sahelian herb legume Zornia glochidiata Reichb ex DC in Senegal. Based on ITS (rDNA16S-23S) and recA sequences, these strains were shown to belong to the two genera Bradyrhizobium and Azorhizobium. Strains of this latter, although frequent, formed small and ineffective nodules and suggested a parasitism rather than a symbiotic association. A potential negative effect of Azorhizobium on Zornia growth was tested for when inoculated alone or in association with a Bradyrhizobium strain. Bradyrhizobium isolates were distributed in four groups. Groups A and B were two sister clades in a larger monophyletic group also including Bradyrhizobium liaoningense, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Strains of cluster D fell in a sister clade of the photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. group, including ORS278, whereas group C appeared to be divergent from all known Bradyrhizobium clusters. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) clustering was congruent with ITS and recA phylogenies, but displayed much more variability. However, within the main Bradyrhizobium clades, no obvious relationship could be detected between clustering and geographical origin of the strains. Each sub-cluster included strains sampled from different locations. Conversely, Azorhizobium strains showed a tendency in the phylogeny to group together according to the site of sampling. The predominance of ineffective Azorhizobium strains in the nodules of Zornia roots, the large Bradyrhizobium genetic diversity and the geographical genetic diversity pattern are explored.

  14. A bio-inspired cooperative algorithm for distributed source localization with mobile nodes.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Azam; Rastegarnia, Amir; Islam, Md Kafiul; Yang, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose an algorithm for distributed optimization in mobile nodes. Compared with many published works, an important consideration here is that the nodes do not know the cost function beforehand. Instead of decision-making based on linear combination of the neighbor estimates, the proposed algorithm relies on information-rich nodes that are iteratively identified. To quickly find these nodes, the algorithm adopts a larger step size during the initial iterations. The proposed algorithm can be used in many different applications, such as distributed odor source localization and mobile robots. Comparative simulation results are presented to support the proposed algorithm.

  15. The local subsurface water and chlorine distributions evaluated by DAN/MSL in Curiosity observational campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor; Hardgrove, Craig; Sanin, Anton; Lisov, Denis; Golovin, Dmitry; Jun, Insoo; Kozyrev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexey; Mischna, Michael; Moersch, Jeffrey; Nikiforov, Sergey; Tate, Cristopher; Vostrukhin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The measurements with the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover are presented and analyzed as a summary of observations acquired during several special observational campaigns at the Yellowknife Bay area (first discovery of habitability environment), at the striated units of Kimberley formation, at outcrops studied in Pahrump Hills (at the base of Mt Sharp) and in high silica area discovered in Marias Pass (Mudstone facies of the Murray formation). DAN data were analyzed to test local and global variability in the distribution of bulk hydrogen and neutron-absorbing elements, characterized as chlorine-equivalent concentration. Using multi instrument approach in the data analysis we have compared DAN estimations of subsurface H and Cl distributions with inhomogeneity of local geological context, top surface measurements of chlorine with APXS and with SAM measurements of absorbed H2O extracted from the drilled samples based on low temperature evolved gas analysis.

  16. Distribution and Local Movement of Humpback Whales in Okinawan Waters Depend on Sex and Reproductive Status.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nozomi; Okabe, Haruna; Kawazu, Isao; Higashi, Naoto; Kato, Keisuke; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro; Uchida, Senzo

    2017-02-01

    The distribution and local movement patterns of humpback whales in waters off the west coast of Okinawa Island, southwest Japan, were investigated using line transect and photo-identification methodologies. Line transect surveys were conducted from 2011 to 2014 and photo-identification survey from 2006 to 2012. During the surveys, humpback whales aggregated in the areas around Ie and Kerama Islands, and tended to travel along the inshore coast of Okinawa Island when they move locally between those two sites. A total of 496 humpback whales of the known sex were photo-identified (322 males, 75 females and 99 females with a calf). Of these, 24.8% were confirmed moving locally between the sites of Ie and Kerama Islands within the same season. Frequency rates of the local movement for males, females and females with a calf were 41.9, 25.0, and 15.1%, respectively; the frequency of local movement for males was significantly higher than that for females and females with a calf. These results indicate that male humpback whales tend to move more actively between the local breeding sites as compared to females and females with a calf. We speculate that the males search for more opportunities to mate, whereas females with a calf tend to remain in the same areas to nurse their calves. These findings extend our knowledge of the habitat use and reproductive ecology of humpback whales in Okinawan waters, which remain poorly understood.

  17. Local active information storage as a tool to understand distributed neural information processing.

    PubMed

    Wibral, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T; Vögler, Sebastian; Priesemann, Viola; Galuske, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Every act of information processing can in principle be decomposed into the component operations of information storage, transfer, and modification. Yet, while this is easily done for today's digital computers, the application of these concepts to neural information processing was hampered by the lack of proper mathematical definitions of these operations on information. Recently, definitions were given for the dynamics of these information processing operations on a local scale in space and time in a distributed system, and the specific concept of local active information storage was successfully applied to the analysis and optimization of artificial neural systems. However, no attempt to measure the space-time dynamics of local active information storage in neural data has been made to date. Here we measure local active information storage on a local scale in time and space in voltage sensitive dye imaging data from area 18 of the cat. We show that storage reflects neural properties such as stimulus preferences and surprise upon unexpected stimulus change, and in area 18 reflects the abstract concept of an ongoing stimulus despite the locally random nature of this stimulus. We suggest that LAIS will be a useful quantity to test theories of cortical function, such as predictive coding.

  18. An Observationally-Centred Method to Quantify the Changing Shape of Local Temperature Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, S. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Watkins, N. W.

    2014-12-01

    For climate sensitive decisions and adaptation planning, guidance on how local climate is changing is needed at the specific thresholds relevant to particular impacts or policy endeavours. This requires the quantification of how the distributions of variables, such as daily temperature, are changing at specific quantiles. These temperature distributions are non-normal and vary both geographically and in time. We present a method[1,2] for analysing local climatic time series data to assess which quantiles of the local climatic distribution show the greatest and most robust changes. We have demonstrated this approach using the E-OBS gridded dataset[3] which consists of time series of local daily temperature across Europe over the last 60 years. Our method extracts the changing cumulative distribution function over time and uses a simple mathematical deconstruction of how the difference between two observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural statistical variability and/or the consequences of secular climate change. The change in temperature can be tracked at a temperature threshold, at a likelihood, or at a given return time, independently for each geographical location. Geographical correlations are thus an output of our method and reflect both climatic properties (local and synoptic), and spatial correlations inherent in the observation methodology. We find as an output many regionally consistent patterns of response of potential value in adaptation planning. For instance, in a band from Northern France to Denmark the hottest days in the summer temperature distribution have seen changes of at least 2°C over a 43 year period; over four times the global mean change over the same period. We discuss methods to quantify the robustness of these observed sensitivities and their statistical likelihood. This approach also quantifies the level of detail at which one might wish to see agreement between climate models and

  19. A method of analysis of distributions of local electric fields in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, V. I.; Yakovlev, V. B.; Bardushkin, V. V.; Lavrov, I. V.; Sychev, A. P.; Yakovleva, E. N.

    2016-03-01

    A method of prediction of distributions of local electric fields in composite media based on analysis of the tensor operators of the concentration of intensity and induction is proposed. Both general expressions and the relations for calculating these operators are obtained in various approximations. The analytical expressions are presented for the operators of the concentration of electric fields in various types of inhomogeneous structures obtained in the generalized singular approximation.

  20. Strain localization on different scales and the importance of brittle precursors during deformation in the lower crust (Davenport Shear Zone, Central Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawemann, Friedrich; Mancktelow, Neil; Wex, Sebastian; Camacho, Alfredo; Pennacchioni, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    High strain rocks in the Musgrave Ranges (Central Australia) provide a rather unique insight into the development of lower crustal shear zones during the 550 Ma Petermann Orogeny, allowing common models for lower crustal deformation to be critically evaluated. The observed structures in the study area are, from south to north: (1) The Mann Fault, which is poorly exposed but evident on airborne geomagnetic maps. This regional scale fault with a component of dextral shear shows a step-over resulting in the formation of a pull-apart basin. (2) The Davenport Shear Zone, accommodating the horizontal extension in a 7 km wide WNW-ESE-trending mylonitic zone developed under subeclogitic, lower crustal conditions. This high strain zone is bounded to the north by a more than 50 km long, continuous, sheared dolerite dyke. North of this dyke, the ~1200 Ma Musgravian fabric is still preserved, only slightly rotated and typically N-S trending. (3) The Woodroffe Thrust, marking the northern boundary of the Musgrave Ranges, brings these lower crustal rocks on top of amphibolite facies units, with a top-to-north sense of movement. Strain in the Davenport Shear Zone is very heterogeneously distributed, with localization and partitioning from the kilometre down to the millimetre scale. Pseudotachylyte is commonly associated with dykes, especially on the boundaries, and is often sheared. The orientation of sheared dykes and localized shear zones is typically at a high angle to either side of the shortening direction, resulting in a variable sense of shear and a major component of flattening, with a nearly horizontal extension direction. Detailed outcrop-scale mapping shows that compositional inhomogeneities, such as quartz veins, are generally not exploited, even when favourably oriented for shear reactivation. Ultramylonitic shear zones are sometimes only a few millimetres wide but extend for several metres and are generally oblique to the background foliation. Pseudotachylyte often

  1. In Situ Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Measurement of the Strain Distribution in Si Die for the Embedded Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsueh Hsien; Chen, Hao; Ouyang, Yao Tsung; Chiu, Tz Cheng; Chang, Tao Chih; Lee, Hsin Yi; Ku, Chin Shun; Wu, Albert T.

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional packaging provides an acceptable solution for miniaturized integrated circuits. Because of the technological flexibility required for combining various modules to form a functional system, miniaturization can be achieved by using embedded techniques that could enhance the reliability of assembled systems. Because the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficient among the materials has been an emerging issue when embedded components are subjected to thermal cycles, this study adopted the in situ synchrotron x-ray method to measure the strain distribution of a Si die in embedded substrates at various temperatures ranging from 25°C to 150°C. The out-of-plane strain of the Si die became less compressive when the temperature was increased. The numerical simulation of the finite elements software ANSYS also indicated the similar consequence of the strain behavior.

  2. Measuring strain and stress distributions along rebar embedded in concrete using time-of-flight neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Kusunoki, K.; Hatanaka, Y.; Mukai, T.; Tasai, A.; Kanematsu, M.; Kabayama, K.; Harjo, S.

    2014-02-01

    In modern society, architectural and civil engineering structures such as reinforced concrete buildings require high seismic performance to minimize the ‘megarisk’ exposed from urban earthquake hazards. In the reinforced concrete structures, the bond resistance between rebar and concrete is one important parameter for discussing its performance and it has been typically evaluated by measuring the strain distribution along the embedded rebar. Here, we present in-situ strain and stress measurements for the rebar in reinforced concrete using time-of-flight neutron diffraction as a novel alternative technique to typical strain gauges. It was demonstrated in this study that the three-dimensional deformation behavior of the embedded rebar in normal-strength concrete, cured in air, can be accurately measured under pull-out loading using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. Wider applications of neutron diffraction in the structural engineering field are expected for advanced understanding of actual phenomena on reinforced concrete structures.

  3. Distributed and dynamic monitoring of 4km/sec waves using a Brillouin fiber optic strain sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Yair; Yaron, Lior; Motil, Avi; Tur, Moshe

    2013-05-01

    We report a Brillouin-based fully distributed and dynamic monitoring of a strain wave, propagating at a speed of ~4km/sec in a 6m long fiber. Using an audio speaker, a mechanical impulse was introduced to one end of a 6m long optical fiber, initiating a strain wave propagating towards the other fixed end of the fiber. Employing a simplified version of the Slope-Assisted Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (SA-BOTDA) technique, the whole length of the fiber was interrogated every 1μs (before averaging). A dynamic spatially and temporally continuous map of the strain was obtained, from which the wave velocity could be deduced. With a trade-off among sampling rate, range and signal to noise ratio, kHz sampling rates and hundreds of meters of range can be covered with spatial resolutions down to a few centimeters.

  4. Grainsize evolution in ductile shear zones: Implications for strain localization and the strength of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. P.; Behr, W. M.

