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Sample records for localized th1 th2

  1. Differential effects of myelin basic protein-activated Th1 and Th2 cells on the local immune microenvironment of injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Guo; Shi, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yue-Juan; Xie, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, An-You; Jiang, Zheng-Song; Feng, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Chen; Xi, Jin; Lü, He-Zuo

    2016-03-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) activated T cells (MBP-T) play an important role in the damage and repair process of the central nervous system (CNS). However, whether these cells play a beneficial or detrimental role is still a matter of debate. Although some studies showed that MBP-T cells are mainly helper T (Th) cells, their subtypes are still not very clear. One possible explanation for MBP-T immunization leading to conflicting results may be the different subtypes of T cells are responsible for distinct effects. In this study, the Th1 and Th2 type MBP-T cells (MBP-Th1 and -Th2) were polarized in vitro, and their effects on the local immune microenvironment and tissue repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) after adoptive immunization were investigated. In MBP-Th1 cell transferred rats, the high levels of pro-inflammatory cells (Th1 cells and M1 macrophages) and cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, -β, IL-1β) were detected in the injured spinal cord; however, the anti-inflammatory cells (Th2 cells, regulatory T cells, and M2 macrophages) and cytokines (IL-4, -10, and -13) were found in MBP-Th2 cell transferred animals. MBP-Th2 cell transfer resulted in decreased lesion volume, increased myelination of axons, and preservation of neurons. This was accompanied by significant locomotor improvement. These results indicate that MBP-Th2 adoptive transfer has beneficial effects on the injured spinal cord, in which the increased number of Th2 cells may alter the local microenvironment from one primarily populated by Th1 and M1 cells to another dominated by Th2, Treg, and M2 cells and is conducive for SCI repair.

  2. TH1/TH2 cytokines in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sredni-Kenigsbuch, Dvora

    2002-06-01

    For the past 20 years it has become increasingly evident that cytokines play an important role in both the normal development of the brain, acting as neurotrophic factors, and in brain injuries. Although cytokines and their receptors are synthesized and expressed in the brain (normally at low levels), increased cytokine production levels are now associated with various neurological disorders. T lymphocytes are the cells responsible for coordinating the immune response and a major source of cytokines. Different cytokines induce different subsets of T cells or have different effects on proliferation within a particular subset. Recent studies suggest that the immune response is in fact regulated by the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines. These two pathways are often mutually exclusive, the one resulting in protection and the other in progression of disease. Various studies describe the function and production of proinflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) and their role in health and disease. Inflammation is upregulated following activation of Th1 cells, whereas Th2 cells may play a significant role in downregulating Th1 proinflammatory responses in those instances in which there is overproduction of Th2 cytokines. Although both Th1 and Th2 cytokines may influence CNS functioning, most studies have so far dealt with proinflammatory cytokines, probably because they directly affect CNS cells and are thought to be implicated in CNS pathology. It is of interest that endogenous glucocorticoids also control Th1-Th2 balance, favoring Th2 cell development. This review presents the evidence that cytokines have important functions in the CNS, both during development and as a part of brain pathology. In particular, the author highlighted recent work that supports a major role for the so-called inflammatory cytokines, Th1, and the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines.

  3. Quantitative analysis of peripheral blood Th0, Th1, Th2 and the Th1:Th2 cell ratio during normal human pregnancy and preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Saito, S; Sakai, M; Sasaki, Y; Tanebe, K; Tsuda, H; Michimata, T

    1999-01-01

    We calculated the percentage of Th1, Th2, Th0 cells and the Th1:Th2 cell ratio of peripheral blood from normal pregnant subjects and preeclampsia patients using flow cytometry which can analyse both the surface marker, CD4, and intracellular cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ. In normal pregnancy, the percentage of Th1 cells was significantly lower in the third trimester, and the ratios of Th1:Th2 were significantly lower in the second and third trimester than in nonpregnant subjects. In contrast, the percentage of Th1 cells and the ratios of Th1:Th2 in preeclampsia were significantly higher than in normal third trimester pregnant subjects. The percentage of Th2 cells in preeclampsia was significantly lower than in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Additionally, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these subjects and patients were cultured with phytohemagglutinin stimulation, and IL-4 and IFN-γ concentrations were determined in the supernatant by enzymed linked immunosorbent assays. The percentage of Th1 and Th2, and the ratios of Th1:Th2 were correlated with cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4) secretion level. These results demonstrated that Th2 cells were predominant in the second and third trimesters of normal pregnancy, but Th1 cells predominated in preeclamptic patients. PMID:10469061

  4. Intranasal influenza vaccination using a new synthetic mucosal adjuvant SF-10: induction of potent local and systemic immunity with balanced Th1 and Th2 responses.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Takashi; Mizuno, Dai; Takei, Tsunetomo; Kunimi, Takuya; Ono, Shinji; Sakai, Satoko; Kido, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    We found previously that bovine pulmonary Surfacten® used in newborns with acute respiratory distress syndrome is a safe and efficacious antigen vehicle for intranasal vaccination. The objective of this study was to industrially produce a synthetic adjuvant mimicking Surfacten® for clinical use without risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. We selected three Surfacten lipids and surfactant protein (SP)-C as essential constituents for adjuvanticity. For replacement of the hydrophobic SP-C, we synthesized SP-related peptides and analyzed their adjuvanticity. We evaluated lyophilization to replace sonication for the binding of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) to the synthetic adjuvant. We also added a carboxy vinyl polymer (CVP) to the synthetic adjuvant and named the mixture as SF-10 adjuvant. HA combined with SF-10 was administered intranasally to mice, and induction of nasal-wash HA-specific secretory IgA (s-IgA) and serum IgG with Th1-/Th2-type cytokine responses in nasal cavity and virus challenge test were assessed. Intranasal immunization with HA-SF-10 induced significantly higher levels of anti-HA-specific nasal-wash s-IgA and serum IgG than those induced by HA-poly(I:C), a reported potent mucosal vaccine, and provided highly efficient protection against lethal doses of virus challenge in mice. Anti-HA-specific serum IgG levels induced by HA-SF-10 were almost equivalent to those induced by subcutaneous immunization of HA twice. Intranasal administration of HA-SF-10 induced balanced anti-HA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a in sera and IFN-γ- and IL-4-producing lymphocytes in nasal cavity without any induction of anti-HA IgE. The results suggest that HA-SF-10 is a promising nasal influenza vaccine and that SF-10 can be supplied in large quantities commercially. © 2013 The authors. Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. P-Selectin Can Support Both Th1 and Th2 Lymphocyte Rolling in the Intestinal Microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Bonder, Claudine S.; Norman, M. Ursula; MacRae, Tara; Mangan, Paul R.; Weaver, Casey T.; Bullard, Daniel C.; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Kubes, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Lymphocyte localization to inflammatory sites is paramount for developing and maintaining an immune response. Rolling is the first step in recruitment, but our knowledge of its mechanisms in Th1 and Th2 CD4+ lymphocytes is incomplete. Whereas initial studies suggested that Th1 but not Th2 lymphocytes used P-selectin for recruitment, more recent studies have proposed that both subtypes bind selectins. We used intravital microscopy to demonstrate in vivo that polarized Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes both use P-selectin to roll and adhere to cytokine [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interleukin (IL)-4]-activated intestinal microvasculature. The majority of Th1 lymphocyte flux in TNF-α- and IL-4-treated animals was P-selectin-dependent. Th1 lymphocytes also interacted with E-selectin to control rolling velocity after TNF-α stimulation. Th2 lymphocytes, which make IL-4 but not interferon-γ, bound P-selectin ex vivo, with more than 95% rolling on P-selectin in vivo. Both Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes regulated rolling velocity by interacting with α4-integrin. Furthermore, in a model of spontaneous intestinal inflammation (ie, IL-10-deficient mice), both Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes rolled, adhered, and ultimately emigrated into the local microenvironment. These results suggest that both Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes use P-selectin in the initial rolling step in vivo in response to a global activator of the vasculature (TNF), a subtle inducer of P-selectin (IL-4), and pathological inflammation (IL-10-deficient mice). PMID:16314477

  6. Delayed Activation Kinetics of Th2- and Th17 Cells Compared to Th1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Duechting, Andrea; Przybyla, Anna; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2017-09-12

    During immune responses, different classes of T cells arise: Th1, Th2, and Th17. Mobilizing the right class plays a critical role in successful host defense and therefore defining the ratios of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells within the antigen-specific T cell repertoire is critical for immune monitoring purposes. Antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells can be detected by challenging peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with antigen, and establishing the numbers of T cells producing the respective lead cytokine, IFN-γ and IL-2 for Th1 cells, IL-4 and IL-5 for Th2, and IL-17 for Th-17 cells, respectively. Traditionally, these cytokines are measured within 6 h in flow cytometry. We show here that 6 h of stimulation is sufficient to detect peptide-induced production of IFN-γ, but 24 h are required to reveal the full frequency of protein antigen-specific Th1 cells. Also the detection of IL-2 producing Th1 cells requires 24 h stimulation cultures. Measurements of IL-4 producing Th2 cells requires 48-h cultures and 96 h are required for frequency measurements of IL-5 and IL-17 secreting T cells. Therefore, accounting for the differential secretion kinetics of these cytokines is critical for the accurate determination of the frequencies and ratios of antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.

  7. Expression of Th1- Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in laryngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoqun; Wang, Rui; Su, Qinghong; Huang, Haiyan; Zhou, Peng; Luan, Junwen; Liu, Jingsheng; Wang, Junfu; Chen, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    T-helper (Th) 0 cell differentiation into Th1 or Th2 cells is dependent on a number of transcription factors that act at specific time points to regulate gene expression. Th17 cells, a subset of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T cells distinct from Th1 or Th2 cells, are considered to exhibit a critical function in inflammation and autoimmune diseases, as well as cancer development. In the present study, the expression of Th1-, Th2- and Th17-associated cytokines in laryngeal cancer and pericarcinoma tissues obtained from 57 laryngeal carcinoma patients was investigated. The association between Th1, Th2 and Th17 infiltration and tumor development was also evaluated. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting results revealed that the mRNA and protein expression of Th2 cytokines was lower, while the expression of Th1 and Th17 cytokines was higher in tumor tissues than in pericarcinoma tissues. Furthermore, the early stage cancer patients exhibited a higher level of interferon-γ, IL-2 and IL-17 mRNA expression than those at advanced stages. Cancer tissues exhibited higher Th17 cytokine expression than pericarcinoma tissues. By contrast, Th1 cytokine expression was increased in pericarcinoma tissues compared with cancer tissues. These results indicate that high expression of Th1- and Th17-associated cytokines in laryngeal carcinoma may contribute to suppression of cancer development and a relatively good prognosis. PMID:27588143

  8. Immunomodulation Mechanism of Antidepressants: Interactions between Serotonin/Norepinephrine Balance and Th1/Th2 Balance

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Matteo; Rocchi, Giulio; Escelsior, Andrea; Fornaro, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and hormones regulate major immune functions, including the selection of T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cytokine responses, related to cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. A role of imbalance and dynamic switching of Th1/Th2 system has been proposed, with relative displacement of the immune reserve in relation to complex interaction between Th1/Th2 and neuro-hormonal balance fluctuations, in the pathogenesis of various chronic human diseases, probably also including psychiatric disorders. Components of the stress system such as norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids appear to mediate a Th2 shift, while serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin might mediate a Th1 shift. Some antidepressants would occur affecting these systems, acting on neurotransmitter balance (especially the 5-HT/NE balance) and expression levels of receptor subtypes, which in turn affect cytokine production and relative Th1/Th2 balance. It could be therefore hypothesized that the antidepressant-related increase in NE tone enhances the Th2 response, while the decrease in NE tone or the increase in 5-HT tone enhances the Th1 response. However, the neurotransmitter and Th1/Th2 balance modulation could be relative, aiming to restore physiological levels a previous imbalance in receptor sensitivity and cytokine production. The considerations on neuro-immunomodulation could represent an additional aid in the study of pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in the choice of specific antidepressants in specific clusters of symptoms, especially in comorbidity with internal pathologies. Furthermore limited data, reviewed here, have shown the effectiveness of some antidepressants as pure immunomodulators. However, these considerations are tentative and require experimental confirmation or refutation by future studies. PMID:23204981

  9. Altered Th1/Th2 commitment contributes to lung senescence in CXCR3-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junmin; Li, Zongli; Yao, Xiujuan; Li, Yan; Reng, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfa; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jinming; Wang, Chen; Tankersley, Clarke G; Huang, Kewu

    2013-08-01

    Aging is an inevitable process associated with immune imbalance, which is characterized by a progressive functional decline in major organs, including lung. However, effects of altered Th1/Th2 commitment on lung senescence are largely unknown. To examine effects of altered Th1/Th2 balance on lung aging, we measured proportions of Th1 and Th2 cells and expression of cytokines, chemokines, collagen deposition and other relevant physiological and pathological parameters in 2- and 20-months-old (mo) CXCR3-deficient (CXCR3(-/-)) C57BL/6J mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice. There was a significant weight-loss observed in 20-mo CXCR3(-/-) mice compared with the same aged WT group. Although lung function and structure changed with age in both groups, central airway resistance (Rn), tissue elastance (H) and damping (G) were significantly lower in 20-mo CXCR3(-/-) mice than those of WT mice. In contrast, the whole lung volume (V(L)), the mean linear intercept length of alveolar (L(m)), and the total lung collagen content were significantly elevated in 20-mo CXCR3(-/-) mice. With aging, the lungs of WT mice had typical Th1-type status (increased population of Th1 cells and concentrations of cytokine IFN-γ and CXCR3 ligands) while CXCR3(-/-) mice showed Th2-type polarization (decreased proportion of Th1 cells and concentrations of CXCR3 ligands but increased level of IL-4). Our data suggest that Immunosenescence is associated with lung aging, and that altered Th1/Th2 imbalance favors Th2 predominance in CXCR3(-/-) mice, which contributes to the process of accelerated lung aging in this model.

  10. Diisononyl phthalate induces asthma via modulation of Th1/Th2 equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yun-Ho; Paik, Man-Jeong; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2017-03-12

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a member of the phthalate family, is used to plasticize polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This chemical is known to enhance airway inflammation in the OVA-induced asthma model (adjuvant effects) and aggravate allergic dermatitis. Moreover, DINP enhances the production of interleukin-4 in activated CD4(+) T cells. However, the effect of DINP itself on the differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into T helper cells (Th1/Th2) in vitro and allergic asthma in vivo has not yet been studied. In this study, DINP was shown to suppress the polarization of Th1 and enhance the polarization of Th2 from naïve CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Also, DINP induced allergic asthma via the production of IL-4, IL-5, IgE and IgG1 and the reduction of IFN-γ and IgG2a. Finally, we confirmed that exposure to DINP induces the infiltration of inflammatory cells and PAS positive cells and increases the expression of caspase-1 and caspase-3 in asthmatic mice. In conclusion, we suggest that DINP as an environmental pollutant or endocrine disruptor (ECD) induces asthma via the modulation of the Th1/Th2 equilibrium and production of Th2 mediated cytokines and immunoglobulin.

  11. Nanoparticle clearance is governed by Th1/Th2 immunity and strain background

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephen W.; Roberts, Reid A.; Robbins, Gregory R.; Perry, Jillian L.; Kai, Marc P.; Chen, Kai; Bo, Tao; Napier, Mary E.; Ting, Jenny P.Y.; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Bear, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Extended circulation of nanoparticles in blood is essential for most clinical applications. Nanoparticles are rapidly cleared by cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Approaches such as grafting polyethylene glycol onto particles (PEGylation) extend circulation times; however, these particles are still cleared, and the processes involved in this clearance remain poorly understood. Here, we present an intravital microscopy–based assay for the quantification of nanoparticle clearance, allowing us to determine the effect of mouse strain and immune system function on particle clearance. We demonstrate that mouse strains that are prone to Th1 immune responses clear nanoparticles at a slower rate than Th2-prone mice. Using depletion strategies, we show that both granulocytes and macrophages participate in the enhanced clearance observed in Th2-prone mice. Macrophages isolated from Th1 strains took up fewer particles in vitro than macrophages from Th2 strains. Treating macrophages from Th1 strains with cytokines to differentiate them into M2 macrophages increased the amount of particle uptake. Conversely, treating macrophages from Th2 strains with cytokines to differentiate them into M1 macrophages decreased their particle uptake. Moreover, these results were confirmed in human monocyte–derived macrophages, suggesting that global immune regulation has a significant impact on nanoparticle clearance in humans. PMID:23778144

  12. Th1Th2 polarisation and autophagy in the control of intracellular mycobacteria by macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Harris, James; Master, Sharon S.; De Haro, Sergio A.; Delgado, Monica; Roberts, Esteban A.; Hope, Jayne C.; Keane, Joseph; Deretic, Vojo

    2009-01-01

    Autophagy is a major intracellular pathway for the lysosomal degradation of long-lived cytoplasmic macromolecules and damaged or surplus organelles. More recently, autophagy has also been linked with innate and adaptive immune responses against intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which can survive within macrophages by blocking fusion of the phagosome with lysosomes. Induction of autophagy by the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ enables infected macrophages to overcome this phagosome maturation block and inhibit the intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Conversely, theTh2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 inhibit autophagy in murine and human macrophages. We discuss how differential modulation of autophagy by Th1 and Th2 cytokines may represent an important feature of the host response to mycobacteria. PMID:19026454

  13. Th1, Th2 and Treg/T17 cytokines in two types of proliferative glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Stangou, M.; Bantis, C.; Skoularopoulou, M.; Korelidou, L.; Kouloukouriotou, D.; Scina, M.; Labropoulou, I. T.; Kouri, N. M.; Papagianni, A.; Efstratiadis, G.

    2016-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis (FSNGN) are characterized by proliferation of native glomerular cells and infiltration by inflammatory cells. Several cytokines act as mediators of kidney damage in both diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Th1, Th2 and Treg/T17 cytokines in these types of proliferative glomerulonephritis. Simultaneous measurement of Th1 interleukin (IL-2, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], interferon-gamma [INF-γ]), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13), Treg/T17 transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], IL-17) cytokines and C-C chemokines Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 [MIP-1] β) was performed in first-morning urine samples, at the day of renal biopsy, using a multiplex cytokine assay. Cytokine concentrations were correlated with histological findings and renal function outcome. Urinary excretion of Th1, Th2 and Treg/Th17 cytokines were significantly higher in FSNGN compared to IgAN patients. In IgAN patients (n = 50, M/F: 36/14, M age: 40.7 [17–67] years), Th1, Th2 and T17 cytokines correlated significantly with the presence of endocapillary proliferation, while in FSNGN patients (n = 40, M/F: 24/16, M age: 56.5 [25–80] years), MCP-1 and TGF-β1 had a positive correlation with severe extracapillary proliferation (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Urinary IL-17 was the only independent parameter associated with endocapillary proliferation in IgAN and with MCP-1 urinary excretion in FSNGN. Response to treatment was mainly predicted by IL-6 in IgAN, and by Th2 (IL-4, IL-6), Treg (GM-CSF) cytokines and MIP-1 β in FSNGN. Th1, Th2 and T17 cytokines were directly implicated in renal pathology in IgAN and possibly through MCP-1 production in FSNGN. IL-17 and IL-6 seem to have a central role in inflammation and progression of kidney injury. PMID:27194829

  14. Cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: far beyond Th1/Th2 dualism lupus: cytokine profiles.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Poliana Macedo; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Stadtlober, Nicole Perugini; Franchi Santos, Lorena Flor da Rosa; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Iriyoda, Tatiana Mayumi Veiga; Costa, Neide Tomimura; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Maes, Michael; Dichi, Isaias; Simão, Andréa Name Colado

    2017-06-26

    The aims of this study were to delineate cytokine profiles of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), construct prediction models for diagnosis and disease activity using those profiles, and to examine the associations between TNFB Ncol polymorphism, body mass index (BMI) and vitamin D levels with cytokine levels. Two hundred SLE patients and 196 healthy controls participated in this case-control study. Plasma cytokines levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL- 4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-17 were measured and cytokines profiles were computed. IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in SLE, while IL-4 was lower in SLE. The Th1/Th2 and Th1+Th17/Th2 profiles were significantly higher in SLE than in healthy controls, whereas there were no significant differences in the proinflammatory cytokine profile (TNFα+IL-6+IL-1β). In total, 90.4% of all subjects were correctly classified using Th1+Th17 profile and IL-10 (positively associated) and IL-4 (negatively associated) as predictor variables (sensitivity=66.7% and specificity=96.9%). In all, 20.9% of the variance in the SLE Disease Activity Index was predicted by the Th1+Th17/Th2 ratio, IL-10 and BMI (all positively) and proinflammatory profile (inversely associated). B1/B1 genotype is accompanied by increased IL-17 and Th17/Th2 ratio, while B1/B2 genotype is accompanied by higher IL-4 and IFNγ values. 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with IFN-γ levels. SLE is accompanied by Th1, Th17 and Treg profile and lowered IL-4 production. Lowered vitamin D levels and B1/B1 genotype, but not BMI, contribute to changes in cytokines profiles. Future treatments should target Th1, Th2 and Th17 profiles rather than inflammatory cytokines.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 25 July 2017; doi:10.1038/icb.2017.53.

  15. The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more.

    PubMed

    Mosmann, T R; Sad, S

    1996-03-01

    Since their discovery nearly ten years ago, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 subsets have been implicated in the regulation of many immune responses. In this article, Tim Mosmann and Subash Sad discuss the increasing number of T-cell subsets defined by cytokine patterns; the differentiation pathways of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; the contribution of other cell types to these patterns; and the cytokine interactions during infection and pregnancy.

  16. [Circulating levels of Th1- and Th2-chemokines increase in patients with early syphilis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Anyou; Wang, Chenchen; Sun, Hong; Han, Hongfang; Wang, Fengchao; Zhang, Lunjun; Hu, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    Objective To study the changes of plasma T helper type I (Th1)-and Th2-chemokine levels and analyze their roles in immune response and pathogenesis of early syphilis. Methods Heparin-anticoagulated peripheral blood was collected from 56 patients with early syphilis (primary syphilis, PS, n=22; secondary syphilis, SS, n=34) and healthy controls (HC, n=20). The levels of plasma Th1 chemokines including monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG), interferon-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC) and Th2 chemokines including thymus-and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) were examined using ELISA. Meanwhile, the levels of plasma cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4 and TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected. Results The levels of plasma MIG, IP-10 and TARC, MDC in the patients with PS and SS were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. Moreover, the level of I-TAC in the patients with SS was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls. In particular, the levels of plasma Th1 chemokines (MIG, IP-10 and I-TAC) in the patients with SS significantly increased compared with those with PS. However, no significant difference was observed in the levels of plasma Th2 chemokines (TARC and MDC) between the patients with PS and SS. The correlation analysis showed that there was an obvious positive correlation between IP-10 and MIG, I-TAC, IFN-γ, TNF-α levels in the patients with early syphilis. Furthermore, the levels of MIG and IP-10 were positively associated with plasma CRP in the patients with early syphilis. Conclusion Both Th1 chemokines and Th2 chemokines are involved in immune response of early syphilis.

  17. Circulating levels of Th1 and Th2 chemokines in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianing; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Gaoya; Yang, Chunshu; Xu, Yong; Li, Yujia; Yang, Pingting

    2016-05-01

    Although chemokines are critical elements for the selective attraction and activation of various leukocyte subsets in the inflammatory process, there are few findings concerning T helper (Th) 1 or Th2 chemokines in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study was designed to determine whether serum levels of chemokines that are preferentially chemotactic for Th1 (IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10, IP-10/CXCL10) and Th2 (thymus and activation regulated chemokine, TARC/CCL17) and (macrophage derived chemokine, MDC/CCL22) cells were elevated and whether they correlated with the clinical features in patients with AS. Forty-two patients with axial AS and 25 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. Serum levels of chemokines (IP-10, TARC and MDC) and cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4) were examined using ELISA. The disease activity was evaluated by Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS). Serum levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Serum chemokine levels of IP-10, TARC and MDC were significantly higher in patients with AS than those in healthy controls. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α were also significantly increased, but the levels of IL-4 were not. Furthermore, IP-10 levels in AS patients correlated with ESP, CRP and ASDAS, while the levels of TARC and MDC did not correlate with these clinic indexes. Correlation analysis between the levels of chemokines and cytokines revealed a positive correlation between IP-10 and TNF-α. The levels of both Th1 and Th2 chemokines decreased under blockade of TNF-α. Our results suggest that both a Th1 chemoattractant IP-10 and Th2 chemoattractants, TARC and MDC, cooperatively play a role in the development of AS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Th-1, Th-2 Cytokines Profile among Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Amre; Abushouk, Amir; Hamza, Anhar; Siddig, Emmanuel; Fahal, Ahmed H.

    2016-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a progressive and destructive chronic granulomatous subcutaneous inflammatory disease caused by certain fungi, the most common being Madurella mycetomatis. The host defence mechanisms against fungi usually range from an early non-specific immune response to activation and induction of specific adaptive immune responses by the production of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines in patients infected with Madurella mycetomatis, and the association between their levels and disease prognosis. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan, where 70 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma were enrolled; 35 with, and 35 without surgical excision. 70 healthy individuals from mycetoma endemic areas were selected as controls. The levels of serum cytokines were determined by cytometric bead array technique. Significantly higher levels of the Th-1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2) were recorded in patients treated with surgical excision, compared to those treated without surgical excision. In contrast, the Th-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) were significantly lower in patients treated with surgical excision compared to those treated without surgical excision. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that cell-mediated immunity can have a role to play in the pathogenesis of eumycetoma. PMID:27434108

  19. Th-1, Th-2 Cytokines Profile among Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Amre; Abushouk, Amir; Hamza, Anhar; Siddig, Emmanuel; Fahal, Ahmed H

    2016-07-01

    Eumycetoma is a progressive and destructive chronic granulomatous subcutaneous inflammatory disease caused by certain fungi, the most common being Madurella mycetomatis. The host defence mechanisms against fungi usually range from an early non-specific immune response to activation and induction of specific adaptive immune responses by the production of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines in patients infected with Madurella mycetomatis, and the association between their levels and disease prognosis. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan, where 70 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma were enrolled; 35 with, and 35 without surgical excision. 70 healthy individuals from mycetoma endemic areas were selected as controls. The levels of serum cytokines were determined by cytometric bead array technique. Significantly higher levels of the Th-1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2) were recorded in patients treated with surgical excision, compared to those treated without surgical excision. In contrast, the Th-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10) were significantly lower in patients treated with surgical excision compared to those treated without surgical excision. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that cell-mediated immunity can have a role to play in the pathogenesis of eumycetoma.

  20. Role of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Wen, J T; Zhang, D H; Fang, P F; Li, M H; Wang, R J; Li, S H

    2017-03-16

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a progressive disease of the spine, manifests as peripheral arthritis with tendon and ligament inflammation that restricts activity. AS is a rheumatoid autoimmune disease although the rheumatoid factor is absent in patients with AS. It is characterized by inflammatory changes such as elevated levels of serum inflammatory factors. The roles of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in autoimmune diseases are well known. However, the roles of these cytokines in the diagnosis and prognosis of AS is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the diagnosis and prognosis of AS. The BASDAI activity, BASFI functional index, BASMI measurement score, and the levels of CRP and ESR were measured during the treatment of patients with active AS. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α (Th1 cytokines) and IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines) were quantified. The levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly low in the serum of patients with active AS, who also had high IFN-γ and TNF-α levels compared to those in the control individuals (P < 0.05). After treatment, the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 increased while those of IFN-γ and TNF-α decreased compared to those in individuals with active AS (P < 0.05). The disease activity index correlated positively with levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α and negatively with levels of IL-4 and IL-10, but not with that of CRP or ESR. Changes in the levels of Th1/2 cytokines in patients with AS may reflect disease activity and prognosis.

  1. Distinct Th1- and Th2-Type prenatal cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion ligands.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Indu; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric; Ouma, John; Sharma, Shobhona; Kazura, James W; King, Christopher L

    2005-06-01

    Prenatal immunity to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite proteins involved in erythrocyte invasion may contribute to the partial protection against malaria that is acquired during infancy in areas of stable malaria transmission. We examined newborn and maternal cytokine and antibody responses to merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 (PfP0), and region II of erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175) in infant-mother pairs in Kenya. Overall, 82 of 167 (50%), 106 of 176 (60%), and 38 of 84 (45%) cord blood lymphocytes (CBL) from newborns produced one or more cytokines in response to MSP-1, PfP0, and EBA-175, respectively. Newborns of primigravid and/or malaria-infected women were more likely to have antigen-responsive CBL than were newborns of multigravid and/or uninfected women at delivery. Newborn cytokine responses did not match those of their mothers and fell into three distinct categories, Th1 (21 of 55 CBL donors produced only gamma interferon and/or interleukin 2 [IL-2]), Th2 (21 of 55 produced only IL-5 and/or IL-13), and mixed Th1/Th2 (13 of 55). Newborns produced more IL-10 than adults. High and low levels of cord blood IL-12 p70 production induced by anti-CD40 activation were associated with malaria-specific Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively. Antigen-responsive CBL in some newborns were detected only after depletion of IL-10-secreting CD8 cells with enrichment for CD4 cells. These data indicate that prenatal sensitization to blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum occurs frequently in areas where malaria is holoendemic. Modulation of this immunity, possibly by maternal parity and malaria, may affect the acquisition of protective immunity against malaria during infancy.

  2. Lymphocyte subsets and the role of TH1/TH2 balance in stressed chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Ines; Eisner, Christoph; Richter, Peter; Huge, Volker; Beyer, Antje; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and fibromyalgia (FM) are chronic pain syndromes occurring in highly stressed individuals. Despite the known connection between the nervous system and immune cells, information on distribution of lymphocyte subsets under stress and pain conditions is limited. We performed a comparative study in 15 patients with CRPS type I, 22 patients with FM and 37 age- and sex-matched healthy controls and investigated the influence of pain and stress on lymphocyte number, subpopulations and the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in T lymphocytes. Lymphocyte numbers did not differ between groups. Quantitative analyses of lymphocyte subpopulations showed a significant reduction of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes in both CRPS (p < 0.01) and FM (p < 0.05) patients as compared with healthy controls. Additionally, CRPS patients were characterized by a lower percentage of IL-2-producing T cell subpopulations reflecting a diminished Th1 response in contrast to no changes in the Th2 cytokine profile. Future studies are warranted to answer whether such immunological changes play a pathogenetic role in CRPS and FM or merely reflect the consequences of a pain-induced neurohumoral stress response, and whether they contribute to immunosuppression in stressed chronic pain patients. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Apigenin Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis by Modulating Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouxin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Chengming; Yang, Jun; Wang, Lihong; Liu, Jie; Gong, Lei; Jing, Yanyan

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the protective effect of apigenin on the development of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) and the underlying mechanisms. An EAM model was induced in BALB/c mice by the injection of porcine cardiac myosin. Apigenin was orally administered from day 1 to 21. The severity of myocarditis was assessed by determination of heart weight/body weight ratio (HW/BW) and histopathological evaluation. Echocardiography was conducted to evaluate the cardiac function and heart structure. Antigen-specific T cell proliferation responses to cardiac myosin were evaluated by the lymphocyte proliferation assay. ELISA was used to determine serum levels of type 1 helper (Th1) and Th2 cytokines. Apigenin treatment significantly decreased HW/BW. Histopathologic analysis showed that the infiltration of inflammatory cells was reduced significantly by apigenin treatment. Meanwhile, apigenin administration effectively ameliorated autoimmune myocarditis-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction as well as inhibited lymphocyte proliferation in mice immunized with myosin. Furthermore, Th1 cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) were significantly downregulated, while Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were markedly upregulated. The results indicated that apigenin can alleviate EAM due to its immunomodulatory reactions in modification of helper T cell balance.

  4. T-cell clones in human trichinellosis: Evidence for a mixed Th1/Th2 response.

    PubMed

    Della Bella, C; Benagiano, M; De Gennaro, M; Gomez-Morales, M A; Ludovisi, A; D'Elios, S; Luchi, S; Pozio, E; D'Elios, M M; Bruschi, F

    2017-03-01

    In humans, studies on the cellular immune response against Trichinella are scarce. Aim of this study was to characterize the cytokine profile of T cells specific for Trichinella britovi in trichinellosis patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from five patients involved in a trichinellosis outbreak caused by T. britovi, which occurred in 2013 in Tuscany (Italy). All the patients resulted positive for Trichinella-specific IgG, IgE and presented eosinophilia. T cells were investigated for their proliferation to excretory/secretory antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (TsES) and for their cytokine profile. A total of 284 CD4+ and 42 CD8+ T-cell clones were obtained from the TsES-specific T-cell lines from PBMC. All T-cell clones proliferated in response to mitogen. Of the 284 CD4+ T-cell clones generated from TsES-specific T-cell lines, 135 (47%) proliferated significantly to TsES; 26% CD8+ T-cell clones showed proliferation to TsES. In the series of the 135 TsES-specific CD4+ clones, 51% expressed a Th2 profile, 30% a Th0 and 19% Th1. In the series of the 11 TsES-specific CD8+ T-cell clones, 18% were Tc2, 45% Tc0 and 36% Tc1. In human trichinellosis, the cellular immune response is, during the chronic phase, mixed Th1/Th2.

  5. Boswellia carterii Extract Inhibits TH1 Cytokines and Promotes TH2 Cytokines In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Marc R.; Ryan, Abigail E.; Lee, David Y.-W.; Zhongze, Ma; Wu-Yan, Zhang; Via, Charles S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional herbal formulas used to treat inflammatory arthritis in China and India include Boswellia carterii or Boswellia serrata. They both contain boswellic acids (BAs) which have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic properties. This study tests the hypothesis that mixtures of BAs derived from B. carterii have immunomodulatory properties. B. carterii plant resin obtained from China was prepared as an ethanol extract, and the presence of seven BAs was confirmed by column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and UV laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectroscopy. The extract was then tested for its ability to alter in vitro production of TH1 cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon) and TH2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) by murine splenocytes. Delivery of the resin extract using ethanol as a solvent resulted in significant cellular toxicity not seen with the addition of ethanol alone. By contrast, delivery of the resin extract using a sesame oil solvent resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of TH1 cytokines coupled with a dose-dependent potentiation of TH2 cytokines. These results indicate that a purified mixture of BAs from B. carterii plant resin exhibits carrier-dependent immunomodulatory properties in vitro. PMID:15879017

  6. Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg levels in umbilical cord blood in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rojas, María I; Solleiro-Villavicencio, Helena; Soto-Vega, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the major causes of maternal and neonatal mortality. During pregnancy, the immune system must maintain the tolerance to the fetus, thus changes in the cytokine balance may result in a disturbed pregnancy. T helper cells play an important role in modulation of the immune system and are involved in this cytokine balance. Many studies have been performed to study the T cell composition in different compartments during pregnancy, although this is the first study in which T cells are evaluated in umbilical cord blood. Intracellular expression of INF-gamma, IL-17, IL-4 and forkhead foxP3 in CD4+ T cells was evaluated in umbilical blood from healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women using a flow cytometer. Th2 and Treg cells levels were significantly diminished in preeclamptic compared to the healthy women, but no difference in Th1 and Th17 levels were found between both groups. Our data suggest that the cytokine balance is broken, encouraging the development of an exacerbated inflammatory response. Our results show that there is a shift, in the Th1/Th2, and the Th17/Treg balance, favoring skewness towards a proinflammatory status in the umbilical cord blood in preeclampsia.

  7. Soil-based organisms improve immune function: shift cytokine profile from TH2 to TH1.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    SRL 172, a protein derived from a soil-based organism, is advertised for being able to restart the immune systems of persons with allergies, lung cancer, and tuberculosis. SRL 172 also appears to shift the cytokine profile in persons with Gulf War Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from TH2 back to the more effective TH1 profile. One patient reports improved DTH skin responses to topical DNCB after using Nature's Biotics Soil-based Organisms (SBOs). There also appeared to be improved immunity response indicating a shift from a weaker TH2 to a TH1 cytokine profile. The patient explains his successful use of SBOs and reveals that all but 1 out of 100 other patients who have used the product for a variety of ailments cite successful outcomes. Among the ailments whose symptoms the SBOs have helped relieve are foot sores from diabetes, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, insomnia, and genital herpes. Recent use of SBOs by HIV-infected patients has had positive results in energy and weight gain and improvements in some types of chronic conditions indicating an improvement of cell mediated immunity and antibody production.

  8. Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, R; Haider, M Z; Azizieh, F; Abdelsalam, R; D'Souza, T M; Adekile, A D

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the levels of Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines in the plasma and supernatants following peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture and mitogen stimulation in a group of 39 patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) made up of 29 SS, 8 Sbeta-thal and 2 Hb SD in steady state. Five SS patients were studied during 7 episodes of vaso-occlusive crisis. Twenty-four control (3 Hb AS and 21 Hb AA) were also studied; 10 were acutely ill while 14 were healthy at the time of the study. The plasma levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma were similar in the patients and the controls. However, plasma IL-4 was significantly higher among the steady-state SS patients than in the controls. While there was no significant difference in cytokine levels following mitogen stimulation in the different groups, plasma IL-2 to IL-4 and IFN-gamma to IL-4 ratios were significantly lower among the steady-state SS patients, indicating a possible Th2 bias in our sickle cell patients and suggesting a possible mechanism to explain the predisposition of SCD patients to bacterial infections. However, SS patients with good splenic function showed a relative Th1 bias, which may be an additional explanation for the protection against bacterial infections in such patients.

  9. Effect of ultra violet irradiation on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abo Elnazar, Salma Y.; Ghazy, Amany A.; Ghoneim, Hossam E.; Taha, Abdul-Rahman M.; Abouelella, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Although ultraviolet (UV) radiation is used to treat several types of diseases, including rickets, psoriasis, eczema, and jaundice, the prolonged exposure to its radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects particularly on the skin, eyes, and the immune system. Aim: This study was carried out to show the effect of UV on both of the lymphoproliferative response and their capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Methods: Mice were exposed to whole body UVB and tested for the effect of recovery times on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, direct irradiation of spleens and lymphocyte suspension was carried out. Basal and mitogens-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by MTT assay while IL-10 and IL-12 were measured using ELISA. Results: There was a significant suppression in lymphocyte proliferation in comparison with control. IL-12 level was significantly reduced while the level of IL-10 was increased. Con A and PWM mitogens had no significant changes in IL-10 while Con A caused a highly significant increase in IL-12 at day 6 of recovery in UVB body irradiation. Conclusion: Exposure to UVB radiation could cause a state of immune suppression and shifts Th1/Th2 cell response. This effect is closely associated with the reduction of Th1 cytokines’ expression and increase in Th2 cytokines’ levels. PMID:25852558

  10. CD4 T-Cell Subsets in Malaria: TH1/TH2 Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Mazliah, Damian; Langhorne, Jean

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T-cells have been shown to play a central role in immune control of infection with Plasmodium parasites. At the erythrocytic stage of infection, IFN-γ production by CD4+ T-cells and CD4+ T-cell help for the B-cell response are required for control and elimination of infected red blood cells. CD4+ T-cells are also important for controlling Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages through the activation of parasite-specific CD8+ T-cells. However, excessive inflammatory responses triggered by the infection have been shown to drive pathology. Early classical experiments demonstrated a biphasic CD4+ T-cell response against erythrocytic stages in mice, in which T helper (Th)1 and antibody-helper CD4+ T-cells appear sequentially during a primary infection. While IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells do play a role in controlling acute infections, and they contribute to acute erythrocytic-stage pathology, it became apparent that a classical Th2 response producing IL-4 is not a critical feature of the CD4+ T-cell response during the chronic phase of infection. Rather, effective CD4+ T-cell help for B-cells, which can occur in the absence of IL-4, is required to control chronic parasitemia. IL-10, important to counterbalance inflammation and associated with protection from inflammatory-mediated severe malaria in both humans and experimental models, was originally considered be produced by CD4+ Th2 cells during infection. We review the interpretations of CD4+ T-cell responses during Plasmodium infection, proposed under the original Th1/Th2 paradigm, in light of more recent advances, including the identification of multifunctional T-cells such as Th1 cells co-expressing IFN-γ and IL-10, the identification of follicular helper T-cells (Tfh) as the predominant CD4+ T helper subset for B-cells, and the recognition of inherent plasticity in the fates of different CD4+ T-cells. PMID:25628621

  11. CD4+ T-cell subsets in inflammatory diseases: beyond the Th1/Th2 paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are crucial for directing appropriate immune responses during host defense and for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. In addition to the classical biphasic model of differentiation of T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells, unexpected increases in the numbers of CD4+ T-cell subsets, including Th17, Th9, T follicular-helper (Tfh) and T-regulatory (Treg) cells, have been recognized. In the present review, we focus on how these various T-helper cell subsets contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. In particular, we focus on multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and asthma as typical model diseases in which multiple T-helper cell subsets have recently been suggested to play a role. We will also discuss various unique sub-populations of T-helper cells that have been identified. First, we will introduce the heterogeneous T-helper cell subsets, which are classified by their simultaneous expression of multiple key transcription factors. We will also introduce different kinds of memory-type Th2 cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic type-2 immune-related diseases. Finally, we will discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of the plasticity and heterogeneity of T-helper cell subsets. The latest progress in the study of T-helper cell subsets has forced us to reconsider the etiology of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases beyond the model based on the Th1/Th2 balance. To this end, we propose another model—the pathogenic T-helper population disease-induction model—as a possible mechanism for the induction and/or persistence of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26874355

  12. Analysis of Serum Th1/Th2 Cytokine Levels in Patients with Acute Mumps Infection

    PubMed Central

    Malaiyan, Jeevan; Ramanan, Padmasani Venkat; Subramaniam, Dinesh; Menon, Thangam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mumps virus is frequently the causative agent of parotitis. There has been no study on serum cytokine levels of acute mumps parotitis except for a few which document cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid of mumps meningitis. It is with this notion, our study aimed to find Th1/Th2 cytokine levels from patients with acute mumps parotitis. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of mumps-specific IgM, mumps, measles, rubella-specific IgG antibody, and Th1/Th2 cytokines, namely interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and IL-10 were measured simultaneously in serum from 74 patients (42 pediatric and 32 adult cases), 40 healthy subjects (20 pediatric and 20 adults) and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with mumps virus genotype C which served as the positive control. Statistical significance was analyzed between each group by means of Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test. Results: IgM positivity confirmed acute infection in all 74 patients and of these 67 were vaccinated cases; however, very few of them (10/67) were positive for mumps IgG. We found that IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 showed a statistically significant increase in both pediatric and adult patients with acute mumps infection when compared to healthy controls and values were comparable to the positive control. Conclusion: The Th1 cells play important roles during the acute phase of mumps parotitis. PMID:27293364

  13. Both Th1 and Th2 Cells Require P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 for Optimal Rolling on Inflamed Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Paul R.; O’Quinn, Darrell; Harrington, Laurie; Bonder, Claudine S.; Kubes, Paul; Kucik, Dennis F.; Bullard, Daniel C.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2005-01-01

    The acquisition of homing receptors that redirect lymphocyte trafficking to nonlymphoid tissues after antigen encounter is a fundamental aspect of effector T-cell development. Although a role for selectins and their ligands has been well characterized for trafficking of Th1 cells to nonlymphoid sites, mechanisms responsible for Th2 trafficking are not well understood. Using a flow chamber system in which the endothelial interactions of two distinct T-cell populations could be examined simultaneously, we directly compared the requirements for Th1 and Th2 cell tethering and rolling. We found that although Th2 cells expressed significantly lower levels of selectin ligands than Th1 cells, activation of the endothelium by Th2-derived factors induced rolling interactions that were comparable for both Th1 and Th2 populations. Further, in the absence of PSGL-1, no other adhesion molecule could effectively compensate for lack of PSGL-1 to mediate rolling of either Th1 or Th2 cells. Thus, both Th1 and Th2 populations express functional PSGL-1-based selectin ligands for tethering and rolling on activated endothelium, and both effector populations can use PSGL-1 as the dominant scaffold for functional selectin ligand expression. PMID:16314478

  14. Differential chemokine expression following respiratory virus infection reflects Th1- or Th2-biased immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Culley, Fiona J; Pennycook, Alasdair M J; Tregoning, John S; Hussell, Tracy; Openshaw, Peter J M

    2006-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral pathogen of infants that also reinfects adults. During RSV infection, inflammatory host cell recruitment to the lung plays a central role in determining disease outcome. Chemokines mediate cell recruitment to sites of inflammation and are influenced by, and influence, the production of cytokines. We therefore compared chemokine production in a mouse model of immunopathogenic RSV infection in which either Th1 or Th2 immunopathology is induced by prior sensitization to individual RSV proteins. Chemokine expression profiles were profoundly affected by the nature of the pulmonary immunopathology: "Th2" immunopathology in BALB/c mice was associated with increased and prolonged expression of CCL2 (MCP-1), CXCL10 (IP-10), and CCL11 (eotaxin) starting within 24 h of challenge. C57BL/6 mice with "Th2" pathology (enabled by a deficiency of CD8+ cells) also showed increased CCL2 production. No differences in chemokine receptor expression were detected. Chemokine blockers may therefore be of use for children with bronchiolitis.

  15. CD30 antigen: not a physiological marker for TH2 cells but an important costimulator molecule in the regulation of the balance between TH1/TH2 response.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Patrizia; Berghella, Anna Maria; Contasta, Ida; Adorno, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the physiological role of CD30 would be an important step forward in transplants because CD30+ T cells can be induced by alloantigens even in the presence of immunosuppressives such as cyclosporine (Csa) and hence can act as regulatory cells in allograft. The results of functional studies on purified T CD30+ cell populations led us to hypothesize that the CD30 costimulator molecule is not a specific marker for TH2 cells in normal conditions, as has been suggested, but rather a marker for an important immunoregulatory subpopulation that regulates the balance between TH1 and TH2 (TH1/TH2) type response. To substantiate this hypothesis we studied the TH1/TH2 cytokine network in peripheral whole blood cultures stimulate with M44 CD30 ligand (CD30L), an agonistic monoclonal antibody (mAb). Four types of whole blood culture were used: the first had been stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb which generates a CD30 cytokine profile similar to alloreactive stimulation; the second with anti-CD3 mAb+M81 (an anti-CD30L mAb) to inhibit CD30/CD30L interaction; the third with anti-CD3+anti-interleukin (IL)4 mAbs to counteract IL4 activity and the fourth with anti-CD3+anti-interferon (IFN)gamma mAbs to counteract IFNgamma activity. Network interactions between soluble CD30 (sCD30, a maker of CD30 expression), sBcl2 (a marker of cell survival) and TH1/TH2 cytokines (IFNgamma, IL2, IL12p70, IL12p40, IL4, IL5 and IL10) were then studied in the supernatants obtained. Our results confirm the hypothesis above by showing that CD30 signals trigger functional mechanisms responsible for changes in levels of production of several important TH1 and TH2 cytokines involved in the regulation of the physiological balance between TH1/TH2 functions. The CD30-stimulated network, in fact, induces IFNgamma production linked to TH1 activity (-->TH1) which is subsequently integrated by IL4 production linked to TH2 activity (-->TH2). This production appears to be regulated, respectively, by IL12p40

  16. Effect of Th1/Th2 cytokine administration on proinflammatory SKOV-3 cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Justyna; Kondera-Anasz, Zdzisława; Mickiewicz, Patrycja; Mickiewicz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 might associate with inflammatory processes in a tumor progression and create a specific microenvironment for tumor growth. The aim of the study was to assess whether the Th1 and Th2 type cytokines, such as IL-2 and IL-10, affect ovarian carcinoma continuous cell line (SKOV-3) pro-inflammatory activation. Material and methods SKOV-3 ovarian cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated by IL-2 and IL-10. Additionally, SKOV-3 ovarian cells and PBMCs were co-cultured together. Proinflammatory activation of cancer cells was evaluated by measurement of IL-1β and IL-6 levels in culture fluid after 72 h of incubation. Results SKOV-3 cells and PBMCs secreted IL-1β and IL-6. After stimulation by IL-2 and IL-10, secretion of studied parameters was changed in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of a higher IL-2 level gave rise to an increase of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12 secretion in SKOV-3 cells. Stimulation by IL-10 increased only IL-1β secretion in SKOV-3 cells. However, IL-6 secretion decreased after stimulation with 25 ng/ml IL-10. Activatory effects of IL-2 and inhibitory effects of IL-10 in co-culture of SKOV-3 and PBMCs were observed. Conclusions Our results suggested that Th1/Th2 type of cytokines might influence pro-inflammatory activation of SKOV-3 ovarian cells. Co-cultures of SKOV-3 and PBMCs showed significant changes in cross-talk between cancer and immune cells. PMID:27904527

  17. Blood myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells reflect Th1/Th2 balance in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Jarosław; Krawczyk, Paweł; Chocholska, Sylwia; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Kieszko, Robert; Michnar, Marek; Milanowski, Janusz; Roliński, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a specific regulatory role in the immune system. In this paper, the significance of myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was evaluated. Myeloid dendritic cells are connected with Th1 type of immunological response, whereas lymphoid ones--with Th2 type. The latest findings indicate that both diseases are characterized by serious disturbances of Th1/Th2 response to Th1 dominance. Our studies seem to confirm these suggestions. In the peripheral blood of patients with sarcoidosis as well as with EAA, myeloid dendritic cells outnumbered lymphoid ones.

  18. TH1 and TH2 lymphocyte development and regulation of TH cell-mediated immune responses of the skin.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Tilo; Röcken, Martin; Carballido, José M

    2004-01-01

    Since the first description of the subpopulations of TH1 and TH2 cells, insights into the development and control of these cells as two polarized and physiologically balanced subsets have been generated. In particular, implications of the TH1-TH2 concept for TH cell-mediated skin disorders have been discovered. This article will review the basic factors that control the development of TH1 and TH2 cells, such as the cytokines IL-12 and IL-4 and transcription factors, the possible role of costimulatory molecules, and specialized dendritic cell populations. These regulatory mechanisms will be discussed in the context of polarized TH1 or TH2 skin disorders such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Also presented are the principles that govern how chemokines and chemokine receptors recruit TH1 and TH2 cells to inflammatory sites and how they amplify these polarized TH cell responses. All of these concepts, including a novel role for IL-4-inducing TH1 responses, can contribute to the design of better therapeutic strategies to modulate TH cell-mediated immune responses.

  19. Abnormal T regulatory cells (Tregs: FOXP3+, CTLA-4+), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs: monocytic, granulocytic) and polarised T helper cell profiles (Th1, Th2, Th17) in women with large and locally advanced breast cancers undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery: failure of abolition of abnormal treg profile with treatment and correlation of treg levels with pathological response to NAC

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Host defences play a key role in tumour growth. Some of the benefits of chemotherapy may occur through modulation of these defences. The aim of this study was to define the status of regulatory cells in women with large and locally advanced breast cancers (LLABCs) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery. Methods Bloods were collected from patients (n = 56) before, during and following NAC, and surgery. Controls (n = 10) were healthy, age-matched females donors (HFDs). Blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) were isolated and T regulatory cells (Tregs) (n = 31) determined. Absolute numbers (AbNs) of Tregs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were ascertained from whole blood (n = 25). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis determined Treg mRNA (n = 16). In vitro production of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines (n = 30), was documented. Patients were classified as clinical responders by magnetic resonance mammography after two cycles of NAC and as pathological responders using established criteria, following surgery. Results Patients with LLABCs had significantly increased circulating Tregs (≥ 6 fold AbN and percentage (%)) and MDSCs (≥ 1.5 fold AbN (p = 0.025)). Percentage of FOXP3+ Tregs in blood predicted the response of the LLABCs to subsequent NAC (p = 0.04). Post NAC blood Tregs (%) were significantly reduced in patients where tumours showed a good pathological response to NAC (p = 0.05). Blood MDSCs (granulocytic, monocytic) were significantly reduced in all patients, irrespective of the pathological tumour response to chemotherapy. NAC followed by surgery failed to restore blood Tregs to normal levels. MDSCs, however, were reduced to or below normal levels by NAC alone. Invitro Th1 profile (IL-1β, IL-2, INF-γ, TNF-α) was significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.009), whilst Th2 (IL-4, IL-5) was significantly enhanced (P ≤ 0.004). Th1 and Th2 (IL-5) were unaffected by NAC and surgery

  20. The influence of leptin on Th1/Th2 balance in obese children with asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Doaa Mohammed; Elbehidy, Rabab Mohamed; Shokry, Dina Mahamoud; Elbehidy, Eman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In individuals with asthma, obesity induces the production of leptin and is associated with disease severity. Our objective was to evaluate the levels of serum leptin and their effect on Th1/Th2 balance in obese and non-obese children with asthma, as well as to investigate the association between serum leptin levels and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We evaluated 50 atopic children with physician-diagnosed moderate-to-severe persistent asthma and 20 controls. The children with asthma were divided into two groups, by body mass index percentile: obese (n = 25) and non-obese (n = 25). From all subjects, we collected peripheral blood samples in order to determine the levels of leptin, IFN-γ, and IL-4. Asthma severity was assessed by an asthma symptom score, and the results were correlated with the parameters studied. RESULTS: Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group, as well as being significantly higher in the children with asthma than in the controls, whereas IFN-γ levels were significantly higher and IL-4 levels were significantly lower in the obese asthma group than in the non-obese asthma group. In addition, the obese asthma group showed higher asthma symptom scores and significantly lower FEV1 (% of predicted) than did the non-obese asthma group. There was a significant positive correlation between leptin and IFN-γ levels only in the obese asthma group. CONCLUSIONS: Although leptin is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma in obese and non-obese children, its effect is more pronounced in the former. In the presence of high leptin levels, only obese children with asthma exhibited Th1 polarization, with higher IFN-γ levels and greater asthma severity. PMID:24310629

  1. Effect of doxorubicin on cytokine production by lymphocytes and the Th1/Th2 balance.

    PubMed

    Santos, R V T; Caperuto, E C; de Mello, M T; Rosa, L F B P Costa

    2010-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) is a potent chemotherapeutic used mainly against solid tumours; however, it has several side effects that can limit its clinical use. On the other hand, the effect of DOXO upon lymphocyte function is controversial. Some studies demonstrate that DOXO administration in vitro suppresses T-cell activation, while the cellular function has been shown to increase in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of DOXO on lymphocyte cytokine production in rats. The animals were divided into: SAL (control, n=10) and DOX (DOXO treated, n=10). The DOX group received only one DOXO dose at 15 kg Kg(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Forty-eight hours after DOXO administration, the animals were killed by decapitation. IL-2 production was significantly enhanced (p<0.05) in lymphocytes from rats treated with DOXO (169.17 ± 21.73 pg mL 10(5) cell) as compared to cells from SAL (45.92 ± 10.53 pg mL 10(5) cell). The administration of DOXO decreased (<0.05) IL-4 production in the DOXO group (29.85 ± 13.09 pg mL 10(5)cell) relative to the SAL group (75.08 ± 15.31 pg mL 10(5)cell). The IL-2/IL-4 ratio was higher (<0.05) in the DOX group (5.99 ± 0.44), as compared to SAL group (0.73 ± 0.12). In conclusion, our results suggest that a dose of DOXO promotes an alteration in the Th1/Th2 balance, promoting a shift towards a Th1-dominant cytokine response. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. CD4+/CD25+ T-Lymphocytes and Th1/Th2 regulation in dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Efthimiadis, I; Skendros, P; Sarantopoulos, A; Boura, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Autoimmune mechanisms are often involved in the pathogenesis of Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) and Th1 immune response against cardiac antigens plays a pivotal role in disease development. Methods: IL-2 receptor (CD4+/CD25+) and cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-10 were studied in 42 patients (17 with DCM - DCM group, 10 patients with hypertrophic cardiac disease - HCD group, and 15 healthy volunteers - Control group). DCM group was subdivided in: DCM-1 (9 patients with recent disease onset) and DCM-2 (8 patients with chronic DCM). The % CD4+/CD25+ T-lymphocytes were analyzed by double fluorescence flow cytometry both ex vivo and after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-cultures with/without 5 and 10 microgr of human cardiac myosin. The cytokines were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) method. Results: Ex vivo analysis: In DCM group, CD4+/CD25+ T-cells significantly increased compared to other groups (p<0.05), due exclusively to DCM-2 subgroup (p=0.019). In PHA cultures in DCM-2 subgroup CD4+/CD25+ T-lymphocytes were significantly increased compared to all other groups (p<0.001). The addition of myosin in the cultures of DCM-2 subgroup maintained the same result. In cultures supernatants in DCM-2 subgroup, IL-2 levels were impressively increased compared to DCM-1 subgroup (p=5.91x10-6), HCD and Control groups (p<0.001). Addition of antigen decreased significantly IL-2 levels in DCM-2 subgroup (p=0.01). IFN-γ levels followed the same pattern of alterations. IL-10 levels were significantly increased in both DCM subgroups compared to HCD and Control groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Increased peripheral CD4+/CD25+ T-cells found in chronic DCM could be a useful prognostic marker in DCM progress. Increased synthesis of IL-2 and IFN-γ and varying IL-10 levels reflects a Th1 pattern of immune response during chronic disease and implies active cellular immunity process, related to poor prognosis. Thus, analysis of the Th1/Th2 phenotype may be useful in disease

  3. Anti-asthma effects of synthetic salidroside through regulation of Th1/Th2 balance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jin, Rong-Guang; Xiao, Lu; Wang, Qiu-Juan; Yan, Tian-Hua

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of synthetic salidroside in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) to induce a mouse model of asthma in paracmasis. The mice were treated with dexamethasone as the positive control. At the end of the study, respiratory reactivity was detected, the numbers of various kinds of white blood cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted, and the levels of IL-4 and INF-γ in BALF were determined. Quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA contents of IL-4 and INF-γ in lung tissue. Histologic examination was performed to observe inflammatory cellular infiltration. Salidroside treatment virtually eliminated airway hyper-reactivity, markedly reduced the eosinophil percent, obviously reduced the levels of IL-4 and raised INF-γ in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) compared with the sham-treated group. Quantitative PCR on the mRNA content of IL-4 and INF-γ provided confirmation. Lung histologic observations showed that salidroside reduced inflammation and edema. These effects were equivalent to the effects of dexamethasone. Synthetic salidroside exhibits an anti-asthma effect which is related to the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance. This provides a new possibility for treatment of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Th1 and Th2-like protein balance in human inflammatory radicular cysts and periapical granulomas.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Alves, Lucas Rodrigues; de Sousa, Adriana Alkmim; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Vilela, Daniel Nogueira; Pereira, Camila Santos; Batista Domingos, Patrícia Luciana; Viana, Agostinho Gonçalves; Jham, Bruno Correia; Batista de Paula, Alfredo Maurício; Sena Guimarães, André Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Chronic dental periapical lesions result from chronic inflammation of periapical tissues caused by continuous antigenic stimulation from infected root canals. Recent findings have suggested that T helper (Th) 1 and Th2-like cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of chronic periapical inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms regulating these immunoinflammatory pathways have not been fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) protein levels in human radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. Archived samples of cysts (n = 52) and granulomas (n = 27) were sectioned and submitted to immunohistochemistry to evaluate the tissue expression of IL-4, IL-12, and IFN-γ. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test (P < .05). An increased expression of IFN-γ was observed in radicular cysts. IL-4 expression was stronger in periapical granulomas than in radicular cysts. IL-12 was not detected in any of the samples. Our study showed that IFN-γ protein levels are increased in radicular cysts, whereas IL-4 expression is stronger in samples of periapical granulomas. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the signaling pathways mediated by these cytokines and to facilitate the development of more effective periapical disease management strategies. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  5. Distinct Th1, Th2 and Treg cytokines balance in chronic periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Salum, Tatiana Beber; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha; Gervásio, Aurélia M; Souza, Cássio J A; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2010-03-01

    Periapical lesions are a host response that involves immune reaction to prevent dissemination of bacteria from an infected root canal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the levels of nitric oxide (NO), IL-4, TGF-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in chronic periapical lesions and to determine their possible association with clinical and radiographic parameters. Seventeen human radicular cysts and 30 periapical granulomas were used in this study. Cytokines and NO were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by the Griess reaction respectively confirmed by immunohistochemical. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were detected in 10% of granulomas and in 41.2% and 70% of radicular cysts. IL-4 was reactive in 24% of cysts, and TGF-beta was positive in all samples. Patients with tenderness showed significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 (P < 0.05). Swelling was associated with high levels of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-4 (P < 0.05). Lesions presenting bone resorption were associated with high levels of NO (P < 0.05). Periapical granulomas display a regulatory environment characterized by high TGF-beta and low inflammatory cytokine levels, while radicular cysts has mist Th1 and Th2 inflammatory reaction with the presence of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-4.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles in children with enterovirus 71-associated meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Huajun; Li, Shuxian; Zheng, Jianfeng; Cai, Chunyan; Ye, Bin; Yang, Jun; Chen, Zhimin

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe neurological complications including meningoencephalitis (ME) in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, to date no studies have reported changes in cytokine concentrations and their correlations with clinical variables in patients with ME following EV71 infection. In this study, responses of Th1/Th2 cytokine, including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with EV71-related HFMD with ME and patients with febrile convulsions (FC) were analyzed using cytometric bead array technology. It was found that CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were significantly higher in patients with EV71-related ME than in those with FC. Additionally, both CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations were correlated with CSF cytology, fever duration and duration of hospital stay. More interestingly, a positive correlation between CSF IL-6 and IFN-γ concentrations was observed. Finally, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that when a cutoff value of 9.40 pg/mL was set for IL-6, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.5% and 85.5%, respectively, for discriminating EV71-related ME from FC. In conclusion, IL-6 and IFN-γ may be associated with EV71-induced neuropathology. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Th1/Th2 cytokines' expression and production by propolis-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Orsatti, Cláudio Lera; Missima, Fabiane; Pagliarone, Ana Carolina; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2010-06-16

    Propolis is a natural product extensively used in food and beverages to improve health and to prevent diseases, showing immunomodulatory properties. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of propolis administration over a short-term to mice on Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines' expression and production. Propolis was administered for 3 days to mice by gavage, spleens were removed and RNA was extracted to assess cytokines' expression by real-time PCR. Supernatants of spleen cell cultures were used for cytokines determination by ELISA. Propolis administration to mice did not affect IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 expression and production, while IFN-gamma production was inhibited in the splenocyte cultures stimulated or not by Con A. Since IFN-gamma is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, our data suggest that propolis administration over a short-term to mice may be associated with anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and further assays could check propolis efficiency in inflammatory diseases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of Th1 and Th2 cytokines of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Konnai, S; Okagawa, T; Githaka, N W; Kariuki, E; Gakuya, F; Kanduma, E; Shirai, T; Ikebuchi, R; Ikenaka, Y; Ishizuka, M; Murata, S; Ohashi, K

    2012-04-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) has been implicated as the reservoir of several bovine infectious agents. However, there is insufficient information on the protective immune responses in the African buffalo, particularly in infected animals. In this study, we analysed Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ, and Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. The cloned cDNA of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ contained an open reading frame of 468, 501, 408 and 540 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 155, 166, 135 and 179 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence homology of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 was more than 98% between the African buffalo and cattle, which resulted in identical polypeptides. Meanwhile, IL-10 gene of African buffalo and cattle had 95% homology in nucleotide sequence, corresponding to thirteen amino acid residues substitution. Cysteine residues and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the family Bovinae. Phylogenetic analyses including cytokines of the African buffalo placed them within a cluster comprised mainly of species belonging to the order Artiodactyla, including cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goat, pig and artiodactyl wildlife. A deeper understanding of the structure of these cytokines will shed light on their protective role in the disease-resistant African buffalo in comparison with other closely related species.

  9. Effects of strenuous exercise on Th1/Th2 gene expression from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of marathon participants.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2014-08-01

    Physical stressors, such as strenuous exercise, can have numerous effects on the human body including the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression profile of Th1/Th2 cytokines and related transcription factor genes in order to investigate possible immune imbalances before and after a marathon. Blood samples were collected from 16 normal volunteers 24-48 h before and one week after completing a marathon race. Gene expression of Th1 and Th2 related cytokines from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed using Human Th1-Th2-Th3 RT(2) Profiler PCR Array and qRT-PCR that measured the transcript levels of 84 genes related to T cell activation. We found that PBMC express a characteristic Th2-like gene profile one week post-marathon compared to pre-marathon. The majority of genes up-regulated one week post-marathon such as IL-4, GATA3, and CCR4 were Th2 associated. For Th1-related genes, CXCR3 and IRF1 were up-regulated one week post-marathon. There was a trend of down-regulation of two Th1 related genes, T-bet and STAT1. Th3-related gene expression patterns did not change in the study. The ratios of both IFN-γ/IL-4 and T-bet/GATA3 gene expressions were significantly lower one week after marathon. These findings suggest that a Th1/Th2 immune imbalance persisted at least 1 week after completion of a marathon which offers a mechanistic rationale for the increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections often reported after strenuous exercise.

  10. Altered chemokine Th1/Th2 balance in Addison's disease: relationship with hydrocortisone dosing and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ekman, B; Alstrand, N; Bachrach-Lindström, M; Jenmalm, M C; Wahlberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The adrenalitis found in autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is considered having a Th1-driven pathogenesis. Circulating Th1- and Th2-associated chemokines responsible for the trafficking of leukocytes to inflammatory sites are markers for the Th1/Th2 balance. The aim of the study was to assess if the same daily hydrocortisone dose of 30 mg given in either 2 or 4 doses to patients with AAD could affect the Th1/Th2 balance of circulating chemokines.Fifteen patients (6 women) with AAD were included in this randomised, placebo controlled, double blind cross-over study. Samples for chemokines, Th1-associated (CXCL10, CXCL11) and Th2-associated (CCL17, CCL22), were drawn 5 times during a 24-h period at the end of each treatment period and analysed with Luminex. Seven control subjects did the same diurnal blood sampling once. Subjects with AAD had higher median diurnal levels of the Th1-associated chemokines than controls, CXCL10 [43 (33-56) pg/ml vs. 22 (19-34) pg/ml, p<0.01] and CXCL11 [37 (29-48) pg/ml vs. 16 (9-24) pg/ml, p<0.001], whereas no significant difference was found regarding the Th2-related chemokines. Similar chemokine levels were found when the same hydrocortisone dose of 30 mg was divided in 2 or 4 doses. Levels of CXCL11 correlated negatively with scores of SF-36 domains (high score indicate better health) of General Health (GH) and total score for Physical Component Summary (PCS), and these negative correlations were most pronounced at 04:00 h on the 2-dose regimen. Patients with AAD have a dominant Th1 chemokine profile that partially correlates to reduced quality of life. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. TH1/TH2 Cytokine profile in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients treated with Glatiramer acetate or Natalizumab

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The balance between T helper cells Th2- and Th1-related cytokines plays a key role in multiple sclerosis (MS). A shift from a Th1 towards a Th2 cytokine profile could have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of the disease. The objective of this study was to assess Th2/Th1 cytokine profile in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients receiving an immunosuppressive treatment with natalizumab (NAT), or an immunomodulatory treatment with glatiramer acetate (GA) after one year of treatment. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study. All consecutive patients diagnosed with RRMS who had received GA or NAT for 12 months were included in the study. We determined serum levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1a, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1, tumor-necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interferon [IFN]-γ and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) by flow cytometry. Th2/Th1 bias was defined based on the ratio of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 or IL-10 Th2 cytokines and proinflammatory INF-γ or TNF-α Th1 cytokines. Results Eleven patients under treatment with NAT and 12 patients treated with GA were evaluated. RRMS patients treated with NAT showed significantly higher levels of IL-6 (p < 0.05), MCP-1 (p < 0.01), and GM-CSF (p < 0.05) compared to GA patients after one year of treatment. A trend for increasing of IL-12p70, IL-1b, TNF- α and IFN- γ levels was also found in patients receiving NAT compared to GA patients. IL-4/IFN-γ, IFN-γ/TNF-α and IL-10/IFN-γ ratios as markers of Th2/Th1 ratio were significantly elevated in GA patients compared to those receiving NAT (p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, our findings suggest that GA promotes a superior Th2-biased anti-inflammatory response as compared with NAT in the systemic circulation of RRMS patients. Future studies with larger cohorts will determine whether this immune Th2 shift in GA patients is

  12. Neurotransmitter signaling via NMDA receptors leads to decreased Th1-like and enhanced Th2-like immune balance in humans.

