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Sample records for localized wave solutions

  1. Helical localized wave solutions of the scalar wave equation.

    PubMed

    Overfelt, P L

    2001-08-01

    A right-handed helical nonorthogonal coordinate system is used to determine helical localized wave solutions of the homogeneous scalar wave equation. Introducing the characteristic variables in the helical system, i.e., u = zeta - ct and v = zeta + ct, where zeta is the coordinate along the helical axis, we can use the bidirectional traveling plane wave representation and obtain sets of elementary bidirectional helical solutions to the wave equation. Not only are these sets bidirectional, i.e., based on a product of plane waves, but they may also be broken up into right-handed and left-handed solutions. The elementary helical solutions may in turn be used to create general superpositions, both Fourier and bidirectional, from which new solutions to the wave equation may be synthesized. These new solutions, based on the helical bidirectional superposition, are members of the class of localized waves. Examples of these new solutions are a helical fundamental Gaussian focus wave mode, a helical Bessel-Gauss pulse, and a helical acoustic directed energy pulse train. Some of these solutions have the interesting feature that their shape and localization properties depend not only on the wave number governing propagation along the longitudinal axis but also on the normalized helical pitch.

  2. Helical localized wave solutions of the scalar wave equation.

    PubMed

    Overfelt, P L

    2001-08-01

    A right-handed helical nonorthogonal coordinate system is used to determine helical localized wave solutions of the homogeneous scalar wave equation. Introducing the characteristic variables in the helical system, i.e., u = zeta - ct and v = zeta + ct, where zeta is the coordinate along the helical axis, we can use the bidirectional traveling plane wave representation and obtain sets of elementary bidirectional helical solutions to the wave equation. Not only are these sets bidirectional, i.e., based on a product of plane waves, but they may also be broken up into right-handed and left-handed solutions. The elementary helical solutions may in turn be used to create general superpositions, both Fourier and bidirectional, from which new solutions to the wave equation may be synthesized. These new solutions, based on the helical bidirectional superposition, are members of the class of localized waves. Examples of these new solutions are a helical fundamental Gaussian focus wave mode, a helical Bessel-Gauss pulse, and a helical acoustic directed energy pulse train. Some of these solutions have the interesting feature that their shape and localization properties depend not only on the wave number governing propagation along the longitudinal axis but also on the normalized helical pitch. PMID:11488494

  3. Localized modulated wave solutions in diffusive glucose-insulin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mvogo, Alain; Tambue, Antoine; Ben-Bolie, Germain H.; Kofané, Timoléon C.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate intercellular insulin dynamics in an array of diffusively coupled pancreatic islet β-cells. The cells are connected via gap junction coupling, where nearest neighbor interactions are included. Through the multiple scale expansion in the semi-discrete approximation, we show that the insulin dynamics can be governed by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The localized solutions of this equation are reported. The results suggest from the biophysical point of view that the insulin propagates in pancreatic islet β-cells using both temporal and spatial dimensions in the form of localized modulated waves.

  4. Optically realizable localized wave solutions of the homogeneous scalar wave equation.

    PubMed

    Reivelt, Kaido; Saari, Peeter

    2002-04-01

    One of the most frequently discussed problems in construction of localized wave (LW) solutions of the homogeneous scalar wave equation has been their energy content--the LW's generally have infinite energy content and special methods have to be used to obtain physically realizable wave fields. So far the problem has mainly been addressed as a pure mathematical one and the proposed LW's can hardly be implemented in optics. In this paper we propose an approach for constructing physically realizable LW's that have a transparent interpretation in terms of optical setups. It will be shown that such LW's can be derived as finite aperture approximations of fundamental LW's, the focus wave modes.

  5. On exact traveling-wave solutions for local fractional Korteweg-de Vries equation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Jun; Tenreiro Machado, J A; Baleanu, Dumitru; Cattani, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigates the Korteweg-de Vries equation within the scope of the local fractional derivative formulation. The exact traveling wave solutions of non-differentiable type with the generalized functions defined on Cantor sets are analyzed. The results for the non-differentiable solutions when fractal dimension is 1 are also discussed. It is shown that the exact solutions for the local fractional Korteweg-de Vries equation characterize the fractal wave on shallow water surfaces. PMID:27586629

  6. Genesis of Streamwise-Localized Solutions from Globally Periodic Traveling Waves in Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantry, M.; Willis, A. P.; Kerswell, R. R.

    2014-04-01

    The aim in the dynamical systems approach to transitional turbulence is to construct a scaffold in phase space for the dynamics using simple invariant sets (exact solutions) and their stable and unstable manifolds. In large (realistic) domains where turbulence can coexist with laminar flow, this requires identifying exact localized solutions. In wall-bounded shear flows, the first of these has recently been found in pipe flow, but questions remain as to how they are connected to the many known streamwise-periodic solutions. Here we demonstrate that the origin of the first localized solution is in a modulational symmetry-breaking Hopf bifurcation from a known global traveling wave that has twofold rotational symmetry about the pipe axis. Similar behavior is found for a global wave of threefold rotational symmetry, this time leading to two localized relative periodic orbits. The clear implication is that many global solutions should be expected to lead to more realistic localized counterparts through such bifurcations, which provides a constructive route for their generation.

  7. Decay of solutions of the wave equation with arbitrary localized nonlinear damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellassoued, Mourad

    We study the problem of decay rate for the solutions of the initial-boundary value problem to the wave equation, governed by localized nonlinear dissipation and without any assumption on the dynamics (i.e., the control geometric condition is not satisfied). We treat separately the autonomous and the non-autonomous cases. Providing regular initial data, without any assumption on an observation subdomain, we prove that the energy decays at last, as fast as the logarithm of time. Our result is a generalization of Lebeau (in: A. Boutet de Monvel, V. Marchenko (Eds.), Algebraic and Geometric Methods in Mathematical Physics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1996, pp. 73) result in the autonomous case and Nakao (Adv. Math. Sci. Appl. 7 (1) (1997) 317) work in the non-autonomous case. In order to prove that result we use a new method based on the Fourier-Bross-Iaglintzer (FBI) transform.

  8. Various Boussinesq solitary wave solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The generalized Boussinesq (gB) equations have been used to model nonlinear wave evolution over variable topography and wave interactions with structures. Like the KdV equation, the gB equations support a solitary wave solution which propagates without changing shape, and this solitary wave is often used as a primary test case for numerical studies of nonlinear waves using either the gB or other model equations. Nine different approximate solutions of the generalized Boussinesq equations are presented with simple closed form expressions for the wave elevation and wave speed. Each approximates the free propagation of a single solitary wave, and eight of these solutions are newly obtained. The author compares these solutions with the well known KdV solution, Rayleigh`s solution, Laitone`s higher order solution, and ``exact`` numerical integration of the gB equations. Existing experimental data on solitary wave shape and wave speed are compared with these models.

  9. Localized wave pulse experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

    1999-06-01

    The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

  10. Wave reflection leads to over- and underestimation of local wave speed by the PU- and QA-loop methods: theoretical basis and solution to the problem.

    PubMed

    Segers, Patrick; Swillens, Abigail; Taelman, Liesbeth; Vierendeels, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Single-point methods such as the PU- and QA-loop methods are used to estimate local pulse wave velocity (PWVPU and PWVQA) in arteries from a combination of pressure (P), flow (Q), velocity (U) or cross-sectional area (A) waveforms. Available data indicate that the PU-loop method tends to overestimate PWV, while the QA-loop method tends to underestimate. Wave reflection has been suggested as a factor playing a role in the agreement between different methods. In this work, we first provide a theoretical basis to (i) demonstrate the interference of wave reflection with the PU-loop method for both solitary sinusoidal waves as well as physiological waveforms; (ii) develop an operator-independent method to correct for the presence of reflections. Fluid-structure interaction simulations in a tube and carotid artery model with known mechanical properties confirm the theory. For the carotid artery model, PWVPU severely overestimates PWV, while PWVQA underestimates PWV. Correction (leading to an estimate termed PWV1-5) seems to eliminate the impact of reflections. Finally, methods are applied in vivo. Compared to PWVPU and PWVQA, PWV1-5 leads to significantly better correlations of carotid PWV with PWV derived from carotid distensibility based on the Bramwell-Hill equation (with r(2) improving from about 0.25 to 0.91). We conclude that neither the PU-loop nor the QA-loop method provides reliable estimates of local PWV in settings where wave reflections are present-even when the PU- or QA-loops show a linear segment. They offer no alternative for the Bramwell-Hill based approach and their application should therefore be discouraged, especially for the carotid artery, although caution is probably warranted in general.

  11. Localization of the sine-Gordon equation solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubov, A. V.; Fradkov, A. L.; Bondarenkov, R. S.; Andrievsky, B. R.

    2016-10-01

    Localization of the waves of the sine-Gordon equation depends on the shape of the initial condition. It is shown how initially motionless Gaussian distribution may be modified to obtain propagation of localized waves in both directions. However, the resulting localized wave profile is described neither by an asymptotic envelope- wave solution to the sine-Gordon equation nor by its exact traveling breather solution. The distributed control algorithms are developed to achieve wave localization independent of the shape of the initial condition. It is shown that localization of the waves in both directions is achieved by means of a feedforward (nonfeedback) control. The waves are similar to the envelope wave solution. The feedback distributed algorithm is shown to provide both localized waves according to analytical solutions and their unidirectional propagation.

  12. Localized coherence of freak waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifah, Arnida L.; van Groesen, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates in detail a possible mechanism of energy convergence leading to freak waves. We give examples of a freak wave as a (weak) pseudo-maximal wave to illustrate the importance of phase coherence. Given a time signal at a certain position, we identify parts of the time signal with successive high amplitudes, so-called group events, that may lead to a freak wave using wavelet transform analysis. The local coherence of the critical group event is measured by its time spreading of the most energetic waves. Four types of signals have been investigated: dispersive focusing, normal sea condition, thunderstorm condition and an experimental irregular wave. In all cases presented in this paper, it is shown that a high correlation exists between the local coherence and the appearance of a freak wave. This makes it plausible that freak waves can be developed by local interactions of waves in a wave group and that the effect of waves that are not in the immediate vicinity is minimal. This indicates that a local coherence mechanism within a wave group can be one mechanism that leads to the appearance of a freak wave.

  13. Non-local dynamic solution of two parallel cracks in a functionally graded piezoelectric material under harmonic anti-plane shear wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Sang, Jian-Bing; Zhou, Zhen-Gong

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) containing two parallel cracks under harmonic anti-plane shear stress wave based on the non-local theory. The electric permeable boundary condition is considered. To overcome the mathematical difficulty, a one-dimensional non-local kernel is used instead of a two-dimensional one for the dynamic fracture problem to obtain the stress and the electric displacement fields near the crack tips. The problem is formulated through Fourier transform into two pairs of dual-integral equations, in which the unknown variables are jumps of displacements across the crack surfaces. Different from the classical solutions, that the present solution exhibits no stress and electric displacement singularities at the crack tips.

  14. Weak localization of seismic waves.

    PubMed

    Larose, E; Margerin, L; Van Tiggelen, B A; Campillo, M

    2004-07-23

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity.

  15. Linear superposition solutions to nonlinear wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu

    2012-11-01

    The solutions to a linear wave equation can satisfy the principle of superposition, i.e., the linear superposition of two or more known solutions is still a solution of the linear wave equation. We show in this article that many nonlinear wave equations possess exact traveling wave solutions involving hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions, and the suitable linear combinations of these known solutions can also constitute linear superposition solutions to some nonlinear wave equations with special structural characteristics. The linear superposition solutions to the generalized KdV equation K(2,2,1), the Oliver water wave equation, and the k(n, n) equation are given. The structure characteristic of the nonlinear wave equations having linear superposition solutions is analyzed, and the reason why the solutions with the forms of hyperbolic, triangle, and exponential functions can form the linear superposition solutions is also discussed.

  16. The dissipation of gravity waves in the thermosphere from temporally localized and steady state sources: Assumptions, solution differences, and comparison with Arecibo Observatory observations of gravity waves from unknown sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, Sharon; Nicolls, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) excited in the lower atmosphere can greatly affect the thermosphere and ionosphere via body forcing (dissipation), ion drag, etc. Therefore, understanding how deeply GWs penetrate before dissipating in the thermosphere is critical for understanding the strength and importance of this coupling mechanism. In this paper, we compare the linear solutions for GWs propagating and dissipating in the thermosphere if the GWs are excited by 1) a spatially and temporally localized source using a ray trace model (Vadas and Fritts, 2005), and 2) a steady-state, horizontally-uniform source using a "full-wave" model (similar to Walterscheid and Hickey, 2011). If a GW is excited by a spatially and temporally-localized source, its vertical wavelength (lz) increases/decreases somewhat, or stays the same, as it strongly dissipates. In contrast, because of continuous contributions from neighboring sources, the lz profile increases exponentially with altitude (until asymptoting to a constant value at great altitudes) while strongly dissipating in the full wave model. This causes a GW to dissipate at a much higher altitude (and with a much larger amplitude) than if this GW were instead excited by a spatially and temporally-localized source. Therefore, if a GW is excited by a spatially and temporally-localized source, and the full wave model is (incorrectly) used to model its propagation and dissipation, the GW's amplitude and penentration altitude in the thermosphere will be significantly overestimated. Next, we study the vertical wavelength (lz) and ion velocity perturbation profiles (vion) for recently observed GWs with the Arecibo Observatory (AO). These GWs are from unknown sources. We find that in nearly all of the cases, lz increases somewhat, is approximately constant, or decreases somewhat above the altitude where vion is maximum. This result is consistent with excitation from spatially and temporally-localized sources. In the few cases where lz increases

  17. Invariant current approach to wave propagation in locally symmetric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampetakis, V. E.; Diakonou, M. K.; Morfonios, C. V.; Kalozoumis, P. A.; Diakonos, F. K.; Schmelcher, P.

    2016-05-01

    A theory for wave mechanical systems with local inversion and translation symmetries is developed employing the two-dimensional solution space of the stationary Schrödinger equation. The local symmetries of the potential are encoded into corresponding local basis vectors in terms of symmetry-induced two-point invariant currents which map the basis amplitudes between symmetry-related points. A universal wavefunction structure in locally symmetric potentials is revealed, independently of the physical boundary conditions, by using special local bases which are adapted to the existing local symmetries. The local symmetry bases enable efficient computation of spatially resolved wave amplitudes in systems with arbitrary combinations of local inversion and translation symmetries. The approach opens the perspective of a flexible analysis and control of wave localization in structurally complex systems.

  18. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. II - Collisionless dissipation of wave packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, William

    1989-01-01

    The dispersion equation of Barnes (1966) is used to study the dissipation of asymptotic wave packets generated by localized periodic sources. The solutions of the equation are linear waves, damped by Landau and transit-time processes, in a collisionless warm plasma. For the case of an ideal MHD system, most of the waves emitted from a source are shown to cancel asympotically through destructive interference. The modes transporting significant flux to asymptotic distances are found to be Alfven waves and fast waves with theta (the angle between the magnetic field and the characteristics of the far-field waves) of about 0 and about pi/2.

  19. Effect of wave localization on plasma instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Levedahl, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    The Anderson model of wave localization in random media is invoked to study the effect of solar-wind density turbulence on plasma processes associated with the solar type-III radio burst. ISEE-3 satellite data indicate that a possible model for the type-III process is the parametric decay of Langmuir waves excited by solar-flare electron streams into daughter electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves. The threshold for this instability, however, is much higher than observed Langmuir-wave levels because of rapid wave convection of the transverse electromagnetic daughter wave in the case where the solar wind is assumed homogeneous. Langmuir and transverse waves near critical density satisfy the Ioffe-Riegel criteria for wave localization in the solar wind with observed density fluctuations {approximately}1%. Computer simulations using a linearized hybrid code show that an electron beam will excite localized Langmuir waves in a plasma with density turbulence. An action-principle approach is used to develop a theory of nonlinear wave processes when waves are localized. A theory of resonant particles diffusion by localized waves is developed to explain the saturation of the beam-plasma instability.

  20. Experimental study of spatiotemporally localized surface gravity water waves.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, A; Akhmediev, N; Hoffmann, N P

    2012-07-01

    We present experimental results on the study of spatiotemporally localized surface wave events on deep water that can be modeled using the Peregrine breather solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. These are often considered as prototypes of oceanic rogue waves that can focus wave energy into a single wave packet. For small steepness values of the carrier gravity waves the Peregrine breathers are relatively wide, thus providing an excellent agreement between the theory and experimental results. For larger steepnesses the focusing leads to temporally and spatially shorter events. Nevertheless, agreement between measurements and the Peregrine breather theory remains reasonably good, with discrepancies of modulation gradients and spatiotemporal symmetries being tolerable. Lifetimes and travel distances of the spatiotemporally localized wave events determined from the experiment are in good agreement with the theory.

  1. Exciton-polariton localized wave packets in a microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronych, Oksana; Buraczewski, Adam; Matuszewski, MichałÂ; Stobińska, Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of creating X waves, or localized wave packets, in resonantly excited exciton-polariton superfluids. We demonstrate the existence of X-wave traveling solutions in the coupled exciton-photon system past the inflection point, where the effective mass of lower polaritons is negative in the direction perpendicular to the wave vector of the pumping beam. Contrary to the case of bright solitons, X waves do not require nonlinearity for sustaining their shape. Nevertheless, we show that nonlinearity is important for their dynamics, as it allows for their spontaneous formation from an initial Gaussian wave packet. Unique properties of exciton-polaritons may lead to applications of their X waves in long-distance signal propagation inside novel integrated optoelectronic circuits based on excitons.

  2. Dark- and bright-rogue-wave solutions for media with long-wave-short-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Grelu, Philippe; Soto-Crespo, J M

    2014-01-01

    Exact explicit rogue-wave solutions of intricate structures are presented for the long-wave-short-wave resonance equation. These vector parametric solutions feature coupled dark- and bright-field counterparts of the Peregrine soliton. Numerical simulations show the robustness of dark and bright rogue waves in spite of the onset of modulational instability. Dark fields originate from the complex interplay between anomalous dispersion and the nonlinearity driven by the coupled long wave. This unusual mechanism, not available in scalar nonlinear wave equation models, can provide a route to the experimental realization of dark rogue waves in, for instance, negative index media or with capillary-gravity waves.

  3. Dark- and bright-rogue-wave solutions for media with long-wave-short-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shihua; Grelu, Philippe; Soto-Crespo, J M

    2014-01-01

    Exact explicit rogue-wave solutions of intricate structures are presented for the long-wave-short-wave resonance equation. These vector parametric solutions feature coupled dark- and bright-field counterparts of the Peregrine soliton. Numerical simulations show the robustness of dark and bright rogue waves in spite of the onset of modulational instability. Dark fields originate from the complex interplay between anomalous dispersion and the nonlinearity driven by the coupled long wave. This unusual mechanism, not available in scalar nonlinear wave equation models, can provide a route to the experimental realization of dark rogue waves in, for instance, negative index media or with capillary-gravity waves. PMID:24580164

  4. Localization of Waves in Merged Lattices.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a new two-dimensional physical topology-merged lattice, that allows dense number of wave localization states. Merged lattices are obtained as a result of merging two lattices of scatters of the same space group, but with slightly different spatial resonances. Such merging creates two-dimensional scattering "beats" which are perfectly periodic on the longer spatial scale. On the shorter spatial scale, the systematic breakage of the translational symmetry leads to strong wave scattering, and this causes the occurrences of wave localization states. Merged Lattices promises variety of localization states including tightly confined, and ring type annular modes. The longer scale perfect periodicity of the merged lattice, enables complete prediction and full control over the density of the localization states and its' quality factors. In addition, the longer scale periodicity, also allows design of integrated slow wave components. Merged lattices, thus, can be engineered easily to create technologically beneficial applications. PMID:27535096

  5. Localization of Waves in Merged Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a new two–dimensional physical topology–merged lattice, that allows dense number of wave localization states. Merged lattices are obtained as a result of merging two lattices of scatters of the same space group, but with slightly different spatial resonances. Such merging creates two–dimensional scattering “beats” which are perfectly periodic on the longer spatial scale. On the shorter spatial scale, the systematic breakage of the translational symmetry leads to strong wave scattering, and this causes the occurrences of wave localization states. Merged Lattices promises variety of localization states including tightly confined, and ring type annular modes. The longer scale perfect periodicity of the merged lattice, enables complete prediction and full control over the density of the localization states and its’ quality factors. In addition, the longer scale periodicity, also allows design of integrated slow wave components. Merged lattices, thus, can be engineered easily to create technologically beneficial applications. PMID:27535096

  6. Localization of Waves in Merged Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a new two-dimensional physical topology-merged lattice, that allows dense number of wave localization states. Merged lattices are obtained as a result of merging two lattices of scatters of the same space group, but with slightly different spatial resonances. Such merging creates two-dimensional scattering “beats” which are perfectly periodic on the longer spatial scale. On the shorter spatial scale, the systematic breakage of the translational symmetry leads to strong wave scattering, and this causes the occurrences of wave localization states. Merged Lattices promises variety of localization states including tightly confined, and ring type annular modes. The longer scale perfect periodicity of the merged lattice, enables complete prediction and full control over the density of the localization states and its’ quality factors. In addition, the longer scale periodicity, also allows design of integrated slow wave components. Merged lattices, thus, can be engineered easily to create technologically beneficial applications.