    2011-04-01

    At high stresses and low temperatures, grainsize reduction by dynamic recrystallization profoundly modifies rock rheology. Strain energy driven grain-boundary migration (ρGBM) is involved both in the nucleation of new grains by the grain-boundary bulging mechanism (BLG), and in the subsequent evolution of the microstructure. Above the Dmin line, which is a line in stress/grainsize space that defines the minimum size of nucleus that can form by BLG, ρGBM dominates the microstructure, and grain growth by surface energy driven grain-boundary migration (γGBM) is inhibited. The recrystallized grainsize is therefore dominated by the nucleation process, possibly controlled by the size of subgrains or dislocation cells within the old grains. This provides a first-order explanation for the experimentally observed grainsize-stress relationship. ρGBM is an important agent of recovery in rocks deformed by dislocation creep, sweeping out dislocations and counteracting work-hardening. We have derived a new flow law (DRX-assisted dislocation creep) based on this process, which exhibits grainsize sensitivity as a result of the role of ρGBM. If grainsize obeys the empirically-determined grainsize-stress relationship, DRX creep has an effective stress exponent of a little over 4, consistent with experimental observations and inferences from naturally deformed rocks. DRX creep may be an important agent in weakening quartz at low temperatures, whereas current flow law data suggest it may not be important in olivine. Rocks deformed and dynamically recrystallized above the Dmin line may switch from climb-assisted dislocation creep to grainsize-sensitive creep (Coble creep, DRX creep, or creep dominated by grain-boundary sliding), resulting in weakening. Lithospheric-scale shear zones are likely to evolve at approximately constant stress; under these conditions weakening results in an increase in strain rate, not a stress drop. The rate of dislocation motion, the dislocation density

  5. Estimation of Distribution Algorithm with Local Sampling Strategy for Community Detection in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fahong; Li, Wenping; He, Feng; Yu, Bolin; Xia, Xiaoyun; Ma, Longhua

    2016-12-01

    It is important to discover the potential community structure for analyzing complex networks. In this paper, an estimation of distribution algorithm with local sampling strategy for community detection in complex networks is presented to optimize the modularity density function. In the proposed algorithm, the evolution probability model is built according to eminent individuals selected by simulated annealing mechanism and a local sampling strategy based on a local similarity model is adopted to improve both the speed and the accuracy for detecting community structure in complex networks. At the same time, a more general version of the criterion function with a tunable parameter λ is used to avoid the resolution limit. Experiments on synthetic and real-life networks demonstrate the performance and the comparison of experimental results with those of several state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm is considerably efficient and competitive.

  6. A Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network based on local distribution learning.

    PubMed

    Xing, Youlu; Shi, Xiaofeng; Shen, Furao; Zhou, Ke; Zhao, Jinxi

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an unsupervised incremental learning neural network based on local distribution learning, which is called Local Distribution Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network (LD-SOINN). The LD-SOINN combines the advantages of incremental learning and matrix learning. It can automatically discover suitable nodes to fit the learning data in an incremental way without a priori knowledge such as the structure of the network. The nodes of the network store rich local information regarding the learning data. The adaptive vigilance parameter guarantees that LD-SOINN is able to add new nodes for new knowledge automatically and the number of nodes will not grow unlimitedly. While the learning process continues, nodes that are close to each other and have similar principal components are merged to obtain a concise local representation, which we call a relaxation data representation. A denoising process based on density is designed to reduce the influence of noise. Experiments show that the LD-SOINN performs well on both artificial and real-word data.

  7. Local multiplicity adjustment for the spatial scan statistic using the Gumbel distribution.

    PubMed

    Gangnon, Ronald E

    2012-03-01

    The spatial scan statistic is an important and widely used tool for cluster detection. It is based on the simultaneous evaluation of the statistical significance of the maximum likelihood ratio test statistic over a large collection of potential clusters. In most cluster detection problems, there is variation in the extent of local multiplicity across the study region. For example, using a fixed maximum geographic radius for clusters, urban areas typically have many overlapping potential clusters, whereas rural areas have relatively few. The spatial scan statistic does not account for local multiplicity variation. We describe a previously proposed local multiplicity adjustment based on a nested Bonferroni correction and propose a novel adjustment based on a Gumbel distribution approximation to the distribution of a local scan statistic. We compare the performance of all three statistics in terms of power and a novel unbiased cluster detection criterion. These methods are then applied to the well-known New York leukemia dataset and a Wisconsin breast cancer incidence dataset.

  8. Strain properties analysis and wireless collection system of PVDF for structural local health monitoring of civil engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Wang, Yang; Dong, Weijie; Jin, Yajing; Ou, Jinping

    2009-07-01

    For large civil engineering structures and base establishments, for example, bridges, super-high buildings, long-span space structures, offshore platforms and pipe systems of water & gas supply, their lives are up to a few decades or centuries. Damaged by environmental loads, fatigue effects, corrosion effects and material aging, these structures experience inevitably such side effects as damage accumulation, resistance reduction and even accidents. The traditional civil structure is a kind of passive one, whose performance and status are unpredictable to a great extent, but the informatics' introduction breaks a new path to obtain the status of the structure, thus it is an important research direction to evaluate and improve reliability of civil structures by the use of monitoring and health diagnosis technique, and this also assures the security of service for civil engineering structures. Smart material structure, originated from the aerospace sector, has been a research hotspot in civil engineering, medicine, shipping, and so on. For structural health monitoring of civil engineering, the research about high-performance sensing unit of smart material structure is very important, and this will possibly push further the development and application of monitoring and health diagnosis techniques. At present, piezoelectric materials are one of the most widely used sensing materials among the research of smart material structures. As one of the piezoelectric materials, PVDF(Polyvinylidene Fluoride)film is widely considered for the advantages of low cost, good mechanical ability, high sensibility, the ability of being easily placed and resistance of corrosion. However, only a few studies exit about building a mature monitoring system using PVDF. In this paper, for the sake of using PVDF for sensing unit for structural local monitoring of civil engineering, the strain sensing properties of PVDF are studied in detail. Firstly, the operating mechanism of PVDF is analyzed

  9. Cloning and Genomic Organization of a Rhamnogalacturonase Gene from Locally Isolated Strain of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Damak, Naourez; Abdeljalil, Salma; Taeib, Noomen Hadj; Gargouri, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The rhg gene encoding a rhamnogalacturonase was isolated from the novel strain A1 of Aspergillus niger. It consists of an ORF of 1.505 kb encoding a putative protein of 446 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47 kDa, belonging to the family 28 of glycosyl hydrolases. The nature and position of amino acids comprising the active site as well as the three-dimensional structure were well conserved between the A. niger CTM10548 and fungal rhamnogalacturonases. The coding region of the rhg gene is interrupted by three short introns of 56 (introns 1 and 3) and 52 (intron 2) bp in length. The comparison of the peptide sequence with A. niger rhg sequences revealed that the A1 rhg should be an endo-rhamnogalacturonases, more homologous to rhg A than rhg B A. niger known enzymes. The comparison of rhg nucleotide sequence from A. niger A1 with rhg A from A. niger shows several base changes. Most of these changes (59 %) are located at the third base of codons suggesting maintaining the same enzyme function. We used the rhamnogalacturonase A from Aspergillus aculeatus as a template to build a structural model of rhg A1 that adopted a right-handed parallel β-helix.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance investigation on Staphylococcus strains in a local hospital in Guangzhou, China, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Liu, Junyan; Peters, Brian M; Chen, Lei; Miao, Jian; Li, Bing; Li, Lin; Chen, Dingqiang; Yu, Guangchao; Xu, Zhenbo; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on 1,739 Staphylococcus isolates from the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University (FAHJU) in Guangzhou during 2001-2010. With the exception of teicoplanin and vancomycin, antimicrobial resistance was commonly observed among the isolates examined, with high resistance rates for β-lactamases (94.0% and 73.7% for penicillin and oxacillin) and resistance percentages for cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline ranging from 83.9% to 19.4%. Two hundred sixty-three of the 1,739 isolates were subjected to SCCmec typing and 42 to MLST, spaA, and coa typing. ST239-MRSA-III was prevalently identified along with one distinct coa type HIJKL and 2 spaA types (WGKAOMQ-t037 and WGKAQQ-t030). Class 1 integrons were commonly detected (31.6%), although none of the integron-positive MRSA strains had been isolated since 2009. The widespread detection of integron-based antimicrobial resistance determinants may further contribute to the emergence of superbugs.

  11. Phonon probe of local strains in SnSxSe2-x mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiev, V. G.; De, D.; Peng, H. B.; Manongdo, J.; Guloy, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    We present a combined Raman spectroscopy and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) study of phonon variation with composition x in the mixed crystals SnSxSe2-x. The experimentally observed two-mode behavior of the A1g and Eg vibrations involving Se(S) atoms is shown to arise from the lack of overlapping of the corresponding phonon dispersion bands in SnS2 and SnSe2. This offers a unique opportunity to assess local distortions of the trigonal Sn3Se pyramids in SnSxSe2-x as no Se and S mode mixing is involved. The dependence of local height and base length of Sn3Se pyramids with x is derived by a procedure that uses the measured A1g (Se) and Eg (Se) phonons in SnSxSe2-x, those calculated by DFPT for SnSe2 at different hydrostatic pressure, DFPT phonon dispersion, and the contribution from mass-disorder induced phonon self-energy.

  12. Strained local and state government finances among current realities that threaten public hospitals' profitability.

    PubMed

    Kane, Nancy M; Singer, Sara J; Clark, Jonathan R; Eeckloo, Kristof; Valentine, Melissa

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates that some safety-net hospitals--those that provide a large share of the care to low-income, uninsured, and Medicaid populations--survived and even thrived before the recent recession. We analyzed the financial performance and governance of 150 hospitals during 2003-07. We found, counterintuitively, that those directly governed by elected officials and in highly competitive markets were more profitable than other safety-net hospitals. They were financially healthy primarily because they obtained subsidies from state and local governments, such as property tax transfers or supplemental Medicaid payments, including disproportionate share payments. However, safety-net hospitals now face a new market reality. The economic downturn, slow recovery, and politics of deficit reduction have eroded the ability of local governments to support the safety net. Many safety-net hospitals have not focused on effective management, cost control, quality improvement, or services that attract insured patients. As a result, and coupled with new uncertainties regarding Medicaid expansion stemming from the recent Supreme Court decision on the Affordable Care Act, many are likely to face increasing financial and competitive pressures that may threaten their survival.

  13. Architecture of a dolostone-hosted brittle-ductile fault: effects of the interplay between weakening and strain localization mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgersen, Espen; Viola, Giulio

    2014-05-01

    Carbonates can remain mechanically strong under most upper crustal conditions, which is testified by the considerable number of moderate to large earthquakes associated with slip on carbonate-hosted faults. Yet, under certain environmental conditions carbonates decompose into mechanically weak minerals, with major consequences for a fault's rheological behavior. We combine structural analysis with petrography, geochemistry and K-Ar dating of synkinematic illite to investigate the processes that control the initial weakening of dolostone and the subsequent strain localization within brittle-ductile faults, aiming at better understanding why some faults remain strong and seismogenic, while others evolve into weak, creeping systems. The Kvenklubben fault (KF) is exposed in the Repparfjord Tectonic Window, northern Norway and is part of a compressional imbricate stack formed during Caledonian SE-directed nappe emplacement. It dips c. 40° to the NW and juxtaposes greenschist facies metabasalts in the hanging wall against chert-bearing meta-dolostones. The fault core is about 2.5 m thick and is composed of talc-bearing calc-phyllonites at the base and chlorite phyllonites at the top. Kinematic indicators show top-to-the SE thrusting, but also late localized top-to-the NNW extensional reactivation. The complex internal architecture of the fault results from multiple faulting episodes. K-Ar ages document that slip initiated in the lower part of the fault core and propagated upwards. The uppermost part of the fault was reactivated as a normal fault in the Mesozoic. Chlorite geothermometery shows that initial localization at the base of the fault core took place at 180-250 °C, whereas later peak Caledonian deformation occurred under higher temperatures (300-350 °C). This is also supported by sub-grain rotation recrystallization of quartz. Within the footwall dolostones an intraformational thrust fault developed sub-parallel to the main KF strand. Its fault core is

  14. Through-silicon via-induced strain distribution in silicon interposer

    SciTech Connect

    Vianne, B.; Richard, M.-I.; Escoubas, S.; Labat, S.; Thomas, O.; Schülli, T.; Chahine, G.; Fiori, V.

    2015-04-06

    Strain in silicon induced by Through-Silicon Via (TSV) integration is of particular interest in the frame of the integration of active devices in silicon interposer. Nano-focused X-ray beam diffraction experiments were conducted using synchrotron radiation to investigate the thermally induced strain field in silicon around copper filled TSVs. Measurements were performed on thinned samples at room temperature and during in situ annealing at 400 °C. In order to correlate the 2D strain maps with finite elements analysis, an analytical model was developed, which takes into account beam absorption in the sample for a given diffraction geometry. The strain field along the [335] direction is found to be in the 10{sup −5} range at room temperature and around 10{sup −4} at 400 °C. Simulations support the expected plastification in some regions of the TSV during the annealing step.

  15. THE DISTRIBUTION OF COALESCING COMPACT BINARIES IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE: PROSPECTS FOR GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Zemp, Marcel; Diemand, Juerg; Mandel, Ilya

    2010-12-10

    Merging compact binaries are the most viable and best-studied candidates for gravitational-wave (GW) detection by the fully operational network of ground-based observatories. In anticipation of the first detections, the expected distribution of GW sources in the local universe is of considerable interest. Here we investigate the full phase-space distribution of coalescing compact binaries at z = 0 using dark matter simulations of structure formation. The fact that these binary systems acquire large barycentric velocities at birth ('kicks') results in merger site distributions that are more diffusely distributed with respect to their putative hosts, with mergers occurring out to distances of a few Mpc from the host halo. Redshift estimates based solely on the nearest galaxy in projection can, as a result, be inaccurate. On the other hand, large offsets from the host galaxy could aid the detection of faint optical counterparts and should be considered when designing strategies for follow-up observations. The degree of isotropy in the projected sky distributions of GW sources is found to be augmented with increasing kick velocity and to be severely enhanced if progenitor systems possess large kicks as inferred from the known population of pulsars and double compact binaries. Even in the absence of observed electromagnetic counterparts, the differences in sky distributions of binaries produced by disparate kick-velocity models could be discerned by GW observatories, within the expected accuracies and detection rates of advanced LIGO-in particular with the addition of more interferometers.