    PubMed

    Orihara, Kanami; Odemuyiwa, Solomon O; Stefura, Bill; Ilarraza, Ramses; HayGlass, Kent T; Moqbel, Redwan

    2017-09-22

    Given the pivotal roles that CD4 T cell imbalance plays in human immune disorders, much interest centres on better understanding influences that regulate human helper T cell subset dominance in vivo. Here, using primary CD4 T cells and short-term Th1 and Th2-like lines, we investigated roles and mechanisms by which neurotransmitter receptors may influence human Type 1 vs Type 2 immunity. We hypothesized N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R), which play key roles in memory and learning, can also regulate human CD4+ T cell function through induction of excitotoxicity. Fresh primary CD4+ T cells from healthy donors express functional NMDA-R that are strongly up-regulated upon TCR mediated activation. Synthetic and physiologic NMDA-R agonists elicited Ca(++) flux and led to marked inhibition of Type 1 but not Type 2 or IL-10 cytokine responses. Among CD4 lines, NMDA and quinolinic acid preferentially reduced cytokine production, Ca++ flux, proliferation and survival of Th1-like cells via increased induction of cell death whereas Th2-like cells were largely spared. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that (i) NMDA-R is rapidly upregulated upon CD4 T cell activation in humans and (ii) Th1 vs Th2 cell functions such as proliferation, cytokine production and cell survival are differentially affected by NMDA-R agonists. Differential cytokine production and proliferative capacity of Th1 vs Th2 cells is attributable in part to increased physiological cell death among fully committed Th1 vs Th2 cells, leading to increased Th2-like dominance. Thus, excitotoxicity, beyond its roles in neuronal plasticity, may contribute to ongoing modulation of human T cell responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Systemically elevated Th1-, Th2- and Th17-associated chemokines in psoriasis vulgaris before and after ultraviolet B treatment.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Anna-Karin; Sigurdardottir, Gunnthorunn; Carlström, Maria; Kartul, Natalja; Jenmalm, Maria C; Enerbäck, Charlotta

    2013-09-04

    Chemokines may contribute to the systemic inflammation that is linked to the increased risk of co-morbidities in patients with psoriasis. The aim of this study was to investigate circulating chemokines in patients with psoriasis and their relationship to disease severity. Analysis of plasma levels of chemokines in patients with psoriasis before narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) therapy revealed increased expression of Th1-associated CXCL9 and -10, Th2-associated CCL17 and CCL22, and Th17-associated CCL20. CCL20 correlated with disease severity. UVB therapy reduced skin symptoms, but did not affect the chemokine levels in plasma. Anti-CD3 and anti-CD28-mediated activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) caused a higher secretion of Th2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-13 by PBMCs from patients with psoriasis than from healthy controls. The sustained high expression of inflammatory chemokines is a potential link to systemic inflammation in psoriasis. UVB therapy may be a more effective treatment of local rather than systemic inflammation.

  14. Th1 and Th2 cytokine production is suppressed at the level of transcriptional regulation in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, J; Takada, H; Nomura, A; Ohno, T; Mizuno, Y; Saito, M; Kusuhara, K; Hara, T

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the functional state of T cells in Kawasaki disease, we analysed mRNA expression levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-4) along with Th1/Th2-inducing transcription factors, T-bet and GATA-3, which play pivotal roles in the development of Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively. By real-time PCR, IFN-γ mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were significantly decreased in Kawasaki disease patients compared with those with measles, and tended to be lower than those in healthy controls. T-bet mRNA levels were significantly decreased in patients with Kawasaki disease compared with healthy controls. In addition, IL-4 and GATA-3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in Kawasaki disease compared with healthy controls. Regulatory cytokine mRNA levels (TGF-β and IL-10) were also decreased in Kawasaki disease. The mRNA levels of IFN-γ showed a significant positive correlation with those of T-bet in Kawasaki disease. These results suggest that the suppressed function of Th1 and Th2, associated with the suppression of both T-bet and GATA-3 gene expression, may be one of the immunological characteristics of Kawasaki disease. PMID:15270865

  15. Intrauterine undernourishment alters TH1/TH2 cytokine balance and attenuates lung allergic inflammation in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Maristella A; Landgraf, Richardt G; Silva, Reinaldo C; Semedo, Patrícia; Câmara, Niels O S; Fortes, Zuleica B

    2012-01-01

    IL-4 produced by Th2 cells can block cytokine production by Th1 cells, and Th1 IFN-γ is known to counterregulate Th2 immune response, inhibiting allergic eosinophilia. As intrauterine undernutrition can attenuate lung inflammation, we investigated the influence of intrauterine undernourishment on the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and allergic lung inflammation. Intrauterine undernourished offspring were obtained from dams fed 50% of the nourished diet of their counterparts and were immunized at 9 weeks of age. We evaluated the cell counts and cytokine protein expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage, mucus production and collagen deposition, and cytokine gene expression and transcription factors in lung tissue 21 days after ovalbumin immunization. Intrauterine undernourishment significantly reduced inflammatory cell airway infiltration, mucus secretion and collagen deposition, in rats immunized and challenged. Intrauterine undernourished rats also exhibited an altered cytokine expression profile, including higher TNF-α and IL-1β expression and lower IL-6 expression than well-nourished rats following immunization and challenge. Furthermore, the intrauterine undernourished group showed reduced ratios of the IL-4/IFN-γ and the transcription factors GATA-3/T-Bet after immunization and challenge. We suggest that the attenuated allergic lung inflammation observed in intrauterine undernourished rats is related to an altered Th1/Th2 cytokine balance resulting from a reduced GATA-3/T-bet ratio. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Th2 and Th1 Responses: Clear and Hidden Sides of Immunity Against Intestinal Helminths.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Alba; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Esteban, J Guillermo; Toledo, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal helminthiases affect millions of people worldwide, mainly in developing regions, where they cause a significant negative impact on human health and socioeconomic growth of affected populations. However, intestinal helminthiases are still among the most neglected tropical diseases. Protective immunity against intestinal helminths is associated with development of type 2 responses. Nevertheless, in some host-intestinal helminth combinations, local Th1 responses are initiated, inducing chronicity. The usage of helminth-mouse models is useful for elucidating the mechanisms behind the initiation of each type of response. Herein, the current knowledge on these topics is reviewed, paying particular attention to the earliest events of the immune cascade which eventually lead to either susceptibility or resistance to infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of supplementation with garlic oil on activity of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes from rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Su, Hsing-Min; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2009-02-01

    Garlic and garlic products are known to induce anti-inflammatory effects, but much of the research to date has focused on the inhibitory effect of garlic on the activity of mononuclear cells/macrophages. The effect of garlic on the balance of the two mutually inhibitory T helper cell subtypes, Th1 and Th2 cells, has hitherto received little attention. We thus studied the effect of supplementation with garlic oil on the activity of Th1 and Th2 cells. Rats were administered by gavage with garlic oil (10 - 200 mg/kg) or corn oil every other day for 2 weeks. Cervical lymph nodes were collected to assay the lymphocyte proliferation rate and the production of Th1 interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 upon stimulation with concanavalin A. Garlic oil enhanced the lymphocyte proliferation rate accompanied by an elevated production of all four cytokines when given at a dose of 100 mg/kg. At 200 mg/kg, the production of IL-4 and IL-10 was further enhanced but IFN-gamma production was suppressed. The ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-4 was enhanced by 50 mg/kg garlic oil but suppressed by 200 mg/kg garlic oil. In conclusion, supplemental garlic oil has a dual effect on Th1-Th2 cell balance: an enhanced T cell response towards the Th1 type at low doses and towards the Th2 type at high doses.

  18. Modulation of Th1/Th2 immune responses to HIV-1 Tat by new pro-GSH molecules.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Alessandra; Paoletti, Maria Filomena; Dominici, Sabrina; Buondelmonte, Costantina; Caputo, Antonella; Castaldello, Arianna; Tripiciano, Antonella; Cafaro, Aurelio; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Garaci, Enrico; Ensoli, Barbara; Magnani, Mauro

    2011-09-16

    We have previously demonstrated that in Ova-immunized mice the increase in intra-macrophage thiol pool induced by pro-GSH molecules modulates the Th1/Th2 balance in favour of a Th1-type immune response. We show now that the same molecules can support a Th1-type over Th2-type immunity against Tat, which is an early HIV-1 regulatory protein and a Th1 polarizing immunomodulator that is increasingly considered in new anti-HIV vaccination strategies. Our results indicate that Tat-immunized mice pre-treated with the C4 (n-butanoyl) derivative of reduced glutathione (GSH-C4) or a pro-drug of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and beta-mercaptoethylamine (MEA) (I-152), have decreased levels of anti-Tat IgG1 as well as increased levels of anti-Tat IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes suggesting a Th1-type response. Moreover, Th1-(IFN-γ and IL-2) Ag-specific cellular responses were detected by ELISPOT assay in splenocytes of the same animals as well as an increase of IL-12 levels in the plasma. These findings suggest that the Th1 immune response to HIV-1 Tat could be further polarized by these molecules. These results together with those previously reported suggest that pro-GSH molecules could be used to modulate the immune response towards different antigens and may be further exploited for inducing specific Th1 immune responses against other HIV antigens as well as other intracellular pathogens in new Tat-based vaccination protocols.

  19. Sexual activity modulates shifts in Th1/Th2 cytokine profile across the menstrual cycle: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney K.; Heiman, Julia R.; Demas, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate if sexual activity moderated menstrual cycle-related shifts in cytokines associated with helper-T type 1 (Th1) cells (e.g., interferon-γ, IFN-γ) and helper T type 2 (Th2) cells (e.g., interleukin-4, IL-4). Immune activity shifts across the menstrual cycle, with higher follicular-phase Th1 cell activity, but higher luteal-phase Th2 cell activity There is little known about how social behaviors alter Th1/Th2 ratios, despite evidence that psychosocial factors can influence immunity. Of particular interest is how sexual activity influences immune responses that may support conception, such as the Th1/Th2 balance. Design Participants provided saliva samples at four timepoints (menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, and luteal), which were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Setting Academic laboratory. Participants Thirty healthy premenopausal women (16 sexually abstinent, 14 sexually active), not taking hormonal or immunoactive medications. Interventions None. Main outcome measures Salivary estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), IFN-γ, IL-4. Results Sexually active, but not abstinent, women were significantly more likely to express Th2-like cytokine ratios (IFN-γ < IL-4) in the luteal phase than other phases. Similarly, sexually active women had significantly higher P4, and higher P4 to E2 (P/E) ratios, in the luteal phase than did abstinent women. The P/E ratio mediated menstrual variations in cytokine ratios in sexually active women. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that shifts in immune response across the menstrual cycle may reflect tradeoffs between reproduction and immunity. These findings point to the need for further research on the interaction between sexual behavior, the menstrual cycle, and immune response. PMID:26385401

  20. Febrile temperatures attenuate IL-1 beta release by inhibiting proteolytic processing of the proform and influence Th1/Th2 balance by favoring Th2 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Boneberg, Eva-Maria; Hartung, Thomas

    2003-07-15

    We investigated possible feedback mechanisms of febrile temperatures on LPS- and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced cytokine release in human whole blood. LPS-induced IL-1beta release was inhibited at temperatures >38 degrees C, whereas intracellular proIL-1beta formation as well as the release of other cytokines except IL-18 were only attenuated above 42 degrees C, indicating that febrile temperatures impair the proteolytic processing of proIL-1beta. This attenuated processing is not due to either heat inactivation of caspase-1 or structural changes in proIL-1beta produced at higher temperatures. Instead, we propose that febrile conditions change cytosolic compartmentation or trafficking, so that synthesized proIL-1beta cannot encounter caspase-1. Febrile temperatures also influenced Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. We observed a 3-fold increase in the Th2-cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 and a reduction to 15% of the Th1-cytokine IL-2 when SEB-stimulated whole blood was incubated at 40 degrees C compared with 37 degrees C. These results indicate that fever limits the production of the fever-inducing IL-1beta and also influences the adaptive immune response, favoring Th2 cytokine production.

  1. mRNA expression of interleukins and Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qianglin; Lv, Wei; Wang, Lemin; Gong, Zhu; Wang, Qiang; Song, Haoming; Wang, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the changes of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. In this study, the gene expression of interleukins and the balance of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of PE patients and controls were investigated. A total of 20 PE patients and 20 gender- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Human cDNA microarray analysis was used to detect the differences in cytokine gene expression between the two groups and a random variance model corrected t-test was used to analyze the statistical data. In comparison with the controls, 12 genes were found to be downregulated, specifically IL1A, IL9, IL17B, IL19, IL23A, IL25 (p<0.05), IL2, IL3, IL13, IL22, IL24 and IL31 (p<0.01), and 2 genes were found to be upregulated, specifically IL10 and IL28A, in the PE patients. The expression levels of IFN-γ and IL2 mRNA in the PE patients were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.01), while the IL20 mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated (p<0.01). We conclude that there are significant differences in interleukin gene expression between the PE patients and the control group. A shift of the Th1/Th2 balance comprising enhanced Th2 activity and reduced Th1 activity in the PE patients is also demonstrated.

  2. A novel chronic stress-induced shift in the Th1 to Th2 response promotes colon cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ni; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Lingyu; Zhao, Xiaoge; Li, Zongfang; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2013-10-04

    Epidemiological data have shown that stress and other psychological factors might influence cancer onset and progression. However, to date, the mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we used chronic exposure to a scream as a novel form of sound stress to explore the influence of the chronic stress burden on colon cancer progression, and changes in the immune system were observed. Chronic exposure to scream sound stress induced freezing behavior in the mice and decreased the bodyweight gain. It also caused changes in the adrenal gland and increased serum corticosterone and norepinephrine levels. Cytokine microarray analysis showed changes in the levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The chronic scream sound stress caused a shift from the Th1 to the Th2 response both in the circulation and in tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes, and it promoted colon cancer progression significantly. Taken together, chronic scream sound stress can be conveniently used as a novel chronic stress model. Chronic stress contributes to colon cancer progression and induces a Th1/Th2 imbalance in the mouse immune system, which is considered critical during cancer progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of high levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in mice with acquired transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Holán, V; Sedlácková, K; Růzicková, M

    1996-11-25

    Specific transplantation tolerance was induced in newborn mice by the intravenous injection of hematopoietic cells from semiallogeneic donors. Success of tolerance induction was tested by skin allografts. Spleen cells from mice bearing tolerated allografts for more than 60 days after transplantation spontaneously produced high levels of various cytokines. Production of both Th1 (IL-2, IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines, as well as of IL-3, was significantly increased in tolerant animals. The elevated production of Th1 cytokines was associated with the high secretory activity of CD4+ cells, while the production of Th2 cytokines was high in both CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations. The hyperproduction of cytokines was an intrinsic property of the T cells from tolerant animals and was not caused by a larger size of major T-cell subsets. The production of high levels of cytokines was a consequence of neonatal induction of tolerance and persisted for a long time after skin grafting of neonatally tolerized animals. These results show that neonatal induction of transplantation tolerance results in the production of enhanced levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines which could be involved in the establishment and maintenance of immunological tolerance.

  4. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist.

  5. Inhibition of caspase-8 activity promotes protective Th1- and Th2-mediated immunity to Leishmania major infection.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Manfro, Wânia F; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Filardy, Alessandra Almeida; Vellozo, Natália S; Guillermo, Landi V C; Silva, Elisabeth M; Siegel, Richard M; Dosreis, George A; Lopes, Marcela F

    2014-02-01

    We investigated how apoptosis pathways mediated by death receptors and caspase-8 affect cytokine responses and immunity to Leishmania major parasites. Splenic CD4 T cells undergo activation-induced apoptosis, and blockade of FasL-Fas interaction increased IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokine responses to L. major antigens. To block death receptor-induced death, we used mice expressing a T cell-restricted transgene for vFLIP. Inhibition of caspase-8 activation in vFLIP mice enhanced Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to L. major infection, even in the Th1-prone B6 background. We also observed increased NO production by splenocytes from vFLIP mice upon T cell activation. Despite an exacerbated Th2 response, vFLIP mice controlled better L. major infection, with reduced lesions and lower parasite loads compared with WT mice. Moreover, injection of anti-IL-4 mAb in infected vFLIP mice disrupted control of parasite infection. Therefore, blockade of caspase-8 activity in T cells improves immunity to L. major infection by promoting increased Th1 and Th2 responses.

  6. Association of Th1 and Th2 cytokines with transient inflammatory reaction during lenalidomide plus dexamethasone therapy in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Harada, Takeshi; Ozaki, Shuji; Oda, Asuka; Fujii, Shiro; Nakamura, Shingen; Miki, Hirokazu; Kagawa, Kumiko; Takeuchi, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Toshio; Abe, Masahiro

    2013-06-01

    Transient inflammatory reactions have been reported in a subpopulation of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) during lenalidomide (Len) plus dexamethasone (DEX) therapy. Here, we examined serum levels of Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th2 cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in nine refractory or relapsed MM patients treated with Len plus low-dose DEX. Six patients showed elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) after the initiation of therapy. In these patients, IFN-γ and IL-6 were also elevated in two and three patients, respectively. The remaining three patients showed no appreciable changes in CRP or these cytokines. Furthermore, Len enhanced the production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in patient bone marrow mononuclear cells containing primary myeloma cells and lymphocytes. These results suggest that the modulation of the Th1 and Th2 cytokine production by Len may contribute to transient inflammatory reaction in MM patients.

  7. Study of Th1/Th2 balance in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Soha; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Taghizadeh, Morteza; Mansouri, Parvine; Jadali, Zohreh

    2015-09-01

    Alopecia areata represents an autoimmune pathological process driven primarily by cellular aberrations contained within the immune system, which activates various humoral and cellular elements of the immune response. The aim of this study was to determine the mRNA expression levels of T-bet and GATA-3 as potential inducers of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 differentiation, respectively, as well as Th1(IFN-γ) and Th2(IL-4) cytokine mRNA expression in patients with alopecia areata. Using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), the relative amounts of T-bet, GATA-3, IFN-γ, and IL-4 mRNA transcripts were determined in PBMCs from 20 Iranian patients with alopecia areata and compared with those of 20 healthy control subjects. In comparison with the normal group, T-bet and IFN-γ mRNA expression levels were significantly up-regulated in the alopecia areata patients, while GATA-3 and IL-4 mRNA expression levels were down-regulated. Notably, positive correlation (P < 0.05) was found between IFN-γ and T-bet levels in patients and controls. In addition, significant positive correlations existed between GATA-3 and IL-4 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that a Th1/Th2 imbalance exists in alopecia areata, and it may be implicated in the pathogenesis of disease.

  8. MicroRNA-138 regulates the balance of Th1/Th2 via targeting RUNX3 in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dandan; Yu, Wenfa; Li, Min; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Dong; Song, Xiangfeng; Li, Zhanguo; Tian, Zhongwei

    2015-07-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory and T cell-meditated autoimmune skin disease. A recent study found that Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is a susceptibility gene for psoriasis; however, its biological role in the disease has not been studied. RUNX3 was predicted to be the target gene of microRNA-138 (miR-138). The current research was designed to delineate the mechanism of miR-138 in regulating psoriasis via targeting RUNX3. In this study, we found that the expression of RUNX3 is increased significantly while the expression of miR-138 decreased significantly in CD4(+) T cells from psoriasis patients. Moreover, the luciferase report confirmed the targeting reaction between miR-138 and RUNX3. After transfection with the miR-138 inhibitor into CD4(+) T cells from healthy controls, we found that the inhibition of miR-138 increases RUNX3 expression and increased the ratio of Th1/Th2. Furthermore, the miR-138 mimic was transfected into CD4(+) T cells from psoriasis patients. The results showed that the overexpression of miR-138 inhibits RUNX3 expression and decreased the ratio of Th1/Th2 in CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, our study suggests that increased miR-138 regulates the balance of Th1/Th2 through inhibiting RUNX3 expression in psoriasis, providing a potential therapeutic target for psoriasis.

  9. Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN γ and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus.

  10. Relationships between Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and chest radiographic manifestations in childhood Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiu-ling; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yu-shui

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is one of the most common childhood community-acquired pneumonias, and the chest radiograph usually shows bronchial pneumonia, segmental/lobar pneumonia, or segmental/lobar pneumonia with pleural effusion. The imbalance of Th1/Th2 function after Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is an important immunological mechanism of MPP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlations between Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and chest radiographic manifestations in MPP children. Patients and methods A total of 87 children with MPP were retrospectively reviewed in this study. According to the chest radiographic manifestations, they were divided into the following three groups: bronchial MPP group, segmental/lobar MPP group, and segmental/lobar MPP with pleural effusion group. Clinical features and changes in Th1/Th2 cytokines were further analyzed. Results The incidence of tachypnea and cyanosis was higher in children with segmental/lobar MPP with pleural effusion than in those with segmental/lobar or bronchial MPP. The peak body temperature of segmental/lobar MPP was higher than that of bronchial MPP, and the duration of fever and hospitalization was positively correlated with the severity of MPP. MPP children’s chest radiograph showed a relationship with the changes in Th1/Th2 cytokines. Serum interleukin-4, interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of segmental/lobar MPP were significantly higher than those of bronchial MPP, and serum IL-10 (cutoff value: 27.25 pg/mL) can be used as a diagnostic predictor for segmental/lobar MPP. Serum TNF-α and interleukin-6 of segmental/lobar MPP with pleural effusion were significantly higher than those of segmental/lobar MPP without pleural effusion. Serum TNF-α (cutoff value: 60.25 pg/mL) can be used as a diagnostic predictor for segmental/lobar MPP with pleural effusion. Conclusion There were significant correlations between Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles

  11. Oral Administration of p-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Attenuates Atopic Dermatitis by Downregulating Th1 and Th2 Cytokine Production and Keratinocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Su; Choi, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kyung-Sik; Kim, Hye-Ran; Na, Bo-Ra; Kwon, Min-Sung; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Choi, Eun Young; Jun, Chang-Duk

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex disease that is caused by various factors, including environmental change, genetic defects, and immune imbalance. We previously showed that p-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) isolated from the roots of Curcuma longa inhibits T-cell activation without inducing cell death. Here, we demonstrated that oral administration of HCA in a mouse model of ear AD attenuates the following local and systemic AD manifestations: ear thickening, immune-cell infiltration, production of AD-promoting immunoregulatory cytokines in ear tissues, increased spleen and draining lymph node size and weight, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by draining lymph nodes, and elevated serum immunoglobulin production. HCA treatment of CD4+ T cells in vitro suppressed their proliferation and differentiation into Th1 or Th2 and their Th1 and Th2 cytokine production. HCA treatment of keratinocytes lowered their production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines that drive either Th1 or Th2 responses in AD. Thus, HCA may be of therapeutic potential for AD as it acts by suppressing keratinocyte activation and downregulating T-cell differentiation and cytokine production. PMID:26959360

  12. Peptide dose, affinity, and time of differentiation can contribute to the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P R; Croft, M

    1999-08-01

    Opposing viewpoints exist regarding how Ag dose and affinity modulate Th1/Th2 differentiation, with data suggesting that both high and low level stimulation favors Th2 responses. With transgenic T cells bearing a single TCR, we present novel data, using peptides differing in affinity for the TCR, that show that the time period of differentiation can determine whether Th1 or Th2 responses predominate as the level of initial stimulation is altered. Over the short term, IFN-gamma-producing cells were induced by lower levels of stimulation than IL-4-producing cells, although optimal induction of both was seen with the same high level of stimulation. Over the long term, however, high doses of high affinity peptides led selectively to IFN-gamma-secreting cells, whereas IL-4- and IL-5-secreting cells predominated with lower levels of initial signaling, brought about by moderate doses of high affinity peptides. In contrast, too low a level of stimulation at the naive T cell stage, with low affinity peptides at any concentration, promoted only IL-2-secreting effectors or was not sufficient for long term T cell survival. These results demonstrate that the level of signaling achieved through the TCR is intimately associated with the induction of distinct cytokine-secreting T cells. We show that dose, affinity, time over which differentiation occurs, and initial production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma all can contribute to which T cell subset will predominate. Furthermore, these data reconcile the two opposing views on the effects of dose and affinity and provide a unifying model of Th1/Th2 differentiation based on strength of signaling and length of response.

  13. Intratumoral Th2 predisposition combines with an increased Th1 functional phenotype in clinical response to intravesical BCG in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Renate; Gruenbacher, Georg; Culig, Zoran; Brunner, Andrea; Fuchs, Dietmar; Fritz, Josef; Gander, Hubert; Rahm, Andrea; Thurnher, Martin

    2016-12-22

    Th1-type immunity is considered to be required for efficient response to BCG in bladder cancer, although Th2 predisposition of BCG responders has recently been reported. The aim was to evaluate the relationship of Th1 and Th2 components in 23 patients undergoing BCG treatment. Peripheral blood, serum and urine samples were prospectively collected at baseline, during and after BCG. Th1 (neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR), IL-12, IFN-γ, soluble TNF-R75 and IL-2Rα) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) biomarkers as well as CD4 expression in T helper (Th), effector and regulatory T cells were determined. Local immune cell subsets were measured on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry to examine expression of transcription factors that control Th1 (T-bet) and Th2-type (GATA3) immunity. We confirmed a Th2 predisposition with a mean GATA3/T-bet ratio of 5.51. BCG responders showed significantly higher levels of urinary (p = 0.003) and serum neopterin (p = 0.012), kynurenine (p = 0.015), KTR (p = 0.005), IFN-γ (p = 0.005) and IL-12 (p = 0.003) during therapy, whereas levels of IL-10 decreased significantly (p < 0.001) compared to non-responders. GATA3/T-bet ratio correlated positively with serum neopterin (p = 0.008), IFN-γ (p = 0.013) and KTR (p = 0.018) after the first BCG instillation. We observed a significant increase in CD4 expression in the Th cell population (p < 0.05), with only a modest tendency toward higher frequency in responders compared to non-responders (p = 0.303). The combined assessment of GATA3/T-bet ratio, neopterin and KTR may be a useful biomarker in predicting BCG response. Th2-promoting factors such as GATA3 may trigger Th1-type immune responses and thus contribute to the BCG success.

  14. Adjuvant-dependent modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses to immunization with β-amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Cribbs, David H.; Ghochikyan, Anahit; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Tran, Mike; Petrushina, Irina; Sadzikava, Nadya; Babikyan, Davit; Kesslak, Patrick; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Cotman, Carl W.; Agadjanyan, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    The role of adjuvant on the Th1 and Th2 immune responses to Aβ-immunotherapy (Aβ42 peptide) was examined in wild-type mice. Fine epitope analysis with overlapping oligomers of the Aβ42 sequence identified the 1–15 region as a dominant B cell epitope. The 6–20 peptide was recognized only weakly by antisera from mice administrated with Aβ42 peptide formulated in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), alum or TiterMax Gold (TMG). However, mice immunized with Aβ42 mixed with QS21 induced a significant antibody response to the 6–20 peptide. The only T cell epitope found was within the 6–28 sequence of Aβ42. QS21 and CFA induced the strongest humoral response to Aβ, alum was intermediate, and TMG the weakest adjuvant. Analysis of antibody isotypes specific for Aβ indicates that alum induces primarily Th2-type immune response, whereas TMG, CFA and QS21 shift the immune responses toward a Th1 phenotype. Stimulation of splenocytes from Aβ-immunized mice with Aβ40 peptide induced strikingly different cytokine expression profiles. QS21 and CFA induced significant IFN-γ, IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α expression, whereas alum induced primarily IL-4 production. As Th1-type immune responses have been implicated in many autoimmune disorders, whereas Th2-type responses have been shown to inhibit autoimmune disease, the choice of adjuvant may be critical for the design of a safe and effective immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:12663680

  15. [Immunomodulation of Uncaria tomentosa over dendritic cells, il-12 and profile TH1/TH2/TH17 in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Núñez, César; Lozada-Requena, Iván; Ysmodes, Tíndara; Zegarra, Daniel; Saldaña, Fatima; Aguilar, José

    2015-10-01

    Objetives. This study aimed to research the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of an Uncaria tomentosa hydroalcoholic extract standardized (5.03%, pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids) (UT-POA) on the immunophenotype of dendritic cells (DC) subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17 and IL-12 cytokines from patients with stage II breast cancer (BCII) and healthy women (H). Blood of 11 H and 7 BCII was obtained, PBMC were isolated and cultured for 2h with/without various concentrations of UT-POA and stimulated or not with LPS for 24h. PBMC were labeled with specific antibodies for DC and in the supernatant we measured Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines, both by flow cytometry. Furthermore IL-12 was measured by ELISA. UT-POA did not alter DC or accessory molecules expression in BCII. However, H exhibited a decrease in the percentage of mDC (myeloid DC) and an increase in HLA-DR and CD86 expression at 1000 μg/mL. IL-12 secretion was modified only in the H group, increasing p70 subunit and decreasing p40 subunit. UT-POA increased Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2), Th2 (IL-4) and Th17 (IL-17) secretion in both groups. UT-POA increased the production of cytokines related with anti-tumoral response at concentrations of 500-1000 μg/mL. This positive effect should be evaluated not only systemically but also in the tumor microenvironment in further studies. UT-POA may be a useful phytochemical in chemoprevention and in the alternative use in cancer therapies.

  16. Notch-ligand expression by NALT dendritic cells regulates mucosal Th1- and Th2-type responses

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Sekine, Shinichi; Kataoka, Kosuke; Markham, Jonathan D.; Irwin, Allyson R.; Moon, Grace H.; Tokuhara, Yuka; Fujihashi, Keiko; Davydova, Julia; Yamamoto, Masato; Gilbert, Rebekah S.; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL effectively up-regulates APC function by CD11c{sup +} DCs in mucosal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL induces Notch ligand (L)-expressing CD11c{sup +} DCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch L-expressing DCs support the induction of Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses. -- Abstract: Our previous studies showed that an adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 vector expressing Flt3 ligand (Ad-FL) as nasal adjuvant activates CD11c{sup +} dendritic cells (DCs) for the enhancement of antigen (Ag)-specific IgA antibody (Ab) responses. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for activation of CD11c{sup +} DCs and their roles in induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-cell responses. Ad-FL activated CD11c{sup +} DCs expressed increased levels of the Notch ligand (L)-expression and specific mRNA. When CD11c{sup +} DCs from various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues of mice given nasal OVA plus Ad-FL were cultured with CD4{sup +} T cells isolated from non-immunized OVA TCR-transgenic (OT II) mice, significantly increased levels of T cell proliferative responses were noted. Furthermore, Ad-FL activated DCs induced IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and IL-4 producing CD4{sup +} T cells. Of importance, these APC functions by Ad-FL activated DCs were down-regulated by blocking Notch-Notch-L pathway. These results show that Ad-FL induces CD11c{sup +} DCs to the express Notch-ligands and these activated DCs regulate the induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses.

  17. Effect of murine exposure to gamma rays on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Amany A; Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghoneim, Hossam E; Taha, Abdul-Rahman M; Abouelella, Amira M

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiation radiotherapy is one of the widely used treatments for cancer. There is an accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity is significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e., Th1 bias). While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e., Th2 bias). In addition, we investigated the exposure of whole murine bodies to different doses of γ-rays and found that the exposure to low dose γ-rays (0.2 Gy) caused a state of immune stimulation terminated by a remarkable tendency for immune suppression. Exposure to 5 or 10 Gy of γ-rays resulted in a state of immune stimulation (Th1 bias), but exposure to 20 Gy showed a standard state of immune suppression (Th2 bias). The results indicated that apparently we can control the immune response by controlling the dose of γ-rays.

  18. Effect of murine exposure to gamma rays on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ghazy, Amany A.; Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y.; Ghoneim, Hossam E.; Taha, Abdul-Rahman M.; Abouelella, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiation radiotherapy is one of the widely used treatments for cancer. There is an accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity is significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e., Th1 bias). While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e., Th2 bias). In addition, we investigated the exposure of whole murine bodies to different doses of γ-rays and found that the exposure to low dose γ-rays (0.2 Gy) caused a state of immune stimulation terminated by a remarkable tendency for immune suppression. Exposure to 5 or 10 Gy of γ-rays resulted in a state of immune stimulation (Th1 bias), but exposure to 20 Gy showed a standard state of immune suppression (Th2 bias). The results indicated that apparently we can control the immune response by controlling the dose of γ-rays. PMID:25914644

  19. Differential effects of Th1 versus Th2 cytokines in combination with hypoxia on HIFs and angiogenesis in RA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hypoxia and T-helper cell 1 (Th1) cytokine-driven inflammation are key features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and contribute to disease pathogenesis by promoting angiogenesis. The objective of our study was to characterise the angiogenic gene signature of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in response to hypoxia, as well as Th1 and T-helper cell 2 (Th2) cytokines, and in particular to dissect out effects of combined hypoxia and cytokines on hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIFs) and angiogenesis. Methods Human angiogenesis PCR arrays were used to screen cDNA from RA FLS exposed to hypoxia (1% oxygen) or dimethyloxalylglycine, which stabilises HIFs. The involvement of HIF isoforms in generating the angiogenic signature of RA FLS stimulated with hypoxia and/or cytokines was investigated using a DNA-binding assay and RNA interference. The angiogenic potential of conditioned media from hypoxia-treated and/or cytokine-treated RA FLS was measured using an in vitro endothelial-based assay. Results Expression of 12 angiogenic genes was significantly altered in RA FLS exposed to hypoxia, and seven of these were changed by dimethyloxalylglycine, including ephrin A3 (EFNA3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), adipokines angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL)-4 and leptin. These four proangiogenic genes were dependent on HIF-1 in hypoxia to various degrees: EFNA3 >ANGPTL-4 >VEGF >leptin. The Th1 cytokines TNFα and IL-1β induced HIF-1 but not HIF-2 transcription as well as activity, and this effect was additive with hypoxia. In contrast, Th2 cytokines had no effect on HIFs. IL-1β synergised with hypoxia to upregulate EFNA3 and VEGF in a HIF-1-dependent fashion but, despite strongly inducing HIF-1, TNFα suppressed adipokine expression and had minimal effect on EFNA3. Supernatants from RA FLS subjected to hypoxia and TNFα induced fewer endothelial tubules than those from FLS subjected to TNFα or hypoxia alone, despite high VEGF protein levels. The Th2

  20. Myrrh and artesunate modulate some Th1 and Th2 cytokines secretion in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of artesunate and myrrh on S. mansoni infection and the levels of some Th1 and Th2 cytokines were evaluated in the present study. Six weeks after infection, a group of mice was treated with 4 mg/kg of artesunate and other group was treated with 10 mg/kg of myrrh for 3 successive days. Worm burden was reduced with a percentage of 53.7% and 58.78% after treatment with myrrh and artesunate respectively as well as the levels of IgG antibodies were significantly reduced compared with infected group. No obvious changes were observed in the level of interferon γ after treatment. After treatment with artesunate, interleukin 2 (IL-2) level was significantly decreased, while no significant difference was observed in myrrh-treated group compared with the infected group. On the other hand, the level of IL-10 was not significantly decreased after treatment with artesunate, but it was significantly increased after treatment with myrrh. However, IL-12 levels were significantly decreased after treatment with artesunate. The results demonstrated that, artesunate or myrrh treatment could give a level of protection against S. mansoni infection and modulate the levels of some Th1 and Th2 cytokines in mice infected with S. mansoni. PMID:27536198

  1. Amelioration of adjuvant-induced arthritis by ursolic acid through altered Th1/Th2 cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz; Khan, Beenish; Bani, Sarang; Suri, K A; Satti, N K; Qazi, G N

    2006-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the activity of ursolic acid (UA) on proinflammatory (Th1) and anti-inflammatory (Th2) cytokines in the peripheral blood of arthritic balb/c mice. Ursolic acid is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and is a constituent of numerous plants which are having diversified phylogenetic origin and taxonomic position. We applied Cytometric bead array (CBA) technology for simultaneously measurement of these cytokines in adjuvant inflammatory arthritis induced mice treated with ursolic acid in graded oral doses. Cytometric bead array uses the sensitivity of amplified fluorescence detection by flowcytometer to measure soluble analytes in a particle based immune assay. This assay can accurately quantitate five cytokines in a 50 microl sample volume. The T-helper (Th1) deviated cells produce detectable level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), while the Th2 deviated cells produce significant amount of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-5 (IL-5). Oral administration of UA at doses of 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg kg(-1) per oral dose inhibited the presence of IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in the peripheral blood.

  2. CD80 and CD86 knockdown in dendritic cells regulates Th1/Th2 cytokine production in asthmatic mice

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIAN-GUO; DU, YU-MO; YAN, ZHI-DONG; YAN, JIA; ZHUANSUN, YONG-XUN; CHEN, RUI; ZHANG, WEI; FENG, SU-LING; RAN, PI-XIN

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are associated with the activation and differentiation of T helper (Th) cells. Cluster of differentiation (CD)80 and CD86, the co-stimulatory molecules highly expressed in DCs, have are prominent in promoting the differentiation of Th cells toward Th2 cells. However, little is known about the effect of CD80 and CD86 knockdown on Th1/Th2 cytokine production in mature DCs (mDCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether small-interfering RNA (siRNA) could suppress the surface expression of CD80 and CD86 in mDCs. The effects of CD80 and CD86 knockdown in mDCs on Th1/Th2 cytokine expression were examined using an asthmatic murine model. DCs were isolated, separated and cultured in vitro. Flow cytometry was used to examine the expression of CD11c, CD80 and CD86 on the DCs. The DCs were transfected with CD80- and CD86-specific siRNA, while non-siRNA and negative siRNA controls were also designed. Then, the mRNA and protein expression levels of CD80 and CD86 were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, respectively. The levels of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 produced by T cells co-cultured with mDCs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Substantial downregulation of CD80 and CD86 mRNA and protein levels were observed in the mDCs following transfection with siRNA. The level of IFN-γ produced by T cells co-cultured with mDCs was significantly increased in the siRNA group, while IL-4 production was significantly decreased. These results show that specific targeting of CD80 and CD86 with siRNA is able to suppress CD80/CD86 expression and consequently regulate Th1/Th2 cytokine levels by increasing IFN-γ production and decreasing IL-4 levels in an asthmatic murine model. PMID:26998006

  3. Alopecia areata profiling shows TH1, TH2, and IL-23 cytokine activation without parallel TH17/TH22 skewing.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Ungar, Benjamin; Noda, Shinji; Shroff, Anjali; Mansouri, Yasaman; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Czernik, Annette; Zheng, Xiuzhong; Estrada, Yeriel D; Xu, Hui; Peng, Xiangyu; Shemer, Avner; Krueger, James G; Lebwohl, Mark G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2015-11-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common T cell-mediated disorder with limited therapeutics. A molecular profile of cytokine pathways in AA tissues is lacking. Although studies have focused on TH1/IFN-γ responses, several observations support a shared genetic background between AA and atopy. We sought to define the AA scalp transcriptome and associated biomarkers with comparisons with atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis. We performed microarray and RT-PCR profiling of 27 lesional and 17 nonlesional scalp samples from patients with AA for comparison with normal scalp samples (n = 6). AA gene expression was also compared with samples from patients with lesional or nonlesional AD and those with psoriasis. A fold change of greater than 1.5 and a false discovery rate of less than 0.05 were used for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We established the AA transcriptomes (lesional vs nonlesional: 734 DEGs [297 upregulated and 437 downregulated]; lesional vs normal: 4230 DEGs [1980 upregulated and 2250 downregulated]), including many upregulated immune and downregulated hair keratin genes. Equally impressive as upregulation in TH1/interferon markers (IFNG and CXCL10/CXCL9) were those noted in TH2 (IL13, CCL18, CCL26, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and periostin), TH9/IL-9, IL-23 (p40 and p19), and IL-16 mediators (all P < .05). There were no increases in TH17/TH22 markers. Hair keratin (KRT) expressions (ie, KRT86 and KRT85) were significantly suppressed in lesional skin. Greater scalp involvement (>25%) was associated with greater immune and keratin dysregulation and larger abnormalities in nonlesional scalp samples (ie, CXCL10 and KRT85). Our data associate the AA signature with TH2, TH1, IL-23, and IL-9/TH9 cytokine activation, suggesting consideration of anti-TH2, anti-TH1, and anti-IL-23 targeting strategies. Similar to psoriasis and AD, clinical trials with selective antagonists are required to dissect key pathogenic pathways. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of

  4. Novel human polysaccharide adjuvants with dual Th1 and Th2 potentiating activity

    PubMed Central

    Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    Pure soluble, recombinant and synthetic antigens, despite their better tolerability, are unfortunately often much less immunogenic than live or killed whole organism vaccines. Thus, the move towards the development of safer subunit vaccines has created a major need for more potent adjuvants. In particular, there is an urgent need for adjuvants capable of boosting cellular (Th1) immunity but without unacceptable toxicity. The adjuvant activity of aluminium compounds (aluminium phosphate or hydroxide) was first described by Glenny and colleagues in 1926. Surprisingly, despite the description of over one hundred adjuvants in the scientific literature, alum remains the only adjuvant approved for human use in the USA. Unfortunately, alum has no effect on cellular immunity and is faced with increasing concerns regarding potential for cumulative aluminium toxicity. Why then has alum not been replaced in human vaccines? Despite the enormous number of candidates, potency has invariably been associated with increased toxicity, and this more than anything else has precluded their use, particularly in prophylactic vaccines where safety issues are paramount. Hence, there is a major unmet need for a safe efficacious adjuvant capable of boosting cellular plus humoral immunity. The extensive data on inulin-based adjuvants indicate that these are excellent candidates to replace alum as the adjuvant of choice for many vaccines. Particular advantages offered by inulin-based adjuvants is that they induce cellular in addition to humoral immunity and offer excellent safety, tolerability, ease of manufacture and formulation. Thus, adjuvants based on inulin have enormous potential for use in vaccines against both pathogens and cancer. PMID:16823913

  5. Increased Fetal Thymocytes Apoptosis Contributes to Prenatal Nicotine Exposure-induced Th1/Th2 Imbalance in Male Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Yan, You-e; Liu, Sha; Liu, Han-xiao; Yan, Hui-yi; Hou, Li-fang; Qu, Wen; Ping, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine, a definite risk factor during pregnancy, is an immunomodulator. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) on the balance of Th1/Th2 in offspring, and further explore the developmental origin mechanisms from the perspective of fetal thymocytes apoptosis. Pregnant Balb/c mice were administered 1.5 mg/kg nicotine subcutaneously twice per day from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD18. Results showed that PNE could cause a Th2 shift in male offspring, manifested as increased ratio of IgG1/IgG2a, IL-4 production in serum, and IL-4/IFN-γ expression ratio in spleen. Increased apoptosis of total thymocytes and CD4SP and reduced cell proportion of CD4SP were found in PNE male offspring on postnatal day (PND) 14 and PND 49. In the fetuses, decreased body weight and organ index of fetal thymus, histological changes in fetal thymus, reduced CD4SP proportion and increased fetal thymocyte apoptosis were observed in nicotine group. The increased mRNA expression of genes involved in Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway and protein expression of Fas were also detected. In conclusion, PNE could cause a Th2 shift in male offspring mediated by reduced CD4+ T cells output, which may result from the increasing apoptosis of total thymocytes and CD4SP. PMID:27976742

  6. Rice-induced enterocolitis in an infant: TH1/TH2 cellular hypersensitivity and absent IgE reactivity.

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather C; Foy, Thomas M; Becker, Bradley A; Knutsen, Alan P

    2004-12-01

    Although food allergy is common in children, rice allergy is unusual in Western cultures. To report a case of T-cell-mediated rice intolerance in an 11-month-old girl. To evaluate the intolerance to rice in this patient, a graded rice food challenge was performed. To examine the immunologic reactivity to rice, in vitro lymphoproliferative responses and cytokine synthesis of rice-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was performed. Subsequently, skin patch testing to rice and other foods was performed. Allergy skin prick test results were negative for rice and positive for egg, milk, and soy. Specific IgE antibodies to rice, egg, peanut, wheat, walnut, codfish, milk, soybean, corn, shrimp, scallops, and clams were undetectable. Results of a single-blind rice food challenge were positive, manifested by emesis that persisted for more than an hour and required intravenous hydration. In vitro lymphoproliferation by the patient's PBLs to rice stimulation was positive. In addition, cytokine synthesis of interferon-gamma, interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor a, and IL-5 by the patient's rice-stimulated PBLs was elevated, indicating a TH1/TH2 cell response to rice. Endoscopy revealed normal esophageal, gastric, and duodenal mucosa; a biopsy specimen revealed mild esophagitis. Duodenal explant T cells were initially established by stimulation with rice and IL-2. After a 2-day rest, the lymphocytes were restimulated with rice for 7 days and revealed increased interferon-gamma and IL-5 synthesis. Twenty billion colony forming units of Lactobacillus GG were added to the patient's diet twice daily. After 6 weeks, rice rechallenge resulted in emesis within 1 hour. Results of patch testing were positive to rice, wheat, and barley but negative to soy, which the patient tolerated on food challenge. Although this patient did not demonstrate IgE antibody to rice, TH1/TH2 cell-mediated responses to rice were detected, and the patient experienced significant morbidity

  7. CD4+ Th17 Cells Discriminate Clinical Types and Constitute a Third Subset of Non Th1, Non Th2 T Cells in Human Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Chaman; Ramesh, V.; Nath, Indira

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with localized tuberculoid and generalized lepromatous leprosy show respectively Th1 and Th2 cytokine profile. Additionally, other patients in both types of leprosy also show a non discriminating Th0 cytokine profile with both interferon-γ and IL-4. The present study investigated the role of Th17 cells which appear to be a distinct subtype of Th subtypes in 19 tuberculoid and 18 lepromatous leprosy patients. Five healthy subjects with long term exposure to infection and 4 skin biopsies from healthy subjects undergoing cosmetic surgery were used as controls. Methodology/Principle Findings An array of Th17 related primers for cytokines, chemokines and transcription factors was used in real time reverse transcribed PCR to evaluate gene expression, ELISA for cytokine secretion in the supernatants of antigen stimulated PBMC cultures and flow cytometry for establishing the phenotype of the IL-17, IL-21 producing cells. Conclusions/Significance IL-17 isoforms showed significantly higher expression and release in supernatants of antigen stimulated PBMC cultures and dermal lesions of healthy contacts and tuberculoid leprosy as compared to lepromatous leprosy (p<0.003). This was further confirmed by Th17 associated transcription factor RORC, cytokines IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23, chemokines MMP13, CCL20, CCL22. Of interest was the association of IL-23R and not IL-6R with IL-17+ cells. The Th17 cells were CD4+ CCR6+ confirming their effector cell lineage. Polarized Th1 cytokines were seen in 3/7 tuberculoid and Th2 cytokines in 5/10 lepromatous leprosy patients. Of importance was the higher association of Th17 pathway factors with the non-polarized Th0 types as compared to the polarized Th1 and Th2 (p<0.01). Our study draws attention to a third type of effector Th cell that may play a role in leprosy. PMID:23936569

  8. The effect of size-segregated ambient particulate matter on Th1/Th2-like immune responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Szu-Yuan; Chou, Charles C. K.; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Background Particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased pulmonary and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Additionally, PM is known to exacerbate asthma. However, whether ambient PM exposure contributes to the onset of asthma, especially in non-atopic children and adults, is less conclusive. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of size-fractioned PM on lung immune responses in healthy BALB/c mice. Methods and principal findings We collected PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and PM0.1 samples from October 2012 to August 2013 in the Taipei Basin. These PM samples were representative of urban traffic pollution. The samples were extracted and sonicated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Female BALB/c mice were exposed to the samples via intratracheal instillation at three different doses: 1.75 mg/kg (35 μg/per mouse), 5 mg/kg (100 μg/per mouse), and 12.5 mg/kg (250 μg/per mouse). The mice were exposed on days 0 and 7, and PBS alone was used as a control. Following the exposures, the expression profiles of inflammatory cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assessed. Exposure to PM10 resulted in inflammatory responses, including the recruitment of neutrophils and the induction of T helper 1 (Th1) cell-related cytokine release, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ. Furthermore, an allergic immune response, including the recruitment of eosinophils and the up-regulation of T helper 2 (Th2) cell-related cytokine release, such as IL-5 and IL-13, was also observed in the BALF of mice exposed to PM10. Conclusions Our study showed that exposure to PM alone caused mixed Th1/Th2 inflammatory responses in healthy mice. These findings support the hypothesis that PM may contribute to the onset of asthma. PMID:28245275

  9. Cytokine polymorphisms in Th1/Th2 pathway genes, body mass index, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingtai; Zheng, Tongzhang; Lan, Qing; Foss, Francine; Kim, Christopher; Chen, Xuezhong; Dai, Min; Li, Yumin; Holford, Theodore; Leaderer, Brian; Boyle, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei

    2011-01-13

    We conducted a population-based, case-control study in Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in Th1 and Th2 cytokine genes modify the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Compared with those with BMI less than 25 kg/m(2), women with BMI more than or equal to 25 kg/m(2) had 50% to 90% increased risk of NHL among women who carried IFNGR2 (rs9808753) AA, IL5 (rs2069812) CT/TT, IL7R (rs1494555) AA, and TNF (rs1799724) CC genotypes, but no increased risk among women with IFNGR2 AG/GG, IL5 CC, IL7R AG/GG, and TNF CT/TT genotypes. A significant interaction with BMI was only observed for IFNGR2 (rs9808753 P(forinteraction) = .034) and IL7R (rs1494555 P(forinteraction) = .016) for NHL overall; IL7R (rs1494555 P(forinteraction) = .016) and TNF (1799724 P(forinteraction) = .031) for B-cell lymphoma; and IL5 (rs2069812 P(forinteraction) = .034) for T-cell lymphoma. After stratification by common B-cell lymphoma subtypes, a significant interaction was observed for IFNGR2 (rs9808753 P(forinteraction) = .006), IL13 (rs20541 P(forinteraction) = .019), and IL7R (rs1494555 P(forinteraction) = .012) for marginal zone B-cell lymphoma; IL7R (rs1494555 P(forinteraction) = .017) for small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia; and IL12A (rs568408 P(forinteraction) = .013) and TNF (1799724 P(forinteraction) = .04) for follicular lymphoma. The results suggest that common genetic variation in Th1/Th2 pathway genes may modify the association between BMI and NHL risk.

  10. Changes in peripheral blood Th1 and Th2 cells in rat liver transplantation under different immune statuses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z-L; Cheng, K; Sun, H G; Zou, W W; Wu, M M

    2013-12-19

    In this study, early expressions of peripheral blood Th1 and Th2 cells were documented following rat liver transplantation and related to immune status. Rats were divided into 3 groups: group A (control): syngeneic transplantation (Brown Norway (BN) → BN); group B: allogeneic transplantation + cyclosporine A (CsA); group C: allogeneic transplantation (Lewis → BN). Flow cytometry was used to analyze peripheral blood CD4(+)CD45RC percentage on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 following transplantation, and were compared to graft rejection pathological grades and receptor survival times. The average survival of groups A and B exceeded 100 days, which was significantly longer than that of group C (3.56 ± 34.3 days). With the exception of the first day, rejection grades were significantly higher in groups C and B compared to group A, and group C rejection grades were significantly higher than those of group B. Three days after transplantation, the CD4(+)CD45RC(+) to CD4(+)CD45RC(-) ratio of group C was significantly higher than that of groups A and B. In group B, the CD4(+)CD45RC(+) to CD4(+)CD45RC(-) ratio was negatively correlated to the rejection grade (r = -0.565, P < 0.01), whereas this relationship was positive in group C (r = 0.745, P < 0.01). In conclusion, peripheral blood Th1 was highly expressed during rejection in rat liver grafts. Peripheral blood Th2 tended to increase early under rejection inhibition with CsA, and its high expression level may correlate with long-term acceptance or tolerance of transplanted livers.

  11. Comparison of Th1 and Th2 responses in non-healing and healing patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Maryam; Mohajery, Masoud; Shamsian, Seyyed Ali Akbar; Nahrevanian, Hossein; Yazdanpanah, Seyyed Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many regions of Iran, including the city of Mashhad. In recent years, some cases have not responded to Glucantime, the usual treatment for this disease. The cellular immune response caused by T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells has an important role in protection against leishmaniasis, and activation of the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response causes progression of the disease. By analyzing these responses we hope to find a more effective treatment than that currently in use for leishmaniasis patients. Methods: The cellular immune responses in 60 cases of non-healing and healing cutaneous leishmaniasis, and individuals in a control group, were analyzed by measuring cytokines released by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) when stimulated with Leishmania major antigens by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Subjects from the healing group secreted more interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (p<0.05) and less interleukins -4, -5, -10 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) (p<0.005) and -18 (IL-18) (p=0.003) than the non-healing group. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that secretion of cytokines that activate Th2 response including IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in non-healing subjects was higher than healing subjects and secretion of cytokines that activate Th1 response including IL-12 and IFN-γ in healing subjects was higher relative to the non-healing subjects. In this study it has been shown that the level of IL-18 progresses disease in non-healing patients when the level of IL-12 gets decreased. PMID:26989708

  12. Traditional Korean medicine (SCRT) modulate Th1/Th2 specific cytokine production in mice CD4+ T cell.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjung; Rho, Samwoong; Lee, Eui-Joon; Seo, Young-Ho; Cho, Chongwoon; Lee, Yongwon; Min, Byung-Il; Shin, Min-Kyu; Hong, Moo-Chang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2004-05-01

    Traditional Korea medicine, So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang (SCRT) also called as Xiao-qing-long-tang or Sho-seiru-to, contains eight species of medicinal plants and has been used for treating allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and asthma, for hundreds of years in Asian countries. CD4+ T cells were highly purified by using magnetic bead from splenocytes of BALB/c mice. SCRT treatment slightly decreased the expression of cell surface protein CD69 on CD4+ T cell in the flow cytometry analysis. In RT-PCR analysis, SCRT increases the expression of IL-2 and IL2R-alpha mRNA, and decreases the expression of IL-4 mRNA, which is an important cytokine of Th2 cell development. On the other hand, SCRT treatment increases IFN-gamma expression, which is one of the key cytokines for Th1 cell development. Present study implies that SCRT can correct Th2 dominant condition directly affecting to the CD4+ T cell without significantly depressing general T cell activities. These results also suggest that the effect on CD4+ T cell may be the one of key pharmacological effect point for treating IgE medicated allergic asthma by SCRT.

  13. RhIL-11 treatment normalized Th1/Th2 and T-bet/GATA-3 imbalance in in human immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Zhou, Xieming; Guo, Wenjian; Li, Qianqian; Pan, Xiahui; Bao, Yunhua; He, Muqing; Zhu, Baoling; Lin, Xiaoji; Jin, Limin; Yao, Rongxin

    2016-09-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune hemorrhagic disorder characterized by reduction in platelet counts. T helper 1 (Th1) cells polarization with an increased shift of Th1/Th2 ratio has been reported in ITP. This shift is associated with transcription factor T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) upregulation and GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA-3) downregulation, leading to an increased T-bet/GATA-3 ratio. Our previous in vitro study showed that recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) could normalize Th1/Th2 imbalance in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from adult ITP patients, which co-occurred with T-bet/GATA-3 ratio restoration. In this report, we investigated whether rhIL-11 had therapeutic effect in clinical ITP patients and whether rhIL-11 treatment could normalize Th1/Th2 and T-bet/GATA-3 levels in vivo. We found rhIL-11 treatment had a response rate of 67.7% and significantly decreased Th1 and T-bet levels but increased Th2 and GATA-3 levels in ITP patients who showed good response, normalizing Th1/Th2 and T-bet/GATA-3 ratios similar to that in healthy controls. Thus our study suggested rhIL-11 was effective with tolerable adverse effects in ITP. The treatment strategy warrants further clinical investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Berberine down-regulates the Th1/Th2 cytokine gene expression ratio in mouse primary splenocytes in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide in a preventive manner.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chi; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2011-12-01

    Berberine is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid. This study investigated the effects of berberine on cytokine gene expression in mouse primary splenocytes in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using 4 different experimental models in vitro. The relative expression of the following cytokine genes was determined using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay: pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10, T-helper type 1 (Th1) (IL-2), and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines. The results showed that berberine down-regulated ratios of the relative Th1 (IL-2)/Th2 (IL-4) cytokines expression fold in mouse primary splenocytes in the absence or presence of LPS in a preventive manner. This study suggests that berberine may possess anti-inflammatory potential by shifting the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th2 polarization.

  15. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are consumed during allergic inflammation and affect T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-mediated hypersensitivity differently

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, S; Lönnqvist, A; Östman, S; Sandberg, A-S; Wold, A E

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that atopic individuals have decreased serum levels of n-3 fatty acids. Indicating these compounds may have a protective effect against allergic reaction and/or are consumed during inflammation. This study investigated whether fish (n-3) or sunflower (n-6) oil supplementation affected T helper type 1 (Th1)- and Th2-mediated hypersensitivity in the skin and airways, respectively, and whether the fatty acid serum profile changed during the inflammatory response. Mice were fed regular chow, chow + 10% fish oil or chow + 10% sunflower oil. Mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) resolved in Th1 or Th2 adjuvant. For Th1 hypersensitivity, mice were challenged with OVA in the footpad. Footpad swelling, OVA-induced lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production in the draining lymph node were evaluated. In the airway hypersensitivity model (Th2), mice were challenged intranasally with OVA and the resulting serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and eosinophilic lung infiltration were measured. In the Th1 model, OVA-specific T cells proliferated less and produced less interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6 in fish oil-fed mice versus controls. Footpad swelling was reduced marginally. In contrast, mice fed fish oil in the Th2 model produced more OVA-specific IgE and had slightly higher proportions of eosinophils in lung infiltrate. A significant fall in serum levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids accompanied challenge and Th2-mediated inflammation in Th2 model. Fish oil supplementation affects Th1 and Th2 immune responses conversely; significant consumption of n-3 fatty acids occurs during Th2-driven inflammation. The latter observation may explain the association between Th2-mediated inflammation and low serum levels of n-3 fatty acids. PMID:20148912

  16. Dysregulated Cytokine Expression by CD4+ T cells from Post-Septic Mice Modulates both Th1 and Th2-Mediated Granulomatous Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Carson, William F.; Ito, Toshihiro; Schaller, Matthew; Cavassani, Karen A.; Chensue, Stephen W.; Kunkel, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animals indicate that survivors of severe sepsis exhibit deficiencies in the activation and effector function of immune cells. In particular, CD4+ T lymphocytes can exhibit reduced proliferative capacity and improper cytokine responses following sepsis. To further investigate the cell-intrinsic defects of CD4+ T cells following sepsis, splenic CD4+ T cells from sham surgery and post-septic mice were transferred into lymphopenic mice. These recipient mice were then subjected to both TH1-(purified protein derivative) and TH2-(Schistosoma mansoni egg antigen) driven models of granulomatous lung inflammation. Post-septic CD4+ T cells mediated smaller TH1 and larger TH2 lung granulomas as compared to mice receiving CD4+ T cells from sham surgery donors. However, cytokine production by lymph node cells in antigen restimulation assays indicated increased pan-specific cytokine expression by post-septic CD4+ T cell recipient mice in both TH1 and TH2 granuloma models. These include increased production of TH2 cytokines in TH1 inflammation, and increased production of TH1 cytokines in TH2 inflammation. These results suggest that cell-intrinsic defects in CD4+ T cell effector function can have deleterious effects on inflammatory processes post-sepsis, due to a defect in the proper regulation of TH-specific cytokine expression. PMID:21655295

  17. Differential Immunometabolic Phenotype in Th1 and Th2 Dominant Mouse Strains in Response to High-Fat Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Ivan; Radosavljevic, Gordana; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa; Lukic, Miodrag L.; Pejnovic, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Immune reactivity plays an important role in obesity-associated metabolic disorders. We investigated immunometabolic phenotype of C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice, prototypical Th1 and Th2-type strains, fed chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 24 weeks. In comparison to C57Bl/6 mice, chow-fed BALB/c mice had higher body weight and weight gain, lower glycemia, more pronounced liver steatosis, but less inflammation and collagen deposition in liver. In response to HFD C57Bl/6 mice exhibited higher weight gain, higher glycemia, HbA1c and liver glycogen content, increased amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and number of VAT associated CD3+CXCR3+ T cells, CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) and F4/80+ macrophages than BALB/c mice. More numerous CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, myeloid DCs, proinflammatory macrophages (F4/80+CD11b+CD11+ and F4/80+IL-1β+) and CD11b+Ly6Chigh monocytes and higher levels of proinflammatory IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ were present in liver in HFD-fed C57Bl/6 mice compared with diet-matched BALB/c mice. As opposed to C57Bl/6 mice, HFD induced marked liver steatosis and upregulated the hepatic LXRα and PPARγ genes in BALB/c mice. C57Bl/6 mice fed HFD developed liver fibrosis and increased hepatic procollagen and TGF-β mRNA expression, and IL-33, IL-13 and TGF-β levels in liver homogenates, while BALB/c mice fed HFD had scarce collagen deposition in liver. The obtained results suggest inherent immunometabolic differences in C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice. Moreover, HFD Th1-type mice on high fat diet regimen are more susceptible to adiposity, liver inflammation and fibrosis, while Th2-type mice to liver steatosis, which is associated with differential immune cell composition in metabolic tissues. Strain-dependent differences in immunometabolic phenotype may be relevant for studies of obesity-associated metabolic diseases in humans. PMID:26218873

  18. Th1/Th2/Th17 cells imbalance in patients with asthma with and without psychological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Liang, Zongan; Wang, Ting; Chen, Renzhi; Wang, Gang; Ji, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression among patients with asthma is high. Both asthma and psychological symptoms are characterized by immune inflammation in which CD4+ T cells play a role. To investigate whether T-helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17 cells imbalance exists in patients with asthma and with and in patients without psychological symptoms. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of T-box 21 (T-bet), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3), and RAR-related orphan receptor C (RORC) in peripheral CD4+ T cells of 20 patients with asthma and with psychological symptoms, 30 patients with asthma and without psychological symptoms, and 30 healthy subjects were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A Luminex-based approach quantified the levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 4, and IL-17A cytokines in serum. The mRNA expressions of T-bet, GATA-3 and RORC were significantly different among the three groups. Significant elevations of the expressions of T-bet, GATA-3, and RORC mRNA were found in patients with asthma and with psychological symptoms than in healthy subjects, along with the higher levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17A. Increased expressions of T-bet mRNA were found in patients with asthma and with psychological symptoms but not in those without psychological symptoms. However, the ratio of T-bet to GATA-3 was in balance in patients with asthma and with psychological symptoms. Analysis of our data revealed Th1 and Th2 cells activated in balance in the peripheral blood of patients with asthma and with psychological symptoms, along with activated Th17 cells. This finding provided an improved understanding of the immune-inflammation responses in patients with asthma and with psychological symptoms, and offered information for new targeted therapy to patients with asthma and with psychological symptoms.

  19. Correlation between the kinetics of Th1, Th2 cells and pathology in a murine model of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pando, R; Orozcoe, H; Sampieri, A; Pavón, L; Velasquillo, C; Larriva-Sahd, J; Alcocer, J M; Madrid, M V

    1996-01-01

    T-helper 1 (Th1) Th2 kinetics were studied by immunohistochemistry and molecular biology techniques (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RT PCR, Southern-blot) during the course of pulmonary tuberculosis induced in BALB/c mice by the intratracheal instillation of the live and virulent strain H-37Rv. The histopathological study clearly showed two phases of the disease. The first one was an acute phase which was characterized by inflammatory infiltrate in the alveolar capillary interstitium, blood vessel and bronchial wall with formation of granulomas. In this acute phase which lasted from 1 to 28 days, a clear predominance of Th1 cells was observed, manifested by a high percentage of interleukin-2 (IL-2) positive cells in the inflammatory infiltrate and granulomas demonstrated by immunohistology, as well as a gradual increment of interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) m-RNA. This was followed by a chronic or advanced phase characterized by pneumonia, focal necrosis and fibrosis, with a Th0 balance due to an equivalent proportion of IL-2 and IL-4 positive cells in the lung lesions, that coincided with the highest level of INF-gamma and IL-4 mRNA. The cytofluorometric analysis of bronchial lavage cells, showed a predominance of CD4 T cells during the acute phase and CD8 T lymphocytes in the chronic phase, gamma-delta T lymphocytes showed two peaks, at the beginning (3 days) and at the end (4 months) of the infection. These results suggest that T-lymphocyte subset kinetics and the pattern of cytokines produced in the lung during tuberculosis infection changed over time and correlate with the type and magnitude of tissue injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:8911136

  20. Transcription mediated by NFAT is highly inducible in effector CD4+ T helper 2 (Th2) cells but not in Th1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, M; Flavell, R A

    1997-01-01

    Transcriptional factors of the NFAT family play an important role in regulating the expression of several cytokine genes during the immune response, such as the genes for interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4, among others. Upon antigen stimulation, precursor CD4+ T helper (pTh) cells proliferate and differentiate into two populations of effector cells (eTh1 and eTh2), each one expressing a specific pattern of cytokines that distinguishes them from their precursors. eTh2 cells are the major source of IL-4, while gamma interferon is produced by eTh1 cells. Here we have used reporter transgenic mice to show that DNA binding and transcriptional activities of NFAT are transiently induced during the differentiation of pTh cells into either eTh1 or eTh2 cells to mediate the expression of IL-2 as a common growth factor in both pathways. However, although NFAT DNA binding is similarly induced in both eTh1 and eTh2 cells upon antigen stimulation, only the NFAT complexes present in eTh2 cells are able to mediate high-level transcription, and relatively little NFAT transcriptional activity was induced in eTh1 cells. In contrast to activated pTh cells, neither eTh1 nor eTh2 cells produced significant IL-2 upon stimulation, but the high levels of NFAT transcriptional activities directly correlate with the IL-4 production induced in response to antigen stimulation in eTh2 cells. These data suggest that activated NFAT is involved in the effector function of eTh2 cells and that the failure of eTh1 cells to produce IL-4 in response to an antigen is due, at least partially, to a failure to induce high-level transcription of the IL-4 gene by NFAT. Regulation of NFAT could be therefore a critical element in the polarization to eTh1 or eTh2. PMID:9032280

  1. Th1/Th2 balance in mouse delayed-type hypersensitivity model with mercuric chloride via skin and oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ukichi, Kenichirou; Okamura, Taito; Fukushima, Daihei; Morimoto, Mitsuaki; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Takahashi, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) among different exposure sites, we evaluated the sensitization potency of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) via exposure to the skin, or oral or esophageal mucosa using the mouse ear swelling test. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro splenocyte proliferation reaction and cytokine profile in HgCl(2)-exposed and control mice. Sensitization with HgCl(2) was established via the skin and oral mucosa but not via the esophageal mucosa. The splenocyte proliferation reaction was significantly enhanced to a similar degree in skin and oral mucosa-sensitized mice compared with in the control mice. IL-10 levels from cultured splenocytes were significantly increased in skin and oral mucosa-sensitized mice compared with those in control mice, whilst IFN-γ significantly increased only in splenocytes from skin-sensitized mice. These results suggest that exposure of the skin or oral mucosa to HgCl(2) can induce DTH, but that Th1/Th2 balance differs according to the site of antigen exposure.