  7. Localization of Waves in Merged Lattices.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-08-18

    This article describes a new two-dimensional physical topology-merged lattice, that allows dense number of wave localization states. Merged lattices are obtained as a result of merging two lattices of scatters of the same space group, but with slightly different spatial resonances. Such merging creates two-dimensional scattering "beats" which are perfectly periodic on the longer spatial scale. On the shorter spatial scale, the systematic breakage of the translational symmetry leads to strong wave scattering, and this causes the occurrences of wave localization states. Merged Lattices promises variety of localization states including tightly confined, and ring type annular modes. The longer scale perfect periodicity of the merged lattice, enables complete prediction and full control over the density of the localization states and its' quality factors. In addition, the longer scale periodicity, also allows design of integrated slow wave components. Merged lattices, thus, can be engineered easily to create technologically beneficial applications.

  8. Stability and bifurcation of traveling wave solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.

    1992-01-01

    Stability and bifurcation of traveling wave solutions in a general one space dimension two-phase nonlinear free boundary problem are investigated by studying a family of differential equations in Banach spaces. Using invariant manifold and invariant foliation theories in infinite dimensional Banach spaces, a complete discussion on the stability of a family of equilibria for an ordinary differential equation in a Banach space is given. A new Hopf type bifurcation is found. It is shown that a one-parameter family of equilibria bifurcates into pieces of cylindrical type surface with spiral flows. For bifurcations from traveling wave solutions of general one space dimension two-phase free boundary problems, the bifurcating cylindrical type surface pieces from the traveling wave solutions connect together in a smooth way. Moreover, the flow on the global connected surface winds around with a periodic speed. Applications to a condensed two-phase combustion model are also discussed.

  9. Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, K.; Muruganandam, P.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials.

  10. Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, K; Muruganandam, P; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2016-03-01

    We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials.

  11. Manipulating localized matter waves in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, K; Muruganandam, P; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2016-03-01

    We analyze vector localized solutions of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with variable nonlinearity parameters and external trap potentials through a similarity transformation technique which transforms the two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations into a pair of coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with constant coefficients under a specific integrability condition. In this analysis we consider three different types of external trap potentials: a time-independent trap, a time-dependent monotonic trap, and a time-dependent periodic trap. We point out the existence of different interesting localized structures; namely, rogue waves, dark- and bright-soliton rogue waves, and rogue-wave breatherlike structures for the above three cases of trap potentials. We show how the vector localized density profiles in a constant background get deformed when we tune the strength of the trap parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the nature of the trajectories of the nonautonomous rogue waves. We also construct the dark-dark rogue wave solution for the repulsive-repulsive interaction of two-component BECs and analyze the associated characteristics for the three different kinds of traps. We then deduce single-, two-, and three-composite rogue waves for three-component BECs and discuss the correlated characteristics when we tune the strength of the trap parameter for different trap potentials. PMID:27078349

  12. Solutions of barotropic trapped waves over topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala Sanson, Luis

    2010-05-01

    Solutions of free, barotropic waves over variable topography are derived. In particular, we examine two cases: waves around axisymmetric seamounts and waves along a sloping bottom. Even though these types of oscillations have been studied before, we revisit the problem because of two main reasons: (i) The linear, barotropic, shallow-water equations with a rigid lid are now solved with no further approximations, in contrast with previous studies. (ii) The solutions are applied to a wide family of seamounts and bottom slopes with profiles proportional to exp(rs) and ys, respectively, where r is the radial distance from the centre of the mountain, y is the direction perpendicular to the slope, and s is an arbitrary positive real number. Most of previous works on seamounts are restricted to the special case s = 2. By varying the shape parameter one can study trapped waves around flat-topped seamounts or guyots (s > 2) or sharp, cone-shaped topographies (s < 2). Similarly, most of previous studies on sloping bottoms report cases with s = 1 (linear slopes), whilst the present results are applied to more general bottom profiles. The resulting dispersion relation in both cases possess a remarkable simplicity that reveals a number of wave characteristics as a function of the topography shape.

  13. Participatory ergonomics that builds on local solutions.

    PubMed

    Kogi, K

    1995-06-01

    Ergonomic interventions must be a local process that responds to the particular needs of local people. In view of the many constraints, a special attention is drawn to participatory ergonomics as an effective means of finding locally workable solutions. Recent experiences show that the best way to utilize its practical advantage is to focus on solutions. The practical steps in providing necessary support for participatory ergonomics should include (1) a good starting point for group discussion and subsequent participatory action based on locally achieved examples; (2) prioritizing different elements of the workplace by means of checklists of available solutions; and (3) making small improvements with a view to learning-by-doing through small wins. Good local examples that have been achieved in the given local conditions can show how improvements can be done in the local conditions and thus motivate people in making improvements. The next important step is to help the participants determine priority solutions by means of "action checklists" that list the available solutions. It is necessary to concentrate on those aspects in which both better working conditions and higher productivity are accessible simultaneously. They include operational, cognitive and organizational aspects. Through learning-by-doing, the participants must be able to base their judgement on the results of relative assessment of locally available solutions and to implement the chosen solutions. To sustain active initiatives of the participants, support and advice must be provided which are suitable for working in small groups, sharing experiences and identifying workable solutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Rayleigh waves, surface disorder, and phonon localization in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, L. N.; Mei, S.; Knezevic, I.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in disordered nanostructures: a finite-difference time-domain solution of the elastic-wave equation combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique captures phonon wave behavior and scales well to nanostructures that are too large or too surface disordered to simulate with many other techniques. We investigate the role of Rayleigh waves and surface disorder on thermal transport by studying graphenelike nanoribbons with free edges (allowing Rayleigh waves) and fixed edges (prohibiting Rayleigh waves). We find that free edges result in a significantly lower thermal conductivity than fixed ones. Free edges both introduce Rayleigh waves and cause all low-frequency modes (bulk and surface) to become more localized. Increasing surface disorder on free edges draws energy away from the center of the ribbon and toward the disordered edges, where it gets trapped in localized surface modes. These effects are not seen in ribbons with fixed boundary conditions and illustrate the importance of phonon-surface modes in nanostructures.

  15. Parametric solution, traveling wave solution for integrable dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Zhijun; Holm, Darryl

    2002-11-01

    In this talk, I introduce a new integrable hierarchy of nonlinear dynamical equations. In this hierarchy there are the following representative equations: u_t=partial^5x u^-2/3, u_t=partial^5_xfrac(u^-1/3)_xx -2(u^-1/6)_x^2u,u_xxt+3u_xxu_x+u_xxxu=0. The first two are in the positive order hierarchy while the 3rd one is in the negative order hierarchy. The whole hierarchy is shown integrable through solving a key 3× 3 matrix equation. The 3×3 Lax pairs and their adjoint representations are nonlinearized to be two Liouville-integrable canonical Hamiltonian systems. Based on the integrability of 6N-dimensional systems we give the parametric solution of the positive hierarchy.In particular, we obtain the parametric solution of the equation u_t=partial^5x u^-2/3. Finally, we give the travelling wave solution (TWS) of the above three equations. The TWSs of the first two equations have singularity, but the TWS of the 3rd one is continuous. For the 5th-order equation, its smooth parametric solution can not include its singular TWS. We also analyse the initial Gaussian solutions for the equations u_t=partial^5x u^-2/3, and u_xxt+3u_xxu_x+u_xxxu=0. The former is stable, but the latter is not.

  16. Bifurcations of traveling wave solutions for an integrable equation

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jibin; Qiao Zhijun

    2010-04-15

    This paper deals with the following equation m{sub t}=(1/2)(1/m{sup k}){sub xxx}-(1/2)(1/m{sup k}){sub x}, which is proposed by Z. J. Qiao [J. Math. Phys. 48, 082701 (2007)] and Qiao and Liu [Chaos, Solitons Fractals 41, 587 (2009)]. By adopting the phase analysis method of planar dynamical systems and the theory of the singular traveling wave systems to the traveling wave solutions of the equation, it is shown that for different k, the equation may have infinitely many solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions, kink/antikink wave solutions, cusped solitary wave solutions, and breaking loop solutions. We discuss in a detail the cases of k=-2,-(1/2),(1/2),2, and parametric representations of all possible bounded traveling wave solutions are given in the different (c,g)-parameter regions.

  17. Traveling waves and their tails in locally resonant granular systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Stefanov, A.

    2015-04-22

    In the present study, we revisit the theme of wave propagation in locally resonant granular crystal systems, also referred to as mass-in-mass systems. We use three distinct approaches to identify relevant traveling waves. In addition, the first consists of a direct solution of the traveling wave problem. The second one consists of the solution of the Fourier tranformed variant of the problem, or, more precisely, of its convolution reformulation (upon an inverse Fourier transform) in real space. Finally, our third approach will restrict considerations to a finite domain, utilizing the notion of Fourier series for important technical reasons, namely themore » avoidance of resonances, which will be discussed in detail. All three approaches can be utilized in either the displacement or the strain formulation. Typical resulting computations in finite domains result in the solitary waves bearing symmetric non-vanishing tails at both ends of the computational domain. Importantly, however, a countably infinite set of anti-resonance conditions is identified for which solutions with genuinely rapidly decaying tails arise.« less

  18. Traveling waves and their tails in locally resonant granular systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Stefanov, A.

    2015-04-22

    In the present study, we revisit the theme of wave propagation in locally resonant granular crystal systems, also referred to as mass-in-mass systems. We use three distinct approaches to identify relevant traveling waves. In addition, the first consists of a direct solution of the traveling wave problem. The second one consists of the solution of the Fourier tranformed variant of the problem, or, more precisely, of its convolution reformulation (upon an inverse Fourier transform) in real space. Finally, our third approach will restrict considerations to a finite domain, utilizing the notion of Fourier series for important technical reasons, namely the avoidance of resonances, which will be discussed in detail. All three approaches can be utilized in either the displacement or the strain formulation. Typical resulting computations in finite domains result in the solitary waves bearing symmetric non-vanishing tails at both ends of the computational domain. Importantly, however, a countably infinite set of anti-resonance conditions is identified for which solutions with genuinely rapidly decaying tails arise.

  19. Bifurcations of Traveling Wave Solutions of a Nonlinear Wave Model Created by Diffraction in Periodic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jibin; Chen, Fengjuan

    In this paper, we consider a model created by diffraction in periodic media. The study of the traveling wave solutions for this model derives a planar dynamical system with a singular straight line. On the basis of the investigation of the dynamical behavior and bifurcations of solutions of the planar dynamical systems, we obtain all possible explicit exact parametric representations of solutions (including solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions, periodic peakon solutions, compactons, etc.) under different parameter conditions.

  20. Local properties of three-body atomic wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Krivec, R.; Mandelzweig, V. B.; Varga, K.

    2000-06-01

    The local properties and accuracy of the positronium negative-ion (Ps{sup -}) ground-state wave functions obtained by the stochastic variational method (SVM) and by direct solution of the Schroedinger equation with the help of the correlation-function hyperspherical-harmonic method (CFHHM) are studied and compared. Though the energy, calculated by both methods, agrees to up to ten digits, the amplitudes of the values of the operator D=H{psi}/E{psi}-1, characterizing local deviation of the wave function from its true value, in all of the coordinate space in the SVM are consistently larger (by up to five orders of magnitude) than in the CFHHM, despite the fact that the SVM observables except <{delta}(r{sub k})> converge to significantly more digits than the CFHHM observables for their respective selected bases. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  1. Nonlinear, stationary electrostatic ion cyclotron waves: Exact solutions for solitons, periodic waves, and wedge shaped waveforms

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, J. F.; Doyle, T. B.; Rajah, S. S.

    2012-11-15

    The theory of fully nonlinear stationary electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is further developed. The existence of two fundamental constants of motion; namely, momentum flux density parallel to the background magnetic field and energy density, facilitates the reduction of the wave structure equation to a first order differential equation. For subsonic waves propagating sufficiently obliquely to the magnetic field, soliton solutions can be constructed. Importantly, analytic expressions for the amplitude of the soliton show that it increases with decreasing wave Mach number and with increasing obliquity to the magnetic field. In the subsonic, quasi-parallel case, periodic waves exist whose compressive and rarefactive amplitudes are asymmetric about the 'initial' point. A critical 'driver' field exists that gives rise to a soliton-like structure which corresponds to infinite wavelength. If the wave speed is supersonic, periodic waves may also be constructed. The aforementioned asymmetry in the waveform arises from the flow being driven towards the local sonic point in the compressive phase and away from it in the rarefactive phase. As the initial driver field approaches the critical value, the end point of the compressive phase becomes sonic and the waveform develops a wedge shape. This feature and the amplitudes of the compressive and rarefactive portions of the periodic waves are illustrated through new analytic expressions that follow from the equilibrium points of a wave structure equation which includes a driver field. These expressions are illustrated with figures that illuminate the nature of the solitons. The presently described wedge-shaped waveforms also occur in water waves, for similar 'transonic' reasons, when a Coriolis force is included.

  2. Pair-tunneling induced localized waves in a vector nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Chen; Ling, Liming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Liu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    We investigate localized waves of coupled two-mode nonlinear Schrödinger equations with a pair-tunneling term representing strongly interacting particles can tunnel between the modes as a fragmented pair. Facilitated by Darboux transformation, we have derived exact solution of nonlinear vector waves such as bright solitons, Kuznetsov-Ma soliton, Akhmediev breathers and rogue waves and demonstrated their interesting temporal-spatial structures. A phase diagram that demarcates the parameter ranges of the nonlinear waves is obtained. Possibilities to observe these localized waves are discussed in a two species Bose-Einstein condensate.

  3. Black Plane Solutions and Localized Gravitational Energy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We explore the issue of gravitational energy localization for static plane-symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations in 3+1 dimensions with asymptotic anti-de Sitter behavior. We apply three different energy-momentum complexes, the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, and Møller prescriptions, to the metric representing this category of solutions and determine the energy distribution for each. We find that the three prescriptions offer identical energy distributions, suggesting their utility for this type of model. PMID:27347499

  4. Local computational strategies for predicting wave propagation in nonlinear media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leamy, Michael J.; Autrusson, Thibaut B.; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Packo, Pawel

    2014-03-01

    Two local computational strategies for modeling elastic wave propagation, namely the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) and Cellular Automata for Elastodynamics (CAFE), are compared and contrasted in analyzing bulk waves in two-dimensional nonlinear media. Each strategy formulates the problem from the perspective of a cell and its local interactions with other cells, leading to robust treatments of anisotropy, heterogeneity, and nonlinearity. The local approach also enables straight-forward parallelization on high performance computing clusters. While the two share a common local perspective, they differ in two major respects. The first is that CAFE employs both rectangular and triangular cells, while LISA considers only rectangular. The second is that LISA appeared much earlier than CAFE (early 1990's versus late 2000's), and as such has been developed to a much greater degree with a multitude of material models, cell-to-cell interactions, loading possibilities, and boundary treatments. A hybrid approach which combines the two is of great interest since the non-uniform mesh capability of the CAFE triangular cell can be readily coupled to LISA's rectangular grids, taking advantage of the built-in LISA features on the uniform portion of the domain. For linear material domains, the hybrid implementation appears straight-forward since both methods have been shown to recover the same equations in the rectangular case. For nonlinear material domains, the formulations cannot be put into a one-to-one correspondence, and hybrid implementation may be more problematic. This paper addresses these differences by first presenting the underlying formulations, and then computing results for growth of a second harmonic in an introduced bulk pressure wave. Rectangular cells are used in both LISA and CAFE. Results from both approaches are compared to an approximate, analytical solution based on a two-scale field representation. Differences in the LISA and CAFE computed

  5. Travelling wave solutions for higher-order wave equations of kdv type (iii).

    PubMed

    Li, Jibin; Rui, Weigou; Long, Yao; He, Bin

    2006-01-01

    By using the theory of planar dynamical systems to the travelling wave equation of a higher order nonlinear wave equations of KdV type, the existence of smooth solitary wave, kink wave and anti-kink wave solutions and uncountably infinite many smooth and non-smooth periodic wave solutions are proved. In different regions of the parametric space, the sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given. In some conditions, exact explicit parametric representations of these waves are obtain. PMID:20361813

  6. Waves on a vortex filament: exact solutions of dynamical equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugarino, Tommaso; Mongiovi, Maria Stella; Sciacca, Michele

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we take into account the dynamical equations of a vortex filament in superfluid helium at finite temperature (1 K < T < 2.17 K) and at very low temperature, which is called Biot-Savart law. The last equation is also valid for a vortex tube in a frictionless, unbounded, and incompressible fluid. Both the equations are approximated by the Local Induction Approximation (LIA) and Fukumoto's approximation. The obtained equations are then considered in the extrinsic frame of reference, where exact solutions (Kelvin waves) are shown. These waves are then compared one to each other in terms of their dispersion relations in the frictionless case. The same equations are then investigated for a quantized vortex line in superfluid helium at higher temperature, where friction terms are needed for a full description of the motion.

  7. Waves on a vortex filament: exact solutions of dynamical equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugarino, Tommaso; Mongiovi, Maria Stella; Sciacca, Michele

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we take into account the dynamical equations of a vortex filament in superfluid helium at finite temperature (1 K < T < 2.17 K) and at very low temperature, which is called Biot-Savart law. The last equation is also valid for a vortex tube in a frictionless, unbounded, and incompressible fluid. Both the equations are approximated by the Local Induction Approximation (LIA) and Fukumoto's approximation. The obtained equations are then considered in the extrinsic frame of reference, where exact solutions (Kelvin waves) are shown. These waves are then compared one to each other in terms of their dispersion relations in the frictionless case. The same equations are then investigated for a quantized vortex line in superfluid helium at higher temperature, where friction terms are needed for a full description of the motion.

  8. Travelling-wave solutions bifurcating from relative periodic orbits in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Subhandu; Cossu, Carlo; Rincon, François

    2016-06-01

    Travelling-wave solutions are shown to bifurcate from relative periodic orbits in plane Poiseuille flow at Re = 2000 in a saddle-node infinite-period bifurcation. These solutions consist in self-sustaining sinuous quasi-streamwise streaks and quasi-streamwise vortices located in the bulk of the flow. The lower branch travelling-wave solutions evolve into spanwise localized states when the spanwise size Lz of the domain in which they are computed is increased. On the contrary, the upper branch of travelling-wave solutions develops multiple streaks when Lz is increased. Upper-branch travelling-wave solutions can be continued into coherent solutions to the filtered equations used in large-eddy simulations where they represent turbulent coherent large-scale motions.

  9. Asymptotic traveling wave solution for a credit rating migration problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jin; Wu, Yuan; Hu, Bei

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, an asymptotic traveling wave solution of a free boundary model for pricing a corporate bond with credit rating migration risk is studied. This is the first study to associate the asymptotic traveling wave solution to the credit rating migration problem. The pricing problem with credit rating migration risk is modeled by a free boundary problem. The existence, uniqueness and regularity of the solution are obtained. Under some condition, we proved that the solution of our credit rating problem is convergent to a traveling wave solution, which has an explicit form. Furthermore, numerical examples are presented.

  10. Effect of wave localization on plasma instabilities. Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Levedahl, W.K.

    1987-10-01

    The Anderson model of wave localization in random media is involved to study the effect of solar wind density turbulence on plasma processes associated with the solar type III radio burst. ISEE-3 satellite data indicate that a possible model for the type III process is the parametric decay of Langmuir waves excited by solar flare electron streams into daughter electromagnetic and ion acoustic waves. The threshold for this instability, however, is much higher than observed Langmuir wave levels because of rapid wave convection of the transverse electromagnetic daughter wave in the case where the solar wind is assumed homogeneous. Langmuir and transverse waves near critical density satisfy the Ioffe-Reigel criteria for wave localization in the solar wind with observed density fluctuations -1 percent. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in random media confirm the localization length predictions of Escande and Souillard for stationary density fluctations. For mobile density fluctuations localized wave packets spread at the propagation velocity of the density fluctuations rather than the group velocity of the waves. Computer simulations using a linearized hybrid code show that an electron beam will excite localized Langmuir waves in a plasma with density turbulence. An action principle approach is used to develop a theory of non-linear wave processes when waves are localized. A theory of resonant particles diffusion by localized waves is developed to explain the saturation of the beam-plasma instability. It is argued that localization of electromagnetic waves will allow the instability threshold to be exceeded for the parametric decay discussed above.