  16. Strain Distribution in a Kennedy Class I Implant Assisted Removable Partial Denture under Various Loading Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shahmiri, Reza; Aarts, John M.; Bennani, Vincent; Swain, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This in vitro study investigates how unilateral and bilateral occlusal loads are transferred to an implant assisted removable partial denture (IARPD). Materials and Methods. A duplicate model of a Kennedy class I edentulous mandibular arch was made and then a conventional removable partial denture (RPD) fabricated. Two Straumann implants were placed in the second molar region, and the prosthesis was modified to accommodate implant retained ball attachments. Strain gages were incorporated into the fitting surface of both the framework and acrylic to measure microstrain (μStrain). The IARPD was loaded to 120Ns unilaterally and bilaterally in three different loading positions. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) with an alpha level of 0.05 to compare the maximum μStrain values of the different loading conditions. Results. During unilateral and bilateral loading the maximum μStrain was predominantly observed in a buccal direction. As the load was moved anteriorly the μStrain increased in the mesial area. Unilateral loading resulted in a twisting of the structure and generated a strain mismatch between the metal and acrylic surfaces. Conclusions. Unilateral loading created lateral and vertical displacement of the IARPD. The curvature of the dental arch resulted in a twisting action which intensified as the unilateral load was moved anteriorly. PMID:23737788

  17. Entamoeba histolytica: expression and localization of Gal/GalNAc lectin in virulent and non-virulent variants from HM1:IMSS strain.

    PubMed

    López-Vancell, R; Arreguín Espinosa, R; González-Canto, A; Néquiz Avendaño, M; García de León, M C; Olivos-García, A; López-Vancell, D; Pérez-Tamayo, R

    2010-07-01

    We have purified Gal/GalNAc lectin from Entamoeba histolytica by electroelution. The purified protein was used to immunize rabbits and obtain polyclonal IgG's anti-lectin. These antibodies were used as tools to analyze the expression and localization of the amoebic lectin in both virulent (vEh) and non-virulent (nvEh) variants of axenically cultured HM1:IMSS strain. vEh is able to induce liver abscesses in hamsters, whereas nvEh has lost this ability. In vitro, amoebic trophozoites from both variants equally express this protein as shown by densitometric analysis of the corresponding band in Western blots from lysates. In both types of trophozoites, the pattern of distribution of the lectin was mainly on the surface. We have also compared by immunohistochemistry the presence and distribution of lectin in the in vivo liver lesions produced in hamsters. In order to prolong the survival of nvEh to analyze both variants in an in vivo model, hamsters inoculated with nvEh were treated with methyl prednisolone. Our results suggest that the Gal/GalNAc lectin is equally expressed in both nvEh and vEh.

  18. Identification of plant promoter constituents by analysis of local distribution of short sequences

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Ichida, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Minami; Obokata, Junichi; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Satou, Masakazu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Abe, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    Background Plant promoter architecture is important for understanding regulation and evolution of the promoters, but our current knowledge about plant promoter structure, especially with respect to the core promoter, is insufficient. Several promoter elements including TATA box, and several types of transcriptional regulatory elements have been found to show local distribution within promoters, and this feature has been successfully utilized for extraction of promoter constituents from human genome. Results LDSS (Local Distribution of Short Sequences) profiles of short sequences along the plant promoter have been analyzed in silico, and hundreds of hexamer and octamer sequences have been identified as having localized distributions within promoters of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. Based on their localization patterns, the identified sequences could be classified into three groups, pyrimidine patch (Y Patch), TATA box, and REG (Regulatory Element Group). Sequences of the TATA box group are consistent with the ones reported in previous studies. The REG group includes more than 200 sequences, and half of them correspond to known cis-elements. The other REG subgroups, together with about a hundred uncategorized sequences, are suggested to be novel cis-regulatory elements. Comparison of LDSS-positive sequences between Arabidopsis and rice has revealed moderate conservation of elements and common promoter architecture. In addition, a dimer motif named the YR Rule (C/T A/G) has been identified at the transcription start site (-1/+1). This rule also fits both Arabidopsis and rice promoters. Conclusion LDSS was successfully applied to plant genomes and hundreds of putative promoter elements have been extracted as LDSS-positive octamers. Identified promoter architecture of monocot and dicot are well conserved, but there are moderate variations in the utilized sequences. PMID:17346352

  19. Inferring local competition intensity from patch size distributions: a test using biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2012-01-01

    Dryland vegetation is inherently patchy. This patchiness goes on to impact ecology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Recently, researchers have proposed that dryland vegetation patch sizes follow a power law which is due to local plant facilitation. It is unknown what patch size distribution prevails when competition predominates over facilitation, or if such a pattern could be used to detect competition. We investigated this question in an alternative vegetation type, mosses and lichens of biological soil crusts, which exhibit a smaller scale patch-interpatch configuration. This micro-vegetation is characterized by competition for space. We proposed that multiplicative effects of genetics, environment and competition should result in a log-normal patch size distribution. When testing the prevalence of log-normal versus power law patch size distributions, we found that the log-normal was the better distribution in 53% of cases and a reasonable fit in 83%. In contrast, the power law was better in 39% of cases, and in 8% of instances both distributions fit equally well. We further hypothesized that the log-normal distribution parameters would be predictably influenced by competition strength. There was qualitative agreement between one of the distribution's parameters (μ) and a novel intransitive (lacking a 'best' competitor) competition index, suggesting that as intransitivity increases, patch sizes decrease. The correlation of μ with other competition indicators based on spatial segregation of species (the C-score) depended on aridity. In less arid sites, μ was negatively correlated with the C-score (suggesting smaller patches under stronger competition), while positive correlations (suggesting larger patches under stronger competition) were observed at more arid sites. We propose that this is due to an increasing prevalence of competition transitivity as aridity increases. These findings broaden the emerging theory surrounding dryland patch size distributions

  20. Full-Field Strain Measurement On Titanium Welds And Local Elasto-Plastic Identification With The Virtual Fields Method

    SciTech Connect

    Tattoli, F.; Casavola, C.; Pierron, F.; Rotinat, R.; Pappalettere, C.

    2011-01-17

    One of the main problems in welding is the microstructural transformation within the area affected by the thermal history. The resulting heterogeneous microstructure within the weld nugget and the heat affected zones is often associated with changes in local material properties. The present work deals with the identification of material parameters governing the elasto--plastic behaviour of the fused and heat affected zones as well as the base material for titanium hybrid welded joints (Ti6Al4V alloy). The material parameters are identified from heterogeneous strain fields with the Virtual Fields Method. This method is based on a relevant use of the principle of virtual work and it has been shown to be useful and much less time consuming than classical finite element model updating approaches applied to similar problems. The paper will present results and discuss the problem of selection of the weld zones for the identification.

  1. Full-Field Strain Measurement On Titanium Welds And Local Elasto-Plastic Identification With The Virtual Fields Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattoli, F.; Pierron, F.; Rotinat, R.; Casavola, C.; Pappalettere, C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main problems in welding is the microstructural transformation within the area affected by the thermal history. The resulting heterogeneous microstructure within the weld nugget and the heat affected zones is often associated with changes in local material properties. The present work deals with the identification of material parameters governing the elasto—plastic behaviour of the fused and heat affected zones as well as the base material for titanium hybrid welded joints (Ti6Al4V alloy). The material parameters are identified from heterogeneous strain fields with the Virtual Fields Method. This method is based on a relevant use of the principle of virtual work and it has been shown to be useful and much less time consuming than classical finite element model updating approaches applied to similar problems. The paper will present results and discuss the problem of selection of the weld zones for the identification.

  2. In vivo protein interaction network analysis reveals porin-localized antibiotic inactivation in Acinetobacter baumannii strain AB5075.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Chavez, Juan D; Schweppe, Devin K; Zheng, Chunxiang; Weisbrod, Chad R; Eng, Jimmy K; Murali, Ananya; Lee, Samuel A; Ramage, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Larry A; Kulasekara, Hemantha D; Edrozo, Mauna E; Kamischke, Cassandra N; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Miller, Samuel I; Singh, Pradeep K; Manoil, Colin; Bruce, James E

    2016-11-11

    The nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is a frequent cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide and is a challenge for treatment due to its evolved resistance to antibiotics, including carbapenems. Here, to gain insight on A. baumannii antibiotic resistance mechanisms, we analyse the protein interaction network of a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clinical strain (AB5075). Using in vivo chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry, we identify 2,068 non-redundant cross-linked peptide pairs containing 245 intra- and 398 inter-molecular interactions. Outer membrane proteins OmpA and YiaD, and carbapenemase Oxa-23 are hubs of the identified interaction network. Eighteen novel interactors of Oxa-23 are identified. Interactions of Oxa-23 with outer membrane porins OmpA and CarO are verified with co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Furthermore, transposon mutagenesis of oxa-23 or interactors of Oxa-23 demonstrates changes in meropenem or imipenem sensitivity in strain AB5075. These results provide a view of porin-localized antibiotic inactivation and increase understanding of bacterial antibiotic resistance mechanisms.

  3. In vivo protein interaction network analysis reveals porin-localized antibiotic inactivation in Acinetobacter baumannii strain AB5075

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Chavez, Juan D.; Schweppe, Devin K.; Zheng, Chunxiang; Weisbrod, Chad R.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Murali, Ananya; Lee, Samuel A.; Ramage, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Larry A.; Kulasekara, Hemantha D.; Edrozo, Mauna E.; Kamischke, Cassandra N.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Miller, Samuel I.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Manoil, Colin; Bruce, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is a frequent cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide and is a challenge for treatment due to its evolved resistance to antibiotics, including carbapenems. Here, to gain insight on A. baumannii antibiotic resistance mechanisms, we analyse the protein interaction network of a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clinical strain (AB5075). Using in vivo chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry, we identify 2,068 non-redundant cross-linked peptide pairs containing 245 intra- and 398 inter-molecular interactions. Outer membrane proteins OmpA and YiaD, and carbapenemase Oxa-23 are hubs of the identified interaction network. Eighteen novel interactors of Oxa-23 are identified. Interactions of Oxa-23 with outer membrane porins OmpA and CarO are verified with co-immunoprecipitation analysis. Furthermore, transposon mutagenesis of oxa-23 or interactors of Oxa-23 demonstrates changes in meropenem or imipenem sensitivity in strain AB5075. These results provide a view of porin-localized antibiotic inactivation and increase understanding of bacterial antibiotic resistance mechanisms. PMID:27834373

  4. Distribution of nitrogenous nutrients and denitrifiers strains in estuarine sediment profiles of the Tanshui River, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, L. F.; Shieh, W. Y.; Wu, W. F.; Chen, C.-P.

    2006-09-01

    Chemical profiles of both oxidized (nitrate and sulfate) and reduced (ammonium, sulfide, acid-volatile sulfide [AVS], and pyrite) materials and the corresponding distribution of denitrifier microbial communities were measured at low tide in sediments at Guandu in the estuary of the Tanshui River, northern Taiwan in August 2002. Denitrifier strains were isolated for physiological and phylogenic analyses. Based on the distribution of nitrogenous compounds and denitrifier abundances, the vertical profile of Guandu sediments could be separated into four layers: a mixed layer (the top 1 cm of depth, respectively containing 0.82-2.37 and 535.9-475.0 μM of nitrate and ammonium), a nitrate-concentrated layer (1-5 cm in depth, 2.37-0.53 and 475.0-1192.1 μM, respectively), a denitrifier-aggregation layer (5-7 cm in depth, 0.53-0.72 and 1192.1-1430.1 μM, respectively), and an ammonium-enriched layer (7-12 cm in depth, 0.72-0.78 and 1430.1-2196.6 μM, respectively). Denitrifier strains were detected in all layers except for the mixed layer. A variety of metabolic processes by these strains may occur in different layers. Bacillus jeotgali-, Bacillus sphaericus-, and Bacillus firmus-related strains isolated from the nitrate-concentrated layer may be involved in the nitrification-denitrification coupling process due to the relatively low nitrate concentrations (maximum = 2.37 μM), and may contribute to denitrification not nitrification. Bacillus bataviensis- and B. jeotgali-related strains isolated from the denitrifier-aggregation layer comprised the predominant denitrifier population (3.64 × 10 4 cells/g of denitrifier abundance). They possess the ability of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Bacillus jeotgali-related strains and two newly identified strains of GD0705 and GD0706 isolated from the ammonium-enriched layer possibly use fermentative processes as the main metabolic pathway instead of denitrification when nitrate is scarce, and this further

  5. Controlling the cation distribution and electric polarization with epitaxial strain in Aurivillius-phase Bi5FeTi3O15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birenbaum, Axiel Yaël; Ederer, Claude

    2016-02-01

    This work explores the impact of in-plane bi-axial (epitaxial) strain on the cation distribution and electric polarization of the Aurivillius-phase compound Bi5FeTi3O15 using first-principles electronic structure calculations. Our calculations indicate that the site preference of the Fe3+ cation can be controlled via epitaxial strain. Tensile strain enhances the preference for the inner sites within the perovskite-like layers of the Aurivillius-phase structure, whereas compressive strain favors occupation of the outer sites, i.e., the sites close to the Bi2O2 layer. Controlling the distribution of the magnetic cations offers the possibility to control magnetic order in this magnetically dilute system. Furthermore, the magnitude of the electric polarization is strongly strain-dependent, increasing under tensile strain and decreasing under compressive strain. We find strongly anomalous Born effective charges, both of the Bi3+ and the Ti4+ cations.