  2. Suppression of allergic reactions by dehulled adlay in association with the balance of TH1/TH2 cell responses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Bi-Fong; Lin, Jin-Yuarn; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Chiang, Wenchang

    2003-06-18

    Dehulled adlay is known as a natural Chinese medicine having antiallergic activity, although its mechanism remains unclear. This study examined the effects of dehulled adlay on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production. Mice were immunized three times with ovalbumin (OVA) in alum adjuvant. It was found that oral administration of dehulled adlay in mice suppressed the production of IgE against OVA antigen. Serum anti-OVA IgG(2a) antibody levels were significantly increased in mice after oral administration of dehulled adlay. Furthermore, the production of IL-2 by OVA-stimulated splenocytes was augmented in dehulled adlay-fed mice. Although dehulled adlay had no effect on the serum anti-OVA IgG(1) antibody levels, it had a great capacity to reduce IL-5 secretion by means of OVA-stimulated splenocytes. Hydrothermal processes, including steaming and extrusion cooking, did not change the capacity of dehulled adlay to suppress IgE production. Three fractions of dehulled alday, including methanolic extract, warm water extract, and residue, were obtained. The methanolic extract exhibited the greatest capacity to reduce anti-OVA IgE production. These results suggest that dehulled adlay has a modulating ability to shift the balance from Th2 to Th1 dominance in the T cell mediated immune system and may be beneficial for the treatment of allergic disorders.

  3. Evaluation of Th1/Th2-Related Immune Response against Recombinant Proteins of Brucella abortus Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Im, Young Bin; Park, Woo Bin; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Suk; Yoo, Han Sang

    2016-06-28

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella, a genus of gram-negative bacteria. Cytokines have key roles in the activation of innate and acquired immunities. Despite several research attempts to reveal the immune responses, the mechanism of Brucella infection remains unclear. Therefore, immune responses were analyzed in mice immunized with nine recombinant proteins. Cytokine production profiles were analyzed in the RAW 264.7 cells and naive splenocytes after stimulation with three recombinant proteins, metal-dependent hydrolase (r0628), bacterioferritin (rBfr), and thiamine transporter substrate-binding protein (rTbpA). Immune responses were analyzed by ELISA and ELISpot assay after immunization with proteins in mice. The production levels of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 were time-dependently increased after having been stimulated with proteins in the RAW 264.7 cells. In naive splenocytes, the production of IFN-γ and IL-2 was increased after stimulation with the proteins. It was concluded that two recombinant proteins, r0628 and rTbpA, showed strong immunogenicity that was induced with Th1-related cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α more than Th2-related cytokines IL-6, IL-4, and IL-5 in vitro. Conversely, a humoral immune response was activated by increasing the number of antigen-secreting cells specifically. Furthermore, these could be candidate diagnosis antigens for better understanding of brucellosis.

  4. Multiparameter fluorescence imaging for quantification of TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines at the single-cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekkar, Hakim; Benbernou, N.; Esnault, S.; Shin, H. C.; Guenounou, Moncef

    1998-04-01

    Immune responses are strongly influenced by the cytokines following antigenic stimulation. Distinct cytokine-producing T cell subsets are well known to play a major role in immune responses and to be differentially regulated during immunological disorders, although the characterization and quantification of the TH-1/TH-2 cytokine pattern in T cells remained not clearly defined. Expression of cytokines by T lymphocytes is a highly balanced process, involving stimulatory and inhibitory intracellular signaling pathways. The aim of this study was (1) to quantify the cytokine expression in T cells at the single cell level using optical imaging, (2) and to analyze the influence of cyclic AMP- dependent signal transduction pathway in the balance between the TH-1 and TH-2 cytokine profile. We attempted to study several cytokines (IL-2, IFN-(gamma) , IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cells were prestimulated in vitro using phytohemagglutinin and phorbol ester for 36h, and then further cultured for 8h in the presence of monensin. Cells were permeabilized and then simple-, double- or triple-labeled with the corresponding specific fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The cell phenotype was also determined by analyzing the expression of each of CD4, CD8, CD45RO and CD45RA with the cytokine expression. Conventional images of cells were recorded with a Peltier- cooled CCD camera (B/W C5985, Hamamatsu photonics) through an inverted microscope equipped with epi-fluorescence (Diaphot 300, Nikon). Images were digitalized using an acquisition video interface (Oculus TCX Coreco) in 762 by 570 pixels coded in 8 bits (256 gray levels), and analyzed thereafter in an IBM PC computer based on an intel pentium processor with an adequate software (Visilog 4, Noesis). The first image processing step is the extraction of cell areas using an edge detection and a binary thresholding method. In order to reduce the background noise of fluorescence, we performed an opening

  5. Pillars article: downregulation of Th1 cytokine production accompanies induction of Th2 responses by a parasitic helminth, Schistosoma mansoni. J. Exp. Med. 1991. 173: 159-166.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Edward J; Caspar, Patricia; Grzych, Jean-Marie; Lewis, Fred A; Sher, Alan

    2012-08-01

    In the mouse, infection with Schistosoma mansoni results in an egg-producing infection and associated disease, whereas vaccination with attenuated larval stages produces a substantial and specific immunity in the absence of egg-induced pathology. Preliminary data showing enhanced interleukin-5 (IL-5) production by T cells from infected mice and interferon γ (IFN-γ) synthesis by cells from vaccinated animals (7), suggested differential CD4(+) subset stimulation by the different parasite stimuli. To confirem this hyposthesis, lymphocytes from vaccinated or infected animals were compared for their ability to produce IFN-γ and IL-2 (secreted by Th1 cells) as compared with IL-4 and IL-5 (characteristic Th2 cytokines). After stimulation with specific antigen or mitogen, T cells from vaccinated mice or prepatently infected animals responded primarily with Th1 lymphokines, whereas lymphocytes from patenly infected mice instead produced Th2 cytokines. The Th2 response in infected animals was shown to be induced by schistosome eggs and directed largely against egg antigens, whereas the Th1 reactivity in vaccinated mice was triggered primarily by larval anigens. Interestingly, Th1 responses in mice carrying egg-producing infections were found to be profoundly downregulated. Moreover, the injection of eggs into vaccinated mice resulted in a reduction of antigen and mitogen-stimulated Th1 function accompanied by a coincident expression of Th2 responses. Together, the data suggest that coincident with the induction of Th2 responses, murine schistosome infection results in an inhibition of potentially protective Th1 function. This previously unrecognized downregulation of Th1 cytokine production may be an important immunological consequence of helminth infection related to host adaptation.

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a protein vaccine candidate, elicits Th1/Th2/Th17-type cytokine responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Elhaik Goldman, Shirin; Dotan, Shahar; Talias, Amir; Lilo, Amit; Azriel, Shalhevet; Malka, Itay; Portnoi, Maxim; Ohayon, Ariel; Kafka, Daniel; Ellis, Ronald; Elkabets, Moshe; Porgador, Angel; Levin, Ditza; Azhari, Rosa; Swiatlo, Edwin; Ling, Eduard; Feldman, Galia; Tal, Michael; Dagan, Ron; Mizrachi Nebenzahl, Yaffa

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a major pathogen worldwide. The currently available polysaccharide-based vaccines significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. However, the inherent disadvantages of the currently available polysaccharide-based vaccines have motivated the search for other bacterial immunogens capable of eliciting a protective immune response against S. pneumoniae. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) is a glycolytic enzyme, which was found to localize to the bacterial surface, where it functions as an adhesin. Previously, immunizing mice with recombinant FBA (rFBA) in the presence of alum elicited a protective immune response against a lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the cytokine responses that are indicative of protective immunity following immunization with rFBA. The protective effects against pneumococcal challenge in mice immunized with rFBA with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the initial immunization and with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) in booster immunizations surpassed the protective effects observed following immunization with either rFBA + alum or pVACfba. CD4+ T-cells obtained from the rFBA/CFA/IFA/IFA-immunized mice co-cultured with rFBA-pulsed antigen-presenting cells (APCs), exhibited a significantly greater proliferative ability than CD4+ T-cells obtained from the adjuvant-immunized mice co-cultured with rFBA‑pulsed APCs. The levels of the Th1-type cytokines, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12, the Th2-type cytokines, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, and the Th17-type cytokine, IL-17A, significantly increased within 72 h of the initiation of co-culture with CD4+ T-cells obtained from the rFBA‑immunized mice, in comparison with the co-cultures with CD4+ T-cells obtained from the adjuvant-immunized mice. Immunizing mice with rFBA resulted in an IgG1/IgG2 ratio of 41, indicating a Th2 response with substantial Th1

  7. Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance in patients with Sjögren syndrome secondary to hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; García-Carrasco, Mario; Cervera, Ricard; Filella, Xavier; Trejo, Olga; de la Red, Gloria; Gil, Víctor; Sánchez-Tapias, José Ma; Font, Josep; Ingelmo, Miguel

    2002-08-01

    To investigate if the serum immunologic profile, as delineated by serum circulating levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines and autoantibodies, is different in patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study included 20 patients with HCV-related SS and 47 consecutive patients with primary SS. All fulfilled 4 or more of the modified 1996 European criteria for SS. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2 (pg/mL), srIL-2 (pM), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (pg/mL), IL-6 (pg/mL), and IL-10 (pg/mL) were determined using enzyme immunoassay. We also analyzed the following immunologic tests: anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), anti-parietal cell antibodies (PCA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver-kidney microsome antibodies type-1 (LKM-1), anti-Ro/SS-A, anti-La/SS-B, rheumatoid factor (RF), complement factors (C3 and C4), and cryoglobulins. Of the 20 patients with HCV-related SS, 18 were women and 2 men (mean age, 66 years). Patients with HCV-related SS had a different cytokine profile compared with patients with primary SS, with higher circulating levels of IL-6 (73.6 v 33.0 pg/mL, P =.045), IL-10 (6.7 v 3.1 pg/mL, P =.01), srIL-2 (124.6 v 72.7 pM, P =.001), and TNF-alpha (59.8 v 31.7 pg/mL, P =.003). The main immunologic features were ANA, detected in 75% of patients, RF in 63%, cryoglobulinemia in 50%, hypocomplementemia in 40%, SMA in 30%, PCA in 25%, anti-Ro/SS-A in 25%, AMA in 20% and anti-La/SS-B in 16%. When compared with primary SS patients, those with HCV-related SS had a higher prevalence of AMA (20% v 2%, P =.025), hypocomplementemia (40% v 11%, P =.015), and cryoglobulinemia (50% v 12%, P =.003). Although chronic HCV infection may mimic the main clinical, histologic and immunologic features of primary SS, patients with HCV-related SS showed some differentiated characteristics, including a predominant Th2 pattern and a higher frequency of cryoglobulinemia and hypocomplementemia

  8. The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm induced by stachydrine hydrochloride reduces uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Bin; Li, Yuzhu; Wang, Li; Zhao, Xiangzhong; Zhou, Xianbin; Guo, Yuqi; Jiang, Guosheng; Yao, Chengfang

    2013-01-09

    The Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm plays an important role in achieving maternal-fetal immunotolerance and participates in RU486-induced abortion. Excessive uterine bleeding is the most common side effect of RU486-induced abortion; however, its etiopathogenesis has not been fully understood. Therefore, elucidating the correlation between the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm and the volume of uterine bleeding may offer novel therapeutic target for reducing uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion. Leonurus sibiricus has been used in clinics to reduce postpartum hemorrhage with low toxicity and high efficiency; however, the effective constituents and therapeutic mechanism have not been described. Stachydrine hydrochloride is the main constituent of L. sibiricus, therefore L. sibiricus is regarded as a candidate for reducing uterine bleeding in RU486-induced abortion mice by regulating the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm. The purpose of this study was to determine the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in uterine bleeding of RU486-induced abortion mice and to elucidate the immunopharmacologic effects of stachydrine hydrochloride on inducing the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in reducing the uterine bleeding volume in RU486-induced abortion mice. To investigate the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in uterine bleeding during RU486-induced abortion mice, pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high- and low-dose RU486 (1.5mg/kg and 0.9 mg/kg, respectively), and the serum progesterone (P(4)) protein level, uterine bleeding volume, and proportions of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cells in mice at the maternal-fetal interface were detected by ELISA assay, alkaline hematin photometric assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. To determine the regulatory effect of stachydrine hydrochloride on the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm in vitro, splenocytes of non-pregnant mice were separated and treated with P(4,) RU486, and/or stachydrine hydrochloride (10(-5)M, 10(-4)M, and 10(-3)M, respectively). The proportions of Th1/Th2/Th17

  9. Upregulation of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells is associated with Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Wang, Fukun; An, Liyun; Wang, Xianling

    2015-01-01

    T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulator preferentially expressed on Th1 cells. Allergic asthma is a clinical syndrome well characterized by Th1/Th2 imbalance. To investigate the role of Tim-3 in the pathogenesis of asthma and its relationship with Th1/Th2 imbalance, a total of 40 patients with allergic asthma and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Expression of Tim-3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance as well as the relationship between them was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Th1/Th2 cytokines in the culture supernatant were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD4(+) T cells and B cells were sorted and co-cultured in vitro, and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Total IgG/IgE in the culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The mRNA level of T-bet and IFN-γ were significantly decreased in allergic asthma patients, while GATA-3 and IL-4 were significantly increased. Expression of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells was much higher in allergic asthma patients and it was negatively correlated with T-bet/GATA-3 ratio or IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio. Blocking of Tim-3 significantly increased Th1 cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and decreased Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in the culture supernatant of PBMCs. Blocking of Tim-3 dramatically reduced the production of IgG and IgE in the co-culture supernatant of CD4(+) T cells and B cells. In conclusion, Tim-3 was up-regulated in allergic asthma patients and related with the Th1/Th2 imbalance. Blocking of Tim-3 may be of therapeutic benefit by enhancing the Th1 cytokines response, down-regulating the Th2 cytokines response, and reducing IgG/IgE production.

  10. On the mechanism determining the TH1/TH2 phenotype of an immune response, and its pertinence to strategies for the prevention, and treatment, of certain infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Bretscher, P A

    2014-06-01

    It is well recognized that the physiological/pathological consequences of an immune response, against a foreign or a self-antigen, are often critically dependent on the class of immunity generated. Here we focus on how antigen interacts with the cells of the immune system to determine whether antigen predominantly generates Th1 or Th2 cells. We refer to this mechanism as the 'decision criterion' controlling the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the immune response. A plausible decision criterion should account for the variables of immunization known to affect the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the ensuing immune response. Documented variables include the nature of the antigen, in terms of its degree of foreignness, the dose of antigen and the time after immunization at which the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the immune response is assessed. These are quantitative variables made at the level of the system. In addition, the route of immunization is also critical. I describe a quantitative hypothesis as to the nature of the decision criterion, referred to as the Threshold Hypothesis. This hypothesis accounts for the quantitative variables of immunization known to affect the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the immune response generated. I suggest and illustrate how this is not true of competing, contemporary hypotheses. I outline studies testing predictions of the hypothesis and illustrate its potential utility in designing strategies to prevent or treat medical situations where a predominant Th1 response is required to contain an infection, such as those caused by HIV-1 and by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or to contain cancers.

  11. Nigella sativa modulates splenocyte proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine profile, macrophage function and NK anti-tumor activity.

    PubMed

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Hmaidan, Reem; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-09-15

    Nigella sativa, also known as blackseed, has long been used in traditional medicine for treating various conditions related to the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems as well as different types of cancers. In this study, the potential immunomodulatory effects of Nigella sativa are investigated in light of splenocyte proliferation, macrophage function, and NK anti-tumor activity using BLAB/c and C57/BL6 primary cells. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Griess assay was performed to evaluate NO production by macrophages. ELISA was performed to measure the level of cytokines secreted by splenocytes and macrophages. NK cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 tumor cells was examined by JAM assay. We demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa significantly enhances splenocyte proliferation in a dose-responsive manner. In addition, the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa favors the secretion of Th2, versus Th1, cytokines by splenocytes. The secretion of IL-6, TNFalpha, and NO; key pro-inflammatory mediators, by primary macrophages is significantly suppressed by the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa, indicating that Nigella sativa exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Finally, experimental evidence indicates that the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa significantly enhances NK cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 tumor cells, suggesting that the documented anti-tumor effects of Nigella sativa may be, at least in part, attributed to its ability to serve as a stimulant of NK anti-tumor activity. Our data present Nigella sativa as a traditionally used herb with potent immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. We anticipate that Nigella sativa ingredients may be employed as effective therapeutic agents in the regulation of diverse immune reactions implicated in various conditions and diseases such as cancer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anisakis simplex allergy: a murine model of anaphylaxis induced by parasitic proteins displays a mixed Th1/Th2 pattern

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, M L; Conejero, L; Higaki, Y; Martín, E; Pérez, C; Infante, S; Rubio, M; Zubeldia, J M

    2005-01-01

    The study of the singular hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex (A.s) proteins, may help us to undestand many of the unknown immune interactions between helmiths infections and allergy. We have developed a murine model of allergy to A. simplex, that mimics human A. simplex allergy to study the specific aspects of anaphylaxis induced by parasites. Male C3H/HeJ mice were intraperitoneally sensitized to A. simplex. Mice were then intravenous or orally challenged with A. simplex. Antigen-specific immunoglobulins, polyclonal IgE, anaphylactic symptoms, plasma histamine levels and cytokine profiles were determined. Comparative IgE immunoblot analyses were also performed. Specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were detected in sensitized mice since week 3. Polyclonal IgE raised and peaked with different kinetics. Intravenous A. simplex challenge produced anaphylaxis in mice, accompanied by plasma histamine release. Oral A. simplex challenge in similarly sensitized mice did not caused symptoms nor histamine release. Numerous A. simplex allergens were recognized by sensitized mouse sera, some of them similar to human serum. The A. simplex stimulated splenocytes released IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. We describe a new animal model of anaphylaxis. It exhibits characteristics of type I hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex similar to those observed in allergic humans. Different responses to i.v. or oral A. simplex challenges emerged, which did not reflect a window tolerization period. The cytokine profile developed (mixed Th1/Th2 pattern) differed from the observed in classical models of anaphylaxis or allergy to food antigens. This model may permit to investigate the peculiar allergic reactions to parasitic proteins. PMID:16297154

  13. Early-life gut microbial colonization shapes Th1/Th2 balance in asthma model in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li-Juan; Kang, Shu-Min; Xie, Jia-Li; Huang, Li; Wen, Quan; Fan, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Li-Jun; Jiang, Li

    2017-06-17

    We aimed to investigate the effect of early-life diverse microbial exposures on gut microbial colonization in an OVA-induced asthma model in BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were divided into 4 groups: A, offsprings were kept in a SPF environment during fetal, lactation, and childhood periods; B, offsprings were kept in the SPF environment during fetal and lactation periods, and kept in the general environment during childhood; C, offsprings were kept in the SPF environment only during fetal period, and then kept in the general environment; and D, offsprings were kept in the general environment during whole periods. The diversity of intestinal flora was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Mice were sensitized with OVA to establish an animal model of asthma. Then asthma-related inflammatory cytokines and histological analysis were performed. The diversity of intestinal microflora in group D was significantly higher than groups A, B and C at three days and three weeks after birth, and the diversity of intestinal microflora in groups C and D were significantly higher than groups A and B at five weeks after birth. The pathologic scores of OVA-induced asthmatic mice in group D were significantly lower than group A, and serum IFN-γ levels and the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in group D were significantly higher than group A. Exposure to diverse microbial environments in early life affects gut microbial colonization in BALB/c mice. The diversity of the intestinal flora in early life may prevent airway inflammation in asthma via regulating the Th1/Th2 balance.

  14. Serum Cytokines Th1, Th2, and Th17 Expression Profiling in Active Lupus Nephritis-IV: From a Southern Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Hu, Weiping; Wang, Ning; Sun, Qingyi; Liu, Qingyan; Liu, Xiaocong; Hou, Xianghua; Cheng, Ao

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by aberrant T cell immune response. Diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (LN-IV) is the most common, severe, and active form of lupus nephritis. In this study, we investigated the production of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines in prediction of active form of LN-IV. ProcartaPlex multiplex immunoassays panels were used for detection of serum Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines profiling. Th1 and Th17 cytokines (IL-18, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-6, and IL-17A) were considerably expressed in the serum of lupus nephritis IV patients in comparison to the healthy control. However, only IL18 and IL6 were higher in class IV versus class III lupus nephritis. Importantly, the ratios of Th1/Th2 (IL-18/IL-4) and Th17/Th2 (IL-17A/IL-4) were significantly elevated in LN-IV when compared with LN-III, LN-V, and healthy controls. Consistently, the serum cytokines IL-18, IL-17A, and IFN-γ were markedly expressed in LN-IV patient glomeruli and interstitial tissue compared to other classes of LN by IHC. ROC further suggests that IL-18 was a potential marker for LN-IV. The data from our study suggests that the early detection and quantification of these cytokines may help in prediction of active form of LN-IV. PMID:27738386

  15. Coincident diabetes mellitus modulates Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-cell responses in latent tuberculosis in an IL-10- and TGF-β-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), although its role in the TB-induced responses in latent TB (LTB) is not well understood. Since Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses are important in immunity to LTB, we postulated that coincident DM could alter the function of these CD4(+) T-cell subsets. To this end, we examined mycobacteria-induced immune responses in the whole blood of individuals with LTB-DM and compared them with responses of individuals without DM (LTB-NDM). T-cell responses from LTB-DM are characterized by diminished frequencies of mono- and dual-functional CD4(+) Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells at baseline and following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens-purified protein derivative, early secreted antigen-6, and culture filtrate protein-10. This modulation was at least partially dependent on IL-10 and TGF-β, since neutralization of either cytokine resulted in significantly increased frequencies of Th1 and Th2 cells but not Th17 cells in LTB-DM but not LTB individuals. LTB-DM is therefore characterized by diminished frequencies of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, indicating that DM alters the immune response in latent TB leading to a suboptimal induction of protective CD4(+) T-cell responses, thereby providing a potential mechanism for increased susceptibility to active disease.

  16. Electro-acupuncture at Acupoint ST36 Ameliorates Inflammation and Regulates Th1/Th2 Balance in Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Tao; Long, Man; Chen, Longyun; Wang, Lei; Yin, Nina; Chen, Zebin

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence indicates anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) therapy. However, its underlying mechanism on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), a classic allergic inflammatory disease, still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of EA intervention in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced DTH. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: Control, OVA-DTH, DTH + EA, DTH + Sham. "Zusanli" acupoint (ST36) was used for DTH + EA, whereas a non-acupoint (localized 5 mm below the "Zusanli" acupoint) was selected for DTH + Sham. Footpad thickness was checked, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells was estimated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Levels of IgG and IgE in serum of different groups and inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants from homogenized footpads, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5, were determined by ELISA. Cell proliferation of spleen lymphocytes was assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The frequency of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) and CD4(+)IL-4(+) T cells was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression of T-bet and GATA-3 were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Our data showed EA treatment at acupoint ST36 relieved the pathological progression of DTH responses via reduction in footpad swelling, infiltration of inflammatory cells, levels of IgG and IgE as well as decreased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α in homogenized footpad tissue. Moreover, detailed studies were performed revealing that EA attenuated the percentage of CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells and prevented Th cells differentiation into Th1 cells, and this results from inhibiting secretion of IFN-γ and suppressing expression of T-bet, an IFN-γ transcription factor. The results indicated that EA treatment improved Th1-mediated allergic skin inflammation via restoring Th1/Th2 balance by curbing Th1

  17. Suppression of Th1 and Th2 immune responses in mice by Sinomenine, an alkaloid extracted from the chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huang; Yamaki, Kouya; Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Yanagisawa, Rie; Yoshino, Shin

    2006-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of sinomenine (SIN), an alkaloid extracted from Sinomenium acutum, on Th1 and Th2 immune responses in mice. For this investigation, mice were S. C. immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant (day 0). Varying doses of SIN were orally administered daily over a period of 21 days, commencing on day 0. On day 21, anti-OVA IgG and proliferative responses of spleen cells to the antigen were measured. Anti-OVA IgG2a and IFN-gamma were measured as indicators of Th1 immune responses and anti-OVA IgG1, IgE, and IL-5 as those of Th2 responses. TGF-beta was measured as an indicator of Th3 immune responses. The results showed that treatment with SIN was followed by decreases in anti-OVA IgG and the antigen-specific splenocyte proliferation. Production of all isotypes of antibodies including anti-OVA IgG2a, IgG1 and IgE as well as secretion of cytokines such as IFN-gamma and IL-5 was suppressed by SIN, although the suppression of anti-OVA IgG2a and IFN-gamma by the alkaloid appeared to be greater than that of anti-OVA IgG1, IgE, and IL-5. In addition, SIN enhanced the secretion of TGF-beta. These results suggest that SIN appears to have suppressive effects on both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The results also suggest that Th1 responses may be more preferentially suppressed by the Sinomenium acutum-derived alkaloid compared to Th2 responses. TGF-beta may at least in part contribute to the suppression of Th1 as well as Th2 immune responses.

  18. Gluten-free diet does not influence the occurrence and the Th1/Th17-Th2 nature of immune-mediated diseases in patients with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Imperatore, Nicola; Rispo, Antonio; Capone, Pietro; Donetto, Sara; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Gerbino, Nicolò; Rea, Matilde; Caporaso, Nicola; Tortora, Raffaella

    2016-07-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is the most common Th1-mediated enteropathy, frequently associated with other immune-mediated disorders (IMD). To evaluate: (1) the prevalence of IMD at the time of and after CD diagnosis; (2) a possible change in immune response to gluten free diet (GFD); (3) the potential role of GFD in reducing and/or preventing IMD in CD. Prospective study including all consecutive adult CD patients who underwent investigations for Th1-Th17/Th2-IMD at the time of CD diagnosis and after a 5-year follow-up period. 1255 CD were enrolled. Of these, 257 patients (20.5%) showed IMD at the time of CD diagnosis, with 58.4% presenting a Th1/Th17-IMD. After a 5-year follow-up period, 682 patients (54.3%) showed new IMD despite GFD. Of these, 57.3% presented a Th1/Th17-IMD and 42.7% a Th2-IMD (p=0.8). When compared the prevalence of each type of IMD before and after CD diagnosis, we did not identify any significant "switch" from Th1/Th17- to Th2-IMD or vice versa. The number of patients with Th1/Th17- and/or Th2-IMD increased during the GFD period (20.5% vs 54.3%; p<0.01; OR 1.9). The prevalence of IMD at the time of CD diagnosis is high and it seems to increase in the follow-up period despite GFD. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Arabinosylated Lipoarabinomannan Skews Th2 Phenotype towards Th1 during Leishmania Infection by Chromatin Modification: Involvement of MAPK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Parna; Gupta, Gaurav; Majumder, Saikat; Adhikari, Anupam; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Bhattacharya Majumdar, Suchandra; Ghosh, Moumita; Chaudhuri, Shubho; Roy, Syamal; Majumdar, Subrata

    2011-01-01

    The parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani is the causative organism for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) which persists in the host macrophages by deactivating its signaling machinery resulting in a critical shift from proinflammatory (Th1) to an anti-inflammatory (Th2) response. The severity of this disease is mainly determined by the production of IL-12 and IL-10 which could be reversed by use of effective immunoprophylactics. In this study we have evaluated the potential of Arabinosylated Lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM), a cell wall glycolipid isolated from non pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, in regulating the host effector response via effective regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling cascades in Leishmania donovani infected macrophages isolated from BALB/C mice. Ara-LAM, a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) specific ligand, was found to activate p38 MAPK signaling along with subsequent abrogation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERKs) signaling. The use of pharmacological inhibitors of p38MAPK and ERK signaling showed the importance of these signaling pathways in the regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 in Ara-LAM pretreated parasitized macrophages. Molecular characterization of this regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 was revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (CHIP) which showed that in Ara-LAM pretreated parasitized murine macrophages there was a significant induction of IL-12 by selective phosphorylation and acetylation of histone H3 residues at its promoter region. While, IL-10 production was attenuated by Ara-LAM pretreatment via abrogation of histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation at its promoter region. This Ara-LAM mediated antagonistic regulations in the induction of IL-10 and IL-12 genes were further correlated to changes in the transcriptional regulators Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). These results demonstrate the crucial role played by Ara-LAM in

  20. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on the Th1/Th2 cell balance of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Jia; Hou, Xue-Jing; Yang, Shu-Fen; Yin, Xin-Hua; Ren, Lihong

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin D has important functions in the immune system, and it may suppress the proliferation of T helper (Th) cells and modulate their cytokine production. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of maternal supplementation with different doses of vitamin D on the allergy status of the offspring. We gave pregnant female rats a low dose (48000IU/kg, equal to 800IU/d in human) and a high dose (240000IU/kg,equal to 4000IU/d in human) of vitamin D3 intramuscular injection on gestation day (GD)17, and we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the levels of immune responsive cytokines including IL-4, IgE, and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in the offspring. On postnatal day (PND) 21, plasma IL-4 levels were elevated by 10.43% (p < 0.01) in the offspring from the high dose vitamin D3 group compared with the control group. And offspring plasma IL-4 levels in the low dose group decreased by 7.27% (p < 0.05) compared with the control dose group. We found that the offspring of mothers given a low dose of vitamin D3 had a 6.17% (p < 0.01) decrease in their plasma IgE levels compared to control animals, but the high dose of vitamin D3 showed no effect. The serum 25(OH)D3 levels were negatively correlated with the IL-4 (r = -0.561, p < 0.01) and IgE (r = -0.421, p < 0.05) levels of the offspring from the low dose group. In the lung tissues of the offspring of the high dose group, we observed thickening of the alveolar septa and more inflammatory cells compared with the control group and low dose group. Thickened alveolar septa were also found in the lung tissues of the offspring from the control group. We conclude that high dose vitamin D3 maternal supplementation during pregnancy induced an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cells in their offspring resulting allergic and inflammatory response.

  1. Comparison of Th1- and Th2-associated immune reactivities stimulated by single versus multiple vaccination of mice with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    SciTech Connect

    Caulada-Benedetti, Z.; Al-Zamel, F.; Sher, A.; James, S. )

    1991-03-01

    Mice immunized against Schistosoma mansoni by a single percutaneous exposure to radiation-attenuated parasite larvae demonstrate partial resistance to challenge infection that has been shown to correlate with development of cell-mediated immunity, whereas mice hyperimmunized by multiple exposure to attenuated larvae produce antibodies capable of transferring partial protection to naive recipients. Measurement of Ag-specific lymphokine responses in these animals suggested that the difference in resistance mechanisms may be due to the differential induction of Th subset response by the two immunization protocols. Thus, upon Ag stimulation, singly immunized mice predominantly demonstrated responses associated with Th1 reactivity, including IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, whereas multiply immunized animals showed increased IL-5, IL-4, and IgG1 antibody production associated with enhanced Th2 response. These responses demonstrated some degree of organ compartmentalization, with splenocytes demonstrating higher Th1-related lymphokine production and cells from draining lymph nodes showing stronger proliferation and Th2 type reactivity. However, hyperimmunized mice also continued to demonstrate substantial Th1-associated immune reactivity. Moreover, in vivo Ag challenge elicited activated larvacidal macrophages in hyperimmunized animals. These observations indicate that protective cell-mediated mechanisms associated with induction of CD4+ Th1 cell reactivity predominate in singly vaccinated mice. Further vaccination stimulates Th2 responses, such as enhanced IgG1 production, that may also contribute to protective immunity.

  2. Compound A, a Dissociated Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator, Inhibits T-bet (Th1) and Induces GATA-3 (Th2) Activity in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Palermo-Neto, Joao; Castro, Carla N.; Druker, Jimena; Holsboer, Florian; Perone, Marcelo J.; Gerlo, Sarah; De Bosscher, Karolien; Haegeman, Guy; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Compound A (CpdA) is a dissociating non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand which has anti-inflammatory properties exerted by down-modulating proinflammatory gene expression. By favouring GR monomer formation, CpdA does not enhance glucocorticoid (GC) response element-driven gene expression, resulting in a reduced side effect profile as compared to GCs. Considering the importance of Th1/Th2 balance in the final outcome of immune and inflammatory responses, we analyzed how selective GR modulation differentially regulates the activity of T-bet and GATA-3, master drivers of Th1 and Th2 differentiation, respectively. Results Using Western analysis and reporter gene assays, we show in murine T cells that, similar to GCs, CpdA inhibits T-bet activity via a transrepressive mechanism. Different from GCs, CpdA induces GATA-3 activity by p38 MAPK-induction of GATA-3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. CpdA effects are reversed by the GR antagonist RU38486, proving the involvement of GR in these actions. ELISA assays demonstrate that modulation of T-bet and GATA-3 impacts on cytokine production shown by a decrease in IFN-γ and an increase in IL-5 production, respectively. Conclusions Taken together, through their effect favoring Th2 over Th1 responses, particular dissociated GR ligands, for which CpdA represents a paradigm, hold potential for the application in Th1-mediated immune disorders. PMID:22496903

  3. T-bet and GATA3 orchestrate Th1 and Th2 differentiation through lineage-specific targeting of distal regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Kanhere, Aditi; Hertweck, Arnulf; Bhatia, Urvashi; Gökmen, M. Refik; Perucha, Esperanza; Jackson, Ian; Lord, Graham M.; Jenner, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    T-bet and GATA3 regulate the CD4+ T cell Th1/Th2 cell fate decision but little is known about the interplay between these factors outside of the murine Ifng and Il4/Il5/Il13 loci. Here we show that T-bet and GATA3 bind to multiple distal sites at immune regulatory genes in human effector T cells. These sites display markers of functional elements, act as enhancers in reporter assays and are associated with a requirement for T-bet and GATA3. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both factors bind distal sites at Tbx21 and that T-bet directly activates its own expression. We also show that in Th1 cells, GATA3 is distributed away from Th2 genes, instead occupying T-bet binding sites at Th1 genes, and that T-bet is sufficient to induce GATA3 binding at these sites. We propose these aspects of T-bet and GATA3 function are important for Th1/Th2 differentiation and for understanding transcription factor interactions in other T cell lineage decisions. PMID:23232398

  4. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) attenuates food allergy symptoms by regulating type 1/type 2 helper T cells (Th1/Th2) balance in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Bae, Min-Jung; Sung, Ki-Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-04

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has traditionally been used to treat pain, fever, allergic and inflammatory diseases such as bronchitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. In particular, turmeric and its active component, curcumin, were effective in ameliorating immune disorders including allergies. However, the effects of turmeric and curcumin have not yet been tested on food allergies. Mice were immunized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) and alum. The mice were orally challenged with 50mg OVA, and treated with turmeric extract (100mg/kg), curcumin (3mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 16 days. Food allergy symptoms including decreased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis were evaluated. In addition, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were evaluated using ELISA. Turmeric significantly attenuated food allergy symptoms (decreased rectal temperature and anaphylactic response) induced by OVA, but curcumin showed weak improvement. Turmeric also inhibited IgE, IgG1, and mMCP-1 levels increased by OVA. Turmeric reduced type 2 helper cell (Th2)-related cytokines and enhanced a Th1-related cytokine. Turmeric ameliorated OVA-induced food allergy by maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. Furthermore, turmeric was confirmed anti-allergic effect through promoting Th1 responses on Th2-dominant immune responses in immunized mice. Turmeric significantly ameliorated food allergic symptoms in a mouse model of food allergy. The turmeric as an anti-allergic agent showed immune regulatory effects through maintaining Th1/Th2 immune balance, whereas curcumin appeared immune suppressive effects. Therefore, we suggest that administration of turmeric including various components may be useful to ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic disorders such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of Th1, Th2, lymphocyte trafficking and activation markers on CD4+ T-cells of Hymenoptera allergic subjects and after venom immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Carmen M; Urra, José M; Alfaya, Teresa; Roca, Federico De La; Feo-Brito, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    Systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings can be fatal and represent a reduction in the quality of life. The immune mechanisms involved in venom allergic subjects are barely known. Nevertheless, a shift towards a Th1-type response with an increase in IFNγ levels has been observed after venom immunotherapy (VIT). There is currently no information available about the expression of markers on CD4+ T-cells or their involvement in venom allergy, nor following VIT. For this, we have studied the expression of Th1 and Th2-cell markers, homing receptors and activation markers on CD4+ T-cells of subjects who presented systemic allergic reactions, mainly to Polistes dominulus, and after receiving a 4-month conventional VIT protocol. The markers studied were: CD26 (Th1), CD30 (Th2), CXCR4, CXCR3 (Th1), CCR4 (Th2), CD154 (CD40L), CD152 (CTLA-A), and ICOS. We also determined the IL-4 (Th2) and IFNγ (Th1) intracellular cytokine levels in T-cells and carried out a basophil activation test (BAT). Comparing venom allergic subjects with non-allergic healthy controls, we have found up-regulation of CD26, CXCR4, CXCR3, CD154 and ICOS. Conversely, a down-regulation of CD30, CD154 and CD152 occurred upon immune intervention, whereas the remaining markers were not affected. Equally, VIT has been shown to be effective, as evidenced by the decrease of basophil degranulation and increase of IFNγ levels in T-cells after the fourth month of treatment. These new findings highlight the possible application of these surface molecules as markers to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects sensitized to Hymenoptera venom, as well as revealing information about the immune changes associated with VIT.

  6. Changes of serum cytokines-related Th1/Th2/Th17 concentration in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Fu, Qin; Ren, Zhaozhou; Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Chenchen; Shen, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Wu, Lina

    2015-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is now hypothetically considered to be an autoimmune and inflammatory process in which many pro-inflammatory and T cell-derived cytokines play important roles in the loss of bone mass. For instance, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secreted by Th1 and IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 secreted by Th2 have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a characteristic cytokine secreted by Th17 cells of the CD4 + subgroup. Although IL-17 has been shown to enhance bone resorption in ovariectomized mouse model, bone cells and genetic research, human-related studies of IL-17 are few. According to WHO classification of osteoporosis by the T scores of BMD, the subjects were divided into the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (T scores≤-2.5), the postmenopausal osteopenia group (-2.5 < T scores<-1), and the postmenopausal normal BMD group (T scores≥-1); 30 subjects in each group. Cytometric bead array (CBA) technique was employed for serum determination of the primary indexes including IL-17A, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 concentrations in the 90 volunteers. In the meantime, serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were also determined in the patients. One-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) was employed in data analysis to determine whether the testing results of various parameters had significant differences. The bivariate correlation was tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. When p < 0.05, the difference was considered to have statistical significance. Serum IL-17A concentration was significantly higher in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group than in the postmenopausal osteopenia group and the postmenopausal normal BMD group, but the difference between the postmenopausal osteopenia group and the postmenopausal normal BMD group had no statistical significance. IL-17A was

  7. Dysfunction of Th1 and th2 lymphocytes and change in blood cytokine concentration at various stages of chronic intoxication with organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Zabrodskii, P F; Gromov, M S; Yafarova, I Kh

    2014-04-01

    Experiments on noninbred albino rats showed that a chronic exposure to organophosphorus compounds (carbophos and metaphos, 30 days, total dose 0.3 LD50) is primarily followed by a decrease in the immune reactions and IFN-γ associated with Th1 lymphocyte function (in comparison with the immune response due to activation of Th2 cells by IL-4). The concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 in the blood decreased after 30-day intoxication. The immune reactions associated with functional activity of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes were shown to decrease similarly after chronic treatment with organophosphorus compounds for 60 days (total dose 0.6 LD50). This exposure was accompanied by a decrease in the concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2, and IL-6, but had no effect on the level of IL-10 in the blood.

  8. Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Pomwised, Rattanaruji; Intamaso, Uraiwan; Teintze, Martin; Young, Mark; Pincus, Seth H.

    2016-01-01

    We have conjugated the S9 peptide, a mimic of the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide, to different carriers in an effort to elicit an optimal immune response. As carriers, we utilized the soluble protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and virus-like particles (VLPs) from two plant viruses, Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. We have found that coupling the peptide to the soluble protein elicits a Th2 immune response, as evidenced by the production of the peptide-specific IgG1 antibody and IL-4/IL-10 production in response to antigen stimulation, whereas the peptide conjugated to VLPs elicited a Th1 response (IgG2a, IFN-γ). Because the VLPs used as carriers package RNA during the assembly process, we hypothesize that this effect may result from the presence of nucleic acid in the immunogen, which affects the Th1/Th2 polarity of the response. PMID:27164150

  9. Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Pomwised, Rattanaruji; Intamaso, Uraiwan; Teintze, Martin; Young, Mark; Pincus, Seth H

    2016-05-05

    We have conjugated the S9 peptide, a mimic of the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide, to different carriers in an effort to elicit an optimal immune response. As carriers, we utilized the soluble protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and virus-like particles (VLPs) from two plant viruses, Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. We have found that coupling the peptide to the soluble protein elicits a Th2 immune response, as evidenced by the production of the peptide-specific IgG1 antibody and IL-4/IL-10 production in response to antigen stimulation, whereas the peptide conjugated to VLPs elicited a Th1 response (IgG2a, IFN-γ). Because the VLPs used as carriers package RNA during the assembly process, we hypothesize that this effect may result from the presence of nucleic acid in the immunogen, which affects the Th1/Th2 polarity of the response.

  10. TLR ligands of ryegrass pollen microbial contaminants enhance Th1 and Th2 responses and decrease induction of Foxp3(hi) regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Diana; Varese, Nirupama; Scholzen, Anja; Mansell, Ashley; Barker, Gillian; Rice, Gregory; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2013-03-01

    Microbial contamination of grass pollens could affect sensitization, subsequent allergic response, and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy. We investigated whether bacterial immunomodulatory substances can direct PBMC responses of allergic and nonatopic subjects against ryegrass pollen (RGP) toward Th1, Th2, or regulatory T (Treg) cells. Aqueous extracts of RGP with high or low LPS were fractionated into large and small molecular weight (MW) components by diafiltration. CFSE-labeled PBMCs from allergic and nonatopic subjects were stimulated with RGP extracts (RGPEs) and analyzed for cytokine secretion and T-cell responses. High LPS RGPE increased IFN-γ(+) Th1 and IL-4(+) Th2 effector cell induction and consistently decreased CD4(+) Foxp3(hi) Treg-cell induction. IL-10-producing T-cell frequency was unaltered, but IL-10 secretion was increased by high LPS RGPE. RGPE-stimulation of TLR-transfected cell lines revealed that high LPS pollen also contained a TLR2-ligand, and both batches a TLR9-ligand. Beta-1,3-glucans were detected in large and small MW fractions and were also T-cell stimulatory. In conclusion, coexposure to allergen and proinflammatory microbial stimuli does not convert an established Th2- into a Th1-response. Instead, proinflammatory responses are exacerbated and Foxp3(hi) Treg-cell induction is decreased. These findings show that adjuvants for specific immunotherapy should enhance Treg cells rather than target immune deviation from Th2 to Th1. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mycophenolate Mofetil Modulates Differentiation of Th1/Th2 and the Secretion of Cytokines in an Active Crohn’s Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qing-Kang; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Li, Su-Nan; Gao, Ying-Jie; Lv, Yan; Xu, Zi-Peng; Huang, Bing-Xu; Xu, Shi-Yao; Yang, Dong-Xue; Zeng, Ya-Long; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is an alternative immunosuppressive agent that has been reported to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of MMF on intestinal injury and tissue inflammation, which were caused by Crohn’s disease (CD). Here, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-relapsing (TNBS) colitis was induced in mice; then, we measured the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells in mouse splenocytes by flow cytometry and the secretion of cytokines in mice with TNBS-induced colitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR/ELISA). The results show that MMF significantly inhibited mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β in mice with TNBS-induced colitis; however, MMF did not inhibit the expression of IL-10 mRNA. Additionally, ELISA showed that the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-6, and IL-1β were down-regulated in a TNBS model of colitis. Flow cytometric analysis showed MMF markedly reduced the percentages of Th1 and Th2 splenocytes in the CD mouse model. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) also significantly decreased the percentages of splenic Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro. Furthermore, MMF treatment not only significantly ameliorated diarrhea, and loss of body weight but also abrogated the histopathologic severity and inflammatory response of inflammatory colitis, and increased the survival rate of TNBS-induced colitic mice. These results suggest that treatment with MMF may improve experimental colitis and induce inflammatory response remission of CD by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines via modulation of the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells. PMID:26561804

  12. A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide as an efficient adjuvant counterbalancing the Th1/Th2 immune response in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Toshiyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Masatoshi; Ichino, Motohide; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Minami, Mutsuhiko; Yokota, Shumpei

    2005-11-16

    Adjuvants in vaccines are immune stimulants that play an important role in the induction of effective and appropriate immune responses to vaccine component(s). Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DPT) vaccine contains not only aluminum hydrate (alum) to enhance the immune response to the vaccine ingredients, but also, both for that purpose and as a principal ingredient, pertussis toxin (PT). However, both adjuvants strongly promote T helper (Th) 2 type immune responses. Th1 and Th2 type immune responses are counterbalanced in vivo, and a Th2-prone immune response is not effective against intracellular infections but promotes IgE production, which is related to allergic disease. In this study, we used the CpG motif contained in oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN), which has an adjuvant effect and also induces the Th1 response, as an adjuvant to this vaccine, and we investigated its adjuvanticity and its potential to modulate immune responses to DPT vaccine. Administration of DPT vaccine with CpG-ODN (DPT-alum/ODN) to mice significantly reduced the total IgE levels and increased the anti-PT specific IgG2a titer in serum, in comparison with ordinary DPT vaccine (DPT-alum). Moreover, we investigated the antibody response to orally administrated ovalbumin (OVA) after vaccine administration. In the DPT-alum/ODN-administered group, the OVA specific IgE production in serum greatly decreased in comparison with that in the DPT-alum-administered group. These data indicate that CpG-ODN was not useful only as an efficient vaccine adjuvant but also shifted the immune responses substantially toward Th1 and modulated the Th1/Th2 immune response in DPT vaccine. These data suggested new applications of CpG-ODN as adjuvants in DPT vaccine.

  13. A differential interplay between the expression of Th1/Th2/Treg related cytokine genes in Teladorsagia circumcincta infected DRB1*1101 carrier lambs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Substantial debate exists on whether the immune response between sheep resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes can be differentiated into a Th1 and Th2 phenotype. The present study addresses the hypothesis that variation in resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta between DRB1*1101 (associated with reduced faecal egg count and worm burden) carriers and non-carriers is due to a differential interplay in the expression of Th1/Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) related cytokine genes. Lambs from each genotype were either slaughtered at day 0 (un-infected control) or infected with 3 × 104 Teladorsagia circumcincta L3 and slaughtered at 3, 7, 21, and 35 days later. Lambs carrying the DRB1*1101 allele had a significantly lower worm burden (P < 0.05) compared to the non-carriers. Abomasal mucosal cytokine gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and comparison made for time and genotype effects. The response generated varied through the course of infection and was affected by genotype. DRB1*1101 carriers had an up-regulated expression of the Th1-related cytokine genes (IL-1β, TNFα, and IFN-γ) at day 3, but this was replaced by an up-regulated expression of Th2-related cytokine genes (IL-10 and IL-13) and Treg-related cytokine genes (IL-2RA-CD25, TGFα, TGFβ, Arg2, MIF and FOXP3) by day 7. Conversely, in the non-carriers these changes in gene expression were delayed until days 7 and 21 post infection (pi), respectively. It is concluded that resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta in animals carrying the DRB1*1101 allele is influenced by an earlier interplay between Th1, Th2 and T regulatory immune response genes. PMID:21385411

  14. A differential interplay between the expression of Th1/Th2/Treg related cytokine genes in Teladorsagia circumcincta infected DRB1*1101 carrier lambs.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Musa; Hanrahan, James P; Good, Barbara; Mulcahy, Grace; Sweeney, Torres

    2011-03-08

    Substantial debate exists on whether the immune response between sheep resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes can be differentiated into a Th1 and Th2 phenotype. The present study addresses the hypothesis that variation in resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta between DRB1*1101 (associated with reduced faecal egg count and worm burden) carriers and non-carriers is due to a differential interplay in the expression of Th1/Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) related cytokine genes. Lambs from each genotype were either slaughtered at day 0 (un-infected control) or infected with 3 × 10(4) Teladorsagia circumcincta L3 and slaughtered at 3, 7, 21, and 35 days later. Lambs carrying the DRB1*1101 allele had a significantly lower worm burden (P < 0.05) compared to the non-carriers. Abomasal mucosal cytokine gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and comparison made for time and genotype effects. The response generated varied through the course of infection and was affected by genotype. DRB1*1101 carriers had an up-regulated expression of the Th1-related cytokine genes (IL-1β, TNFα, and IFN-γ) at day 3, but this was replaced by an up-regulated expression of Th2-related cytokine genes (IL-10 and IL-13) and Treg-related cytokine genes (IL-2RA-CD25, TGFα, TGFβ, Arg2, MIF and FOXP3) by day 7. Conversely, in the non-carriers these changes in gene expression were delayed until days 7 and 21 post infection (pi), respectively. It is concluded that resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta in animals carrying the DRB1*1101 allele is influenced by an earlier interplay between Th1, Th2 and T regulatory immune response genes.

  15. Th1, Th2 and Th17 Effector T Cell-Induced Autoimmune Gastritis Differs in Pathological Pattern and in Susceptibility to Suppression by Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stummvoll, Georg H.; DiPaolo, Richard J.; Huter, Eva N.; Davidson, Todd S.; Glass, Deborah; Ward, Jerrold M.; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2008-01-01

    Th cells can be subdivided into IFNγ-secreting Th1, IL-4/IL-5 secreting Th2, and IL-17 secreting Th17 cells. We have evaluated the capacity of fully differentiated Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells derived from a mouse bearing a transgenic TCR specific for the gastric parietal cell antigen, H/K ATPase, to induce autoimmune gastritis after transfer to immunodeficient recipients. We have also determined the susceptibility of the disease induced by each of the effector T cell types to suppression by polyclonal regulatory T cells (Treg) in vivo. Each type of effector cell induced autoimmune gastritis with distinct histological patterns. Th17 cells induced the most destructive disease with cellular infiltrates composed primarily of eosinophils accompanied by high levels of serum IgE. Polyclonal Treg could suppress the capacity of Th1 cells, moderately suppress Th2 cells, but could only suppress Th17 induced disease at early time points. The major effect of the Treg was to inhibit the expansion of the effector T cells. However, effector cells isolated from protected animals were not anergic and were fully competent to proliferate and produce effector cytokines ex vivo. The strong inhibitory effect of polyclonal Treg on the capacity of some types of differentiated effector cells to induce disease provides an experimental basis for the clinical use of polyclonal Treg in the treatment of autoimmune disease in man. PMID:18641328

  16. Th1, Th2, and Th17 effector T cell-induced autoimmune gastritis differs in pathological pattern and in susceptibility to suppression by regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Stummvoll, Georg H; DiPaolo, Richard J; Huter, Eva N; Davidson, Todd S; Glass, Deborah; Ward, Jerrold M; Shevach, Ethan M

    2008-08-01

    Th cells can be subdivided into IFN-gamma-secreting Th1, IL-4/IL-5-secreting Th2, and IL-17-secreting Th17 cells. We have evaluated the capacity of fully differentiated Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells derived from a mouse bearing a transgenic TCR specific for the gastric parietal cell antigen, H(+)K(+)-ATPase, to induce autoimmune gastritis after transfer to immunodeficient recipients. We have also determined the susceptibility of the disease induced by each of the effector T cell types to suppression by polyclonal regulatory T cells (Treg) in vivo. Each type of effector cell induced autoimmune gastritis with distinct histological patterns. Th17 cells induced the most destructive disease with cellular infiltrates composed primarily of eosinophils accompanied by high levels of serum IgE. Polyclonal Treg could suppress the capacity of Th1 cells, could moderately suppress Th2 cells, but could suppress Th17-induced disease only at early time points. The major effect of the Treg was to inhibit the expansion of the effector T cells. However, effector cells isolated from protected animals were not anergic and were fully competent to proliferate and produce effector cytokines ex vivo. The strong inhibitory effect of polyclonal Treg on the capacity of some types of differentiated effector cells to induce disease provides an experimental basis for the clinical use of polyclonal Treg in the treatment of autoimmune disease in humans.

  17. Effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Th1/Th2 cytokines and the number of spleen CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg in asthma Balb/c mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Xiang; Shang, Yunxiao; Li, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease that involves T lymphocytes. Methods: In order to explore the effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Th1/Th2 cytokines and the number of spleen CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg in asthma Balb/c mouse, we constructed acute asthma model with ovalbumin to observe the mouse behavior change in Balb/c mice. The expression of GATA-3 mRNA and T-bet mRNA was measured by real-time PCR. The proportion of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg/CD4+ was determined by flow cytometry. Results: The results demonstrated that oral gavage with Lactobacillus salivarius before sensitization could alleviate the clinical symptoms, airway hyper-reactivity and airway inflammation in asthma mouse to some extent; Lactobacillus salivarius may improve the imbalance of Th1/Th2 in asthma mouse through increasing the expression of T-bet mRNA at the transcriptional level and inhibiting the expression of GATA-3 mRNA simultaneously. Conclusion: CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, and may be the upstream regulatory mechanism of the improvement of Th1/Th2 imbalance by Lactobacillus salivarius. PMID:26339333

  18. Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Huang, Huei-Mei; Lin, Chu-Lun; Leu, Sy-Jye; Lee, Yueh-Lun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA) on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL-) 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4), MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral administration of FA reduced the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 and enhanced IgG2a antibody production in serum. It also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration in dose-dependent manners. In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN-) γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model. PMID:26495021

  19. Memory and flexibility of cytokine gene expression as separable properties of human T(H)1 and T(H)2 lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Messi, Mara; Giacchetto, Isabella; Nagata, Kinya; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Natoli, Gioacchino; Sallusto, Federica

    2003-01-01

    CD4+ T cell priming under T helper type I (T(H)1) or T(H)2 conditions gives rise to polarized cytokine gene expression. We found that in these conditions human naive T cells acquired stable histone hyperacetylation at either the Ifng or Il4 promoter. Effector memory T cells showed polarized cytokine gene acetylation patterns in vivo, whereas central memory T cells had hypoacetylated cytokine genes but acquired polarized acetylation and expression after appropriate stimulation. However, hypoacetylation of the nonexpressed cytokine gene did not lead to irreversible silencing because most T(H)1 and T(H)2 cells acetylated and expressed the alternative gene when stimulated under opposite T(H) conditions. Such cytokine flexibility was absent in a subset of T(H)2 cells that failed to up-regulate T-bet and to express interferon-gamma when stimulated under T(H)1 conditions. Thus, most human CD4+ T cells retain both memory and flexibility of cytokine gene expression.

  20. Cytokine mRNA expression in hepatitis C virus infection: TH1 predominance in patients with chronic hepatitis C and TH1-TH2 cytokine profile in subjects with self-limited disease.

    PubMed

    Gigi, E; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Kalogeridis, A; Masiou, S; Orphanou, E; Vrettou, E; Lalla, T H; Sinakos, E; Tsapas, V

    2008-02-01

    Many determinants of the immune response have been implied in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C. TH1 and TH2 cytokines play a prominent role in viral infections and a dysregulation of these cytokines could account for viral persistence and evolution of chronic disease. To explore a possible TH1 and TH2 cytokine dysregulation resulting in the inability to terminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we studied TH1 [interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2] and TH2 (IL-4, IL-10) mRNA expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to NS3 HCV antigen stimulation, in 31 untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C and 29 subjects with self-limited disease. After a 48 h culture of PBMC, total RNA isolation was performed and complementary DNA was prepared by reverse transcription. mRNA levels were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction using a standard curve formed after cloning each cytokine gene and a reference gene using recombinant DNA technology in a specific plasmid vector. In the patients group, mRNA expression of IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-4 but not IL-10 was detected, IFN-gamma being the predominant cytokine expressed. All four cytokines were expressed in subjects with self limited disease, however levels of IFN-gamma were lower and a significant higher expression of IL-10 compared to patients was found. There was a significant correlation between IFN-gamma mRNA expression levels and stage of fibrosis. Our findings show that in chronic hepatitis C, TH1 cytokines predominate and correlate to liver immunopathology. Furthermore, subjects with self-limited disease, maintain the ability to respond to HCV antigens for a long time after disease resolution.

  1. Passage from normal mucosa to adenoma and colon cancer: alteration of normal sCD30 mechanisms regulating TH1/TH2 cell functions.

    PubMed

    Contasta, Ida; Berghella, Anna Maria; Pellegrini, Patrizia; Adorno, Domenico

    2003-08-01

    The pathogenesis of cancer is currently under intensive investigation to identify reliable prognostic indices for the early detection of disease. Adenomas have been identified as precursors of colorectal cancer and tumor establishment, and disease progression has been found to reflect a malfunction of the immune system. On the basis of the role of the CD30 molecule in the regulation of TH1/TH2 functions and our previous results, strongly suggesting the validity of serum TH1/TH2 cytokines in the study of tumor progression, we studied network interaction between the production of soluble (s) CD30/sBCl2 in whole blood culture [in basic conditions and after PHA, LPS, and anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) stimulation] and levels of TH1/TH2 cytokines (IL2, IFN gamma, IL12, IL4, IL5, IL10). Peripheral blood from a group of healthy subjects, as well as from patients with adenoma and colorectal cancer was used. Our objective was to gain a better insight into the role of the CD30 molecule in the passage from normal mucosa to adenoma and tumor and identify specific disease markers. Our results suggest that the decrease in CD30 expression and the abnormal increase in Bcl2 expression, observed in the peripheral cells of both adenoma and tumor groups determine an imbalance between TH1/TH2 functions. Consequently, changes in sCD30/sBcl2 culture production and TH1/TH2 cytokine serum levels may be reliable markers for tumor progression. In fact, our overall data show that a decrease of sCD30 levels in basic and PHA conditions and an increase of IFN gamma, IL4, IL5, and IL12 serum levels and sBcl2 in all activation condition are indicative of the passage from normal mucosa to adenoma; whilst a decrease of sBcl2 level in basic, LPS and anti-CD3 conditions and of IL2, IFN gamma serum levels, together with an increase of IL5 are indicative of the passage from adenoma to tumor.

  2. Testosterone-Mediated Endocrine Function and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Balance after Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: By Sex Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shou-Qiang; Chen, Zan-Xiong; Kong, Min-Li; Xie, Yan-Qi; Zhou, Yang; Qin, Xiao-Di; Paul, Gunther; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Little information exists about the evaluation of potential developmental immunotoxicity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a synthetic persistent and increasingly ubiquitous environmental contaminant. To assess potential sex-specific impacts of PFOS on immunological health in the offspring, using male and female C57BL/6 mice, pups were evaluated for developmental immunotoxic effects after maternal oral exposure to PFOS (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg PFOS/kg/day) during Gestational Days 1–17. Spontaneous TH1/TH2-type cytokines, serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were evaluated in F1 pups at four and eight weeks of age. The study showed that male pups were more sensitive to the effects of PFOS than female pups. At eight weeks of age, an imbalance in TH1/TH2-type cytokines with excess TH2 cytokines (IL-4) was found only in male pups. As for hormone levels, PFOS treatment in utero significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels only in male pups, and a significant interaction between sex and PFOS was observed for serum testosterone at both four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0049) and eight weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0227) and for estradiol alternation at four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0351). In conclusion, testosterone-mediated endocrine function may be partially involved in the TH1/TH2 imbalance induced by PFOS, and these deficits are detectable among both young and adult mice and may affect males more than females. PMID:27626407

  3. Resting Respiratory Tract Dendritic Cells Preferentially Stimulate T Helper Cell Type 2 (Th2) Responses and Require Obligatory Cytokine Signals for Induction of  Th1 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Stumbles, Philip A.; Thomas, Jennifer A.; Pimm, Carolyn L.; Lee, Peter T.; Venaille, Thierry J.; Proksch, Stephen; Holt, Patrick G.

    1998-01-01

    Consistent with their role in host defense, mature dendritic cells (DCs) from central lymphoid organs preferentially prime for T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-polarized immunity. However, the “default” T helper response at mucosal surfaces demonstrates Th2 polarity, which is reflected in the cytokine profiles of activated T cells from mucosal lymph nodes. This study on rat respiratory tract DCs (RTDCs) provides an explanation for this paradox. We demonstrate that freshly isolated RTDCs are functionally immature as defined in vitro, being surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II lo, endocytosishi, and mixed lymphocyte reactionlo, and these cells produce mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-10. After ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsing and adoptive transfer, freshly isolated RTDCs preferentially stimulated Th2-dependent OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 responses, and antigen-stimulated splenocytes from recipient animals produced IL-4 in vitro. However, preculture with granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor increased their in vivo IgG priming capacity by 2–3 logs, inducing production of both Th1- and Th2-dependent IgG subclasses and high levels of IFN-γ by antigen-stimulated splenocytes. Associated phenotypic changes included upregulation of surface MHC II and B7 expression and IL-12 p35 mRNA, and downregulation of endocytosis, MHC II processing– associated genes, and IL-10 mRNA expression. Full expression of IL-12 p40 required additional signals, such as tumor necrosis factor α or CD40 ligand. These results suggest that the observed Th2 polarity of the resting mucosal immune system may be an inherent property of the resident DC population, and furthermore that mobilization of Th1 immunity relies absolutely on the provision of appropriate microenvironmental costimuli. PMID:9841916

  4. Amelioration of skewed Th1/Th2 balance in tumor-bearing and asthma-induced mice by oral administration of Agaricus blazei extracts.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Hiroaki; Kato, Hanano; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kumazawa, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    We showed in a previous study that hot-water extracts of Agaricus blazei (Agaricus extracts) had anti-tumor activity to Meth A fibrosarcoma, but it remains unclear whether the Agaricus extracts ameliorate the skewed balance of type-1 T helper (Th1) and type-2 T helper (Th2) cells. We examined whether Agaricus extracts effect the skewed Th1/Th2 balance in tumor-bearing and asthma-induced mice. When Meth A-bearing mice were given orally either Agaricus extracts or water once a day starting 5 days after tumor implantation, spleen T cells, prepared from tumor-bearing mice treated with Agaricus extracts, in response to anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody produced significantly higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) than that of controls. The mRNA expression of IFN-gamma-inducing protein 10 and the frequency of CD69(+) or CD49d(+) cells, among activated T cells infiltrated into tumors, significantly increased in Agaricus-treated mice, compared with those of tumor-controls. In asthma-induced mice, treatment with the Agaricus extracts caused significant downregulation of OVA-specific antibody responses of IgG1 and IgE but not of IgG2a, and significantly decreased total cell numbers, levels of interleukin 5, and eosinophil numbers in bronchial alveolar lavage fluids. IFN-gamma production by anti-CD3-stimulated spleen cells, obtained from Agaricus-treated mice, significantly increased. Our results strongly suggest that oral administration of Agaricus extracts ameliorates the Th1/Th2 balance from the Th2-skewed conditions.

  5. Ribavirin exerts differential effects on functions of Cd4+ Th1, Th2, and regulatory T cell clones in hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Bettina; Nischalke, Hans Dieter; Arndt, Simone; Braunschweiger, Ingrid; Nattermann, Jacob; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Spengler, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Ribavirin improves outcomes of therapy in chronic hepatitis C but its mode of action has still remained unclear. Since ribavirin has been proposed to modulate the host's T cell responses, we studied its direct effects on CD4(+) T cell clones with diverse functional polarization which had been generated from patients with chronic hepatitis C. We analysed in vitro proliferation ([(3)H] thymidine uptake) and cytokine responses (IL-10, IFN-gamma) at varying concentrations of ribavirin (0-10 µg/ml) in 8, 9 and 7 CD4(+) TH1, TH2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) clones, respectively. In co-culture experiments, we further determined effects of ribarivin on inhibition of TH1 and TH2 effector cells by Treg clones. All clones had been generated from peripheral blood of patients with chronic hepatitis C in the presence of HCV core protein. Ribavirin enhanced proliferation of T effector cells and increased production of IFN-gamma in TH1 clones, but had only little effect on IL-10 secretion in TH2 clones. However, ribavirin markedly inhibited IL-10 release in Treg clones in a dose dependent fashion. These Treg clones suppressed proliferation of T effector clones by their IL-10 secretion, and in co-culture assays ribavirin reversed Treg-mediated suppression of T effector cells. Our in vitro data suggest that--in addition to its immunostimulatory effects on TH1 cells--ribavirin can inhibit functions of HCV-specific Tregs and thus reverses Treg-mediated suppression of T effector cells in chronic hepatitis C.