  11. STOCHASTIC SOLUTIONS FOR FRACTIONAL WAVE EQUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SCHILLING, RENÉ L.; SIKORSKII, ALLA

    2014-01-01

    A fractional wave equation replaces the second time derivative by a Caputo derivative of order between one and two. In this paper, we show that the fractional wave equation governs a stochastic model for wave propagation, with deterministic time replaced by the inverse of a stable subordinator whose index is one half the order of the fractional time derivative. PMID:26146456

  12. Localized waves in three-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    We study the generalized Darboux transformation to the three-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. First- and second-order localized waves are obtained by this technique. In first-order localized wave, we get the interactional solutions between first-order rogue wave and one-dark, one-bright soliton respectively. Meanwhile, the interactional solutions between one-breather and first-order rogue wave are also given. In second-order localized wave, one-dark-one-bright soliton together with second-order rogue wave is presented in the first component, and two-bright soliton together with second-order rogue wave are gained respectively in the other two components. Besides, we observe second-order rogue wave together with one-breather in three components. Moreover, by increasing the absolute values of two free parameters, the nonlinear waves merge with each other distinctly. These results further reveal the interesting dynamic structures of localized waves in the three-component coupled system. Project supported by the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953904), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275072 and 11435005), the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120076110024), the Network Information Physics Calculation of Basic Research Innovation Research Group of China (Grant No. 61321064), and Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things, China (Grant No. ZF1213).

  13. Localized waves in three-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    We study the generalized Darboux transformation to the three-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. First- and second-order localized waves are obtained by this technique. In first-order localized wave, we get the interactional solutions between first-order rogue wave and one-dark, one-bright soliton respectively. Meanwhile, the interactional solutions between one-breather and first-order rogue wave are also given. In second-order localized wave, one-dark-one-bright soliton together with second-order rogue wave is presented in the first component, and two-bright soliton together with second-order rogue wave are gained respectively in the other two components. Besides, we observe second-order rogue wave together with one-breather in three components. Moreover, by increasing the absolute values of two free parameters, the nonlinear waves merge with each other distinctly. These results further reveal the interesting dynamic structures of localized waves in the three-component coupled system. Project supported by the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953904), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275072 and 11435005), the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120076110024), the Network Information Physics Calculation of Basic Research Innovation Research Group of China (Grant No. 61321064), and Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things, China (Grant No. ZF1213).

  14. Electromagnetic shock wave in nonlinear vacuum: exact solution.

    PubMed

    Kovachev, Lubomir M; Georgieva, Daniela A; Kovachev, Kamen L

    2012-10-01

    An analytical approach to the theory of electromagnetic waves in nonlinear vacuum is developed. The evolution of the pulse is governed by a system of nonlinear wave vector equations. An exact solution with its own angular momentum in the form of a shock wave is obtained.

  15. Localization of Waves without Bistability: Worms in Nematic Electroconvection

    SciTech Connect

    Riecke, H.; Granzow, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    A general localization mechanism for waves in dissipative systems is identified that does not require the bistability of the basic state and the nonlinear plane-wave state. We conjecture that the mechanism explains the two-dimensional localized wave structures ({open_quotes}worms{close_quotes}) that recently have been observed in experiments on electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals where the transition to extended waves is supercritical. The mechanism accounts for the shape of the worms, their propagation direction, and certain aspects of their interaction. The dynamics of the localized waves can be steady or irregular. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Strongly nonlinear waves in locally resonant granular chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lifeng; James, Guillaume; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Vainchtein, Anna

    2016-11-01

    We explore a recently proposed locally resonant granular system bearing harmonic internal resonators in a chain of beads interacting via Hertzian elastic contacts. In this system, we propose the existence of two types of configurations: (a) small-amplitude periodic traveling waves and (b) dark-breather solutions, i.e. exponentially localized, time-periodic states mounted on top of a non-vanishing background. A remarkable feature distinguishing our results from other settings where dark breathers are observed is the complete absence of precompression in the system, i.e. the absence of a linear spectral band. We also identify conditions under which the system admits long-lived bright breather solutions. Our results are obtained by means of an asymptotic reduction to a suitably modified version of the so-called discrete p-Schrödinger (DpS) equation, which is established as controllably approximating the solutions of the original system for large but finite times (under suitable assumptions on the solution amplitude and the resonator mass). The findings are also corroborated by detailed numerical computations. Long-lived bright breathers are proved to exist over long but finite times, after which numerical simulations indicate that the breathers disintegrate. In line with these results, we prove that the only exact time-periodic bright breathers consist of trivial linear oscillations, without contact interactions between discrete elements.

  17. Travelling wave solution of the Buckley-Leverett equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychkov, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    A two-dimensional Buckley-Leverett system governing motion of two-phase flow is considered. Travelling-wave solutions for these equations are found. Wavefronts of these solutions may be circles, lines and parabolae. Values of pressure and saturation on the wave fronts are found.

  18. Dispersive wave processing: a model-based solution

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.C.

    1996-10-01

    Wave propagation through various media represents a significant problem in many applications in acoustics and electromagnetics especially when the medium is dispersive. We post a general dispersive wave propagation model that could easily represent many classes of dispersive waves and proceed to develop a model-based processor employing this underlying structure. The general solution to the model-based dispersive wave estimation problem is developed using the Bayesian maximum a posteriori approach which leads to the nonlinear extended Kalman filter processor.

  19. Wave packet spreading and localization in electron-nuclear scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Paul E.; Markmann, Andreas; Morozov, Igor V.; Valuev, Ilya A.; Fichtl, Christopher A.; Richards, David F.; Batista, Victor S.; Graziani, Frank R.; Murillo, Michael S.

    2013-06-01

    The wave packet molecular dynamics (WPMD) method provides a variational approximation to the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Its application in the field of high-temperature dense plasmas has yielded diverging electron width (spreading), which results in diminishing electron-nuclear interactions. Electron spreading has previously been ascribed to a shortcoming of the WPMD method and has been counteracted by various heuristic additions to the models used. We employ more accurate methods to determine if spreading continues to be predicted by them and how WPMD can be improved. A scattering process involving a single dynamic electron interacting with a periodic array of statically screened protons is used as a model problem for comparison. We compare the numerically exact split operator Fourier transform method, the Wigner trajectory method, and the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). Within the framework of the TDVP, we use the standard variational form of WPMD, the single Gaussian wave packet (WP), as well as a sum of Gaussian WPs, as in the split WP method. Wave packet spreading is predicted by all methods, so it is not the source of the unphysical diminishing of electron-nuclear interactions in WPMD at high temperatures. Instead, the Gaussian WP's inability to correctly reproduce breakup of the electron's probability density into localized density near the protons is responsible for the deviation from more accurate predictions. Extensions of WPMD must include a mechanism for breakup to occur in order to yield dynamics that lead to accurate electron densities.

  20. Nonlinear traveling wave solution for the MJO skeleton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Stechmann, S. N.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, a minimal dynamical model is presented for capturing MJO's fundamental features. The model is a nonlinear oscillator model for the MJO skeleton and it involves interactions between convection, moisture and circulation. I will present the exact nonlinear traveling wave solutions for the model based on its energy conservation. The exact nonlinear solution provides for an explicit comparison of features between linear and nonlinear waves such as dispersion relations and traveling wave speeds. Moreover, the nonlinear solutions, compared with the linear ones, produce a narrow region of active convection and a wider region of suppressed convection. These predictions offer nonlinear MJO features that could potentially be targets of observational investigations.

  1. New X-wave solutions of free-space scalar wave equation and their finite size realization.

    PubMed

    Sushilov, N V; Tavakkoli, J; Cobbold, R S

    2001-01-01

    Based on the method proposed by Donnelly and Ziolkowski [1], [2], a new general solution has been obtained for the isotropic/homogeneous scalar wave equation in cylindrical coordinates. It is shown that well-known limited diffraction beams such as Durnin's Bessel beams [4], Lu and Greenleaf's X-wave [15], localized waves of Donnelly and Ziolkowski [1], [2], and limited-diffraction, band-limited waves of Li and Bharath [19], [20] can be obtained from this generic solution as particular cases. In addition, we have obtained new X-wave solutions and have calculated the field characteristics for one of them using a finite aperture realization. It is shown that with a proper choice of the free parameter values, well-behaved X-waves with narrow beamwidths and large depths of field can be achieved. For similar source spectra, the results are compared with Lu and Greenleaf's zeroth-order X-wave, and it is shown that the depth of field and beamwidth are very comparable.

  2. Theoretical and experimental evidence of non-symmetric doubly localized rogue waves

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingsong; Guo, Lijuan; Zhang, Yongshuai; Chabchoub, Amin

    2014-01-01

    We present determinant expressions for vector rogue wave (RW) solutions of the Manakov system, a two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. As a special case, we generate a family of exact and non-symmetric RW solutions of the NLS equation up to third order, localized in both space and time. The derived non-symmetric doubly localized second-order solution is generated experimentally in a water wave flume for deep-water conditions. Experimental results, confirming the characteristic non-symmetric pattern of the solution, are in very good agreement with theory as well as with numerical simulations, based on the modified NLS equation, known to model accurately the dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave packets in deep water. PMID:25383023

  3. Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions to some nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiefang Zhang

    1996-08-01

    Exact and explicit solitary wave solutions are obtained for some physically interesting nonlinear evolutions and wave equations in physics and other fields by using a special transformation. These equations include the KdV-Burgers equation, the MKdV-Burgers equation, the combined KdV-MKdV equation, the Newell-Whitehead equation, the dissipative {Phi}{sup 4}-model equation, the generalized Fisher equation, and the elastic-medium wave equation.

  4. Solitary solutions including spatially localized chaos and their interactions in two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow.

    PubMed

    Hiruta, Yoshiki; Toh, Sadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow in wide periodic boxes is numerically investigated. It is shown that the total flow rate in the direction perpendicular to the force controls the characteristics of the flow, especially the existence of spatially localized solitary solutions such as traveling waves, periodic solutions, and chaotic solutions, which can behave as elementary components of the flow. We propose a procedure to construct approximate solutions consisting of solitary solutions. It is confirmed by direct numerical simulations that these solutions are stable and represent interactions between elementary components such as collisions, coexistence, and collapse of chaos.

  5. Local effects of gravity wave propagation and saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, gravity waves were recognized to play a major role in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Perhaps the major effect of such motions are the reversal of the vertical shear of the mean zonal wind and the occurrence of a large turbulent diffusivity in the mesosphere due to gravity wave saturation. Yet, despite the importance of these gravity wave effects, the processes and the consequences of gravity wave propagation and saturation are only beginning to be understood in detail. The linear saturation theory predicts drag and turbulent diffusion due to saturating wave motion. This theory, however, fails to address a number of issues that are certain to be important for gravity wave propagation and saturation in the middle atmosphere. These issues, including wave transience, wave superposition, local convective adjustment, and nonlinearity, are discussed.

  6. Elastic parabolic equation solutions for oceanic T-wave generation and propagation from deep seismic sources.

    PubMed

    Frank, Scott D; Collis, Jon M; Odom, Robert I

    2015-06-01

    Oceanic T-waves are earthquake signals that originate when elastic waves interact with the fluid-elastic interface at the ocean bottom and are converted to acoustic waves in the ocean. These waves propagate long distances in the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel and tend to be the largest observed arrivals from seismic events. Thus, an understanding of their generation is important for event detection, localization, and source-type discrimination. Recently benchmarked seismic self-starting fields are used to generate elastic parabolic equation solutions that demonstrate generation and propagation of oceanic T-waves in range-dependent underwater acoustic environments. Both downward sloping and abyssal ocean range-dependent environments are considered, and results demonstrate conversion of elastic waves into water-borne oceanic T-waves. Examples demonstrating long-range broadband T-wave propagation in range-dependent environments are shown. These results confirm that elastic parabolic equation solutions are valuable for characterization of the relationships between T-wave propagation and variations in range-dependent bathymetry or elastic material parameters, as well as for modeling T-wave receptions at hydrophone arrays or coastal receiving stations. PMID:26093440

  7. Elastic parabolic equation solutions for oceanic T-wave generation and propagation from deep seismic sources.

    PubMed

    Frank, Scott D; Collis, Jon M; Odom, Robert I

    2015-06-01

    Oceanic T-waves are earthquake signals that originate when elastic waves interact with the fluid-elastic interface at the ocean bottom and are converted to acoustic waves in the ocean. These waves propagate long distances in the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel and tend to be the largest observed arrivals from seismic events. Thus, an understanding of their generation is important for event detection, localization, and source-type discrimination. Recently benchmarked seismic self-starting fields are used to generate elastic parabolic equation solutions that demonstrate generation and propagation of oceanic T-waves in range-dependent underwater acoustic environments. Both downward sloping and abyssal ocean range-dependent environments are considered, and results demonstrate conversion of elastic waves into water-borne oceanic T-waves. Examples demonstrating long-range broadband T-wave propagation in range-dependent environments are shown. These results confirm that elastic parabolic equation solutions are valuable for characterization of the relationships between T-wave propagation and variations in range-dependent bathymetry or elastic material parameters, as well as for modeling T-wave receptions at hydrophone arrays or coastal receiving stations.

  8. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  9. Heuristic approximations for sound fields produced by spherical waves incident on locally and non-locally reacting planar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Ming; Tao, Hongdan

    2014-01-01

    The classic Weyl-van der Pol (WVDP) formula is a well-known asymptotic solution for accurately predicting sound fields above a locally reacting ground surface. However, the form of the WVDP formula is inadequate for predicting sound fields in the vicinity of non-locally reacting surfaces; a correction term is often required in the formula to provide accurate numerical solutions. Even with this correction, there is a singularity in the diffraction wave term when the source is located directly above or below the receiver. This paper explores a heuristic method to remove this singularity and suggests an analytical form comparable to the WVDP formula. This improved formula offers a physically interpretable solution and allows for accurate predictions of the total sound field above locally and non-locally reacting surfaces for all geometrical configurations.

  10. Nonlinear localized dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Amour, Rabia

    2007-10-15

    A numerical investigation is presented to show the existence, formation, and possible realization of large-amplitude dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonthermal ions. These nonlinear localized structures are self-consistent solutions of the collisionless Vlasov equation with a population of fast particles. The spatial patterns of the variable charge DA solitary wave are significantly modified by the nonthermal effects. The results complement and provide new insights into previously published results on this problem.

  11. AdS waves as exact solutions to quadratic gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram; Guerses, Metin

    2011-04-15

    We give an exact solution of the quadratic gravity in D dimensions. The solution is a plane-fronted wave metric with a cosmological constant. This metric solves not only the full quadratic gravity field equations but also the linearized ones which include the linearized equations of the recently found critical gravity. A subset of the solutions change the asymptotic structure of the anti-de Sitter space due to their logarithmic behavior.

  12. Interfacial wave theory for dendritic structure of a growing needle crystal. I - Local instability mechanism. II - Wave-emission mechanism at the turning point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jian-Jun

    1989-01-01

    The complicated dendritic structure of a growing needle crystal is studied on the basis of global interfacial wave theory. The local dispersion relation for normal modes is derived in a paraboloidal coordinate system using the multiple-variable-expansion method. It is shown that the global solution in a dendrite growth process incorporates the morphological instability factor and the traveling wave factor.

  13. Exact traveling wave solutions and L1 stability for the shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Guo, Yunxi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we developed, for the first time, the exact expressions of several periodic travelling wave solutions and a solitary wave solution for a shallow water wave model of moderate amplitude. Then, we present the existence theorem of the global weak solutions. Finally, we prove the stability of solution in L1(R) space for the Cauchy problem of the equation.

  14. Realization of localized Bohr-like wave packets.

    PubMed

    Mestayer, J J; Wyker, B; Lancaster, J C; Dunning, F B; Reinhold, C O; Yoshida, S; Burgdörfer, J

    2008-06-20

    We demonstrate a protocol to create localized wave packets in very-high-n Rydberg states which travel in nearly circular orbits around the nucleus. Although these wave packets slowly dephase and eventually lose their localization, their motion can be monitored over several orbital periods. These wave packets represent the closest analog yet achieved to the original Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, i.e., an electron in a circular classical orbit around the nucleus. The possible extension of the approach to create "planetary atoms" in highly correlated stable multiply excited states is discussed.

  15. Localization of wave packets in one-dimensional random potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Juan Pablo Ramírez; Wellens, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We study the expansion of an initially strongly confined wave packet in a one-dimensional weak random potential with short correlation length. At long times, the expansion of the wave packet comes to a halt due to destructive interferences leading to Anderson localization. We develop an analytical description for the disorder-averaged localized density profile. For this purpose, we employ the diagrammatic method of Berezinskii which we extend to the case of wave packets, present an analytical expression of the Lyapunov exponent which is valid for small as well as for high energies, and, finally, develop a self-consistent Born approximation in order to analytically calculate the energy distribution of our wave packet. By comparison with numerical simulations, we show that our theory describes well the complete localized density profile, not only in the tails but also in the center.

  16. Exact Solutions for a Local Fractional DDE Associated with a Nonlinear Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, İsmail

    2016-09-01

    Of recent increasing interest in the area of fractional calculus and nonlinear dynamics are fractional differential-difference equations. This study is devoted to a local fractional differential-difference equation which is related to a nonlinear electrical transmission line. Explicit traveling wave solutions (kink/antikink solitons, singular, periodic, rational) are obtained via the discrete tanh method coupled with the fractional complex transform.

  17. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  18. PML solution of longitudinal wave propagation in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzanian, M.; Arbabi, Freydoon; Pak, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a model for unbounded heterogeneous domains with radiation damping produced by an unphysical wave absorbing layer. The Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) approach is used along with a displacement-based finite element. The heterogeneous model is validated using the closed-form solution of a benchmark problem: a free rod with two-part modulus subjected to a specified time history. Both elastically supported and unsupported semi-infinite rods with different degrees of inhomogeneity and loading are considered. Numerical results illustrate the effects of inhomogeneity on the response and are compared with those for equivalent homogeneous domains. The effects of characteristic features of the inhomogeneous problem, presence of local maxima and cut-off frequency are determined. A degenerate case of a homogeneous semi-infinite rod on elastic foundations is produced by tending the magnitude of the foundation stiffness to zero. The response of the latter is compared with that of a free rod. The importance of proper selection of the PML parameters to highly accurate and efficient results is demonstrated by example problems.

  19. Band gaps and localization of surface water waves over large-scale sand waves with random fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Yan; Shao, Hao; Zhong, Yaozhao; Zhang, Sai; Zhao, Zongxi

    2012-06-01

    Band structure and wave localization are investigated for sea surface water waves over large-scale sand wave topography. Sand wave height, sand wave width, water depth, and water width between adjacent sand waves have significant impact on band gaps. Random fluctuations of sand wave height, sand wave width, and water depth induce water wave localization. However, random water width produces a perfect transmission tunnel of water waves at a certain frequency so that localization does not occur no matter how large a disorder level is applied. Together with theoretical results, the field experimental observations in the Taiwan Bank suggest band gap and wave localization as the physical mechanism of sea surface water wave propagating over natural large-scale sand waves.

  20. Spiral wave chimeras in locally coupled oscillator systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Wei; Dierckx, Hans

    2016-02-01

    The recently discovered chimera state involves the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized states for a group of identical oscillators. In this work, we show the existence of (inwardly) rotating spiral wave chimeras in the three-component reaction-diffusion systems where each element is locally coupled by diffusion. A transition from spiral waves with the smooth core to spiral wave chimeras is found as we change the local dynamics of the system or as we gradually increase the diffusion coefficient of the activator. Our findings on the spiral wave chimera in the reaction-diffusion systems suggest that spiral chimera states may be found in chemical and biological systems that can be modeled by a large population of oscillators indirectly coupled via a diffusive environment. PMID:26986275

  1. Spiral wave chimeras in locally coupled oscillator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing-Wei; Dierckx, Hans

    2016-02-01

    The recently discovered chimera state involves the coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized states for a group of identical oscillators. In this work, we show the existence of (inwardly) rotating spiral wave chimeras in the three-component reaction-diffusion systems where each element is locally coupled by diffusion. A transition from spiral waves with the smooth core to spiral wave chimeras is found as we change the local dynamics of the system or as we gradually increase the diffusion coefficient of the activator. Our findings on the spiral wave chimera in the reaction-diffusion systems suggest that spiral chimera states may be found in chemical and biological systems that can be modeled by a large population of oscillators indirectly coupled via a diffusive environment.

  2. Localized input fields in rigorous coupled-wave analysis.

    PubMed

    Auer, Maximilian; Brenner, Karl-Heinz

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a new treatment for localized input fields in coupled-wave theory. It consists of a combination of angular spectrum decomposition and a cyclic formulation of rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), which does not require the computation of several standard RCWA calculations. The cyclic approach especially concerns the definition of the convolution matrix of the permittivity and enables the processing of multiple input plane waves in a single RCWA calculation. At the same time it ensures physically meaningful simulation results for finite truncation limits and thus inherently conserves energy. By adapting the three-dimensional (3D)-RCWA algorithm to efficiently simulate the effects of localized and arbitrarily polarized input fields to 3D volume gratings, various advanced diffraction problems such as fiber coupling, the influence of distorted plane waves, or the effects of focused beams on diffraction gratings can be investigated. Therefore, the impact of this work should concern many fields of application.