  6. Strain and lattice orientation distribution in SiN/Ge complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible light emitting microstructures by quick x-ray nano-diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chahine, G. A.; Schülli, T. U.; Zoellner, M. H.; Guha, S.; Reich, C.; Zaumseil, P.; Capellini, G.; Richard, M.-I.; Schroeder, T.

    2015-02-16

    This paper presents a study of the spatial distribution of strain and lattice orientation in CMOS-fabricated strained Ge microstripes using high resolution x-ray micro-diffraction. The recently developed model-free characterization tool, based on a quick scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy technique can image strain down to levels of 10{sup −5} (Δa/a) with a spatial resolution of ∼0.5 μm. Strain and lattice tilt are extracted using the strain and orientation calculation software package X-SOCS. The obtained results are compared with the biaxial strain distribution obtained by lattice parameter-sensitive μ-Raman and μ-photoluminescence measurements. The experimental data are interpreted with the help of finite element modeling of the strain relaxation dynamics in the investigated structures.

  7. Localized buckling of a microtubule surrounded by randomly distributed cross linkers.

    PubMed

    Jin, M Z; Ru, C Q

    2013-07-01

    Microtubules supported by surrounding cross linkers in eukaryotic cells can bear a much higher compressive force than free-standing microtubules. Different from some previous studies, which treated the surroundings as a continuum elastic foundation or elastic medium, the present paper develops a micromechanics numerical model to examine the role of randomly distributed discrete cross linkers in the buckling of compressed microtubules. First, the proposed numerical approach is validated by reproducing the uniform multiwave buckling mode predicted by the existing elastic-foundation model. For more realistic buckling of microtubules surrounded by randomly distributed cross linkers, the present numerical model predicts that the buckling mode is localized at one end in agreement with some known experimental observations. In particular, the critical force for localized buckling, predicted by the present model, is insensitive to microtubule length and can be about 1 order of magnitude lower than those given by the elastic-foundation model, which suggests that the elastic-foundation model may have overestimated the critical force for buckling of microtubules in vivo. In addition, unlike the elastic-foundation model, the present model can capture the effect of end conditions on the critical force and wavelength of localized buckling. Based on the known data of spacing and elastic constants of cross linkers available in literature, the critical force and wavelength of the localized buckling mode, predicted by the present model, are compared to some experimental data with reasonable agreement. Finally, two empirical formulas are proposed for the critical force and wavelength of the localized buckling of microtubules surrounded by cross linkers.

  8. Research on distributed strain separation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing system combining an electric power optical fiber cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yuqing; Chen, Xi; Li, Jihui; Tong, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Brillouin-based optical fiber sensing system has been taken more and more attentions in power transmission line in recent years. However, there exists a temperature cross sensitivity problem in sensing system. Hence, researching on strain separation technology of fiber brillouin sensing system is an urgent requirement in its practical area. In this paper, a real-time online distributed strain separation calculation technology of fiber Brillouin sensing combining an electric power optical fiber cable is proposed. The technology is mainly composed of the Brillouin temperature-strain distributed measurement system and the Raman temperature distributed measurement system. In this technology, the electric power optical fiber cable is a special optical phase conductor (OPPC); the Brillouin sensing system uses the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) method. The optical unit of the OPPC includes single-mode and multimode fibers which can be used as sensing channel for Brillouin sensing system and Raman sensing system respectively. In the system networking aspect, the data processor of fiber Brillouin sensing system works as the host processor and the data processor of fiber Raman sensing system works as the auxiliary processor. And the auxiliary processor transfers the data to the host processor via the Ethernet interface. In the experiment, the BOTDA monitoring system and the Raman monitoring system work on the same optical unit of the OPPC simultaneously; In the data processing aspect, the auxiliary processor of Raman transfers the temperature data to the host processor of Brillouin via the Ethernet interface, and then the host processor of Brillouin uses the temperature data combining itself strain-temperature data to achieve the high sampling rate and high-precision strain separation via data decoupling calculation. The data decoupling calculation is achieved through the interpolation, filtering, feature point alignment, and the singular point prediction

  9. Shear strain localization and fracture evolution in rock. Progress report, April 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    Work during this Period has concentrated on refinements of a constitutive relation based on damage due to oriented microcracks. The goal of this portion of the study is to determine whether this relation satisfactorily describes axisymmetric and multi-axial (compression-torsion) test data on Tennessee marble. We have studied the predictions of the relation for the crack lengths and orientations in axisymmetric compression, for peak stress and for the damage surface for combined torsion and compression. A key result is that the damage surface for combined torsion and compression is initially elliptical but forms a vertex with axial loading beyond the initial damage stress. The vertex angle continues to narrow with further axial loading and depends additionally on the coefficient of friction and the range of angles of cracks that have been activated. A consequence of vertex formation is that the stiffness of response to an increment of shear imposed on axial compression, as occurs in localization, will be much less than the elastic modulus and will continue to diminish with further axial deformation.

  10. Facial asymmetry: a case report of localized linear scleroderma patient with muscular strain and spasm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Suck-Chul; Kim, Chul-Hoon; Kim, Bok-Joo

    2015-12-01

    Facial asymmetry is found in patients with or without cosmetic facial alterations. Some patients have facial asymmetry that manifests underlying skeletal problems, while others have only limited soft-tissue facial asymmetry. Orthognathic surgery brings about a dermatic change, as soft tissue covers underlying bones. Limited soft-tissue asymmetry, meanwhile, is difficult to correct. The treatment modalities for the creation or restoration of an esthetically pleasing appearance were autogenous fat grafts, cartilage graft, and silicon injections. A young female patient had right-side facial asymmetry. The clinical assessment involved visual inspection of the face and palpation to differentiate soft tissue and bone. Although the extra-oral examination found facial asymmetry with skin atrophy, the radiographic findings revealed no mandibular atrophy or deviation. She was diagnosed as localized scleroderma with muscle spasm. In conclusion, facial asymmetry patients with skeletal asymmetry can be esthetically satisfied by orthognathic surgery; however, facial atrophy patients with skin or subdermal tissue contraction need treatment by cosmetic dermatological surgery and orthodontic correction.

  11. Quantifying velocity, strain rate and stress distribution in coalescing salt sheets for safer drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijermars, R.; van Harmelen, A.

    2015-03-01

    Reaching sub-salt hydrocarbon targets in the deeper part of the Gulf of Mexico requires drilling through a salt canopy. The suture zones in the salt canopy are potential drilling hazards due to anomalous pressure behaviour of entrapped sediments. The Pólya vector field of coalescing salt sheets inside the canopy is used to explain suture formation and distinguish between upright and inclined suture contacts. Our analytical models, based on complex potentials, provide exact solutions for multiple source flows as they compete for space when spreading into the viscous continuum of the salt canopy. The velocity gradient tensor yields the strain rate tensor, which is used to map the principal strain rate magnitude inside the canopy. Quantification of one of the principal strain rates is sufficient because the plane deformation assumption ensures the two principal strain rates are equal in magnitude (but of opposite sign); the third principal dimension can have neither strain nor deviatoric stress. Visualization of the locations where the principal stress vanishes or peaks (with highs and lows) is useful for pre-drilling plans because such peaks must be avoided and the stress-free locations provide the safer drilling sites. A case study-of the Walker Ridge region-demonstrates the practical application of our new method.

  12. A model of local distribution of saturation in a fractured layer, and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Yuichi Niibori; Tadashi Chida

    1994-01-20

    This paper describes a model of local distribution of liquid water (or steam) saturation in a fractured layer. The model, based on the Bernoulli trials as a probability density function of saturation, gives the following relation between the average value of the relative permeability for the water phase, k{sub rwa}, and the arithmetical mean of saturation, S{sub wa}: k{sub rwa}=S{sub wa}{sup m} where m is an index representing the non-uniformity of saturation (1<=m<=4). When m=4, the saturation is distributed uniformly. The proposed model also gives the average value for the relative permeability of the steam phase, k{sub rga}, as follows: k{sub rga}=1-S{sub wa}{sup m}-2S{sub wa}+2S{sub wa}{sup (2m+1)/3} These relations are applied to analysis of some experimental data already reported by the authors. Also, this presentation shows the validity of the Bernoulli trials as a density probability function of saturation in comparison with other kinds of such functions: the normal distribution, the triangle distribution and the beta distribution.

  13. Distribution of crossing over on mouse synaptonemal complexes using immunofluorescent localization of MLH1 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L K; Reeves, A; Webb, L M; Ashley, T

    1999-01-01

    We have used immunofluorescent localization to examine the distribution of MLH1 (MutL homolog) foci on synaptonemal complexes (SCs) from juvenile male mice. MLH1 is a mismatch repair protein necessary for meiotic recombination in mice, and MLH1 foci have been proposed to mark crossover sites. We present evidence that the number and distribution of MLH1 foci on SCs closely correspond to the number and distribution of chiasmata on diplotene-metaphase I chromosomes. MLH1 foci were typically excluded from SC in centromeric heterochromatin. For SCs with one MLH1 focus, most foci were located near the middle of long SCs, but near the distal end of short SCs. For SCs with two MLH1 foci, the distribution of foci was bimodal regardless of SC length, with most foci located near the proximal and distal ends. The distribution of MLH1 foci indicated interference between foci. We observed a consistent relative distance (percent of SC length in euchromatin) between two foci on SCs of different lengths, suggesting that positive interference between MLH1 foci is a function of relative SC length. The extended length of pachytene SCs, as compared to more condensed diplotene-metaphase I bivalents, makes mapping crossover events and interference distances using MLH1 foci more accurate than using chiasmata. PMID:10101178

  14. Spatial distribution of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrients within a local coastal area.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Takahiro; Ono, Masahiko; Burnett, William C; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Makoto; Akimichi, Tomoya

    2012-05-15

    To understand the local-scale distribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and dissolved nutrients, a multiple-detector (222)Rn monitoring survey was undertaken along the Mt. Chokai volcanic coast in northern Japan. The surveys revealed that the highest SGD (calculated to be 6.2 × 10(4) m(3) d(-1), within an area of 2 × 10(4) m(2)) with the greatest nutrient fluxes (sum of NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), and NH(4)(+) (DIN): 9.2 × 10(2) mol d(-1); PO(4)(3-) (DIP): 56 mol d(-1)) is present at the edge of the youngest volcanic lava flow in the area. Recharged groundwater transports nutrients through porous volcanic flows and discharges as SGD near shore. Our results demonstrate that the spatial distribution of SGD in the study area is closely regulated by the local geology and topography. Furthermore, we show that continuous (222)Rn monitoring with a multidetector system at boat speeds of 1-2 knots provides details at a scale one order of magnitude greater than has been reported previously. In addition, the results of our study suggest that SGD-borne DIP may play an important role in the important local oyster production.

  15. Strain Partitioning and Localization within Dobe Graben Using Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-INSAR) and Shuttle Radar Terrain Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Z. S.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Byrnes, J. M.; Bridges, D.

    2014-12-01

    the measured population of fault throws (n= 30) in 12 traverses totaling 48 km revealed a negative power fit distribution indicated a strong strain localization by the graben boarder faults.

  16. A Local Scalable Distributed Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Large Peer-to-Peer Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a local distributed algorithm for expectation maximization in large peer-to-peer environments. The algorithm can be used for a variety of well-known data mining tasks in a distributed environment such as clustering, anomaly detection, target tracking to name a few. This technology is crucial for many emerging peer-to-peer applications for bioinformatics, astronomy, social networking, sensor networks and web mining. Centralizing all or some of the data for building global models is impractical in such peer-to-peer environments because of the large number of data sources, the asynchronous nature of the peer-to-peer networks, and dynamic nature of the data/network. The distributed algorithm we have developed in this paper is provably-correct i.e. it converges to the same result compared to a similar centralized algorithm and can automatically adapt to changes to the data and the network. We show that the communication overhead of the algorithm is very low due to its local nature. This monitoring algorithm is then used as a feedback loop to sample data from the network and rebuild the model when it is outdated. We present thorough experimental results to verify our theoretical claims.