  6. Improvement in Th1/Th2 immune homeostasis, antioxidative status and resistance to pathogenic E. coli on consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermented milk in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rohit; Kapila, Rajeev; Dass, Gulshan; Kapila, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Imbalance in Th1/Th2 immune pathways and cellular antioxidant systems with progressive aging are among the leading causes of increased risk of morbidity and mortality in elderly. Although probiotics have been considered to boost immune system, there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of probiotic effects on aging physiology. The present study aimed at determining anti-immunosenescence potential of milk fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) in 16 months old mice by concurrent analysis of immunosenescence markers associated with Th1/Th2 profile of splenocytes, inflamm-aging in plasma, neutrophil functions and antibody response in intestine along with analysis of antioxidant enzymes in liver and red blood cells (RBCs) after feeding trials of 1 and 2 months, respectively. An enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (ATCC 14948)-based infection model in aging mice was also designed to validate protective attributes of LR. Splenocytes registered increased IFN-γ and decreased IL-4 and IL-10 production in LR-fed animals. Neutrophil respiratory burst enzymes and phagocytosis increased significantly while no aggravation in plasma levels of MCP-1 and TNF-α was observed. Further, owing to increased Th1 response, antibodies registered a decrease in IgG1/IgG2a ratio and IgE levels in LR groups. No significant variations were observed in secretory IgA and IgA + cells in the intestine. Antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) in LR-fed groups recorded increased activities which were more pronounced in the liver than in RBCs. LR supplementation significantly reduced E. coli translocation to organs (intestine, liver, spleen, peritoneal fluid) by enhancing E. coli-specific antibodies (IgA and IgG1) and inflammatory proteins. In conclusion, LR supplementation alleviated immunosenescence-associated Th1/Th2 imbalance, improved antioxidant capacity, and enhanced resistance of aged mice to E. coli infection thereby signifying its potential

  7. The Effect of Zataria multiflora on Th1/Th2 and Th17/T Regulatory in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Majid; Haghmorad, Dariush; Nosratabadi, Reza; Rezaei, Abdolrahim; Alavinezhad, Azam; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with no definite treatment and more research is needed to overcome this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the extract of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) as a medicinal plant on cytokine genes expression in an experimental mouse model of asthma. Adult mice were randomly divided into the following groups: control (C), untreated asthma (A), asthmatic groups treated with dexamethasone (D) and Z. multiflora extract (200, 400, and 800 μg/mL; Z1, Z2, and Z3, respectively), (for groups C, A, and D n = 5 and for groups Z1, Z2, and Z3 n = 6). For induction of the mouse model of asthma, animals were sensitized with intraperitoneal injection and inhalation of ovalbumin (OVA). The number of T helper (Th) subtype cells (using flow cytometry) and the levels of IFN-γ, FOXP3, IL-4, TGF-β, IL-17 gene expression (by real time PCR) were assessed in mice splenocytes. The observed changes in spleen cells of group A compared to group C were increased number of Th2 and Th17 cells, enhancement of gene expression of IL-4, IL-17, and TGF-β (p < 0.001 for all cases), reduction of Th1 cells and Th1/Th2 ratio (p < 0.001 for both cases) and decrease in gene expression of IFN-γ, FOXP3 and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (p < 0.01 for IFN-γ and p < 0.001 for other cases). The observed changes in spleen cells of treated compared to untreated A group were enhancement of Treg cells and Th1/Th2 ratio (p < 0.001 for both cases), increase in IFN-γ (p < 0.05) and FOXP3 (p < 0.001) gene expression and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (p < 0.01) as well as reduction of Th2 and Th17 cells (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001), decrease gene expression of IL-4, IL-17, and TGF-β (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The findings showed that the extract of Z. multiflora decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines in asthma (IL-4 and IL-17 and TGF-β) but increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ) gene expression and the number of Treg (FOXP3) in splenocytes of asthmatic mice which may

  8. T-bet, GATA-3 and Foxp3 expression and Th1/Th2 cytokine production in the clinical outcome of human infection with Leishmania Viannia species

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Yira Rosalba; Rojas, Ricardo; Valderrama, Liliana; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2010-01-01

    Background T cell differentiation determines susceptibility and resistance to experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis, yet mixed T1/Th2 responses characterize the clinical spectrum of human infection with Leishmania Viannia species. Materials and Methods To discern the inter-relationship of T cell differentiation and outcome of human infection, we examined factors that regulate T cell differentiation and Th1/Th2 cytokine responses in asymptomatic infection, active and historical chronic and recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis. T-bet, GATA-3, Foxp3 and cytokine gene expression were quantified by real time PCR, and correlated with IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-13, IL-10 secretion during in vitro response to live L. panamensis. Results Higher GATA-3 than T-bet expression occurred throughout the 15 days of co-culture with promastigotes, however neither transcription nor secretion of IL-4 was detected. Sustained, inverse correlation between GATA-3 expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α was observed in asymptomatic infection. In contrast, higher T-bet expression and T-bet:GATA-3 ratio characterized active recurrent disease. Down-regulation of T-bet and GATA-3 expression and increased IL-2 secretion compared to control was directly correlated with Foxp3 expression and IL-13 secretion in chronic disease. Conclusions Regulation of the inflammatory response rather than biased Th1/Th2 response distinguished asymptomatic and recalcitrant outcomes of infection with Leishmnania Viannia species. PMID:20583921

  9. Role of NF-κB activation and Th1/Th2 imbalance in pulmonary toxicity induced by nano NiO.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xuhong; Zhu, An; Liu, Fangfang; Zou, Lingyue; Su, Li; Li, Sheng; Sun, Yingbiao

    2017-04-01

    With the progress of nanotechnology, nano nickel oxide (NiO) has been extensively used as sensors, battery electrodes, catalysts, and cosmetics. Previous researches verified that nano NiO could exert pulmonary toxicity, but its mechanism was unclear. To shed light upon this, the role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and Th1/Th2 imbalance were to explore in pulmonary damage induced by nano NiO. Male Wistar rats were randomized into control group, nano NiO groups (0.015, 0.06, and 0.24 mg kg(-1) ) and micro NiO group (0.024 mg kg(-1) ) and treated by intratracheal instillation twice a week for 6 weeks. The results showed that the abnormal changes induced by nano NiO were found on indicators of nitrative stress (NO, TNOS, and iNOS), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-10) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINC-1, CINC-2αβ, and CINC-3) in lung tissue. In addition, nano NiO instillation induced the upregulated mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB, inhibitor of κB kinase-α (IKK-α) and nuclear factor-inducing kinase (NIK). The protein content of GATA-3 increased as well as T-bet decreased in nano NiO groups, and the ratio of T-bet/GATA-3, as a key evaluation indicator of Th1/Th2 balance, was lower than the control group. The findings indicated that nano NiO could enhance the nitrative stress and inflammatory response in lung tissue, and its mechanism was related to the NF-κB activation and Th1/Th2 imbalance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1354-1362, 2017.

  10. Matrix MTM adjuvanted virosomal H5N1 vaccine induces balanced Th1/Th2 CD4+ T cell responses in man

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Gabriel K; Sjursen, Haakon; Nøstbakken, Jane K; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Hoschler, Katja; Cox, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    T cellular responses play a significant role in mediating protective immune responses against influenza in humans. In the current study, we evaluated the ability of a candidate virosomal H5N1 vaccine adjuvanted with Matrix MTM to induce CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in a phase 1 clinical trial. We vaccinated 60 healthy adult volunteers (at days 0 and 21) with 30 μg haemagglutinin (HA) alone or 1.5, 7.5, or 30 μg HA formulated with Matrix MTM. To evaluate the T cellular responses, lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with homologous (A/Vietnam/1194/2004 [H5N1]) and heterologous H5N1 (A/Anhui/1/05 or A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1A/05) antigens. The antigen-specific cytokine responses were measured by intracellular cytokine staining and by multiplex (Luminex) assays. An increase in CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cytokines was detected 21 days after the first vaccine dose. No increase in Th cytokine responses was observed after the second dose, although it is possible that the cytokine levels peaked earlier than sampling point at day 42. Formulation with the Matrix MTM adjuvant augmented both the homologous and cross-reactive cytokine response. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were detected only in a few vaccinated individuals. The concentrations of Th1 and to a lesser extent, Th2 cytokines at 21 days post-vaccination correlated moderately with subsequent days 35 and 180 serological responses as measured by the microneutralisation, haemagglutination inhibition, and single radial hemolysis assays. Results presented here show that the virosomal H5N1 vaccine induced balanced Th1/Th2 cytokine responses and that Matrix MTM is a promising adjuvant for future development of candidate pandemic influenza vaccines. PMID:25424948

  11. Dietary intake of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HNOO1 enhances production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in antigen-primed mice.

    PubMed

    Cross, Martin L; Mortensen, Rikke R; Kudsk, Jane; Gill, Harsharnjit S

    2002-05-01

    Probiotic lactobacilli have been proposed as a potential oral bacteriotherapeutic means of modulating immune phenotype expression in vivo, via their ability to promote cytokine production. This study investigated the ability of a known interferon (IFN)gamma-promoting probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HNOOI) to modulate cytokine production in mice expressing an on-going Th2-type immune response. BALB/c mice were primed to ovalbumin in alum adjuvant to invoke antigen-specific Th2 cytokine-secreting cell populations. Mice that were fed Lb. rhamnosus HN001 during antigen sensitization produced higher levels of lymphocyte-derived IFNgamma, but also interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5, in comparison to control animals. Although HN001 was additionally shown to induce pro-IFNgamma monokine (IL-12, IL-18) secretion in macrophages in vitro, its ability to invoke mixed lymphocyte cytokine production during an on-going Th2-type immune response in vivo suggests that this probiotic is a general immunostimulatory agent, in contrast to the pro-Th1/anti-Th2 immunoregulation reported for some strains of IFNgamma-promoting lactobacilli.

  12. Relationship between NADPH and Th1/Th2 ratio in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who have been exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Zahzeh, Meriem Rabia; Loukidi, Bouchra; Meziane, Warda; Haddouche, Mustapha; Mesli, Naima; Zouaoui, Zahia; Aribi, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pesticides on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH), including its level and relationship with the T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 ratio, in patients suffering from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was investigated. One hundred newly diagnosed patients with aggressive NHL (53 men, 47 women) and 40 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls (23 men, 17 women), exposed or not to pesticides, were recruited for a cross-sectional study conducted at the Clinical Hematology Departments of Tlemcen and Sidi Bel-Abbès University Medical Centers in the northwest of Algeria. NADPH levels were significantly increased in patients compared with controls; and in exposed patients compared with those not exposed, and controls (one-way analysis of variance; P=0.000). Albumin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity levels were significantly decreased in patients compared with in the control group. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity levels were significantly decreased in exposed patients compared with in unexposed patients; however, malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in exposed patients when compared with controls and unexposed patients. Protein carbonyl and xanthine oxidase levels were significantly increased in exposed patients compared with controls; meanwhile, there were no significant differences between the two patient groups or between unexposed patients and controls. The Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly decreased in patients when compared with controls; the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly increased (for both comparisons, P<0.001). In addition, NADPH was strongly associated with NHL (Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio estimate =5.55; 95% confidence interval, 2.22-13.88; P=0.000). Moreover, NADPH levels were significantly negatively related to the Th1/Th2 ratio, either in exposed patients or in unexposed patients (respectively, r=-0.498 [P=0.004] and

  13. Relationship between NADPH and Th1/Th2 ratio in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who have been exposed to pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Zahzeh, Meriem Rabia; Loukidi, Bouchra; Meziane, Warda; Haddouche, Mustapha; Mesli, Naima; Zouaoui, Zahia; Aribi, Mourad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pesticides on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH), including its level and relationship with the T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 ratio, in patients suffering from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was investigated. One hundred newly diagnosed patients with aggressive NHL (53 men, 47 women) and 40 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls (23 men, 17 women), exposed or not to pesticides, were recruited for a cross-sectional study conducted at the Clinical Hematology Departments of Tlemcen and Sidi Bel-Abbès University Medical Centers in the northwest of Algeria. NADPH levels were significantly increased in patients compared with controls; and in exposed patients compared with those not exposed, and controls (one-way analysis of variance; P=0.000). Albumin, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase activity, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity levels were significantly decreased in patients compared with in the control group. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity levels were significantly decreased in exposed patients compared with in unexposed patients; however, malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased in exposed patients when compared with controls and unexposed patients. Protein carbonyl and xanthine oxidase levels were significantly increased in exposed patients compared with controls; meanwhile, there were no significant differences between the two patient groups or between unexposed patients and controls. The Th1/Th2 ratio was significantly decreased in patients when compared with controls; the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly increased (for both comparisons, P<0.001). In addition, NADPH was strongly associated with NHL (Mantel–Haenszel common odds ratio estimate =5.55; 95% confidence interval, 2.22–13.88; P=0.000). Moreover, NADPH levels were significantly negatively related to the Th1/Th2 ratio, either in exposed patients or in unexposed patients (respectively, r=−0.498 [P=0

  14. Role of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and cytokines produced by these cells in suppression of immune reactions during subacute poisoning with anticholinesterase toxicants.

    PubMed

    Zabrodskii, P F; Germanchuk, V G; Mandych, V G; Kadushkin, A M

    2007-07-01

    Experiments on Wistar rats showed that subacute poisoning with anticholinesterase toxicants zarin and agent VX (daily subcutaneous injections in 1/7 LD50 for 6 days) led to suppression of cellular and humoral immune reactions and to a decrease in blood concentrations of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma) with a reduction of the IFN-gamma/IL-4 and IL-2/IL-4 ratios, which attests to more pronounced decrease in Th1 lymphocyte function in comparison with Th2 cells.

  15. B cells are required for the switch from Th1- to Th2-regulated immune responses to Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, A W; Phillips, R S

    1994-06-01

    The induction of T-helper cell subsets during the course of blood stage Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infection was compared in immunologically intact NIH mice and mice that were depleted of B cells from birth by treatment with anti-mu antibodies. For intact mice, in which the acute primary parasitemia peaked 10 days following infection, purified splenic CD4+ T cells recovered during the ascending parasitemia produced high levels in vitro of interleukin 2 (IL-2) (peak levels on day 10) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) (peak levels on day 7). Sera collected from these mice at around this time contained relatively high levels of P. c. chabaudi-specific immunoglobulin 2a (peak levels on day 12), and serum nitric oxide activity was significantly elevated at peak parasitemia. During the descending primary parasitemia, production of IFN-gamma and IL-2 decreased, while levels of IL-4 and IL-10 produced by splenic CD4+ T cells were significantly raised from the time at which subpatency was recorded (day 17) and persisted for at least 50 days. This was concomitant with a significant increase in levels of parasite-specific immunoglobulin G1, which peaked at around the time of recrudescence. Thus, in normal mice, sequential appearance of Th1 and Th2 responses was observed. In contrast, in B-cell-depleted mice, recovery from acute primary parasitemia was followed by a persistent patent infection which did not drop below 0.1% for at least 75 days after initiation of infection. These mice were unable to mount a significant Th2 response, manifest as an enduring inability of splenic CD4+ T cells to produce significant levels of IL-4 and IL-10. IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels remained significantly elevated throughout the 50-day observation period, and there was sustained production of nitric oxide. These data show that immune responses mediated by CD4+ T cells of the Th1 subset are capable of limiting infection beyond the initial acute phase, but that they do not eliminate parasitemia

  16. Fasciola hepatica reinfection potentiates a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg response and correlates with the clinical phenotypes of anemia.

    PubMed

    Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Chillón-Marinas, Carlos; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Quesada, Carla; Reguera-Gomez, Marta; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Fresno, Manuel; Gironès, Núria

    2017-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a severe zoonotic disease of worldwide extension caused by liver flukes. In human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas, reinfection and chronicity are the norm and anemia is the main sign. Herein, the profile of the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg expression levels is analyzed after reinfection, correlating them with their corresponding hematological biomarkers of morbidity. The experimental design reproduces the usual reinfection/chronicity conditions in human fascioliasis endemic areas and included Fasciola hepatica primo-infected Wistar rats (PI) and rats reinfected at 8 weeks (R8), and at 12 weeks (R12), and negative control rats. In a cross-sectional study, the expression of the genes associated with Th1 (Ifng, Il12a, Il12b, Nos2), Th2 (Il4, Arg1), Treg (Foxp3, Il10, Tgfb, Ebi3), and Th17 (Il17) in the spleen and thymus was analyzed. After 20 weeks of primary infection, PI did not present significant changes in the expression of those genes when compared to non-infected rats (NI), but an increase of Il4, Arg1 and Ifng mRNA in the spleen was observed in R12, suggesting the existence of an active mixed Th1/Th2 systemic immune response in reinfection. Foxp3, Il10, Tgfb and Ebi3 levels increased in the spleen in R12 when compared to NI and PI, indicating that the Treg gene expression levels are potentiated in chronic phase reinfection. Il17 gene expression levels in R12 in the spleen increased when compared to NI, PI and R8. Gene expression levels of Il10 in the thymus increased when compared to NI and PI in R12. Ifng expression levels in the thymus increased in all reinfected rats, but not in PI. The clinical phenotype was determined by the fluke burden, the rat body weight and the hemogram. Multivariate mathematical models were built to describe the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg expression levels and the clinical phenotype. In reinfection, two phenotypic patterns were detected: i) one which includes only increased splenic Ifng expression levels but no Treg expression

  17. Fasciola hepatica reinfection potentiates a mixed Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg response and correlates with the clinical phenotypes of anemia

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Chillón-Marinas, Carlos; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Quesada, Carla; Reguera-Gomez, Marta; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Fresno, Manuel; Gironès, Núria

    2017-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is a severe zoonotic disease of worldwide extension caused by liver flukes. In human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas, reinfection and chronicity are the norm and anemia is the main sign. Herein, the profile of the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg expression levels is analyzed after reinfection, correlating them with their corresponding hematological biomarkers of morbidity. Methodology/Principal findings The experimental design reproduces the usual reinfection/chronicity conditions in human fascioliasis endemic areas and included Fasciola hepatica primo-infected Wistar rats (PI) and rats reinfected at 8 weeks (R8), and at 12 weeks (R12), and negative control rats. In a cross-sectional study, the expression of the genes associated with Th1 (Ifng, Il12a, Il12b, Nos2), Th2 (Il4, Arg1), Treg (Foxp3, Il10, Tgfb, Ebi3), and Th17 (Il17) in the spleen and thymus was analyzed. After 20 weeks of primary infection, PI did not present significant changes in the expression of those genes when compared to non-infected rats (NI), but an increase of Il4, Arg1 and Ifng mRNA in the spleen was observed in R12, suggesting the existence of an active mixed Th1/Th2 systemic immune response in reinfection. Foxp3, Il10, Tgfb and Ebi3 levels increased in the spleen in R12 when compared to NI and PI, indicating that the Treg gene expression levels are potentiated in chronic phase reinfection. Il17 gene expression levels in R12 in the spleen increased when compared to NI, PI and R8. Gene expression levels of Il10 in the thymus increased when compared to NI and PI in R12. Ifng expression levels in the thymus increased in all reinfected rats, but not in PI. The clinical phenotype was determined by the fluke burden, the rat body weight and the hemogram. Multivariate mathematical models were built to describe the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg expression levels and the clinical phenotype. In reinfection, two phenotypic patterns were detected: i) one which includes only increased splenic Ifng

  18. [Effect of immunostimulatory DNA sequence on the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines induced by Dermatophagoides farinae allergen in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Yao, H P; Wen, T H; Sun, C R

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the immunoregulatory effect of immunostimulatory DNA sequence (ISS) on the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines induced by mite allergen in PBMC of the patients with mite allergic asthma in vitro. PBMC from the patients with allergic asthma and normal controls were isolated and cultured in vitro stimulated by ISS and Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Df). IL-12, IFN-gamma and IL-5 in the cell supernatants were detected by ELISA. Df specific IgE in sera of patients were assayed by fluorescent enzyme immunoassay. PBMC from both the patients and normal controls stimulated by ISS plus Df produced a significant increase in the level of both IFN-gamma and IL-12 compared with non-ISS and Df stimulations, whereas IL-5 was decreased. Moreover, the levels of IFN-gamma, IL-12 produced were significantly higher in normal controls than in the patients, on the contrary, IL-5 was down regulated. It was also shown that the level of IL-12 produced by PBMC of the patients with ISS plus Df stimulation correlated positively with that of IFN-gamma. ISS not only promotes the expressions of Th1 cytokines but also downregulates the production of Th2 cytokines induced by Df in both allergic and non-allergic individuals, indicating its potential application in the immunotherapy of mite allergy.

  19. Proliferation and TH1/TH2 cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after treatment with cypermethrin and mancozeb in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mandarapu, Rajesh; Ajumeera, Rajanna; Venkatesan, Vijayalakshmi; Prakhya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    In recent times, human cell-based assays are gaining attention in assessments of immunomodulatory effects of chemicals. In the study here, the possible effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on lymphocyte proliferation and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) α) and immunoregulatory cytokine (interferon- (IFN-) γ, interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 6, and 10) formation in vitro were investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and exposed for 6 hr to noncytotoxic doses (0.45-30 µM) of cypermethrin or mancozeb in the presence of activating rat S9 fraction. Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µg/mL) to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method) and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays). Mancozeb induced dose-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of production of TNFα and the TH2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, and an increase in IFNγ (TH1 cytokine) production (at least 2-fold compared to control); mancozeb also induced inhibition of IL-4 (TH2) and stimulated IL-2 (TH1) production, albeit only in dose-related manners for each. In contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant effects on proliferation or cytokine profiles. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of our in vitro findings.

  20. The Anti-Allergic Rhinitis Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shenqi by Regulating Mast Cell Degranulation and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Hu, Min; Li, Jin-Ze; Chen, Cheng-Juan; Wang, Yong-Jiang; Shi, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Tian-Tai

    2017-03-22

    Shenqi is a traditional Chinese polyherbal medicine has been widely used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic rhinitis activity of Shenqi and explore its underlying molecular mechanism. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis rat model was used to evaluate the anti-allergic rhinitis effect of Shenqi. The effect of Shenqi on IgE-mediated degranulation was measured using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Primary spleen lymphocytes were isolated to investigate the anti-allergic mechanism of Shenqi by detecting the expression of transcription factors via Western blot and the level of cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) via ELISA. In OVA-induced AR rat models, Shenqi relieved the allergic rhinitis symptoms, inhibited the histopathological changes of nasal mucosa, and reduced the levels of IL-4 and IgE. The results from the in vitro study certified that Shenqi inhibited mast cell degranulation. Furthermore, the results of GATA3, T-bet, p-STAT6, and SOCS1 expression and production of IFN-γ and IL-4 demonstrated that Shenqi balanced the ratio of Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4) in OVA-stimulated spleen lymphocytes. In conclusion, these results suggest that Shenqi exhibits an obvious anti-allergic effect by suppressing the mast cell-mediated allergic response and by improving the imbalance of Th1/Th2 ratio in allergic rhinitis.

  1. A novel lectin from Artocarpus lingnanensis induces proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through CD45 signaling pathway in human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bo; Li, Lu; Zeng, Qiyan; Lin, Faquan; Yin, Lijun; Liao, Liejun; Huang, Min; Wang, Jingping

    2017-04-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins and have been used for purification and characterization of glycoproteins. In this study, a novel 58.9-kDa tetrameric lectin from Artocarpus lingnanensis seeds was purified, characterized, and its mitogenic potential was evaluated. The hemagglutination inhibition assay indicated that Artocarpus lingnanensis lectin (ALL) showed specificity toward galactose. ALL was effectively purified in a single-step using affinity chromatography on a galactose-Sepharose column. ALL showed pH optima between 5.0 and 9.0, and optimal temperature between 20 and 40 °C. ALL triggered proliferation and activation of human T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4(+) T lymphocytes). Flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed binding of ALL to T cells and colocalized with CD45. Affinity chromatography and Western blot suggested that CD45 isolated from human T cell membrane fraction may be the major receptor of ALL. CD45 blocking antibody attenuated the binding and proliferation of T cells induced by ALL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin reduced ALL-induced T cells proliferation and expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. Furthermore, secretion of ALL-induced Th1/Th2 cytokines was blocked with dephostatin. Also, dephostatin inhibited phosphorylation of ALL-mediated activation of ERK and p38MAPK. This study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in ALL-induced T lymphocyte proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38 and ERK.

  2. Different Expression Patterns of Plasma Th1-, Th2-, Th17-, and Th22-Related Cytokines Correlate with Serum Autoreactivity and Allergen Sensitivity in Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiquan; Zhong, Hua; Chen, WenChieh; Zhai, Zhifang; Zhou, Zhou; Song, Zhiqiang; Hao, Fei

    2017-08-28

    Clinical features and basophil activation levels correlate with serum autoreactivity and allergen sensitivity in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). To explore the relationship of the expression patterns of plasma T-helper cell (Th) 1, Th2, Th17, and Th22-related cytokines with the serum autoreactivity and the allergen sensitivity in CSU. Twenty related cytokines were measured and analysed in 60 CSU patients, 15 acute urticaria patients, 10 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and 15 healthy persons, respectively. Autologous serum skin testing (ASST) and skin prick testing (SPT) were performed to detect autoreactivity and allergy sensitivity, respectively. The protein-protein interaction of cytokines and the molecular pathways were analysed by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and KyotoEncyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database), respectively. Th1/Th2 and Th17 related cytokines were significantly elevated and correlated with disease activity in CSU than in healthy controls. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-13 were significantly higher in acute urticaria than in CSU patients. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-10 and IL-17 were significantly higher in ASST + than in ASST- CSU patients. IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12p70, and IL-21 were significantly higher in SPT + than in SPT- CSU patients. The plasma levels of interferon-γ, IL-2, and IL-21 varied among ASST+/SPT+, ASST+/SPT-, ASST-/SPT+, and ASST-/SPT- CSU subgroups, which appeared to involve the positive regulation of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak-STAT) signaling pathway. This study indicates acute urticaria elicits a more prominent Th2 immune response than CSU. There was association between different expression patterns of plasma Th1-, Th2-, Th17-, and Th22-related cytokines and serum autoreactivity or allergen sensitivity in CSU. Further studies on the JAK-STAT pathway in the pathogenesis of CSU is

  3. Early pediatric atopic dermatitis shows only a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)(+) TH2/TH1 cell imbalance, whereas adults acquire CLA(+) TH22/TC22 cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Czarnowicki, Tali; Esaki, Hitokazu; Gonzalez, Juana; Malajian, Dana; Shemer, Avner; Noda, Shinji; Talasila, Sreya; Berry, Adam; Gray, Jayla; Becker, Lauren; Estrada, Yeriel; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Xiuzhong; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Krueger, James G; Paller, Amy S; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2015-10-01

    Identifying differences and similarities between cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)(+) polarized T-cell subsets in children versus adults with atopic dermatitis (AD) is critical for directing new treatments toward children. We sought to compare activation markers and frequencies of skin-homing (CLA(+)) versus systemic (CLA(-)) "polar" CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets in patients with early pediatric AD, adults with AD, and control subjects. Flow cytometry was used to measure CD69/inducible costimulator/HLA-DR frequency in memory cell subsets, as well as IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 cytokines, defining TH1/cytotoxic T (TC) 1, TH2/TC2, TH9/TC9, TH17/TC17, and TH22/TC22 populations in CD4 and CD8 cells, respectively. We compared peripheral blood from 19 children less than 5 years old and 42 adults with well-characterized moderate-to-severe AD, as well as age-matched control subjects (17 children and 25 adults). Selective inducible costimulator activation (P < .001) was seen in children. CLA(+) TH2 T cells were markedly expanded in both children and adults with AD compared with those in control subjects, but decreases in CLA(+) TH1 T-cell numbers were greater in children with AD (17% vs 7.4%, P = .007). Unlike in adults, no imbalances were detected in CLA(-) T cells from pediatric patients with AD nor were there altered frequencies of TH22 T cells within the CLA(+) or CLA(-) compartments. Adults with AD had increased frequencies of IL-22-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells within the skin-homing population, compared with controls (9.5% vs 4.5% and 8.6% vs 2.4%, respectively; P < .001), as well as increased HLA-DR activation (P < .01). These data suggest that TH2 activation within skin-homing T cells might drive AD in children and that reduced counterregulation by TH1 T cells might contribute to excess TH2 activation. TH22 "spreading" of AD is not seen in young children and might be influenced by immune development, disease chronicity, or recurrent skin infections

  4. Expression of MIF and TNFA in psoriatic arthritis: relationship with Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profiles and clinical variables.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Herrera, L A; De la Cruz-Mosso, U; Morales-Zambrano, R; Villanueva-Quintero, G D; Hernández-Bello, J; Ramírez-Dueñas, M G; Martínez-López, E; Brennan-Bourdon, L M; Baños-Hernández, C J; Muñoz-Valle, J F

    2017-09-30

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease associated with psoriasis. The cause of this pathology is still unknown, but research suggests the diseases are caused by a deregulated cytokine production. MIF is a cytokine associated with immunomodulation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokine profiles in inflammatory diseases. Based on this knowledge, the aim of this study was to determine the association of MIF and TNFA expression with Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokine profiles in serum levels of PsA patients. A cross-sectional study was performed in 50 PsA patients and 30 control subjects (CS). The cytokine profiles were quantified by BioPlex MagPix system and the mRNA expression levels by real-time PCR. TNFA mRNA expression was 138.81-folds higher in PsA patients than CS (p < 0.001). Regarding MIF mRNA expression, no significant differences were observed; however, a positive correlation was identified between MIF mRNA expression and PsA time of evolution (r = - 0.53, p = 0.009). An increase of Th1 (IFNγ: PsA = 37.1 pg/mL vs. CS = 17 pg/mL, p < 0.05; TNFα: PsA = 24.6 pg/mL vs. CS = 9.8 pg/mL, p < 0.0001) and Th17 cytokine profiles (IL-17: PsA = 6.4 pg/mL vs. CS = 2.7 pg/mL, p < 0.05; IL-22: PsA = 8.4 pg/mL vs. CS = 1.8 pg/mL, p < 0.001), were found in PsA patients. Th2 cytokines were not significantly different in both groups. In conclusion, a high expression of TNFA mRNA, as well as an increase of Th1 and Th17 cytokine profiles evaluated by IFNγ, TNFα, IL-17, and IL-22 cytokines, was observed in PsA patients.

  5. Trichinella spiralis antigens prime mixed Th1/Th2 response but do not induce de novo generation of Foxp3+ T cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    ILIC, N; WORTHINGTON, J J; GRUDEN-MOVSESIJAN, A; TRAVIS, M A; SOFRONIC-MILOSAVLJEVIC, L; GRENCIS, R K

    2011-01-01

    Summary Many parasitic helminth infections induce Th2-type immune responses and engage the regulatory network. In this study, we specifically investigated the influence of antigens derived from different life stages of the helminth Trichinella spiralis on the polarization of naive CD4+ T cells by dendritic cells. Results obtained from C57BL/6 mice showed that T. spiralis derived antigens have the capacity to induce bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to acquire an incompletely mature phenotype that promotes a significant proliferation of naive CD4+ T cells and a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine profile with the predominance of Th2 cytokines. Increased production of IL-4, IL-9, IL-10 and IL-13 accompanied increased IFN-γ. Furthermore, dendritic cells pulsed with T. spiralis antigens did not induce an increase in the population of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells. Although other helminth antigens have demonstrated the capacity to induce de novo generation of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells, here our in vitro studies provide no evidence that T. spiralis antigens have this capacity. PMID:21793858

  6. Gr1+ IL-4 producing innate cells are induced in response to Th2 stimuli and suppress Th1-dependent antibody responses.¶

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Amy; MacLeod, Megan; White, Janice; Crawford, Frances; Kappler, John; Marrack, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    Alum is used as a vaccine adjuvant and induces Th2 responses and Th2-driven antibody isotype production against co-injected antigens. Alum also promotes the appearance in the spleen of Gr1+, IL-4+ innate cells that, via IL-4 production, induce MHC II mediated signaling in B cells. To investigate whether these Gr1+ cells accumulate in the spleen in response to other Th2 inducing stimuli and to understand some of their functions, the effects of injection of alum and eggs from the helminth, Schistosoma mansoni, were compared. Like alum, schistosome eggs induced the appearance of Gr1+IL-4+ cells in spleen and promoted MHC II-mediated signaling in B cells. Unlike alum, however, schistosome eggs did not promote CD4 T cell responses against co-injected antigens, suggesting that the effects of alum or schistosome eggs on splenic B cells cannot by themselves explain the T cell adjuvant properties of alum. Accordingly, depletion of IL-4 or Gr1+ cells in alum injected mice had no effect on the ability of alum to improve expansion of primary CD4 T cells. However, Gr1+ cells and IL-4 played some role in the effects of alum, since depletion of either resulted in antibody responses to antigen that included not only the normal Th2-driven isotypes, like IgG1, but also a Th1-driven isotype, IgG2c. These data suggest that alum affects the immune response in at least two ways, one, independent of Gr1+ cells and IL-4, that promotes CD4 T cell proliferation and another, via Gr1+IL-4+ cells that participate in the polarization of the response. PMID:18343889

  7. Lactobacilus Delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus Modulates the Secretion of Th1/Th2 and Treg Cell-Related Cytokines by PBMCs from Patients with Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Abdolkarim; Giti, Hojjat; Heibor, Mohammad Reza; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Shakerian, Mansour; Baharifar, Narges; Niruzad, Fereidon; Moghaddam, Ali Sadeghi; Kokhaei, Parviz; Baghaeifar, Mohammad

    2017-09-12

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease which may be due to the imbalance between Th1-, Th2 and Treg cell-related immune responses. Evidences suggest that appropriate stimulation with probiotics may correct the skewed immune response in children with AD. The aim was to determine the effects of the yogurt culture lactobacillus Bulgaricus on the secretion of Th1/Th2/Treg type cytokines by PBMCs from children with AD. MethodsL. Bulgaricus was cultivated on MRS broth. The PBMCs from 20 children with AD were separated by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation and co-cultured with different concentrations of UV killed bacteria in RPMI-1640 plus 10% FCS for 48/72 h. The levels of IL-10, IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ were measured in supernatant of PBMCs by ELISA. ResultsL. Bulgaricus significantly up-regulated the secretion of IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ, whereas decreased the secretion of IL-4 by PBMCs at both incubation times 48 h/72 h and both bacteria:PBMCs ratios 100:1/50:1, compared to control (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between incubation times 48 h and 72 h regarding the secretion levels of IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-4. However, the secretion of IL-10 by L. Bulgaricus-stimulated PBMCs at incubation time 72 h and in the presence of bacteria:PBMCs ratio 100:1 was significantly higher than in incubation time 48 h and in the presence of bacteria:PBMCs ratio 50:1 (P<0.000 and P<0.00, respectively). Conclusion These data show that L. Bulgaricus may modulate the secretion of Th1-, Th2-Treg-related cytokines in AD patients. Therefore, the possible potential therapeutic of L. Bulgaricus for treatment of AD should be consider in further investigation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Effectiveness of an immunocastration vaccine formulation to reduce the gonadal function in female and male mice by Th1/Th2 immune response.

    PubMed

    Siel, Daniela; Vidal, Sonia; Sevilla, Rafael; Paredes, Rodolfo; Carvallo, Francisco; Lapierre, Lisette; Maino, Mario; Pérez, Oliver; Sáenz, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Immunocastration has emerged as an alternative to surgical castration in different animal species. This study examined the effectiveness of a new vaccine formulation for immunocastration using the biopolymer chitosan as adjuvant. First, female and male mice (n = 4), in three subsequent experiments were vaccinated at Days 1 and 30 of the study, to determine the immune response profile and gonadal alterations due to immunization. The results demonstrated that the vaccine was able to elicit strong antibody responses against native GnRH hormone (P < 0.01), with a T helper (Th) 1/Th2 immune response profile. Along with this, a suppression of gonadal activity with a decrease of luteal bodies (1.08 ± 0.22 and 4.08 ± 0.39) and antral follicles (1.17 ± 0.32 and 4.5 ± 0.38) in the ovaries of immunized females and control, respectively, and a reduction of seminiferous tubules size (142.3 ± 5.58 mm and 198.0 ± 6.11 mm) and germinal cellular layers (3.58 ± 0.26 and 5.08 ± 0.29) of immunized males and control animals, respectively, were observed (P < 0.01). Then, in a study of long-term immune response due to vaccination in female and male mice (n = 4) from two subsequent experiments, a suppression of gonadal function and an induction of a Th1/Th2 immune response was also observed, determined by both, immunoglobulin and cytokine profiles, which lasted until the end of the study (7 months; P < 0.01). The findings of this study have demonstrated that vaccination with a new immunocastration vaccine inducing a Th1/Th2 immune response against GnRH (P < 0.01) elicit a decrease of gonadal function in male and female mice (P < 0.01). Owing to long-term duration of the antibody levels generated, this vaccine formulation appears as a promising alternative for immunocastration of several animal species where long-lasting reproductive block is needed.

  9. [Effects of different doses of L-arginine on the serum levels of helper T lymphocyte 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokines in severely burned patients].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Peng, Xi; Wang, Pei; Huang, Yue-sheng; Wang, Shi-liang

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effects of L-arginine in different doses on the serum levels of helper T lymphocyte1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokines in severely burned patients. Twenty-nine severely burned patients, with total burn surface area from 50% to 80%TBSA, hospitalized within 20 hours after burn, were randomly divided into control group (10 cases, fed with 5% glucose saline 500 mL), L-arginine 200 mg group (10 cases, fed with 5% glucose saline 500 mL + 200 mg/kg L-arginine), L-arginine 400 mg group (9 cases, fed with 5% glucose saline 500 mL + 400 mg/kg L-arginine). All patients received enteral feeding through nasointestinal tube, started within 22 hours after burn. Fasting venous blood of all patients was harvested on post burn day (PBD) 1 (before enteral feeding), 3, 5, and 7 to determine serum contents of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, TGF-beta(1) and IL-4 by radio-immunity method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum contents of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta of patients in all groups increased rapidly after burn, and although contents of TNF-alpha (318 +/- 57) ng/mL and IL-1beta (218 +/- 47) pg/mL of patients in L-arginine 200 mg group peaked on PBD 5, they were still significantly lower than those of patients in control group [(389 +/- 34) ng/mL, (272 +/- 40) pg/mL, P < 0.05], but they decreased on PBD 7. Serum contents of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in L-arginine 400 mg group were close to those of control group (P > 0.05). Serum contents of TGF-beta(1) and IL-4 of patients in each group increased slowly after burn, and content of TGF-beta(1) (110 +/- 16) pg/mL of patients in L-arginine 200 mg group was significantly higher than that of patients in control group [(83 +/- 20) pg/mL, P < 0.05] on PBD 5. There was no statistical significant difference between L-arginine 400 mg group and control group in respect of serum content of TGF-beta(1) (P > 0.05). Compared with the dosage of 400 mg/kg L-arginine, the 200 mg/kg dose is more effective in reducing the release of Th1 cytokines and

  10. Th1/Th2 balance and humoral immune response to potential antigens as early diagnostic method of equine Strongylus nematode infection

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Aziza, Faten A. M.; Hendawy, Seham H. M.; Namaky, Amira H. El; Ashry, Heba M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim:: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens. Materials and Methods:: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylus vulgaris (CSS), excretory-secretory S. vulgaris (ESS), crude somatic Cyathostomins (CSC), and excretory-secretory Cyathostomins (ESC). Results:: The results revealed highest 437.04% and lowest 37.81% immunoglobulin G (IgG) in high and low egg shedder groups when using ESC and CSS antigens, respectively. Antibodies index for ESS and CSC were significantly higher in moderate egg shedder group while that for ESS and CSC, ESC was significantly higher in high egg shedder group. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) balance in S. vulgaris infected donkeys was approximately equal in apparently healthy, low and high egg shedder groups while TNF-α < IL-4 in moderate egg shedder. In Cyathostomins infected animals, TNF-α/IL-4 balance was approximately equal in apparently healthy group while it was low in moderate and high egg shedder groups. The diagnostic accuracy showed that the higher specificity (46.6%) and prevalence (95.40%) were recorded by CSS and ESC antigens, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiling proved that the band at molecular weight 25 kDa is exhibited by CSS antigen. Conclusion:: Combination of detecting level of TNF-α/IL-4 balance, CSS antigen and IgG concentration is good tool for appropriate diagnosis of such infection. More advancement research must be done

  11. [EFFECT OF 4-METHYLPYRAZOLE ON IMMUNE RESPONSE, FUNCTION OF Th1 AND Th2 LYMPHOCYTES, AND CYTOKINE CONCENTRATION IN RAT BLOOD AFTER ACUTE METHANOL POISONING].

    PubMed

    Zabrodskii, P F; Maslyakov, V V; Gromov, M S

    2016-01-01

    It was established in experiments on noninbred albino rats that the acute intoxication with methanol (1.0 LD50) decreased cellular and humoral immune responses, Th2-lymphocyte activity (to a greater extent as compared to the function of Th1 cells), reduced the blood concentration of immunoregulatory (IFN-g, IL-2, IL-4) and proinflammatory (TNF, IL-1b, IL-6) cytokines on the average by 36.5% (p < 0.05), and did not affect the content of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-13). Methanol antidote 4-methylpyrazole (non-competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) administered upon acute intoxication with methanol at a dose of 1.0 DL50 partially reduces the intoxication-induced suppression of humoral and cellular immune response, activity of T-helper cells, and production of IL-4 and restores blood levels of TNF, IL-1b, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6 to the control values.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by inhibiting NF-κB expression and regulating Th1/Th2 balance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hua; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jianping; Huang, Xinli; Zhai, Yu; Zhang, Xuejing; Chu, Li

    2014-01-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of H2S on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and its possible mechanisms. Fifty-four pathogen-free Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, BLM and H2S treated groups with 18 rats in each group. Each group was then divided into three subgroups based on time of study (7, 14 and 28 day). Pulmonary fibrosis model was established by a single intratracheal instillation of BLM A5 (5 mg/kg). While control rats received saline, rats of the treated group simultaneously were administered intraperitoneal injections of NaHS (the H2S donor, 28 μmol/kg) once daily. BLM induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, increased lung hydroxyproline levels, lung index, total cell counts, neutrophils and eosinophils counts and expression of NF-κB p65 in lung tissue, decreased lymphocytes and macrophages counts. In addition, Th1 response is suppressed as shown by diminished IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after BLM exposure, and enhancement of Th2 response is marked by increased IL-4 in BALF. H2S administration significantly attenuated these effects. The findings reveal the therapeutic potential of H2S for BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in male rats, which were at least partly due to inhibition NF-κB p65 expression and regulation of Th1/Th2 balance.

  13. Doxycycline and Benznidazole Reduce the Profile of Th1, Th2, and Th17 Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Cardiac Tissue from Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Costa, Guilherme; Lopes, Laís Roquete; Horta, Aline Luciano; Pontes, Washington Martins; Milanezi, Cristiane M.; Guedes, Paulo Marcos da Mata; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Schulz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines (CKs) and chemokine receptors (CKR) promote leukocyte recruitment into cardiac tissue infected by the Trypanosoma cruzi. This study investigated the long-term treatment with subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (Dox) in association, or not, with benznidazole (Bz) on the expression of CK and CKR in cardiac tissue. Thirty mongrel dogs were infected, or not, with the Berenice-78 strain of T. cruzi and grouped according their treatments: (i) two months after infection, Dox (50 mg/kg) 2x/day for 12 months; (ii) nine months after infection, Bz (3,5 mg/kg) 2x/day for 60 days; (iii) Dox + Bz; and (iv) vehicle. After 14 months of infection, hearts were excised and processed for qPCR analysis of Th1 (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL11), Th2 (CCL1, CCL17, CCL24, and CCL26), Th17 (CCL20) CKs, Th1 (CCR5, CCR6, and CXCR3), and Th2/Th17 (CCR3, CCR4, and CCR8) CKR, as well as IL-17. T. cruzi infection increases CCL1, CCL2, CCL4, CCL5, CCL17, CXCL10, and CCR5 expression in the heart. Dox, Bz, or Dox + Bz treatments cause a reversal of CK and CKR and reduce the expression of CCL20, IL-17, CCR6, and CXCR3. Our data reveal an immune modulatory effect of Dox with Bz, during the chronic phase of infection suggesting a promising therapy for cardiac protection. PMID:27688600

  14. Altered influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA)-derived peptide is potent therapy for CIA by inducing Th1 to Th2 shift.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Jia, Yuan; Li, Ru; Guo, Jianping; Sun, Xiaolin; Liu, Yanying; Li, Yingni; Yao, Haihong; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Jing; Li, Zhanguo

    2011-07-01

    There has been an increase in interest in the use of altered peptides as antigen-specific therapeutic agents in autoimmune diseases. Here we investigated the inhibitory effect and possible mechanism of an altered influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA)-derived peptide in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in DBA/1 mice by immunisation with type II collagen (CII). Altered HA308-317, wild-type HA308-317 or irrelevant peptide was administered intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Clinical and histological scores were assessed, and cytokine levels in the serum or supernatants from splenocytes were determined. The percentages of Th1 and Th2 cells in response to different peptides were analysed by FACS both in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that intranasal administration of altered HA308-317 peptide significantly ameliorated CIA. The therapeutic effect of altered HA308-317 peptide was associated with a substantial decrease in production of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, anti-CII IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies, and an markedly increase in production of IL-10 and IL-4 in serum or supernatants from splenocytes treated with altered HA308-317 peptide. The percentage of Th2 (CD4(+)IL-4(+)) cells was upregulated significantly by altered HA308-317 peptide with a decreased percentage of Th1 (T helper 1; CD4(+)INF-γ(+)) cells both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that altered HA308-317 peptide might be a promising candidate for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment.

  15. Kinetics and functional implications of Th1 and Th2 cytokine production following activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    McHugh, S; Deighton, J; Rifkin, I; Ewan, P

    1996-06-01

    The importance of cytokine production in some disease processes is now widely recognized. To investigate temporal relationships between cytokines, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro using the T cell mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and various antigens chosen to induce predominantly Th1 (streptokinase: streptodornase or purified protein derivative) or Th2 (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, bee or wasp venom: allergens in sensitive subjects) responses. Cytokine production was measured by sensitive bioassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Of the 30 subjects studied, 10 were normal and 20 individuals were allergic to either D. pteronyssinus (n = 10) or bee venom (n = 10) (examined before specific allergen immunotherapy). We examined the temporal profiles of a panel of cytokines produced in primary culture. In PHA-driven cultures, cytokines were found to be sequentially produced in the order interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-3, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-10, IL-6, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The response to allergen in allergic patients was predominantly Th2 in nature, with the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10, but little or no IFN-gamma. IL-2, IL-3, TNF-alpha and IL-12 were also produced in low amounts. The response of both atopic and normal subjects to recall bacterial antigens was predominantly Th1, with high levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha. The relevance of the order, amount and speed of production, characteristic kinetics (production, consumption, homeostatic regulation) and the cell source of the cytokines are discussed.

  16. Regulation of Th1/Th2 balance through OX40/OX40L signalling by glycyrrhizic acid in a murine model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiaozhen; Tang, Ying; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Qin; Lei, Wei; Zhou, Linfu; Huang, Jianan

    2016-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) has been reported to have attenuating airway inflammation effects in asthma mouse model. However, the potential molecular mechanisms by which GA exerts anti-inflammatory effects on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma have not been well elaborated. The effect of GA on OVA-sensitized and challenged mice was investigated. The effect of GA on anti-OX40 mAb stimulated splenocytes from asthma mice model was also examined. In OVA-induced asthmatic mice, GA treatment prevented the decrease of T helper1 cytokine (interferon (IFN)-γ) and the increase of T helper2 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), reduced serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and OVA-specific IgE levels, prohibited the protein and mRNA expression of OX40 and OX40 Ligand (OX40L) in lung tissues, and the expression of OX40 in CD4(+) T cells and OX40L in CD11b(+) monocytes and CD19(+) B cells in spleens in a dose-dependent manner compared with the vehicle treatment (all P < 0.05). Moreover, OVA significantly increased the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in lung tissues, whereas GA and anti-OX40L mAb markedly reduced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. In addition, GA could inhibit the T cell proliferation and modulate the balance of Th1/Th2 in anti-OX40 mAb stimulated CD4(+) T cells from asthmatic spleens (all P < 0.05). GA may exert a therapeutic effect on OVA-induced experimental asthma partly by regulating the Th1/Th2 balance through suppressing OX40-OX40L signalling and p38 MAPK activity. GA may be a promising treatment for asthma. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Lactation-Based Maternal Educational Immunity Crosses MHC Class I Barriers and Can Impart Th1 Immunity to Th2-Biased Recipients.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mrinal K; Muller, H Konrad; Walker, Ameae M

    2017-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated lactational transfer of T cell-based immunity from dam to foster pup. In the short term, a significant part of transferred immunity is passive cellular immunity. However, as time progresses, this is replaced by what we have described as maternal educational immunity such that by young adulthood, all immune cells responding to a foster dam immunogen are the product of the foster pup's thymus. To reduce confounding factors, this original demonstration used congenic/syngeneic dam and foster pup pairs. In this study, we investigated lactational transfer of immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in MHC class I-mismatched animals, as well as from Th1-biased dams to Th2-biased foster pups. Using immunized C57BL/6J dams, lactational transfer to nonimmunized BALB/cJ foster pups resulted in much greater immunity than direct immunization in 5-wk-old pups (ex vivo assay of pup splenocytes). At this age, 82% of immunogen-responding cells in the pup spleen were produced through maternal educational immunity. FVB/NJ nonimmunized foster recipients had a greater number of maternal cells in the spleen and thymus but a much larger percentage was Foxp3(+), resulting in equivalent immunity to direct immunization. Depletion of maternal Foxp3(+) cells from pup splenocytes illustrated a substantial role for lactationally transferred dam regulatory T cells in suppression of the ex vivo response in FVB/NJ, but not BALB/cJ, recipients. We conclude that lactational transfer of immunity can cross MHC class I barriers and that Th1 immunity can be imparted to Th2-biased offspring; in some instances, it can be greater than that achieved by direct immunization. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. CD45-mediated signaling pathway is involved in Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL)-induced proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion in human PBMC

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, Radha; Eligar, Sachin M.; Kumar, Natesh; Nagre, Nagaraja N.; Inamdar, Shashikala R.; Swamy, Bale M.; Shastry, Padma

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL, a potent mitogenic and complex N-glycan specific lectin binds to CD45 on PBMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL triggers CD45-mediated signaling involved in activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CD45 PTPase signaling blocks RBL-induced ZAP70 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RBL-CD45 mediated signaling is crucial for RBL-induced immunodulatory activities. -- Abstract: We earlier reported the mitogenic and immunostimulatory activities of Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), purified from phytopathogenic fungus R. bataticola in human PBMC. The lectin demonstrates specificity towards glycoproteins containing complex N-glycans. Since CD45-protein tyrosine phosphatase that abundantly expresses N-glycans is important in T-cell signaling, the study aimed to investigate the involvement of CD45 in the immunomodulatory activities of RBL. Flowcytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that RBL exhibited binding to PBMC and colocalized with CD45. The binding was comparable in cells expressing different CD45 isoforms-RA, -RB and -RO. CD45 blocking antibody reduced the binding and proliferation of PBMC induced by RBL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin inhibited RBL-induced proliferation, expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. RBL-induced secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines were significantly inhibited in presence of dephostatin. Also, dephostatin blocked phosphorylation of p38MAPK and STAT-5 that was crucial for the biological functions of RBL. The study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in RBL-induced PBMC proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38MAPK and STAT-5.

  19. TREM-1 Amplifies Corneal Inflammation after Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by Modulating Toll-Like Receptor Signaling and Th1/Th2-Type Immune Responses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Minhao; Peng, Anping; Sun, Mingxia; Deng, Qiuchan; Hazlett, Linda D.; Yuan, Jin; Liu, Xialin; Gao, Qianying; Feng, Lianqiang; He, Junfang; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Xi

    2011-01-01

    As a novel family of cell surface receptors, triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREMs) play an important role in inflammatory responses. However, the role of TREMs in the ocular immune system remains unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and function of TREM-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis, one of the most common sight-threatening ocular diseases. TREM-1 was significantly increased in human corneas after P. aeruginosa infection. Consistent with TREM-1 expression at the human ocular surface, TREM-1 levels (mRNA and protein) were also elevated in the infected corneas of C57BL/6 (B6) mice at 1, 3, and 5 days postinfection. To determine whether TREM-1 dictates the outcome of P. aeruginosa keratitis in susceptible mice, TREM-1 signaling in B6 mice was blocked with a soluble mTREM-1/Fc fusion protein. The results indicated that blockade of TREM-1 reduced the severity of corneal disease, polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, Th1/proinflammatory cytokine expression and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation but enhanced the production of Th2 cytokines, murine β-defensin 2 (mBD2), single Ig interleukin-1R-related molecule (SIGIRR), and ST2. Furthermore, we also used agonistic anti-mTREM-1 antibody to activate TREM-1 signaling in B6 mice and found that TREM-1 activation resulted in worsened disease and earlier corneal perforation in infected B6 mouse corneas and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines and TLR signaling molecules but reduced expression of mBD2, SIGIRR, and ST2. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that TREM-1 functions as an inflammatory amplifier in P. aeruginosa keratitis by modulating TLR signaling and Th1/Th2 responses. PMID:21555403

  20. TREM-1 amplifies corneal inflammation after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by modulating Toll-like receptor signaling and Th1/Th2-type immune responses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minhao; Peng, Anping; Sun, Mingxia; Deng, Qiuchan; Hazlett, Linda D; Yuan, Jin; Liu, Xialin; Gao, Qianying; Feng, Lianqiang; He, Junfang; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Xi

    2011-07-01

    As a novel family of cell surface receptors, triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREMs) play an important role in inflammatory responses. However, the role of TREMs in the ocular immune system remains unknown. In this study, we examined the expression and function of TREM-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis, one of the most common sight-threatening ocular diseases. TREM-1 was significantly increased in human corneas after P. aeruginosa infection. Consistent with TREM-1 expression at the human ocular surface, TREM-1 levels (mRNA and protein) were also elevated in the infected corneas of C57BL/6 (B6) mice at 1, 3, and 5 days postinfection. To determine whether TREM-1 dictates the outcome of P. aeruginosa keratitis in susceptible mice, TREM-1 signaling in B6 mice was blocked with a soluble mTREM-1/Fc fusion protein. The results indicated that blockade of TREM-1 reduced the severity of corneal disease, polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, Th1/proinflammatory cytokine expression and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation but enhanced the production of Th2 cytokines, murine β-defensin 2 (mBD2), single Ig interleukin-1R-related molecule (SIGIRR), and ST2. Furthermore, we also used agonistic anti-mTREM-1 antibody to activate TREM-1 signaling in B6 mice and found that TREM-1 activation resulted in worsened disease and earlier corneal perforation in infected B6 mouse corneas and elevated production of proinflammatory cytokines and TLR signaling molecules but reduced expression of mBD2, SIGIRR, and ST2. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that TREM-1 functions as an inflammatory amplifier in P. aeruginosa keratitis by modulating TLR signaling and Th1/Th2 responses.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can restore lupus disease-associated miRNA expression and Th1/Th2 ratios in a murine model of SLE

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Wha; Lee, MinJae; Song, Ji Woo; Shin, Il Seob; Kim, Sung Joo

    2016-01-01

    C3.MRL-Faslpr/J mice spontaneously develop high titers of anti-dsDNA, mild glomerular nephritis, and severe lymphoproliferation symptoms. This study aimed to compare the effects of long-term serial administration of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), and cyclophosphamide treatment in C3.MRL-Faslpr/J mice using a murine SLE model. C3.MRL-Faslpr/J mice were divided into saline (C), cyclophosphamide (Y), and ASC (H) treatment groups. Background-matched control C3H mice treated with saline (N) were also compared. The Y group showed the greatest improvement in disease parameters, but with damaged trabecular integrity. ASC transplantation reduced anti-dsDNA levels, glomerular C3 deposition and CD138 proportion significantly, without trabecular damage. Furthermore, both cyclophosphamide and ASC treatment significantly decreased the ratio of Th1/Th2 compared with the saline-treatment. The expression levels of miR-31-5p, miR-96-5p, miR-182-5p, miR-183-5p, and miR-379-5p were significantly higher, while those of miR150-5p were significantly lower in the C group than in the N group. The expression levels of miR-96-5p, miR-182-5p in the Y and H groups were significantly lower than in the C group. Thus, treatment with cyclophosphamide or ASC can change miRNAs and decrease miR-96-5p and miR-182-5p expression, as well as decreasing the CD138 proportion and the Th1/Th2 ratio, which might be involved in the therapeutic mechanism. PMID:27924862

  2. Overexpression of HO-1 Contributes to Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression by Modulating the Th1/Th2 Balance and Regulatory T-Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Jin; Kim, So-Jin; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2017-05-15

    Countervailing anti-inflammatory response and immunosuppression can cause death in late sepsis. Depletion and dysfunction of T cells are critical for developing sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has a regulatory effect on differentiation and function of T cells and anti-inflammatory properties. We therefore investigated the immunosuppressive role of HO-1 in sepsis with a focus on its effects on helper T-cell (Th) differentiation and regulatory T cells (Treg). Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Mice were intraperitoneally injected with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP; 25 mg/kg), an HO-1 inhibitor, or hemin (20 mg/kg), an HO-1 inducer, at 24 and 36 hours post-CLP. Splenocytes were isolated 48 hours post-CLP. Mice were intranasally infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4 days post-CLP as a secondary pneumonia infection model. ZnPP improved survival and bacterial clearance, whereas hemin had the opposite effect in septic mice. CLP induced lymphocyte apoptosis and a proinflammatory Th1 to anti-inflammatory Th2 shift, which was attenuated by ZnPP. ZnPP attenuated the CLP-induced Treg population and protein expression of inhibitory costimulatory molecules. Furthermore, ZnPP improved survival in the secondary pneumonia infection model. Our findings suggest that HO-1 overexpression contributes to sepsis-induced immunosuppression during late phase sepsis by promoting Th2 polarization and Treg function.

  3. Ex vivo rapamycin generates Th1/Tc1 or Th2/Tc2 Effector T cells with enhanced in vivo function and differential sensitivity to post-transplant rapamycin therapy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Unsu; Foley, Jason E; Erdmann, Andreas A; Toda, Yoko; Borenstein, Todd; Mariotti, Jacopo; Fowler, Daniel H

    2006-09-01

    Rapamycin prevention of murine graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is associated with a shift toward Th2- and Tc2-type cytokines. Recently, we found that use of rapamycin during ex vivo donor Th2 cell generation enhances the ability of adoptively transferred Th2 cells to prevent murine GVHD. In this study, using a method, without antigen-presenting cells, of T-cell expansion based on CD3,CD28 costimulation, we evaluated whether (1) rapamycin preferentially promotes the generation of Th2/Tc2 cells relative to Th1/Tc1 cells, (2) rapamycin-generated T-cell subsets induce cytokine skewing after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and (3) such in vivo cytokine skewing is sensitive to post-BMT rapamycin therapy. Contrary to our hypothesis, rapamycin did not preferentially promote Th2/Tc2 cell polarity, because rapamycin-generated Th1/Tc1 cells secreted type I cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2 and interferon-gamma) did not secrete type II cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, or IL-13) and mediated fasL-based cytolysis. Rapamycin influenced T-cell differentiation, because each of the Th1, Th2, Tc1, and Tc2 subsets generated in rapamycin had increased expression of the central-memory T-cell marker, L-selectin (CD62L). Rapamycin-generated Th1/Tc1 and Th2/Tc2 cells were not anergic but instead had increased expansion after costimulation in vitro, increased expansion in vivo after BMT, and maintained full capacity to skew toward type I or II cytokines after BMT, respectively; further, rapamycin-generated Th1/Tc1 cells mediated increased lethal GVHD relative to control Th1/Tc1 cells. Rapamycin therapy after BMT in recipients of rapamycin-generated Th1/Tc1 cells greatly reduced Th1/Tc1 cell number, greatly reduced type I cytokines, and reduced lethal GVHD; in marked contrast, rapamycin therapy in recipients of rapamycin-generated Th2/Tc2 cells nominally influenced the number of Th2/Tc2 cells in vivo and did not abrogate post-BMT type II cytokine skewing. In conclusion, ex vivo and

  4. Carbohydrate and glutamine supplementation modulates the Th1/Th2 balance after exercise performed at a simulated altitude of 4500 m.

    PubMed

    Caris, Aline V; Lira, Fábio S; de Mello, Marco T; Oyama, Lila M; dos Santos, Ronaldo V T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of carbohydrate or glutamine supplementation, or a combination of the two, on the immune system and inflammatory parameters after exercise in simulated hypoxic conditions at 4500 m. Nine men underwent three sessions of exercise at 70% VO2peak until exhaustion as follows: 1) hypoxia with a placebo; 2) hypoxia with 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min) during exercise and for 2 h after; and 3) hypoxia after 6 d of glutamine supplementation (20 g/d) and supplementation with 8% maltodextrin (200 mL/20 min) during exercise and for 2 h after. All procedures were randomized and double blind. Blood was collected at rest, immediately before exercise, after the completion of exercise, and 2 h after recovery. Glutamine, cortisol, cytokines, glucose, heat shock protein-70, and erythropoietin were measured in serum, and the cytokine production from lymphocytes was measured. Erythropoietin and interleukin (IL)-6 increased after exercise in the hypoxia group compared with baseline. IL-6 was higher in the hypoxia group than pre-exercise after exercise and after 2 h recovery. Cortisol did not change, whereas glucose was elevated post-exercise in the three groups compared with baseline and pre-exercise. Glutamine increased in the hypoxia + carbohydrate + glutamine group after exercise compared with baseline. Heat shock protein-70 increased post-exercise compared with baseline and pre-exercise and after recovery compared with pre-exercise, in the hypoxia + carbohydrate group. No difference was observed in IL-2 and IL-6 production from lymphocytes. IL-4 was reduced in the supplemented groups. Carbohydrate or glutamine supplementation shifts the T helper (Th)1/Th2 balance toward Th1 responses after exercise at a simulated altitude of 4500 m. The nutritional strategies increased in IL-6, suggesting an important anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. As2 O3 combined with leflunomide prolongs heart xenograft survival via suppressing the response of Th1, Th2, and B cells in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Zhi-Xing; Leng, Yun; Xia, Jun-Jie; Wu, Hai-Qiao; Jin, Ning; Fu, Jia-Zhao; Cheng, Lian-Na; Wang, Jin-Hua; Ni, Shao-Bin; Qi, Zhong-Quan

    2016-05-01

    Xenotransplantation remits the severe shortage of human organs and tissues for transplantation, which is a problem that severely limits the application of transplantation to the treatment of human disease. However, severe immune rejection significantly limits the efficacy of xenotransplantation. In this study, we systematically investigated the immunosuppressive effect and mechanism of action of As2 O3 and leflunomide using a hamster-to-rat heart xenotransplantation model. We initially examined heart xenograft survival following As2 O3 and leflunomide treatment alone or combined treatment. We found that treatment with As2 O3 combined with leflunomide can significantly prolong the survival of heart xenograft by inhibiting Th1 and Th2 differentiation and reducing the production of IgG and IgM. Interestingly, As2 O3 and leflunomide showed low toxicity to the organs of the recipient. Taken together, these observations indicate that treatment with As2 O3 combined with leflunomide may be a promising immunosuppressive schedule for xenotransplantation.

  6. Cofactor Independent Phosphoglycerate Mutase of Brugia malayi Induces a Mixed Th1/Th2 Type Immune Response and Inhibits Larval Development in the Host

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant K.; Kushwaha, Susheela; Rana, Ajay K.; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a major debilitating disease, endemic in 72 countries putting more than 1.39 billion people at risk and 120 million are already infected. Despite the significant progress in chemotherapeutic advancements, there is still need for other measures like development of an effective vaccine or discovery of novel drug targets. In this study, structural and immunological characterization of independent phosphoglycerate mutase of filarial parasite Brugia malayi was carried out. Protein was found to be expressed in all major parasite life stages and as an excretory secretory product of adult parasites. Bm-iPGM also reacted to all the categories of human bancroftian patient's sera including endemic normals. In vivo immunological behaviour of protein was determined in immunized BALB/c mice followed by prophylactic analysis in BALB/c mice and Mastomys coucha. Immunization with Bm-iPGM led to generation of a mixed Th1/Th2 type immune response offering 58.2% protection against larval challenge in BALB/c and 65–68% protection in M. coucha. In vitro studies confirmed participation of anti-Bm-iPGM antibodies in killing of B. malayi infective larvae and microfilariae through ADCC mechanism. The present findings reveal potential immunoprotective nature of Bm-iPGM advocating its worth as an antifilarial vaccine candidate. PMID:25061608

  7. Ma Huang Tang ameliorates asthma though modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines and inhibition of Th17 cells in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Hua; Ma, Zhan-Qiang; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shi-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Ma Huang Tang (Ephedra decoction, MHT) is a famous classical formula from Shang Han Lun by Zhang Zhongjing in the Han Dynasty. The anti-asthmatic effects of MHT and the possible mechanisms were tested. An asthma model was established by ovalbumin (OVA)-induction in mice. A total of forty-eight mice were randomly assigned to six experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg·kg(-1)) and MHT (5, 10, and 20 mg·kg(-1)). Airway resistance (Raw) was measured by the forced oscillation technique, histological studies were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Th1/Th2 and Th17 cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Th17 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). This study demonstrated that MHT inhibited OVA-induced increases in Raw and eosinophil count; interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 levels were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological studies demonstrated that MHT substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated that MHT substantially inhibited Th17 cells. These findings suggest that MHT may effectively ameliorate the progression of asthma, and could be further investigated for potential use as a therapy for patients with allergic asthma. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. VPAC2 (vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 2) receptor deficient mice develop exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with increased Th1/Th17 and reduced Th2/Treg responses.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yossan-Var; Abad, Catalina; Wang, Yuqi; Lopez, Robert; Waschek, James A

    2015-02-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are two structurally-related neuropeptides with widespread expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although these peptides have been repeatedly shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory actions when administered in animal models of inflammatory disease, mice deficient in VIP and PACAP were recently shown to exhibit different phenotypes (ameliorated and exacerbated, respectively) in response to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Therefore, elucidating what are the specific immunoregulatory roles played by each of their receptor subtypes (VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1) is critical. In this study, we found that mice with a genetic deletion of VIPR2, encoding the VPAC2 receptor, exhibited exacerbated (MOG35-55)-induced EAE compared to wild type mice, characterized by enhanced clinical and histopathological features, increased proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ (Th1), and IL-17 (Th17)) and reduced anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, TGFβ, and IL-4 (Th2)) in the CNS and lymph nodes. Moreover, the abundance and proliferative index of lymph node, thymus and CNS CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs were strikingly reduced in VPAC2-deficient mice with EAE. Finally, the in vitro suppressive activity of lymph node and splenic Tregs from VPAC2-deficient mice was impaired. Overall, our results demonstrate critical protective roles for PACAP and the VPAC2 receptor against autoimmunity, promoting the expansion and maintenance of the Treg pool.

  9. Administration of TLR7 agonist, resiquimod, in different types of chicken induces a mixed Th1 and Th2 response in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Anand Kumar, B S; Kumar, Vimal; Badasara, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the variation in immune response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of broiler, White Leghorn (WL) and Kadaknath breeds of chicken following administration of TLR7 agonist, resiquimod (R-848). Expression of different immune related genes viz., interferon-β (IFN-β), IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, TLR7 and iNOS was assessed by quantitative real time PCR over a period of 24 h. The results indicated that there was a significant up-regulation in the relative expression of immune response genes post R-848 administration (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the transcriptional expression of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and TLR7 genes in the PBMCs was significantly up-regulated over 24 h in broiler, WL and Kadaknath breeds of birds after the administration of R-848. Overall, R-848 induced a mixed Th1 and Th2 response in PBMCs of chicken origin ex vivo.

  10. Atorvastatin-modified dendritic cells in vitro ameliorate experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by up-regulated Treg cells and shifted Th1/Th17 to Th2 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Li; Liu, Ying; Cao, Li-Li; Li, Heng; Yue, Long-Tao; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Min; Li, Xiu-Hua; Dou, Ying-Chun; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    Conventional therapies for autoimmune diseases produce nonspecific immune suppression, which are usually continued lifelong to maintain disease control, and associated with a variety of adverse effects. In this study, we found that spleen-derived dendritic cells (DCs) from the ongoing experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) rats can be induced into tolerogenic DCs by atorvastatin in vitro. Administration of these tolerogenic DCs to EAMG rats on days 5 and 13 post immunization (p.i.) resulted in improved clinical symptoms, which were associated with increased numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells and Foxp3 expression, decreased lymphocyte proliferation among lymph node mononuclear cells (MNC), shifted cytokine profile from Th1/Th17 to Th2 type cytokines, decreased level of anti-R97-116 peptide (region 97-116 of the rat acetylcholine receptor α subunit) IgG antibody in serum. These tolerogenic DCs can migrate to spleen, thymus, popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes after they were injected into the EAMG rats intraperitoneally. Furthermore, these tolerogenic DCs played their immunomodulatory effects in vivo mainly by decreased expression of CD86 and MHC class II on endogenous DCs. All these data provided us a new strategy to treat EAMG and even human myasthenia gravis (MG). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The comparison of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17 and Th22 cytokine profiles in acute and chronic HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Gorenec, Lana; Zidovec Lepej, Snjezana; Grgic, Ivana; Planinic, Ana; Iscic Bes, Janja; Vince, Adriana; Begovac, Josip

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare cytokine expression on both gene and protein levels in acute and chronic phase of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Thirty four patients were enrolled for cytokine expression analysis on protein level in acute and chronic stage of HIV-1 infection. Using PCR array technology, expression of 84 cytokine genes was measured in 3 patients in acute and 3 patients in chronic stage of HIV-1 infection. Bead-based cytometry was used to quantify levels of Th1/Th2/Th9/Th17/Th22 cytokines. The results showed statistically significant increase of 13 cytokine gene expression (cd40lg, csf2, ifna5, il12b, il1b, il20, lta, osm, spp1, tgfa, tnfsf 11, 14 and 8) and downregulation of the il12a expression in chronic HIV type 1 infection. Concentrations of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α were increased in the acute HIV type 1 infection when compared to control group. During chronic HIV type 1 infection there was an increase of IL-10, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-13 and IL-22 levels when compared to control group. Comparison of cytokine expression between two stages of infection showed a significant decrease in IL-9 concentration. This study showed changes in cytokine profiles on both gene and protein levels in different stages of HIV-infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting α- and β-Adrenergic Receptors Differentially Shifts Th1, Th2, and Inflammatory Cytokine Profiles in Immune Organs to Attenuate Adjuvant Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lubahn, Cheri L.; Lorton, Dianne; Schaller, Jill A.; Sweeney, Sarah J.; Bellinger, Denise L.