  3. Coherent, data-driven Lamb wave localization under environmental variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, Joel B.; Liu, Chang; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Greve, David W.; Moura, José M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Lamb waves are powerful tools in nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring. Researchers use Lamb waves to detect and locate damage across large areas. To best utilize Lamb waves, they are analyzed through two processing steps: baseline subtraction and velocity calibration. Baseline subtraction removes background information from our data and velocity calibration tunes our algorithms. Yet, in many scenarios, these steps are challenging to implement. Baseline subtraction is challenging due to variable environmental conditions. Velocity calibration is challenging due to multi-modal and dispersive velocity behavior in Lamb waves. To address both challenges, we present two approaches that combine environmental compensation with self-calibrating localization. We discuss temperature compensation strategies based on the scale transform and singular value decomposition. We then integrate these with a localization framework known as data-driven matched field processing. We show these combined approaches to be effective in a variety of scenarios.

  4. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  5. Nonlinear Guided Wave Mixing for Localized Material State Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissenden, Cliff J.; Liu, Yang; Chillara, Vamshi K.; Choi, Gloria; Cho, Hwanjeong

    Material state characterization methods sensitive to incipient damage provide new opportunities for managing the life cycle of structures. Finite element simulations of ultrasonic guided waves show the potential of nonlinear wave mixing to detect localized degradation invisible to both linear elastic stress-strain response and the eye. Correlation of material degradation to the generation of higher harmonics or combinational harmonics makes estimation of remaining life possible from material state data early in the service life.

  6. Localized finite-amplitude disturbances and selection of solitary waves

    PubMed

    Kliakhandler; Porubov; Velarde

    2000-10-01

    It turns out that evolution of localized finite-amplitude disturbances in perturbed KdV equation is qualitatively different compared with conventional small-amplitude initial conditions. Namely, relatively fast solitary waves, with one and the same amplitude and velocity, are formed ahead of conventional chaotic-like irregular structures. The amplitude and velocity of the waves, obtained from the asymptotic theory, are in excellent agreement with numerics. PMID:11089043

  7. Stokes waves revisited: Exact solutions in the asymptotic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Megan; Chattopadhyay, Amit K.

    2016-03-01

    The Stokes perturbative solution of the nonlinear (boundary value dependent) surface gravity wave problem is known to provide results of reasonable accuracy to engineers in estimating the phase speed and amplitudes of such nonlinear waves. The weakling in this structure though is the presence of aperiodic "secular variation" in the solution that does not agree with the known periodic propagation of surface waves. This has historically necessitated increasingly higher-ordered (perturbative) approximations in the representation of the velocity profile. The present article ameliorates this long-standing theoretical insufficiency by invoking a compact exact n -ordered solution in the asymptotic infinite depth limit, primarily based on a representation structured around the third-ordered perturbative solution, that leads to a seamless extension to higher-order (e.g., fifth-order) forms existing in the literature. The result from this study is expected to improve phenomenological engineering estimates, now that any desired higher-ordered expansion may be compacted within the same representation, but without any aperiodicity in the spectral pattern of the wave guides.

  8. Creating localized-droplet train by traveling thermal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumkin, Valeri; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Oron, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a two-layer system consisting of a thin liquid film and an overlying gas layer driven by the Marangoni instability induced by thermal waves propagating along the solid substrate. In the case of a stationary thermal wave with sufficiently large amplitude and Marangoni number, liquid film rupture takes place with a flattish wide trough. For sufficiently small but not too small frequencies of the thermal wave, a periodic structure consisting of localized drops interconnected by thin liquid bridges emerges. This train of drops travels unidirectionally along the heated substrate following the thermal wave. For larger thermal wave frequencies, the thickness of the bridges increases enabling fluid flow between the neighboring drops. The drop-train regimes may be utilized in microfluidic applications for directed transport of liquid content enclosed in drops formed by thermocapillary forces.

  9. Spin-wave localization in tangentially magnetized films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovskaya, Elena V.; Pardavi-Horvath, Martha; McMichael, Robert D.

    2016-06-01

    We present an analytical description of localized spin-wave modes that form in a parabolic field minimum in a thin ferromagnetic film. Mode profiles proportional to Hermite functions are eigenfuctions of the applied field and exchange parts of the equations of motion, and also provide a basis for numerical approximation of magnetostatic interactions. We find that the spin-wave modes are roughly equally spaced in frequency and have roughly equal coupling to a uniform driving field. The calculated mode frequencies and corresponding profiles of localized spin-wave modes are in good agreement with micromagnetic modeling and previously published experimental results on multiple resonances from a series of localized modes detected by ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy.

  10. Coherent patterning of matter waves with subwavelength localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mompart, J.; Ahufinger, V.; Birkl, G.

    2009-05-01

    We propose the subwavelength localization via adiabatic passage (SLAP) technique to coherently achieve state-selective patterning of matter waves well beyond the diffraction limit. The SLAP technique consists in coupling two partially overlapping and spatially structured laser fields to three internal levels of the matter wave yielding state-selective localization at those positions where the adiabatic passage process does not occur. We show that by means of this technique matter wave localization down to the single nanometer scale can be achieved. We analyze in detail the potential implementation of the SLAP technique for nanolithography with an atomic beam of metastable Ne∗ and for coherent patterning of a two-component R87b Bose-Einstein condensate.

  11. Solutions of the Maxwell equations and photon wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Peter J.

    2010-03-15

    Properties of six-component electromagnetic field solutions of a matrix form of the Maxwell equations, analogous to the four-component solutions of the Dirac equation, are described. It is shown that the six-component equation, including sources, is invariant under Lorentz transformations. Complete sets of eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian for the electromagnetic fields, which may be interpreted as photon wave functions, are given both for plane waves and for angular-momentum eigenstates. Rotationally invariant projection operators are used to identify transverse or longitudinal electric and magnetic fields. For plane waves, the velocity transformed transverse wave functions are also transverse, and the velocity transformed longitudinal wave functions include both longitudinal and transverse components. A suitable sum over these eigenfunctions provides a Green function for the matrix Maxwell equation, which can be expressed in the same covariant form as the Green function for the Dirac equation. Radiation from a dipole source and from a Dirac atomic transition current are calculated to illustrate applications of the Maxwell Green function.

  12. Locality, reflection, and wave-particle duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugur-Schächter, Mioara

    1987-08-01

    Bell's theorem is believed to establish that the quantum mechanical predictions do not generally admit a causal representation compatible with Einsten's principle of separability, thereby proving incompatibility between quantum mechanics and relativity. This interpretation is contested via two convergent approaches which lead to a sharp distinction between quantum nonseparability and violation of Einstein's theory of relativity. In a first approach we explicate from the quantum mechanical formalism a concept of “reflected dependence.” Founded on this concept, we produce a causal representation of the quantum mechanical probability measure involved in Bell's proof, which is clearly separable in Einstein's sense, i.e., it does not involve supraluminal velocities, and nevertheless is “nonlocal” in Bell's sense. So Bell locality and Einstein separability are distinct qualifications, and Bell nonlocality (or Bell nonseparability) and Einstein separability are not incompatible. It is then proved explicitly that with respect to the mentioned representation Bell's derivation does not hold. So Bell's derivation does not establish that any Einstein-separable representation is incompatible with quantum mechanics. This first—negative—conclusion is a syntactic fact. The characteristics of the representation and of the reasoning involved in the mentioned counterexample to the usual interpretation of Bell's theorem suggest that the representation used—notwithstanding its ability to bring forth the specified syntactic fact—is not factually true. Factual truth and syntactic properties also have to be radically distinguished in their turn. So, in a second approach, starting from de Broglie's initial relativistic model of a microsystem, a deeper, factually acceptable representation is constructed. The analyses leading to this second representation show that quantum mechanics does indeed involve basically a certain sort of nonseparability, called here de Broglie

  13. Propagating and Localized Surface Waves in Metamaterial Stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ruwen; Bao, Yongjun; Tang, Zhaohui; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Zhijian; Sun, Weihua; Wu, Xin; Wang, Mu

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate the interference effect between propagating and localized surface modes of electromagnetic wave in metamaterial stacks, which leads to a transmission extremum. When radiation is incident on a metal surface perforated with an array of ring-shaped subwavelength apertures, the phase difference between the propagating surface Bloch wave and the localized surface wave can be tailored by the geometrical parameters of the array so as to affect the shape of the transmission spectrum. Above the resonant frequency of the aperture, interference between the surface waves leads to a minimum in the transmission spectrum, whereas below it, the interference leads to a maximum. While in multiple metamaterial stacks with hole arrays, the coupling of surface electromagnetic wave yields a new resonant mode with increasing quality factor of the transmission peak. We suggest that these features provide flexibility in engineering surface wave-based all-optical devices. Reference: Y. J. Bao, R. W. Peng, D. J. Shu, Mu Wang, X. Lu, J. Shao, W. Lu,and N. B. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008) 101, 087401.

  14. Local full-wave energy in nonuniform plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Smithe, D.N.

    1988-10-01

    The subject of local wave energy in plasmas is treated via quasilinear theory from the dual perspectives of the action-angle formalism and gyrokinetics analysis. This work presents an extension to all orders in the gyroradius of the self-consistent wave-propagation/quasilinear-absorption problem using gyrokinetics. Questions of when and under what conditions local energy should be of definite sign are best answered using the action-angle formalism. An important result is that the ''dielectric operators'' of the linearized wave equation and of the local energy are not the same, a fact which is obscured when the eikonal or WKB assumption is invoked. Even though the two dielectrics are very different in character (one operates linearly on electric field for the plasma current, the other operates quadratically for the energy), it is demonstrated that they are nevertheless related by a simple mathematical statement. This study was originally motivated by concern and lively discussion over the questions of local energy for rf-heating of plasmas, where in certain instances, full-wave effects such as refraction, strong absorption, and mode conversion are of primary importance. Fundamentally, the rf-absorption must equate with the energy moment of the quasilinear term to achieve a correct energy balance. This fact governs the derivation (as opposed to postulation) of the local absorption. The troublesome ''kinetic flux'' may then be chosen (it is not unique) to satisfy a wave-energy balance relation with the Poynting flux and local absorption. It is shown that at least one such choice reduces asymptotically to the Stix form away from nonuniformities, thereby demonstrating energy conservation to all orders in Larmor radius. 25 refs.

  15. Rational solitary wave and rogue wave solutions in coupled defocusing Hirota equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    We derive and study a general rational solution of a coupled defocusing Hirota equation which can be used to describe evolution of light in a two-mode fiber with defocusing Kerr effect and some certain high-order effects. We find some new excitation patterns in the model, such as M-shaped soliton, W-shaped soliton, anti-eye-shaped rogue wave and four-petaled flower rogue wave. The results are compared with the solutions obtained in other coupled systems like vector nonlinear Schrödinger equation, coupled focusing Hirota and Sasa-Satsuma equations. We explain the new characters by modulational instability properties. This further indicates that rational solution does not necessarily correspond to rogue wave excitation dynamics and the quantitative relation between nonlinear excitations and modulational instability should exist.

  16. Approximate solution to the scalar wave equation for optical waveguides.

    PubMed

    Goyal, I C; Gallawa, R L; Ghatak, A K

    1991-07-20

    We consider an approximate solution to the wave equation appropriate to the optical waveguides encountered in practice. The refractive-index profile may be arbitrary, and the geometry may be two or three dimensional. A circular or a planar waveguide could thus be treated by this method. The technique is more accurate and more useful than the WKB method, which is often used in problems of this type, because the technique is valid even at the turning points, where the WKB solution fails. The fields and the propagation constants of the lowest-order modes for two profiles are calculated, and they compare well with the exact solutions. The solutions that we proposed are, in fact, not new. However, insofar as we know, they are unknown and unused by the optics community.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of DNA - Riccati generalized solitary wave solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alka, W.; Goyal, Amit; Nagaraja Kumar, C.

    2011-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of DNA, for longitudinal and transverse motions, in the framework of the microscopic model of Peyrard and Bishop. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for dynamics of DNA model, which consists of two long elastic homogeneous strands connected with each other by an elastic membrane, have been solved for solitary wave solution which is further generalized using Riccati parameterized factorization method.

  18. Scattering of SH waves induced by a symmetrical V-shaped canyon: a unified analytical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Gao, Yufeng; Li, Dayong; Wu, Yongxin; Zhang, Fei

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports a series solution of wave functions for two-dimensional scattering and diffraction of plane SH waves induced by a symmetrical V-shaped canyon with different shape ratios. A half-space with a symmetrical V-shaped canyon is divided into two sub-regions by using a circular-arc auxiliary boundary. The two sub-regions are represented by global and local cylindrical coordinate systems, respectively. In each coordinate system, the wave field satisfying the Helmholtz equation is represented by the separation of variables method, in terms of the series of both Bessel functions and Hankel functions with unknown complex coefficients. Then, the two wave fields are described in the local coordinate system using the Graf addition theorem. Finally, the unknown coefficients are sought by satisfying the continuity conditions of the auxiliary boundary. To consider the phase characteristics of the wave scattering, a parametric analysis is carried out in the time domain by assuming an incident signal of the Ricker type. Surface and subsurface transient responses demonstrate the characteristics and mechanisms of wave propagating and scattering.

  19. Local absorbing boundary conditions for nonlinear wave equation on unbounded domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwei; Wu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jiwei

    2011-09-01

    The numerical solution of the nonlinear wave equation on unbounded spatial domain is considered. The artificial boundary method is introduced to reduce the nonlinear problem on unbounded spatial domain to an initial boundary value problem on a bounded domain. Using the unified approach, which is based on the operator splitting method, we construct the efficient nonlinear local absorbing boundary conditions for the nonlinear wave equation, and give the stability analysis of the resulting boundary conditions. Finally, several numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  20. Local Finite-Amplitude Rossby Wave Activity as a Diagnostic for Wave Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. S. Y.; Nakamura, N.

    2014-12-01

    We generalize the zonal-mean finite-amplitude Rossby wave activity proposed by Nakamura and Zhu (2010) by allowing it to be a function of longitude. Its evolution is given by the divergence of the generalized Eliassen-Palm (E-P) flux, which is readily calculable from the wind field in the conservative limit. The relationship with the previously known finite-amplitude wave activity due to Killworth and McIntyre (1985), McIntyre and Shepherd (1987), and Haynes (1988) will be described. We will illustrate with idealized models how local wave activity may be used to define and identify the occurrence of wave breaking events. A preliminary application of the diagnostic to reanalysis products will be demonstrated and compared with previous studies of wave breaking statistics.

  1. Local Solutions for National Challenges? Exploring Local Solutions through the Case of a National Succession Planning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The notion of localism and decentralization in national policy has come increasingly to the fore in recent years. The national succession planning strategy for headteachers in England introduced by the National College for School Leadership promoted "local solutions for a national challenge". This article deals with some aspects of the…

  2. Upgrading the local: Belgian cuisine in global waves.

    PubMed

    Scholliers, Peter; Geyzen, Anneke

    2010-01-01

    This essay touches upon questions about the use of food as an identity marker, the nature of local food, and the influence of foreign food. Since 1830, Belgium witnessed two international food waves that alternated with two local food waves, both opposing as well as using each other's characteristics. In this process, local food was continuously redefined. Belgium reveals a relationship between local and foreign food both in the sense of incorporation and exclusion. Foreign food always influenced local cooking and eating. The opposition between the “self” and the “other” is at times strongly upheld: local food is labeled as “our,” “authentic,” “national,” or “regional” (the “self”) to make the difference with “their,” “artificial,” or “international” (the “other”). This classification of foodways as national/regional is used to forge sentiments of belonging, especially in Belgium where strong separatist political feelings lead to intense regional reactions.

  3. New Traveling Wave Solutions for a Class of Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Cheng-Jie; Zhao, Hong; Xu, Heng-Ying; Zhang, Xia

    The deformation mapping method is extended to solve a class of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). Many types of explicit and exact traveling wave solutions, which contain solitary wave solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and Jacobian elliptic function solutions, are obtained by a simple algebraic transformation relation between the solutions of the NLEEs and those of the cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon (NKG) equation.

  4. Fragment-based configuration interaction wave function to calculate environmental effect on excited states in proteins and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Jun-ya

    2013-05-01

    Solvatochromic effect in proteins and solutions was described by a configuration interaction singles (CIS) wave function with fragment-localized molecular orbitals. Coarse-grained analysis indicated that the CI wave function can be described by local excitations and charge-transfer (CT) excitations between the chromophore and the environment. We developed an atomic-orbital direct runcated CIS code and applied the excited states of retinal chromophore in bacteriorhodopsin and MeOH environments, and those of s-trans-acrolein in water. Number of excitation operators was significantly reduced by eliminating the CT excitations between the environmental fragments. The truncated CIS wave functions reproduced the original excitation energies very well.

  5. Water-wave gap solitons: an approximate theory and numerical solutions of the exact equations of motion.

    PubMed

    Ruban, V P

    2008-12-01

    It is demonstrated that a standard coupled-mode theory can successfully describe weakly nonlinear gravity water waves in Bragg resonance with a periodic one-dimensional topography. Analytical solutions for gap solitons provided by this theory are in reasonable agreement with numerical simulations of the exact equations of motion for ideal planar potential free-surface flows, even for strongly nonlinear waves. In numerical experiments, self-localized groups of nearly standing water waves can exist up to hundreds of wave periods. Generalizations of the model to the three-dimensional case are also derived. PMID:19256946

  6. Solitary and periodic wave solutions of the Majda-Biello system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adem, Abdullahi Rashid

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the exact solutions of the Majda-Biello system. This system describes the nonlinear interaction of long-wavelength equatorial Rossby waves and barotropic Rossby waves with a substantial midlatitude projection, in the presence of suitable horizontally and vertically sheared zonal mean flows. The methods used to construct the exact solutions are the Kudryashov method and Jacobi elliptic function method. These two methods yield solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions.

  7. Accelerating Airy-Gauss-Kummer localized wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi; Huang, Tingwen

    2014-01-01

    A general approach to generating three-dimensional nondiffracting spatiotemporal solutions of the linear Schrödinger equation with an Airy-beam time-dependence is reported. A class of accelerating optical pulses with the structure of Airy-Gauss-Kummer vortex beams is obtained. Our results demonstrate that the optical field contributions to the Airy-Gauss-Kummer accelerating optical wave packets of the cylindrical symmetry can be characterized by the radial and angular mode numbers.

  8. Generation and classification of localized waves by Lorentz transformations in Fourier space.

    PubMed

    Saari, Peeter; Reivelt, Kaido

    2004-03-01

    The Lorentz transformations of propagation-invariant localized waves (also known as nondispersive or nondiffracting or undistorted progressive waves) are studied in the frequency-momentum space. For supports of wave functions in this space rules of transformation are derived which allow one to group all localized waves into distinct classes: subluminal, luminal, and superluminal localized waves. It is shown that for each class there is an inertial frame in which any given localized wave takes a particularly simple form. In other words, any localized wave is nothing but a relativistically aberrant and Doppler shifted version of a simple "seed" wave. Also discussed are the relations of the physical (subluminal) Lorentz tranformation to other mathematical tranformations used in the literature on localized waves, as well as physical interpretation of the substantial changes that localized waves undergo if observed and generated in different inertial frames. PMID:15089435

  9. Local stability analysis for a planar shock wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure to study the local stability of planar shock waves is presented. The procedure is applied to a Rankine-Hugoniot shock in a divergent/convergent nozzle, to an isentropic shock in a divergent/convergent nozzle, and to Rankine-Hugoniot shocks attached to wedges and cones. It is shown that for each case, the equation governing the shock motion is equivalent to the damped harmonic oscillator equation.

  10. Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W

    2011-12-01

    This is the first in a series of papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. The scope of this first paper is much narrower. Here, we demonstrate that atmospheric turbulence can impart non-trivial angular momentum to beams and that this non-trivial angular momentum is highly localized. Furthermore, creation of this angular momentum is a normal part of propagation through atmospheric turbulence. PMID:22273930

  11. Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W

    2011-12-01

    This is the first in a series of papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. The scope of this first paper is much narrower. Here, we demonstrate that atmospheric turbulence can impart non-trivial angular momentum to beams and that this non-trivial angular momentum is highly localized. Furthermore, creation of this angular momentum is a normal part of propagation through atmospheric turbulence.

  12. Travelling Wave Solutions in Multigroup Age-Structured Epidemic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrot, Arnaut; Magal, Pierre; Ruan, Shigui

    2010-01-01

    Age-structured epidemic models have been used to describe either the age of individuals or the age of infection of certain diseases and to determine how these characteristics affect the outcomes and consequences of epidemiological processes. Most results on age-structured epidemic models focus on the existence, uniqueness, and convergence to disease equilibria of solutions. In this paper we investigate the existence of travelling wave solutions in a deterministic age-structured model describing the circulation of a disease within a population of multigroups. Individuals of each group are able to move with a random walk which is modelled by the classical Fickian diffusion and are classified into two subclasses, susceptible and infective. A susceptible individual in a given group can be crisscross infected by direct contact with infective individuals of possibly any group. This process of transmission can depend upon the age of the disease of infected individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide sufficient conditions that ensure the existence of travelling wave solutions for the age-structured epidemic model. The case of two population groups is numerically investigated which applies to the crisscross transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and some sexual transmission diseases.