  17. Living in a ghetto within a local population: an empirical example of an ideal despotic distribution.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Merging patterns and processes about the way individuals should be distributed in a habitat is a key issue in the framework of spatial ecology. Here the despotic distribution of individuals in two distinct and neighboring patches within a local population of a long-lived colonial bird, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis), was assessed. There was no density dependence for suitable habitat at the study population, but behavioral data suggested that birds from the good patch precluded birds from the bad patch from breeding in their patch. Younger breeders were almost exclusively found in the bad patch, where individuals were probably attracted by conspecific attraction from the good patch. Most breeding parameters were lower in the bad patch, resulting mainly from a higher vulnerability to environmental perturbations and a higher rate of intraspecific nest predation. Attempts at breeding dispersal between the two patches were only observed from the bad to the good patch. Strikingly, adult survival and large-scale dispersal, two life history parameters that are very conservative in long-lived organisms, were also more affected at the bad patch when catastrophic predation occurred. The study was consistent with an ideal despotic distribution at small spatial scale, and suggests that individual behavior can influence local population dynamics.

  18. Detection prospects for high energy neutrino sources from the anisotropic matter distribution in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Rameez, Mohamed; Tamborra, Irene

    2017-03-01

    Constraints on the number and luminosity of the sources of the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube have been set by targeted searches for point sources. We set complementary constraints by using the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) catalogue, which maps the matter distribution of the local Universe. Assuming that the distribution of the neutrino sources follows that of matter, we look for correlations between ``warm'' spots on the IceCube skymap and the 2MRS matter distribution. Through Monte Carlo simulations of the expected number of neutrino multiplets and careful modelling of the detector performance (including that of IceCube-Gen2), we demonstrate that sources with local density exceeding 10‑6 Mpc‑3 and neutrino luminosity Lν lesssim 1042 erg s‑1 (1041 erg s‑1) will be efficiently revealed by our method using IceCube (IceCube-Gen2). At low luminosities such as will be probed by IceCube-Gen2, the sensitivity of this analysis is superior to requiring statistically significant direct observation of a point source.

  19. Observability and Estimation of Distributed Space Systems via Local Information-Exchange Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmani, Amirreza; Mesbahi, Mehran; Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we develop an approach to formation estimation by explicitly characterizing formation's system-theoretic attributes in terms of the underlying inter-spacecraft information-exchange network. In particular, we approach the formation observer/estimator design by relaxing the accessibility to the global state information by a centralized observer/estimator- and in turn- providing an analysis and synthesis framework for formation observers/estimators that rely on local measurements. The noveltyof our approach hinges upon the explicit examination of the underlying distributed spacecraft network in the realm of guidance, navigation, and control algorithmic analysis and design. The overarching goal of our general research program, some of whose results are reported in this paper, is the development of distributed spacecraft estimation algorithms that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations inthe topology and link characteristics of the formation information exchange network. In this work, we consider the observability of a spacecraft formation from a single observation node and utilize the agreement protocol as a mechanism for observing formation states from local measurements. Specifically, we show how the symmetry structure of the network, characterized in terms of its automorphism group, directly relates to the observability of the corresponding multi-agent system The ramification of this notion of observability over networks is then explored in the context of distributed formation estimation.

  20. Experience of BESIII data production with local cluster and distributed computing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. Y.; Li, W. D.; Lin, L.; Liu, H. M.; Nicholson, C.; Sun, Y. Z.; Zhang, X. M.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2012-12-01

    The BES III detector is a new spectrometer which works on the upgraded high-luminosity collider, BEPCII. The BES III experiment studies physics in the tau-charm energy region from 2 GeV to 4.6 GeV . From 2009 to 2011, BEPCII has produced 106M ψ(2S) events, 225M J/ψ events, 2.8 fb-1 ψ(3770) data, and 500 pb-1 data at 4.01 GeV. All the data samples were processed successfully and many important physics results have been achieved based on these samples. Doing data production correctly and efficiently with limited CPU and storage resources is a big challenge. This paper will describe the implementation of the experiment-specific data production for BESIII in detail, including data calibration with event-level parallel computing model, data reconstruction, inclusive Monte Carlo generation, random trigger background mixing and multi-stream data skimming. Now, with the data sample increasing rapidly, there is a growing demand to move from solely using a local cluster to a more distributed computing model. A distributed computing environment is being set up and expected to go into production use in 2012. The experience of BESIII data production, both with a local cluster and with a distributed computing model, is presented here.

  1. The bandgap distribution investigated across the strain-induced bending ZnO nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Geoffrey; Yu, Dapeng

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the strain dependence of electronic and optical properties in wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) lattice were explored. Ab initio density functional theory (DFT) was used in evaluating the energy bandgap and the dielectric tensor, respectively. The influence on the bandgap due to the shear distortion was so small that the reducing linear trends on uniaxial compressive/tensile strain were reported, in which the evolution of the absorption curve with uniaxial strain agrees well with the experimental results across the bending section. This study provides a set of useful data in analyzing the evolution of the optical adsorption across the bending ZnO nanowire, and gives a systematic explanation to the available experiments from the electronic structure’s perspective.

  2. Determination of elastic strain fields and geometrically necessary dislocation distributions near nanoindents using electron back scatter diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Angus J.; Randman, David

    2010-03-01

    The deformation around a 500-nm deep Berkovich indent in a large grained Fe sample has been studied using high resolution electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD). EBSD patterns were obtained in a two-dimensional map around the indent on the free surface. A cross-correlation-based analysis of small shifts in many sub-regions of the EBSD patterns was used to determine the variation of elastic strain and lattice rotations across the map at a sensitivity of ∼±10-4. Elastic strains were smaller than lattice rotations, with radial strains found to be compressive and hoop strains tensile as expected. Several analyses based on Nye's dislocation tensor were used to estimate the distribution of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) around the indent. The results obtained using different assumed dislocation geometries, optimisation routines and different contributions from the measured lattice rotation and strain fields are compared. Our favoured approach is to seek a combination of GND types which support the six measurable (of a possible nine) gradients of the lattice rotations after correction for the 10 measurable elastic strain gradients, and minimise the total GND line energy using an L1 optimisation method. A lower bound estimate for the noise on the GND density determination is ∼±1012 m-2 for a 200-nm step size, and near the indent densities as high as 1015 m-2 were measured. For comparison, a Hough-based analysis of the EBSD patterns has a much higher noise level of ∼±1014m-2 for the GND density.

  3. Addressing potential local adaptation in species distribution models: implications for conservation under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hällfors, Maria Helena; Liao, Jishan; Dzurisin, Jason D. K.; Grundel, Ralph; Hyvärinen, Marko; Towle, Kevin; Wu, Grace C.; Hellmann, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been criticized for involving assumptions that ignore or categorize many ecologically relevant factors such as dispersal ability and biotic interactions. Another potential source of model error is the assumption that species are ecologically uniform in their climatic tolerances across their range. Typically, SDMs to treat a species as a single entity, although populations of many species differ due to local adaptation or other genetic differentiation. Not taking local adaptation into account, may lead to incorrect range prediction and therefore misplaced conservation efforts. A constraint is that we often do not know the degree to which populations are locally adapted, however. Lacking experimental evidence, we still can evaluate niche differentiation within a species' range to promote better conservation decisions. We explore possible conservation implications of making type I or type II errors in this context. For each of two species, we construct three separate MaxEnt models, one considering the species as a single population and two of disjunct populations. PCA analyses and response curves indicate different climate characteristics in the current environments of the populations. Model projections into future climates indicate minimal overlap between areas predicted to be climatically suitable by the whole species versus population-based models. We present a workflow for addressing uncertainty surrounding local adaptation in SDM application and illustrate the value of conducting population-based models to compare with whole-species models. These comparisons might result in more cautious management actions when alternative range outcomes are considered.

  4. Ubiquitous distribution and different subcellular localization of sorbitol dehydrogenase in fruit and leaf of apple.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Xu, Yan-Hong; Peng, Chang-Cao; Fan, Ren-Chun; Gao, Xin-Qi

    2009-01-01

    NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), a key enzyme in sorbitol metabolism, plays an important role in regulating sink strength and determining the quality of apple fruit. Understanding the tissue and subcellular localization of NAD-SDH is helpful for understanding sorbitol metabolism in the apple. In this study, two NAD-SDH cDNA sequences were isolated from apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson) and named MdSDH5 and MdSDH6. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that NAD-SDH is distributed in both the flesh and the vascular tissue of the fruit, and the vascular tissue and mesophyll tissue in the young and old leaves, indicating that it is a ubiquitous protein expressed in both sink and source organs. Immunogold electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that NAD-SDH is localized mainly in the cytoplasm and chloroplast of the fruit and leaves. The chloroplast localization of NAD-SDH was confirmed by the transient expression of MdSDH5-GFP and MdSDH6-GFP in the mesophyll protoplast of Arabidopsis. NAD-SDH was also found in electron opaque deposits of vacuoles in young and mature leaves. These data show that NAD-SDH has different subcellular localizations in fruit and leaves, indicating that it might play a different role in sorbitol metabolism in different tissues of apple.

  5. Uncertainty in identifying local extinctions: the distribution of missing data and its effects on biodiversity measures.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Elizabeth H; Fuller, Richard A; McGowan, Philip J K; Mace, Georgina M

    2016-03-01

    Identifying local extinctions is integral to estimating species richness and geographic range changes and informing extinction risk assessments. However, the species occurrence records underpinning these estimates are frequently compromised by a lack of recorded species absences making it impossible to distinguish between local extinction and lack of survey effort-for a rigorously compiled database of European and Asian Galliformes, approximately 40% of half-degree cells contain records from before but not after 1980. We investigate the distribution of these cells, finding differences between the Palaearctic (forests, low mean human influence index (HII), outside protected areas (PAs)) and Indo-Malaya (grassland, high mean HII, outside PAs). Such cells also occur more in less peaceful countries. We show that different interpretations of these cells can lead to large over/under-estimations of species richness and extent of occurrences, potentially misleading prioritization and extinction risk assessment schemes. To avoid mistakes, local extinctions inferred from sightings records need to account for the history of survey effort in a locality.

  6. Distributed Multi Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Consensus Particle Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, F.; Trilaksono, B. R.; Hindersah, H.

    2017-01-01

    These paper present distributed computations of join probabilities SLAM with consensus particle filtering algorithm. We consider groups of robot observe an unknown environment and build the global maps. In this paper, every local map is a global map. Global maps build by using its own information and the information obtained from the other robots. We use particles likelihood as transfer parameters. The information can be transferred to other robot if reach global agreement on particles weight. The global agreement can be obtained by using the Consensus Particle Filtering algorithm, computation is done locally on each robot. After reaching an agreement, then the global map can be built and information of the global map is owned on each robot.

  7. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2016-11-21

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  8. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  9. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution under the local oscillator intensity attack with noiseless linear amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fangli; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying; Shi, JinJing; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-08-01

    An improved continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) protocol is proposed to improve the performance of CVQKD system under the local oscillator intensity attack by using a suitable noiseless linear amplifier (NLA) at the destination. This method can enhance the efficiency of the CVQKD scheme in terms of the maximum transmission distance, no matter whether the direct or reverse reconciliation is used. Simulation results show that there is a considerable increase in the transmission distance for the NLA-based CVQKD by adjusting the values of the parameters.

  10. Wide Distribution of Foxicin Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Streptomyces Strains – An Unusual Secondary Metabolite with Various Properties

    PubMed Central

    Greule, Anja; Marolt, Marija; Deubel, Denise; Peintner, Iris; Zhang, Songya; Jessen-Trefzer, Claudia; De Ford, Christian; Burschel, Sabrina; Li, Shu-Ming; Friedrich, Thorsten; Merfort, Irmgard; Lüdeke, Steffen; Bisel, Philippe; Müller, Michael; Paululat, Thomas; Bechthold, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces diastatochromogenes Tü6028 is known to produce the polyketide antibiotic polyketomycin. The deletion of the pokOIV oxygenase gene led to a non-polyketomycin-producing mutant. Instead, novel compounds were produced by the mutant, which have not been detected before in the wild type strain. Four different compounds were identified and named foxicins A–D. Foxicin A was isolated and its structure was elucidated as an unusual nitrogen-containing quinone derivative using various spectroscopic methods. Through genome mining, the foxicin biosynthetic gene cluster was identified in the draft genome sequence of S. diastatochromogenes. The cluster spans 57 kb and encodes three PKS type I modules, one NRPS module and 41 additional enzymes. A foxBII gene-inactivated mutant of S. diastatochromogenes Tü6028 ΔpokOIV is unable to produce foxicins. Homologous fox biosynthetic gene clusters were found in more than 20 additional Streptomyces strains, overall in about 2.6% of all sequenced Streptomyces genomes. However, the production of foxicin-like compounds in these strains has never been described indicating that the clusters are expressed at a very low level or are silent under fermentation conditions. Foxicin A acts as a siderophore through interacting with ferric ions. Furthermore, it is a weak inhibitor of the Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain and shows moderate antibiotic activity. The wide distribution of the cluster and the various properties of the compound indicate a major role of foxicins in Streptomyces strains. PMID:28270798

  11. A novel protein quality control mechanism contributes to heat shock resistance of worldwide-distributed Pseudomonas aeruginosa clone C strains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Wigren, Edvard; Trček, Janja; Peters, Verena; Kim, Jihong; Hasni, Muhammad Sharif; Nimtz, Manfred; Lindqvist, Ylva; Park, Chankyu; Curth, Ute; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Römling, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly successful nosocomial pathogen capable of causing a wide variety of infections with clone C strains most prevalent worldwide. In this study, we initially characterize a molecular mechanism of survival unique to clone C strains. We identified a P. aeruginosa clone C-specific genomic island (PACGI-1) that contains the highly expressed small heat shock protein sHsp20c, the founding member of a novel subclass of class B bacterial small heat shock proteins. sHsp20c and adjacent gene products are involved in resistance against heat shock. Heat stable sHsp20c is unconventionally expressed in stationary phase in a wide temperature range from 20 to 42°C. Purified sHsp20c has characteristic features of small heat shock protein class B as it is monodisperse, forms sphere-like 24-meric oligomers and exhibits significant chaperone activity. As the P. aeruginosa clone C population is significantly more heat shock resistant than genetically unrelated P. aeruginosa strains without sHsp20c, the horizontally acquired shsp20c operon might contribute to the survival of worldwide-distributed clone C strains.