    2014-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates host defense responses and restores homeostasis. SNS-immune regulation is altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and rodent models of RA, characterized by nerve remodeling in immune organs and defective adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling to immune cell targets. The SNS typically promotes or suppresses inflammation via α- and β2-AR activation, respectively, and indirectly drives humoral immunity by blocking Th1 cytokine secretion. Here, we investigate how β2-AR stimulation and/or α-AR blockade at disease onset affects disease pathology and cytokine profiles in relevant immune organs from male Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). Rats challenged to induce AA were treated with terbutaline (TERB), a β2-AR agonist (600 μg/kg/day) and/or phentolamine (PHEN), an α-AR antagonist (5.0 mg/kg/day) or vehicle from disease onset through severe disease. We report that in spleen, mesenteric (MLN) and draining lymph node (DLN) cells, TERB reduces proliferation, an effect independent of IL-2. TERB also fails to shift T helper (Th) cytokines from a Th1 to Th2 profile in spleen and MLN (no effect on IFN-γ) and DLN (greater IFN-γ) cells. In splenocytes, TERB, PHEN, and co-treatment (PT) promotes an anti-inflammatory profile (greater IL-10) and lowers TNF-α (PT only). In DLN cells, drug treatments do not affect inflammatory profiles, except PT, which raised IL-10. In MLN cells, TERB or PHEN lowers MLN cell secretion of TNF-α or IL-10, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate disrupted β2-AR, but not α-AR signaling in AA. Aberrant β2-AR signaling consequently derails the sympathetic regulation of lymphocyte expansion, Th cell differentiation, and inflammation in the spleen, DLNs and MLs that is required for immune system homeostasis. Importantly, this study provides potential mechanisms through which reestablished balance between α- and β2-AR function in the immune system ameliorates inflammation and

  13. [Impact on serum 5-HT and TH1/TH2 in patients of depressive disorder at acute stage treated with acupuncture and western medication].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Feng, Hui; Mao, Hongjing; Mo, Yali; Yin, Yan; Liu, Wenjuan; Song, Mingfen; Wang, Shengdong

    2015-06-01

    To compare the difference in depression relief in the treatment of depressive disorder at the acute stage between the combined therapy of acupuncture and 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) selective serotonini reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the single application of SSRIs and explore the impact on the imbalance of 5-HT and TH1/TH2. Ninety cases of depressive disorder at the acute stage were randomized into a combined therapy group and a medication group, 45 cases in each one. In the medication group, SSRIs were prescribed forl oral administration, once or twice a day, continuously for 4 weeks. In the combined therapy group, on the basis of treatment as the medication group, acupuncture was combined. The main acupoints were Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (GV 29), Shenting (GV 24), Fengchi (GB 20), Dazhui (GV 14) and Sishencong (EX-HN 1), once every two. days, continuously for 4 weeks. Before treatment, and after the 1st, 2nd and 4th weeks of treatment, the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) was used to evaluate the depression severity. Separately, before and after the 4 weeks of treatment, the levels of serum 5-HT, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were determined and compared with those in 45 cases of the healthy group. HAMD score was reduced in the 1st, 2nd and 4th weeks of treatment as compared with that before treatment in the combined therapy group (all P<0 01). HAMD score was reduced in the 2nd and 4th weeks of treatment as compared with that before treatment in the medication group (all P<0. 01). HAMD scores in the combined therapy group were lower than those in the medication group in the 1st, 2nd and 4th weeks of treatment (all P< 0. 01). Before treatment, in the combined therapy group and the medication group, the levels of serum 5-HT, IL-4 and IL-10 were all lower than those in the healthy group (all P<0. 01); the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 were higher than those in the healthy group (all P<0. 01). In the

  14. Mycobacterium avium infection in mice is associated with time-related expression of Th1 and Th2 CD4+ T-lymphocyte response.

    PubMed Central

    Azouaou, N; Petrofsky, M; Young, L S; Bermudez, L E

    1997-01-01

    Disseminated infection caused by organisms of Mycobacterium avium complex is common in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. M. avium is an intracellular bacterium that multiplies within macrophages. We examined the effect of M. avium infection on the T-helper cell response in C57/BL/6 black mice. At weekly intervals, CD4+ T-cells were isolated from spleens and lines were created. T-cell lines were exposed to sonicated M. avium in the presence of feeder cells and macrophages and the supernatant were collected to measure the concentrations of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Production of IFN-gamma in CD4+ T-cells obtained from uninfected mice did not vary significantly during the 5 weeks. Levels of IFN-gamma produced by T-cell lines of infected mice were similar to the control mice during the first 2 weeks but significantly reduced (approximately 30 ng/ml) thereafter. In contrast, production of IL-10 by T-cell lines of infected mice was in a range of 190 to 342 pg/ml in weeks 1, 2 and 3, but increased to an average of 1300 pg/ml at weeks 4 and 5. Pre-immunized mice, when infected with M. avium strain 101, showed a different profile of T-cell cytokines, with high IFN-gamma and low IL-10 production. Proteins purified from a number of disease-associated (D-A) and non-D-A strains of M. avium were tested for the ability to induce IL-10. 65,000 MW and 60,000 MW proteins of M. avium induced significantly more IL-10 than 45,000 MW, 33,000 MW and 27,000 MW proteins. These results showed that M. avium predominantly stimulates either Th1 or Th2 T-helper cells according to the phase of the infection. PMID:9301531

  15. TH1/TH2 cytokine profile, metalloprotease-9 activity and hormonal status in pregnant rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ-VALLE, J F; VÁZQUEZ-DEL MERCADO, M; GARCÍA-IGLESIAS, T; OROZCO-BAROCIO, G; BERNARD-MEDINA, G; MARTÍNEZ-BONILLA, G; BASTIDAS-RAMÍREZ, B E; NAVARRO, A D; BUENO, M; MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ, E; BEST-AGUILERA, C R; KAMACHI, M; ARMENDÁRIZ-BORUNDA, J

    2003-01-01

    During the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), several immune and neuroendocrine changes associated with pregnancy may exert positive (amelioration) or negative (exacerbation) effects on the clinical outcome. In order to shed light on the mechanisms underlying these responses, we performed a prospective longitudinal study in RA and SLE pregnant women, including healthy pregnant women as a control group. Cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression assessed by quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), cytokine levels and lymphocyte proliferation responses (LPR) following phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of PBMC, plasma metalloprotease-9 activity (MMP-9) and hormonal status during pregnancy were determined. TNFa was the most abundant cytokine mRNA expressed in PBMC in all groups studied (healthy pregnant women, RA and SLE pregnant patients). However, a general TH2 response reflected by high IL-10 levels was found in RA, as well as SLE, patients. A significant change in IFN-γ was observed in RA patients but only during the first trimester of pregnancy. This compared with a major TH1 response in healthy pregnant women. Interestingly, our study showed a homogeneous hormonal pattern in RA and SLE patients. Although decreased cortisol levels were observed in all patients studied, this is possibly related to the remission of disease activity status brought about by steroid treatment before and during pregnancy. In summary, we suggest that complex immune and hormonal networks are involved in pregnancy and that rheumatic diseases are very dynamic immune processes that cannot be described with a clear-cut cytokine profile. Furthermore, the observations in this study may reflect treatment-related immune effects more than those associated with disease. PMID:12562402

  16. Dimethyl Fumarate Selectively Reduces Memory T Cells and Shifts the Balance between Th1/Th17 and Th2 in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Wang, Qin; Mao, Guangmei; Dowling, Catherine A; Lundy, Steven K; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2017-04-15

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF; trade name Tecfidera) is an oral formulation of the fumaric acid ester that is Food and Drug Administration approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To better understand the therapeutic effects of Tecfidera and its rare side effect of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by immunophenotyping cells from peripheral blood (particularly T lymphocytes) derived from untreated and 4-6 and 18-26 mo Tecfidera-treated stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using multiparametric flow cytometry. The absolute numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells were significantly decreased and the CD4/CD8 ratio was increased with DMF treatment. The proportions of both effector memory T cells and central memory T cells were reduced, whereas naive T cells increased in treated patients. T cell activation was reduced with DMF treatment, especially among effector memory T cells and effector memory RA T cells. Th subsets Th1 (CXCR3(+)), Th17 (CCR6(+)), and particularly those expressing both CXCR3 and CD161 were reduced most significantly, whereas the anti-inflammatory Th2 subset (CCR3(+)) was increased after DMF treatment. A corresponding increase in IL-4 and decrease in IFN-γ and IL-17-expressing CD4(+) T cells were observed in DMF-treated patients. DMF in vitro treatment also led to increased T cell apoptosis and decreased activation, proliferation, reactive oxygen species, and CCR7 expression. Our results suggest that DMF acts on specific memory and effector T cell subsets by limiting their survival, proliferation, activation, and cytokine production. Monitoring these subsets could help to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DMF treatment. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} agonists modulate Th1 and Th2 chemokine secretion in normal thyrocytes and Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Frascerra, Silvia; Corrado, Alda; Pupilli, Cinzia; Bernini, Giampaolo; Benvenga, Salvatore; Ferrannini, Ele; Fallahi, Poupak

    2011-07-01

    Until now, no data are present about the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} activation on the prototype Th1 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10] (CXCL10) and Th2 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2] (CCL2) chemokines secretion in thyroid cells. The role of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} activation on CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion was tested in Graves' disease (GD) and control primary thyrocytes stimulated with interferon (IFN){gamma} and tumor necrosis factor (TNF){alpha}. IFN{gamma} stimulated both CXCL10 and CCL2 secretion in primary GD and control thyrocytes. TNF{alpha} alone stimulated CCL2 secretion, while had no effect on CXCL10. The combination of IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} had a synergistic effect both on CXCL10 and CCL2 chemokines in GD thyrocytes at levels comparable to those of controls. PPAR{alpha} activators inhibited the secretion of both chemokines (stimulated with IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha}) at a level higher (for CXCL10, about 60-72%) than PPAR{gamma} agonists (about 25-35%), which were confirmed to inhibit CXCL10, but not CCL2. Our data show that CCL2 is modulated by IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in GD and normal thyrocytes. Furthermore we first show that PPAR{alpha} activators inhibit the secretion of CXCL10 and CCL2 in thyrocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} may be involved in the modulation of the immune response in the thyroid.

  18. Profile of skin barrier proteins (filaggrin, claudins 1 and 4) and Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in adults with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Batista, D I S; Perez, L; Orfali, R L; Zaniboni, M C; Samorano, L P; Pereira, N V; Sotto, M N; Ishizaki, A S; Oliveira, L M S; Sato, M N; Aoki, V

    2015-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults and profile of skin barrier proteins and inflammatory cytokines. Evaluation of the expression of skin barrier proteins such as filaggrin, claudins 1 and 4 and of circulating inflammatory cytokines (Th1/Th2/Th17) in adults with AD. Thirty-three adult patients with AD diagnosed according to the Hanifin & Rajkacriteria, and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. AD severity was measured by Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI). Laboratory assays included immunohistochemistry analysis of skin barrier proteins, such as filaggrin, claudins 1 and 4 and interleukin-17 (IL-17) from skin samples and determination of circulating cytokine levels (IL-2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 17A, TNF and IFN-γ) by flow cytometry (Cytometric Bead Array). We observed a reduced expression of filaggrin and claudin 1 in lesional skin of AD patients, when compared to controls. There was an inverse correlation of filaggrin expression and disease severity. In addition, IL-17 expression was enhanced in AD patients. Similarly, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, 5, 6, 10, 17A and IFN-γ) were found in AD patients. Our data reinforce the role of an altered skin barrier in the pathogenesis of AD. Our results show not only reduced expression of filaggrin and claudin 1 in lesional atopic skin but also inverse correlation of filaggrin expression and disease severity. Moreover, elevation of in situ IL-17 and of circulating interleukin levels in AD emphasize the systemic, inflammatory profile of this defective skin barrier dermatosis. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  20. L-Theanine Improves Immunity by Altering TH2/TH1 Cytokine Balance, Brain Neurotransmitters, and Expression of Phospholipase C in Rat Hearts.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengjian; Tong, Haiou; Yan, Qiongxian; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Xiao, Wenjun; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-02-28

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of L-theanine on secretion of immune cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and mRNA expression of phospholipase C (PLC) in rats, and to explore its regulatory mechanism in immune function. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley rats received daily intragastric infusion of different doses of L-theanine solution [0, 50 (LT), 200 (MT), and 400 (HT) mg/kg BW]. Cytokines, immunoglobulins, and hormones in the serum, neurotransmitters, and mRNA expression of PLC in the relevant tissues were assayed. RESULTS L-theanine administration increased the splenic organ index and decreased the contents of ILs-4/6/10 and the ratio of IL-4/IFN-γ in the serum. High-dose L-theanine administration increased the levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the pituitary and hippocampus, resulting in decrease in corticosterone level in the serum. L-theanine administration decreased the mRNA expressions of PLC isomers in the liver and PLC-γ1 and PLC-δ1 in the spleen. Interestingly, mRNA expressions of PLC-β1 in the spleen and PLC isomers mRNA in the heart were up-regulated by L-theanine administration. CONCLUSIONS Administration of 400 mg/kg BWL-theanine improved immune function of the rats by increasing the splenic weight, altering the Th2/Th1 cytokine balance, decreasing the corticosterone level in the serum, elevating dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain, and regulating the mRNA expression of PLC isomers in the heart.

  1. L-Theanine Improves Immunity by Altering TH2/TH1 Cytokine Balance, Brain Neurotransmitters, and Expression of Phospholipase C in Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengjian; Tong, Haiou; Yan, Qiongxian; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Xiao, Wenjun; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of L-theanine on secretion of immune cytokines, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and mRNA expression of phospholipase C (PLC) in rats, and to explore its regulatory mechanism in immune function. Material/Methods Sixty-four Sprague-Dawley rats received daily intragastric infusion of different doses of L-theanine solution [0, 50 (LT), 200 (MT), and 400 (HT) mg/kg BW]. Cytokines, immunoglobulins, and hormones in the serum, neurotransmitters, and mRNA expression of PLC in the relevant tissues were assayed. Results L-theanine administration increased the splenic organ index and decreased the contents of ILs-4/6/10 and the ratio of IL-4/IFN-γ in the serum. High-dose L-theanine administration increased the levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the pituitary and hippocampus, resulting in decrease in corticosterone level in the serum. L-theanine administration decreased the mRNA expressions of PLC isomers in the liver and PLC-γ1 and PLC-δ1 in the spleen. Interestingly, mRNA expressions of PLC-βf1 in the spleen and PLC isomers mRNA in the heart were up-regulated by L-theanine administration. Conclusions Administration of 400 mg/kg BWL-theanine improved immune function of the rats by increasing the splenic weight, altering the Th2/Th1 cytokine balance, decreasing the corticosterone level in the serum, elevating dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain, and regulating the mRNA expression of PLC isomers in the heart. PMID:26922362

  2. Effects of salbutamol aerosol combined with magnesium sulfate on T-lymphocyte subgroup and Th1/Th2 cytokines of pediatric asthma

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Min; Min, Jie; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Chong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of the intravenous infusion of salbutamol aerosol combined with magnesium sulfate in the treatment of pediatric asthma and the subsequent effects on the levels of T-lymphocyte subgroups and Th1/Th2 cytokines. A total of 86 patients with pediatric asthma, first diagnosed and treated at the Xuzhou Children's Hospital, were continuously selected and randomly divided into an observation group of 44 cases and control group of 42 cases. The patients in the control group were treated with budesonide atomization inhalation, while the children in the observation group were treated with intravenous infusion of salbutamol aerosol combined with magnesium sulfate. The therapeutic effects in the groups were compared. After treatment, the levels of serum CD3+ and CD8+ decreased when compared to before treatment; the levels of CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ also increased, but the observation group had more significant improvement. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of serum interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increased when compared to before, while levels of IL-4 and IL-6 decreased, and the observation group had more significant improvement. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of VT, t-PTEF/t-E, MTIF/MTEF and TEF75/PTEF increased when compared to before; the observation group had more significant improvement. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The effective rate and degree of treatment for the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group and differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The intravenous infusion of salbutamol aerosol combined with magnesium sulfate in the treatment of pediatric asthma can significantly improve therapeutic effects and lung functions, improve immune functions and relieve inflammatory reactions. Therefore, it indicates better clinical application and

  3. Expression pattern of transcription factors and intracellular cytokines reveals that clinically cured tuberculosis is accompanied by an increase in Mycobacterium-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos V; Massaro Junior, Vladimir J; Machado, Juliana R; Silva, Djalma A A; Castellano, Lúcio R; Alexandre, Patricia B D; Rodrigues, Denise B R; Rodrigues, Virmondes

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem and is the second biggest cause of death by infectious disease worldwide. Here, we investigate in vitro the Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cytokines and transcriptional factors produced after Mycobacterium-specific antigen stimulation in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, clinically cured pulmonary tuberculosis, and healthy donors with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST+). Together, our data indicate that clinical cure after treatment increases the percentages of Mycobacterium-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells compared with those found in active-TB and TST+ healthy donors. These results show that the host-parasite equilibrium in latent TB breaks in favor of the microorganism and that the subsequent clinical recovery posttreatment does not return the percentage levels of such cells to those observed in latent tuberculosis. Additionally, our results indicate that rather than showing an increase in the percentage of Mycobacterium-specific Tregs, active-TB patients display lower Th1 : Treg and Th17 : Treg ratios. These data, together with lower Th1 : Th2 and Th17 : Th2 ratios, may indicate a mechanism by which the breakdown of the host-parasite equilibrium leads to active-TB and changes in the repertoire of Mycobacterium-specific Th cells that are associated with clinical cure after treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  4. The changes in the T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine balance during HIV-1 infection are indicative of an allergic response to viral proteins that may be reversed by Th2 cytokine inhibitors and immune response modifiers--a review and hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Yechiel

    2004-01-01

    The HIV-1 infection in humans induces an early cellular immune response to react to the viral proteins with a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response that fails to inhibit virus replication and the spread of the virus. It became evident that the progression of the disease causes chronic changes to the immune system of which a gradual increase in IgE antibodies is one of its features. When the HIV-1 epidemic began, the relation between the gradual increase in IgE content and AIDS was not understood, but later it became a marker for disease prognosis. The advances in the knowledge on T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells revealed that Th1 cells produce cytokines that stimulate the proliferation of CTLs. Th2 cells produce cytokines that are responsible for the activation of the humoral immune response in healthy people. Studies on both Th1 and Th2 cytokine synthesis revealed an aberration in HIV-1 infected people. Clerici and Shearer presented a hypothesis (1993) whereby Th1 cell activity declines and Th2 activity increases (the Th1 --> Th2 switch hypothesis) in HIV-1 infected people. In fact, experiments concerning this hypothesis ultimately supported the premise that the switch involves a critical change in the cytokine balance, which leads to the contraction of AIDS. However, the research community must still discern why such a Th1 --> Th2 switch takes place in infected people and how it can be reversed. The present review points to the fact that a similar Th1 --> Th2 switch constitutes the response of allergic people to environmental allergens. HIV-1 patients and allergic people that are exposed to allergens respond with an increased synthesis of Th2 cytokines and IgE, together with a decrease in Th1 cytokines. The studies on allergen-induced Th2 cells revealed that the Th2 cytokine IL-4 induces B cells to synthesize IgE, and cytokine IL-5 is the inducer of eosinophilia, just as in HIV-1 infection. The difference between the HIV-1 infection and allergies is the

  5. Stimulation of the histamine 4 receptor with 4-methylhistamine modulates the effects of chronic stress on the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Korashy, Hesham M; Bakheet, Saleh A; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Attia, Sabry M

    2015-03-01

    Alterations to the immune system caused by stress have been considered to markedly increase the risk for immune-related diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders. We investigated the potential anti-stress effects of the histamine 4 receptor (H4R) agonist, 4-methylhistamine (4-MeH), in a murine stress model. Mice were placed in 50ml conical centrifuge tubes for 12h followed by a 12h rest. The effects of treatment with 4-MeH (30mg/kg, i.p., twice daily) for 2 days were assessed. At 2 days after physical restraint, mice were sacrificed and tissues harvested. We evaluated the effects of 4-MeH treatment on CD4(+) T cell production, and intracellular IFN-γ and IL-4 expression in these cells. We also assessed IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-4 mRNA expression as well as IFN-γ, TNF-α, GITR, Ox40 and IL-4 protein expression in the spleen. The results showed that 4-MeH treatment of stressed mice results in a substantial increase in the CD4(+) T cells as well as in IFN-γ production by these cells. Compared to both untreated and stressed controls. In contrast, IL-4 expression decreased significantly following 4-MeH treatment of mice. Moreover, stimulation of the H4R resulted in up-regulated expression of IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNAs and decreased the expression of IL-4. Western blot analysis confirmed decreased protein expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, GITR, Ox40 and increased IL-4 in the SC group and treatment of mice with 4-MeH reversed these effects. Our results confirm the significant impact of chronic stress on T cell function and production of Th1/Th2 mediators H4R. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships between Th1 or Th2 iNKT Cell Activity and Structures of CD1d-Antigen Complexes: Meta-analysis of CD1d-Glycolipids Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Xavier; Renault, Nicolas; Farce, Amaury; Chavatte, Philippe; Hénon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A number of potentially bioactive molecules can be found in nature. In particular, marine organisms are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. The activity of an α-galactosylceramide was first discovered in 1993 via screening of a Japanese marine sponge (Agelas mauritanius). Very rapidly, a synthetic glycololipid analogue of this natural molecule was discovered, called KRN7000. Associated with the CD1d protein, this α-galactosylceramide 1 (KRN7000) interacts with the T-cell antigen receptor to form a ternary complex that yields T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 responses with opposing effects. In our work, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations (11.5 µs in total) involving eight different ligands (conducted in triplicate) in an effort to find out correlation at the molecular level, if any, between chemical modulation of 1 and the orientation of the known biological response, Th1 or Th2. Comparative investigations of human versus mouse and Th1 versus Th2 data have been carried out. A large set of analysis tools was employed including free energy landscapes. One major result is the identification of a specific conformational state of the sugar polar head, which could be correlated, in the present study, to the biological Th2 biased response. These theoretical tools provide a structural basis for predicting the very different dynamical behaviors of α-glycosphingolipids in CD1d and might aid in the future design of new analogues of 1. PMID:25376021

  7. The immunodominant T helper 2 (Th2) response elicited in BALB/c mice by the Leishmania LiP2a and LiP2b acidic ribosomal proteins cannot be reverted by strong Th1 inducers.

    PubMed

    Iborra, S; Abánades, D R; Parody, N; Carrión, J; Risueño, R M; Pineda, M A; Bonay, P; Alonso, C; Soto, M

    2007-11-01

    The search for disease-associated T helper 2 (Th2) Leishmania antigens and the induction of a Th1 immune response to them using defined vaccination protocols is a potential strategy to induce protection against Leishmania infection. Leishmania infantum LiP2a and LiP2b acidic ribosomal protein (P proteins) have been described as prominent antigens during human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. In this study we demonstrate that BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major develop a Th2-like humoral response against Leishmania LiP2a and LiP2b proteins and that the same response is induced in BALB/c mice when the parasite P proteins are immunized as recombinant molecules without adjuvant. The genetic immunization of BALB/c mice with eukaryotic expression plasmids coding for these proteins was unable to redirect the Th2-like response induced by these antigens, and only the co-administration of the recombinant P proteins with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) promoted a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. According to the preponderance of a Th2 or mixed Th1/Th2 responses elicited by the different regimens of immunization tested, no evidence of protection was observed in mice after challenge with L. major. Although alterations of the clinical outcome were not detected in mice presensitized with the P proteins, the enhanced IgG1 and interleukin (IL)-4 response against total Leishmania antigens in these mice may indicate an exacerbation of the disease.

  8. Immunostimulatory sequence DNA linked to the Amb a 1 allergen promotes T(H)1 cytokine expression while downregulating T(H)2 cytokine expression in PBMCs from human patients with ragweed allergy.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J D; Abtahi, S; Eiden, J J; Tuck, S; Milley, R; Haycock, F; Reid, M J; Kagey-Sobotka, A; Creticos, P S; Lichtenstein, L M; Van Nest, G

    2001-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that bacterially derived immunostimulatory sequences (ISSs) of DNA can activate the mammalian innate immune system and promote the development of T(H)1 cells. Promotion of T(H)1 immunity by means of immunotherapy in allergic patients has led to the alleviation of symptoms that result from allergen-specific T(H)2 responses. Our purpose was to investigate whether the T(H)1-enhancing properties of ISSs could be used to alter the T(H)2-dominated immune response of allergic PBMCs in vitro. Ragweed protein-linked ISS (PLI) was generated from a specific, highly active 22-base ISS and Amb a 1, the immunodominant allergen in ragweed pollen, to combine the T(H)1-enhancing properties of ISSs with allergen selectivity, and its activity was investigated in PBMC cultures from subjects with ragweed allergy. PLI was markedly successful at reversing the dominant allergen-induced T(H)2 profile while greatly enhancing IFN-gamma production. Delivering ISSs in a linked form proved to be much more effective at modulating the resulting cytokine profile than delivering free ISSs in a mixture with unlinked Amb a 1. PLI also demonstrated cytokine-modulating properties, even when used to stimulate cells that had already been primed for 6 days with Amb a 1. The antigen specificity of the action of PLI was confirmed by the observations that PLI enhances Amb a 1--specific T-cell proliferation. These data indicate that delivery of ISSs within an antigen-specific context exhibits potent cytokine-modulating activity and, combined with its reduced allergenicity, makes this molecule a strong candidate for use in improved immunotherapy applications.

  9. A New Inflammatory Cytokine on the Block: Re-thinking Periodontal Disease and the Th1/Th2 Paradigm in the Context of Th17 Cells and IL-17

    PubMed Central

    Gaffen, S.L.; Hajishengallis, G.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades, the Th1/Th2 paradigm has offered a productive conceptual framework for investigating the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, as with many other inflammatory diseases, the observed role of T-cell-mediated immunity in periodontitis did not readily fit this model. A new subset of CD4+ T-cells was recently discovered that explains many of the discrepancies in the classic Th1/Th2 model, and has been termed “Th17” based on its secretion of the novel pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17. The identification of Th17 cells as a novel effector T-cell population compels re-examination of periodontitis in the context of the new subset and its signature cytokines. This review aims to offer a clarifying insight into periodontal pathogenesis under the extended Th1/Th2/Th17 paradigm, and is predicated on the principle that periodontal disease activity is determined by a complex interplay between the immune system and periodontal pathogens. The re-examination of existing periodontal literature and further studies in the light of these new discoveries may help explain how the inflammatory response results in damage to the periodontium while generally failing to control the pathogens. This knowledge is essential for the development of immunomodulatory intervention strategies for fine-tuning the host response to maximize the protective and minimize the destructive aspects of the periodontal host response. Moreover, with the advent of anti-cytokine biologic drugs that target the Th1 and Th17 pathways in autoimmunity, the potential consequences to periodontal disease susceptibility in humans need to be understood. PMID:18719207

  10. Variation of Transaminases, HCV-RNA Levels and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Production during the Post-Partum Period in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Extremera, Ángeles; Muñoz-Gámez, José Antonio; Abril-Molina, Ana; Salmerón-Ruiz, María Angustias; Muñoz-de-Rueda, Paloma; Pavón-Castillero, Esther José; Quiles-Pérez, Rosa; Carazo, Ángel; Gila, Ana; Jimenez-Ruiz, Sergio Manuel; Casado, Jorge; Martín, Ana Belén; Sanjuán-Núñez, Laura; Ocete-Hita, Esther; Viota, Julián López; León, Josefa; Salmerón, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%), with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001) or as Type-B (34%), with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001) and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INFγ, P = 0.04; IL12, P = 0.01 and IL2, P = 0.01). On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INFγ and IL2, P<0.05) than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation. PMID:24130726

  11. Variation of transaminases, HCV-RNA levels and Th1/Th2 cytokine production during the post-partum period in pregnant women with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Extremera, Angeles; Muñoz-Gámez, José Antonio; Abril-Molina, Ana; Salmerón-Ruiz, María Angustias; Muñoz-de-Rueda, Paloma; Pavón-Castillero, Esther José; Quiles-Pérez, Rosa; Carazo, Angel; Gila, Ana; Jimenez-Ruiz, Sergio Manuel; Casado, Jorge; Martín, Ana Belén; Sanjuán-Núñez, Laura; Ocete-Hita, Esther; Viota, Julián López; León, Josefa; Salmerón, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the evolution of liver disease in women with chronic hepatitis C during the third trimester of pregnancy and the post-partum period, as a natural model of immune modulation and reconstitution. Of the 122 mothers recruited to this study, 89 were HCV-RNA+ve/HIV-ve and 33 were HCV-RNA-ve/HIV-ve/HCVantibody+ve and all were tested during the third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and post-delivery. The HCV-RNA+ve mothers were categorized as either Type-A (66%), with an increase in ALT levels in the post-partum period (>40 U/L; P<0.001) or as Type-B (34%), with no variation in ALT values. The Type-A mothers also presented a significant decrease in serum HCV-RNA levels in the post-delivery period (P<0.001) and this event was concomitant with an increase in Th1 cytokine levels (INFγ, P = 0.04; IL12, P = 0.01 and IL2, P = 0.01). On the other hand, the Type-B mothers and the HCV-RNA-ve women presented no variations in either of these parameters. However, they did present higher Th1 cytokine levels in the partum period (INFγ and IL2, P<0.05) than both the Type-A and the HCV-RNA-ve women. Cytokine levels at the moment of delivery do not constitute a risk factor associated with HCV vertical transmission. It is concluded that differences in the ALT and HCV-RNA values observed in HCV-RNA+ve women in the postpartum period might be due to different ratios of Th1 cytokine production. In the Type-B women, the high partum levels of Th1 cytokines and the absence of post-partum variation in ALT and HCV-RNA levels may be related to permanent Th1 cytokine stimulation.

  12. Baicalein, wogonin, and Scutellaria baicalensis ethanol extract alleviate ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation and mast cell-mediated anaphylactic shock by regulation of Th1/Th2 imbalance and histamine release.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Song, Chang Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Shin, Hee Soon; Chai, Ok Hee

    2017-06-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, the aberrant production of the Th2 cytokines, and eosinophil infiltration into the lungs. In this study, we examined the effects of baicalein, wogonin, and Scutellaria baicalensis ethanol extract on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma by evaluating Th1/Th2 cytokine levels, histopathologic analysis, and compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis and mast cell activation, focusing on the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Baicalein, wogonin, and S. baicalensis ethanol extract also decreased the number of inflammatory cells especially eosinophils and downregulated peribronchial and perivascular inflammation in the lungs of mice challenged by OVA. Baicalein, wogonin, and S. baicalensis ethanol extract significantly reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5 and the production of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and upregulated the level of interferon-γ and OVA-specific IgG2a. In addition, oral administration of baicalein, wogonin, and S. baicalensis ethanol extract inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis and plasma histamine release in mice. Moreover, baicalein, wogonin, and S. baicalensis ethanol extract suppressed compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation and histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Conclusively, baicalein and wogonin as major flavonoids of S. baicalensis may have therapeutic potential for allergic asthma through modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance and histamine release from mast cells.

  13. Differential effects of Th1, monocyte/macrophage and Th2 cytokine mixtures on early gene expression for glial and neural-related molecules in central nervous system mixed glial cell cultures: neurotrophins, growth factors and structural proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lisak, Robert P; Benjamins, Joyce A; Bealmear, Beverly; Nedelkoska, Liljana; Yao, Bin; Land, Susan; Studzinski, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Background In multiple sclerosis, inflammatory cells are found in both active and chronic lesions, and it is increasingly clear that cytokines are involved directly and indirectly in both formation and inhibition of lesions. We propose that cytokine mixtures typical of Th1 or Th2 lymphocytes, or monocyte/macrophages each induce unique molecular changes in glial cells. Methods To examine changes in gene expression that might occur in glial cells exposed to the secreted products of immune cells, we have used gene array analysis to assess the early effects of different cytokine mixtures on mixed CNS glia in culture. We compared the effects of cytokines typical of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages (M/M) on CNS glia after 6 hours of treatment. Results In this paper we focus on changes with potential relevance for neuroprotection and axon/glial interactions. Each mixture of cytokines induced a unique pattern of changes in genes for neurotrophins, growth and maturation factors and related receptors; most notably an alternatively spliced form of trkC was markedly downregulated by Th1 and M/M cytokines, while Th2 cytokines upregulated BDNF. Genes for molecules of potential importance in axon/glial interactions, including cell adhesion molecules, connexins, and some molecules traditionally associated with neurons showed significant changes, while no genes for myelin-associated genes were regulated at this early time point. Unexpectedly, changes occurred in several genes for proteins initially associated with retina, cancer or bone development, and not previously reported in glial cells. Conclusion Each of the three cytokine mixtures induced specific changes in gene expression that could be altered by pharmacologic strategies to promote protection of the central nervous system. PMID:18088439

  14. Intravenous IgA complexed with antigen reduces primary antibody response to the antigen and anaphylaxis upon antigen re-exposure by inhibiting Th1 and Th2 activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Kouya; Miyatake, Kenji; Nakashima, Takayuki; Morioka, Ayumi; Yamamoto, Midori; Ishibashi, Yuki; Ito, Ayaka; Kuranishi, Ayu; Yoshino, Shin

    2014-10-01

    Serum IgG, IgE and IgM have been shown to enhance the primary antibody responses upon exposure to the soluble antigens recognized by those antibodies. However, how IgA affects these responses remains unknown. We investigated the effects of intravenously administered monoclonal IgA on the immune responses in mice. DBA/1J mice were immunized with ovalbumin in the presence or absence of anti-ovalbumin monoclonal IgA. The Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin and the anaphylaxis induced by re-exposure to ovalbumin were measured. IgA complexed with antigen attenuated the primary antibody responses to the antigen in mice, in contrast to IgG2b and IgE. The primary antibody responses, i.e. the de novo synthesis of anti-ovalbumin IgG2a, IgG1 and IgE in the serum, and the subsequent anaphylaxis induced with re-exposure to ovalbumin were reduced by the co-injection of anti-ovalbumin monoclonal IgA at ovalbumin immunization. The Th1, Th2 and Tr1 cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin-4 and interleukin-10, respectively, released from ovalbumin-restimulated cultured splenocytes collected from allergic mice were also reduced by the treatment. The induction of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 secretion by splenocytes from ovalbumin-immunized mice stimulated in vitro with ovalbumin was also significantly reduced by the antigen complexed with anti-ovalbumin IgA. These data suggest that the direct inhibition of Th1 and Th2 activation by anti-ovalbumin monoclonal IgA participates in the inhibition of the primary antibody responses. IgA plays important immunosuppressive roles under physiological and pathological conditions and is a promising candidate drug for the treatment of immune disorders.

  15. Clinical association of baseline levels of conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein and nitric oxide with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and their relationship with immunoglobulins and Th1-to-Th2 ratio

    PubMed Central

    Haddouche, Mustapha; Meziane, Warda; Hadjidj, Zeyneb; Mesli, Naima; Aribi, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to highlight the clinical association of baseline levels of conjugated dienes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL-BCD) and nitric oxide (NO) with immunoglobulins (Igs) and T helper (Th)1/Th2 ratio in patients with newly diagnosed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients and methods Thirty-two newly diagnosed patients with aggressive B-cell NHL and 25 age-, sex-, and body-mass-index-matched healthy controls were randomly selected for a cross-sectional case–control study conducted at the Hematology Department of Tlemcen Medical Centre University (northwest of Algeria). Results Circulating levels of LDL-BCD and NO and those of IgA and IgM were significantly higher in patients than in controls. The levels of Th1/Th2 ratio and plasma total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in patients compared with controls, while malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels were significantly higher in patients. B-cell NHL was significantly associated with high levels of LDL-BCD from 25th to 75th percentile (25th percentile: relative risk [RR] =2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42–3.59, P=0.014; 50th percentile: RR =2.84, 95% CI 1.72–4.68, P<0.001; 75th percentile: RR =5.43, 95% CI 2.58–11.42, P<0.001). Similarly, the disease was significantly associated with high levels of NO production from 25th to 75th percentile (25th percentile: RR =2.07, 95% CI 1.25–3.44, P=0.024; 50th percentile: RR =2.78, 95% CI 1.63–4.72, P<0.001; 75th percentile: RR =4.68, 95% CI 2.21–9.91, P<0.001). Moreover, LDL-BCD levels were positively and significantly correlated with interferon (IFN)-γ, whereas NO levels were inversely and significantly correlated with IFN-γ and Th1/Th2 ratio. Conclusion LDL-BCD and NO production seem to be associated with aggressive B-cell NHL and alteration of Th1/Th2 ratio. Our results have to be examined using ex vivo mechanistic studies leading to further investigations of these parameters, with an interest in the

  16. Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 and Th2 Cytokines on Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor Status

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Song; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44−21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:24473087

  17. Combined effects of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin d and Th1 and th2 cytokines on breast cancer estrogen receptor status.

    PubMed

    Yao, Song; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2014-01-27

    Vitamin D has been recognized for its immune-modulating properties. We have previously found that levels of 25OHD, and cytokines including IL5, IFNα2, and TNFα, are also associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer in younger women. Thus, we hypothesized that there may be interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in influencing breast cancer ER status, which was tested in 490 women with incident breast cancer. There was no correlation of the levels of 25OHD with any cytokine, and their associations with tumor ER negative status were independent of each other. However, premenopausal women with low 25OHD and high TNFα levels had the highest likelihood of having ER negative cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44-21.98), with evidence of synergy between the two (relative excess risk due to interaction [RERI] = 5.46, p for additive interaction = 0.14, and p for multiplicative interaction = 0.09). There were similar synergistic associations between 25OHD and IL5, and several IFNα2 to Th2 cytokine ratios. This is the first study to provide evidence of interactions between vitamin D and the immune system in relation to breast cancer ER status, which may inform combinational use of vitamin D and anti-inflammatory drugs for cancer prevention and therapy.

  18. The comparison of expression of cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA), and Th1- and Th2-associated antigens in mycosis fungoides and cutaneous lesions of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Ohshima, Koichi; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Suehuji, Hiroaki; Karube, Kennosuke; Nakayama, Juichiro; Suzumiya, Junji; Yoshino, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is morphologically similar to cutaneous lesions of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-type I (HTLV-1). In addition, the Th1 or Th2 characteristic of MF and ATLL is still controversial. In the present study, to discriminate MF and cutaneous lesion of ATLL using immunohistochemical markers, and to elucidate Th1 or Th2 dominancy in both disorders, CLA (cutaneous lymphocyte associated antigen) was expressed on epidermotrophic lymphoma cells in all early stage MF. In contrast, all ATLL were negative for CLA. CXCR3 was especially expressed in epidermotropic small lymphoma cells of MF. CCR5 was expressed in both disorders with variable sized lymphoma cells. ST2 was expressed on large transformed lymphoma cells with ATLL, but not in any MF cases. OX40 was expressed in the large transformed cell population in both disorders. These findings suggest that CLA and ST2 could be potentially useful immunohistochemical markers for discrimination of mycosis fungoides and cutaneous lesions of ATLL. And OX40 could be a useful immunohistochemical marker for the histopathological progression of both disorders.

  19. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells, Th1 (CCR5, IL-2, IFN-γ) and Th2 (CCR4, IL-4, Il-13) type chemokine receptors and intracellular cytokines in children with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Kutukculer, Necil; Azarsiz, Elif; Aksu, Guzide; Karaca, Neslihan Edeer

    2016-06-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies characterized by decreased serum immunoglobulin G along with a decrease in serum IgA and/or IgM, defective specific antibody production, and recurrent bacterial infections. Abnormal lymphocyte trafficking, dysregulated cellular responses to chemokines, and uncontrolled T cell polarization may be involved in the pathogenesis and may help to understand the clinical complications. We evaluated T helper cell subsets (chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR5, and CCR7), expressions on T lymphocytes, intracellular cytokines - IL-2, IL-4, IL-13, IFN- γ-on CD4(+) T cells, and expression of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells of 20 CVID patients and 26 healthy controls. Autoimmune clinical findings and other complications were also determined. Percentages and absolute numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp3(+) cells did not show any significant difference between CVID cases and healthy controls nor between severe and moderate disease patients. The only significant difference regarding Th1 and Th2 type intracellular cytokines was the decreased absolute numbers of CD3(+)CD4(+)IL4(+) cells in CVID cases. There were some findings about T helper cell type dominance in CVID patients such as positive correlation between hepatomegaly and high IL-2 and IFN-γ in CD3(+)CD4(+) cells and very high expression of CCR5 (Th1) on CD3(+)CD4(+) cells in patients with granuloma. Th1 (CCR5) and Th2 (CCR4) type chemokine receptors did not show any dominance in CVID cases. However, frequencies of CCR7 expressing CD3(+) T cells, CD3(+)CD4(+) T helper cells and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cytotoxic cells were significantly lower in severe CVID patients. In addition, presence of autoimmune clinical findings was negatively correlated with CCR7(+) cells. As CCR7 is a key mediator balancing immunity and tolerance in the immune system, the abnormality of this mediator may contribute to the profound immune dysregulation seen in CVID

  20. Crucial role of gamma interferon-producing CD4+ Th1 cells but dispensable function of CD8+ T cell, B cell, Th2, and Th17 responses in the control of Brucella melitensis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Vitry, Marie-Alice; De Trez, Carl; Goriely, Stanislas; Dumoutier, Laure; Akira, Shizuo; Ryffel, Bernhard; Carlier, Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Muraille, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis that causes abortion in domestic animals and chronic febrile disease associated with serious complications in humans. There is currently no approved vaccine against human brucellosis, and antibiotic therapy is long and costly. Development of a safe protective vaccine requires a better understanding of the roles played by components of adaptive immunity in the control of Brucella infection. The importance of lymphocyte subsets in the control of Brucella growth has been investigated separately by various research groups and remains unclear or controversial. Here, we used a large panel of genetically deficient mice to compare the importance of B cells, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP-1), and major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent pathways of antigen presentation as well as T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17-mediated responses on the immune control of Brucella melitensis 16 M infection. We clearly confirmed the key function played by gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing Th1 CD4(+) T cells in the control of B. melitensis infection, whereas IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells or B cell-mediated humoral immunity plays only a modest role in the clearance of bacteria during primary infection. In the presence of a Th1 response, Th2 or Th17 responses do not really develop or play a positive or negative role during the course of B. melitensis infection. On the whole, these results could improve our ability to develop protective vaccines or therapeutic treatments against brucellosis.

  1. p(⁷⁰S⁶K¹) in the TORC1 pathway is essential for the differentiation of Th17 Cells, but not Th1, Th2, or Treg cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Carl Y; Chen, Gang; Munk, Rachel; Eitan, Erez; Martindale, Jennifer; Longo, Dan L; Ghosh, Paritosh

    2016-01-01

    The TORC1 pathway is necessary for ribosomal biogenesis and initiation of protein translation. Furthermore, the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells requires TORC1 activity. To investigate the role of the TORC1 pathway in the differentiation of Th1 and/or Th17 cells in more detail, we compared the differentiation capacity of naïve T cells from wild type and p70(S6K1) knockout mice. Expression of many of the genes associated with Th17-cell differentiation, such as IL17a, IL17f, and IL-23R, were reduced in p70(S6K1) knockout mice. In contrast, the development of Th1, Th2, and Treg cells was unaffected in the absence of p70(S6K1) . Furthermore, expression of the major transcription factor in Th17-cell differentiation, retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma T, remained unchanged. However, the acetylation of histone 3 at the promoters of IL17a and IL17f was reduced in the absence of p70(S6K1) . In accordance with the in vitro data, the kinetics, but not the development, of EAE was affected with the loss of p70(S6K1) expression. Collectively, our findings suggested that both in vitro and in vivo differentiation of Th17 cells were positively regulated by p70(S6K1) .

  2. Unlipidated Outer Membrane Protein Omp16 (U-Omp16) from Brucella spp. as Nasal Adjuvant Induces a Th1 Immune Response and Modulates the Th2 Allergic Response to Cow’s Milk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ibañez, Andrés E.; Smaldini, Paola; Coria, Lorena M.; Delpino, María V.; Pacífico, Lucila G. G.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Risso, Gabriela S.; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Docena, Guillermo H.; Cassataro, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of novel mucosal adjuvants will help to develop new formulations to control infectious and allergic diseases. In this work we demonstrate that U-Omp16 from Brucella spp. delivered by the nasal route (i.n.) induced an inflammatory immune response in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissues. Nasal co-administration of U-Omp16 with the model antigen (Ag) ovalbumin (OVA) increased the amount of Ag in lung tissues and induced OVA-specific systemic IgG and T helper (Th) 1 immune responses. The usefulness of U-Omp16 was also assessed in a mouse model of food allergy. U-Omp16 i.n. administration during sensitization ameliorated the hypersensitivity responses of sensitized mice upon oral exposure to Cow’s Milk Protein (CMP), decreased clinical signs, reduced anti-CMP IgE serum antibodies and modulated the Th2 response in favor of Th1 immunity. Thus, U-Omp16 could be used as a broad Th1 mucosal adjuvant for different Ag formulations. PMID:23861971

  3. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hetland, Geir; Johnson, Egil; Lyberg, Torstein; Kvalheim, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β-glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mouse models, in addition to anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease patients. These effects are mediated through the mushroom's stimulation of innate immune cells, such as monocytes, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and the amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance and inflammation. PMID:21912538

  4. The effects of electroacupuncture on TH1/TH2 cytokine mRNA expression and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in the splenic T cells of traumatized rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wu, Huaxing; Wang, Guonian; Li, Mingming; Zhang, Zhaodi; Gu, Guangying

    2009-11-01

    Surgical trauma contributes to postoperative immune suppression, which is associated with an increased susceptibility to subsequent infections. Electroacupuncture (EA) can alleviate pain and exert immunoregulatory effects. However, the mechanism underlying the immnuomodulation effects of EA is not fully elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EA on T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine production and mRNA expression and evaluated the signaling regulatory mechanism of EA effects. Rats were divided into four groups (n = 24 each): control, trauma, trauma (T) + sham EA, and T + EA. EA was applied to Zusanli (ST36) and Lanwei (Extra37) acupoints at 20 min after surgery for 30 min, and then performed once a day on postoperative days 1-5. Splenic T cells were isolated and the production and mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10 were assayed. The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1 were examined. Paw withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency were significantly increased in the T + EA group compared with the trauma group from postoperative day 1 (paw withdrawal threshold: 5.8 +/- 0.7 vs 3.0 +/- 0.7 g; paw withdrawal latency: 7.0 +/- 0.8 vs 4.5 +/- 0.5 s; P < 0.001) to day 5 (9.0 +/- 0.6 vs 5.5 +/- 0.6 g; 12.0 +/- 1.3 vs 7.0 +/- 0.8 s; P < 0.001). Th1 cytokine (IL-2 and interferon-gamma) production and mRNA expression in splenic T cells of traumatized rats were significantly decreased on postoperative day 3 (P < 0.001, trauma group versus control group), whereas Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-10) production and mRNA expression were increased (P < 0.001). This was accompanied with a significant depression in the activity of extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, p38, NF-kappaB, and AP-1 (P < 0.001, trauma group versus control group). EA administration increased Th1 cytokine protein and mRNA expression, suppressed Th2 cytokine

  5. Early and Late Extensive Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) In Children Is Characterized By Different Th1/Th2 Cytokine Profiles: Findings Of The Children’s Oncology Group Study (COG), ASCT0031

    PubMed Central

    Rozmus, Jacob; Schultz, Kirk R.; Wynne, Kristin; Kariminia, Amina; Satyanarayana, Preeti; Krailo, Mark; Grupp, Stephan A.; Gilman, Andrew L.; Goldman, Frederick D.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) are numerous, including skewing of Th1/Th2 cytokine expression. cGVHD has biological differences between early and late onset cGVHD. To test whether different Th1/Th2 cytokines are associated with early or late onset cGVHD, peripheral blood was collected from 63 children enrolled on the Children’s Oncology Group phase III trial ASCT0031 evaluating hydroxychloroquine therapy for newly diagnosed extensive cGVHD. mRNA expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukins 2, 4 and 10(IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10) from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). We found that early onset cGVHD (n=33) was characterized by decreased expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA after non-specific PMA-Ionomycin stimulation. In contrast, late onset cGVHD (n=11) was characterized by decreased expression of IL-4 and IL-2 mRNA after anti-CD3 stimulation of T cells. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that IFN-γ production could determine the absence of early cGVHD (AUC=0.77) and IL-4 (AUC=0.89) and IL-2 (AUC=0.84) the absence of late cGVHD. We did not find any correlation between cytokine expression and a specific immune cell subset. We also showed an increased expression of Foxp3 mRNA in early onset cGVHD and late controls. The different time-dependent cytokine profiles in newly-diagnosed cGVHD suggests that mechanisms underlying cGVHD are temporally regulated. While larger validation studies are needed our data suggests cytokine profiles could potentially be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis of cGVHD. PMID:21669298

  6. Differential effects of Th1, monocyte/macrophage and Th2 cytokine mixtures on early gene expression for molecules associated with metabolism, signaling and regulation in central nervous system mixed glial cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lisak, Robert P; Benjamins, Joyce A; Bealmear, Beverly; Nedelkoska, Liljana; Studzinski, Diane; Retland, Ernest; Yao, Bin; Land, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background Cytokines secreted by immune cells and activated glia play central roles in both the pathogenesis of and protection from damage to the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We have used gene array analysis to identify the initial direct effects of cytokines on CNS glia by comparing changes in early gene expression in CNS glial cultures treated for 6 hours with cytokines typical of those secreted by Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages (M/M). Results In two previous papers, we summarized effects of these cytokines on immune-related molecules, and on neural and glial related proteins, including neurotrophins, growth factors and structural proteins. In this paper, we present the effects of the cytokines on molecules involved in metabolism, signaling and regulatory mechanisms in CNS glia. Many of the changes in gene expression were similar to those seen in ischemic preconditioning and in early inflammatory lesions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), related to ion homeostasis, mitochondrial function, neurotransmission, vitamin D metabolism and a variety of transcription factors and signaling pathways. Among the most prominent changes, all three cytokine mixtures markedly downregulated the dopamine D3 receptor, while Th1 and Th2 cytokines downregulated neuropeptide Y receptor 5. An unexpected finding was the large number of changes related to lipid metabolism, including several suggesting a switch from diacylglycerol to phosphatidyl inositol mediated signaling pathways. Using QRT-PCR we validated the results for regulation of genes for iNOS, arginase and P glycoprotein/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) seen at 6 hours with microarray. Conclusion Each of the three cytokine mixtures differentially regulated gene expression related to metabolism and signaling that may play roles in the pathogenesis of MS, most notably with regard to mitochondrial function and neurotransmitter signaling in glia. PMID

  7. An immunosuppressive murine leukaemia virus induces a Th1-->Th2 switch and abrogates the IgM antibody response to sheep erythrocytes by suppressing the production of IL-2.

    PubMed Central

    Faxvaag, A; Espevik, T; Dalen, A

    1995-01-01

    Many retroviruses have tropism for cells in the immune system and have a propensity to induce immunosuppression in the host. Some of the effects of retroviruses on immune cell function are thought to be mediated through cytokines. Friend ImmunoSuppressive virus-2 (FIS-2) is a low oncogenic murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) that induces lymphadenopathy and immunosuppression in NMRI mice. The role of T cell cytokines during the generation of a primary antibody response in healthy and FIS-2-infected mice was studied following the antibody response to sheep erythrocytes by an in vitro immunization (IVI) technique. In cultures from FIS-2-infected mice, the antibody response was reduced compared with cultures from uninfected mice and the production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-6 was elevated, whereas the Th1 cytokines IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were reduced. The suppressed anti-sheep erythrocyte antibody response in cultures from mice infected with FIS-2 seemed to be caused by an insufficient production of IL-2, since addition of recombinant IL-2 stimulated the antibody response. This effect was also observed in cultures depleted of T cells, indicating a direct effect of IL-2 on B cells. A switch to a Th2 cell response and suppression of IL-2 production might play a central role in the immune cell dysfunction induced by FIS-2. PMID:8536362

  8. Induction of a balanced Th1/Th2 immune responses by co-delivery of PLGA/ovalbumin nanospheres and CpG ODNs/PEI-SWCNT nanoparticles as TLR9 agonist in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Mahboubeh; Hashemi, Maryam; Maleki, Mohsen; Abnous, Khalil; Hashemitabar, Gholamreza; Ramezani, Mohammad; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-10-29

    To develop effective and safe vaccines with reduced dose of antigen and adjuvant, intelligent delivery systems are required. Many delivery systems have been developed to enhance the biological activity of cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) as both immunotherapeutic agents and vaccine adjuvants. In this study we designed a novel CpG ODN delivery system based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) functionalized with polyethylenimine (PEI) and alkylcarboxylated PEI (AL-PEI). The physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies of these carriers were performed. All carriers were conjugated with CpG ODN followed by co-delivery with ovalbumin (OVA) encapsulated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanospheres (PLGA NSs) to enhance the induction of immune responses. The effect of these formulations on antibody (IgG1, IgG2a) and cytokine (IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-4) production was evaluated in an in vivo experiment. The results showed that all nano-adjuvant formulations had a strong influence in up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-4 in parallel with high IgG1-IgG2a isotype antibody titers in mice. In particular, SWCNT-AL-PEI nano-adjuvant formulation generated a balanced Th1 and Th2 immune response with more biased toward Th1 response without exhibiting any inflammatory and toxic effects. Therefore this nano-adjuvant formulation could be used as an efficient prophylactic immune responses agent.

  9. Prophylaxis with a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Anti-G Protein Monoclonal Antibody Shifts the Adaptive Immune Response to RSV rA2-line19F Infection from Th2 to Th1 in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boyoglu-Barnum, Seyhan; Chirkova, Tatiana; Todd, Sean O.; Barnum, Thomas R.; Gaston, Kelsey A.; Jorquera, Patricia; Haynes, Lia M.; Tripp, Ralph A.; Moore, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of serious lower respiratory tract infections in young children, yet no highly effective treatment or vaccine is available. In the present study, we investigated the effect of prophylactic treatment with the intact and F(ab′)2 forms of an anti-G protein monoclonal antibody (MAb), 131-2G, on the humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses to RSV rA2-line19F (r19F) challenge in BALB/c mice. The F(ab′)2 form of 131-2G does not decrease virus replication, but intact 131-2G does. The serum specimens for antibodies and spleen cells for memory T cell responses to RSV antigens were analyzed at 30, 45, 75, and 95 days postinfection (p.i.) with or without prior treatment with 131-2G. The ratios of Th2 to Th1 antibody isotypes at each time p.i indicated that both forms of MAb 131-2G shifted the subclass response from a Th2 (IgG1 and IgG2b) to a Th1 (IgG2A) bias. The ratio of IgG1 to IgG2A antibody titer was 3-fold to 10-fold higher for untreated than MAb-treated mice. There was also some increase in IgG (22% ± 13% increase) and neutralization (32% increase) in antibodies with MAb 131-2G prophylaxis at 75 days p.i. Treatment with 131-2G significantly (P ≤ 0.001) decreased the percentage of interleukin-4 (IL-4)-positive CD4 and CD8 cells in RSV-stimulated spleen cells at all times p.i., while the percentage of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) T cells significantly (P ≤ 0.001) increased ≥75 days p.i. The shift from a Th2- to a Th1-biased T cell response in treated compared to untreated mice likely was directed by the much higher levels of T-box transcription factor (T-bet) (≥45% versus <10%) in CD4 and CD8 T cells and lower levels of Gata-3 (≤2% versus ≥ 6%) in CD4 T cells in peptide-stimulated, day 75 p.i. spleen cells. These data show that the RSV G protein affects both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses, and induction of 131-2G-like antibodies might improve the safety and

  10. Imbalanced shift of cytokine expression between T helper 1 and T helper 2 (Th1/Th2) in intestinal mucosa of patients with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji; Zhang, Yangde; Deng, Zhansheng

    2012-07-20

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel disorder. The post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) occurs in IBS patients with a history of intestinal infection preceding the onset of symptoms. However, the underlying cause of PI-IBS is not fully understood, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the immune regulatory mechanism of PI-IBS. Participants enrolled in this study were divided into three groups including PI-IBS patients (n = 20), IBS patients without a history of infection (non-PI-IBS, n = 18), and healthy controls (n = 20). The expression levels of the Th1-derived cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12, and the Th2-derived cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in the mucosal specimens, and in the ascending colon, the descending colon, and the rectal segments were measured by RT-PCR and western blot. The IFN-γ mRNA levels in the intestinal mucosa were significantly higher in the PI-IBS group than in the non-PI-IBS or control group (both P < 0.05), but there was no difference between the non-PI-IBS and control groups. A trend toward IFN-γ protein upregulation was found in the PI-IBS group, while the IL-12 and IL-4 mRNA and protein levels were not different between any groups. The IL-10 mRNA and protein levels in the PI-IBS group were both significantly lower than in the non-PI-IBS or control groups (P < 0.05, respectively), but there was no difference between the non-PI-IBS and control groups. There were no differences in the cytokine mRNA and protein levels among the ascending colon, the descending colon, and the rectum of all groups. An increase in IFN-γ levels and a decrease in IL-10 levels were found in the intestinal mucosa of PI-IBS patients, suggesting that the infection may affect the Th1/Th2 balance. Thus, the dysregulation of the immune response is likely an important cause of IBS.

  11. Pirfenidone restricts Th2 differentiation in vitro and limits Th2 response in experimental liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Partida, Jose; Martinez-Rizo, Abril Bernardette; Gonzalez-Cuevas, Jaime; Arrevillaga-Boni, Gerardo; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney; Armendariz-Borunda, Juan

    2012-03-05

    Polarized T helper type 2 (Th2) response is linked with fibrosis. Here, we evaluated the effect of the anti-fibrotic agent pirfenidone on Th type 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses. For in vivo testing; Wistar rats were made cirrhotic by intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide. Once hepatic damage was established, pirfenidone was administered intragastrically on a daily basis during three weeks. Gene expression of Th marks was evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot assays from liver homogenates. Pirfenidone therapy induced down-regulation of Th2 transcripts and proteins (GATA3 and IL-4), without affecting significantly Th1 genes expression (T-bet and IFN-γ). We found that the activated form of p38 MAPK (identified by Western blot) was reduced by pirfenidone treatment, which is consistent with the anti-Th2 activity observed. Pirfenidone reduced GATA3 nuclear localization without modifying its DNA binding activity (evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay). For in vitro testing; human naive CD4+ T cells were cultured in either Th1 or Th2 polarizing conditions in the presence of pirfenidone and flow cytometric analysis of intracellular synthesis of IFN-γ and IL-4 was conducted. Pirfenidone impaired development of Th2 subpopulation. In conclusion, pirfenidone is capable of impairing Th2 differentiation and limits Th2 profibrogenic response. The mechanism involves p38 inhibition and regulation of GATA3 expression and translocation.

  12. Local induction of a specific Th1 immune response by allergen linked immunostimulatory DNA in the nasal explants of ragweed-allergic subjects.

    PubMed

    Tulic, Meri K; Christodoulopoulos, Pota; Fiset, Pierre Olivier; Vaillancourt, Patrice; Lavigne, Francois; Marshall, Jason D; Van Nest, Gary; Eiden, Joseph J; Hamid, Qutayba

    2009-12-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is effective in allergic individuals however efforts are being made to improve its safety, convenience, and efficacy. It has recently been demonstrated that allergen-linked immunostimulatory DNA (ISS) is effective in stimulating an allergen-specific Th1 response with decreased allergenicity. The objective of this study is to investigate whether ISS linked to purified ragweed allergen Amb-a-1 (AIC) can inhibit local allergen-specific Th2 and induce allergen-specific Th1 responses in explanted nasal mucosa of ragweed-sensitive subjects. In addition, we set out to determine whether AIC is more effective compared to stimulation with unlinked Amb a 1 and ISS. Tissue from ragweed-sensitive patients (n = 12) was cultured with whole ragweed allergen (RW), Amb-a-1, AIC, Amb-a-1 and ISS (unlinked), or tetanus toxoid (TT) for 24 hours. IL-4, -5, -13, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA-positive cells were visualized by in situ hybridization and T cells, B cells and neutrophils were enumerated using immunocytochemistry. RW or Amb-a-1 increased the number of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA+ cells in the tissue compared to medium alone. AIC had similar cytokine mRNA reactivity as control tissue. AIC and TT increased IFNgamma-mRNA expression. Unlinked Amb-a-1 and ISS showed similar effects to AIC, however this response was weaker. The number of TNF mRNA+ cells, T cells, B cells and neutrophils remained unchanged. AIC is effective in stimulating a local allergen-specific Th1- and abolishing Th2-cytokine mRNA reactivity in the nose and may be considered as a strong candidate for an improved approach to immunotherapy in ragweed-sensitive individuals.