  13. Shear wave arrival time estimates correlate with local speckle pattern.

    PubMed

    Mcaleavey, Stephen A; Osapoetra, Laurentius O; Langdon, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    We present simulation and phantom studies demonstrating a strong correlation between errors in shear wave arrival time estimates and the lateral position of the local speckle pattern in targets with fully developed speckle. We hypothesize that the observed arrival time variations are largely due to the underlying speckle pattern, and call the effect speckle bias. Arrival time estimation is a key step in quantitative shear wave elastography, performed by tracking tissue motion via cross-correlation of RF ultrasound echoes or similar methods. Variations in scatterer strength and interference of echoes from scatterers within the tracking beam result in an echo that does not necessarily describe the average motion within the beam, but one favoring areas of constructive interference and strong scattering. A swept-receive image, formed by fixing the transmit beam and sweeping the receive aperture over the region of interest, is used to estimate the local speckle pattern. Metrics for the lateral position of the speckle are found to correlate strongly (r > 0.7) with the estimated shear wave arrival times both in simulations and in phantoms. Lateral weighting of the swept-receive pattern improved the correlation between arrival time estimates and speckle position. The simulations indicate that high RF echo correlation does not equate to an accurate shear wave arrival time estimate-a high correlation coefficient indicates that motion is being tracked with high precision, but the location tracked is uncertain within the tracking beam width. The presence of a strong on-axis speckle is seen to imply high RF correlation and low bias. The converse does not appear to be true-highly correlated RF echoes can still produce biased arrival time estimates. The shear wave arrival time bias is relatively stable with variations in shear wave amplitude and sign (-20 μm to 20 μm simulated) compared with the variation with different speckle realizations obtained along a given tracking

  14. Exact Traveling Wave Solutions of a Higher-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonu; Sakthivel, Rathinasamy; Wazzan, Luwai

    The exact traveling wave solutions of (4 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Fokas equation is obtained by using three distinct methods with symbolic computation. The modified tanh-coth method is implemented to obtain single soliton solutions whereas the extended Jacobi elliptic function method is applied to derive doubly periodic wave solutions for this higher-dimensional integrable equation. The Exp-function method gives generalized wave solutions with some free parameters. It is shown that soliton solutions and triangular solutions can be established as the limits of the Jacobi doubly periodic wave solutions.

  15. Nonlinear wave dynamics near phase transition in PT-symmetric localized potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Sean; Yang, Jianke

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear wave propagation in parity-time symmetric localized potentials is investigated analytically near a phase-transition point where a pair of real eigenvalues of the potential coalesce and bifurcate into the complex plane. Necessary conditions for a phase transition to occur are derived based on a generalization of the Krein signature. Using the multi-scale perturbation analysis, a reduced nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) is derived for the amplitude of localized solutions near phase transition. Above the phase transition, this ODE predicts a family of stable solitons not bifurcating from linear (infinitesimal) modes under a certain sign of nonlinearity. In addition, it predicts periodically-oscillating nonlinear modes away from solitons. Under the opposite sign of nonlinearity, it predicts unbounded growth of solutions. Below the phase transition, solution dynamics is predicted as well. All analytical results are compared to direct computations of the full system and good agreement is observed.

  16. Hybrid local FEM/global LISA modeling of guided wave propagation and interaction with damage in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a hybrid modeling technique for the efficient simulation of guided wave propagation and interaction with damage in composite structures. This hybrid approach uses a local finite element model (FEM) to compute the excitability of guided waves generated by piezoelectric transducers, while the global domain wave propagation, wave-damage interaction, and boundary reflections are modeled with the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). A small-size multi-physics FEM with non-reflective boundaries (NRB) was built to obtain the excitability information of guided waves generated by the transmitter. Frequency-domain harmonic analysis was carried out to obtain the solution for all the frequencies of interest. Fourier and inverse Fourier transform and frequency domain convolution techniques are used to obtain the time domain 3-D displacement field underneath the transmitter under an arbitrary excitation. This 3-D displacement field is then fed into the highly efficient time domain LISA simulation module to compute guided wave propagation, interaction with damage, and reflections at structural boundaries. The damping effect of composite materials was considered in the modified LISA formulation. The grids for complex structures were generated using commercial FEM preprocessors and converted to LISA connectivity format. Parallelization of the global LISA solution was achieved through Compute Unified Design Architecture (CUDA) running on Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). The multi-physics local FEM can reliably capture the detailed dimensions and local dynamics of the piezoelectric transducers. The global domain LISA can accurately solve the 3-D elastodynamic wave equations in a highly efficient manner. By combining the local FEM with global LISA, the efficient and accurate simulation of guided wave structural health monitoring procedure is achieved. Two numerical case studies are presented: (1) wave propagation in a unidirectional CFRP composite plate

  17. Modulation of propagation-invariant Localized Waves for FSO communication systems.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed A; Bağcı, Hakan

    2012-07-01

    The novel concept of spatio-temporal modulation of Nyquist pulses is introduced, and the resulting wave-packets are termed Nyquist Localized Waves (LWs). Ideal Nyquist LWs belong to the generic family of LW solutions and can propagate indefinitely in unbounded media without attenuation or chromatic dispersion. The possibility of modulating Nyquist LWs for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems is demonstrated using two different modulation techniques. The first technique is on-off keying (OOK) with alternate mark inversion (AMI) coding for 1-bit per symbol transmission, and the second one is 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) for 4-bits per symbol transmission. Aspects related to the performance, detection and generation of the spatio-temporally coupled wave-packets are discussed and future research directions are outlined.

  18. An analytical solution to separate P-waves and S-waves in the VSP wavefield

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Hiroshi

    1994-12-31

    An analytical solution to separate P-waves and S-waves in the VSP wavefield is derived with combinations of the formal solution of a forward VSP modeling. Some practical applications of this method to synthetic seismograms and field data are investigated and evaluated. Little wave distortion is recognized and the weak wavefield masked by dominant wave trains can be extracted with this method. The decomposed wavefield is expressed in frequency-depth (f-z) domain as a linear combination of up to the third order differential of traces, which is approximated by trace difference sin the practical separation process. In general, five traces with single-component data are required in this process, but the same process is implemented with only three traces in the acoustic case. Two-trace extrapolation is applied to each edge of data gather in order to enhance the accuracy of trace difference. Since the formulas are developed in f-z domain, the influence of anelasticity is taken into account with simplicity and the calculation is carried out fast enough with the benefit of fast Fourier transform (FFT).

  19. WATER CONSERVATION: LOCAL SOLUTIONS TO A GLOBAL PROBLEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water conservation issues are discussed. Local solutions to a global problem include changing old habits relating to the usage and abuse of water resources. While the suggested behavioral changes may not solve the world's pending water crisis, they may ease the impact of the l...

  20. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Christopher D; Grigoriev, Roman O

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals. PMID:26117110

  1. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O.

    2015-06-15

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.

  2. Streamwise-Localized Solutions with natural 1-fold symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Willis, Ashley; Hof, Björn

    2014-11-01

    It has been proposed in recent years that turbulence is organized around unstable invariant solutions, which provide the building blocks of the chaotic dynamics. In direct numerical simulations of pipe flow we show that when imposing a minimal symmetry constraint (reflection in an axial plane only) the formation of turbulence can indeed be explained by dynamical systems concepts. The hypersurface separating laminar from turbulent motion, the edge of turbulence, is spanned by the stable manifolds of an exact invariant solution, a periodic orbit of a spatially localized structure. The turbulent states themselves (turbulent puffs in this case) are shown to arise in a bifurcation sequence from a related localized solution (the upper branch orbit). The rather complex bifurcation sequence involves secondary Hopf bifurcations, frequency locking and a period doubling cascade until eventually turbulent puffs arise. In addition we report preliminary results of the transition sequence for pipe flow without symmetry constraints.

  3. Plane wave holonomies in quantum gravity. II. A sine wave solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Donald E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper constructs an approximate sinusoidal wave packet solution to the equations of canonical gravity. The theory uses holonomy-flux variables with support on a lattice (LHF =lattice-holonomy flux ). There is an SU(2) holonomy on each edge of the LHF simplex, and the goal is to study the behavior of these holonomies under the influence of a passing gravitational wave. The equations are solved in a small sine approximation: holonomies are expanded in powers of sines and terms beyond sin2 are dropped; also, fields vary slowly from vertex to vertex. The wave is unidirectional and linearly polarized. The Hilbert space is spanned by a set of coherent states tailored to the symmetry of the plane wave case. Fixing the spatial diffeomorphisms is equivalent to fixing the spatial interval between vertices of the loop quantum gravity lattice. This spacing can be chosen such that the eigenvalues of the triad operators are large, as required in the small sine limit, even though the holonomies are not large. Appendices compute the energy of the wave, estimate the lifetime of the coherent state packet, discuss circular polarization and coarse-graining, and determine the behavior of the spinors used in the U(N) SHO realization of LQG.

  4. Large-amplitude hydromagnetic waves in collisionless relativistic plasma - Exact solution for the fast-mode magnetoacoustic wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, A.

    1983-01-01

    An exact nonlinear solution is found to the relativistic kinetic and electrodynamic equations (in their hydromagnetic limit) that describes the large-amplitude fast-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagating normal to the magnetic field in a collisionless, previously uniform plasma. It is pointed out that a wave of this kind will be generated by transverse compression of any collisionless plasma. The solution is in essence independent of the detailed form of the particle momentum distribution functions. The solution is obtained, in part, through the method of characteristics; the wave exhibits the familiar properties of steepening and shock formation. A detailed analysis is given of the ultrarelativistic limit of this wave.

  5. Automatic computation of the travelling wave solutions to nonlinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Songxin; Jeffrey, David J.

    2008-05-01

    Various extensions of the tanh-function method and their implementations for finding explicit travelling wave solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) have been reported in the literature. However, some solutions are often missed by these packages. In this paper, a new algorithm and its implementation called TWS for solving single nonlinear PDEs are presented. TWS is implemented in MAPLE 10. It turns out that, for PDEs whose balancing numbers are not positive integers, TWS works much better than existing packages. Furthermore, TWS obtains more solutions than existing packages for most cases. Program summaryProgram title:TWS Catalogue identifier:AEAM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1250 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:78 101 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:Maple 10 Computer:A laptop with 1.6 GHz Pentium CPU Operating system:Windows XP Professional RAM:760 Mbytes Classification:5 Nature of problem:Finding the travelling wave solutions to single nonlinear PDEs. Solution method:Based on tanh-function method. Restrictions:The current version of this package can only deal with single autonomous PDEs or ODEs, not systems of PDEs or ODEs. However, the PDEs can have any finite number of independent space variables in addition to time t. Unusual features:For PDEs whose balancing numbers are not positive integers, TWS works much better than existing packages. Furthermore, TWS obtains more solutions than existing packages for most cases. Additional comments:It is easy to use. Running time:Less than 20 seconds for most cases, between 20 to 100 seconds for some cases, over 100 seconds for few cases. References: [1] E.S. Cheb-Terrab, K. von

  6. An implicit difference scheme for the long-time evolution of localized solutions of a generalized Boussinesq system

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, C.I.; Maugin, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear system of equations built up from a generalized Boussinesq equation coupled with a wave equation which is a model for the one-dimensional dynamics of phases in martensitic alloys. The strongly implicit scheme employing Newton`s quasilinearisation allows us to track the long time evolution of the localized solutions of the system. Two distinct classes of solutions are encountered for the pure Boussinesq equation. The first class consists of oscillatory pulses whose envelopes are localized waves. The second class consists of smoother solutions whose shapes are either heteroclinic (kinks) or homoclinic (bumps). The homoclinics decrease in amplitude with time while their support increases. An appropriate self-similar scaling is found analytically and confirmed by the direct numerical simulations to high accuracy. The rich phenomenology resulting from the coupling with the wave equation is also investigated. 11 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Rogue waves: from nonlinear Schrödinger breather solutions to sea-keeping test.

    PubMed

    Onorato, Miguel; Proment, Davide; Clauss, Günther; Klein, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Under suitable assumptions, the nonlinear dynamics of surface gravity waves can be modeled by the one-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Besides traveling wave solutions like solitons, this model admits also breather solutions that are now considered as prototypes of rogue waves in ocean. We propose a novel technique to study the interaction between waves and ships/structures during extreme ocean conditions using such breather solutions. In particular, we discuss a state of the art sea-keeping test in a 90-meter long wave tank by creating a Peregrine breather solution hitting a scaled chemical tanker and we discuss its potential devastating effects on the ship.

  8. Compacton-like wave and kink-like wave solutions of the generalized KP-MEW (2, 2) equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaoyong; Song, Ming

    2014-03-01

    Using a bifurcation method and a numerical simulation approach of dynamical systems, we study the generalized KP-MEW(2, 2) equation (ut + (u2)x + (u2)xxt)x + uyy = 0. Two types of bounded traveling waves are found, that is, a compacton-like wave and a kink-like wave. The planar graphs of the compacton-like and kink-like waves are simulated using the software Maple. Exact implicit or parameter expressions of these solutions are given.

  9. Localized corrosion of candidate container materials in ferric chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, D L; Lum, B Y; Roy, A K

    1998-10-01

    Localized corrosion behavior of candidate inner and outer container materials of currently-designed nuclear waste package was evaluated in aqueous solutions of various concentrations of ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) at 30 C, 60 C and 90 C using the electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique. Materials tested include A 5 16 carbon steel and high-performance alloys 825, G-3, G-30, C-4, 625. C-22, and Ti Gr-12. A 516 steel suffered from severe general and localized attack including pitting and crevice corrosion. High-nickel alloys 825 and G-3 also became susceptible to severe pitting and crevice corrosion. The extent of localized attack was less pronounced in alloys G-30 and C-4. Alloy 625 experienced severe surface degradation including general corrosion, crevice corrosion and intergranular attack. In contrast, only a slight crevice corrosion tendency was observed with nickel-base alloy C-22 in solutions containing higher concentrations of FeCl{sub 3} at 60 C and 90 C. Ti Gr-12 was immune to localized attack in all tested environments. The test solutions showed significant amount of precipitated particles during and after testing especially at higher temperatures.

  10. Wave propagation in granular chains with local resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanomi, Luca; Theocharis, Georgios; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    We study wave propagation in a chain of spherical particles containing a local resonator. The resonant particles are made of an aluminum outer spherical shell and a steel inner mass connected by a polymeric plastic structure acting as a spring. We characterize the dynamic response of individual particles and the transmitted linear spectra of a chain of particles in contact. A wide band gap is observed both in theoretical and experimental results. We show the ability to tune the acoustic transmission by varying the contact interaction between particles. Higher driving amplitude leads to the generation of nonlinearities both in the response of a single particle and that of the whole chain. For a single resonant particle, we observe experimentally a resonant frequency downshift, which follows a complex nonlinear behavior. In the chain of particles, nonlinearity leads to the generation of nonlinear harmonics and the presence of localized modes inside the band gap.

  11. Surface wave tomography with USArray: Rayleigh wave phase velocity, ellipticity, and local amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Schmandt, B.; Tsai, V. C.

    2012-12-01

    The deployment of the EarthScope/USArray Transportable Array allows detailed empirical study of the surface-wave wavefield on a large scale. In this presentation, we show that three local properties of Rayleigh waves, i.e. phase velocity, ellipticity (or H/V ratio), and local amplification, can be determined across the array in the western US between 24 and 100 sec period based on teleseismic measurements. More than 900 earthquakes are analyzed where phase velocity and local amplification are determined based on empirical phase travel time and amplitude mapping. The three Rayleigh wave properties, which are all sensitive to the 1D structure beneath each location, have very distinct depth sensitivity to Vs, Vp/Vs ratio, and density. Joint inversion of these quantities therefore reduces the trade-off between the three different parameters at different depths. Including the H/V ratio, in particular, allows the uppermost (0-3 km) crustal velocity and density structure to be constrained, and our new results are in excellent agreement with known surface features. Pronounced low Vs, low density, and high Vp/Vs anomalies are imaged in the locations of several major sedimentary basins including the Williston, Powder River, Green River, Denver, and San Juan basins. Preliminary results on the inverted 3D Vs, Vp/Vs ratio, and density structure in the crust and upper mantle will also be discussed. (a)-(c) 30-sec Rayleigh-wave phase velocity, local amplification, and H/V ratio observed across USArray in the western US. The red lines denote the tectonic boundaries and the triangles in (b)-(c) shown the stations used. The thick black lines indicate 3-km sediment contours for several major sedimentary basins (WB: Williston Basin; PR: Powder River Basin; GR: Green River Basin; DB: Denver Basin). (d)-(f) The Vs, density, and Vp/Vs ratio in the uppermost crust (0-3 km) inverted by phase velocity and H/V ratio measurements.

  12. Core solutions of rigidly rotating spiral waves in highly excitable media.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Chun; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Analytical spiral wave solutions for reaction-diffusion equations play an important role in studying spiral wave dynamics. In this paper, we focus on such analytical solutions in the case of highly excitable media. We present numerical evidence that, for rigidly rotating spiral waves in highly excitable media, the species values in the spiral core region do harmonic oscillations but not relaxation ones, and their amplitudes grow linearly with the distance from the rotation center. An analytical solution is proposed to describe such spiral wave dynamics, and the quantitative comparisons between the numerical results and the analytical solutions show that the proposed spiral core solution works well in highly excitable media. PMID:25353558

  13. Localized spatially nonlinear matter waves in atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates with space-modulated nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yu-Qin; Li, Ji; Han, Wei; Wang, Deng-Shan; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic nonlinearity is the most remarkable characteristic of the Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) systems. Many studies have been done on atomic BECs with time- and space- modulated nonlinearities, while there is few work considering the atomic-molecular BECs with space-modulated nonlinearities. Here, we obtain two kinds of Jacobi elliptic solutions and a family of rational solutions of the atomic-molecular BECs with trapping potential and space-modulated nonlinearity and consider the effect of three-body interaction on the localized matter wave solutions. The topological properties of the localized nonlinear matter wave for no coupling are analysed: the parity of nonlinear matter wave functions depends only on the principal quantum number n, and the numbers of the density packets for each quantum state depend on both the principal quantum number n and the secondary quantum number l. When the coupling is not zero, the localized nonlinear matter waves given by the rational function, their topological properties are independent of the principal quantum number n, only depend on the secondary quantum number l. The Raman detuning and the chemical potential can change the number and the shape of the density packets. The stability of the Jacobi elliptic solutions depends on the principal quantum number n, while the stability of the rational solutions depends on the chemical potential and Raman detuning.

  14. Localized spatially nonlinear matter waves in atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensates with space-modulated nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yu-Qin; Li, Ji; Han, Wei; Wang, Deng-Shan; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic nonlinearity is the most remarkable characteristic of the Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) systems. Many studies have been done on atomic BECs with time- and space- modulated nonlinearities, while there is few work considering the atomic-molecular BECs with space-modulated nonlinearities. Here, we obtain two kinds of Jacobi elliptic solutions and a family of rational solutions of the atomic-molecular BECs with trapping potential and space-modulated nonlinearity and consider the effect of three-body interaction on the localized matter wave solutions. The topological properties of the localized nonlinear matter wave for no coupling are analysed: the parity of nonlinear matter wave functions depends only on the principal quantum number n, and the numbers of the density packets for each quantum state depend on both the principal quantum number n and the secondary quantum number l. When the coupling is not zero, the localized nonlinear matter waves given by the rational function, their topological properties are independent of the principal quantum number n, only depend on the secondary quantum number l. The Raman detuning and the chemical potential can change the number and the shape of the density packets. The stability of the Jacobi elliptic solutions depends on the principal quantum number n, while the stability of the rational solutions depends on the chemical potential and Raman detuning. PMID:27403634

  15. Exciton localization in solution-processed organolead trihalide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Haiping; Yu, Qianqian; Li, Hui; Li, Jing; Si, Junjie; Jin, Yizheng; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; He, Jingwen; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhizhen

    2016-03-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskites have attracted great attention due to the stunning advances in both photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. However, the photophysical properties, especially the recombination dynamics of photogenerated carriers, of this class of materials are controversial. Here we report that under an excitation level close to the working regime of solar cells, the recombination of photogenerated carriers in solution-processed methylammonium-lead-halide films is dominated by excitons weakly localized in band tail states. This scenario is evidenced by experiments of spectral-dependent luminescence decay, excitation density-dependent luminescence and frequency-dependent terahertz photoconductivity. The exciton localization effect is found to be general for several solution-processed hybrid perovskite films prepared by different methods. Our results provide insights into the charge transport and recombination mechanism in perovskite films and help to unravel their potential for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  16. Exciton localization in solution-processed organolead trihalide perovskites

    PubMed Central

    He, Haiping; Yu, Qianqian; Li, Hui; Li, Jing; Si, Junjie; Jin, Yizheng; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; He, Jingwen; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskites have attracted great attention due to the stunning advances in both photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. However, the photophysical properties, especially the recombination dynamics of photogenerated carriers, of this class of materials are controversial. Here we report that under an excitation level close to the working regime of solar cells, the recombination of photogenerated carriers in solution-processed methylammonium–lead–halide films is dominated by excitons weakly localized in band tail states. This scenario is evidenced by experiments of spectral-dependent luminescence decay, excitation density-dependent luminescence and frequency-dependent terahertz photoconductivity. The exciton localization effect is found to be general for several solution-processed hybrid perovskite films prepared by different methods. Our results provide insights into the charge transport and recombination mechanism in perovskite films and help to unravel their potential for high-performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:26996605

  17. Global, uniform, asymptotic wave-equation solutions for large wavenumbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klauder, John R.