  12. Quantifying how the full local distribution of daily precipitation is changing and its uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, David; Chapman, Sandra; Watkins, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The study of the consequences of global warming would benefit from quantification of geographical patterns of change at specific thresholds or quantiles, and better understandings of the intrinsic uncertainties in such quantities. For precipitation a range of indices have been developed which focus on high percentiles (e.g. rainfall falling on days above the 99th percentile) and on absolute extremes (e.g. maximum annual one day precipitation) but scientific assessments are best undertaken in the context of changes in the whole climatic distribution. Furthermore, the relevant thresholds for climate-vulnerable policy decisions, adaptation planning and impact assessments, vary according to the specific sector and location of interest. We present a methodology which maintains the flexibility to provide information at different thresholds for different downstream users, both scientists and decision makers. We develop a method[1,2] for analysing local climatic timeseries to assess which quantiles of the local climatic distribution show the greatest and most robust changes in daily precipitation data. We extract from the data quantities that characterize the changes in time of the likelihood of daily precipitation above a threshold and of the amount of precipitation on those days. Our method is a simple mathematical deconstruction of how the difference between two observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural statistical variability and/or the consequences of secular climate change. This deconstruction facilitates an assessment of how fast different quantiles of precipitation distributions are changing. This involves not only determining which quantiles and geographical locations show the greatest and smallest changes, but also those at which uncertainty undermines the ability to make confident statements about any change there may be. We demonstrate this approach using E-OBS gridded data[3] which are timeseries of local daily

  13. Multiple concurrent sources localization based on a two-node distributed acoustic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiaxin; Zhao, Zhao; Chen, Chunzeng; Xu, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach to localize multiple concurrent sources using a distributed acoustic sensor network. Only two node-arrays are required in this sensor network, and each node-array consists of only two widely spaced sensors. Firstly, direction-of-arrivals (DOAs) of multiple sources are estimated at each node-array by utilizing a new pooled angular spectrum proposed in this paper, which can implement the spatial aliasing suppression effectively. Based on minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming and the DOA estimates of the sources, the time-frequency spectra containing the corresponding energy distribution features associated with those sources are reconstructed in each node-array. Then, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is employed to solve the DOA association problem. Performance evaluation is conducted with field recordings and experimental results prove the effectivity and feasibility of the proposed method.

  14. Evaluation of Local Residual Stress Distribution of Stator Core in Rotating Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Yuichiro; Tsuchida, Yuji; Todaka, Takashi; Enokizono, Masato

    It is well known that magnetic properties deteriorate in constructed cores due to conditions stressed by riveting and welding during manufacturing process, punching and sharing in cutting process of the electrical steel sheets and so on. Therefore, it is important to know the relationships between the stress and magnetic property of the electrical steel in order to design the electrical machinery. In this paper, the local residual stress distribution on the cross section of the stator core in a rotating machine is measured with a X-ray stress measurement device. As the result, the difference of the residual stress distribution of each component is obtained in the teeth and core back of the stator core. In addition, we estimated the deterioration of the magnetic property in the teeth region. It was clarified that the magnetic properties of the electrical steel sheet is deteriorated due to the residual stress.

  15. Large developing receptive fields using a distributed and locally reprogrammable address-event receiver.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Simeon A; Murray, Alan F; Willshaw, David J

    2010-02-01

    A distributed and locally reprogrammable address-event receiver has been designed, in which incoming address-events are monitored simultaneously by all synapses, allowing for arbitrarily large axonal fan-out without reducing channel capacity. Synapses can change the address of their presynaptic neuron, allowing the distributed implementation of a biologically realistic learning rule, with both synapse formation and elimination (synaptic rewiring). Probabilistic synapse formation leads to topographic map development, made possible by a cross-chip current-mode calculation of Euclidean distance. As well as synaptic plasticity in rewiring, synapses change weights using a competitive Hebbian learning rule (spike-timing-dependent plasticity). The weight plasticity allows receptive fields to be modified based on spatio-temporal correlations in the inputs, and the rewiring plasticity allows these modifications to become embedded in the network topology.

  16. The effect of solute distribution on the strain rate sensitivity of solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijie

    Several aspects of the physics of the interaction of mobile solute atoms and dislocations in dilute solid solution alloys are studied in this thesis. Solute is added to pure metals in order to improve their strength. Alloying also leads to a number of other effects, some of which are undesirable. For example, it leads to reduced ductility and may cause plastic instabilities. Both of these limit material formability. Here, understanding is added regarding the physical basis of these phenomena. Reduced formability is associated with the occurrence of plastic instabilities which are caused either by low strain hardening or by low (negative) strain rate sensitivity (SRS). The current study is focused on the second effect. The strain rate sensitivity has an instantaneous component (always positive), which is associated with the thermally activated motion of dislocations, and a transient component (which may be either positive or negative), which is associated with the correlated motion of dislocations and solute. Negative SRS results when the transient component is sufficiently negative and is presumably due to clustering of solute at dislocations. The study has a multiscale nature. On the nanoscale, the formation of solute clusters at stationary dislocation cores is studied using Monte Carlo simulations and EAM potentials in an Al-Mg alloy. The size of the thermodynamically stable cluster and the binding energy of the dislocation to its cluster are evaluated as a function of the average solute concentration and temperature. Such data enter all existing constitutive models of DSA. On the mesoscale, we investigate how solute structures (concentration fluctuations) defined on longer length scales affect dislocation motion and hence the strain rate sensitivity of the material. This investigation is performed using 2D dislocation dynamics simulations. On the macroscopic scale, parametric constitutive modeling is used to investigate the effect of mesoscopic solute structures

  17. Diversity and distribution of anaeromyxobacter strains in a uranium-contaminated subsurface environment with a nonuniform groundwater flow.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sara H; Padilla-Crespo, Elizabeth; Jardine, Phillip M; Sanford, Robert A; Löffler, Frank E

    2009-06-01

    Versaphilic Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strains implicated in hexavalent uranium reduction and immobilization are present in the fractured saprolite subsurface environment at the U.S. Department of Energy Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFC) site near Oak Ridge, TN. To provide insight into the in situ distribution of Anaeromyxobacter strains in this system with a nonuniform groundwater flow, 16S rRNA gene-targeted primers and linear hybridization (TaqMan) probes were designed for Oak Ridge IFC Anaeromyxobacter isolates FRC-D1 and FRC-W, along with an Anaeromyxobacter genus-targeted probe and primer set. Multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (mqPCR) was applied to samples collected from Oak Ridge IFC site areas 1 and 3, which are not connected by the primary groundwater flow paths; however, transport between them through cross-plane fractures is hypothesized. Strain FRC-W accounted for more than 10% of the total quantifiable Anaeromyxobacter community in area 1 soils, while strain FRC-D1 was not detected. In FeOOH-amended enrichment cultures derived from area 1 site materials, strain FRC-D1 accounted for 30 to 90% of the total Anaeromyxobacter community, demonstrating that this strain was present in situ in area 1. The area 3 total Anaeromyxobacter abundance exceeded that of area 1 by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude, but neither strain FRC-W- nor FRC-D1-like sequences were quantifiable in any of the 33 area 3 groundwater or sediment samples tested. The Anaeromyxobacter community in area 3 increased from <10(5) cells/g sediment outside the ethanol biostimulation treatment zone to 10(8) cells/g sediment near the injection well, and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis revealed that representatives of a novel phylogenetic cluster dominated the area 3 Anaeromyxobacter community inside the treatment loop. The combined applications of genus- and strain-level mqPCR approaches along with clone libraries provided novel information on patterns of microbial

  18. Streicker Bridge: a comparison between Bragg-grating long-gauge strain and temperature sensors and Brillouin scattering-based distributed strain and temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisic, Branko; Chen, Jeremy; Hubbell, David

    2011-04-01

    The Streicker Bridge at Princeton University campus has been equipped with two fiber-optic sensing technologies: discrete long-gauge sensing, based on Fiber Bragg-Gratings (FBG), and truly-distributed sensing, based on Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA). The sensors were embedded in concrete during the construction. The early age measurements, including hydration swelling and contraction, and post-tensioning of concrete were registered by both systems and placed side by side in order to compare their performances. Aside from the usual behavior, an unusual increase in strain was detected by several sensors in various cross-sections. The nature of this event is still under investigation, but preliminary study indicates early-age cracking as the cause. The comparison between the two monitoring systems shows good agreement in the areas where no unusual behavior was detected, but some discrepancies are noticed at locations where unusual behavior occurred and during the early age of concrete. These discrepancies are attributed to the spatial resolution of the distributed monitoring system and the temperature influences at early age. In this paper, general information concerning the Streicker Bridge project is given. The monitoring systems and their specifications are briefly presented. The monitoring data are analyzed and a comparison between the two systems is performed.

  19. Monitoring the propagation of mechanical waves using an optical fiber distributed and dynamic strain sensor based on BOTDA.

    PubMed

    Peled, Yair; Motil, Avi; Kressel, Iddo; Tur, Moshe

    2013-05-06

    We report a Brillouin-based fully distributed and dynamic monitoring of the strain induced by a propagating mechanical wave along a 20 m long composite strip, to which surface a single-mode optical fiber was glued. Employing a simplified version of the Slope-Assisted Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (SA-BOTDA) technique, the whole length of the strip was interrogated every 10 ms (strip sampling rate of 100 Hz) with a spatial resolution of the order of 1m. A dynamic spatially and temporally continuous map of the strain was obtained, whose temporal behavior at four discrete locations was verified against co-located fiber Bragg gratings. With a trade-off among sampling rate, range and signal to noise ratio, kHz sampling rates and hundreds of meters of range can be obtained with resolution down to a few centimeters.

  20. High spatial resolution, dynamic, and distributed fiber optic strain sensing based on phasorial Brillouin dynamic gratings reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, A.; Langer, T.; Tur, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel fiber-optic sensing technique based on the distributed measurement of Brillouin-induced phase-shift in the reflection from Brillouin dynamic gratings in polarization-maintaining fibers. Subject to signal to noise considerations, the strain sensitivity of the phase-shift in the reflection of a pulsed probe, orthogonally polarized to the gratings-generating pumps, is independent of the pulse width, suggesting the potential to achieve higher spatial resolutions than those offered by slope-assisted, phasorial Brillouin sensing techniques in standard single-mode fibers. We report the measurement of 500Hz strain vibrations (at a sampling rate of 1MHz) with a spatial resolution of 20cm.

  1. From a theoretical concept to biochemical reactions: strain-induced bond localization (SIBL) in oxidation of vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, Thomas; Ebner, Gerald; Stanger, Amnon; Perl, Sharon; Nuri, Limor

    2004-12-17

    The regioselectivity of the oxidation of alpha-tocopherol (the main component of vitamin E) to an ortho-quinone methide (oQM) has been explained in the literature mostly by the ill-defined term "Mills-Nixon effect". In this paper we describe the preparation of eleven alpha-tocopherol derivatives, different from each other by the sum of annulation angles, but keeping the electronic factors unchanged. These compounds underwent Ag(2)O oxidation, forming two isomeric oQMs that were trapped by vinylmethyl ether. It was found that the isomeric product ratio changes smoothly as a function of the annulation angles, not abruptly from one regioisomer to the other on going from five- to six- and seven-membered rings, as predicted by the Mills-Nixon effect. The relative amounts of the products were determined at four different temperatures, and assuming that the product ratio represents the relative rates ratio, the relative enthalpy of activations could be obtained. Theoretically (at B3LYP/6-31G* theoretical level) four different intermediates were considered. Each of these underwent angular angles deformations to model the two regioisomers. At each deformation angle the energy difference between the two intermediates models was correlated to the experimental data for each of the four intermediates. It was found that the angle-deformed lithium (6-methyl-2-benzylium)phenolate correlated best (R>0.994) to the experimental data. This study confirms that the regioselectivity of the two isomeric oQMs in the oxidation of alpha-tocopherol and related compounds is simply a function of angular strain, best explained by the SIBL (strain-induced bond localization) model. In addition, this study provides evidence that the highest energy intermediate in the oxidation of vitamin E is a phenolate-benzyl cation.