  13. Topical application of Pleurotus eryngii extracts inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice by the regulation of Th1/Th2 balance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Jin, Sun Woo; Han, Eun Hee; Khanal, Tilak; Do, Minh Truong; Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jun Min; Chun, Sung-Sik; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-03-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is a nutritional and medicinal food rich in polysaccharides that enhance the host immune system as a response to various diseases. The present study investigated the effects of P. eryngii extracts (PEE) on the progress of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). We evaluated skin dermatitis severity, ear thickness, histopathological examination, and cytokines level in DNCB-applied mice treated with PEE. Continuous treatment of PEE inhibited the development of the AD-like skin lesions. PEE suppressed DNCB-induced dermatitis severity, serum level of IgE and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), and mRNA expression of TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in mice. In addition, PEE reduced thickness of the dermis and dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells and mast cells in histopathological examination. These results indicate that PEE inhibits allergic contact dermatitis through the modulating of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 responses and diminishing the inflammatory cells and mast cells infiltration in the skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient Immuno-Modulation of TH1/TH2 Biomarkers in 2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis: Nanocarrier-Mediated Transcutaneous Co-Delivery of Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Zahid; Katas, Haliza; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Kumolosasi, Endang

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the immuno-modulatory and histological stabilization effects of nanocarrier–based transcutaneous co-delivery of hydrocortisone (HC) and hydroxytyrosol (HT). In this investigation, the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of nanoparticle (NP)-based formulation to alleviate 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) was explored by using an NC/Nga mouse model. Ex vivo visual examination of AD induction in experimental mice indicated remarkable control of NP-based formulations in reducing pathological severity of AD-like skin lesions. Therapeutic effectiveness of NP-based formulations was also evaluated by comparing skin thickness of AD-induced NP-treated mice (456±27 µm) with that of atopic mice (916±37 µm). Analysis of the immuno-spectrum of AD also revealed the dominance of NP-based formulations in restraining immunoglobulin-E (IgE), histamine, prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), vascular endothelial growth factor-α (VEGF-α), and T-helper cells (TH1/TH2) producing cytokines in serum and skin biopsies of tested mice. These anti-AD data were further supported by histological findings that revealed alleviated pathological features, including collagen fiber deposition, fibroblasts infiltration, and fragmentation of elastic fibers in experimental mice. Thus, NP-mediated transcutaneous co-delivery of HC and HT can be considered as a promising therapy for managing immunological and histological spectra associated with AD. PMID:25396426

  15. Correlation of TLR2 and TLR4 expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Th1- and Th2-type immune responses in children with henoch-schönlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong; Zhang, Qiu-Ye; Lin, Yi; Cheng, Na; Zhang, Shou-Qing

    2015-01-01

    We discussed the correlation of TLR2 (Toll-like receptor) and TLR4 expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to Th1- and Th2-type immune responses in children with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP). The role of TLR2 and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of HSP was analyzed. Sixty-four HSP children treated at our hospital from October 2011 to November 2012 were enrolled and divided into NHSPN group (complicated by renal impairment, 36 cases) and HSPN group (not complicated by renal impairment, 28 cases). In the meantime, 30 normal children receiving physical examination at our hospital were recruited as controls. Peripheral blood T cell subgroups and TLR2 and TLR4 expressions in PBMCs were detected by using flow cytometry; relative expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA in PBMCs by real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR, and plasma levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-6 by ELISA method. Relative expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNAs in PBMCs and TLR2 and TLR4 protein expressions in children with HSP were significantly higher than those of the controls (P<0.01). The relative expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNAs in PBMCs and TLR2 and TLR4 protein expressions in HSPN group were obviously higher than those in NHSPN group (P<0.05; P<0.01; P<0.01; P<0.01); CD3(+) T cells and CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells in HSP group were significantly decreased, while CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells and CD3(+)HLADR(+) T activated cells were considerably increased (P<0.01); The plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-6 in HSP group were significantly higher than those of the normal controls (P<0.01, P<0.01); IFN-γ level in the former was much lower than in the control group (P<0.05); IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in the former was also lower than that in the control (P<0.01); TLR2 and TLR4 expressions in HSP group showed significantly positive correlation with the plasma levels of IL-4 and IL-6 (P<0.01, P<0.05; P<0.01, P<0.01) and significantly negative correlation with IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (P<0.01; P<0.01). TLR2 and TLR4

  16. Local expansion of allergen-specific CD30+Th2-type gamma delta T cells in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Spinozzi, F.; Agea, E.; Bistoni, O.; Forenza, N.; Monaco, A.; Falini, B.; Bassotti, G.; De Benedictis, F.; Grignani, F.; Bertotto, A.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T lymphocytes infiltrating airways during the allergic immune response play a fundamental role in recruiting other specialized cells, such as eosinophils, by secreting interleukin 5 (IL-5), and promoting local and systemic IgE synthesis by producing IL-4. Whether these presumed allergen-specific T cells are of mucosal or systemic origin is still a matter of conjecture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunophenotype, IL-4 production, and in vitro proliferative response to specific or unrelated allergens were analyzed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid lymphocyte suspensions obtained from untreated patients with allergic asthma. Healthy subjects and patients affected by pulmonary sarcoidosis, a granulomatous lung disease characterized by infiltrating Th1 CD4+ lymphocytes, served as controls. RESULTS: The proportions of gamma delta T lymphocytes, mostly CD4+ or CD4- (-)CD8-, was higher in asthmatic subjects than in controls (p < 0.05). Most BAL gamma delta CD4+ lymphocytes of asthmatic patients displayed the T cell receptor (TCR)-gamma delta V delta 1 chain. While CD30 antigen coexpression on the surface of BAL alpha beta(+) T lymphocytes was low (ranging from 5 to 12%), about half of pulmonary gamma delta T cells coexpressed it. These cells produced IL-4 and negligible amounts of interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and proliferated in vitro in response to purified specific but not unrelated allergens. In contrast, control or sarcoidosis gamma delta T cells never displayed the CD30 surface molecule or produced significant quantities of IL-4. CONCLUSIONS: These findings not only confirm our previous hypothesis that the allergen-specific Th2-type lymphocytes found in the lungs of asthmatic patients are gamma delta T cells belonging to airway mucosal immunocytes, but also strongly support the notion that asthma is a local rather than a systemic disease. PMID:8612204

  17. Immunoregulatory effects of glycyrrhizic acid exerts anti-asthmatic effects via modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines and enhancement of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Ma, Zhanqiang; Liao, Xiao-lin; Liu, Jiping; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2013-07-30

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is the main bioactive ingredient of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and has been found to be associated with multiple therapeutic properties. In this study, we investigated immunoregulatory effects of glycyrrhizic acid on anti-asthmatic effects and underlying mechanisms. Asthma model was established by ovalbumin-induced. A total of 60 mice were randomly assigned to six experimental groups: control, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) and GA (10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg). Airway resistance (Raw) were measured by the forced oscillation technique, histological studies were evaluated by The hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Th1/Th2 and Th17 cytokines were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was evaluated by Flow Cytometry (FCM), the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Foxp3) was evaluated by western blotting. Our study demonstrated that, compared with model group, GA inhibited OVA-induced increases in Raw and eosinophil count; interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13 levels were recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared; increased IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; histological studies demonstrated that GA substantially inhibited OVA-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue and airway tissue compared with model group. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated that GA substantially enhanced Tregs compared with model group. These findings suggest that GA may effectively ameliorate the progression of asthma and could be used as a therapy for patients with allergic asthma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CD30 antigen and multiple sclerosis: CD30, an important costimulatory molecule and marker of a regulatory subpopulation of dendritic cells, is involved in the maintenance of the physiological balance between TH1/TH2 immune responses and tolerance. The role of IFNbeta-1a in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Patrizia; Totaro, Rocco; Contasta, Ida; Berghella, Anna Maria; Carolei, Antonio; Adorno, Domenico

    2005-01-01

    The immunological effect of CD30 on dendritic cells (DCs) was examined in a comparative study of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of interferon (IFN)beta-1a treatment: IFNbeta-1a-treated patients and untreated patients. We have already shown that CD30 is a marker of cells involved in the regulation of the balance between TH1 and TH2 immune responses and so the aim of this study was to confirm this role in DCs and, consequently, to clarify the immunopathological mechanisms of MS and the causes of immunosuppressive drug failure. We studied network interactions between soluble (s) CD30 and TH1/TH2 cytokines in the supernatants of CD14+-derived immature DC (IDC) and DC cultures from treated and untreated patients. Network interactions between the sCD30 and cytokines in IDC and DC supernatants were also evaluated in relation to TH1/TH2 cytokine serum levels. Our overall results show that CD30 is expressed on IDCs and DCs, indicating an immunological role in resting and activated physiological conditions. This role would appear to be the regulation of the resting and activated physiological balance between the TH1/TH2 immune functions as abnormal increases in sCD30 levels result in impaired regulation. Further studies are undoubtedly required to clarify this situation. IFNbeta-1a treatment was found to determine a fall in sCD30 levels, leading to the restoration of the normal functional selection of IDCs from progenitor cells and the regulation of the TH1/TH2 network balance. However, IFNbeta-1a treatment may also be responsible for the in vivo suppression of CD30-mediated TH1-DC functions in immune activation. TH1-DC functions are involved in the induction of T-regulatory cells for the physiological deletion of self-aggressive cells. We conclude that CD30 is an important costimulatory molecule and marker of a regulatory subpopulation of DCs which induces and modulates immune cells

  19. Simultaneous analysis of T helper subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Tfh, Tr1 and Tregs) markers expression in periapical lesions reveals multiple cytokine clusters accountable for lesions activity and inactivity status.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Pires, Ana Claudia; Francisconi, Carolina Favaro; Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Cavalla, Franco; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fabio; Letra, Ariadne; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro; Faveri, Marcelo; Silva, Renato Menezes; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determines the stable or progressive nature of periapical granulomas by modulating the balance of the osteoclastogenic factor RANKL and its antagonist OPG. However, the cytokine networks operating in the development of periapical lesions are quite more complex than what the simple pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators' paradigm suggests. Here we simultaneously investigated the patterns of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Thf, Tr1 and Tregs cytokines/markers expression in human periapical granulomas. The expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL23, IL21, IL-33, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, IL-22, FOXp3 markers (via RealTimePCR array) was accessed in active/progressive (N=40) versus inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas (as determined by RANKL/OPG expression ratio), and also to compare these samples with a panel of control specimens (N=26). A cluster analysis of 13 cytokine levels was performed to examine possible clustering between the cytokines in a total of 110 granulomas. The expression of all target cytokines was higher in the granulomas than in control samples. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21 mRNA levels were significantly higher in active granulomas, while in inactive lesions the expression levels of IL-4, IL-9, IL-10, IL-22 and FOXp3 were higher than in active granulomas. Five clusters were identified in inactive lesion groups, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-17, IL-10, FOXp3, IFN-γ, IL-9, IL-33 and IL-4 statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Three clusters were identified in active lesions, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-22, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-33, FOXp3, IL-21 and RANKL statistically significant (KW p<0.05). There is a clear dichotomy in the profile of cytokine expression in inactive and active periapical lesions. While the widespread cytokine expression seems to be a feature of chronic lesions, hierarchical cluster analysis

  20. Plasticity of Migrating CD1b+ and CD1b- Lymph Dendritic Cells in the Promotion of Th1, Th2 and Th17 in Response to Salmonella and Helminth Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Michel; Foret, Benjamin; Le Vern, Yves; Kerboeuf, Dominique; Guilloteau, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal in the development of specific T-cell responses to control pathogens, as they govern both the initiation and the polarization of adaptive immunity. To investigate the capacities of migrating DCs to respond to pathogens, we used physiologically generated lymph DCs (L-DCs). The flexible polarization of L-DCs was analysed in response to Salmonella or helminth secretions known to induce different T cell responses. Mature conventional CD1b+ L-DCs showed a predisposition to promote pro-inflammatory (IL-6), pro-Th1 (IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) responses which were amplified by Salmonella, and limited to only IL-6 induction by helminth secretions. The other major population of L-DCs did not express the CD1b molecule and displayed phenotypic features of immaturity compared to CD1b+ L-DCs. Salmonella infection reduced the constitutive expression of TNF-α and IL-4 mRNA in CD1b- L-DCs, whereas this expression was not affected by helminth secretions. The cytokine response of T cells promoted by L-DCs was analysed in T cell subsets after co-culture with Salmonella or helminth secretion-driven CD1b+ or CD1b- L-DCs. T cells preferentially expressed the IL-17 gene, and to a lesser extent the IFN-γ and IL-10 genes, in response to Salmonella-driven CD1b+ L-DCs, whereas a preferential IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-17 gene expression was observed in response to Salmonella-driven CD1b- L-DCs. In contrast, a predominant IL-4 and IL-13 gene expression by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was observed after stimulation of CD1b+ and CD1b- L-DCs with helminth secretions. These results show that mature conventional CD1b+ L-DCs maintain a flexible capacity to respond differently to pathogens, that the predisposition of CD1b- L-DCs to promote a Th2 response can be oriented towards other Th responses, and finally that the modulation of migrating L-DCs responses is controlled more by the pathogen encountered than the L-DC subsets. PMID:24223964

  1. Simultaneous analysis of T helper subsets (Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Tfh, Tr1 and Tregs) markers expression in periapical lesions reveals multiple cytokine clusters accountable for lesions activity and inactivity status

    PubMed Central

    ARAUJO-PIRES, Ana Claudia; FRANCISCONI, Carolina Favaro; BIGUETTI, Claudia Cristina; CAVALLA, Franco; ARANHA, Andreza Maria Fabio; LETRA, Ariadne; TROMBONE, Ana Paula Favaro; FAVERI, Marcelo; SILVA, Renato Menezes; GARLET, Gustavo Pompermaier

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators determines the stable or progressive nature of periapical granulomas by modulating the balance of the osteoclastogenic factor RANKL and its antagonist OPG. However, the cytokine networks operating in the development of periapical lesions are quite more complex than what the simple pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators' paradigm suggests. Here we simultaneously investigated the patterns of Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Thf, Tr1 and Tregs cytokines/markers expression in human periapical granulomas. Methods The expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL23, IL21, IL-33, IL-10, IL-4, IL-9, IL-22, FOXp3 markers (via RealTimePCR array) was accessed in active/progressive (N=40) versus inactive/stable (N=70) periapical granulomas (as determined by RANKL/OPG expression ratio), and also to compare these samples with a panel of control specimens (N=26). A cluster analysis of 13 cytokine levels was performed to examine possible clustering between the cytokines in a total of 110 granulomas. Results The expression of all target cytokines was higher in the granulomas than in control samples. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-21 mRNA levels were significantly higher in active granulomas, while in inactive lesions the expression levels of IL-4, IL-9, IL-10, IL-22 and FOXp3 were higher than in active granulomas. Five clusters were identified in inactive lesion groups, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-17, IL-10, FOXp3, IFN-γ, IL-9, IL-33 and IL-4 statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Three clusters were identified in active lesions, being the variance in the expression levels of IL-22, IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-33, FOXp3, IL-21 and RANKL statistically significant (KW p<0.05). Conclusion There is a clear dichotomy in the profile of cytokine expression in inactive and active periapical lesions. While the widespread cytokine expression seems to be a feature of chronic lesions

  2. A VLP Library of C-Terminally Truncated Hepatitis B Core Proteins: Correlation of RNA Encapsidation with a Th1/Th2 Switch in the Immune Responses of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sominskaya, Irina; Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Dishlers, Andris; Berza, Ieva; Mihailova, Maria; Jansons, Juris; Akopjana, Inara; Stahovska, Irina; Dreilina, Dzidra; Ose, Velta; Pumpens, Paul

    2013-01-01

    An efficient pBR327- and Ptrp-based E. coli expression system was used to generate a large-scale library of virus like particles (VLP) formed by recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) protein derivatives. To construct the library, the gene of HBc protein of the genotype D/subtype ayw2 virus was gradually truncated from the 3`-end and twenty-two HBc variants (with truncation up to 139 aa) were expressed at high levels. The proteins were purified by salt precipitation and gel filtration. Background RNA binding was observed for VLPs formed by HBc1-149, which lacked all C-terminal Arg blocks, and the addition of three Arg residues (HBc1-152) only slightly increased RNA binding. The presence of two Arg blocks (proteins HBc1-162 and HBc1-163) resulted in approximately half of the typical level of RNA binding, and the presence of three blocks (protein HBc1-171) led to approximately 85% of the typical level of binding. Only a small increase in the level of RNA binding was found for the HBc1-175 VLPs, which contained all four Arg blocks but lacked the last 8 aa of the full-length HBc protein. VLPs containing high levels of RNA had higher antigenicity according to an ELISA with anti-HBc mAbs than the VLPs formed by HBc variants without C-terminal Arg blocks and lacking RNA. The results indicate that the VLPs were stabilised by nucleic acids. The immunogenicity in BALB/c mice was comparable for VLPs formed by different HBc proteins, but a clear switch from a Th1 response to a Th2 response occurred after the loss of encapsidated RNA. We did not observe significant differences in lymphocyte proliferation in vitro for the tested VLP variants; however, the loss of RNA encapsidation correlated with a decreased level of IFN-γ induction, which is a measure of the potential CTL activity of immunogens. PMID:24086668

  3. Combined CD4+ Th1 effect and lymphotactin transgene expression enhance CD8+ Tc1 tumor localization and therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Bi, X G; Yuan, J Y; Xu, S L; Guo, X L; Xiang, J

    2005-06-01

    Type 1 T cells are the major components in antitumor immunity. The lack of efficient CD8(+) cytotoxic T (Tc) cell infiltration of tumors is a major obstacle to adoptive Tc-cell therapy. We have previously demonstrated that adenovirus (AdV)-mediated transgene lymphotactin (Lptn) expression by intratumoral AdVLptn injection and intravenous CD4(+) helper T (Th) cell transfer can enhance Tc-cell tumor infiltration and eradication of early stage tumors (5 mm in diameter). In this study, we generated ovalbumin (OVA)-specific Tc1 and Th1 cells in vitro by incubation of OVA-pulsed dendritic cells with naive T cells from T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OT I and OT II mice. We then investigated the potential synergy of Th1 help effect and Lptn transgene expression in Tc1-cell therapy of well-established OVA-expressing EG7 solid tumors (7 mm in diameter). Our data showed that a combined adoptive T-cell therapy of Th1 (2.5 x 10(6) cells per mouse) and Tc1 (5 x 10(6) cells per mouse) resulted in regression of all eight (100%) transgene Lptn expressed EG7 tumors, which is significantly higher than four from eight (50%) in AdVLptn/Tc1 group and two from eight (25%) in Tc1/Th1 group (P < 0.05). The amount of transferred Tc1 cells detected in Lptn-expressed tumors with Th1 treatment is 0.72%, which is significantly higher than those of AdVLptn (0.22%), Th1 (0.41%) and the control AdVpLpA (0.09%) treatment groups (P < 0.05). Enhanced Tc1 tumor localization may be derived from the chemotactic effect of Lptn and the proliferative effect of Th1 and Lptn. This novel therapeutic strategy with enhancement of Tc1 tumor localization in the therapy of well-established tumors may become a tool of considerable conceptual interest in the implementation of future clinical objectives.

  4. Th2-Associated Alternative Kupffer Cell Activation Promotes Liver Fibrosis without Inducing Local Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    López-Navarrete, Giuliana; Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; Aguirre-García, Jesús; Ledezma-Soto, Yadira; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Gudiño-Zayas, Marco; Guzmán, Carolina; Gutiérrez-Reyes, Gabriela; Hernández-Ruíz, Joselín; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Kershenobich, David; Terrazas, Luis I.; Escobedo, Galileo

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhosis is the final outcome of liver fibrosis. Kupffer cell-mediated hepatic inflammation is considered to aggravate liver injury and fibrosis. Alternatively-activated macrophages are able to control chronic inflammatory events and trigger wound healing processes. Nevertheless, the role of alternative Kupffer cell activation in liver harm is largely unclear. Thus, we evaluated the participation of alternatively-activated Kupffer cells during liver inflammation and fibrosis in the murine model of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. To stimulate alternative activation in Kupffer cells, 20 Taenia crassiceps (Tc) larvae were inoculated into BALBc/AnN female mice. Six weeks post-inoculation, carbon tetrachloride or olive oil were orally administered to Tc-inoculated and non-inoculated mice twice per week during other six weeks. The initial exposure of animals to T. crassiceps resulted in high serum concentrations of IL-4 accompanied by a significant increase in the hepatic mRNA levels of Ym-1, with no alteration in iNOS expression. In response to carbon tetrachloride, recruitment of inflammatory cell populations into the hepatic parenchyma was 5-fold higher in non-inoculated animals than Tc-inoculated mice. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis was significantly less in non-inoculated animals than in the Tc-inoculated group. The latter showed elevated IL-4 serum levels and low IFN-γ concentrations during the whole experiment, associated with hepatic expression of IL-4, TGF-β, desmin and α-sma, as well as increased mRNA levels of Arg-1, Ym-1, FIZZ-1 and MMR in Kupffer cells. These results suggest that alternative Kupffer cell activation is favored in a Th2 microenvironment, whereby such liver resident macrophages could exhibit a dichotomic role during chronic hepatic damage, being involved in attenuation of the inflammatory response but at the same time exacerbation of liver fibrosis. PMID:22110380

  5. Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung Epidermis Extract Inhibits Mite Antigen-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice by Regulating the Th1/Th2 Balance and Expression of Filaggrin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gabsik; Cheon, Se-Yun; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Sung-Jin; Hong, Chul-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Jin-Cheol; Kwon, Oh-Keun; Nam, Jung-Hwan; An, Hyo-Jin

    2015-09-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung (JY) is a potato with dark purple flesh and contains substantial amounts of polyphenols. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of S. tuberosum L. cv JY in a mouse model of Dermatophagoides farinae body (Dfb)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD). The ethanol extract of the peel of JY (EPJ) ameliorated Dfb-induced dermatitis severity, serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine. Histological analysis of the skin also revealed that EPJ treatment significantly decreased mast cell infiltration. The suppression of dermatitis by EPJ treatment was accompanied by a decrease in the skin levels of type 2 helper T-cell cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. The induction of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, which leads to a systemic Th2 response, was also decreased in the skin by EPJ. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB p65 was decreased by EPJ in Dfb-induced NC/Nga mice. The protein expression of filaggrin in the AD-like skin lesions was restored by EPJ treatment. These results suggested that EPJ may be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of AD.

  6. Differential regulation of Th1 and Th2 cells by p91–110 and p21–40 peptides of the 16-kD α-crystallin antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    AGREWALA, J N; WILKINSON, R J

    1998-01-01

    Permissively recognized peptides which can activate lymphocytes from subjects with a variety of class II HLA types are interesting diagnostic and vaccine candidates. In this study we generated T helper clones reactive to the permissively recognized p21–40 and p91–110 peptides of the 16-kD heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All the clones specific for p91–110 secreted interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and were of the Th1 phenotype. By contrast, the p21–40 peptide favoured the generation of IL-4-producing clones. Antibody blockade established that the peptide-specific Th clones could either be DR-, DP- or DQ-restricted. Thus, two permissively recognized sequences p21–40 and p91–110 from the same mycobacterial antigen can drive the differentiation of functionally distinct T helper subsets. Attempts to immunize against tuberculosis should bear in mind epitope specificity if a favourable Th subtype response is to be generated. PMID:9844048

  7. Lactic acid bacteria enhance autophagic ability of mononuclear phagocytes by increasing Th1 autophagy-promoting cytokine (IFN-gamma) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and reducing Th2 autophagy-restraining cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen.

    PubMed

    Ghadimi, Darab; de Vrese, Michael; Heller, Knut J; Schrezenmeir, Juergen

    2010-06-01

    Control of the intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), mainly requires an appropriate ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines to induce autophagy, a physiologically, and immunologically regulated process that has recently been highlighted as an innate defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. Current vaccines/adjuvants induce both protective Th1 autophagy-promoting cytokines, such as IFN-gamma, and immunosuppressive Th2 autophagy-restraining cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13. TB infection itself is also characterized by relatively high levels of Th2 cytokines, which down-regulate Th1 responses and subsequently subvert adequate protective immunity, and a low ratio of IFN-gamma/IL-4. Therefore, there is a need for a safe and non-toxic vaccine/adjuvant that will induce Th1 autophagy-promoting cytokine (IFN-gamma) secretion and suppress the pre-existing subversive Th2 autophagy-restraining cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13). As lactic acid bacteria (LAB) belonging to the natural intestinal microflora and their components have been shown to shift immune responses against other antigens from Th2-type cytokines toward Th1-type cytokines like IFN-gamma, we investigated whether LAB can improve the polarization of Th1/Th2 cytokines and autophagic ability of mononuclear phagocytes in response to Mtb antigen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which are a part of the mononuclear phagocyte system and source of crucial macrophage activators in the in vivo situation, and human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) were treated with Mtb antigen in the presence or absence of two strains of LAB, L. rhammosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium bifidum MF 20/5 (B.b). PBMCs cell culture supernatants were analyzed for the production of the autophagy-promoting factors IFN-gamma, and nitric oxide (NO) and the autophagy-restraining cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, using ELISA and Griess assays to detect the production of cytokines and NO, respectively. In HMDMs, expression of microtubule

  8. Crucial Contributions by T Lymphocytes (Effector, Regulatory, and Checkpoint Inhibitor) and Cytokines (TH1, TH2, and TH17) to a Pathological Complete Response Induced by Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Chandan; Eremin, Jennifer M.; Cowley, Gerard; Ilyas, Mohammed; Eremin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment consists of malignant cells, stroma, and immune cells. Prominent tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer are associated with a good prognosis and are predictors of a pathological complete response (pCR) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The contribution of different T effector/regulatory cells and cytokines to tumour cell death with NAC requires further characterisation and was investigated in this study. Breast tumours from 33 women with large and locally advanced breast cancers undergoing NAC were immunohistochemically (intratumoural, stromal) assessed for T cell subsets and cytokine expression using labelled antibodies, employing established semiquantitative methods. Prominent levels of TILs and CD4+, CD8+, and CTLA-4+ (stromal) T cells and CD8+ : FOXP3+ ratios were associated with a significant pCR; no association was seen with FOXP3+, CTLA-4+ (intratumoural), and PD-1+ T cells. NAC significantly reduced CD4+, FOXP3+, CTLA-4+ (stromal) (concurrently blood FOXP3+, CTLA-4+ Tregs), and PD-1+ T cells; no reduction was seen with CD8+ and CTLA-4+ (intratumoural) T cells. High post-NAC tumour levels of FOXP3+ T cells, IL-10, and IL-17 were associated with a failed pCR. Our study has characterised further the contribution of T effector/regulatory cells and cytokines to tumour cell death with NAC. PMID:27777963

  9. T helper 2 (Th2) T cells induce acute pancreatitis and diabetes in immune-compromised nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice.

    PubMed

    Pakala, S V; Kurrer, M O; Katz, J D

    1997-07-21

    Autoimmune diabetes is caused by the CD4(+), T helper 1 (Th1) cell-mediated apoptosis of insulin-producing beta cells. We have previously shown that Th2 T cells bearing the same T cell receptor (TCR) as the diabetogenic Th1 T cells invade islets in neonatal nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice but fail to cause disease. Moreover, when mixed in excess and cotransferred with Th1 T cells, Th2 T cells could not protect NOD neonates from Th1-mediated diabetes. We have now found, to our great surprise, the same Th2 T cells that produced a harmless insulitis in neonatal NOD mice produced intense and generalized pancreatitis and insulitis associated with islet cell necrosis, abscess formation, and subsequent diabetes when transferred into immunocompromised NOD.scid mice. These lesions resembled allergic inflamation and contained a large eosinophilic infiltrate. Moreover, the Th2-mediated destruction of islet cells was mediated by local interleukin-10 (IL-10) production but not by IL-4. These findings indicate that under certain conditions Th2 T cells may not produce a benign or protective insulitis but rather acute pathology and disease. Additionally, these results lead us to question the feasibility of Th2-based therapy in type I diabetes, especially in immunosuppressed recipients of islet cell transplants.

  10. Phosphatidylethanolamine-esterified eicosanoids in the mouse: tissue localization and inflammation-dependent formation in Th-2 disease.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Alwena H; Dioszeghy, Vincent; Maskrey, Benjamin H; Thomas, Christopher P; Clark, Stephen R; Mathie, Sara A; Lloyd, Clare M; Kühn, Hartmut; Topley, Nicholas; Coles, Barbara C; Taylor, Philip R; Jones, Simon A; O'Donnell, Valerie B

    2009-08-07

    In this study, murine peritoneal macrophages from naïve lavage were found to generate four phospholipids that contain 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). They comprise three plasmalogen and one diacyl phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) (16:0p, 18:1p, 18:0p, and 18:0a at sn-1) and are absent in macrophages from 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX)-deficient mice. They are generated acutely in response to calcium mobilization, are primarily cell-associated, and are detected on the outside of the plasma membrane. Levels of 12-HETE-PEs in naïve lavage are in a similar range to those of free 12-HETE (5.5 +/- 0.2 ng or 18.5 +/- 1.03 ng/lavage for esterified versus free, respectively). In healthy mice, 12/15-LOX-derived 12-HETE-PEs are found in the peritoneal cavity, peritoneal membrane, lymph node, and intestine, with a similar distribution to 12/15-LOX-derived 12-HETE. In vivo generation of 12-HETE-PEs occurs in a Th2-dependent model of murine lung inflammation associated with interleukin-4/interleukin-13 expression. In contrast, in Toll receptor-dependent peritonitis mediated either by live bacteria or bacterial products, 12-HETE-PEs are rapidly cleared during the acute phase then reappear during resolution. The human homolog, 18:0a/15-HETE-PE inhibited human monocyte generation of cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide. In summary, a new family of lipid mediators generated by murine macrophages during Th2 inflammation are identified and structurally characterized. The studies suggest a new paradigm for lipids generated by 12/15-LOX in inflammation involving formation of esterified eicosanoids.

  11. Allergen challenge induces Ifng dependent GTPases in the lungs as part of a Th1 transcriptome response in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Dharajiya, Nilesh; Vaidya, Swapnil; Sinha, Mala; Luxon, Bruce; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2009-12-21

    According to the current paradigm, allergic airway inflammation is mediated by Th2 cytokines and pro-inflammatory chemokines. Since allergic inflammation is self-limited, we hypothesized that allergen challenge simultaneously induces anti-inflammatory genes to counter-balance the effects of Th2 cytokines and chemokines. To identify these putative anti-inflammatory genes, we compared the gene expression profile in the lungs of ragweed-sensitized mice four hours after challenge with either PBS or ragweed extract (RWE) using a micro-array platform. Consistent with our hypothesis, RWE challenge concurrently upregulated Th1-associated early target genes of the Il12/Stat4 pathway, such as p47 and p65 GTPases (Iigp, Tgtp and Gbp1), Socs1, Cxcl9, Cxcl10 and Gadd45g with the Th2 genes Il4, Il5, Ccl2 and Ccl7. These Th1-associated genes remain upregulated longer than the Th2 genes. Augmentation of the local Th1 milieu by administration of Il12 or CpG prior to RWE challenge further upregulated these Th1 genes. Abolition of the Th1 response by disrupting the Ifng gene increased allergic airway inflammation and abrogated RWE challenge-induced upregulation of GTPases, Cxcl9, Cxcl10 and Socs1, but not Gadd45g. Our data demonstrate that allergen challenge induces two sets of Th1-associated genes in the lungs: 1) Ifng-dependent genes such as p47 and p65 GTPases, Socs1, Cxcl9 and Cxcl10 and 2) Ifng-independent Th1-inducing genes like Gadd45g. We propose that allergen-induced airway inflammation is regulated by simultaneous upregulation of Th1 and Th2 genes, and that persistent unopposed upregulation of Th1 genes resolves allergic inflammation.

  12. Nasal delivery of chitosan-coated poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-encapsulated honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom promotes Th 1-specific systemic and local intestinal immune responses in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Kim, Yun-Mi; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Ho; Lee, Cho-A; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Sang-Ki; Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2016-10-01

    Nasal delivery is a convenient and acceptable route for drug administration, and has been shown to elicit a much more potent local and systemic response compared with other drug delivery routes. We previously demonstrated that rectal administration of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-encapsulated honeybee venom (P-HBV) could enhance systemic Th 1-specific immune responses. We therefore synthesized chitosan-coated P-HBV (CP-HBV) and then evaluated the immune-boosting efficacy of nasally administered CP-HBV on systemic and local intestinal immunity compared with non-chitosan-coated P-HBV. The nasally delivered CP-HBV effectively enhanced Th 1-specific responses, eliciting a significant increase in the CD3(+)CD4(+)CD8(-) Th cell population, lymphocyte proliferation capacity, and expression of Th 1 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-2) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, these immune-boosting effects persisted up to 21days post CP-HBV administration. Nasal administration of CP-HBV also led to an increase of not only the CD4(+) Th 1 and IFN-γ secreting CD4(+) Th 1 cell population but also Th 1-specific cytokines and transcription factors, including IL-12, IFN-γ, STAT4, and T-bet, in isolated mononuclear cells from the spleen and ileum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intestinal Irradiation and Fibrosis in a Th1-Deficient Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Linard, Christine; Billiard, Fabienne; Benderitter, Marc

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Changes in the Th1/Th2 immune balance may play a role in increasing the incidence of radiation-induced toxicity. This study evaluates the consequences of Th1 deficiency on intestinal response (fibrosis and T cell trafficking) to abdominal irradiation and examines in mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) the differential involvement of the two Th1 pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, in controlling this balance in mice. Methods and Materials: Using T-bet-deficient mice (T-bet{sup -/-}), we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of the Th1 pathways (IFN-{gamma}, T-bet/STAT1, and IL-12/STAT4) and the CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} populations in ileal mucosa and MLN during the first 3 months after 10 Gy abdominal irradiation. Results: The T-bet-deficient mice showed an increased fibrotic response to radiation, characterized by higher TGF-{beta}1, col3a1 expression, and collagen deposition in mucosa compared with wild-type mice. This response was associated with drastically lower expression of IFN-{gamma}, the hallmark Th1 cytokine. Analysis of the Th1 expression pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, showed their equal involvement in the failure of Th1 polarization. A minimal IFN-{gamma} level depended on the IL-23-p19/STAT4 level. In addition, the radiation-induced deficiency in the priming of Th1 by IFN-{gamma} was related to the defective homing capacity of CD8{sup +} cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: Irradiation induces Th2 polarization, and the Th2 immune response may play a role in potentiating irradiation-induced intestinal collagen deposition.

  14. Specialized CC-chemokine secretion by Th1 cells in destructive autoimmune myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Song, Howard K; Noorchashm, Hooman; Lin, Tina H; Moore, Daniel J; Greeley, Siri A; Caton, Andrew J; Naji, Ali

    2003-12-01

    T helper (Th) 1-mediated immune responses are associated with adverse outcomes in a number of models of autoimmune disease. Previous work has focused on the role that cytokines secreted by Th1 cells play in mediating pathologic tissue injury. To evaluate other mechanisms by which Th1 cells may be specialized to coordinate the complex effector cell interactions of a destructive immune response, CD4+ T cells specific for influenza hemagglutinin (HA) were differentiated into Th1 or Th2 subsets and transferred into transgenic mice expressing HA under control of the beta myosin heavy chain promoter, which drives heart specific expression of HA. CD4+ T cells polarized to a Th1 phenotype mediated a more destructive myocarditis than Th2 cells. Strikingly, the Th1-mediated inflammation was comprised primarily of CD8+ T cells and macrophages, suggesting a specialized recruitment function for Th1 cells. Further studies revealed that Th1 and Th2 subsets had polarized secretion of certain CC-chemokines, including MIP-1alpha and RANTES, which have selective recruitment properties on effector cells. Th1 cell secreted factors were up to 1000-fold more potent in inducing CD8+ T cell migration compared to Th2 cell secreted factors, and this advantage was partially mediated by their specialized MIP-1alpha secretion. These findings indicate that Th subsets have distinct patterns of CC-chemokine secretion and this specialization by Th1 cells mediates the recruitment of cytotoxic effector cells into destructive inflammatory responses.

  15. CD4+ Th1 cells promote CD8+ Tc1 cell survival, memory response, tumor localization and therapy by targeted delivery of interleukin 2 via acquired pMHC I complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Hao, Siguo; Li, Fang; Ye, Zhenmin; Yang, Junbao; Xiang, Jim

    2007-02-01

    The cooperative role of CD4+ helper T (Th) cells has been reported for CD8+ cytotoxic T (Tc) cells in tumor eradication. However, its molecular mechanisms have not been well elucidated. We have recently demonstrated that CD4+ Th cells can acquire major histocompatibility complex/peptide I (pMHC I) complexes and costimulatory molecules by dendritic cell (DC) activation, and further stimulate naïve CD8+ T cell proliferation and activation. In this study, we used CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1 cells derived from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OT II and OT I mice to study CD4+ Th1 cell's help effects on active CD8+ Tc1 cells and the molecular mechanisms involved in CD8+ Tc1-cell immunotherapy of OVA-expressing EG7 tumors. Our data showed that CD4+ Th1 cells with acquired pMHC I by OVA-pulsed DC (DCOVA) stimulation are capable of prolonging survival and reducing apoptosis formation of active CD8+ Tc1 cells in vitro, and promoting CD8+ Tc1 cell tumor localization and memory responses in vivo by 3-folds. A combined adoptive T-cell therapy of CD8+ Tc1 with CD4+ Th1 cells resulted in regression of well-established EG7 tumors (5 mm in diameter) in all 10/10 mice. The CD4+ Th1's help effect is mediated via the helper cytokine IL-2 specifically targeted to CD8+ Tc1 cells in vivo by acquired pMHC I complexes. Taken together, these results will have important implications for designing adoptive T-cell immunotherapy protocols in treatment of solid tumors.

  16. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  17. Selective Th2 Upregulation by Crocus sativus: A Neutraceutical Spice

    PubMed Central

    Bani, Sarang; Pandey, Anjali; Agnihotri, Vijai K.; Pathania, Vijaylata; Singh, Bikram

    2011-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of an Indian neutraceutical spice, saffron (Crocus sativus) was studied on Th1 and Th2 limbs of the immune system. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus (ACS) at graded dose levels from 1.56–50 mg/kg p.o. potentiated the Th2 response of humoral immunity causing the significant increases in agglutinating antibody titre in mice at a dose of 6.25 mg/kg and an elevation of CD19+ B cells and IL-4 cytokine, a signature cytokine of Th2 pathway. Appreciable elevation in levels of IgG-1 and IgM antibodies of the primary and secondary immune response was observed. However, ACS showed no appreciable expression of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 (growth factor for CD4+ T cells) and IFN-γ (signature cytokine of Th1 response). A significant modulation of immune reactivity was observed in all the animal models used. This paper represents the selective upregulation of the Th2 response of the test material and suggests its use for subsequent selective Th2 immunomodulation. PMID:20953384

  18. Immunization with Low Doses of Recombinant Postfusion or Prefusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus F Primes for Vaccine-Enhanced Disease in the Cotton Rat Model Independently of the Presence of a Th1-Biasing (GLA-SE) or Th2-Biasing (Alum) Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Ohrum, Kirsten; Cayatte, Corinne; Bennett, Angie Snell; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; McTamney, Patrick; Nacel, Krystal; Hostetler, Leigh; Cheng, Lily; Ren, Kuishu; O'Day, Terrence; Prince, Gregory A; McCarthy, Michael P

    2017-04-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of children previously immunized with a nonlive, formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV vaccine has been associated with serious enhanced respiratory disease (ERD). Consequently, detailed studies of potential ERD are a critical step in the development of nonlive RSV vaccines targeting RSV-naive children and infants. The fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV in either its postfusion (post-F) or prefusion (pre-F) conformation is a target for neutralizing antibodies and therefore an attractive antigen candidate for a pediatric RSV subunit vaccine. Here, we report the evaluation of RSV post-F and pre-F in combination with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) integrated into stable emulsion (SE) (GLA-SE) and alum adjuvants in the cotton rat model. Immunization with optimal doses of RSV F antigens in the presence of GLA-SE induced high titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies and conferred complete lung protection from virus challenge, with no ERD signs in the form of alveolitis. To mimic a waning immune response, and to assess priming for ERD under suboptimal conditions, an antigen dose de-escalation study was performed in the presence of either GLA-SE or alum. At low RSV F doses, alveolitis-associated histopathology was unexpectedly observed with either adjuvant at levels comparable to FI-RSV-immunized controls. This occurred despite neutralizing-antibody titers above the minimum levels required for protection and with no/low virus replication in the lungs. These results emphasize the need to investigate a pediatric RSV vaccine candidate carefully for priming of ERD over a wide dose range, even in the presence of strong neutralizing activity, Th1 bias-inducing adjuvant, and protection from virus replication in the lower respiratory tract.IMPORTANCE RSV disease is of great importance worldwide, with the highest burden of serious disease occurring upon primary infection in infants and children. FI-RSV-induced enhanced disease, observed in the 1960s

  19. Immunization with Low Doses of Recombinant Postfusion or Prefusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus F Primes for Vaccine-Enhanced Disease in the Cotton Rat Model Independently of the Presence of a Th1-Biasing (GLA-SE) or Th2-Biasing (Alum) Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Schneider-Ohrum, Kirsten; Bennett, Angie Snell; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; McTamney, Patrick; Nacel, Krystal; Hostetler, Leigh; Cheng, Lily; Ren, Kuishu; O'Day, Terrence; Prince, Gregory A.; McCarthy, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of children previously immunized with a nonlive, formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV vaccine has been associated with serious enhanced respiratory disease (ERD). Consequently, detailed studies of potential ERD are a critical step in the development of nonlive RSV vaccines targeting RSV-naive children and infants. The fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV in either its postfusion (post-F) or prefusion (pre-F) conformation is a target for neutralizing antibodies and therefore an attractive antigen candidate for a pediatric RSV subunit vaccine. Here, we report the evaluation of RSV post-F and pre-F in combination with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) integrated into stable emulsion (SE) (GLA-SE) and alum adjuvants in the cotton rat model. Immunization with optimal doses of RSV F antigens in the presence of GLA-SE induced high titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies and conferred complete lung protection from virus challenge, with no ERD signs in the form of alveolitis. To mimic a waning immune response, and to assess priming for ERD under suboptimal conditions, an antigen dose de-escalation study was performed in the presence of either GLA-SE or alum. At low RSV F doses, alveolitis-associated histopathology was unexpectedly observed with either adjuvant at levels comparable to FI-RSV-immunized controls. This occurred despite neutralizing-antibody titers above the minimum levels required for protection and with no/low virus replication in the lungs. These results emphasize the need to investigate a pediatric RSV vaccine candidate carefully for priming of ERD over a wide dose range, even in the presence of strong neutralizing activity, Th1 bias-inducing adjuvant, and protection from virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. IMPORTANCE RSV disease is of great importance worldwide, with the highest burden of serious disease occurring upon primary infection in infants and children. FI-RSV-induced enhanced disease, observed in the

  20. Epidermal expression of I-TAC (Cxcl11) instructs adaptive Th2-type immunity.

    PubMed

    Roebrock, Kirsten; Sunderkötter, Cord; Münck, Niels-Arne; Wolf, Marc; Nippe, Nadine; Barczyk, Katarzyna; Varga, Georg; Vogl, Thomas; Roth, Johannes; Ehrchen, Jan

    2014-04-01

    To decipher early promoters of the local microenvironment for Th2-type immunity, we wanted to identify gene patterns that were induced by Leishmania major in the infected skin of susceptible, Th2-prone BALB/c, but not of resistant, Th1-prone C57BL/6 mice. We found a marked up-regulation of the chemokine I-TAC (Cxcl11) during the first 2 d of infection in the epidermis of susceptible but not of resistant mice. Accordingly, local injection of I-TAC (2×1 μg) in resistant mice on the first day of infection resulted in a Th2-driven, sustained deterioration of disease and dramatically enhanced parasite levels. On the cellular level, I-TAC decreased IL-12 production by dendritic cells (DCs) in skin-draining lymph nodes and by DCs in vitro. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that epidermis-derived I-TAC triggers a sustained Th2-response that determines the outcome of a complex immunological process.

  1. Lyn Kinase Controls Basophil GATA-3 Transcription Factor Expression and Induction of Th2 Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Nicolas; Watford, Wendy T.; Ramos, Haydeé L.; Hellman, Lars; Oettgen, Hans C.; Gomez, Gregorio; Ryan, John J.; O’Shea, John J.; Rivera, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Summary TH1/TH2 balance is key to host defense and its dysregulation has pathophysiological consequences. Basophils are important in TH2 differentiation. However, the factors controlling the onset and extent of basophil-mediated TH2 differentiation are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Lyn kinase dampens basophil GATA-3 expression and the initiation and extent of TH2 differentiation. Lyn-null mice had a marked basophilia, a constitutive TH2 skewing that was exacerbated upon in vivo challenge of basophils, produced antibodies to a normally inert antigen, and failed to appropriately respond to a TH1 pathogen. The TH2 skewing was dependent on basophils, IgE and IL-4, but was independent of mast cells. Our findings demonstrate that basophil-expressed Lyn kinase exerts regulatory control on TH2 differentiation and function. PMID:19362019

  2. Human Th2 cells selectively express the orexigenic peptide, pro-melanin-concentrating hormone

    PubMed Central

    Sandig, Hilary; McDonald, Joanne; Gilmour, Jane; Arno, Matthew; Lee, Tak H.; Cousins, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Th1 and Th2 cells represent the two main functional subsets of CD4+ T helper cell, and are defined by their cytokine expression. Human Th1 cells express IFNγ, whilst Th2 cells express IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Th1 and Th2 cells have distinct immunological functions, and can drive different immunopathologies. Here, we show that in vitro-differentiated human Th2 cells highly selectively express the gene for pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (PMCH), using real-time RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassay, and Western blot analysis. PMCH encodes the prohormone, promelanin-concentrating hormone (PMCH), which is proteolytically processed to produce several peptides, including the orexigenic hormone melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). PMCH expression by Th2 cells was activation responsive and increased throughout the 28-day differentiation in parallel with the expression of the Th2 cytokine genes. MCH immunoreactivity was detected in the differentiated Th2 but not Th1 cell culture supernatants after activation, and contained the entire PMCH protein, in addition to several smaller peptides. Human Th1 and Th2 cells were isolated by their expression of IFNγ and CRTH2, respectively, and the ex vivo Th2 cells expressed PMCH upon activation, in contrast to the Th1 cells. Because Th2 cells are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases including asthma, expression of PMCH by activated Th2 cells in vivo may directly link allergic inflammation to energy homeostasis and may contribute to the association between asthma and obesity. PMID:17640905

  3. So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang, tradititional Korean medicine, suppresses Th2 lineage development.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eunjung; Rho, Samwoong; Cho, Chongwoon; Choi, Hyun; Ko, Seonggyu; Lee, Youngwon; Hong, Moo-Chang; Shin, Min-Kyu; Jung, Seung-Gi; Bae, Hyunsu

    2004-05-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of So-Cheong-Ryong-Tang (SCRT, also called Sho-Seiryu-To or Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang) on helper T cell development by monitoring Th1/Th2-specific cytokine secretion patterns in artificially induced Th1 or Th2 polarized conditions. The results demonstrated that Th2 cells were dramatically underpopulated in the Th2-driven condition triggered by SCRT treatment, while the Th1 cells were not altered in the Th1-skewed condition. Furthermore, under Th2-skewed conditions the levels of interleukin-4 were considerably decreased with SCRT treatment. The expression of GATA-3, a transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in Th2 lineage programming, did not change with SCRT treatment, while the expression of another Th2 transcription factor, c-Maf, was dramatically suppressed. These data suggest that SCRT modulates Th2 development by suppressing c-Maf expression. This study implies that the SCRT effect on CD4(+) T cells is a key pharmacologic point of effect for treating IgE-mediated allergic asthma. These results also suggest that SCRT might be a useful agent for the correction of Th2-dominant pathologic disorders.

  4. Th1 epitope selection for clinically effective cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Disis, Mary L; Watt, William C; Cecil, Denise L

    2014-10-01

    New cancer immunotherapies mark progress in our understanding of tumor biology and harnessing the immune system's management of self. However, protein- and peptide-based vaccines are not yet consistently efficacious. Recent work uncovers principles governing the genesis of T helper type-restrictive immunity to self-antigens elicited by vaccine epitopes, enabling vaccines to skew the balance from tolerogenic Type II (Th2) to inflammatory Type I (Th1) T cells, and invigorating this cancer immunotherapeutic approach.

  5. Increased Calpain Correlates with Th1 Cytokine Profile in PBMCs from MS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Sarah A.; Guyton, Mary K.; Haque, Azizul; Vandenbark, Arthur; Tyor, William R.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating autoimmune demyelinating disease of the CNS. This study investigated whether expression and activity of the calcium-activated protease calpain correlated with Th1/Th2 dysregulation in MS patients during states of relapse and remission. Calpain expression and activity were significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MS patients, compared to controls, with the highest expression and activity noted during relapse. Th1 cytokines were highest and Th2 cytokines were lowest in MS patients during relapse. Treatment with calpain inhibitor, calpeptin, decreased Th1 cytokines in PBMCs from MS patients. Calpain inhibitor also reduced degradation of myelin basic protein (MBP) by inhibiting the calpain secreted from MBP-specific T cells. Taken together, these results suggested calpain involvement in Th1/Th2 dysregulation in MS patients. PMID:17765980

  6. Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Spikes Local Inflammation That Induces Th2 Cell and T Follicular Helper Cell Responses to the Coadministered Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Motoyasu; Ozasa, Koji; Kobiyama, Kouji; Ohata, Keiichi; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Taniguchi, Keiichi; Homma, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Sato, Akihiko; Katakai, Yuko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Wijaya, Edward; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Ise, Wataru; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Vandenbon, Alexis; Standley, Daron M.; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Coban, Cevayir; Aoshi, Taiki; Kuroda, Etsushi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclodextrins are commonly used as a safe excipient to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of hydrophobic pharmaceutical agents. Their efficacies and mechanisms as drug-delivery systems have been investigated for decades, but their immunological properties have not been examined. In this study, we reprofiled hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as a vaccine adjuvant and found that it acts as a potent and unique adjuvant. HP-β-CD triggered the innate immune response at the injection site, was trapped by MARCO+ macrophages, increased Ag uptake by dendritic cells, and facilitated the generation of T follicular helper cells in the draining lymph nodes. It significantly enhanced Ag-specific Th2 and IgG Ab responses as potently as did the conventional adjuvant, aluminum salt (alum), whereas its ability to induce Ag-specific IgE was less than that of alum. At the injection site, HP-β-CD induced the temporary release of host dsDNA, a damage-associated molecular pattern. DNase-treated mice, MyD88-deficient mice, and TBK1-deficient mice showed significantly reduced Ab responses after immunization with this adjuvant. Finally, we demonstrated that HP-β-CD–adjuvanted influenza hemagglutinin split vaccine protected against a lethal challenge with a clinically isolated pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and the adjuvant effect of HP-β-CD was demonstrated in cynomolgus macaques. Our results suggest that HP-β-CD acts as a potent MyD88- and TBK1-dependent T follicular helper cell adjuvant and is readily applicable to various vaccines. PMID:25681338

  7. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin spikes local inflammation that induces Th2 cell and T follicular helper cell responses to the coadministered antigen.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Motoyasu; Ozasa, Koji; Kobiyama, Kouji; Ohata, Keiichi; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Taniguchi, Keiichi; Homma, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Masanori; Sato, Akihiko; Katakai, Yuko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Wijaya, Edward; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Ise, Wataru; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Vandenbon, Alexis; Standley, Daron M; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Coban, Cevayir; Aoshi, Taiki; Kuroda, Etsushi; Ishii, Ken J

    2015-03-15

    Cyclodextrins are commonly used as a safe excipient to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of hydrophobic pharmaceutical agents. Their efficacies and mechanisms as drug-delivery systems have been investigated for decades, but their immunological properties have not been examined. In this study, we reprofiled hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as a vaccine adjuvant and found that it acts as a potent and unique adjuvant. HP-β-CD triggered the innate immune response at the injection site, was trapped by MARCO(+) macrophages, increased Ag uptake by dendritic cells, and facilitated the generation of T follicular helper cells in the draining lymph nodes. It significantly enhanced Ag-specific Th2 and IgG Ab responses as potently as did the conventional adjuvant, aluminum salt (alum), whereas its ability to induce Ag-specific IgE was less than that of alum. At the injection site, HP-β-CD induced the temporary release of host dsDNA, a damage-associated molecular pattern. DNase-treated mice, MyD88-deficient mice, and TBK1-deficient mice showed significantly reduced Ab responses after immunization with this adjuvant. Finally, we demonstrated that HP-β-CD-adjuvanted influenza hemagglutinin split vaccine protected against a lethal challenge with a clinically isolated pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and the adjuvant effect of HP-β-CD was demonstrated in cynomolgus macaques. Our results suggest that HP-β-CD acts as a potent MyD88- and TBK1-dependent T follicular helper cell adjuvant and is readily applicable to various vaccines. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Th1/Th2 Cytokines: An Easy Model to Study Gene Expression in Immune Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa A.; Soler, German; Fuentes, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a laboratory exercise that was incorporated into a Cell Biology and Molecular Biology advanced course. The exercise was made for a class size with eight students and was designed to reinforce the understanding of basic molecular biology techniques. Students used the techniques of reverse transcription and arginase activity…

  9. Th1/Th2 Cytokines: An Easy Model to Study Gene Expression in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    González-Polo, Rosa A.; Soler, Germán; Fuentes, José M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a laboratory exercise that was incorporated into a Cell Biology and Molecular Biology advanced course. The exercise was made for a class size with eight students and was designed to reinforce the understanding of basic molecular biology techniques. Students used the techniques of reverse transcription and arginase activity measurement as well as nitric oxide determination to discover whether two specific genes were expressed by cytokine-stimulated dendritic cells. The experiment served as the basis for discussing the importance of differential gene expression inside the eukaryotic cell and the importance of cytokines in the immune system. PMID:17012221

  10. Th1 and Th2 cell involvement in immune response to Salmonella typhimurium porins.

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, M; De Martino, L; Marcatili, A; Nuzzo, I; Vitiello, M; Cipollaro de l'Ero, G

    1998-01-01

    In understanding the regulation of the specific immune response to Salmonella typhimurium, the role of a surface major component (porins) was studied. In this study we demonstrate that purified porins are able to induce a different response to that induced by the porins present on the S. typhimurium cell surface. Porin-treated or orally infected mice show anti-porin antibodies with bactericidal activity. The complete adoptive transfer of resistance to S. typhimurium is achieved only using splenic T cells from survivor mice after experimental infection. After stimulation with specific antigen in vitro CD4+ cells from porin-immunized mice released large amounts of interleukin-4 (IL-4), at a time when CD4+ cells from S. typhimurium-infected mice predominantly secreted interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Limiting dilution analysis showed that infection resulted in a higher precursor frequency of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells and a lower precursor frequency of IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells, while immunization with porins resulted in a higher precursor frequency of IL-4-producing cells and a low frequency of IFN-gamma-producing cells. Analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA from the spleens of infected mice revealed that IFN-gamma, IL-2 and IL-12 p40 mRNA were found 5 days after in vitro challenge and increased after 15 days; IL-10 expression was barely present after both 5 and 15 days, while IL-4 mRNA expression was not detected. In immunized mice, the IL-4 mRNA expression increased after 15 days, IFN-gamma mRNA expression disappeared entirely after 15 days, while IL-2, IL-10 and IL-12 mRNA remained relatively unchanged. Images Figure 1 Figure 8 PMID:9708180

  11. Th17 and treg cells innovate the TH1/TH2 concept and allergy research.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Weber, C B

    2008-01-01

    Allergic reactions are caused by harmless allergens, which are recognized by the specific immune system. Allergen-specific T cells are assumed to play a key role in the sensitization phase and in immunological memory. Current immunological concepts suggest that asymptomatic T-cell memory cells also exist, tagging the allergen as harmless and preventing an inappropriate response and thus allergic symptoms. Proinflammatory T cells mediate allergic inflammation by exceeding the induction of IgE and competing with other T-cell subsets. Therefore, molecular mechanisms leading to pro- or anti-inflammatory T-cell memory cells appear as the key mechanism in allergy.

  12. Th1/Th2 Cytokines: An Easy Model to Study Gene Expression in Immune Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa A.; Soler, German; Fuentes, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a laboratory exercise that was incorporated into a Cell Biology and Molecular Biology advanced course. The exercise was made for a class size with eight students and was designed to reinforce the understanding of basic molecular biology techniques. Students used the techniques of reverse transcription and arginase activity…

  13. Th1 and Th2 polymorphisms in Sjögren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Thayse Rodrigues; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Duarte, Ângela Pinto; Porter, Stephen R; Leão, Jair C; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2014-07-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is characterized by T-cell infiltration of exocrine glands leading to parenchymal destruction and impaired glandular function. This process is orchestrated by cytokines, whose secretion can be regulated by genetic polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of interleukin-6 -174G/C, interleukin-10 -1082G/A, tumor necrosis factor-α -308G/A, interferon-γ +874A/T gene polymorphisms in (RA) and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS). A study sample that comprised of 138 Brazilian patients was divided into three groups: RA (n = 66), sSS (n = 20), and healthy controls - C (n = 52). Patients were subjected to Schirmer's test, unstimulated salivary flow rate, biopsy of minor salivary glands, and serological tests for diagnosing SS. Genomic DNA was obtained from saliva samples and submitted to genotyping. The association between genotypes/alelle frequency and SS susceptibility was tested, as well as their association with clinical features of SS. Tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα)-308GA polymorphisms differed significantly between AR, SS, and C patients (P = 0.008). IL-6 overall G carriers and TNFα A carriers had a higher risk of presenting SS (P = 0.021). IL-6 polymorphism distribution was also distinctive regarding lymphocytic infiltration at the minor salivary glands (P = 0.026) and Schirmer's test (P = 0.035). These results suggest that IL-6 -174GC and TNFα-308GA gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to SS. Additionally, IL-6 polymorphism could influence lymphocytic infiltration of salivary glands and diminish lachrymal gland function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. TH1/TH2 cytokines: an easy model to study gene expression in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Morán, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A; Soler, Germán; Fuentes, José M

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a laboratory exercise that was incorporated into a Cell Biology and Molecular Biology advanced course. The exercise was made for a class size with eight students and was designed to reinforce the understanding of basic molecular biology techniques. Students used the techniques of reverse transcription and arginase activity measurement as well as nitric oxide determination to discover whether two specific genes were expressed by cytokine-stimulated dendritic cells. The experiment served as the basis for discussing the importance of differential gene expression inside the eukaryotic cell and the importance of cytokines in the immune system.

  15. Cell-mediated immunity to Toxoplasma gondii develops primarily by local Th-1 host immune responses in the absence of parasite replication1

    PubMed Central

    Gigley, Jason P.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2008-01-01

    A single inoculation of mice with the live attenuated Toxoplasma gondii uracil auxotroph strain cps1-1 induces long-lasting immunity against lethal challenge with hyper-virulent strain RH. The mechanism for this robust immunity in the absence of parasite replication has not been addressed. The mechanism of long-lasting immunity, the importance of route of immunization, cellular recruitment to the site of infection, and local and systemic inflammation were evaluated. Our results show that infection with cps1-1 elicits long-lasting CD8+ T cell mediated immunity. We show that immunization with cps1-1 infected DCs elicits long-lasting immunity. Intraperitoneal infection with cps1-1 induced a rapid influx of GR1+ neutrophils and 2 stages of GR1+ CD68+ inflammatory monocyte infiltration into the site of inoculation. CD19+ B cells and CD3+ T cells steadily increase for 8 days after infection. CD8+ T cells were rapidly recruited to the site of infection and increased faster than CD4+ T cells. Surprisingly, cps1-1 infection induced high systemic levels of bioactive IL-12p70 and very low level and transient systemic Ifn-γ. Furthermore, we show significant levels of these inflammatory cytokines were locally produced at the site of cps1-1 inoculation. These findings offer new insight into immunological mechanisms and local host responses to a non-replicating Type I parasite infection associated with development of long-lasting immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:19124750

  16. Morphine Suppresses T helper Lymphocyte Differentiation to Th1 Type Through PI3K/AKT Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, Mao; Qian, Yanning; Sun, Jie

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of morphine on T helper lymphocyte differentiation and PI3K/AKT pathway mechanism, CD4+ lymphocytes were treated by phorbol-myristate-acetate (25 ng/ml) (PMA) plus ionomycin (1 μg/ml) in the presence of various concentrations of morphine (25, 50, 100, 200 ng/ml) for 4 h. Th1 and Th2 subsets, supernatant cytokines, and PI3K, AKT, and protein kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) levels were detected. The Th1 cell percentage, Th1-derived cytokines, and ratio of Th1/Th2 decreased in the presence of morphine in a concentration-dependent manner. However, Th2 cell percentage kept stable after morphine treatment. The phosphorylation of PI3K and AKT decreased, but the phosphorylation of PKC-θ did not change in the presence of morphine. The decreased percentage of Th1 cells and ratio of Th1/Th2 was recovered by naloxone concentration-dependently. Morphine can inhibit the differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes and decrease the ratio of Th1/Th2 via the pathway of PI3K/AKT. The effect can be inhibited by naloxone.

  17. Selective suppression of Th2-mediated airway eosinophil infiltration by low-molecular weight CCR3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Ogawa, Koji; Someya, Koichiro; Kunori, Yuichi; Nagakubo, Daisuke; Yoshie, Osamu; Kitamura, Fujiko; Hiroi, Takachika; Kaminuma, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    The effects of selective CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-3 antagonists on antigen-induced leukocyte accumulation in the lungs of mice adoptively transferred with in vitro-differentiated T(h)1 and T(h)2 were investigated. Inhalation of antigen by mice injected with T(h)1 and T(h)2 initiated the migration of T cells themselves into the lungs. Subsequently, neutrophils massively accumulated in T(h)1-transferred mice, whereas eosinophil infiltration was specifically induced by T(h)2. CCR3 antagonists, SB-297006 and/or SB-328437, suppressed antigen-induced accumulation of T(h)2 as well as eosinophils in the lungs, whereas they failed to affect T(h)1-mediated airway inflammation. Not only T(h)2 and eosinophil infiltration but also cellular mobilization in T(h)1-transferred mice was attenuated by an anti-CC chemokine ligand-11 antibody. CCR3 antagonists reduced chemokine production in the lungs of mice transferred with T(h)2 but not T(h)1, suggesting that down-regulation of chemokine synthesis is involved in the selective inhibition of T(h)2-mediated eosinophil infiltration by CCR3 antagonists.

  18. Myelin basic protein-specific T helper 2 (Th2) cells cause experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in immunodeficient hosts rather than protect them from the disease.

    PubMed

    Lafaille, J J; Keere, F V; Hsu, A L; Baron, J L; Haas, W; Raine, C S; Tonegawa, S

    1997-07-21

    Chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis are caused by CD4(+) Th1 cells. Because Th2 cells antagonize Th1 cell functions in several ways, it is believed that immune deviation towards Th2 can prevent or cure autoimmune diseases. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating disease used as a model for multiple sclerosis. Using an adoptive transfer system we assessed the role of Th1 and Th2 cells in EAE. In vitro generated Th1 and Th2 cells from myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific TCR transgenic mice were transferred into normal and immunodeficient mice. Th1 cells caused EAE in all recipients after a brief preclinical phase. Surprisingly, Th2 cells also caused EAE in RAG-1 KO mice and in alphabeta T cell-deficient mice, albeit after a longer preclinical phase. Normal or gammadelta T cell-deficient mice were resistant to EAE induced by Th2 cells. The histopathological features of this disease resembled those of an allergic process. In addition, disease induction by Th1 cells was not altered by coadmininstration of Th2 cells in any of the recipients. These findings indicate that MBP-specific Th2 cells have the potential to induce EAE and that the disease induced by previously activated Th1 cells cannot be prevented by normal lymphocytes nor by previously activated Th2 cells.

  19. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya; Nakamura, Takashi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Sugita, Masahiko

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.

  20. Morphine withdrawal contributes to Th cell differentiation by biasing cells toward the Th2 lineage.

    PubMed

    Kelschenbach, Jennifer; Barke, Roderick A; Roy, Sabita

    2005-08-15

    The consequences that drug withdrawal has on immune functioning has only recently been appreciated; however, given the wide variety of use and abuse of opiate analgesics, understanding the decrements to immune function that withdrawal from these drugs causes is of crucial importance. In previous work, we have demonstrated that morphine treatment contributes to immunosuppression by polarizing Th cells toward the Th2 lineage. In the current study, it was hypothesized that morphine withdrawal would result in Th2 differentiation and subsequent immune dysfunction. To address this hypothesis, mice were chronically treated with morphine for 72 h followed by a 24-h withdrawal period. It was determined that 24-h morphine withdrawal resulted in a decrease in IFN-gamma, the Th1 signature cytokine, whereas the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, was increased. In addition, Western blot and EMSA experiments revealed that morphine withdrawal-induced Th2 differentiation was mediated through the classical Th2 transcription factors Stat-6 and GATA-3. In addition, the consequence of morphine withdrawal in the presence of an immune stimulation was also examined by treating mice in vivo with LPS before morphine withdrawal. Following withdrawal, it was found that the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12 was significantly decreased, providing further support for the observation that withdrawal results in Th2 differentiation by possibly impacting the generation of an appropriate innate immune response which directs subsequent adaptive Th1/Th2 responses.

  1. Th2 immune deviation induced by pregnancy: the two faces of autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Doria, Andrea; Iaccarino, Luca; Arienti, Silvia; Ghirardello, Anna; Zampieri, Sandra; Rampudda, Maria Elisa; Cutolo, Maurizio; Tincani, Angela; Todesco, Silvano

    2006-08-01

    One of the most important immunological modifications during pregnancy is the Th1/Th2 shift, due to the progressive increase of progesterone and estrogens during pregnancy, which reach their peak-level in the third trimester of gestation. At high levels, estrogens seem mainly to suppress Th1 cytokines and stimulate Th2-mediated immunological responses as well as antibody production. For this reason Th1-mediated diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), tend to improve and Th2-mediated disease, like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), tend to worsen during pregnancy. SLE is the autoimmune rheumatic disease in which pregnancy most frequently occurs because it predominantly affects young females in their childbearing age. Other autoimmune rheumatic diseases, including RA, are less frequently observed during pregnancy due to their low female-to-male ratio and peak onset after the age of 40. This review is focused on the disease course, gestational outcome and management of patients with SLE and RA during pregnancy.

  2. NK cells modulate the lung dendritic cell-mediated Th1/Th17 immunity during intracellular bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Peng, Ying; Gao, Xiaoling; Joyee, Antony G; Wang, Shuhe; Bai, Hong; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    The impact of the interaction between NK cells and lung dendritic cells (LDCs) on the outcome of respiratory infections is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of NK cells on the function of LDCs during intracellular bacterial lung infection of Chlamydia muridarum in mice. We found that the naive mice receiving LDCs from C. muridarum-infected NK-cell-depleted mice (NK-LDCs) showed more serious body weight loss, bacterial burden, and pathology upon chlamydial challenge when compared with the recipients of LDCs from infected sham-treated mice (NK+LDCs). Cytokine analysis of the local tissues of the former compared with the latter exhibited lower levels of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17), but higher levels of Th2 (IL-4), cytokines. Consistently, NK-LDCs were less efficient in directing C. muridarum-specific Th1 and Th17 responses than NK+LDCs when cocultured with CD4(+) T cells. In NK cell/LDC coculture experiments, the blockade of NKG2D receptor reduced the production of IL-12p70, IL-6, and IL-23 by LDCs. The neutralization of IFN-γ in the culture decreased the production of IL-12p70 by LDCs, whereas the blockade of TNF-α resulted in diminished IL-6 production. Our findings demonstrate that NK cells modulate LDC function to elicit Th1/Th17 immunity during intracellular bacterial infection.

  3. SerpinB2 is critical to Th2 immunity against enteric nematode infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    SerpinB2, a member of the serine protease inhibitor family, is expressed by macrophages and up-regulated significantly by inflammation. Recent studies implicated a role for SerpinB2 in the control of Th1 and Th2 immune responses, but the mechanisms of these effects are unknown. In the current study...

  4. TDI can induce respiratory allergy with Th2-dominated response in mice.

    PubMed

    Ban, Masarin; Morel, Georges; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Pépin, Elsa; Binet, Stéphane

    2006-01-20

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a highly reactive industrial chemical is one of the leading causes of occupation-related asthma in industrialized countries. The pathophysiology of TDI-induced asthma, however, remains poorly understood, in part due to a lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, four models of TDI-sensitised mice were investigated. In model number 1, the mice were sensitised for 4 h/day on four consecutive days to 3 ppm inhaled TDI and challenged twice for 4 h each time with 0.3 ppm inhaled TDI. In model number 2, the sensitising condition was similar to that of model 1, but the challenge conditions involved an initial inhalation of 2 ppmTDI for 4h and then tracheal instillation with 50 microg/mouse albumin-TDI. In model number 3, the mice were sensitised first to 25% TDI (sc) and then three times for 4 h each time to 1 ppm inhaled TDI and challenged twice for 4h each time with 0.1 ppm inhalated TDI. In model number 4, the mice were first sensitised to 1% TDI by skin application and then with 0.2% TDI by tracheal instillation and challenged tree times by tracheal instillation of 0.1% TDI. In model number 4, skin application followed by tracheal instillations of TDI led to local and systemic Th2-dominated immune responses that were characterized: (1) in the lung-associated lymph nodes by a decrease in Th1 cytokine (IFN-gamma) production associated with an increase in Th2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, IL-3) production; (2) in the lungs by an allergic inflammation throughout the conducting airways: goblet cell proliferation and eosinophil influx and; (3) in the serums by increased total and specific IgE levels, 17.5- and 3.5-fold higher than that of the controls, respectively. The conditions used for sensitisation in the other models, i.e. inhalation or subcutaneous administration plus inhalation, failed to induce a strong Th2 response like that observed in model number 4. The findings indicate that TDI can induce a Th2-dominated response in mice when

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi trans-Sialidase Prevents Elicitation of Th1 Cell Response via Interleukin 10 and Downregulates Th1 Effector Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Díaz, Pablo; Meira, María Ana; Bogliotti, Yanina; Musikant, Daniel; Leguizamón, María Susana

    2015-01-01

    The trans-sialidases (TSs) from Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, are virulence factors shed to the bloodstream that induce strong alterations in the immune system. Here, we report that both enzymatically active TS (aTS) and its lectinlike isoform (iTS) disturb CD4 T cell physiology, inducing downregulation of Th1 cell functionality and in vivo cell expansion. By using ovalbumin-specific DO11.10 cells as tracers of clones developing the Th1 phenotype, we found that the infection induced significant amounts of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) but low levels of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and increased IL-4 production in vivo, in agreement with a mixed T helper response. The production of cytokines associated with the Th2 phenotype was prevented by passive transfer of anti-TS neutralizing antibodies. TSs also reduced the T cell receptor signaling as assayed by Zap-70 phosphorylation. TSs also reduced IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion, with a concomitant increase in IL-4 production and then an unbalancing of the CD4 T cell response toward the Th2 phenotype. This effect was prevented by using anti-IL-10 neutralizing antibodies or IL-10−/− antigen-presenting cells, supporting the subversion of this regulatory pathway. In support, TSs stimulated IL-10 secretion by antigen-presenting cells during their interaction with CD4 T cells. When polarized cells were stimulated in the presence of TSs, the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ was strongly downregulated in Th1 cells, while IL-2 production was upregulated in Th2 cells. Although the Th1 response is associated with host survival, it may simultaneously induce extensive damage to infected tissues. Thus, by delaying the elicitation of the Th1 response and limiting its effector properties, TSs restrain the cell response, supporting T. cruzi colonization and persistence while favoring host survival. PMID:25754197

  6. Caerulomycin A inhibits Th2 cell activity: a possible role in the management of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kujur, Weshely; Gurram, Rama Krishna; Haleem, Nazia; Maurya, Sudeep K.; Agrewala, Javed N.

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that Caerulomycin A induces regulatory T cells differentiation by suppressing Th1 cells activity. The role of regulatory T cells is well established in suppressing the function of Th2 cells. Th2 cells are known to inflict the induction of the activation of asthma. Consequently, in the present study, we monitored the influence of Caerulomycin A in inhibiting the activity of Th2 cells and its impact in recuperating asthma symptoms. Interestingly, we observed that Caerulomycin A significantly suppressed the differentiation of Th2 cells, as evidenced by downregulation in the GATA-3 expression. Further, decline in the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines and IgE was noted in the animals suffering from asthma. Furthermore, we noticed substantial suppression in the inflammatory response and number of eosinophils in the lungs. In essence, this study signifies an important therapeutic role of Caerulomycin A in asthma. PMID:26481184

  7. Diterpenes inhibit IL-12 production by DC and enhance Th2 cells polarization.

    PubMed

    Takei, Masao; Umeyama, Akemi; Arihara, Shigenobu

    2007-04-13

    Sugiol and 12-hydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial (Secoferruginol) are diterpenes isolated from the heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica and are pharmacologically active substances. Dendritic cells (DC) have a key influence on the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 or Th2 effector cells. We demonstrate that Sugiol and Secoferruginol activate human DC as documented by phenotypic and functional maturation and altered cytokine production. Human monocytes were exposed to Sugiol or Secoferruginol alone, or in combination with LPS and thereafter co-cultured with naïve T cells. The expression levels of CD83 on Sugiol-primed DC were enhanced. Sugiol dose-dependently inhibited IL-12p70 production by LPS-primed DC and to a lesser extent, the production of the proinflammatory cytokines. Naïve T cells co-cultured with Sugiol-primed DC, turned into typical Th2 which produced large quantities of IL-4 and released small amounts of IFN-gamma and reduced Th1 cell polarizing capacity. Sugiol-primed DC induced the development of Th2 cells via the enhanced expression of OX40L and augmented the Th2 cell polarizing capacity of DC via the inhibition of IL-12p70. Similar results were obtained with Secoferruginol. These results suggest that some diterpenes modulate human DC function in a fashion that favors Th2 cell polarization and might have implication in autoimmune diseases.