    1987-11-01

    For each of a large class of linear wave equations-relevant, for example, to very general acoustical or optical propagation problems-we develop within a single expression a global, uniform, asymptotic solution for large wavenumbers (small wavelengths) based on coherentstate transformation techniques. Such techniques effectively separate the configuration-space field into its orientational components, and are thus analogous to a phase-space description of rays by their position and direction. The resultant coherent-state approximation offers distinct advantages over more traditional asymptotic approximations based on direct or Fourier transform techniques. In particular, coherent-state methods lead to an everywhere well-defined approximation independent of the complexity of the caustic structure, independent of whether there are a few or a vast number of relevant rays, or even in shadow regions where no conventional rays exist. For propagation in random media it is shown that coherent-state techniques also offer certain advantages. Approximations are developed for wave equations in an arbitrary number of space dimensions for single component fields as well as multicomponent fields that, for example, can account for backscattering. It is noteworthy that the coherentstate asymptotic approximation should lend itself to numerical studies as well.

  18. Lost in localization: a solution with neuroinformatics 2.0?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Finn Arup

    2009-10-15

    The commentary by Derrfuss and Mar (Derrfuss, J., Mar, R.A., 2009. Lost in localization: The need for a universal coordinate database. NeuroImage, doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.01.053.) discusses some of the limitations of the present databases and calls for a universal coordinate database. Here I discuss further issues and propose another angle to the solution of a universal coordinate database with the use of wiki technology.

  19. A solution scheme for the Euler equations based on a multi-dimensional wave model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Kenneth G.; Barth, Timothy J.; Parpia, Ijaz H.

    1993-01-01

    A scheme for the solution of scalar advection on an unstructured mesh has been developed, tested, and extended to the Euler equations. The scheme preserves a linear function exactly, and yields nearly monotone results. The flux function associated with the Euler scheme is based on a discrete 'wave model' for the system of equations. The wave model decomposes the solution gradient at a location into shear waves, entropy waves and acoustic waves and calculates the speeds, strengths and directions associated with the waves. The approach differs from typical flux-difference splitting schemes in that the waves are not assumed to propagate normal to the faces of the control volumes; directions of propagation of the waves are instead computed from solution-gradient information. Results are shown for three test cases, and two different wave models. The results are compared to those from other approaches, including MUSCL and Galerkin least squares schemes.

  20. Wave interactions and stability of the Riemann solutions for a scalar conservation law with a discontinuous flux function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chun; Sun, Meina

    2013-08-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the interactions of elementary waves for a model of a scalar conservation law with a flux function involving discontinuous coefficients. In order to cover all the situations completely, we take the initial data as three piecewise constant states and the middle region is regarded as the perturbed region with small distance. It is proved that the Riemann solutions are stable under the local small perturbations of the Riemann initial data by letting the perturbed parameter tend to zero. The proof is based on the detailed analysis of the interactions of stationary wave discontinuities with shock waves and rarefaction waves. Moreover, the global structures and large time asymptotic behaviors of the solutions are constructed and analyzed case by case.

  1. Crystallization of Local Anesthetics When Mixed With Corticosteroid Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyeoncheol; Park, Jihong; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Woo Hyung; Leigh, Ja-Ho; Lee, Jin Joo; Chung, Sun G.; Lim, Chaiyoung; Park, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate at which pH level various local anesthetics precipitate, and to confirm which combination of corticosteroid and local anesthetic crystallizes. Methods Each of ropivacaine-HCl, bupivacaine-HCl, and lidocaine-HCl was mixed with 4 different concentrations of NaOH solutions. Also, each of the three local anesthetics was mixed with the same volume of 3 corticosteroid solutions (triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, and betamethasone sodium phosphate). Precipitation of the local anesthetics (or not) was observed, by the naked eye and by microscope. The pH of each solution and the size of the precipitated crystal were measured. Results Alkalinized with NaOH to a certain value of pH, local anesthetics precipitated (ropivacaine pH 6.9, bupivacaine pH 7.7, and lidocaine pH 12.9). Precipitation was observed as a cloudy appearance by the naked eye and as the aggregation of small particles (<10 µm) by microscope. The amount of particles and aggregation increased with increased pH. Mixed with betamethasone sodium phosphate, ropivacaine was precipitated in the form of numerous large crystals (>300 µm, pH 7.5). Ropivacaine with dexamethasone sodium phosphate also precipitated, but it was only observable by microscope (a few crystals of 10–100 µm, pH 7.0). Bupivacaine with betamethasone sodium phosphate formed precipitates of non-aggregated smaller particles (<10 µm, pH 7.7). Lidocaine mixed with corticosteroids did not precipitate. Conclusion Ropivacaine and bupivacaine can precipitate by alkalinization at a physiological pH, and therefore also produce crystals at a physiological pH when they are mixed with betamethasone sodium phosphate. Thus, the potential risk should be noted for their use in interventions, such as epidural steroid injections. PMID:26949665

  2. Monotone waves for non-monotone and non-local monostable reaction-diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimchuk, Elena; Pinto, Manuel; Trofimchuk, Sergei

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new approach for proving existence of monotone wavefronts in non-monotone and non-local monostable diffusive equations. This allows to extend recent results established for the particular case of equations with local delayed reaction. In addition, we demonstrate the uniqueness (modulo translations) of obtained monotone wavefront within the class of all monotone wavefronts (such a kind of conditional uniqueness was recently established for the non-local KPP-Fisher equation by Fang and Zhao). Moreover, we show that if delayed reaction is local then each monotone wavefront is unique (modulo translations) within the class of all non-constant traveling waves. Our approach is based on the construction of suitable fundamental solutions for linear integral-differential equations. We consider two alternative scenarios: in the first one, the fundamental solution is negative (typically holds for the Mackey-Glass diffusive equations) while in the second one, the fundamental solution is non-negative (typically holds for the KPP-Fisher diffusive equations).

  3. Methylparaben concentration in commercial Brazilian local anesthetics solutions

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Gustavo Henrique Rodriguez; BOTTOLI, Carla Beatriz Grespan; GROPPO, Francisco Carlos; VOLPATO, Maria Cristina; RANALI, José; RAMACCIATO, Juliana Cama; MOTTA, Rogério Heládio Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the presence and concentration of methylparaben in cartridges of commercial Brazilian local anesthetics. Material and methods Twelve commercial brands (4 in glass and 8 in plastic cartridges) of local anesthetic solutions for use in dentistry were purchased from the Brazilian market and analyzed. Different lots of the commercial brands were obtained in different Brazilian cities (Piracicaba, Campinas and São Paulo). Separation was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:water (75:25 - v/v), pH 4.5, adjusted with acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1. Results When detected in the solutions, the methylparaben concentration ranged from 0.01% (m/v) to 0.16% (m/v). One glass and all plastic cartridges presented methylparaben. Conclusion 1. Methylparaben concentration varied among solutions from different manufacturers, and it was not indicated in the drug package inserts; 2. Since the presence of methylparaben in dental anesthetics is not regulated by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and this substance could cause allergic reactions, it is important to alert dentists about its possible presence. PMID:23032206

  4. Pretend model of traveling wave solution of two-dimensional K-dV equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Md Rezaul; Alim, Md Abdul; Andallah, Laek Sazzad

    2013-11-01

    Traveling wave resolution of Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) solitary and numerical estimation of analytic solutions have been studied in this paper for imaginary concept. Pretend model of traveling wave deals with giant waves or series of waves created by an undersea earthquake, volcanic eruption or landslide. The concept of traveling wave is frequently used by mariners and in coastal, ocean and naval engineering. We have found some exact traveling wave solutions with relevant physical parameters using new auxiliary equation method introduced by Pang et al. (Appl. Math. Mech-Engl. Ed 31(7):929-936, 2010). We have solved the imaginary part of exact traveling wave equations analytically, and numerical results of time-dependent wave solutions have been presented graphically. This procedure has a potential to be used in more complex system for other types of K-dV equations.

  5. Wave packet spreading and localization in electron-nuclear scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markmann, Andreas; Grabowski*, P. E.; Morozov, I. V.; Valuev, I. A.; Fichtl, C. A.; Batista, V. S.; Graziani, F. R.; Murillo, M. S.; Cimarron Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The wave packet molecular dynamics (WPMD) method solves the time-dependent Schrödinger equation via a variational approximation. Application to high-temperature dense plasmas has yielded diverging electron width (spreading) with diminished electron-nuclear interaction. This was previously ascribed to a shortcoming of WPMD and has been counteracted by heuristic additions to the model. We employ various methods to determine if spreading continues to be predicted. Single electron scattering on a periodic array of statically screened protons is used as a model problem for comparison via the numerically exact split operator Fourier transform method, the Wigner trajectory method, and the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). Within the TDVP, we use as ansätze the standard form of WPMD, a single Gaussian wave packet (WP), as well as the split WP method, a linear combination of Gaussian WPs. Spreading is predicted by all methods, so is not the cause of unphysical diminishing interactions in WPMD. Instead, the Gaussian WP's inability to reproduce breakup of the density into fragments localized near ions is responsible for the deviation between methods. Hence, extensions of WPMD must include a mechanism for breakup. Authors contributed equally.

  6. Localized nonlinear waves on quantized superfluid vortex filaments in the presence of mutual friction and a driving normal fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Rehan; Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the existence of localized structures along quantized vortex filaments in superfluid helium under the quantum form of the local induction approximation (LIA), which includes mutual friction and normal fluid effects. For small magnitude normal fluid velocities, the dynamics are dissipative under mutual friction. On the other hand, when normal fluid velocities are sufficiently large, we observe parametric amplification of the localized disturbances along quantized vortex filaments, akin to the Donnelly-Glaberson instability for regular Kelvin waves. As the waves amplify they will eventually cause breakdown of the LIA assumption (and perhaps the vortex filament itself), and we derive a characteristic time for which this breakdown occurs under our model. More complicated localized waves are shown to occur, and we study these asymptotically and through numerical simulations. Such solutions still exhibit parametric amplification for large enough normal fluid velocities, although this amplification may be less uniform than would be seen for more regular filaments such as those corresponding to helical curves. We find that large rotational velocities or large wave speeds of nonlinear waves along the filaments will result in more regular and stable structures, while small rotational velocities and wave speeds will permit far less regular dynamics.

  7. On periodic wave solutions and asymptotic behaviors to a generalized Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky-Kaup-Kupershmidt equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lian-Li; Tian, Shou-Fu; Yan, Hui; Wang, Li; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a lucid and systematic approach is proposed to systematically study the periodic-wave solutions and asymptotic behaviors of a (2 + 1) -dimensional generalized Konopelchenko-Dubrovsky-Kaup-Kupershmidt (gKDKK) equation, which can be used to describe certain situations from the fluid mechanics, ocean dynamics and plasma physics. Based on Bell's polynomials, the bilinear formalism and N -soliton solution of the gKDKK equation are derived, respectively. Furthermore, based on multidimensional Riemann theta functions, the periodic-wave solutions of the equation are also constructed. Finally, an asymptotic relation between the periodic-wave solutions and soliton solutions are strictly established under a limited procedure.

  8. Traveling Wave Solutions of the Gardner Equation and Motion of Plane Curves Governed by the mKdV Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Vassilev, V. M.; Djondjorov, P. A.; Hadzhilazova, M. Ts.; Mladenov, I. M.

    2011-11-29

    The Gardner equation is well-known in the mathematical literature since the late sixties of 20th century. Initially, it appeared in the context of the construction of local conservation laws admitted by the KdV equation. Later on, the Gardner equation was generalized and found to be applicable in various branches of physics (solid-state and plasma physics, fluid dynamics and quantum field theory). In this paper, we examine the travelling wave solutions of the Gardner equation and derive the full set of solutions to the corresponding reduced equation in terms of Weierstrass and Jacobi elliptic functions. Then, we use the travelling wave solutions of the focusing mKdV equation and obtain in explicit analytic form exact solutions of a special type of plane curve flow, known as the mKdV flow.

  9. Effect of wave localization on plasma instabilities. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levedahl, William Kirk

    1987-01-01

    The Anderson model of wave localization in random media is involved to study the effect of solar wind density turbulence on plasma processes associated with the solar type III radio burst. ISEE-3 satellite data indicate that a possible model for the type III process is the parametric decay of Langmuir waves excited by solar flare electron streams into daughter electromagnetic and ion acoustic waves. The threshold for this instability, however, is much higher than observed Langmuir wave levels because of rapid wave convection of the transverse electromagnetic daughter wave in the case where the solar wind is assumed homogeneous. Langmuir and transverse waves near critical density satisfy the Ioffe-Reigel criteria for wave localization in the solar wind with observed density fluctuations -1 percent. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in random media confirm the localization length predictions of Escande and Souillard for stationary density fluctations. For mobile density fluctuations localized wave packets spread at the propagation velocity of the density fluctuations rather than the group velocity of the waves. Computer simulations using a linearized hybrid code show that an electron beam will excite localized Langmuir waves in a plasma with density turbulence. An action principle approach is used to develop a theory of non-linear wave processes when waves are localized. A theory of resonant particles diffusion by localized waves is developed to explain the saturation of the beam-plasma instability. It is argued that localization of electromagnetic waves will allow the instability threshold to be exceeded for the parametric decay discussed above.

  10. Terahertz transverse-electric- and transverse-magnetic-polarized waves localized on graphene in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averkov, Yu. O.; Yakovenko, V. M.; Yampol'skii, V. A.; Nori, Franco

    2014-07-01

    We predict the coexistence of both transverse-electric- and transverse-magnetic-polarized localized electromagnetic waves that can propagate in the same frequency range along a graphene layer inserted in a photonic crystal. In addition, we studied the excitation of these modes by an external wave and have shown that the resonance peaks of the sample transmissivity should be observed due to the excitation of the localized waves, independently of the polarization of the exciting wave. The simplicity of the derived dispersion relations for the localized modes and the possibility to excite waves of both polarizations provide a method for measuring graphene conductivity.

  11. Inverse scattering transform analysis of rogue waves using local periodization procedure

    PubMed Central

    Randoux, Stéphane; Suret, Pierre; El, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) stands out as the dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation that plays a prominent role in the modeling and understanding of the wave phenomena relevant to many fields of nonlinear physics. The question of random input problems in the one-dimensional and integrable NLSE enters within the framework of integrable turbulence, and the specific question of the formation of rogue waves (RWs) has been recently extensively studied in this context. The determination of exact analytic solutions of the focusing 1D-NLSE prototyping RW events of statistical relevance is now considered as the problem of central importance. Here we address this question from the perspective of the inverse scattering transform (IST) method that relies on the integrable nature of the wave equation. We develop a conceptually new approach to the RW classification in which appropriate, locally coherent structures are specifically isolated from a globally incoherent wave train to be subsequently analyzed by implementing a numerical IST procedure relying on a spatial periodization of the object under consideration. Using this approach we extend the existing classifications of the prototypes of RWs from standard breathers and their collisions to more general nonlinear modes characterized by their nonlinear spectra. PMID:27385164

  12. Inverse scattering transform analysis of rogue waves using local periodization procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randoux, Stéphane; Suret, Pierre; El, Gennady

    2016-07-01

    The nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) stands out as the dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation that plays a prominent role in the modeling and understanding of the wave phenomena relevant to many fields of nonlinear physics. The question of random input problems in the one-dimensional and integrable NLSE enters within the framework of integrable turbulence, and the specific question of the formation of rogue waves (RWs) has been recently extensively studied in this context. The determination of exact analytic solutions of the focusing 1D-NLSE prototyping RW events of statistical relevance is now considered as the problem of central importance. Here we address this question from the perspective of the inverse scattering transform (IST) method that relies on the integrable nature of the wave equation. We develop a conceptually new approach to the RW classification in which appropriate, locally coherent structures are specifically isolated from a globally incoherent wave train to be subsequently analyzed by implementing a numerical IST procedure relying on a spatial periodization of the object under consideration. Using this approach we extend the existing classifications of the prototypes of RWs from standard breathers and their collisions to more general nonlinear modes characterized by their nonlinear spectra.

  13. Exact half-BPS flux solutions in M-theory I local solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Estes, John; Gutperle, Michael; Krym, Darya

    2008-08-01

    The complete eleven-dimensional supergravity solutions with 16 supersymmetries on manifolds of the form AdS3 × S3 × S3 × Σ, with isometry SO(2, 2) × SO(4) × SO(4), and with either AdS4 × S7 or AdS7 × S4 boundary behavior, are obtained in exact form. The two-dimensional parameter space Σ is a Riemann surface with boundary, over which the product space AdS3 × S3 × S3 is warped. By mapping the reduced BPS equations to an integrable system of the sine-Gordon/Liouville type, and then mapping this integrable system onto a linear equation, the general local solutions are constructed explicitly in terms of one harmonic function on Σ, and an integral transform of two further harmonic functions on Σ. The solutions to the BPS equations are shown to automatically solve the Bianchi identities and field equations for the 4-form field, as well as Einstein's equations. The solutions we obtain have non-vanishing 4-form field strength on each of the three factors of AdS3 × S3 × S3, and include fully back-reacted M2-branes in AdS7 × S4 and M5-branes in AdS4 × S7. No interpolating solutions exist with mixed AdS4 × S7 and AdS7 × S4 boundary behavior. Global regularity of these local solutions, as well as the existence of further solutions with neither AdS4 × S7 nor AdS7 × S4 boundary behavior will be studied elsewhere.

  14. Exact Travelling Wave Solutions of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations by Auxiliary Equation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Melike; Akbulut, Arzu; Bekir, Ahmet

    2015-10-01

    The auxiliary equation method presents wide applicability to handling nonlinear wave equations. In this article, we establish new exact travelling wave solutions of the nonlinear Zoomeron equation, coupled Higgs equation, and equal width wave equation. The travelling wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions, and rational functions. It is shown that the proposed method provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear wave equations in mathematical physics and engineering. Throughout the article, all calculations are made with the aid of the Maple packet program.

  15. Numerical solution of Maxwell's Wave Equation in an Axisymmetric Curved Space-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otu, Joseph

    2002-03-01

    Using an exact Weyl metric with a quadrupole moment, a wave equation valid in flat space-time was derived from the covariant Maxwell's equations in curved space-time. The curvature effects are shown to represent a medium with an effective but variable index of refraction. Numerical solution of the wave equation is studied. The solution shows that the wave amplitude is unchanged as the wave propagates into a stronger gravitational field. However, the frequency changes in a way that is consistent with the analytic solution^1, and as predicted by the gravitational red-shift phenomenon. ^1 J. O. Otu, Bull. of the APS, Vol. 44, No. 1, 676(1999).

  16. New Travelling Solitary Wave and Periodic Solutions of the Generalized Kawahara Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Huaitang; Yin Huicheng

    2007-09-06

    A simple elliptic equation method is used for constructing exact trevelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations(PDEs) in a unified way. With the aid of Maple, more new travelling solitary wave and periodic solutions are obtained for the generalized Kawahara equation.

  17. Dynamic aspects of apparent attenuation and wave localization in layered media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, M.M.; Van Wijk, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present a theory for multiply-scattered waves in layered media which takes into account wave interference. The inclusion of interference in the theory leads to a new description of the phenomenon of wave localization and its impact on the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. We use the theory to estimate the localization length at a CO2 sequestration site in New Mexico at sonic frequencies (2 kHz) by performing numerical simulations with a model taken from well logs. Near this frequency, we find a localization length of roughly 180 m, leading to a localization-induced quality factor Q of 360.

  18. Trapping and instability of directional gravity waves in localized water currents.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, B; Haas, F

    2014-06-01

    The influence of localized water currents on the nonlinear dynamics and stability of large amplitude, statistically distributed gravity waves is investigated theoretically and numerically by means of an evolution equation for a Wigner function governing the spectrum of waves. It is shown that water waves propagating in the opposite direction of a localized current channel can be trapped in the channel, which can lead to the amplification of the wave intensity. Under certain conditions the wave intensity can be further localized due to a self-focusing (Benjamin-Feir) instability. The localized amplification of the wave intensity may increase the probability of extreme events in the form of freak waves, which have been observed in connection with ocean currents.

  19. Trapping and instability of directional gravity waves in localized water currents.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, B; Haas, F

    2014-06-01

    The influence of localized water currents on the nonlinear dynamics and stability of large amplitude, statistically distributed gravity waves is investigated theoretically and numerically by means of an evolution equation for a Wigner function governing the spectrum of waves. It is shown that water waves propagating in the opposite direction of a localized current channel can be trapped in the channel, which can lead to the amplification of the wave intensity. Under certain conditions the wave intensity can be further localized due to a self-focusing (Benjamin-Feir) instability. The localized amplification of the wave intensity may increase the probability of extreme events in the form of freak waves, which have been observed in connection with ocean currents. PMID:25019886

  20. Remarks on the asymptotic behavior of the solution to damped wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Hisashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the diffusion phenomena for damped wave equations. We prove that the solution of an abstract damped wave equation becomes closer to the solution of a heat type equation as time tends to infinity under some assumption to the resolvent. As an application of our approach, we also study the asymptotic behavior of the damped wave equation in Euclidean space under the geometric control condition.