  2. Local and distributed PiB accumulation associated with development of preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brier, Matthew R; McCarthy, John E; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Stern, Ari; Su, Yi; Friedrichsen, Karl A; Morris, John C; Ances, Beau M; Vlassenko, Andrei G

    2016-02-01

    Amyloid-beta plaques are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that can be assessed by amyloid imaging (e.g., Pittsburgh B compound [PiB]) and summarized as a scalar value. Summary values may have clinical utility but are an average over many regions of interest, potentially obscuring important topography. This study investigates the longitudinal evolution of amyloid topographies in cognitively normal older adults who had normal (N = 131) or abnormal (N = 26) PiB scans at baseline. At 3 years follow-up, 16 participants with a previously normal PiB scan had conversion to PiB scans consistent with preclinical AD. We investigated the multivariate relationship (canonical correlation) between baseline and follow-up PiB topographies. Furthermore, we used penalized regression to investigate the added information derived from PiB topography compared to summary measures. PiB accumulation can be local, that is, a topography predicting the same topography in the future, and/or distributed, that is, one topography predicting another. Both local and distributed PiB accumulation was associated with conversion of PiB status. Additionally, elements of the multivariate topography, and not the commonly used summary scalar, correlated with future PiB changes. Consideration of the entire multivariate PiB topography provides additional information regarding the development of amyloid-beta pathology in very early preclinical AD.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Lead Iodide and Local Passivation on Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Wen, Xiaoming; Yun, Jae S; Huang, Shujuan; Green, Martin; Jeon, Nam Joong; Yang, Woon Seok; Noh, Jun Hong; Seo, Jangwon; Seok, Sang Il; Ho-Baillie, Anita

    2017-02-22

    We identify nanoscale spatial distribution of PbI2 on the (FAPbI3)0.85(MAPbBr3)0.15 perovskite thin film and investigate the local passivation effect using confocal based optical microscopy of steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). Different from a typical scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology study, confocal based PL spectroscopy and microscopy allow researchers to map the morphologies of both perovskite and PbI2 grains simultaneously, by selectively detecting their characteristic fluorescent bands using band-pass filters. In this work, we compare the perovskite samples without and with excess PbI2 incorporation and unambiguously reveal PbI2 distribution for the PbI2-rich sample. In addition, using the nanoscale time-resolved PL technique we show that the PbI2-rich regions exhibit longer lifetime due to suppressed defect trapping, compared to the PbI2-poor regions. The measurement on the PbI2-rich sample indicates that the passivation effect of PbI2 in perovskite film is effective, especially in localized regions. Hence, this finding is important for further improvement of the solar cells by considering the strategy of excess PbI2 incorporation.

  4. Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA.

    PubMed

    Ba, Dexin; Wang, Benzhang; Zhou, Dengwang; Yin, Mingjing; Dong, Yongkang; Li, Hui; Lu, Zhiwei; Fan, Zhigang

    2016-05-02

    We propose and demonstrate a dynamic Brillouin optical fiber sensing based on the multi-slope assisted fast Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (F-BOTDA), which enables the measurement of a large strain with real-time data processing. The multi-slope assisted F-BOTDA is realized based on the double-slope demodulation and frequency-agile modulation, which significantly increases the measurement range compared with the single- or double- slope assisted F-BOTDA, while maintaining the advantage of fast data processing and being suitable for real-time on-line monitoring. A maximum strain variation up to 5000με is measured in a 32-m fiber with a spatial resolution of ~1m and a sampling rate of 1kHz. The frequency of the strain is 12.8Hz, which is limited by the rotation rate of the motor used to load the force on the fiber. Furthermore, the influence of the frequency difference between two adjacent probe tones on the measurement error is studied theoretically and experimentally for optimization. For a Brillouin gain spectrum with a 78-MHz width, the optimum frequency difference is ~40MHz. The measurement error of Brillouin frequency shift is less than 3MHz over the whole measurement range (241MHz).

  5. Localization properties of transmission lines with generalized Thue-Morse distribution of inductances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, Edmundo; Saavedra, Eduardo; Humire, Fernando; Castro, Cristobal; Cortés-Cortés, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    We study the localization properties of direct transmission lines when we distribute two values of inductances LA and LB according to a generalized Thue-Morse aperiodic sequence generated by the inflation rule: A → ABm-1, B → BAm-1, m ≥ 2 and integer. We regain the usual Thue-Morse sequence for m = 2. We numerically study the changes produced in the localization properties of the I (ω) electric current function with increasing m values. We demonstrate that the m = 2 case does not belong to the family m ≥ 3, because when m changes from m = 2 to m = 3, the number of extended states decreases significantly. However, for m ≫ 3, the localization properties become similar to the m = 2 case. Also, the frequency averaged transmission coefficient shows a strong dependence from the N system size and from the m value which characterize each m-tupling sequence. In addition, for all m value studied, using the scaling behavior of the ξ (ω) normalized participation number, the Rq (ω) Rényi entropies and the μq (ω) moments, we have demonstrated the existence of extended states for certain specific frequencies.

  6. Observability and Estimation of Distributed Space Systems via Local Information-Exchange Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Mesbahi, Mehran; Rahmani, Amirreza

    2011-01-01

    Spacecraft formation flying involves the coordination of states among multiple spacecraft through relative sensing, inter-spacecraft communication, and control. Most existing formation-flying estimation algorithms can only be supported via highly centralized, all-to-all, static relative sensing. New algorithms are proposed that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations in the topology and link characteristics of the formation exchange network. These distributed algorithms rely on a local information exchange network, relaxing the assumptions on existing algorithms. Distributed space systems rely on a signal transmission network among multiple spacecraft for their operation. Control and coordination among multiple spacecraft in a formation is facilitated via a network of relative sensing and interspacecraft communications. Guidance, navigation, and control rely on the sensing network. This network becomes more complex the more spacecraft are added, or as mission requirements become more complex. The observability of a formation state was observed by a set of local observations from a particular node in the formation. Formation observability can be parameterized in terms of the matrices appearing in the formation dynamics and observation matrices. An agreement protocol was used as a mechanism for observing formation states from local measurements. An agreement protocol is essentially an unforced dynamic system whose trajectory is governed by the interconnection geometry and initial condition of each node, with a goal of reaching a common value of interest. The observability of the interconnected system depends on the geometry of the network, as well as the position of the observer relative to the topology. For the first time, critical GN&C (guidance, navigation, and control estimation) subsystems are synthesized by bringing the contribution of the spacecraft information-exchange network to the forefront of algorithmic analysis and design. The result is a

  7. Distributed Evaluation of Local Sensitivity Analysis (DELSA), with application to hydrologic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovec, O.; Hill, M. C.; Clark, M. P.; Weerts, A. H.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid local-global sensitivity analysis method termed the Distributed Evaluation of Local Sensitivity Analysis (DELSA), which is used here to identify important and unimportant parameters and evaluate how model parameter importance changes as parameter values change. DELSA uses derivative-based "local" methods to obtain the distribution of parameter sensitivity across the parameter space, which promotes consideration of sensitivity analysis results in the context of simulated dynamics. This work presents DELSA, discusses how it relates to existing methods, and uses two hydrologic test cases to compare its performance with the popular global, variance-based Sobol' method. The first test case is a simple nonlinear reservoir model with two parameters. The second test case involves five alternative "bucket-style" hydrologic models with up to 14 parameters applied to a medium-sized catchment (200 km2) in the Belgian Ardennes. Results show that in both examples, Sobol' and DELSA identify similar important and unimportant parameters, with DELSA enabling more detailed insight at much lower computational cost. For example, in the real-world problem the time delay in runoff is the most important parameter in all models, but DELSA shows that for about 20% of parameter sets it is not important at all and alternative mechanisms and parameters dominate. Moreover, the time delay was identified as important in regions producing poor model fits, whereas other parameters were identified as more important in regions of the parameter space producing better model fits. The ability to understand how parameter importance varies through parameter space is critical to inform decisions about, for example, additional data collection and model development. The ability to perform such analyses with modest computational requirements provides exciting opportunities to evaluate complicated models as well as many alternative models.

  8. Strain Distribution in Central Europe: FEM Modeling and Comparison with GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araszkiewicz, A.; Bogusz, J.; Jarosinski, M.; Lenik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of this research is to demonstrate how the results of permanent GPS measurements can be understand in terms of recent geodynamics by applying numerical modeling method. On the other hand, the results of modeling are testing the consistency of the GPS measurements. The method of finite element analysis was applied to develop two-dimensional model of strain and stress field in Central Europe. The FEM model was prepared in the ABAQUS software, consisting of graphic modules and ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS Standard modules for solving the static task. The structure of the model was created in the plane Cartesian coordinate system, assuming that for this size of model the earth curvature will not affect the stress and strain direction significantly. Simplified elastic model with frictional contact elements was used for defining mechanical properties of the model. The model consists of 48 parts representing major tectonic units/blocks characterized by different material properties. The stiffness of tectonic blocks expressed by Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was determined based on the lithospheric thickness, surface heat flow and simplified lithological column of the lithosphere. For dislocations, different values of friction coefficient was tested in course of the trial-and-error modeling than the best fitted options were finally adopted in the model. The dynamic (force and pressure) boundary conditions were applied to the elastic model based on the recent tectonic stress directions from the World Stress Map Database. To allow fast changes of the loads the model boundary were designed normal to tectonic stresses. After each computing round the simulated stress and strain were compared with that measured, paying special attention to the GPS measurements from Poland and the adjacent areas. We have used coordinates and velocities from EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) densified by Polish national Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) ASG-EUPOS. They were obtained

  9. Strain event detection using a double-pulse technique of a Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber sensor.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok-Beom; Lee, Jung-Ju; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2004-09-06

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers can be used to measure strain or temperature in a distributed manner. Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) is the most common sensor system based on the Brillouin scattering. To improve the spatial resolution of these measurements, shorter pulses must be used, resulting in reduced signal powers causing a decrease of the dynamic range. In this paper, a doublepulse technique was proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of BOTDA. Experimental results showed that the ability to resolve two adjacent events could be enhanced, about twice, by using a double-pulsed pump light without decreases in the dynamic range.

  10. Local structure investigation of oxide ion and proton defects in Ge-apatites by pair distribution function analysis.

    PubMed

    Malavasi, Lorenzo; Orera, Alodia; Slater, Peter R; Panchmatia, Pooja M; Islam, M Saiful; Siewenie, Joan

    2011-01-07

    In this communication we provide a direct insight into the local structure and defects of oxygen excess Ge-apatites, in both dry and deuterated states, by means of pair distribution function analysis.

  11. Influence of strain localization on deformation mechanisms and fracture of 12Cr1MoV steel with various notch shape under impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, S. V.; Vlasov, I. V.; Maruschak, P. O.; Moiseenko, D. D.; Berto, F.; Vinogradov, A.; Bischak, R. T.; Maksimov, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    The energy of 12Cr1MoV steel specimen fracture with V-, U- and I-shaped notches under impact loading was measured and analyzed. The results were described using common energy-based approach to ductile-brittle fracture. Within the stage-wise approach of physical mesomechanics of materials, the rate of increase/decrease of load at the stage of initiation and propagation of a macroscopic defect was evaluated, providing a good correlation with the work of fracture. The excitable cellular automata technique was applied to simulate the deformational behavior of the specimens with different shape of notches. It was demonstrated that in the case of the blunted notch, the maximum impact toughness is facilitated by a more uniform distribution of the load along the notch, which hinders brittle fracture at lower testing temperature. For the specimen with the sharp I-notch, the bands of localized shear are oriented normally to the loading axis, inhibiting macrolocalization of strain and crack propagation. For this reason, the impact toughness of the specimen with the I-notch appeared to be higher than that of the V-notched one.

  12. Highly Effective Polarized Electron Sources Based on Strained Semiconductor Superlattice with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Gerchikov, L.G.; Aulenbacher, K.; Clendenin, J.E.; Kuz'michev, V.V.; Mamaev, Yu.A.; Maruyama, T.; Mikhrin, V.S.; Roberts, J.S.; Utstinov, V.M.; Vasiliev, D.A.; Vasiliev, A.P.; Yashin, Yu.P.; Zhukov, A.E.; /St. Petersburg Polytechnic Inst. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /SLAC /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst. /Sheffield U.

    2007-11-28

    Resonance enhancement of the quantum efficiency of new polarized electron photocathodes based on a short-period strained superlattice structures is reported. The superlattice is a part of an integrated Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We demonstrate that the Fabry-Perot resonator enhances the quantum efficiency by the order of magnitude in the wavelength region of the main polarization maximum. The high structural quality implied by these results points to the very promising application of these photocathodes for spin-polarized electron sources.

  13. Highly Effective Polarized Electron Sources Based on Strained Semiconductor Superlattice with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Gerchikov, L. G.; Kuz'michev, V. V.; Mamaev, Yu. A.; Vasiliev, D. A.; Yashin, Yu. P.; Aulenbacher, K.; Clendenin, J. E.; Maruyama, T.; Mikhrin, V. S.; Ustinov, V. M.; Vasiliev, A. P.; Zhukov, A. E.; Roberts, J. S.