  8. Transcription factor IRF4 drives dendritic cells to promote Th2 differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jesse W.; Tjota, Melissa Y.; Clay, Bryan S.; Vander Lugt, Bryan; Bandukwala, Hozefa S.; Hrusch, Cara L.; Decker, Donna C.; Blaine, Kelly M.; Fixsen, Bethany R.; Singh, Harinder; Sciammas, Roger; Sperling, Anne I.

    2013-12-01

    Atopic asthma is an inflammatory pulmonary disease associated with Th2 adaptive immune responses triggered by innocuous antigens. While dendritic cells (DCs) are known to shape the adaptive immune response, the mechanisms by which DCs promote Th2 differentiation remain elusive. Herein we demonstrate that Th2-promoting stimuli induce DC expression of IRF4. Mice with conditional deletion of Irf4 in DCs show a dramatic defect in Th2-type lung inflammation, yet retain the ability to elicit pulmonary Th1 antiviral responses. Using loss- and gain-of-function analysis, we demonstrate that Th2 differentiation is dependent on IRF4 expression in DCs. Finally, IRF4 directly targets and activates the Il-10 and Il-33 genes in DCs. Reconstitution with exogenous IL-10 and IL-33 recovers the ability of Irf4-deficient DCs to promote Th2 differentiation. These findings reveal a regulatory module in DCs by which IRF4 modulates IL-10 and IL-33 cytokine production to specifically promote Th2 differentiation and inflammation.

  9. The essential role of SIGIRR/TIR8 in regulation of Th2 immune response1

    PubMed Central

    Bulek, Katarzyna; Swaidani, Shadi; Qin, Jinzhong; Lu, Yi; Gulen, Muhammet F.; Herjan, Tomasz; Min, Booki; Kastelein, Robert A.; Aronica, Mark; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Li, Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    A novel cytokine IL-33, an IL-1 family member, signals via ST2 receptor and promotes T helper type 2 (Th2) responses, through the activation of NFκB and MAP kinases. Previous studies reported that SIGIRR (single immunoglobulin IL-1R-related molecule)/TIR8 (Toll IL-1R8) acts as negative regulator for TLR-IL-1R-mediated signaling. We now found that SIGIRR formed a complex with ST2 upon IL-33 stimulation and specifically inhibited IL-33/ST2-mediated signaling in cell culture model. Furthermore, IL-33-induced Th2 response was enhanced in SIGIRR-deficient mice compared to that in wild-type control mice, suggesting a negative regulatory role of SIGIRR in IL-33/ST2 signaling in vivo. Similar to ST2, SIGIRR was highly expressed in in vitro polarized Th2 cells, but not Th1 cells. SIGIRR-deficient Th2 cells produce higher levels of “Th2 cytokines”, including IL-5, IL-4 and IL-13 than that in wild-type cells. Moreover, SIGIRR-deficient mice developed stronger Th2 immune response in OVA-challenged asthma model. Taken together, our results suggest that SIGIRR plays an important role in the regulation of Th2 response in vivo, possibly through its impact on IL-33-ST2-mediated signaling. PMID:19234154

  10. TH1 and TH2 Cytokines Production and NK Cell Level Assessment in Peripheral Blood of Patients with DDH.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Sibel; Hancı, Murat

    2013-08-01

    In this study, our aim is; if the studies will quide us in peripheral blood, for the changes in inflammatory cytokine levels we defined before DDH tissue. Twenty-six patients were suggestive of lumbar DDH were included in this study. Control subjects included 14 autopsy cases. From each patient, disc tissues and peripheral blood samples for plasma were collected during the surgery. For the controls, disc samples and blood for plasma by intracardiac puncture were obtained during autopsy. The Flow Cytometry was used to obtain the lymphocyte CD56 (NK). The Luminex was used to obtain IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, in both plasma and disc tissues. The results were compared between the two groups. Comparing the two groups regarding plasma demonstrated that IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, IFN-gamma were significantly higher than in patients than those of the controls. Likewise, tissue levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, CD56 were found to be significantly higher in the patients. With respect to the comparison between the plasma disc samples in the patients, plasma showed significant higher levels of IL-2, IL-12 on the other hand IL-4 was found to be significantly higher in the disc samples. Findings suggest that only tissue samples responses in occurring but not blood samples. We don't think our results in peripheral blood will guide us specifically in DDH.

  11. Curing tumor-bearing mice by shifting a Th2 to a Th1 anti-tumor response.

    PubMed

    Hellstrom, Karl Erik; Dai, Min; Hellstrom, Ingegerd

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several years remarkable therapeutic responses have been obtained with immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), both in mice \\cite{10,18,20,48,54,61} and human cancer patients \\cite{1,3,14,28,30,39,80}. However, complete regressions and cures are infrequent and not predictable and some tumor types respond much worse than others. As an attempt to increase curability, we have investigated in mouse models the therapeutic efficacy of several mAb combinations, focusing on anti-PD-1/CTLA-4/CD137 and anti-PD-1/CTLA-4/CD137/CD19, and we have also combined mAbs with the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Our data demonstrate an important contribution of anti-CD19 mAb to therapeutic efficacy, they show that intratumoral delivery of the mAbs is therapeutically more effective than systemic delivery, and that there is synergy when the mAbs are combined with cisplatin. In an attempt to improve predictability, we developed an in vitro model that may also be employed to search for novel immunomodulatory agents and combinations. This article reviews our data and discusses what is known about the underlying mechanisms.

  12. Oral administration of an immunodominant T-cell epitope downregulates Th1/Th2 cytokines and prevents experimental myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Baggi, Fulvio; Andreetta, Francesca; Caspani, Elisabetta; Milani, Monica; Longhi, Renato; Mantegazza, Renato; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Antozzi, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    The mucosal administration of the native antigen or peptide fragments corresponding to immunodominant regions is effective in preventing or treating several T cell–dependent models of autoimmune disease. No data are yet available on oral tolerance with immunodominant T-cell peptides in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), an animal model of B cell–dependent disease. We report that oral administration of the T-cell epitope α146-162 of the Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (TAChR) α-subunit suppressed T-cell responses to AChR and ameliorated the disease in C57Bl/6 (B6) mice. Protection from EAMG was associated with reduced serum Ab’s to mouse AChR and reduced AChR loss in muscle. The effect of Tα146-162 feeding was specific; treatment with a control peptide did not affect EAMG manifestations. The protective effect induced by peptide Tα146-162 was mediated by reduced production of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 by TAChR-reactive cells, suggesting T-cell anergy. TGF-β–secreting Th3 cells did not seem to be involved in tolerance induction. We therefore demonstrate that feeding a single immunodominant epitope can prevent an Ab-mediated experimental model of autoimmune disease. PMID:10545527

  13. Alterations in the Th1/Th2 balance in breast cancer patients using reflexology and scalp massage.

    PubMed

    Green, Victoria L; Alexandropoulou, Afroditi; Walker, Mary B; Walker, Andrew A; Sharp, Donald M; Walker, Leslie G; Greenman, John

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can adversely affect quality of life. Here the aim was to determine the effects of reflexology on host defences and endocrine function in women with early breast cancer. Six weeks after surgery for early breast cancer, 183 women were randomly assigned to self-initiated support (SIS), SIS plus foot reflexology, or SIS plus scalp massage. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum were isolated at T1 (6 weeks post surgery; baseline), T2 and T3 (4 and 10 weeks post completion of intervention, respectively). Lymphocyte phenotyping found that CD25(+) cells were significantly higher in the massage group compared with the SIS group at T3. The percentage of T cells, and more specifically the T helper subset expressing IL4, decreased significantly in the massage group compared with the SIS group at T3. This change was accompanied by an increase in the percentage of CD8(+) T cytotoxic cells expressing IFNγ in the massage group. Natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cell cytotoxicity measurements, serum levels of cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone, and flow cytometric assessment of their corresponding receptors all revealed no significant differences between the three groups of patients. This study provides evidence that the immunological balance of patients can be altered in a potentially beneficial manner by massage. The original trial was registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Registry (ISRCTN87652313).

  14. Alterations in the Th1/Th2 balance in breast cancer patients using reflexology and scalp massage

    PubMed Central

    GREEN, VICTORIA L.; ALEXANDROPOULOU, AFRODITI; WALKER, MARY B.; WALKER, ANDREW A.; SHARP, DONALD M.; WALKER, LESLIE G.; GREENMAN, JOHN

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can adversely affect quality of life. Here the aim was to determine the effects of reflexology on host defences and endocrine function in women with early breast cancer. Six weeks after surgery for early breast cancer, 183 women were randomly assigned to self-initiated support (SIS), SIS plus foot reflexology, or SIS plus scalp massage. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum were isolated at T1 (6 weeks post surgery; baseline), T2 and T3 (4 and 10 weeks post completion of intervention, respectively). Lymphocyte phenotyping found that CD25+ cells were significantly higher in the massage group compared with the SIS group at T3. The percentage of T cells, and more specifically the T helper subset expressing IL4, decreased significantly in the massage group compared with the SIS group at T3. This change was accompanied by an increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cytotoxic cells expressing IFNγ in the massage group. Natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cell cytotoxicity measurements, serum levels of cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone, and flow cytometric assessment of their corresponding receptors all revealed no significant differences between the three groups of patients. This study provides evidence that the immunological balance of patients can be altered in a potentially beneficial manner by massage. The original trial was registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Registry (ISRCTN87652313). PMID:23136601

  15. Raising the Roof: The Preferential Pharmacological Stimulation of Th1 and Th2 Responses Mediated by NKT Cells

    PubMed Central

    East, James E.; Kennedy, Andrew J.; Webb, Tonya J.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells serve as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems, and manipulating their effector functions can have therapeutic significances in the treatment of autoimmunity, transplant biology, infectious disease, and cancer. NKT cells are a subset of T cells that express cell-surface markers characteristic of both natural killer cells and T cells. These unique immunologic cells have been demonstrated to serve as a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems through their potent cytokine production following the recognition of a range of lipid antigens, mediated through presentation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I like CD1d molecule, in addition to the NKT cell′s cytotoxic capabilities upon activation. Although a number of glycolipid antigens have been shown to complex with CD1d molecules, most notably the marine sponge derived glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), there has been debate as to the identity of the endogenous activating lipid presented to the T-cell receptor (TCR) via the CD1d molecule on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This review aims to survey the use of pharmacological agents and subsequent structure–activity relationships (SAR) that have given insight into the binding interaction of glycolipids with both the CD1d molecules as well as the TCR and the subsequent immunologic response of NKT cells. These studies not only elucidate basic binding interactions but also pave the way for future pharmacological modulation of NKT cell responses. PMID:23239102

  16. Signals for the execution of Th2 effector function.

    PubMed

    Fowell, Deborah J

    2009-04-01

    Appropriate control of infection depends on the generation of lymphocytes armed with a particular array of cytokine and chemokine effector molecules. The differentiation of naïve T cells into functionally distinct effector subsets is regulated by signals from the T cell receptor (TCR) and cytokine receptors. Using gene knock-out approaches, the initiation of discrete effector programs appears differentially sensitive to the loss of individual TCR signaling components; likely due to differences in the transcription factors needed to activate individual cytokine genes. Less well understood however, are the signal requirements for the execution of effector function. With a focus on Th2 cells and the kinase ITK, we review recent observations that point to differences between the signals needed for the initiation and implementation of cytokine programs in CD4+ T cells. Indeed, Th2 effector cells signal differently from both their naïve counterparts and from Th1 effectors suggesting they may transduce activation signals differently or may be selectively receptive to different activation signals. Potential regulation points for effector function lie at the level of transcription and translation of cytokine genes. We also discuss how provision of these execution signals may be spatially segregated in vivo occurring at tissue sites of inflammation and subject to modulation by the pathogen itself.

  17. The contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and respiratory allergy in the Th2-prone Brown Norway rat.

    PubMed

    Kuper, C Frieke; Stierum, Rob H; Boorsma, Andre; Schijf, Marcel A; Prinsen, Menk; Bruijntjes, Joost P; Bloksma, Nanne; Arts, Josje H E

    2008-04-18

    All LMW respiratory allergens known to date can also induce skin allergy in test animals. The question here was if in turn skin allergens can induce allergy in the respiratory tract. Respiratory allergy was tested in Th2-prone Brown Norway (BN) rats by dermal sensitization with the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB; 1%, day 0; 0.5%, day 7) and a head/nose-only inhalation challenge of 27mg/m3 of DNCB (15 min, day 21), using a protocol that successfully identified chemical respiratory allergens. Skin allergy to DNCB was examined in BN rats and Th1-prone Wistar rats in a local lymph node assay followed by a topical patch challenge of 0.1% DNCB. Sensitization of BN rats via the skin induced DNCB-specific IgG in serum, but not in all animals, and an increased number of CD4+ cells in the lung parenchyma. Subsequent inhalation challenge with DNCB did not provoke apneas or allergic inflammation (signs of respiratory allergy) in the BN rats. However, microarray analysis of mRNA isolated from the lung revealed upregulation of the genes for Ccl2 (MCP-1), Ccl4 (MIP-1beta), Ccl7 and Ccl17. Skin challenge induced considerably less skin irritation and allergic dermatitis in the BN rat than in the Wistar rat. In conclusion, the Th2-prone BN rat appeared less sensitive to DNCB than the Wistar rat; nevertheless, DNCB induced allergic inflammation in the skin of BN rats but even a relatively high challenge concentration did not induce allergy in the respiratory tract, although genes associated with allergy were upregulated in lung tissue.

  18. Deficiency in Th2 Cytokine Responses Exacerbate Orthopoxvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sakala, Isaac G.; Chaudhri, Geeta; Eldi, Preethi; Buller, R. Mark; Karupiah, Gunasegaran

    2015-01-01

    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) causes mousepox in mice, a disease very similar to smallpox in humans. ECTV and variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, are closely related orthopoxviruses. Mousepox is an excellent small animal model to study the genetic and immunologic basis for resistance and susceptibility of humans to smallpox. Resistance to mousepox is dependent on a strong polarized type 1 immune response, associated with robust natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses. In contrast, ECTV-susceptible mice generate a type 2 response, associated with weak NK cell, CTL and IFN-γ responses but robust IL-4 responses. Nonetheless, susceptible strains infected with mutant ECTV lacking virus-encoded IFN-γ binding protein (vIFN-γbp) (ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ) control virus replication through generation of type 1 response. Since the IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways polarize type 2/T helper 2 (Th2) responses with a corresponding suppression of IFN-γ production, we investigated whether the combined absence of vIFN-γbp, and one or more host genes involved in Th2 response development, influence generation of protective immunity. Most mutant mouse strains infected with wild-type (WT) virus succumbed to disease more rapidly than WT animals. Conversely, the disease outcome was significantly improved in WT mice infected with ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ but absence of IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways did not provide any added advantage. Deficiency in IL-13 or STAT-6 resulted in defective CTL responses, higher mortality rates and accelerated deaths. Deficiencies in IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways significantly reduced the numbers of IFN-γ producing CD4 and CD8 T cells, indicating an absence of a switch to a Th1-like response. Factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to mousepox are far more complex than a balance between Th1 and Th2 responses. PMID:25751266

  19. RhoA orchestrates glycolysis for TH2 cell differentiation and allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Qi; Kalim, Khalid W; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Shuangmin; Hinge, Ashwini; Filippi, Marie-Dominique; Zheng, Yi; Guo, Fukun

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is known to be important for T-cell activation. However, its involvement in effector T-cell differentiation has just begun to gain attention. Importantly, how metabolic pathways are integrated with T-cell activation and effector cell differentiation and function remains largely unknown. We sought to test our hypothesis that RhoA GTPase orchestrates glycolysis for TH2 cell differentiation and TH2-mediated allergic airway inflammation. Conditional RhoA-deficient mice were generated by crossing RhoA(flox/flox) mice with CD2-Cre transgenic mice. Effects of RhoA on TH2 differentiation were evaluated based on in vitro TH2-polarized culture conditions and in vivo in ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation. Cytokine levels were measured by using intracellular staining and ELISA. T-cell metabolism was measured by using the Seahorse XF24 Analyzer and flow cytometry. Disruption of RhoA inhibited T-cell activation and TH2 differentiation in vitro and prevented the development of allergic airway inflammation in vivo, with no effect on TH1 cells. RhoA deficiency in activated T cells led to multiple defects in metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Importantly, RhoA couples glycolysis to TH2 cell differentiation and allergic airway inflammation through regulating IL-4 receptor mRNA expression and TH2-specific signaling events. Finally, inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase, an immediate downstream effector of RhoA, blocked TH2 differentiation and allergic airway inflammation. RhoA is a key component of the signaling cascades leading to TH2 differentiation and allergic airway inflammation at least in part through control of T-cell metabolism and the Rho-associated protein kinase pathway. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of mycobacterial-specific Th1 and Th17 cells in latent tuberculosis by coincident hookworm infection.

    PubMed

    George, Parakkal Jovvian; Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Kumaran, Paramasivam Paul; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2013-05-15

    Hookworm infections and tuberculosis (TB) are coendemic in many parts of the world. It has been suggested that infection with helminth parasites could suppress the predominant Th1 (IFN-γ-mediated) response needed to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and enhance susceptibility to infection and/or disease. To determine the role of coincident hookworm infection on responses at steady-state and on M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses in latent TB (LTB), we examined the cellular responses in individuals with LTB with or without concomitant hookworm infection. By analyzing the expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets of CD4(+) T cells, we were able to demonstrate that the presence of coincident hookworm infection significantly diminished both spontaneously expressed and M. tuberculosis-specific mono- and dual-functional Th1 and Th17 cells. Hookworm infection, in contrast, was associated with expanded frequencies of mono- and dual-functional Th2 cells at both steady-state and upon Ag stimulation. This differential induction of CD4(+) T cell subsets was abrogated upon mitogen stimulation. Additionally, coincident hookworm infection was associated with increased adaptive T regulatory cells but not natural regulatory T cells in LTB. Finally, the CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression pattern was also associated with alterations in the systemic levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Thus, coincident hookworm infection exerts a profound inhibitory effect on protective Th1 and Th17 responses in LTB and may predispose toward the development of active tuberculosis in humans.

  1. Myocardial Gene Expression of T-bet, GATA-3, Ror-γt, FoxP3, and Hallmark Cytokines in Chronic Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy: An Essentially Unopposed TH1-Type Response

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Luciana Gabriel; Santos, Ronaldo Honorato Barros; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; Benvenuti, Luiz Alberto; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Stolf, Noedir Antonio; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha-Neto, Edecio

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), a late consequence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy with prognosis worse than those of noninflammatory etiology (NIC). Although the T cell-rich myocarditis is known to play a pathogenetic role, the relative contribution of each of the functional T cell subsets has never been thoroughly investigated. We therefore assessed gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors involved in differentiation and effector function of each functional T cell subset (TH1/TH2/TH17/Treg) in CCC, NIC, and heart donor myocardial samples. Methods and Results. Quantitative PCR showed markedly upregulated expression of IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, and minor increases of GATA-3; FoxP3 and CTLA-4; IL-17 and IL-18 in CCC as compared with NIC samples. Conversely, cytokines expressed by TH2 cells (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) or associated with Treg (TGF-β and IL-10) were not upregulated in CCC myocardium. Expression of TH1-related genes such as T-bet, IFN-γ, and IL-18 correlated with ventricular dilation, FoxP3, and CTLA-4. Conclusions. Results are consistent with a strong local TH1-mediated response in most samples, possibly associated with pathological myocardial remodeling, and a proportionally smaller FoxP3+CTLA4+ Treg cell population, which is unable to completely curb IFN-γ production in CCC myocardium, therefore fueling inflammation. PMID:25152568

  2. Qualitative evaluation of adjuvant activities and its application to Th2/17 diseases.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Sho; Takagi, Rie; Hashimoto, Kumiko; Higashi, Takehiro

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells specialized to activate naive T lymphocytes and initiate primary immune responses. The different classes of specific immune responses are driven by the biased development of antigen-specific helper T cell subsets - that is, Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells - that activate different components of cellular and humoral immunity. DCs reside in an immature state in many nonlymphoid tissues such as the skin or airway mucosa which are highly exposed to allergens, pathogens, and chemicals. T cell receptor stimulation with costimulation allows naive Th cells to develop into effector cells, normally accompanied by high-level expression of selective sets of cytokines. The balance of these cytokines and the resulting class of immune responses depend on the conditions under which DCs are primed. Immunomodulators such as lipopolysaccharides/forskolin/curdlan change the nature of DCs to induce Th1/Th2/Th17 cells thereby designated Th1/Th2/Th17 adjuvants. We have recently found that such activities can be scrutinized by using mixed lymphocyte reaction, cAMP, and differential expression of Notch ligand isoforms. Application of these methods for the analyses of atopic dermatitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis will be discussed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Th2 differentiation is unaffected by Jagged2 expression on Dendritic Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Connie M.; Sun, Jie; Pearce, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the Jagged Notch ligands by Dendritic Cells (DCs) has been suggested to play a role in instructing Th2 responses. Supporting this hypothesis, we found that Jagged2 but not Jagged1 expression, correlates with the ability of DCs to induce Th2 responses. Jagged2 expression is upregulated in response to the helminth antigen SEA, which conditions DCs to induce Th2 responses, and is markedly downregulated following exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, which generally promote Th1 responses. Conversely, Jagged1 expression is markedly induced by TLR ligation. Despite these correlations, suppression of expression of Jagged2 using retrovirally-delivered siRNA failed to affect the ability of DCs to induce Th2 cell differentiation either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, retrovirally-induced expression of Jagged2 did not enhance the ability of DCs to induce Th2 cell responses. Our data indicate that Jagged2 expression by DCs is not sufficient or required for Th2 cell differentiation. PMID:18523256

  4. Akt1-mediated Gata3 phosphorylation controls the repression of IFNγ in memory-type Th2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Endo, Yusuke; Kato, Miki; Shinoda, Kenta; Suzuki, Akane; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Matsumoto, Masaki; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Th2 cells produce Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, but repress Th1 cytokine IFNγ. Recent studies have revealed various distinct memory-type Th2 cell subsets, one of which produces a substantial amount of IFNγ in addition to Th2 cytokines, however it remains unclear precisely how these Th2 cells produce IFNγ. We herein show that phosphorylation of Gata3 at Ser308, Thr315 and Ser316 induces dissociation of a histone deacetylase Hdac2 from the Gata3/Chd4 repressive complex in Th2 cells. We also identify Akt1 as a Gata3-phosphorylating kinase, and the activation of Akt1 induces derepression of Tbx21 and Ifng expression in Th2 cells. Moreover, T-bet-dependent IFNγ expression in IFNγ-producing memory Th2 cells appears to be controlled by the phosphorylation status of Gata3 in human and murine systems. Thus, this study highlights the molecular basis for posttranslational modifications of Gata3 that control the regulation of IFNγ expression in memory Th2 cells. PMID:27053161

  5. Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 controls TH1 cell effector function and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mahnke, Justus; Schumacher, Valéa; Ahrens, Stefanie; Käding, Nadja; Feldhoff, Lea Marie; Huber, Magdalena; Rupp, Jan; Raczkowski, Friederike; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for TH2 and TH17 cell formation and controls peripheral CD8+ T cell differentiation. We used Listeria monocytogenes infection to characterize the function of IRF4 in TH1 responses. IRF4−/− mice generated only marginal numbers of listeria-specific TH1 cells. After transfer into infected mice, IRF4−/− CD4+ T cells failed to differentiate into TH1 cells as indicated by reduced T-bet and IFN-γ expression, and showed limited proliferation. Activated IRF4−/− CD4+ T cells exhibited diminished uptake of the glucose analog 2-NBDG, limited oxidative phosphorylation and strongly reduced aerobic glycolysis. Insufficient metabolic adaptation contributed to the limited proliferation and TH1 differentiation of IRF4−/− CD4+ T cells. Our study identifies IRF4 as central regulator of TH1 responses and cellular metabolism. We propose that this function of IRF4 is fundamental for the initiation and maintenance of all TH cell responses. PMID:27762344

  6. Betamethasone, but Not Tacrolimus, Suppresses the Development of Th2 Cells Mediated by Langerhans Cell-Like Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Katsuhiko; Tamai, Saki; Ikeda, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Langerhans cells (LCs) work as the primary orchestrators in the polarization of the immune milieu towards a T helper type 1 (Th1) or T helper type 2 (Th2) response. In this study, we investigated the effects of tacrolimus and betamethasone, each used as topical applications in atopic dermatitis (AD), on Th2 cell development mediated by LCs. LC-like dendritic cells (LDCs) were generated from mouse bone marrow cells and used as substitutes for LCs. Mice were primed with ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-pulsed LDCs, which had been treated with tacrolimus or betamethasone, via the hind footpad. After 5 d, the cytokine response in the popliteal lymph nodes was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of cell surface molecules on LDCs was investigated via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Administration of OVA peptide-pulsed LDCs, which had been treated with betamethasone, inhibited Th2 cell development, as represented by the down-regulation of interleukin-4 production, and also inhibited Th1 cell development, represented by the down-regulation of interferon-γ production. However, tacrolimus-treated LDCs did not induce such inhibition of the development of Th1 and Th2 cells. The inhibition of Th1 and Th2 cell development was associated with the suppression of CD40 and T-cell immunoglobulin, and mucin domain-containing protein (TIM)-4 expression, respectively, in LDCs. These results suggest that the topical application of betamethasone to skin lesions of patients with AD acts on epidermal LCs, and may inhibit the development of Th2 cells, thus being of benefit for the control of AD.

  7. T-cell–intrinsic Tif1α/Trim24 regulates IL-1R expression on TH2 cells and TH2 cell-mediated airway allergy

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Okoye, Isobel S.; Guidi, Riccardo; Kannan, Yashaswini; Coomes, Stephanie M.; Czieso, Stephanie; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin; Wilson, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of new therapeutic targets to control allergic reactions and forestall the rising trend of allergic diseases. Although a variety of immune cells contribute to allergy, cytokine-secreting αβ+CD4+ T-helper 2 (TH2) cells orchestrate the type-2–driven immune response in a large proportion of atopic asthmatics. To identify previously unidentified putative targets in pathogenic TH2 cells, we performed in silico analyses of recently published transcriptional data from a wide variety of pathogenic TH cells [Okoye IS, et al. (2014) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(30):E3081–E3090] and identified that transcription intermediary factor 1 regulator-alpha (Tif1α)/tripartite motif-containing 24 (Trim24) was predicted to be active in house dust mite (HDM)- and helminth-elicited Il4gfp+αβ+CD4+ TH2 cells but not in TH1, TH17, or Treg cells. Testing this prediction, we restricted Trim24 deficiency to T cells by using a mixed bone marrow chimera system and found that T-cell–intrinsic Trim24 is essential for HDM-mediated airway allergy and antihelminth immunity. Mechanistically, HDM-elicited Trim24−/− T cells have reduced expression of many TH2 cytokines and chemokines and were predicted to have compromised IL-1–regulated signaling. Following this prediction, we found that Trim24−/− T cells have reduced IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) expression, are refractory to IL-1β–mediated activation in vitro and in vivo, and fail to respond to IL-1β–exacerbated airway allergy. Collectively, these data identify a previously unappreciated Trim24-dependent requirement for IL-1R expression on TH2 cells and an important nonredundant role for T-cell–intrinsic Trim24 in TH2-mediated allergy and antihelminth immunity. PMID:26787865

  8. 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (EC-18) Modulates Th2 Immunity through Attenuation of IL-4 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sun Young; Kang, Ho Bum; Ko, Young-Eun; Shin, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Ki-Young; Han, Yong-Hae; Chong, Saeho

    2015-01-01

    Controlling balance between T-helper type 1 (Th1) and T-helper type 2 (Th2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining the biological rhythm of Th1/Th2 and circumventing diseases caused by Th1/Th2 imbalance. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a Th2-type cytokine and often associated with hypersensitivity-related diseases such as atopic dermatitis and allergies when overexpressed. In this study, we have tried to elucidate the function of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (EC-18) as an essential modulator of Th1/Th2 balance. EC-18 has showed an inhibitory effect on the production of IL-4 in a dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR analysis has proved EC-18 affect the transcription of IL-4. By analyzing the phosphorylation status of Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), which is a transcriptional activator of IL-4 expression, we discovered that EC-18 induced the decrease of STAT6 activity in several stimulated cell lines, which was also showed in STAT6 reporter analysis. Co-treatment of EC-18 significantly weakened atopy-like phenotypes in mice treated with an allergen. Collectively, our results suggest that EC-18 is a potent Th2 modulating factor by regulating the transcription of IL-4 via STAT6 modulation, and could be developed for immune-modulatory therapeutics. PMID:25922599

  9. Disruption of Th2a and Th2b genes causes defects in spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Toshie; Huynh, Linh My; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Tsukamoto, Daisuke; Tomaru, Chinatsu; Kwak, Ho-Geun; Dohmae, Naoshi; Noguchi, Junko; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2015-04-01

    The variant histones TH2A and TH2B are abundant in the testis, but their roles in spermatogenesis remain elusive. Here, we show that male mutant mice lacking both Th2a and Th2b genes were sterile, with few sperm in the epididymis. In the mutant testis, the lack of TH2B was compensated for by overexpression of H2B, whereas overexpression of H2A was not observed, indicating a decrease in the total histone level. Mutant mice exhibited two defects: incomplete release of cohesin at interkinesis after meiosis I and histone replacement during spermiogenesis. In the mutant testis, secondary spermatocytes at interkinesis accumulated and cohesin was not released normally, suggesting that the retained cohesion of sister chromatids delayed the subsequent entry into meiosis II. In addition, impaired chromatin incorporation of TNP2 and degenerated spermatids were observed in the mutant testis. These results suggest that a loss of TH2A and TH2B function in chromatin dynamics or a decrease in the total histone levels causes defects in both cohesin release and histone replacement during spermatogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Thimerosal induces TH2 responses via influencing cytokine secretion by human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anshu; Kaushal, Poonam; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gollapudi, Sastry; Gupta, Sudhir

    2007-02-01

    Thimerosal is an organic mercury compound that is used as a preservative in vaccines and pharmaceutical products. Recent studies have shown a TH2-skewing effect of mercury, although the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. In this study, we investigated whether thimerosal can exercise a TH2-promoting effect through modulation of functions of dendritic cells (DC). Thimerosal, in a concentration-dependent manner, inhibited the secretion of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12p70 from human monocyte-derived DC. However, the secretion of IL-10 from DC was not affected. These thimerosal-exposed DC induced increased TH2 (IL-5 and IL-13) and decreased TH1 (IFN-gamma) cytokine secretion from the T cells in the absence of additional thimerosal added to the coculture. Thimerosal exposure of DC led to the depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH), and addition of exogenous GSH to DC abolished the TH2-promoting effect of thimerosal-treated DC, restoring secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12p70 by DC and IFN-gamma secretion by T cells. These data suggest that modulation of TH2 responses by mercury and thimerosal, in particular, is through depletion of GSH in DC.

  11. Regulatory T Cells Control Th2-Dominant Murine Autoimmune Gastritis1

    PubMed Central

    Harakal, Jessica; Rival, Claudia; Qiao, Hui; Tung, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Pernicious anemia and gastric carcinoma are serious sequelae of autoimmune gastritis (AIG). Our study indicates that in adult C57BL/6 DEREG mice expressing a transgenic diphtheria toxin receptor under the Foxp3 promoter, transient Treg cell depletion results in long-lasting AIG associated with both H+K+ATPase and intrinsic factor autoantibody responses. Although functional Treg cells emerge over time during AIG occurrence, the effector T cells rapidly become less susceptible to Treg cell-mediated suppression. While previous studies have implicated dysregulated Th1 responses in AIG pathogenesis, eosinophils have been detected in gastric biopsies from patients with AIG. Indeed, AIG in DEREG mice is associated with strong Th2 responses, including dominant IgG1 autoantibodies, elevated serum IgE, increased Th2 cytokine production, and eosinophil infiltration in the stomach draining lymph nodes. Additionally, the stomachs exhibit severe mucosal and muscular hypertrophy, parietal cell loss, mucinous epithelial cell metaplasia, and massive eosinophilic inflammation. Notably, the Th2 responses and gastritis severity are significantly ameliorated in IL-4- or eosinophil-deficient mice. Furthermore, expansion of both Th2-promoting IRF4+PD-L2+ dendritic cells and ILT3+ rebounded Treg cells were detected after transient Treg cell depletion. Collectively, these data suggest that Treg cells maintain physiological tolerance to clinically relevant gastric autoantigens, and Th2 responses can be a pathogenic mechanism in autoimmune gastritis. PMID:27259856

  12. Interferon-gamma expression by Th1 effector T cells mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, M; Enslen, H; Raingeaud, J; Recht, M; Zapton, T; Su, M S; Penix, L A; Davis, R J; Flavell, R A

    1998-01-01

    Signal transduction via MAP kinase pathways plays a key role in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor-induced proliferation, differentiation and cell death. In mammalian cells, p38 MAP kinase can be activated by multiple stimuli, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. Although p38 MAP kinase is implicated in the control of inflammatory responses, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th2 cells, which potentiate the humoral immune response or pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. Here, we show that pyridinyl imidazole compounds (specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase) block the production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by Th1 cells without affecting IL-4 production by Th2 cells. These drugs also inhibit transcription driven by the IFNgamma promoter. In transgenic mice, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase results in selective impairment of Th1 responses. In contrast, activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of constitutivelyactivated MAP kinase kinase 6 in transgenic mice caused increased production of IFNgamma during the differentiation and activation of Th1 cells. Together, these data demonstrate that the p38 MAP kinase is relevant for Th1 cells, not Th2 cells, and that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase represents a possible site of therapeutic intervention in diseases where a predominant Th1 immune response leads to a pathological outcome. Moreover, our study provides an additional mechanism by which the p38 MAP kinase pathway controls inflammatory responses. PMID:9582275

  13. Galectin-9 ameliorates anti-GBM glomerulonephritis by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Luan, Hong; Wang, Le; He, Fan; Zhou, Huan; Xu, Xiaoli; Li, Xingai; Xu, Qing; Niki, Toshiro; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Xu, Gang; Lv, Yongman; Yuan, Jin

    2014-04-15

    Antiglomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) is a Th1- and Th17-predominant autoimmune disease. Galectin-9 (Gal-9), identified as the ligand of Tim-3, functions in diverse biological processes and leads to the apoptosis of CD4(+)Tim-3(+) T cells. It is still unclear how Gal-9 regulates the functions of Th1 and Th17 cells and prevents renal injury in anti-GBM GN. In this study, Gal-9 was administered to anti-GBM GN mice for 7 days. We found that Gal-9 retarded the increase of Scr, ameliorated renal tubular injury, and reduced the formation of crescents. The infiltration of Th1 and Th17 cells into the spleen and kidneys significantly decreased in Gal-9-treated nephritic mice. The reduced infiltration of Th1 and Th17 cells might be associated with the downregulation of CCL-20, CXCL-9, and CXCL-10 mRNAs in the kidney. In parallel, the blood levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A declined in Gal-9-treated nephritic mice at days 21 and 28. In addition, an enhanced Th2 cell-mediated immune response was observed in the kidneys of nephritic mice after a 7-day injection of Gal-9. In conclusion, the protective role of Gal-9 in anti-GBM GN is associated with the inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced Th2 immunity in the kidney.

  14. Dipyrone & 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib suppress Th2-related chemokine production in monocyte

    PubMed Central

    Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Jan, Ren-Long; Tsai, Ming-Kai; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Kuo, Chang-Hung; Yang, San-Nan; Huang, Ming-Yii; Chen, Li-Chen; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor is a form of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and is commonly used in autoimmune and rheumatic diseases to control inflammation and alleviate pain. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production and an imbalance of T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and also anti-tumour activity. Dipyrone is a NSAID used to treat pain worldwide. The celecoxib analogue, 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (DMC), lacks COX-2 inhibitory activity but exhibits anti-tumour properties. However, the effects and the mechanisms of dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Th1- and Th2-related chemokines in monocytes remain poorly defined. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib on the expression of Th1 (IP-10) and Th2 (I-309 and MDC) and TNF-α in human monocytes and the associated intracellular mechanism. Methods: THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were pre-treated with dipyrone (10-9 – 10-4 M) and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (10-9 – 10-5 M) 2 h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Cell supernatant was collected 24 h after LPS stimulation. TNF-α, I-309, MDC and IP-10 concentrations of cell supernatants were determined using ELISA. Intracellular signaling was evaluated by Western blot. Results: Dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib downregulated LPS-induced Th2-related chemokine I-309 and macrophage derived chemokine (MDC) production. Only high dose of 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (10-5 M), but not dipyrone downregulated LPS-induced IP-10. Only very high dose of 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib had effect on LPS-induced TNF-α expression in PBMCs. Dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib suppressed LPS-induced p65 and JNK MAPK (C-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen activated protein kinase). expression. Interpretation & conclusions: Dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib downregulated LPS-induced Th2-related

  15. Dipyrone & 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib suppress Th2-related chemokine production in monocyte.

    PubMed

    Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Jan, Ren-Long; Tsai, Ming-Kai; Hsieh, Chong-Chao; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Kuo, Chang-Hung; Yang, San-Nan; Huang, Ming-Yii; Chen, Li-Chen; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2014-07-01

    Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor is a form of thnon steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and is commonly used in autoimmune and rheumatic diseases to control inflammation and alleviate pain. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production and an imbalance of T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and also anti-tumour activity. Dipyrone is a NSAID used to treat pain worldwide. The celecoxib analogue, 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (DMC), lacks COX-2 inhibitory activity but exhibits anti-tumour properties. However, the effects and the mechanisms of dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Th1- and Th2-related chemokines in monocytes remain poorly defined. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib on the expression of Th1 (IP-10) and Th2 (I-309 and MDC) and TNF-α in human monocytes and the associated intracellular mechanism. THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were pre-treated with dipyrone (10(-9)-10(-4) M) and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (10(-9)-10(-5) M) 2 h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Cell supernatant was collected 24 h after LPS stimulation. TNF-α, I-309, MDC and IP-10 concentrations of cell supernatants were determined using ELISA. Intracellular signaling was evaluated by w0 estern blot. Dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib downregulated LPS-induced Th2-related chemokine I-309 and macrophage derived chemokine (MDC) production. Only high dose of 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib (10(-5) M), but not dipyrone downregulated LPS-induced IP-10. Only very high dose of 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib had effect on LPS-induced TNF-α expression in PBMCs. Dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib suppressed LPS-induced p65 and JNK MAPK (C-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen activated protein kinase). expression. Dipyrone and 2,5-dimethylcelecoxib downregulated LPS-induced Th2-related chemokine I-309 and MDC in THP-1 cells. The suppressive effect on Th2

  16. Th1 CD4+ lymphocytes delete activated macrophages through the Fas/APO-1 antigen pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Ashany, D; Song, X; Lacy, E; Nikolic-Zugic, J; Friedman, S M; Elkon, K B

    1995-01-01

    The Fas/APO-1 cytotoxic pathway plays an important role in the regulation of peripheral immunity. Recent evidence indicates that this regulatory function operates through deletion of activated T and B lymphocytes by CD4+ T cells expressing the Fas ligand. Because macrophages play a key role in peripheral immunity, we asked whether Fas was involved in T-cell-macrophage interactions. Two-color flow cytometry revealed that Fas receptor (FasR) was expressed on resting murine peritoneal macrophages. FasR expression was upregulated after activation of macrophages with cytokines or lipopolysaccharide, although only tumor necrosis factor-alpha rendered macrophages sensitive to anti-FasR antibody-mediated death. To determine the consequence of antigen presentation by macrophages to CD4+ T cells, macrophages were pulsed with antigen and then incubated with either Th1 or Th2 cell lines or clones. Th1, but not Th2, T cells induced lysis of 60-80% of normal macrophages, whereas macrophages obtained from mice with mutations in the FasR were totally resistant to Th1-mediated cytotoxicity. Macrophage cytotoxicity depended upon specific antigen recognition by T cells and was major histocompatibility complex restricted. These findings indicate that, in addition to deletion of activated lymphocytes, Fas plays an important role in deletion of activated macrophages after antigen presentation to Th1 CD4+ T cells. Failure to delete macrophages that constitutively present self-antigens may contribute to the expression of autoimmunity in mice deficient in FasR (lpr) or Fas ligand (gld). PMID:7479970

  17. Th1 CD4+ lymphocytes delete activated macrophages through the Fas/APO-1 antigen pathway.

    PubMed

    Ashany, D; Song, X; Lacy, E; Nikolic-Zugic, J; Friedman, S M; Elkon, K B

    1995-11-21

    The Fas/APO-1 cytotoxic pathway plays an important role in the regulation of peripheral immunity. Recent evidence indicates that this regulatory function operates through deletion of activated T and B lymphocytes by CD4+ T cells expressing the Fas ligand. Because macrophages play a key role in peripheral immunity, we asked whether Fas was involved in T-cell-macrophage interactions. Two-color flow cytometry revealed that Fas receptor (FasR) was expressed on resting murine peritoneal macrophages. FasR expression was upregulated after activation of macrophages with cytokines or lipopolysaccharide, although only tumor necrosis factor-alpha rendered macrophages sensitive to anti-FasR antibody-mediated death. To determine the consequence of antigen presentation by macrophages to CD4+ T cells, macrophages were pulsed with antigen and then incubated with either Th1 or Th2 cell lines or clones. Th1, but not Th2, T cells induced lysis of 60-80% of normal macrophages, whereas macrophages obtained from mice with mutations in the FasR were totally resistant to Th1-mediated cytotoxicity. Macrophage cytotoxicity depended upon specific antigen recognition by T cells and was major histocompatibility complex restricted. These findings indicate that, in addition to deletion of activated lymphocytes, Fas plays an important role in deletion of activated macrophages after antigen presentation to Th1 CD4+ T cells. Failure to delete macrophages that constitutively present self-antigens may contribute to the expression of autoimmunity in mice deficient in FasR (lpr) or Fas ligand (gld).

  18. Nuclear Role of WASp in the Pathogenesis of Dysregulated TH1 Immunity in Human Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Matthew D.; Sadhukhan, Sanjoy; Kottangada, Ponnappa; Ramgopal, Archana; Sarkar, Koustav; D’Silva, Sheryl; Selvakumar, Annamalai; Candotti, Fabio; Vyas, Yatin M.

    2010-01-01

    The clinical symptomatology in the X-linked Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), a combined immunodeficiency and autoimmune disease resulting from WAS protein (WASp) deficiency, reflects the underlying coexistence of an impaired T helper 1 (TH1) immunity alongside intact TH2 immunity. This suggests a role for WASp in patterning TH subtype immunity, yet the molecular basis for the TH1-TH2 imbalance in human WAS is unknown. We have discovered a nuclear role for WASp in the transcriptional regulation of the TH1 regulator gene TBX21 at the chromatin level. In primary TH1-differentiating cells, a fraction of WASp is found in the nucleus, where it is recruited to the proximal promoter locus of the TBX21 gene, but not to the core promoter of GATA3 (a TH2 regulator gene) or RORc (a TH17 regulator gene). Genome-wide mapping demonstrates association of WASp in vivo with the gene-regulatory network that orchestrates TH1 cell fate choice in the human TH cell genome. Functionally, nuclear WASp associates with H3K4 trimethyltransferase [RBBP5 (retinoblastoma-binding protein 5)] and H3K9/H3K36 tridemethylase [JMJD2A (Jumonji domain-containing protein 2A)] proteins, and their enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo is required for achieving transcription-permissive chromatin dynamics at the TBX21 proximal promoter in primary differentiating TH1 cells. During TH1 differentiation, the loss of WASp accompanies decreased enrichment of RBBP5 and, in a subset of WAS patients, also of filamentous actin at the TBX21 proximal promoter locus. Accordingly, human WASp-deficient TH cells, from natural mutation or RNA interference–mediated depletion, demonstrate repressed TBX21 promoter dynamics when driven under TH1-differentiating conditions. These chromatin derangements accompany deficient T-BET messenger RNA and protein expression and impaired TH1 function, defects that are ameliorated by reintroducing WASp. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of WASp in the epigenetic control

  19. Helminth 2-Cys peroxiredoxin drives Th2 responses through a mechanism involving alternatively activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Sheila; Stack, Colin M.; O'Neill, Sandra M.; Sayed, Ahmed A.; Williams, David L.; Dalton, John P.

    2008-01-01

    During helminth infections, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMacs) are key to promoting Th2 responses and suppressing Th1-driven inflammatory pathology. Th2 cytokines IL-4 and/or IL-13 are believed to be important in the induction and activation of AAMacs. Using murine models for the helminth infections caused by Fasciola hepatica (Fh) and Schistosoma mansoni (Sm), we show that a secreted antioxidant, peroxiredoxin (Prx), induces alternative activation of macrophages. These activated, Ym1-expressing macrophages enhanced the secretion of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 from naive CD4+ T cells. Administration of recombinant FhPrx and SmPrx to wild-type and IL-4−/− and IL-13−/− mice induced the production of AAMacs. In addition, Prx stimulated the expression of markers of AAMacs (particularly, Ym1) in vitro, and therefore can act independently of IL-4/IL-13 signaling. The immunomodulatory property of Prx is not due to its antioxidant activity, as an inactive recombinant variant with active site Cys residues replaced by Gly could also induce AAMacs and Th2 responses. Immunization of mice with recombinant Prx or passive transfer of anti-Prx antibodies prior to infection with Fh not only blocked the induction of AAMacs but also the development of parasite-specific Th2 responses. We propose that Prx activates macrophages as an initial step in the induction of Th2 responses by helminth parasites and is thereby a novel pathogen-associated molecular pattern.—Donnelly, S., Stack, C. M., O'Neill, S. M., Sayed, A. A., Williams, D. L., Dalton, J. P. Helminth 2-Cys peroxiredoxin drives Th2 responses through a mechanism involving alternatively activated macrophages. PMID:18708590

  20. Scopoletin attenuates allergy by inhibiting Th2 cytokines production in EL-4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, An-Sheng; Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Tsu-Liang

    2012-08-01

    Scopoletin is an antioxidant found in certain weedy plants. It exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-diabetic activities. It remains unknown whether scopoletin regulates T helper (Th) cells, including Th 1 and Th 2 cells. We found that scopoletin significantly inhibited phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-induced interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-10 production in EL-4 T cells. In addition, scopoletin significantly enhanced the inhibitory action of PMA/ionomycin on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression. In EL-4 T cells, PMA/ionomycin treatment markedly increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and GATA-3; in contrast, scopoletin significantly down-regulated expressions of these transcription factors. Furthermore, this downregulation depended on protein kinase C (PKC) attenuation. This leads us to suggest that the anti-allergic properties of scopoletin might be mediated by the downregulation of cytokine expression in Th 2 cells.

  1. Peroxiredoxin I is a negative regulator of Th2-dominant allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Koike, Eiko; Warabi, Eiji; Yanagawa, Toru; Yanagisawa, Rie; Ishii, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) I, a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme, is known to protect against inflammation; however, its role in the allergic inflammation remains unidentified. We determined whether intristic Prx I protects against allergic asthma traits using Prx-I knockout (-/-) mice. Prx I (-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) plus aluminum potassium sulfate (Alum: Th2 adjuvant) and subsequently challenged with OVA. Twenty-four hours after the last OVA challenge, leukocyte influx including eosinophils into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was significantly greater in Prx I (-/-) mice compared to that in WT mice. On the other hand, when these mice were immunized with OVA+complete Freund's adjuvant (Th1 adjuvant), opposite phenomenon was observed. In the presence of OVA/Alum, peribronchial inflammatory leukocyte infiltration, cholinergic airway resistance, and the lung expression of interleukin (IL)-2 were significantly greater and that of interferon-gamma was significantly lesser in Prx I (-/-) than in WT mice. In vitro, OVA/Alum-sensitized Prx I (-/-) T cells proliferated more profoundly than WT T cells when they were cocultured with syngeneic bone marrow-generated dendritic cells. These results indicate that endogenous Prx I protects against allergen-related Th2-type airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, at least partly, via the suppression of the lung expression of IL-2 and regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance in addition to its antioxidative properties. Furthermore, Prx I can inhibit allergen-specific T-cell proliferation through immunological synapse. Our findings implicate an alternative therapeutic value of Prx I in the treatment of Th2-skewed allergic airway inflammatory diseases such as atopic asthma.

  2. Increased B Cell ADAM10 in Allergic Patients and Th2 Prone Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Lauren Folgosa; Martin, Rebecca K.; Zellner, Hannah B.; Irani, Anne-Marie; Uram-Tuculescu, Cora; El Shikh, Mohey Eldin; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    ADAM10, as the sheddase of the low affinity IgE receptor (CD23), promotes IgE production and thus is a unique target for attenuating allergic disease. Herein, we describe that B cell levels of ADAM10, specifically, are increased in allergic patients and Th2 prone WT mouse strains (Balb/c and A/J). While T cell help augments ADAM10 expression, Balb WT B cells exhibit increased ADAM10 in the naïve state and even more dramatically increased ADAM10 after anti-CD40/IL4 stimulation compared C57 (Th1 prone) WT B cells. Furthermore, ADAM17 and TNF are reduced in allergic patients and Th2 prone mouse strains (Balb/c and A/J) compared to Th1 prone controls. To further understand this regulation, ADAM17 and TNF were studied in C57Bl/6 and Balb/c mice deficient in ADAM10. C57-ADAM10B-/- were more adept at increasing ADAM17 levels and thus TNF cleavage resulting in excess follicular TNF levels and abnormal secondary lymphoid tissue architecture not noted in Balb-ADAM10B-/-. Moreover, the level of B cell ADAM10 as well as Th context is critical for determining IgE production potential. Using a murine house dust mite airway hypersensitivity model, we describe that high B cell ADAM10 level in a Th2 context (Balb/c WT) is optimal for disease induction including bronchoconstriction, goblet cell metaplasia, mucus, inflammatory cellular infiltration, and IgE production. Balb/c mice deficient in B cell ADAM10 have attenuated lung and airway symptoms compared to Balb WT and are actually most similar to C57 WT (Th1 prone). C57-ADAM10B-/- have even further reduced symptomology. Taken together, it is critical to consider both innate B cell levels of ADAM10 and ADAM17 as well as Th context when determining host susceptibility to allergic disease. High B cell ADAM10 and low ADAM17 levels would help diagnostically in predicting Th2 disease susceptibility; and, we provide support for the use ADAM10 inhibitors in treating Th2 disease. PMID:25933166

  3. Behavior of  Visceral Leishmania donovani in an Experimentally Induced T Helper Cell 2 (Th2)-Associated Response Model

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Henry W.; Hariprashad, June; Coffman, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    Although implicated in the clinical expression of human visceral leishmaniasis, a disease-exacerbating T helper cell 2 (Th2)-associated immune response involving interleukin-4 (IL-4) and/ or IL-10 is not readily detectable in experimental visceral infection. To overcome this obstacle to analyzing visceral Leishmania donovani in this relevant immunopathogenetic environment, we sought a model in which a Th2 response induces noncuring infection. Four initial approaches were tested primarily in BALB/c mice which control intracellular L. donovani via an IL-12– and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)–dependent Th1 mechanism: (a) modifying the cytokine milieu when the parasite is first encountered (treatment with exogenous IL-4 or anti–IL-12), (b) providing sustained endogenous exposure to a Th2 cytokine (infection of IL-4 transgenic mice), (c) increasing the parasite challenge inoculum, and (d) injecting heat-killed L. major promastigotes (HKLMP) to induce a cross-reactive Th2 response to live L. donovani. Only the last approach generated a functional Th2-type response that induced disease exacerbation accompanied by inhibition of tissue granuloma assembly. In HKLMP-primed BALB/c mice, prophylaxis with anti–IL-4, anti–IL-10, or exogenous IL-12 (but not IFN-γ) readily restored resistance. In primed mice with established visceral infection, treatment with either IL-12 or IFN-γ also successfully induced antileishmanial activity. The results in this model (a) suggest that rather than acting alone, IL-4 and IL-10 may act in concert to prevent acquisition of resistance to L. donovani, (b) reemphasize the capacity of IL-12 to reverse early Th2-related effects, and (c) demonstrate that Th1 cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ) have therapeutic action in an established systemic infection despite the presence of a disease-exacerbating Th2-type response. PMID:9120392

  4. Pleural cavity type 2 innate lymphoid cells precede Th2 expansion in murine Litomosoides sigmodontis infection.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Alexis; Killoran, Kristin; Mitre, Edward; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a family of innate cells has been identified that respond to IL-25 and IL-33 in murine intestinal helminths. Termed Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) they facilitate the development of Th2 responses responsible for helminth clearance. We evaluated these cells in a tissue-invasive helminth model. Using Litomosides sigmodontis (a strong Th2 polarizing filarial infection) we observed a robust Th2 response in the pleural cavity, where adult worms reside, marked by increased levels of IL-5 and IL-13 in infected mice. In parallel, ILC2s were expanded in the pleural cavity early in the infection, peaking during the pre-patent period. L. sigmodontis also elicits a strong systemic Th2 response, which includes significantly increased levels of IgG1, IgE and IL-5 in the plasma of infected mice. Although ILC2s were expanded locally, they were not expanded in the spleen, blood, or mediastinal lymph nodes in response to L. sigmodontis infection, suggesting that ILC2s function primarily at the site of infection. The increase in ILC2s in the pleural cavity and the expansion in Th2 responses indicates a probable role for these cells in initiating and maintaining the Th2 response and highlights the importance of these cells in helminth infections and their role in Th2 immunity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. CD4+ T Cell Fate in Glomerulonephritis: A Tale of Th1, Th17, and Novel Treg Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have identified CD4+ T cells as central players of glomerulonephritis (GN). Cells of the Th1 and Th17 responses cause renal tissue damage, while Tregs mediate protection. Recently, a high degree of plasticity among these T cell lineages was proposed. During inflammation, Th17 cells were shown to have the potential of transdifferentiation into Th1, Th2, or alternatively anti-inflammatory Tr1 cells. Currently available data from studies in GN, however, do not indicate relevant Th17 to Th1 or Th2 conversion, leaving the Th17 cell fate enigmatic. Tregs, on the other hand, were speculated to transdifferentiate into Th17 cells. Again, data from GN do not support this concept. Rather, it seems that previously unrecognized subspecialized effector Treg lineages exist. These include Th1 specific Treg1 as well as Th17 directed Treg17 cells. Furthermore, a bifunctional Treg subpopulation was recently identified in GN, which secrets IL-17 and coexpresses Foxp3 together with the Th17 characteristic transcription factor RORγt. Similarities between these different and highly specialized effector Treg subpopulations with the corresponding T helper effector cell lineages might have resulted in previous misinterpretation as Treg transdifferentiation. In summary, Th17 cells have a relatively stable phenotype during GN, while, in the case of Tregs, currently available data suggest lineage heterogeneity rather than plasticity. PMID:27974866

  6. Th1/Th17-Related Cytokines and Chemokines and Their Implications in the Pathogenesis of Pemphigus Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Timoteo, Rodolfo Pessato; Silva, Djalma Alexandre Alves; Catarino, Jonatas Da Silva; Rodrigues Junior, Virmondes

    2017-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein-3. Despite the variety of findings, the chemokine and cytokine profiles that characterize the immune response in the disease are still poorly explored. Thus, 20 PV patients and 20 controls were grouped according to gender, ethnicity, place of residence, and clinical parameters of the disease. Then, the levels of chemokines and of Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg/Th9/Th22-related cytokines were assessed in the serum. PV patients had higher levels of inflammatory Th1/Th17 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23), as well as higher levels of CXCL8 and reduced levels of Th1/Th2-related chemokines (IP-10 and CCL11). However, no differences in the levels of IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-9, IL-12, TGF-β, IL-33, MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1α were found between PV patients and their control counterparts. Furthermore, PV patients with skin lesions had higher serum levels of IL-6 and CXCL8 when compared to PV patients without lesions. Taken together, our findings describe the role of cytokines and chemokines associated with Th1/Th17 immune response in PV patients. Finally, these data are important for better understanding of the immune aspects that control disease outcome, and they may also provide important information about why patients develop autoantibodies against desmogleins. PMID:28321152

  7. Functional and Pathogenic Differences of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Helena S.; Mues, Marsilius; Lassmann, Hans; Wekerle, Hartmut; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy

    2010-01-01

    Background There is consensus that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be mediated by myelin specific T cells of Th1 as well as of Th17 phenotype, but the contribution of either subset to the pathogenic process has remained controversial. In this report, we compare functional differences and pathogenic potential of “monoclonal” T cell lines that recognize myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) with the same transgenic TCR but are distinguished by an IFN-γ producing Th1-like and IL-17 producing Th17-like cytokine signature. Methods and Findings CD4+ T cell lines were derived from the transgenic mouse strain 2D2, which expresses a TCR recognizing MOG peptide 35–55 in the context of I-Ab. Adoptive transfer of Th1 cells into lymphopenic (Rag2−/−) recipients, predominantly induced “classic” paralytic EAE, whereas Th17 cells mediated “atypical” ataxic EAE in approximately 50% of the recipient animals. Combination of Th1 and Th17 cells potentiated the encephalitogenicity inducing classical EAE exclusively. Th1 and Th17 mediated EAE lesions differed in their composition but not in their localization within the CNS. While Th1 lesions contained IFN-γ, but no IL-17 producing T cells, the T cells in Th17 lesions showed plasticity, substantially converting to IFN-γ producing Th1-like cells. Th1 and Th17 cells differed drastically by their lytic potential. Th1 but not Th17 cells lysed autoantigen presenting astrocytes and fibroblasts in vitro in a contact-dependent manner. In contrast, Th17 cells acquired cytotoxic potential only after antigenic stimulation and conversion to IFN-γ producing Th1 phenotype. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that both Th1 and Th17 lineages possess the ability to induce CNS autoimmunity but can function with complementary as well as differential pathogenic mechanisms. We propose that Th17-like cells producing IL-17 are required for the generation of atypical EAE whereas IFN-γ producing Th1 cells induce

  8. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotides block allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting Th2 cell activation and IgE-mediated cytokine induction

    PubMed Central

    Hessel, Edith M.; Chu, Mabel; Lizcano, Jennifer O.; Chang, Bonnie; Herman, Nancy; Kell, Sariah A.; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Coffman, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A single treatment with a CpG-containing immunostimulatory DNA sequence (ISS) given before allergen challenge can inhibit T helper type 2 cell (Th2)–mediated airway responses in animal models of allergic asthma; however, the mechanism of this inhibition remains largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that airway delivery of ISS before allergen challenge in Th2-primed mice acts in two distinct ways to prevent the allergic responses to this challenge. The first is to prevent induction of cytokines from allergen-specific Th2 cells, as demonstrated by the nearly complete inhibition of Th2 cytokine production, Th2-dependent functional responses, and gene induction patterns. ISS inhibits the Th2 response by rendering lung antigen-presenting cells (APCs) unable to effectively present antigen to Th2 cells, but not to Th1 cells. This loss of APC function correlates with a reduced expression of costimulatory molecules, including programmed cell death ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2, CD40, CD80, CD86, and inducible T cell costimulator, and of major histocompatibility complex class II on CD11c+APCs from the airways of ISS-treated mice. The second important action of ISS is inhibition of immunoglobulin E–dependent release of Th2 cytokines, especially interleukin 4, from basophils and/or mast cells in the airways of Th2-primed mice. Thus, inhibition by ISS of allergic responses can be explained by two novel mechanisms that culminate in the inhibition of the principal sources of type 2 cytokines in the airways. PMID:16314434

  9. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotides block allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting Th2 cell activation and IgE-mediated cytokine induction.

    PubMed

    Hessel, Edith M; Chu, Mabel; Lizcano, Jennifer O; Chang, Bonnie; Herman, Nancy; Kell, Sariah A; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Coffman, Robert L

    2005-12-05

    A single treatment with a CpG-containing immunostimulatory DNA sequence (ISS) given before allergen challenge can inhibit T helper type 2 cell (Th2)-mediated airway responses in animal models of allergic asthma; however, the mechanism of this inhibition remains largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that airway delivery of ISS before allergen challenge in Th2-primed mice acts in two distinct ways to prevent the allergic responses to this challenge. The first is to prevent induction of cytokines from allergen-specific Th2 cells, as demonstrated by the nearly complete inhibition of Th2 cytokine production, Th2-dependent functional responses, and gene induction patterns. ISS inhibits the Th2 response by rendering lung antigen-presenting cells (APCs) unable to effectively present antigen to Th2 cells, but not to Th1 cells. This loss of APC function correlates with a reduced expression of costimulatory molecules, including programmed cell death ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2, CD40, CD80, CD86, and inducible T cell costimulator, and of major histocompatibility complex class II on CD11c(+ )APCs from the airways of ISS-treated mice. The second important action of ISS is inhibition of immunoglobulin E-dependent release of Th2 cytokines, especially interleukin 4, from basophils and/or mast cells in the airways of Th2-primed mice. Thus, inhibition by ISS of allergic responses can be explained by two novel mechanisms that culminate in the inhibition of the principal sources of type 2 cytokines in the airways.

  10. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of the Nuclear Fraction of Human CD4+ Cells in the Early Phases of IL-4-induced Th2 Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, Robert; Lönnberg, Tapio; Elo, Laura L.; Filén, Jan-Jonas; Rainio, Eeva; Corthals, Garry; Oresic, Matej; Nyman, Tuula A.; Aittokallio, Tero; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2010-01-01

    We used stable isotope labeling with 4-plex iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification) reagents and LC-MS/MS to investigate proteomic changes in the nucleus of activated human CD4+ cells during the early stages of Th2 cell differentiation. The effects of IL-4 stimulation upon activated naïve CD4+ cells were measured in the nuclear fractions from 6 and 24 h in three biological replicates, each using pooled cord blood samples derived from seven or more individuals. In these analyses, in the order of 800 proteins were detected with two or more peptides and quantified in three biological replicates. In addition to consistent differences observed with the nuclear localization/expression of established human Th2 and Th1 markers, there were changes that suggested the involvement of several proteins either only recently reported or otherwise not known in this context. These included SATB1 and among the novel changes detected and validated an IL-4-induced increase in the level of YB1. This unique data set from human cord blood CD4+ T cells details an extensive list of protein determinations that compares with and complements previous data determined from the Jurkat cell nucleus. PMID:20467038

  11. Preventative Effect of an Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Development of Airway Inflammation in Mice via Modulation of Th1/2 Cells Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4+ T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4+ T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ+ cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4+ cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance. PMID:23844220

  12. Preventative effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on development of airway inflammation in mice via modulation of Th1/2 cells differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Cho, Hyun Wook; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    HemoHIM, an herbal preparation of three edible herbs (Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, Paeonia japonica Miyabe) is known to increase the Th1 immune response as well as reduce the allergic response in human mast cells. Here, our goal was to determine whether or not HemoHIM could induce Th1 cell differentiation as well as inhibit the development of airway inflammation. To study Th1/Th2 cell differentiation, naive CD4(+) T cells isolated from C57BL/6 mouse spleens were cultured with or without HemoHIM. To examine airway inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were fed HemoHIM for 4 weeks before sensitization and provocation with ovalbumin (OVA). In an in vitro experiment, naive CD4(+) T cells displayed increased Th1 (IFN-γ(+) cell) as well as decreased Th2 (IL-4(+) cell) differentiation in a HemoHIM concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, in an airway inflammation mice model, eosinophil numbers in BALF, serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1, and cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) levels in BALF and the supernatant of splenocytes all decreased upon HemoHIM (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment (4 weeks). These results show that HemoHIM attenuated allergic airway inflammation in the mouse model through regulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  13. Forced Exercise Preconditioning Attenuates Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis by Altering Th1 Lymphocyte Composition and Egress.

    PubMed

    Calik, Michael W; Shankarappa, Sahadev A; Langert, Kelly A; Stubbs, Evan B

    2015-01-01

    A short-term exposure to moderately intense physical exercise affords a novel measure of protection against autoimmune-mediated peripheral nerve injury. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which forced exercise attenuates the development and progression of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), an established animal model of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Adult male Lewis rats remained sedentary (control) or were preconditioned with forced exercise (1.2 km/day × 3 weeks) prior to P2-antigen induction of EAN. Sedentary rats developed a monophasic course of EAN beginning on postimmunization day 12.3 ± 0.2 and reaching peak severity on day 17.0 ± 0.3 (N = 12). By comparison, forced-exercise preconditioned rats exhibited a similar monophasic course but with significant (p < .05) reduction of disease severity. Analysis of popliteal lymph nodes revealed a protective effect of exercise preconditioning on leukocyte composition and egress. Compared with sedentary controls, forced exercise preconditioning promoted a sustained twofold retention of P2-antigen responsive leukocytes. The percentage distribution of pro-inflammatory (Th1) lymphocytes retained in the nodes from sedentary EAN rats (5.1 ± 0.9%) was significantly greater than that present in nodes from forced-exercise preconditioned EAN rats (2.9 ± 0.6%) or from adjuvant controls (2.0 ± 0.3%). In contrast, the percentage of anti-inflammatory (Th2) lymphocytes (7-10%) and that of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (∼20%) remained unaltered by forced exercise preconditioning. These data do not support an exercise-inducible shift in Th1:Th2 cell bias. Rather, preconditioning with forced exercise elicits a sustained attenuation of EAN severity, in part, by altering the composition and egress of autoreactive proinflammatory (Th1) lymphocytes from draining lymph nodes.

  14. Signatures of resistance to Lepeophtheirus salmonis include a TH2-type response at the louse-salmon interface.

    PubMed

    Braden, Laura M; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-01-01

    Disease outbreaks with the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis cause significant economic losses in mariculture operations worldwide. Variable innate immune responses at the louse-attachment site contribute to differences in susceptibility among species such that members of Salmo spp. are more susceptible to infection than those of some Oncorhynchus spp. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to disease resistance or susceptibility to L. salmonis in salmon. Here, we utilize histochemistry and transcriptomics in a comparative infection model with susceptible (Atlantic, sockeye) and resistant (coho) salmon. At least three cell populations (MHIIβ+, IL1β+, TNFα+) were activated in coho salmon skin during L. salmonis infection. Locally elevated expression of several pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. IL1β, IL8, TNFα, COX2, C/EBPβ), and tissue repair enzymes (MMP9, MMP13) were detected in susceptible and resistant species. However, responses specific to coho salmon (e.g. IL4, IL6, TGFβ) or responses shared among susceptible salmon (e.g. SAP, TRF, Cath in Atlantic and sockeye salmon) provide evidence for species-specific pathways contributing to resistance or susceptibility, respectively. Our results confirm the importance of an early pro-inflammatory TH1-type pathway as an initial host response during infection with Pacific sea lice, and demonstrate subsequent regulatory TH2-type processes as candidate defense mechanisms in the skin of resistant coho salmon. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of Dendritic Cell Activation and Subsequent Th1 Cell Polarization by Lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yeonseok

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play an essential role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing cellular stress including pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns and by shaping the types of antigen-specific T cell immunity. Although lidocaine is widely used in clinical settings that trigger cellular stress, it remains unclear whether such treatment impacts the activation of innate immune cells and subsequent differentiation of T cells. Here we showed that lidocaine inhibited the production of IL–6, TNFα and IL–12 from dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor ligands including lipopolysaccharide, poly(I:C) and R837 in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the differentiation of Th1 cells was significantly suppressed by the addition of lidocaine while the same treatment had little effect on the differentiation of Th17, Th2 and regulatory T cells in vitro. Moreover, lidocaine suppressed the ovalbumin-specific Th1 cell responses in vivo induced by the adoptive transfer of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells. These results demonstrate that lidocaine inhibits the activation of dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor signals and subsequently suppresses the differentiation of Th1 cell responses. PMID:26445366

  16. Mast cells have no impact on cutaneous leishmaniasis severity and related Th2 differentiation in resistant and susceptible mice.