  1. Steady-state solutions for relativistically strong electromagnetic waves in plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    New steady-state solutions are derived which describe electromagnetic waves strong enough to make plasma ions and electrons relativistic. A two-fluid model is used throughout. The following solutions are studied: (1) linearly polarized waves with phase velocity much greater than c; (2) arbitrarily polarized waves with phase velocity near c, in a cold uniform plasma; (3) circularly polarized waves in a uniform plasma characterized by a scalar pressure tensor. All of these waves are capable of propagating in normally overdense plasmas, due to nonlinearities introduced by relativistic effects. The propagation of relativistically strong waves in a density gradient is examined, for the example of a circularly polarized wave strong enough to make electrons but not ions relativistic. It is shown that such a wave propagates at constant energy flux despite the nonlinearity of the system.

  2. Weighted-Residual Methods for the Solution of Two-Particle Lippmann-Schwinger Equation Without Partial-Wave Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuruoğlu, Zeki C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in computational methods for quantum scattering equations that avoid the traditional decomposition of wave functions and scattering amplitudes into partial waves. The aim of the present work is to show that the weighted-residual approach in combination with local basis functions give rise to convenient computational schemes for the solution of the multi-variable integral equations without the partial wave expansion. The weighted-residual approach provides a unifying framework for various variational and degenerate-kernel methods for integral equations of scattering theory. Using a direct-product basis of localized quadratic interpolation polynomials, Galerkin, collocation and Schwinger variational realizations of the weighted-residual approach have been implemented for a model potential. It is demonstrated that, for a given expansion basis, Schwinger variational method exhibits better convergence with basis size than Galerkin and collocation methods. A novel hybrid-collocation method is implemented with promising results as well.

  3. Travelling wave solutions for some two-component shallow water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutykh, Denys; Ionescu-Kruse, Delia

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we perform a unified analysis of travelling wave solutions to three different two-component systems which appear in shallow water theory. Namely, we analyze the celebrated Green-Naghdi equations, the integrable two-component Camassa-Holm equations and a new two-component system of Green-Naghdi type. In particular, we are interested in solitary and cnoidal-type solutions, as two most important classes of travelling waves that we encounter in applications. We provide a complete phase-plane analysis of all possible travelling wave solutions which may arise in these models. In particular, we show the existence of new type of solutions.

  4. A new class of exact solutions with shock waves in gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poslavskii, S. A.

    1985-10-01

    New exact solutions are obtained for one-dimensional gasdynamic equations with strong shock waves propagating in a moving medium, with gas flow behind the shock wave described by a solution with uniform deformation. Solutions are then presented for a problem concerning explosion without counterpressure in a uniformly expanding (contracting) gas with an arbitrary adiabatic exponent and a nonuniform initial density distribution. A solution is also presented for the problem of cavity collapse in a dust cloud with the formation of a shock wave.

  5. Numerical study of wave effects on groundwater flow and solute transport in a laboratory beach.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C; Xia, Yuqiang; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Lin; Jackson, Nancy L; Miller, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    A numerical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of waves on groundwater flow and associated inland-released solute transport based on tracer experiments in a laboratory beach. The MARUN model was used to simulate the density-dependent groundwater flow and subsurface solute transport in the saturated and unsaturated regions of the beach subjected to waves. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, Fluent, was used to simulate waves, which were the seaward boundary condition for MARUN. A no-wave case was also simulated for comparison. Simulation results matched the observed water table and concentration at numerous locations. The results revealed that waves generated seawater-groundwater circulations in the swash and surf zones of the beach, which induced a large seawater-groundwater exchange across the beach face. In comparison to the no-wave case, waves significantly increased the residence time and spreading of inland-applied solutes in the beach. Waves also altered solute pathways and shifted the solute discharge zone further seaward. Residence Time Maps (RTM) revealed that the wave-induced residence time of the inland-applied solutes was largest near the solute exit zone to the sea. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the change in the permeability in the beach altered solute transport properties in a nonlinear way. Due to the slow movement of solutes in the unsaturated zone, the mass of the solute in the unsaturated zone, which reached up to 10% of the total mass in some cases, constituted a continuous slow release of solutes to the saturated zone of the beach. This means of control was not addressed in prior studies.

  6. Travelling waves and fold localization in hovercraft seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Andrew; Zalek, Steve; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steve

    2013-11-01

    The seal system on hovercraft consists of a series of open-ended fabric cylinders that contact the free surface and, when inflated, form a compliant pressure barrier. Due to a shortening constraint imposed by neighboring seals, bow seals operate in a post-buckled state. We present results from large-scale experiments on these structures. These experiment show the hydroelastic response of seals to be characterized by striking stable and unstable post-buckling behavior. Using detailed 3-d measurements of the deformed seal shape, dominant response regimes are identified. These indicate that mode number decreases with wetted length, and that the form of the buckling packet becomes localized with increased velocity and decreased bending stiffness. Eventually, at a critical pressure, travelling waves emerge. To interpret the wide range of observed behavior, a 2-d nonlinear post-buckling model is developed and compared with the experimental studies. The model shows the importance of seal shortening and the buckling length, which is driven by the balance of hydrodynamic and bending energies. Preliminary scaling laws for the fold amplitude and mode number are presented. The experiments may ultimately provide insight into the bedeviling problem of seal wear. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research under grant N00014-10-1-0302, Ms. Kelly B. Cooper, program manager.

  7. Young-Measure Solutions for a Viscoelastically Damped Wave Equation with Nonmonotone Stress-Strain Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theil, Florian

    We study the viscoelastically damped wave equation \\ddot u =\\pl_x \\( \\sigma(\\pl_x u) + \\beta \\pl_x \\dot u\\) - \\alpha u, \\quad \\alpha \\geq 0, \\beta > 0,; x \\in (0,1) with a nonmonotone stress-strain relation σ. This system describes the dynamics of phase transitions, which is closely related to the creation of microstructures. In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of microstructures we consider highly oscillatory initial states. Two questions are addressed in this work: How do oscillations propagate in space and time? What can be said about the long-time behavior? An appropriate tool to deal with oscillations are Young measures. They describe the local distribution or one-point statistics of a sequence of fast fluctuating functions. We demonstrate that highly oscillatory initial states generate in a unique fashion an evolution in the space of Young measures and we derive the determining equations. Further on we prove a generalized dissipation identity for Young-measure solutions. As a consequence, it is shown that every low-energy solution converges to a Young-measure equilibrium as t-->∞. This is a generalization of G. Friesecke's & J. B. McLeod's [FM96] convergence result for classical solutions to the case of Young-measure solutions.

  8. Analytical solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model in photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Kominis, Y

    2006-06-01

    A phase space method is employed for the construction of analytical solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model in a photonic structure. This class of solutions is obtained under quite generic conditions, while the method is applicable to a large variety of systems. The location of the solutions on the spectral band gap structure as well as on the low dimensional space of system's conserved quantities is studied, and robust solitary wave propagation is shown.

  9. New solitary wave solutions of some nonlinear evolution equations with distinct physical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, Rathinasamy; Chun, Changbum

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we obtain solitary wave solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations. The Exp-function method is used to establish solitary wave solutions for Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff and general modified Degasperis-Procesi and Camassa-Holm equations. The result shows that the Exp-function method yields new and more general solutions. Moreover, this method with the aid of symbolic computation provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics.

  10. The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources. I - General asymptotic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, William

    1989-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic wave emission from several localized, periodic, kinematically specified fluid velocity fields are calculated using Lighthill's method for finding the far-field wave forms. The waves propagate through an isothermal and uniform plasma with a constant B field. General properties of the energy flux are illustrated with models of pulsating flux tubes and convective rolls. Interference theory from geometrical optics is used to find the direction of minimum fast-wave emission from multipole sources and slow-wave emission from discontinuous sources. The distribution of total flux in fast and slow waves varies with the ratios of the source dimensions l to the acoustic and Alfven wavelengths.

  11. Localized numerical impulse solutions in diffuse neural networks modeled by the complex fractional Ginzburg-Landau equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mvogo, Alain; Tambue, Antoine; Ben-Bolie, Germain H.; Kofané, Timoléon C.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate localized wave solutions in a network of Hindmarsh-Rose neural model taking into account the long-range diffusive couplings. We show by a specific analytical technique that the model equations in the infrared limit (wave number k → 0) can be governed by the complex fractional Ginzburg-Landau (CFGL) equation. According to the stiffness of the system, we propose both the semi and the linearly implicit Riesz fractional finite-difference schemes to solve efficiently the CFGL equation. The obtained fractional numerical solutions for the nerve impulse reveal localized short impulse properties. We also show the equivalence between the continuous CFGL and the discrete Hindmarsh-Rose models for relatively large network.

  12. Rod transduction parameters from the a wave of local receptor populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinowitz, Steven; Hood, Donald C.; Birch, David G.

    1995-10-01

    The analysis of electroretinogram a waves from locally stimulated populations of rods is complicated by the presence of scattered light within the eye. Scattered-light and cone contributions can be assessed after brief flashes of light designed to saturate only rods in the locally stimulated area. Subtracting the scattered-light and the cone responses from the local electroretinogram gives a pure rod a wave that can be fitted with models of photoreceptor activity. We demonstrate the feasibility of this technique by recording local rod a waves from a group of five normal subjects and by fitting the a waves with the rod model to derive transduction parameters. The local rod a waves are compared with expected responses derived from simulations in which the response of the entire retina to heterogeneous illumination is mimicked. electroretinography, rods, scattered light.

  13. Accessing Extreme Spatiotemporal Localization of High-Power Laser Radiation through Transformation Optics and Scalar Wave Equations.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V Yu; Chanal, M; Grojo, D; Tzortzakis, S

    2016-07-22

    Although tightly focused intense ultrashort laser pulses are used in many applications from nano-processing to warm dense matter physics, their nonparaxial propagation implies the use of numerical simulations with vectorial wave equations or exact Maxwell solvers that have serious limitations and thus have hindered progress in this important field up to now. Here we present an elegant and robust solution that allows one to map the problem on one that can be addressed by simple scalar wave equations. The solution is based on a transformation optics approach and its validity is demonstrated in both the linear and the nonlinear regime. Our solution allows accessing challenging problems of extreme spatiotemporal localization of high power laser radiation that remain almost unexplored theoretically until now. PMID:27494473

  14. Accessing Extreme Spatiotemporal Localization of High-Power Laser Radiation through Transformation Optics and Scalar Wave Equations.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V Yu; Chanal, M; Grojo, D; Tzortzakis, S

    2016-07-22

    Although tightly focused intense ultrashort laser pulses are used in many applications from nano-processing to warm dense matter physics, their nonparaxial propagation implies the use of numerical simulations with vectorial wave equations or exact Maxwell solvers that have serious limitations and thus have hindered progress in this important field up to now. Here we present an elegant and robust solution that allows one to map the problem on one that can be addressed by simple scalar wave equations. The solution is based on a transformation optics approach and its validity is demonstrated in both the linear and the nonlinear regime. Our solution allows accessing challenging problems of extreme spatiotemporal localization of high power laser radiation that remain almost unexplored theoretically until now.

  15. Accessing Extreme Spatiotemporal Localization of High-Power Laser Radiation through Transformation Optics and Scalar Wave Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V. Yu.; Chanal, M.; Grojo, D.; Tzortzakis, S.

    2016-07-01

    Although tightly focused intense ultrashort laser pulses are used in many applications from nano-processing to warm dense matter physics, their nonparaxial propagation implies the use of numerical simulations with vectorial wave equations or exact Maxwell solvers that have serious limitations and thus have hindered progress in this important field up to now. Here we present an elegant and robust solution that allows one to map the problem on one that can be addressed by simple scalar wave equations. The solution is based on a transformation optics approach and its validity is demonstrated in both the linear and the nonlinear regime. Our solution allows accessing challenging problems of extreme spatiotemporal localization of high power laser radiation that remain almost unexplored theoretically until now.

  16. Non-one-dimensional self-similar solutions with plane waves in gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poslavskii, S. A.; Shikin, I. S.

    1986-02-01

    A set of new exact self-similar solutions describing the non-one-dimensional adiabatic motions of an ideal gas with plane waves is presented. The solutions include homogeneous gas expansion in planes perpendicular to the direction of the principal motion. It is shown that for such solutions, the system of gasdynamic equations is reduced to a system of ordinary differental equations.

  17. Solitary-Wave and Periodic Solutions of the Kuramoto-Velarde Dispersive Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenov, Ognyan Y.

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, solitary solutions of the Kuramoto- Velarde (K-V) dispersive equation have been found, using the deformation and mapping approach. These exact solutions show the dynamics and the evolution of dispersive solitary waves. In the case α2 = α3, three families of exact periodic solutions have been obtained by employing the bilinear transformation method.

  18. Spherical Wave Propagation in a Poroelastic Medium with Infinite Permeability: Time Domain Solution

    PubMed Central

    Ozyazicioglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Exact time domain solutions for displacement and porepressure are derived for waves emanating from a pressurized spherical cavity, in an infinitely permeable poroelastic medium with a permeable boundary. Cases for blast and exponentially decaying step pulse loadings are considered; letter case, in the limit as decay constant goes to zero, also covers the step (uniform) pressure. Solutions clearly show the propagation of the second (slow) p-wave. Furthermore, Biot modulus Q is shown to have a pronounced influence on wave propagation characteristics in poroelastic media. Results are compared with solutions in classical elasticity theory. PMID:24701190

  19. Spherical wave propagation in a poroelastic medium with infinite permeability: time domain solution.

    PubMed

    Ozyazicioglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Exact time domain solutions for displacement and porepressure are derived for waves emanating from a pressurized spherical cavity, in an infinitely permeable poroelastic medium with a permeable boundary. Cases for blast and exponentially decaying step pulse loadings are considered; letter case, in the limit as decay constant goes to zero, also covers the step (uniform) pressure. Solutions clearly show the propagation of the second (slow) p-wave. Furthermore, Biot modulus Q is shown to have a pronounced influence on wave propagation characteristics in poroelastic media. Results are compared with solutions in classical elasticity theory.

  20. Joint analysis of refractions with surface waves: An inverse solution to the refraction-traveltime problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a possible solution to the inverse refraction-traveltime problem (IRTP) that reduces the range of possible solutions (nonuniqueness). This approach uses a reference model, derived from surface-wave shear-wave velocity estimates, as a constraint. The application of the joint analysis of refractions with surface waves (JARS) method provided a more realistic solution than the conventional refraction/tomography methods, which did not benefit from a reference model derived from real data. This confirmed our conclusion that the proposed method is an advancement in the IRTP analysis. The unique basic principles of the JARS method might be applicable to other inverse geophysical problems. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  1. Exact Travelling Wave Solutions of the Schamel-Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonu; Sakthivel, Rathinasamy

    2011-12-01

    The Schamel-Korteweg-de Vries (S-KdV) equation containing a square root nonlinearity is a very attractive model for the study of ion-acoustic waves in plasma and dusty plasma. In this work, we obtain exact travelling wave solutions of the S-KdV equation by employing the exp function method. In general, the exact travelling wave solutions will be helpful in the theoretical and numerical study of the nonlinear evolution equations. The work emphasizes the power of the method in providing distinct solutions of different physical problems.

  2. Spherical wave propagation in a poroelastic medium with infinite permeability: time domain solution.

    PubMed

    Ozyazicioglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Exact time domain solutions for displacement and porepressure are derived for waves emanating from a pressurized spherical cavity, in an infinitely permeable poroelastic medium with a permeable boundary. Cases for blast and exponentially decaying step pulse loadings are considered; letter case, in the limit as decay constant goes to zero, also covers the step (uniform) pressure. Solutions clearly show the propagation of the second (slow) p-wave. Furthermore, Biot modulus Q is shown to have a pronounced influence on wave propagation characteristics in poroelastic media. Results are compared with solutions in classical elasticity theory. PMID:24701190

  3. Atom localization in a Doppler broadened medium via two standing-wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-Elnabi, Somia; Osman, Kariman I.

    2016-01-01

    The atom localization has been achieved in a four-level V-type atomic system interacting with two classical unidirectional standing-wave fields and weak probe field in a Doppler broadened medium under several conditions at very low temperature. The precision of the atom localization is compared with the system in the presence and absence of the Doppler broadened medium. The influence of some parameters such as the amplitude, wave vectors and the phase shift of the standing-wave fields on the atom localization is studied and has been found to obtain various atom localization patterns with symmetric shape.

  4. Fingering patterns in Hele-Shaw flows are density shock wave solutions of dispersionless KdV hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    Teodorescu, Razvan; Lee, S - Y; Wiegmann, P

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamics of a Hele-Shaw flow as the free boundary evolves from smooth initial conditions into a generic cusp singularity (of local geometry type x{sup 3} {approx} y{sup 2}), and then into a density shock wave. This novel solution preserves the integrability of the dynamics and, unlike all the weak solutions proposed previously, is not underdetermined. The evolution of the shock is such that the net vorticity remains zero, as before the critical time, and the shock can be interpreted as a singular line distribution of fluid deficit.

  5. Mathieu function solutions for photoacoustic waves in sinusoidal one-dimensional structures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binbin; Diebold, Gerald J

    2012-07-01

    The photoacoustic effect for a one-dimensional structure, the sound speed of which varies sinusoidally in space, is shown to be governed by an inhomogeneous Mathieu equation with the forcing term dependent on the spatial and temporal properties of the exciting optical radiation. New orthogonality relations, traveling wave Mathieu functions, and solutions to the inhomogeneous Mathieu equation are found, which are used to determine the character of photoacoustic waves in infinite and finite length phononic structures. Floquet solutions to the Mathieu equation give the positions of the band gaps, the damping of the acoustic waves within the band gaps, and the dispersion relation for photoacoustic waves. The solutions to the Mathieu equation give the photoacoustic response of the structure, show the space equivalent of subharmonic generation and acoustic confinement when waves are excited within band gaps.

  6. L2-stability of traveling wave solutions to nonlocal evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Eva; Stannat, Wilhelm

    2016-10-01

    Stability of the traveling wave solution to a general class of one-dimensional nonlocal evolution equations is studied in L2-spaces, thereby providing an alternative approach to the usual spectral analysis with respect to the supremum norm. We prove that the linearization around the traveling wave solution satisfies a Lyapunov-type stability condition in a weighted space L2 (ρ) for a naturally associated density ρ. The result can be applied to obtain stability of the traveling wave solution under stochastic perturbations of additive or multiplicative type. For small wave speeds, we also prove an alternative Lyapunov-type stability condition in L2 (m), where m is the symmetrizing density for the traveling wave operator, which allows to derive a long-term stochastic stability result.

  7. Localization of ultra-low frequency waves in multi-ion plasmas of the planetary magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun -Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong -Hun

    2015-01-01

    By adopting a 2D time-dependent wave code, we investigate how mode-converted waves at the Ion-Ion Hybrid (IIH) resonance and compressional waves propagate in 2D density structures with a wide range of field-aligned wavenumbers to background magnetic fields. The simulation results show that the mode-converted waves have continuous bands across the field line consistent with previous numerical studies. These waves also have harmonic structures in frequency domain and are localized in the field-aligned heavy ion density well. Lastly, our results thus emphasize the importance of a field-aligned heavy ion density structure for ultra-low frequency wave propagation, and suggest that IIH waves can be localized in different locations along the field line.

  8. Nonlinear wave solutions of the three-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers equation in dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seadawy, Aly R.

    2015-12-01

    The propagation of dust-ion-acoustic waves with high-energy electrons and positrons in three-dimensional is considered. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers (ZKB) equations for the dust-ion-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas is obtained. The conservations laws and integrals of motion for the ZKB equation are deduced. In the present study, by applying the modified direct algebraic method, we found the electric field potential, electric field and quantum statistical pressure in form water wave solutions for three-dimensional ZKB equation. The solutions for the ZKB equation are obtained precisely and efficiency of the method can be demonstrated. The stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making the graphs of the exact solutions are discussed and analyzed.