    2008-02-06

    Resonance enhancement of the quantum efficiency of new polarized electron photocathodes based on a short-period strained superlattice structures is reported. The superlattice is a part of an integrated Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We demonstrate that the Fabry-Perot resonator enhances the quantum efficiency by the order of magnitude in the wavelength region of the main polarization maximum. The high structural quality implied by these results points to the very promising application of these photocathodes for spin-polarized electron sources.

  14. Assumed strain distributions for a finite strip plate bending element using Mindlin-Reissner plate theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chulya, Abhisak; Mullen, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    A linear finite strip plate element based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory is developed. The analysis is suitable for both thin and thick plates. In the formulation, new transverse shear strains are introduced and assumed constant in each two-node linear strip. The element stiffness matrix is explicitly formulated for efficient computation and computer implementation. Numerical results showing the efficiency and predictive capability of the element for the analysis of plates are presented for different support and loading conditions and a wide range of thicknesses. No sign of shear locking is observed with the newly developed element.

  15. Cry-like genes, in an uncommon gene configuration, produce a crystal that localizes within the exosporium when expressed in an acrystalliferous strain of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Ammons, David; Toal, Graham; Roman, Angel; Rojas-Avelizapa, Luz I; Ventura-Suárez, Antonio; Rampersad, Joanne

    2016-02-01

    Cry proteins are pesticidal toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which aggregate in sporulating cells to form a crystal. Except in a relatively few cases, these crystals are located outside the exosporium that surrounds the spore. Bt2-56 is a strain of Bt that has the relatively uncommon characteristic of locating its Cry protein-containing crystal within the exosporium, and in association with a long, multifiber filament. With the ultimate goal of both understanding and manipulating the localization of Cry proteins within the exosporium, we sought to identify the genes coding for the exosporium-localized Cry proteins in Bt2-56. Herein we show (i) that five cry-like genes are present in the genome of Bt2-56, (ii) that two pairs of these genes show organizational similarity to a relatively uncommon gene configuration that coexpress a cry gene along with a gene whose product aids crystal formation and (iii) that when one of these two gene pairs (cry21A-cdA) is expressed in an acrystalliferous strain of Bt, crystals are formed that localize within the exosporium. In Bt ssp. finitimus, the only other strain in which crystal localization has been studied, a Cry protein needed expression of two non-cry ORFs in order to localize within the exosporium, indicating that there are some mechanistic differences for crystal localization between Bt ssp. finitimus and Bt2-56.

  16. Robust strain mapping in optical coherence elastography by combining local phase-resolved measurements and cumulative displacement tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveyev, Alexander L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Gubarkova, Ekaterina; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-03-01

    We report a novel hybrid method of robust strain mapping in compressional optical coherence elastography using combined phase measurements on sub-wavelength-scale and cumulative pixel-scale displacement tracking. This hybrid nature significantly extends the range of measurable displacements and strains in comparison with conventional direct phase-resolved measurements. As a result, the proposed strain-mapping method exhibits significantly increased robustness with respect to both additive noise and decorrelation noise produced by displacements and strains. The main advantages of the proposed approach are illustrated by numerical simulations. Experimental examples of obtained strain maps for phantoms and real biological tissues are also presented.

  17. Frequent major errors in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial strains distributed under the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Quality Assurance Program.

    PubMed

    Boot, R

    2012-07-01

    The Quality Assurance Program (QAP) of the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) was a proficiency testing system developed to service the laboratory animal discipline. The QAP comprised the distribution of bacterial strains from various species of animals for identification to species level and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). Identification capabilities were below acceptable standards. This study evaluated AST results using the DKFZ compilations of test results for all bacterial strains showing the number of participants reporting the strain as resistant (R), sensitive (S) or intermediate susceptible (I) to each antibiotic substance used. Due to lack of information about methods used, it was assumed that what the majority of the participants reported (R or S) was the correct test result and that an opposite result was a major error (ME). MEs occurred in 1375 of 14,258 (9.7%) of test results and ME% ranged from 0% to 23.2% per bacterial group-agent group combination. Considerable variation in MEs was found within groups of bacteria and within groups of agents. In addition to poor performance in proper species classification, the quality of AST in laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories seems far below standards considered acceptable in human diagnostic microbiology.

  18. Occurrence and distribution of Potato virus Y strain N (PVY(N)) on celery in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khoshkhatti, Neda; Habibi Koohi, Mina; Mosahebi, Gh

    2009-01-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens) is an important crop grown in many countries. Different types of diseases present a major constraint to Celery production and can lead to significant reductions in yield Potato Virus Y, the type member of the genus Potyvirus(family Potyviridae) is one of the causal agents of viral diseases in crops. In the present study, PVY occurring in celery fields was determined as the causal agent of mosaic disease of celery (Apium graveolens). The virus is naturally transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner. During growing seasons 2006-2007 celery fields were visited through Tehran Province and a total 332 sample based on selection of plants expressing symptoms like mosaic, vein clearing and mottling were collected. By using serological method (DAS-ELIZA) with specific antiserum of PVY (DSMZ-AS-0137.403) 17.64% of the samples were infected with PVY .The reaction of PVY infected samples were positive in TAS-ELIZA with specific monoclonal antibody (MAbs) of PVYN strain (DSMZ-AS-403.1). PVY N strain isolated from celery was reported for the first time in Iran and in the world in this survey.

  19. Serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Neisseria meningitidis strains recently isolated in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mastrantonio, Paola; Stefanelli, Paola; Fazio, Cecilia; Sofia, Tonino; Neri, Arianna; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Marianelli, Cinzia; Muscillo, Michele; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Salmaso, Stefania

    2003-02-15

    The availability of new polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C prompted European National Health authorities to carefully monitor isolate characteristics. In Italy, during 1999-2001, the average incidence was 0.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Serogroup B was predominant and accounted for 75% of the isolates, followed by serogroup C with 24%. Serogroup C was isolated almost twice as frequently in cases of septicemia than in cases of meningitis, and the most common phenotypes were C:2a:P1.5 and C:2b:P1.5. Among serogroup B meningococci, the trend of predominant phenotypes has changed from year to year, with a recent increase in the frequency of B:15:P1.4. Only a few meningococci had decreased susceptibility to penicillin, and, in the penA gene, all of these strains had exogenous DNA blocks deriving from the DNA of commensal Neisseria flavescens, Neisseria cinerea, and Neisseria perflava/sicca. Fluorescent amplified fragment-length polymorphism analysis revealed the nonclonal nature of the strains with decreased susceptibility to penicillin.

  20. Co-administration of attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 168 strain with bacterial DNA enhances the local and systemic immune response after intranasal vaccination in pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Pengcheng; Wang, Xueping; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2012-03-09

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, occurs worldwide and causes major economic losses to the pig industry. M. hyopneumoniae infects pigs at mucosal surfaces of respiratory tract. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the protection rate against M. hyopneumoniae infection following intranasal immunization with attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain is improved by administration of bacterial DNA containing CpG motifs. Thirty pigs were immunized intranasally or intramuscularly and the levels of local respiratory tract and systemic immune responses were detected. The results showed that the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the tracheal fork, the levels of cytokine IL-6, and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA in local nasal cavity increased respectively after intranasal vaccination with the attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain alone. However, the levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ in local nasal cavity, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes in trachea, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the lung and hilar lymph nodes, the specific IgG antibody level in serum on 35 day post immunization were all increased significantly after intranasal vaccination of the attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain adjuvanted with bacterial DNA. We concluded that intranasal administration of attenuated M. hyopneumoniae 168 strain adjuvanted with bacterial DNA may be effective in evoking the local cellular and humoral immune response in the respiratory tract and the systemic immune response. Intranasal vaccination will be effective in prevention of the transmission and prevalence of MPS.

  1. Crustal shortening, exhumation, and strain localization in a collisional orogen: The Bajo Pequeño Shear Zone, Sierra de Pie de Palo, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garber, Joshua M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Warren, Jessica; Mulcahy, Sean R.; McClelland, William C.; Austin, Lauren J.; Renne, Paul R.; Vujovich, Graciela I.

    2014-07-01

    The Bajo Pequeño Shear Zone (BPSZ) is a lower-crustal shear zone that records shortening and exhumation associated with the establishment of a new plate boundary, and its placement in a regional structural context suggests that local- to regional-scale strain localization occurred with progressive deformation. A kilometer-scale field and analytical cross section through the ~80 m thick BPSZ and its adjacent rocks indicates an early Devonian (405-400 Ma) phase of deformation on the western margin of Gondwanan continental crust. The earliest stages of the BPSZ, recorded by metamorphic and microstructural data, involved thrusting of a hotter orthogneiss over a relatively cool pelitic unit, which resulted in footwall garnet growth and reset footwall white mica 40Ar/39Ar ages in proximity to the shear zone. Later stages of BPSZ activity, as recorded by additional microstructures and quartz c-axis opening angles, were characterized by strain localization to the center of the shear zone coincident with cooling and exhumation. These and other data suggest that significant regional tectonism persisted in the Famatinian orogenic system for 60-70 million years after one microplate collision (the Precordillera) but ceased 5-10 million years prior to another (Chilenia). A survey of other synchronous structures shows that strain was accommodated on progressively narrower structures with time, indicating a regional pattern of strain localization and broad thermal relaxation as the Precordillera collision evolved.

  2. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing for Identification of Globally Distributed Clonal Groups and Differentiation of Outbreak Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Hammack, Thomas S.; Allard, Marc W.; Strain, Errol A.; Brown, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many listeriosis outbreaks are caused by a few globally distributed clonal groups, designated clonal complexes or epidemic clones, of Listeria monocytogenes, several of which have been defined by classic multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes targeting 6 to 8 housekeeping or virulence genes. We have developed and evaluated core genome MLST (cgMLST) schemes and applied them to isolates from multiple clonal groups, including those associated with 39 listeriosis outbreaks. The cgMLST clusters were congruent with MLST-defined clonal groups, which had various degrees of diversity at the whole-genome level. Notably, cgMLST could distinguish among outbreak strains and epidemiologically unrelated strains of the same clonal group, which could not be achieved using classic MLST schemes. The precise selection of cgMLST gene targets may not be critical for the general identification of clonal groups and outbreak strains. cgMLST analyses further identified outbreak strains, including those associated with recent outbreaks linked to contaminated French-style cheese, Hispanic-style cheese, stone fruit, caramel apple, ice cream, and packaged leafy green salad, as belonging to major clonal groups. We further developed lineage-specific cgMLST schemes, which can include accessory genes when core genomes do not possess sufficient diversity, and this provided additional resolution over species-specific cgMLST. Analyses of isolates from different common-source listeriosis outbreaks revealed various degrees of diversity, indicating that the numbers of allelic differences should always be combined with cgMLST clustering and epidemiological evidence to define a listeriosis outbreak. IMPORTANCE Classic multilocus sequence typing (MLST) schemes targeting internal fragments of 6 to 8 genes that define clonal complexes or epidemic clones have been widely employed to study L. monocytogenes biodiversity and its relation to pathogenicity potential and epidemiology. We demonstrated

  3. Distribution of calmodulin in corn seedlings - Immunocytochemical localization in coleoptiles and root apices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Immunofluorescence techniques have been used to study the distribution of calmodulin in several tissues in etiolated corn (Zea mays, var. Bear Hybrid) seedlings. Uniform staining was seen in the background cytoplasm of most cell types. Cell walls and vacuoles were not stained. In coleoptile mesophyll cells the nucleoplasm of most nuclei was stained as was the stroma of most amyloplasts. The lumen border of mature tracheary elements in coleoptiles also stained. In the rootcap the most intensely stained regions were the cytoplasms of columella cells and of the outermost cells enmeshed in the layer of secreted slime. Nuclei in the rootcap cells did not stain distinctly, but those in all cell types of the root meristem did. Also in the root meristem, the cytoplasm of metaxylem elements stained brightly. These results are compared and contrasted with previous data on the localization of calmodulin in pea root apices and epicotyls and discussed in relation to current hypotheses on mechanisms of gravitropism.

  4. First-Principles Momentum-Dependent Local Ansatz Wavefunction and Momentum Distribution Function Bands of Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac function for the d electrons with eg symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data.

  5. Localized and distributed boundary-layer receptivity to convected unsteady wake in free stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1994-01-01

    Receptivity to a model convected disturbance in the presence of localized and distributed variations in wall geometry and wall-suction velocity is examined. The model free-stream disturbance corresponds to the time-harmonic wake of a vibrating ribbon that is placed at a suitable distance above the surface of a thin airfoil. The advantages of using this disturbance for experiments on receptivity to convected disturbances are outlined. A brief parametric study is presented for a flat-plate boundary layer. The study quantifies the effect of wake position as well as wake width; in addition, it should be helpful in the choice of an optimal setting for a controlled experiment of the above type, which the above parametric study shows as feasible.

  6. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with random intensity fluctuation of the local oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Ming; Huang, Ming-Qiu; Lia