    PubMed

    Paul, Christoph; Wolff, Svenja; Zapf, Thea; Raifer, Hartmann; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Bollig, Nadine; Camara, Bärbel; Trier, Claudia; Schleicher, Ulrike; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lohoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The genus leishmania comprises different protozoan parasites which are causative agents of muco-cutaneous and systemic, potentially lethal diseases. After infection with the species Leishmania major, resistant mice expand Th1 cells which stimulate macrophages for Leishmania destruction. In contrast, susceptible mice generate Th2 cells which deactivate macrophages, leading to systemic spread of the pathogens. Th-cell differentiation is determined within the first days, and Th2 cell differentiation requires IL-4, whereby the initial IL-4 source is often unknown. Mast cells are potential sources of IL-4, and hence their role in murine leishmaniasis has previously been studied in mast cell-deficient Kit mutant mice, although these mice display immunological phenotypes beyond mast cell deficiency. We therefore readdressed this question by infecting Kit-independent mast cell-deficient mice that are Th1 (C57BL/6 Cpa(Cre) ) or Th2 (BALB/c Cpa(Cre) ) prone with L. major. Using different parasite doses and intra- or subcutaneous infection routes, the results demonstrate no role of mast cells on lesion size development, parasite load, immune cell phenotypes expanding in draining lymph nodes, and cytokine production during murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Thus, other cell types such as ILCs or T cells have to be considered as primary source of Th2-driving IL-4.

  17. Th1 cytokine-based immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Cytokine-based immunotherapy is executed by harnessing cytokines to activate the immune system to suppress tumors. Th1-type cytokines including IL-1, IL-2, IL-12 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are potent stimulators of Th1 differentiation and Th1-based antitumor response. Many preclinical studies demonstrated the antitumor effects of Th1 cytokines but their clinical efficacy is limited. Multiple factors influence the efficacy of immunotherapy for tumors. For instance immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment can produce inhibitory cytokines which suppress antitumor immune response. Most studies on cytokine immunotherapy focused on how to boost Th1 response; many studies combined cytokine-based therapy with other treatments to reverse immunosuppression in tumor microenvironment. In addition, cytokines have pleiotropic functions and some cytokines show paradoxical activities under different settings. Better understanding the physiological and pathological functions of cytokines helps clinicians to design Th1-based cancer therapy in clinical practice.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1987 induces Th2 immune responses and enhances Mycobacterium smegmatis survival in mice.

    PubMed

    Sha, Shanshan; Shi, Xiaoxia; Deng, Guoying; Chen, Lina; Xin, Yi; Ma, Yufang

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can interfere with host immune response and escape clearance through its specific antigens. M. tuberculosis Rv1987 encoded by region of difference (RD)-2 gene is a secretory protein with immunogenic potency. Here, we investigated the impact of Rv1987 on host cytokine responses and T cell polarization in mouse aerosol model. A recombinant M. smegmatis mc(2)155 strain that overexpressed Rv1987 protein (named MS1987) was constructed and used to infect C57BL/6 mice. The mc(2)155 harbored the empty vector (named MSVec) was as a control. The results showed that MS1987 challenged mice promoted Th2-biased cytokine responses with lower secretion of IFN-γ but higher production of IL-4 and Rv1987-specific IgG antibody compared to MSVec infected mice. Neutrophilic inflammation and high bacterial burden were observed in the lung tissues of MS1987 infected mice probably own to the failed Th1 cell immunity. Besides, subcutaneous injection of Rv1987 protein could mediate the Th1 cytokine responses caused by M. bovis BCG in mice. These results indicated that M. tuberculosis Rv1987 protein could modulate host immune response towards Th2 profile, which probably contributed to the immune evasion of bacteria from host elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Glutathione Depletion Is Linked with Th2 Polarization in Mice with a Retrovirus-Induced Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Murine AIDS: Role of Proglutathione Molecules as Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Brundu, Serena; Palma, Linda; Picceri, Giusi Giada; Ligi, Daniela; Orlandi, Chiara; Galluzzi, Luca; Chiarantini, Laura; Casabianca, Anna; Schiavano, Giuditta Fiorella; Santi, Martina; Mannello, Ferdinando; Smietana, Michaël; Magnani, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Injection of the LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus into mice causes murine AIDS, a disease characterized by many dysfunctions of immunocompetent cells. To establish whether the disease is characterized by glutathione imbalance, reduced glutathione (GSH) and cysteine were quantified in different organs. A marked redox imbalance, consisting of GSH and/or cysteine depletion, was found in the lymphoid organs, such as the spleen and lymph nodes. Moreover, a significant decrease in cysteine and GSH levels in the pancreas and brain, respectively, was measured at 5 weeks postinfection. The Th2 immune response was predominant at all times investigated, as revealed by the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines. Furthermore, investigation of the activation status of peritoneal macrophages showed that the expression of genetic markers of alternative activation, namely, Fizz1, Ym1, and Arginase1, was induced. Conversely, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of classical activation of macrophages, was detected only when Th1 cytokines were expressed at high levels. In vitro studies revealed that during the very early phases of infection, GSH depletion and the downregulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40 mRNA were correlated with the dose of LP-BM5 used to infect the macrophages. Treatment of LP-BM5-infected mice with N-(N-acetyl-l-cysteinyl)-S-acetylcysteamine (I-152), an N-acetyl-cysteine supplier, restored GSH/cysteine levels in the organs, reduced the expression of alternatively activated macrophage markers, and increased the level of gamma interferon production, while it decreased the levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-5. Our findings thus establish a link between GSH deficiency and Th1/Th2 disequilibrium in LP-BM5 infection and indicate that I-152 can be used to restore the GSH level and a balanced Th1/Th2 response in infected mice. IMPORTANCE The first report of an association between Th2 polarization and alteration of the redox state in LP-BM5

  20. Prevalence of atopy in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, hepatitis B virus carriers, and healthy children: role of T helper 1 (Th1)-type immune response.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Murat; Akcay, Seker; Karakas, Taner; Gedik, Yusuf; Okten, Aysenur; Orhan, Fazil

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, and atopic dermatitis has increased over the past few decades, especially in developed countries. They are characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction mediated by T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Two common chronic diseases of childhood-an autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), and a chronic viral infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers-are associated with a Th1-dominant and Th1-insufficient cytokine profile, respectively. The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of allergic disease in patients with type 1 DM and, in HBV carriers, to evaluate the role of Th1-type immune response in atopy and allergic disease. The study included patients with type 1 DM (group I, n = 52), HBV carriers (group III, n = 47), and a healthy control group (group III, n = 209). Participants were screened for allergic disease and atopic sensitization. Symptoms of asthma, eczema, and atopy were found more commonly in HBV carrier children compared with those with DM and healthy controls. This study supports the Th1/Th2 model. The prevalence of allergic disease and atopy is decreased in Th1-mediated autoimmune disease, type 1 DM, and, conversely, is increased in insufficient Th1 response, chronic HBV carriers. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the effect of atopy and allergic diseases in glycemic control and long-term complications in patients with type 1 DM and the effect of atopy on progression of chronic HBV infection.

  1. Dopamine Receptor D3 Signaling on CD4+ T Cells Favors Th1- and Th17-Mediated Immunity.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Francisco; Prado, Carolina; González, Hugo; Franz, Dafne; Osorio-Barrios, Francisco; Osorio, Fabiola; Ugalde, Valentina; Lopez, Ernesto; Elgueta, Daniela; Figueroa, Alicia; Lladser, Alvaro; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2016-05-15

    Dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) expressed on CD4(+) T cells is required to promote neuroinflammation in a murine model of Parkinson's disease. However, how DRD3 signaling affects T cell-mediated immunity remains unknown. In this study, we report that TCR stimulation on mouse CD4(+) T cells induces DRD3 expression, regardless of the lineage specification. Importantly, functional analyses performed in vivo using adoptive transfer of OVA-specific OT-II cells into wild-type recipients show that DRD3 deficiency in CD4(+) T cells results in attenuated differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells toward the Th1 phenotype, exacerbated generation of Th2 cells, and unaltered Th17 differentiation. The reciprocal regulatory effect of DRD3 signaling in CD4(+) T cells favoring Th1 generation and impairing the acquisition of Th2 phenotype was also reproduced using in vitro approaches. Mechanistic analysis indicates that DRD3 signaling evokes suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 expression, a negative regulator of Th2 development, which indirectly favors acquisition of Th1 phenotype. Accordingly, DRD3 deficiency results in exacerbated eosinophil infiltration into the airways of mice undergoing house dust mite-induced allergic response. Interestingly, our results show that, upon chronic inflammatory colitis induced by transfer of naive CD4(+) T cells into lymphopenic recipients, DRD3 deficiency not only affects Th1 response, but also the frequency of Th17 cells, suggesting that DRD3 signaling also contributes to Th17 expansion under chronic inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, our findings indicate that DRD3-mediated signaling in CD4(+) T cells plays a crucial role in the balance of effector lineages, favoring the inflammatory potential of CD4(+) T cells.

  2. Inflammation driven by tumour-specific Th1 cells protects against B-cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Haabeth, Ole Audun Werner; Lorvik, Kristina Berg; Hammarström, Clara; Donaldson, Ian M.; Haraldsen, Guttorm; Bogen, Bjarne; Corthay, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The immune system can both promote and suppress cancer. Chronic inflammation and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 are considered to be tumour promoting. In contrast, the exact nature of protective antitumour immunity remains obscure. Here, we quantify locally secreted cytokines during primary immune responses against myeloma and B-cell lymphoma in mice. Strikingly, successful cancer immunosurveillance mediated by tumour-specific CD4+ T cells is consistently associated with elevated local levels of both proinflammatory (IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6) and T helper 1 (Th1)-associated cytokines (interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-2 and IL-12). Cancer eradication is achieved by a collaboration between tumour-specific Th1 cells and tumour-infiltrating, antigen-presenting macrophages. Th1 cells induce secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 by macrophages. Th1-derived IFN-γ is shown to render macrophages directly cytotoxic to cancer cells, and to induce macrophages to secrete the angiostatic chemokines CXCL9/MIG and CXCL10/IP-10. Thus, inflammation, when driven by tumour-specific Th1 cells, may prevent rather than promote cancer. PMID:21407206

  3. The increase in intra-macrophage thiols induced by new pro-GSH molecules directs the Th1 skewing in ovalbumin immunized mice.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Alessandra; Paoletti, Maria Filomena; Dominici, Sabrina; Caputo, Antonella; Castaldello, Arianna; Millo, Enrico; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Smietana, Michaël; Clayette, Pascal; Oiry, Joël; Benatti, Umberto; Magnani, Mauro

    2010-11-10

    In the present work, the capacity of new pro-GSH molecules to increase the intra-macrophage thiol content in vitro and in vivo as well as to shift the immune response to Th1 in ovalbumin (Ova)-sensitized mice were examined. The molecules were the N-butanoyl GSH derivative, GSH-C4, and a pro-drug of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and beta-mercaptoethylamine (MEA), I-152. In vitro, 2h-incubation with both molecules was found to increase intra-macrophage thiol content; in vivo, Ova-sensitized mice pre-treated by intraperitoneal administration of the pro-GSH molecules showed an increase in plasma anti-Ova IgG2a and IgG2b, characterizing Th1 immune response, and a decrease in IgG1, typical of the Th2 response. Such findings were connected to a shift to a Th1 response also involving splenocyte IFN-γ production as revealed by ELISPOT assay and higher levels of IL-12 in circulation. Although immune responses are in vivo mediated both by dendritic cells and macrophages, the data reported in this paper corroborate the suggestion that the pro-GSH molecules, increasing the intra-cellular thiol pool, modulate the Th1/Th2 balance favouring Th1-type responses and may be employed as Th1-directing adjuvants in new vaccination protocols and as immunomodulators in those diseases where Th1 response patterns are compromised in favour of Th2.

  4. SB-273005, an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin, reduces the production of Th2 cells and cytokine IL-10 in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojuan; Yang, Jing; Wang, Chongyang; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Xiaoli

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex immunoreactions. In the present study, the effect of SB-273005, an antagonist of αvβ3 integrin, on the alterations of T helper (Th) cells and their derived cytokines that occur during pregnancy was investigated in mice. Five non-pregnant mice were used as a negative control. Mice were impregnated by co-housing females and males at a ratio of 2:1 overnight and pregnancy was confirmed by the appearance of vaginal plugs the following morning. Day 1 (D1) pregnant mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=20) and were administered either dimethylsulfoxide (mock treatment) or SB-273005 (3 mg/kg) by gavage at D3, D4 and D5. At D8, the levels of Th1 and Th2 cells and interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10 in the spleen and peripheral blood were determined using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pregnancy significantly increased the ratio of Th2:Th1 cells in the spleen compared with that in non-pregnant mice (P<0.01). However, this increase was significantly reduced by SB-273005 (P<0.001). Furthermore, whilst pregnancy decreased Th1 cell-produced IL-2 levels and increased Th2 cell-derived IL-10 levels, SB-273005 reversed both processes (P<0.05 for IL-2; P<0.01 for IL-10). The results from the present study demonstrated that pregnancy induces changes in the spleen, including a reduction of IL-2 and an increase in IL-10 production by Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively, as well as an upregulation of the Th2:Th1 ratio in the spleen. These immunological changes are reversed by SB-273005, indicating an important role for αvβ3 integrin in mediating these immunological alterations.

  5. A Unique Dermal Dendritic Cell Subset That Skews the Immune Response toward Th2

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shin-ichi; Nagai, Shigenori; Hattori, Masahira; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs) are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b) was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs) or CD103+ dermal DCs (dDCs). Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2+ dDCs than in CD103+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2+ dDCs but not CD103+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response. PMID:24039898

  6. FOXP3+ Tregs require WASP to restrain Th2-mediated food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Lexmond, Willem S.; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Lyons, Jonathan J.; Jacobse, Justin; Deken, Marion M.; Lawrence, Monica G.; DiMaggio, Thomas H.; Kotlarz, Daniel; Garabedian, Elizabeth; Sackstein, Paul; Nelson, Celeste C.; Jones, Nina; Stone, Kelly D.; Rings, Edmond H.H.M.; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Milner, Joshua D.; Snapper, Scott B.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the infectious consequences of immunodeficiency, patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) often suffer from poorly understood exaggerated immune responses that result in autoimmunity and elevated levels of serum IgE. Here, we have shown that WAS patients and mice deficient in WAS protein (WASP) frequently develop IgE-mediated reactions to common food allergens. WASP-deficient animals displayed an adjuvant-free IgE-sensitization to chow antigens that was most pronounced for wheat and soy and occurred under specific pathogen–free as well as germ-free housing conditions. Conditional deletion of Was in FOXP3+ Tregs resulted in more severe Th2-type intestinal inflammation than that observed in mice with global WASP deficiency, indicating that allergic responses to food allergens are dependent upon loss of WASP expression in this immune compartment. While WASP-deficient Tregs efficiently contained Th1- and Th17-type effector differentiation in vivo, they failed to restrain Th2 effector responses that drive allergic intestinal inflammation. Loss of WASP was phenotypically associated with increased GATA3 expression in effector memory FOXP3+ Tregs, but not in naive-like FOXP3+ Tregs, an effect that occurred independently of increased IL-4 signaling. Our results reveal a Treg-specific role for WASP that is required for prevention of Th2 effector cell differentiation and allergic sensitization to dietary antigens. PMID:27643438

  7. Cathepsin B in Antigen-Presenting Cells Controls Mediators of the Th1 Immune Response during Leishmania major Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Leal, Iris J.; Röger, Bianca; Schwarz, Angela; Schirmeister, Tanja; Reinheckel, Thomas; Lutz, Manfred B.; Moll, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb) and L (Ctsl) play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells and macrophages play during Leishmania infection, we generated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and macrophages (BMM) from Ctsb−/− and Ctsl−/− mice, and studied the effects of Ctsb and Ctsl deficiency on the survival of L. major in infected cells. Furthermore, the signals used by dendritic cells to instruct Th cell polarization were addressed: the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. We found that Ctsb−/− BMDC express higher levels of MHC class II molecules than wild-type (WT) and Ctsl−/− BMDC, while there were no significant differences in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules between cathepsin-deficient and WT cells. Moreover, both BMDC and BMM from Ctsb−/− mice significantly up-regulated the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) expression, a key Th1-inducing cytokine. These findings indicate that Ctsb−/− BMDC display more pro-Th1 properties than their WT and Ctsl−/− counterparts, and therefore suggest that Ctsb down-regulates the Th1 response to L. major. Moreover, they propose a novel role for Ctsb as a regulator of cytokine expression. PMID:25255101

  8. Phthalate-Induced Liver Protection against Deleterious Effects of the Th1 Response: A Potentially Serious Health Hazard.

    PubMed

    Badr, Mostafa Z; Shnyra, Alexander; Zoubine, Mikhail; Norkin, Maxim; Herndon, Betty; Quinn, Tim; Miranda, Roberto N; Cunningham, Michael L; Molteni, Agostino

    2007-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) induces pulmonary immunopathology mediated by classical Th1 type of acquired immunity with hepatic involvement in up to 80% of disseminated cases. Since PPAR agonists cause immune responses characterized by a decrease in the secretion of Th1 cytokines, we investigated the impact of activating these receptors on hepatic pathology associated with a well-characterized model of Th1-type pulmonary response. Male Fischer 344 rats were either maintained on a drug-free diet (groups I and II), or a diet containing diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), a compound transformed in vivo to metabolites known to activate PPARs, for 21 days (groups III and IV). Subsequently, animals were primed with Mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) in a Complete Freund's Adjuvant. Fifteen days later, animals in groups II and IV were challenged with Sepharose 4B beads covalently coupled with PPD, while animals in groups I and III received blank Sepharose beads. Animals with Th1 response (group II) showed a marked structural disruption in the hepatic lobule. Remarkably, these alterations were conspicuously absent in animals which received DEHP (group IV), despite noticeable accumulation of T cells in the periportal triads. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy revealed hepatic accumulation of IFNgamma+ Th1 and IL-4+ Th2 cells in animals from groups II and IV, respectively. Our data suggest a PPARalpha-mediated suppression of the development of a Th1 immune response in the liver, resulting in hepatoprotective effect. However, potentially negative consequences of PPAR activation, such as decreased ability of the immune system to fight infection and interference with the efficacy of vaccines designed to evoke Th1 immune responses, remain to be investigated.

  9. Phthalate-Induced Liver Protection against Deleterious Effects of the Th1 Response: A Potentially Serious Health Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Mostafa Z.; Shnyra, Alexander; Zoubine, Mikhail; Norkin, Maxim; Herndon, Betty; Quinn, Tim; Miranda, Roberto N.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Molteni, Agostino

    2007-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) induces pulmonary immunopathology mediated by classical Th1 type of acquired immunity with hepatic involvement in up to 80% of disseminated cases. Since PPAR agonists cause immune responses characterized by a decrease in the secretion of Th1 cytokines, we investigated the impact of activating these receptors on hepatic pathology associated with a well-characterized model of Th1-type pulmonary response. Male Fischer 344 rats were either maintained on a drug-free diet (groups I and II), or a diet containing diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), a compound transformed in vivo to metabolites known to activate PPARs, for 21 days (groups III and IV). Subsequently, animals were primed with Mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) in a Complete Freund's Adjuvant. Fifteen days later, animals in groups II and IV were challenged with Sepharose 4B beads covalently coupled with PPD, while animals in groups I and III received blank Sepharose beads. Animals with Th1 response (group II) showed a marked structural disruption in the hepatic lobule. Remarkably, these alterations were conspicuously absent in animals which received DEHP (group IV), despite noticeable accumulation of T cells in the periportal triads. Immunostaining and confocal microscopy revealed hepatic accumulation of IFNγ+ Th1 and IL-4+ Th2 cells in animals from groups II and IV, respectively. Our data suggest a PPARα-mediated suppression of the development of a Th1 immune response in the liver, resulting in hepatoprotective effect. However, potentially negative consequences of PPAR activation, such as decreased ability of the immune system to fight infection and interference with the efficacy of vaccines designed to evoke Th1 immune responses, remain to be investigated. PMID:18566640

  10. Renovation activities during pregnancy induce a Th2 shift in fetal but not in maternal immune system.

    PubMed

    Herberth, Gunda; Herzog, Thomas; Hinz, Denise; Röder, Stefan; Schilde, Maik; Sack, Ulrich; Diez, Ulrike; Borte, Michael; Lehmann, Irina

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate to which extent environmental influences like indoor renovation activities affect the immune system of mother and child during the gestation period. Within the LINA (Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and their Influence on Newborn Allergy risk) birth cohort study blood samples of mothers during pregnancy and cord blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of the Th1/Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-γ and IgE. Data on indoor renovation activities (painting, flooring and new furniture) were assessed with questionnaires. Data on cytokine blood concentrations and exposure variables were available for 422 mother/child pairs. Neonates, who were strongly affected by renovation activities (especially floor covering and new furniture) during pregnancy, had significantly higher concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 in cord blood. Among the single activities, new furniture, particularly flake board, were associated with increased IL-4 levels. Elevated IL-4 levels were also observed in the cord blood of children whose mothers reported wall-to-wall carpeting. Among flooring, polyvinylchloride (PVC) showed the strongest effect with increased IL-5 concentrations. The Th1/Th2 imbalance towards Th2 at birth was related to allergic sensitization in children at the age of one. There were only few and negative associations between renovation activities and Th1/Th2 cytokine concentration in maternal blood. Our study shows that under similar exposure situations the fetal immune system is more susceptible to the influence of environmental factors, in particular renovation products (flake board, wall-to-wall carpets and PVC) compared to the maternal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemokines fail to up-regulate beta 1 integrin-dependent adhesion in human Th2 T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Clissi, B; D'Ambrosio, D; Geginat, J; Colantonio, L; Morrot, A; Freshney, N W; Downward, J; Sinigaglia, F; Pardi, R

    2000-03-15

    Th1 and Th2 cells are functionally distinct subsets of CD4+ T lymphocytes whose tissue-specific homing to sites of inflammation is regulated in part by the differential expression of P- and E-selectin ligands and selected chemokine receptors. Here we investigated the expression and function of beta 1 integrins in Th1 and Th2 cells polarized in vitro. Th1 lymphocytes adhere transiently to the extracellular matrix ligands laminin 1 and fibronectin in response to chemokines such as RANTES and stromal cell-derived factor-1, and this process is paralleled by the activation of the Rac1 GTPase and by a rapid burst of actin polymerization. Selective inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3 kinase prevent efficiently all of the above processes, whereas the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide prevents chemokine-induced adhesion without affecting Rac1 activation and actin polymerization. Notably, chemokine-induced adhesion to beta 1 integrin ligands is markedly reduced in Th2 cells. Such a defect cannot be explained by a reduced sensitivity to chemokine stimulation in this T cell subset, nor by a defective activation of the signaling cascade involving phosphoinositide-3 kinase, Rac1, and actin turnover, as all these processes are activated at comparable levels by chemokines in the two subsets. We propose that reduced beta 1 integrin-mediated adhesion in Th2 cells may restrain their ability to invade and/or reside in sites of chronic inflammation, which are characterized by thickening of basement membranes and extensive fibrosis, requiring efficient interaction with organized extracellular matrices.

  12. Enhanced Th1 and Th17 responses in peripheral blood in active non-segmental vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yu; Yao, Lei; Zhong, Shuxia; Song, Yang; Cui, Yan; Li, Shanshan

    2016-12-01

    Accumulating studies have indicated that vitiligo, especially non-segmental vitiligo (NSV), is one kind of autoimmune diseases and CD4(+) T cells play important roles in the pathogenesis. However, there have been very limited data on the detailed changes of each of the CD4(+) T cell subsets in periphery in active NSV. To clarify this issue, we collected the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 30 patients with active NSV and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The percentages of circulating Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs were evaluated using flow cytometry and the expressions of their specific transcription factors T-bet, GATA3, RORγt and FOXP3 at mRNA level and protein levels were qualified by qPCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Meanwhile, the expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, TGF-β, and IL-17A in serum were measured. We found that in patients with NSV, the percentages and absolute numbers of circulating Th1 and Th17 were both significantly higher than those of healthy controls, while the percentages of Th2 and Tregs and absolute numbers showed no significant difference compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the ratios of Th1/Tregs and Th17/Tregs in circulation were both statistically elevated in active NSV. Similar results were got in qualification of their corresponding transcription factors at mRNA level and protein levels. Compared with healthy controls, the expression level of IL-17A was significantly increased in serum of patients with NSV, while the productions of IFN-γ, IL-4, TGF-β had no significant change. These data suggested that in circulating CD4(+) T cell subsets, Th1 and Th17 played the major role in cellular immunity in the progression of vitiligo. The immune lever in circulation was inclined to effector CD4(+) T cells not suppressor CD4(+) T cells that may result in the loss of self-tolerance to melanocytes.

  13. Selective Enhancement of Systemic Th1 Immunity in Immunologically Immature Rats with an Orally Administered Bacterial Extract

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, L. M.; Holt, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Infant rats primed during the first week of life with soluble antigen displayed adult-equivalent levels of T-helper 2 (Th2)-dependent immunological memory development as revealed by production of secondary immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody responses to subsequent challenge, but in contrast to adults failed to prime for Th1-dependent IgG2b responses. We demonstrate that this Th2 bias in immune function can be redressed by oral administration to neonates of a bacterial extract (Broncho-Vaxom OM-85) comprising lyophilized fractions of several common respiratory tract bacterial pathogens. Animals given OM-85 displayed a selective upregulation in primary and secondary IgG2b responses, accompanied by increased gamma interferon and decreased interleukin-4 production (both antigen specific and polyclonal), and increased capacity for development of Th1-dependent delayed hypersensitivity to the challenge antigen. We hypothesize that the bacterial extract functions via enhancement of the process of postnatal maturation of Th1 function, which is normally driven by stimuli from the gastrointestinal commensal microflora. PMID:11349036

  14. Epigenomic analysis of primary human T cells reveals enhancers associated with TH2 memory cell differentiation and asthma susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Seumois, Grégory; Chavez, Lukas; Gerasimova, Anna; Lienhard, Matthias; Omran, Nada; Kalinke, Lukas; Vedanayagam, Maria; Ganesan, Asha Purnima V; Chawla, Ashu; Djukanović, Ratko; Ansel, K Mark; Peters, Bjoern; Rao, Anjana; Vijayanand, Pandurangan

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic feature of asthma is the aberrant accumulation, differentiation or function of memory CD4+ T cells that produce type 2 cytokines (TH2 cells). By mapping genome-wide histone modification profiles for subsets of T cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy and asthmatic individuals, we identified enhancers with known and potential roles in the normal differentiation of human TH1 cells and TH2 cells. We discovered disease-specific enhancers in T cells that differ between healthy and asthmatic individuals. Enhancers that gained the histone H3 Lys4 dimethyl (H3K4me2) mark during TH2 cell development showed the highest enrichment for asthma-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which supported a pathogenic role for TH2 cells in asthma. In silico analysis of cell-specific enhancers revealed transcription factors, microRNAs and genes potentially linked to human TH2 cell differentiation. Our results establish the feasibility and utility of enhancer profiling in well-defined populations of specialized cell types involved in disease pathogenesis. PMID:24997565

  15. Liposomal Glutathione Supplementation Restores TH1 Cytokine Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Judy; Lagman, Minette; Saing, Tommy; Singh, Manpreet Kaur; Tudela, Enrique Vera; Morris, Devin; Anderson, Jessica; Daliva, John; Ochoa, Cesar; Patel, Nishita; Pearce, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are signaling biomolecules that serve as key regulators of our immune system. CD4+ T-cells can be grouped into 2 major categories based on their cytokine profile: T-helper 1 (TH1) subset and T-helper 2 (TH2) subset. Protective immunity against HIV infection requires TH1-directed CD4 T-cell responses, mediated by cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Cytokines released by the TH1 subset of CD4 T-cells are considered important for mediating effective immune responses against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Oxidative stress and redox imbalance that occur during HIV infection often lead to inappropriate immune responses. Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant present in nearly all cells and is recognized for its function in maintaining redox homeostasis. Our laboratory previously reported that individuals with HIV infection have lower levels of GSH. In this study, we report a link between lower levels of GSH and dysregulation of TH1- and TH2-associated cytokines in the plasma samples of HIV-positive subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that supplementing individuals with HIV infection for 13 weeks with liposomal GSH (lGSH) resulted in a significant increase in the levels of TH1 cytokines, IL-1β, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. lGSH supplementation in individuals with HIV infection also resulted in a substantial decrease in the levels of free radicals and immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, relative to those in a placebo-controlled cohort. Finally, we determined the effects of lGSH supplementation in improving the functions of immune cells to control M. tb infection by conducting in vitro assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from HIV-positive individuals at post-GSH supplementation. Our studies establish a correlation between low levels of GSH and increased susceptibility to M. tb infection through TH2-directed response

  16. Liposomal Glutathione Supplementation Restores TH1 Cytokine Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Ly, Judy; Lagman, Minette; Saing, Tommy; Singh, Manpreet Kaur; Tudela, Enrique Vera; Morris, Devin; Anderson, Jessica; Daliva, John; Ochoa, Cesar; Patel, Nishita; Pearce, Daniel; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2015-11-01

    Cytokines are signaling biomolecules that serve as key regulators of our immune system. CD4(+) T-cells can be grouped into 2 major categories based on their cytokine profile: T-helper 1 (TH1) subset and T-helper 2 (TH2) subset. Protective immunity against HIV infection requires TH1-directed CD4 T-cell responses, mediated by cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Cytokines released by the TH1 subset of CD4 T-cells are considered important for mediating effective immune responses against intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Oxidative stress and redox imbalance that occur during HIV infection often lead to inappropriate immune responses. Glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant present in nearly all cells and is recognized for its function in maintaining redox homeostasis. Our laboratory previously reported that individuals with HIV infection have lower levels of GSH. In this study, we report a link between lower levels of GSH and dysregulation of TH1- and TH2-associated cytokines in the plasma samples of HIV-positive subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that supplementing individuals with HIV infection for 13 weeks with liposomal GSH (lGSH) resulted in a significant increase in the levels of TH1 cytokines, IL-1β, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. lGSH supplementation in individuals with HIV infection also resulted in a substantial decrease in the levels of free radicals and immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β, relative to those in a placebo-controlled cohort. Finally, we determined the effects of lGSH supplementation in improving the functions of immune cells to control M. tb infection by conducting in vitro assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from HIV-positive individuals at post-GSH supplementation. Our studies establish a correlation between low levels of GSH and increased susceptibility to M. tb infection through TH2-directed response

  17. Evidence of Th2 polarization of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Grotz, Travis E; Jakub, James W; Mansfield, Aaron S; Goldenstein, Rachel; Enninga, Elizabeth Ann L; Nevala, Wendy K; Leontovich, Alexey A; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma has a propensity for lymphatogenous metastasis. Improved understanding of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) immunological environment may improve outcomes. The immune phenotype of fresh melanoma SLNs (n = 13) were compared to fresh control lymph nodes (n = 13) using flow cytometry. RNA was isolated from CD4+ T cells of the SLN and control lymph node and assessed for Th1/Th2 gene expression pathways using qRT-PCR. In addition, VEGF expression was compared between primary melanoma (n = 6) and benign nevi (n = 6) using immunohistochemistry. Melanoma SLNs had fewer CD8+ T cells compared to controls (9.2% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.0005). The CD8+ T cells within the SLN appeared to have an exhausted phenotype demonstrated by increased PD-1 mRNA expression (2.2% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.004) and a five-fold increase in CTLA-4 mRNA expression. The SLN also contained an increased number of CD14 (22.7% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.009) and CD68 (9.3% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.001) macrophages, and CD20 B cells (31.1% vs. 20.7%, p = 0.008), suggesting chronic inflammation. RT-PCR demonstrated a significant Th2 bias within the SLN. In vitro studies demonstrated a similar Th2 polarization with VEGF treatment of control lymph nodes. The primary melanoma demonstrated strong VEGF expression and an increase in VEGFR1 within the SLN. Melanoma is associated with Th2-mediated “chronic inflammation,” fewer cytotoxic T cells, and an exhausted T cell phenotype within the SLN combined with VEGF overproduction by the primary melanoma. These immunologic changes precede nodal metastasis and suggests consideration of VEGF inhibitors in future immunotherapy studies. PMID:26405583

  18. Evidence of Th2 polarization of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Grotz, Travis E; Jakub, James W; Mansfield, Aaron S; Goldenstein, Rachel; Enninga, Elizabeth Ann L; Nevala, Wendy K; Leontovich, Alexey A; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma has a propensity for lymphatogenous metastasis. Improved understanding of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) immunological environment may improve outcomes. The immune phenotype of fresh melanoma SLNs (n = 13) were compared to fresh control lymph nodes (n = 13) using flow cytometry. RNA was isolated from CD4(+) T cells of the SLN and control lymph node and assessed for Th1/Th2 gene expression pathways using qRT-PCR. In addition, VEGF expression was compared between primary melanoma (n = 6) and benign nevi (n = 6) using immunohistochemistry. Melanoma SLNs had fewer CD8(+) T cells compared to controls (9.2% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.0005). The CD8(+) T cells within the SLN appeared to have an exhausted phenotype demonstrated by increased PD-1 mRNA expression (2.2% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.004) and a five-fold increase in CTLA-4 mRNA expression. The SLN also contained an increased number of CD14 (22.7% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.009) and CD68 (9.3% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.001) macrophages, and CD20 B cells (31.1% vs. 20.7%, p = 0.008), suggesting chronic inflammation. RT-PCR demonstrated a significant Th2 bias within the SLN. In vitro studies demonstrated a similar Th2 polarization with VEGF treatment of control lymph nodes. The primary melanoma demonstrated strong VEGF expression and an increase in VEGFR1 within the SLN. Melanoma is associated with Th2-mediated "chronic inflammation," fewer cytotoxic T cells, and an exhausted T cell phenotype within the SLN combined with VEGF overproduction by the primary melanoma. These immunologic changes precede nodal metastasis and suggests consideration of VEGF inhibitors in future immunotherapy studies.

  19. Progressive activation of Th2/Th22 cytokines and selective epidermal proteins characterizes acute and chronic atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gittler, Julia K.; Shemer, Avner; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Gulewicz, Kara J.; Wang, Claire Q.F.; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Cardinale, Irma; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; Krueger, James G.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease, with an increasing prevalence. The primary pathogenesis of the disease is still elusive, resulting in the lack of specific treatments. AD is currently considered a biphasic disease, with Th2 predominating acute disease, and a switch to Th1 characterizing chronic disease. Elucidation of the molecular factors that participate in the onset of new lesions and maintenance of chronic disease is critical for the development of targeted therapeutics. Objectives We sought to characterize the mechanisms underlying onset and maintenance of AD. Methods We investigated intrapersonal sets of transcriptomes from non-lesional, acute and chronic lesions of ten AD patients through genomic, molecular and cellular profiling. Results Our study associated the onset of acute lesions with a striking increase in a subset of terminal differentiation proteins, specifically the cytokine-modulated S100A7, S100A8, and S100A9. Acute disease was also associated with significant increases in gene expression levels of major Th22- and Th2- cytokines, and smaller increases in IL-17. A lesser induction of Th1-associated genes was detected in acute disease, although some were significantly up-regulated in chronic disease. Further significant intensification of major Th22 and Th2 cytokines was observed between acute and chronic lesions. Conclusions Our data identified increased S100A7, S100A8 and S100A9 gene expression with AD initiation, and concomitant activation of Th2 and Th22 cytokines. Our findings support a model of progressive activation of Th2 and Th22 immune axes from acute to chronic phases, expanding the prevailing view of pathogenesis, with important therapeutic implications. PMID:22951056

  20. M2 macrophages coexist with a Th1-driven profile in periapical cysts.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, C M; de Carli, M L; Nonogaki, S; Nogueira, D A; Pereira, A A C; Sperandio, F F; Hanemann, J A C

    2017-08-30

    To evaluate the participation of both Th1 and Th2 responses in periapical cysts by assessing the presence of M2 macrophages, as well as acute IL-1 β, TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. Twenty-four cases of periapical cysts were selected. Immuno-expressions of IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF-α and CD163 were analysed in the cystic capsules in both superficial and deeper regions. Data were analysed with paired Wilcoxon test and Spearman correlation coefficient (P ≤ 0.05). There was a higher expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and M2 macrophages in the superficial region (P < 0.001) of cystic capsules. All acute cytokines had significant positive correlations amongst them regardless of the cystic capsule region. Regarding CD163, positive correlations occurred only with TNF-α (P = 0.007; r = 0.537) and IL-6 (P = 0.018; r = 0.478) in the superficial regions of the cystic capsule. M2 macrophages participated actively in the inflammatory response of periapical cysts and correlated with the expression of certain acute Th1-related cytokines. This illustrates the coexistence of an acute and chronic Th2-driven immune response in these lesions. Although M2 macrophages favour the healing process, their presence is not sufficient for periapical cyst regression, once an acute active response has occurred due to an infectious stimuli. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A nematode immunomodulator suppresses grass pollen-specific allergic responses by controlling excessive Th2 inflammation.

    PubMed

    Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Steinfelder, Svenja; Kühl, Anja A; Drozdenko, Gennadiy; Lucius, Richard; Worm, Margitta; Hamelmann, Eckard; Hartmann, Susanne

    2013-03-01

    Helminth parasites modulate the immune system by complex mechanisms to ensure persistence in the host. Released immunomodulatory parasite components lead to a beneficial environment for the parasite by targeting different host cells and in parallel to a modulation of unrelated inflammatory responses in the host, such as allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the potent helminth immunomodulator, filarial cystatin, in a murine model of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity induced by a clinically relevant aeroallergen (timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen) and on the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from timothy grass pollen allergic patients. BALB/c mice were systemically sensitised with a recombinant major allergen of timothy grass pollen (rPhl p 5b) and then challenged with timothy grass pollen extract (GPE) via the airways. Filarial cystatin was applied i.p. during the sensitisation phase. Airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine challenges, inflammation of airways, inflammatory cell recruitment, cytokine production and lung histopathology were investigated. In a translational approach, PBMCs from allergic subjects and healthy controls were treated in vitro with cystatin prior to stimulation with GPE. Administration of filarial cystatin suppressed rPhl p 5b-induced allergen-specific Th2-responses and airway inflammation, inhibited local recruitment of eosinophils, reduced levels of allergen-specific IgE and down-regulated IL-5 and IL-13 in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Ex vivo restimulation with cystatin of spleen cells from cystatin-treated mice induced the production of IL-10, while cystatin inhibited allergen-specific IL-5 and IL-13 levels. Human PBMCs from timothy grass pollen allergic patients displayed a shift towards a Th1 response after treatment with cystatin. These results show that filarial cystatin ameliorates allergic inflammation and disease in a clinically relevant model of allergy. This data

  2. Identification of a Th2- and Th17-skewed immune phenotype in chronic urticaria with Th22 reduction dependent on autoimmunity and thyroid disease markers.

    PubMed

    Moy, Andrea P; Murali, Mandakolathur; Nazarian, Rosalynn M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic urticaria is a condition with many inciting factors and often presents a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. In addition to a central role for mast cells, an immune dysregulated state related to cytokine/chemokine alterations is increasingly being recognized. Biopsies of chronic urticaria (n = 11) and normal skin (n = 5) were evaluated with immunostains for CD117, CD3 and dual stains for CD4/T-bet, GATA-3, STAT-3 or BNC-2 (transcription factors specific and mutually exclusive for Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th22 cells, respectively). Clinical data, including autoantibodies and thyroid function tests, and the number of CD117+ mast cells and percent of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th22 of CD3+ T-cells were compared. Th2 cells and Th17 cells were significantly more frequent in chronic urticaria than controls. In contrast, there was no significant difference in mast cells, Th1 cells or Th22 cells. Three of nine chronic urticaria patients had evidence of autoimmune disease; biopsies from these patients trended toward a greater number of mast cells and decreased percent of Th-cell subtypes as compared with those without autoimmunity markers, with significantly less Th22 cells. These findings provide novel insight into the role of Th2 and Th17 in chronic urticaria pathophysiology and may impact therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Th2 cells are essential for modulation of vascular repair by allogeneic endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Methe, Heiko; Nanasato, Mamoru; Spognardi, Anna-Maria; Groothuis, Adam; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Endothelial cells (EC) embedded within three-dimensional matrices (MEEC) when placed in the vascular adventitia control lumenal inflammation and intimal hyperplasia. Matrix-embedding alters endothelial immunogenicity in vitro. T helper (Th) driven host immunity is a major impediment for of allogeneic grafts. We therefore aimed to identify if modulation of T helper balance would affect immune compatibility and endothelial regulation of vascular repair in vivo. Methods Pigs (n=4/group) underwent balloon injury of both carotid arteries and were left alone (group 1) or received perivascular implants of porcine MEEC (group 2), a 12 days course of cyclosporine A (CsA) (group 3), or a combination of MEEC and CsA (group 4). Host immune reactivity (EC-specific antibodies, activation of splenocytes) was analyzed after 28 and 90 days in 2 pigs/group respectively. Results MEEC treatment alone induced formation of EC-specific IgG1-antibodies (41±6 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI)) and differentiation of host splenocytes into Th2, but not Th1, cytokine-producing cells (IL-4: 242±102, IL-10: 273±114 number of spots). Concomitant CsA-therapy reduced the frequency of IgG1-antibodies (25±2 MFI; p<0.02) and Th2-cytokine producing splenocytes upon MEEC treatment (IL-4: 157±19, IL-10: 124±26 number of spots; p< 0.05). MEEC significantly inhibited luminal occlusion 28 and 90 days after balloon injury compared to untreated controls (12±7 vs. 68±14%; p<0.001) but to a lesser extent in the face of immunomodulation with concomitant CsA-treatment (34±13%; p<0.02 vs. group 2). Conclusions MEEC do not induce a significant Th1-driven immune response expected from alloimplants, but do enhance differentiation of splenocytes into Th2-cytokine producing cells. Reduction in this Th2 response reduces the vasoregulatory effects of allogeneic EC after injury. PMID:20036161

  4. TET1 and TET3 are essential in induction of Th2-type immunity partly through regulation of IL-4/13A expression in zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Li, Zhuo; Kang, Wei; Tian, Yu; Yan, Yuzhu; Chen, Wei

    2016-10-10

    It has been considered that epigenetic modulation can affect a diverse array of cellular activities, in which ten eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenase family members refer to a group of fundamental components involved in catalyzation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and modification of gene expression. Even though the function of TET proteins has been gradually revealed, their roles in immune regulation are still largely unknown. Recent studies provided clues that TET2 could regulate several innate immune-related inflammatory mediators in mammals. This study sought to explore the function of TET family members in potential T-helper (Th) cell differentiation involved in adaptive immunity by utilizing a zebrafish model. As shown by results, soluble antigens could induce expression of zebrafish IL-4/13A (i.e. a pivotal Th2-type cytokine essential in Th2 cell differentiation and functions), and further trigger the expression of Th1- and Th2-related genes. It is noteworthy that this response was accompanied by the up-regulation of two TET family members (TET1 and TET3) both in immune organs (spleen and kidney) and cells (peripheral lymphocytes). Knocking-down of TET1 and TET3 will give rise to the decreased responses of IL-4/13A induction against exogenous soluble antigen stimulation, and further restrain the expression of Th2-related genes, which indicates a restrained Th2 cell differentiation. Nonetheless, TET2 did not exhibit effect on the modification of Th1/Th2 related gene expression. Hence, these data showed that TET1 and TET3 might be two significant epigenetic regulators involved in Th2 differentiation through regulation of IL-4/13A expression. This is the first report to show that TET family members play indispensable roles in Th2-type immunity, indicating an epigenetic modulation manner involved in adaptive immune regulations and responses.

  5. Induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and T helper 1 (Th1) immune response by bitter gourd extract.

    PubMed

    Ike, Kazunori; Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Imai, Soichi

    2005-05-01

    Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally wih 34 different types of vegetable juices, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were measured as markers for the induction of Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively. Serum IFN-gamma level was markedly increased in mice inoculated with bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) juice, but IL-4 levels were not increased with any of the 34 vegetable juices. Testing of the various components of bitter gourd, including peel, pulp, and seed, showed that the pulp induced the highest levels of IFN-gamma. Trial immunogen including the heat extract of the pulp induced specific IgG(2a) antibody of the mice serum inoculated with this immunogen. These results demonstrate that bitter gourd pulp induced IFN-gamma production and show its promise as a means of effective immunostimulatory therapy specific for Th1 cells and IFN-gamma production.

  6. Tolerance to staphylococcal enterotoxin B initiated Th1 cell differentiation in mice infected with Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Mencacci, A; Spaccapelo, R; Cenci, E; Tonnetti, L; Bistoni, F

    1994-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a bacterial superantigen that specifically activates T cells bearing V beta 8 T-cell receptor domains, which eventually leads to a long-lasting state of clonal anergy accompanied by selective cell death in the targeted CD4+ subset. Because the superantigen is known to promote Th1 cell differentiation in vitro, we have investigated the effect of SEB treatment on the course of Th2-associated progressive disease in mice infected systemically with Candida albicans. On the basis of the kinetics of SEB-induced changes in CD4+ cells and production in sera of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, and gamma interferon, we obtained evidence that V beta 8+ cell anergy concomitant with infection abolished the early IL-4/IL-10 response of the host to the yeast, ultimately leading to a state of resistance characterized by gamma interferon secretion in vitro by antigen-specific CD4+ cells. In contrast, SEB administered near the time of challenge resulted in accelerated mortality. Significant resistance to infection was also afforded by exposure of mice to a retrovirally encoded endogenous superantigen. These data suggest that CD4+ V beta 8+ T cells play an important role in vivo in the initiation of a Th2 response to C. albicans and that suppression of their activity may alter the qualitative development of the T-cell response and the outcome of infection. PMID:7914883

  7. IFNbeta-1a treatment and reestablishment of Th1 regulation in MS patients: dose effects.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Patrizia; Totaro, Rocco; Contasta, Ida; Berghella, Anna Maria; Russo, Tomassina; Carolei, Antonio; Adorno, Domenico

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relationships between clinical and pharmacologic parameters and the Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine network in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with differing doses of interferon-beta1a (IFN-beta1a). Their results show that low doses are ineffective but that high doses restore Th1 regulation of the maturation and activation of monocytes, T cells, immature dendritic cells, dendritic cells, and T regulatory cells for central and peripheral self-tolerance. Interaction between interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 p70, and IL-6 production appears to play an important role in the control of the maturation and activation states of dendritic cells and T regulatory cells, and is at the basis of the benefit of high doses. The results also indicate that the physiologic mechanisms involved in aging help immunologic reestablishment in IFNbeta-1a-treated patients. Finally, it would appear that the failure of IFNbeta-1a therapy to resolve multiple sclerosis completely is due to the suppression of IL-12 p70 mechanisms (responsible for the physiologic deletion of self-reactive cells) in activation conditions, probably by IFNbeta-1a itself.

  8. Sublingual immunotherapy mechanisms of action: the role of Th1 response.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; Tosca, M A; Marseglia, G L

    2009-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment able to modify the natural history of allergic subjects. Several aspects of the immunopathological response modified by sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), which is an alternative route of administration for SIT, have been investigated. A shift from Th2-polarized immune response toward Th1-oriented pattern has been reported after SLIT. More recently, a crucial role for a subpopulation of T cells has been evidenced: T regulatory cells (Treg). Allergic patients have a defect of Tregs, and SLIT should be able to induce a specific Treg response. This issue is very relevant as the Treg-dependent cytokines, namely IL-10 and TGF-beta, are involved in the regulation of IgG and IgA antibodies production. Recent evidence shows that SLIT is also able of inducing a Treg response as detected by IL-10 production. IFNgamma is a typical Th1-dependent cytokine. SLIT may induce a significantly increased production of this cytokine and it may be considered as an early marker of SLIT response. Therefore, also SLIT is able of exerting the effects on immune response as well as the subcutaneous route.

  9. Identification of a variant-specific phosphorylation of TH2A during spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hada, Masashi; Masuda, Koji; Yamaguchi, Kosuke; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Okada, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    Tissue-specific histone variant incorporation into chromatin plays dynamic and important roles in tissue development. Testis is one such tissue, and a number of testis-specific histone variants are expressed that have unique roles. While it is expected that such variants acquire post-transcriptional modifications to be functional, identification of variant-specific histone modifications is challenging because of the high similarity of amino acid sequences between canonical and variant versions. Here we identified a novel phosphorylation on TH2A, a germ cell-specific histone H2A variant. TH2A-Thr127 is unique to the variant and phosphorylated concomitant with chromatin condensation including spermiogenesis and early embryonic mitosis. In sperm chromatin, phosphorylated TH2A-Thr127 (=pTH2A) is co-localized with H3.3 at transcriptional starting sites of the genome, and subsequently becomes absent from the paternal genome upon fertilization. Notably, pTH2A is recurrent and accumulated in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of both paternal and maternal chromosomes in the first mitosis of embryos, suggesting its unique regulation during spermiogenesis and early embryogenesis. PMID:28387373

  10. Systemic Sclerosis Dermal Fibroblasts Suppress Th1 Cytokine Production via Galectin-9 Overproduction due to Fli1 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saigusa, Ryosuke; Asano, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Kouki; Hirabayashi, Megumi; Miura, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Takashi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ichimura, Yohei; Takahashi, Takehiro; Yoshizaki, Ayumi; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Sugaya, Makoto; Sato, Shinichi

    2017-09-01

    Dermal fibroblasts promote skin-localized transdifferentiation of regulatory T cells to T helper (Th) type 2-like cells in systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the entire effect of SSc dermal fibroblasts on immune cells still remains unknown. Because galectin-9 induces Th2 cytokine-predominant immune imbalance by negatively regulating Th1/Th17 cells in inflammatory diseases, we investigated the contribution of galectin-9 to Th immune balance in SSc lesional skin. We used human clinical samples and Fli1(+/-) mice because Fli1 deficiency induces SSc-like phenotypes in various cell types. Galectin-9 was overexpressed in SSc dermal fibroblasts in vivo and in vitro. Serum galectin-9 levels were significantly elevated in SSc patients and positively correlated with skin score. Galectin-9 was up-regulated by autocrine endothelin stimulation and Fli1 deficiency, and Fli1 occupied the LGALS9 promoter in dermal fibroblasts. Co-culture of splenic CD4(+) T cells with Fli1(+/-) dermal fibroblasts significantly increased IL-4-producing cell proportion, and this effect was cancelled in parallel with the increased interferon-γ production when Fli1(+/-) dermal fibroblasts were transfected with Lgals9 small interfering RNA. Furthermore, Lgals9 small interfering RNA suppressed dermal collagen deposition by increasing interferon-γ production of skin-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells in bleomycin-treated mice. These results suggest that SSc dermal fibroblasts suppress interferon-γ expression of skin-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells through galectin-9 overproduction, promoting skin fibrosis development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of ITK and RLK Impairs Th1 Differentiation and Prevents Colitis Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyoung-Soo; Shin, Hyun Mu; Haberstock-Debic, Helena; Xing, Yan; Owens, Timothy D.; Funk, Jens Oliver; Hill, Ronald J.; Bradshaw, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    In T cells, the Tec kinases IL-2–inducible T cell kinase (ITK) and resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK) are activated by TCR stimulation and are required for optimal downstream signaling. Studies of CD4+ T cells from Itk−/− and Itk−/−Rlk−/− mice have indicated differential roles of ITK and RLK in Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation and cytokine production. However, these findings are confounded by the complex T cell developmental defects in these mice. In this study, we examine the consequences of ITK and RLK inhibition using a highly selective and potent small molecule covalent inhibitor PRN694. In vitro Th polarization experiments indicate that PRN694 is a potent inhibitor of Th1 and Th17 differentiation and cytokine production. Using a T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis, we find that in vivo administration of PRN694 markedly reduces disease progression, T cell infiltration into the intestinal lamina propria, and IFN-γ production by colitogenic CD4+ T cells. Consistent with these findings, Th1 and Th17 cells differentiated in the presence of PRN694 show reduced P-selectin binding and impaired migration to CXCL11 and CCL20, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that ITK plus RLK inhibition may have therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26466958

  12. Intranasal anti-rabies DNA immunization promotes a Th1-related cytokine stimulation associated with plasmid survival time.

    PubMed

    Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Calzada-Bermejo, Fernando; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Hernández-González, Rafael; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; Tesoro-Cruz, Emiliano

    2011-10-01

    DNA vaccination has a great potential to decrease infectious diseases worldwide, such as rabies. Here we showed the effects of a single anti-rabies DNA vaccination applied intranasally (IN) on plasmid survival time, neutralizing antibody (NA) titers, G-protein expression and Th1/Th2-related cytokines. Only one 50-μg dose of an anti-rabies DNA vaccine was IN administered to 160 Balb/c mice. Twenty mice were used for the neutralizing antibody study, 35 for the proliferation assay, 35 for Th1/Th2-related cytokines, 35 for glycoprotein expression by immunocytochemistry, and 35 for pGQH detection and G-protein mRNA expression. Th1-type related cytokines from spleen cells (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) were detected. Rabies NA titers were ≥0.6 IUs from day 30 onward in the IN DNA-vaccinated group. The plasmid was identified in brains and lungs from days 3-15. The mRNA transcript was amplified in brains and lungs from days 3-30, and G-protein expression was observed in spleens, brains and lungs on days 3, 8, and 15. In all cases, a gradual decrease was observed on days 30 and 45 and absent on day 60. We found that Th1-type related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) were stimulated during the first month after DNA vaccination, correlating with the proliferation assays. Also, it was associated with the plasmid survival time remaining in lungs and brains prior to its degradation. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. All rights reserved.

  13. PD-L2 negatively regulates Th1-mediated immunopathology during Fasciola hepatica infection

    PubMed Central

    Stempin, Cinthia C.; Motrán, Claudia C.; Aoki, María P.; Falcón, Cristian R.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation including those produced by helminth infections, where alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) are accumulated in tissues. AAM expressing the co-inhibitory molecule programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is capable of binding programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells, have been demonstrated in different parasitic infections. However, the role of PD-L2 during F. hepatica infection has not yet been explored. We observed that F. hepatica infection or a F. hepatica total extract (TE) injection increased the expression of PD-L2 on peritoneal macrophages. In addition, the absence of PD-L2 expression correlated with an increase in susceptibility to F. hepatica infection, as evidenced by the shorter survival and increased liver damage observed in PD-L2 deficient (KO) mice. We assessed the contribution of the PD-L2 pathway to Th2 polarization during this infection, and found that the absence of PD-L2 caused a diminished Th2 type cytokine production by TE stimulated splenocytes from PD-L2 KO infected compared with WT mice. Besides, splenocytes and intrahepatic leukocytes from infected PD-L2 KO mice showed higher levels of IFN-γ than those from WT mice. Arginase expression and activity and IL-10 production were reduced in macrophages from PD-L2 KO mice compared to those from WT mice, revealing a strong correlation between PD-L2 expression and AAM polarization. Taken together, our data indicate that PD-L2 expression in macrophages is critical for AAM induction and the maintenance of an optimal balance between the Th1- and Th2-type immune responses to assure host survival during F. hepatica infection. PMID:27783986

  14. An aza-anthrapyrazole negatively regulates Th1 activity and suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew P; Leaman, Douglas W; Hazelhurst, Lori A; Hwang, Eun S; Quinn, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Previously we showed that BBR3378, a novel analog of the anticancer drug mitoxantrone, had the ability to ameliorate ascending paralysis in MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of human multiple sclerosis, without the drug-induced cardiotoxicity or lymphopenia associated with mitoxantrone therapy. Chemotherapeutic drugs like mitoxantrone, a topoisomerase inhibitor, are thought to provide protection in inflammatory autoimmune diseases like EAE by inducing apoptosis in rapidly proliferating autoreactive lymphocytes. Here, we show that while BR3378 blocked cell division, T cells were still able to respond to antigenic stimulation and upregulate surface molecules indicative of activation. However, in contrast to mitoxantrone, BBR3378 inhibited the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ both in recently activated T cell blasts and established Th1 effectors, while sparing the activities of IL-13-producing Th2 cells. IFN-γ is known to be regulated by the transcription factor T-bet. In addition to IFN-γ, in vitro and in vivo exposure to BBR3378 suppressed the expression of other T-bet regulated proteins, including CXCR3 and IL-2Rβ. Microarray analysis revealed BBR3378-induced suppression of additional T-bet regulated genes, suggesting that the drug might disrupt global Th1 programming. Importantly, BBR3378 antagonized ongoing Th1 autoimmune responses in vivo, modulated clinical disease and CNS inflammation in acute and relapsing forms of EAE. Therefore, BBR3378 may be a unique inhibitor of T-bet regulated genes and may have potential as a therapeutic intervention in human autoimmune disease.

  15. The essential role of single Ig IL-1 receptor-related molecule/Toll IL-1R8 in regulation of Th2 immune response.

    PubMed

    Bulek, Katarzyna; Swaidani, Shadi; Qin, Jinzhong; Lu, Yi; Gulen, Muhammet F; Herjan, Tomasz; Min, Booki; Kastelein, Robert A; Aronica, Mark; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Li, Xiaoxia

    2009-03-01

    A novel cytokine IL-33, an IL-1 family member, signals via ST2 receptor and promotes Th2 responses, through the activation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases. Previous studies reported that single Ig IL-1R-related molecule (SIGIRR)/Toll IL-1R8 acts as negative regulator for TLR-IL-1R-mediated signaling. We now found that SIGIRR formed a complex with ST2 upon IL-33 stimulation and specifically inhibited IL-33/ST2-mediated signaling in cell culture model. Furthermore, IL-33-induced Th2 response was enhanced in SIGIRR-deficient mice compared with that in wild-type control mice, suggesting a negative regulatory role of SIGIRR in IL-33/ST2 signaling in vivo. Similar to ST2, SIGIRR was highly expressed in in vitro polarized Th2 cells, but not Th1 cells. SIGIRR-deficient Th2 cells produce higher levels of Th2 cytokines, including IL-5, IL-4, and IL-13, than that in wild-type cells. Moreover, SIGIRR-deficient mice developed stronger Th2 immune response in OVA-challenged asthma model. Taken together, our results suggest that SIGIRR plays an important role in the regulation of Th2 response in vivo, possibly through its impact on IL-33-ST2-mediated signaling.

  16. Polarization of TH2 response is decreased during pregnancy in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Iaccarino, L; Ghirardello, A; Zen, M; Villalta, D; Tincani, A; Punzi, L; Doria, A

    2012-12-11

    This study evaluated some cytokines involved in the Th1-Th2 shift during pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and healthy women. Twenty-seven consecutive successful pregnancies in 26 SLE patients and 28 pregnancies in 28 matched healthy subjects, as controls, were enrolled and prospectively studied. Sera obtained at first and third trimesters of pregnancy were tested for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, INF-γ, and TNF-α with a highly sensitive, multiplexed sandwich ELISA (SearchLight Human Inflammatory Cytokine Array). Statistics were performed by SPSS package. IL-8 serum levels were higher in the first (P<0.0001) and third (P=0.003) trimesters of pregnancy in SLE patients compared with controls, INF-γ serum levels in the third trimester (P=0.009), and IL-10 serum levels in the first and third trimesters (P=0.055 and P<0.0001, respectively). IL-2 (r=0.524 P=0.010), IL-12 (r=0.549 P=0.007), IFN-γ (r=0.492 P=0.017), and IL-6 (r=0.515 P=0.020) serum levels correlated with disease activity in SLE patients in the first trimester of pregnancy. Cytokine profile was similar in patients with and without lupus nephritis both in the first and in the third trimesters of pregnancy. IL-8 serum levels were lower in patients with a previous diagnosis of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome compared with those without, both in the first and in the third trimesters of pregnancy. In SLE patients, a lower than expected decrease in Th1 cytokine serum levels was observed in the third trimester of gestation which could contribute to a lower Th2 cytokine polarization during pregnancy.

  17. MyD88 deficiency leads to decreased NK cell gamma interferon production and T cell recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but a predominant Th1 response and enhanced monocytic inflammation are associated with infection resolution.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Uma M; Sikes, James; Prantner, Daniel; Andrews, Charles W; Frazer, Lauren; Goodwin, Anna; Snowden, Jessica N; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that MyD88 knockout (KO) mice exhibit delayed clearance of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection compared to wild-type (WT) mice. A blunted Th1 response and ineffective suppression of the Th2 response were also observed in MyD88 KO mice. The goal of the present study was to investigate specific mechanisms whereby absence of MyD88 leads to these effects and address the compensatory mechanisms in the genital tract that ultimately clear infection in the absence of MyD88. It was observed that NK cells recruited to the genital tract in MyD88 KO mice failed to produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) mRNA and protein. This defect was associated with decreased local production of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but normal levels of IL-12p70. Additionally, recruitment of CD4 T cells to the genital tract was reduced in MyD88 KO mice compared to that in WT mice. Although chronic infection in MyD88 KO mice resulted in oviduct pathology comparable to that of WT mice, increased histiocytic inflammation was observed in the uterine horns. This was associated with increased CCL2 levels and recruitment of macrophages as a potential compensatory mechanism. Further deletion of TLR4-TRIF signaling in MyD88 KO mice, using TLR4/MyD88 double-KO mice, did not further compromise host defense against chlamydiae, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms are Toll-like receptor (TLR) independent. Despite some polarization toward a Th2 response, a Th1 response remained predominant in the absence of MyD88, and it provided equivalent protection against a secondary infection as observed in WT mice.

  18. Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2011-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a large woody vine that is native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests and is used widely in traditional medicine for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. The present work used in vivo immunotoxic and in vitro immunomodulatory experiments to investigate the effects of a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid extract from U. tomentosa bark on lymphocyte phenotype, Th1/Th2 cytokine production, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity. For the in vivo immunotoxicity testing, BALB/c male mice were treated once a day with 125, 500 or 1250 mg/kg of U. tomentosa extract for 28 days. For the in vitro protocol, lymphocytes were cultured with 10-500 μg/mg of the extract for 48 h. The extract increased the cellularity of splenic white pulp and the thymic medulla and increased the number of T helper lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Also, a large stimulatory effect on lymphocyte viability was observed. However, mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations of U. tomentosa extract. Furthermore, an immunological polarization toward a Th2 cytokine profile was observed. These results suggest that the U. tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract was not immunotoxic to mice and was able to modulate distinct patterns of the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liying; Huang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xi; Hu-Li, Jane; Urban, Joseph F; Paul, William E

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 helper T cells (TH2 cells) produce interleukin 13 (IL-13) when stimulated by papain or house dust mite extract (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response is dependent on IL-33 but not T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) are the dominant innate producers of IL-13 in naive mice, we found here that helminth-infected mice had more TH2 cells compared to uninfected mice, and thes e cells became major mediators of innate type 2 responses. TH2 cells made important contributions to HDM-induced antigen-nonspecific eosinophilic inflammation and protected mice recovering from infection with Ascaris suum against subsequent infection with the phylogenetically distant nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for effector TH2 cells during TCR-independent innate-like immune responses.

  20. Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Andreev, Darja; Oeser, Katharina; Krljanac, Branislav; Hueber, Axel; Kleyer, Arnd; Voehringer, David; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Th2–eosinophil immune responses are well known for mediating host defence against helminths. Herein we describe a function of Th2–eosinophil responses in counteracting the development of arthritis. In two independent models of arthritis, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection leads to Th2 and eosinophil accumulation in the joints associated with robust inhibition of arthritis and protection from bone loss. Mechanistically, this protective effect is dependent on IL-4/IL-13-induced STAT6 pathway. Furthermore, we show that eosinophils play a central role in the modulation of arthritis probably through the increase of anti-inflammatory macrophages into arthritic joints. The presence of these pathways in human disease is confirmed by detection of GATA3-positive cells and eosinophils in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these results demonstrate that eosinophils and helminth-induced activation of the Th2 pathway axis effectively mitigate the course of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:27273006

  1. Prenatal secondhand cigarette smoke promotes Th2 polarization and impairs goblet cell differentiation and airway mucus formation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shashi P; Gundavarapu, Sravanthi; Peña-Philippides, Juan C; Rir-Sima-ah, Jules; Mishra, Neerad C; Wilder, Julie A; Langley, Raymond J; Smith, Kevin R; Sopori, Mohan L

    2011-11-01

    Parental, particularly maternal, smoking increases the risk for childhood allergic asthma and infection. Similarly, in a murine allergic asthma model, prenatal plus early postnatal exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke (SS) exacerbates airways hyperreactivity and Th2 responses in the lung. However, the mechanism and contribution of prenatal versus early postnatal SS exposure on allergic asthma remain unresolved. To identify the effects of prenatal and/or early postnatal SS on allergic asthma, BALB/c dams and their offspring were exposed gestationally and/or 8-10 wk postbirth to filtered air or SS. Prenatal, but not postnatal, SS strongly increased methacholine and allergen (Aspergillus)-induced airway resistance, Th2 cytokine levels, and atopy and activated the Th2-polarizing pathway GATA3/Lck/ERK1/2/STAT6. Either prenatal and/or early postnatal SS downregulated the Th1-specific transcription factor T-bet and, surprisingly, despite high levels of IL-4/IL-13, dramatically blocked the allergen-induced mucous cell metaplasia, airway mucus formation, and the expression of mucus-related genes/proteins: Muc5ac, γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors, and SAM pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor. Given that SS/nicotine exposure of normal adult mice promotes mucus formation, the results suggested that fetal and neonatal lung are highly sensitive to cigarette smoke. Thus, although the gestational SS promotes Th2 polarization/allergic asthma, it may also impair and/or delay the development of fetal and neonatal lung, affecting mucociliary clearance and Th1 responses. Together, this may explain the increased susceptibility of children from smoking parents to allergic asthma and childhood respiratory infections.

  2. T helper cell type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 responses to myelin basic protein and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Krakauer, Martin; Bendtzen, Klaus; Lund, Henrik; Sellebjerg, Finn; Nielsen, Claus H

    2008-01-01

    Autoreactive T cells are thought to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined the stimulatory effect of human myelin basic protein (MBP) on mononuclear cell (MNC) cultures from 22 patients with MS and 22 sex-matched and age-matched healthy individuals, and related the patient responses to disease activity, as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging. The MBP induced a dose-dependent release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by patient-derived MNCs. The patients’ cells produced higher amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and lower amounts of IL-10, than cells from healthy controls (P < 0·03 to P < 0·04). Five patients with MS and no controls, displayed MBP-induced CD4+ T-cell proliferatio