  9. Local measures of intermolecular free energies in solution.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ching-Ling; Martini, Silvia; Bryant, Robert G

    2004-11-24

    Proton spin-lattice relaxation rate changes induced by freely diffusing oxygen in aqueous and mixed solvents are reported for representative amino acids and glucose. The local oxygen concentration at each spectrally resolved proton was deduced from the paramagnetic contribution to the relaxation rate. The measured relaxation increment is compared to that of the force-free diffusion relaxation model, and the differences are related to a free energy for the oxygen association with different portions of the solute molecules. The free energy differences are small, on the order of -800 to -2000 J/mol, but are uniformly negative for all proton positions measured on the amino acids in water and reflect the energetic benefit of weak association of hydrophobic cosolutes. For glucose, CH proton positions report negative free energies for oxygen association, the magnitude of which depends on the solvent; however, the hydroxyl positions report positive free energy differences relative to the force-free diffusion model, which is consistent with partial occupancy in the OH region by a solvent hydrogen bond. PMID:15548022

  10. Local Existence of Solutions of Self Gravitating Relativistic Perfect Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Uwe; Karp, Lavi

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the evolution of the Einstein gravitational fields which are coupled to a perfect fluid. We consider the Einstein-Euler system in asymptotically flat spacestimes and therefore use the condition that the energy density might vanish or tend to zero at infinity, and that the pressure is a fractional power of the energy density. In this setting we prove local in time existence, uniqueness and well-posedness of classical solutions. The zero order term of our system contains an expression which might not be a C ∞ function and therefore causes an additional technical difficulty. In order to achieve our goals we use a certain type of weighted Sobolev space of fractional order. In Brauer and Karp (J Diff Eqs 251:1428-1446, 2011) we constructed an initial data set for these of systems in the same type of weighted Sobolev spaces. We obtain the same lower bound for the regularity as Hughes et al. (Arch Ratl Mech Anal 63(3):273-294, 1977) got for the vacuum Einstein equations. However, due to the presence of an equation of state with fractional power, the regularity is bounded from above.

  11. Wave-front sensing by use of a Green's function solution to the intensity transport equation.

    PubMed

    Woods, Simon C; Greenaway, Alan H

    2003-03-01

    A method for reconstructing an unknown wave front from measurements of its intensity distribution on two planes along the direction of propagation is described. The method solves the intensity transport equation by use of Neumann boundary conditions, leading to a solution that requires only matrix multiplication. The method provides real-time wave-front reconstruction with high accuracy and is easily reposed to permit reconstruction of the wave front in any orthonormal basis set. PMID:12630836

  12. Trapping and amplification of quasi-longitudinal whistler wave in kinetic Alfvén wave localized structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Swati; Gaur, Nidhi; Sharma, R. P.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have studied the trapping of obliquely propagating (with respect to the ambient magnetic field) weak whistler wave due to inhomogeneity created by 3D kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) in a magnetized plasma (magnetotail region). The nonlinearity arises due to ponderomotive effects associated with 3D KAW, consequently, the background density gets modified. The weak whistler wave propagating in this modified density gets either trapped or localized. The study has been carried out numerically and semi-analytically. The semi-analytical analysis show that the typical scale size of localized 3D KAW is of the order of ion gyroradius and that of the trapped whistler is even less than that. The relevance of the results is also pointed out in the context of the recent CLUSTER observations in magnetized plasmas where whistler waves have been detected along with coherent ion-scale magnetic structures.

  13. Existence of both s and d-wave solutions of Eliashberg equations

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, G.; Jarlborg, T.; Peter, M.

    1995-08-01

    The authors solve Eliashberg equations in the case of strong anisotropic electron-phonon coupling and low energy cutoff. In a simplified model representing the Fermi Surface of (CuO{sub 2}){sub n} planes, they exhibit a d-wave solution as well as a generalized s-wave one.

  14. Using local operator fluctuations to identify wave function improvements.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kiel T; Wagner, Lucas K

    2016-07-01

    A method is developed that allows analysis of quantum Monte Carlo simulations to identify errors in trial wave functions. The purpose of this method is to allow for the systematic improvement of variational wave functions by identifying degrees of freedom that are not well described by an initial trial state. We provide proof of concept implementations of this method by identifying the need for a Jastrow correlation factor and implementing a selected multideterminant wave function algorithm for small dimers that systematically decreases the variational energy. Selection of the two-particle excitations is done using the quantum Monte Carlo method within the presence of a Jastrow correlation factor and without the need to explicitly construct the determinants. We also show how this technique can be used to design compact wave functions for transition metal systems. This method may provide a route to analyze and systematically improve descriptions of complex quantum systems in a scalable way. PMID:27575232

  15. Experimental signatures of localization in Langmuir wave turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, H.A.; DuBois, D.F.; Russell, D.; Bezzerides, B.

    1988-01-01

    Features in certain laser-plasma and ionospheric experiments are identified with the basic properties of Langmuir wave turbulence. Also, a model of caviton nucleation is presented which leads to certain novel scaling predictions. 12 refs., 19 figs.

  16. Numerical modelling of wave current interactions at a local scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles, Maria João; Pires-Silva, António A.; Benoit, Michel

    2013-08-01

    The present work is focused on the evaluation of wave-current interactions through numerical simulations of combined wave and current flows with the Code_Saturne (Archambeau et al., 2004), an advanced CFD solver based on the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) equations. The objectives of this paper are twofold. Firstly, changes in the mean horizontal velocity and the horizontal-velocity amplitude profiles are studied when waves are superposed on currents. The influence of various first and second order turbulence closure models is addressed. The results of the numerical simulations are compared to the experimental data of Klopman (1994) and Umeyama (2005). Secondly, a more detailed study of the shear stresses and the turbulence viscosity vertical profile changes is also pursued when waves and currents interact. This analysis is completed using the data from Umeyama (2005). A relationship between a non-dimensional parameter involving the turbulence viscosity and the Ursell number is subsequently proposed.

  17. Using local operator fluctuations to identify wave function improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kiel T.; Wagner, Lucas K.

    2016-07-01

    A method is developed that allows analysis of quantum Monte Carlo simulations to identify errors in trial wave functions. The purpose of this method is to allow for the systematic improvement of variational wave functions by identifying degrees of freedom that are not well described by an initial trial state. We provide proof of concept implementations of this method by identifying the need for a Jastrow correlation factor and implementing a selected multideterminant wave function algorithm for small dimers that systematically decreases the variational energy. Selection of the two-particle excitations is done using the quantum Monte Carlo method within the presence of a Jastrow correlation factor and without the need to explicitly construct the determinants. We also show how this technique can be used to design compact wave functions for transition metal systems. This method may provide a route to analyze and systematically improve descriptions of complex quantum systems in a scalable way.

  18. On the Stability of Self-Similar Solutions to Nonlinear Wave Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costin, Ovidiu; Donninger, Roland; Glogić, Irfan; Huang, Min

    2016-04-01

    We consider an explicit self-similar solution to an energy-supercritical Yang-Mills equation and prove its mode stability. Based on earlier work by one of the authors, we obtain a fully rigorous proof of the nonlinear stability of the self-similar blowup profile. This is a large-data result for a supercritical wave equation. Our method is broadly applicable and provides a general approach to stability problems related to self-similar solutions of nonlinear wave equations.

  19. Exact solutions for two nonlinear wave equations with nonlinear terms of any order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Li, Biao; Zhang, Hongqing

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, based on a variable-coefficient balancing-act method, by means of an appropriate transformation and with the help of Mathematica, we obtain some new types of solitary-wave solutions to the generalized Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM) equation and the generalized Burgers-Fisher (BF) equation with nonlinear terms of any order. These solutions fully cover the various solitary waves of BBM equation and BF equation previously reported.

  20. Are There Optical Solitary Wave Solutions in Linear Media with Group Velocity Dispersion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhonghao; Zhou, Guosheng

    1996-01-01

    A generalized exact optical bright solitary wave solution in a three dimensional dispersive linear medium is presented. The most interesting property of the solution is that it can exist in the normal group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) region. In addition, another peculiar feature is that it may achieve a condition of 'zero-dispersion' to the media so that a solitary wave of arbitrarily small amplitude may be propagated with no dependence on is pulse width.

  1. Nonlocal Symmetries, Explicit Solutions, and Wave Structures for the Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zheng-Yi; Fei, Jin-Xi

    2016-08-01

    From the known Lax pair of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the Lie symmetry group method is successfully applied to find exact invariant solutions for the KdV equation with nonlocal symmetries by introducing two suitable auxiliary variables. Meanwhile, based on the prolonged system, the explicit analytic interaction solutions related to the hyperbolic and Jacobi elliptic functions are derived. Figures show the physical interaction between the cnoidal waves and a solitary wave.

  2. Translation of waves along quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2015-09-15

    In a recent paper, we give a study of the purely rotational motion of general stationary states in the two-dimensional local induction approximation (2D-LIA) governing superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit [B. Svistunov, “Superfluid turbulence in the low-temperature limit,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3647 (1995)]. Such results demonstrated that variety of stationary configurations are possible from vortex filaments exhibiting purely rotational motion in addition to commonly discussed configurations such as helical or planar states. However, the filaments (or, more properly, waves along these filaments) can also exhibit translational motion along the axis of orientation. In contrast to the study on vortex configurations for purely rotational stationary states, the present paper considers non-stationary states which exhibit a combination of rotation and translational motions. These solutions can essentially be described as waves or disturbances which ride along straight vortex filament lines. As expected from our previous work, there are a number of types of structures that can be obtained under the 2D-LIA. We focus on non-stationary states, as stationary states exhibiting translation will essentially take the form of solutions studied in [R. A. Van Gorder, “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)], with the difference being translation along the reference axis, so that qualitative appearance of the solution geometry will be the same (even if there are quantitative differences). We discuss a wide variety of general properties of these non-stationary solutions and derive cases in which they reduce to known stationary states. We obtain various routes to Kelvin waves along vortex filaments and demonstrate that if the phase and amplitude of a disturbance both propagate with the same wave speed, then Kelvin waves will result. We also consider the self

  3. Two-state model based on the block-localized wave function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Yirong

    2007-06-01

    The block-localized wave function (BLW) method is a variant of ab initio valence bond method but retains the efficiency of molecular orbital methods. It can derive the wave function for a diabatic (resonance) state self-consistently and is available at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) levels. In this work we present a two-state model based on the BLW method. Although numerous empirical and semiempirical two-state models, such as the Marcus-Hush two-state model, have been proposed to describe a chemical reaction process, the advantage of this BLW-based two-state model is that no empirical parameter is required. Important quantities such as the electronic coupling energy, structural weights of two diabatic states, and excitation energy can be uniquely derived from the energies of two diabatic states and the adiabatic state at the same HF or DFT level. Two simple examples of formamide and thioformamide in the gas phase and aqueous solution were presented and discussed. The solvation of formamide and thioformamide was studied with the combined ab initio quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical Monte Carlo simulations, together with the BLW-DFT calculations and analyses. Due to the favorable solute-solvent electrostatic interaction, the contribution of the ionic resonance structure to the ground state of formamide and thioformamide significantly increases, and for thioformamide the ionic form is even more stable than the covalent form. Thus, thioformamide in aqueous solution is essentially ionic rather than covalent. Although our two-state model in general underestimates the electronic excitation energies, it can predict relative solvatochromic shifts well. For instance, the intense π →π* transition for formamide upon solvation undergoes a redshift of 0.3eV, compared with the experimental data (0.40-0.5eV).

  4. Sensor structure concepts for the analysis or local radiation exposure of biological samples at terahertz and millimeter wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornuf, Fabian; Dörr, Roland; Lämmle, David; Schlaak, Helmut F.; Krozer, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    We have studied several sensor concepts for biomedical applications operating in the millimeter wave and terahertz range. On one hand, rectangular waveguide structure were designed and extended with microfluidic channels. In this way a simple analysis of aqueous solutions at various waveguide bands is possible. In our case, we focused on the frequency range between 75 GHz and 110 GHz. On the other hand, planar sensor structures for aqueous solutions have been developed based on coplanar waveguides. With these planar sensors it is possible to concentrate the interaction volume on small sensor areas, which achieve a local exposure of the radiation to the sample. When equipping the sensor with microfluidic structures the sample volume could be reduced significantly and enabled a localized interaction with the sensor areas. The sensors are designed to exhibit a broadband behavior up to 300 GHz. Narrow-band operation can also be achieved for potentially increased sensitivity by using resonant structures. Several tests with Glucose dissolved in water show promising results for the distinction of different glucose levels at millimeter wave frequencies. The planar structures can also be used for the exposure of biological cells or cell model systems like liposomes with electromagnetic radiation. Several studies are planned to distinguish on one hand the influence of millimeter wave exposure on biological systems and also to have a spectroscopic method which enables the analysis of cell processes, like membrane transport processes, with millimeter wave and terahertz frequencies by focusing the electric field directly on the analyzing sample.

  5. Nondiffracting X waves-exact solutions to free-space scalar wave equation and their finite aperture realizations.

    PubMed

    Lu, J Y; Greenleaf, J F

    1992-01-01

    The authors report families of generalized nondiffracting solutions of the free-space scalar wave equation, and specifically, a subset of these nondiffracting solutions, which are called X waves. These nondiffracting X waves can be almost exactly realized over a finite depth of field with finite apertures and by either broadband or bandlimited radiators. With a 25-mm diameter planar radiator, a zeroth-order broadband X wave will have about 2.5-mm lateral and 0.17-mm axial -6-dB beam widths with a -6-dB depth of field of about 171 mm. A zeroth-order bandlimited X wave was produced and measured in water by a 10 element, 50-mm diameter, 2.5-MHz PZT ceramic/polymer composite J (0) Bessel nondiffracting annular array transducer with -6-dB lateral and axial beam widths of about 4.7 mm and 0.65 mm, respectively, over a -6-dB depth of field of about 358 mm. Possible applications of X waves in acoustic imaging and electromagnetic energy transmission are discussed.

  6. A Parabolic Equation Approach to Modeling Acousto-Gravity Waves for Local Helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bene, Kevin; Lingevitch, Joseph; Doschek, George

    2016-08-01

    A wide-angle parabolic-wave-equation algorithm is developed and validated for local-helioseismic wave propagation. The parabolic equation is derived from a factorization of the linearized acousto-gravity wave equation. We apply the parabolic-wave equation to modeling acoustic propagation in a plane-parallel waveguide with physical properties derived from helioseismic data. The wavenumber power spectrum and wave-packet arrival-time structure for receivers in the photosphere with separation up to 30° is computed, and good agreement is demonstrated with measured values and a reference spectral model.

  7. Stability of a family of travelling wave solutions in a feedforward chain of phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanford, O. E., III; Mintchev, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Travelling waves are an important class of signal propagation phenomena in extended systems with a preferred direction of information flow. We study the generation of travelling waves in unidirectional chains of coupled oscillators communicating via a phase-dependent pulse-response interaction borrowed from mathematical neuroscience. Within the context of such systems, we develop a widely applicable, jointly numerical and analytical methodology for deducing existence and stability of periodic travelling waves. We provide careful numerical studies that support the existence of a periodic travelling wave solution as well as the asymptotic relaxation of a single oscillator to the wave when it is forced with the wave profile. Using this evidence as an assumption, we analytically prove global stability of waves in the infinite chain, with respect to initial perturbations of downstream sites. This rigorous stability result suggests that asymptotic relaxation to the travelling wave occurs even when the forcing is perturbed from the wave profile, a property of the motivating system that is supported by previous work as well as the convergence of the more sophisticated numerical algorithm that we propose in order to compute a high-precision approximation to the solution. We provide additional numerical studies that show that the wave is part of a one-parameter family, and we illustrate the structural robustness of this family with respect to changes in the coupling strength.

  8. A method for finding the optimal predictor indices for local wave climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camus, Paula; Méndez, Fernando J.; Losada, Inigo J.; Menéndez, Melisa; Espejo, Antonio; Pérez, Jorge; Rueda, Ana; Guanche, Yanira

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a method to obtain local wave predictor indices that take into account the wave generation process is described and applied to several locations. The method is based on a statistical model that relates significant wave height with an atmospheric predictor, defined by sea level pressure fields. The predictor is composed of a local and a regional part, representing the sea and the swell wave components, respectively. The spatial domain of the predictor is determined using the Evaluation of Source and Travel-time of wave Energy reaching a Local Area (ESTELA) method. The regional component of the predictor includes the recent historical atmospheric conditions responsible for the swell wave component at the target point. The regional predictor component has a historical temporal coverage ( n-days) different to the local predictor component (daily coverage). Principal component analysis is applied to the daily predictor in order to detect the dominant variability patterns and their temporal coefficients. Multivariate regression model, fitted at daily scale for different n-days of the regional predictor, determines the optimum historical coverage. The monthly wave predictor indices are selected applying a regression model using the monthly values of the principal components of the daily predictor, with the optimum temporal coverage for the regional predictor. The daily predictor can be used in wave climate projections, while the monthly predictor can help to understand wave climate variability or long-term coastal morphodynamic anomalies.

  9. Singular boundary method using time-dependent fundamental solution for scalar wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Li, Junpu; Fu, Zhuojia

    2016-11-01

    This study makes the first attempt to extend the meshless boundary-discretization singular boundary method (SBM) with time-dependent fundamental solution to two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar wave equation upon Dirichlet boundary condition. The two empirical formulas are also proposed to determine the source intensity factors. In 2D problems, the fundamental solution integrating along with time is applied. In 3D problems, a time-successive evaluation approach without complicated mathematical transform is proposed. Numerical investigations show that the present SBM methodology produces the accurate results for 2D and 3D time-dependent wave problems with varied velocities c and wave numbers k.

  10. Singular boundary method using time-dependent fundamental solution for scalar wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Li, Junpu; Fu, Zhuojia

    2016-07-01

    This study makes the first attempt to extend the meshless boundary-discretization singular boundary method (SBM) with time-dependent fundamental solution to two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar wave equation upon Dirichlet boundary condition. The two empirical formulas are also proposed to determine the source intensity factors. In 2D problems, the fundamental solution integrating along with time is applied. In 3D problems, a time-successive evaluation approach without complicated mathematical transform is proposed. Numerical investigations show that the present SBM methodology produces the accurate results for 2D and 3D time-dependent wave problems with varied velocities c and wave numbers k.

  11. Acoustic wave propagation in the solar atmosphere 1. Rediscussion of the linearized theory including nonstationary solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhengzhi; Ulrich, Roger K.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.

    1995-01-01

    The normal dispersion analysis for linear adiabatic wave propagation in stratified atmospheres adopts a real frequency and solves for the complex vertical wavenumber. We show that an exponentially stratified atmosphere does not have any spatially bounded normal modes for real frequencies. The usual treatment involves a representation where the imaginary part of the vertical wavenumber yields a rho(sup -1/2) dependence of the velocity amplitude which diverges as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. This solution includes a cutoff frequency below which acoustic modes cannot propagate. The standard dispersion analysis is a local representation of the wave behavior in both space and time but which is assumed to represent the motion throughout - infinity is less than t is less than infinity and 0 is less than infinity. However, any solution which has a purely sinusoidal time dependence extends through this full domain and is divergent due to the rho(sup -1/2) dependence. We show that a proper description is in terms of a near field of a boundary piston which is driven arbitrarily as a function of space and time. The atmosphere which responds to this piston is a semi-infinite layer which has an initially constant sound speed but which has the usual gravitational stratification. In a restricted domain of space and time above this boundary, the wavelike behavior of the medium may be described by frequencies and vertical wavenumbers which are both complex. When both parameters are allowed to have imaginary components, a new range of solutions is found for which there is virtually no cutoff frequency. We show that vertical energy propagation can take place through the solar atmosphere as a result of oscillations below the nominal cutoff frequency. Previously, the largest amplitude oscillations which generally have low frequencies were dropped from the calculation of energy flux becuase their frequencies are below the cutoff frequency. This new family of near

  12. A simple and direct method for generating travelling wave solutions for nonlinear equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bazeia, D. Das, Ashok; Silva, A.

    2008-05-15

    We propose a simple and direct method for generating travelling wave solutions for nonlinear integrable equations. We illustrate how nontrivial solutions for the KdV, the mKdV and the Boussinesq equations can be obtained from simple solutions of linear equations. We describe how using this method, a soliton solution of the KdV equation can yield soliton solutions for the mKdV as well as the Boussinesq equations. Similarly, starting with cnoidal solutions of the KdV equation, we can obtain the corresponding solutions for the mKdV as well as the Boussinesq equations. Simple solutions of linear equations can also lead to cnoidal solutions of nonlinear systems. Finally, we propose and solve some new families of KdV equations and show how soliton solutions are also obtained for the higher order equations of the KdV hierarchy using this method.

  13. Prey localization by surface wave ray-tracing: fish track bugs like oceanographers track storms.

    PubMed

    Käse, R H; Bleckmann, H

    1987-03-15

    Surface-feeding fish accurately determine direction and distance to the center of a concentric wave stimulus, even if only a single, short lasting wave train is presented. It has been suggested that one cue used by these fish to localize the wave center is the distance dependent frequency modulation of the initial part of a wave stimulus. Here we show how the distance information contained in the fractional frequency change of a capillary wave group can be decoded. We suggest that wave source localization in surface-feeding fish in part is based on a principal similar to that used by oceanographers to track storms by the frequency change of forerunners of swell.

  14. Negative refraction and localized states of a classical wave in high-symmetry quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Zhong, Wei; Feng, Zhifang; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Dao-Zhong

    2011-07-01

    Recently, negative refraction of electromagnetic waves in periodic photonic crystals has been demonstrated experimentally and sub-wavelength images observed. A theoretical and experimental investigation is reported of the electromagnetic wave transport in high-symmetry photonic quasicrystals (QCs). It is shown that negative refraction can appear in these transparent quasicrystalline photonic structures. It is interesting that highly symmetric two-dimensional photonic QCs possess a universal feature for non-near-field focus of two kinds of polarized waves (S wave and P wave). That is, the non-near-field focus for two kinds of polarized waves can be realized by using flat lenses, which consist of some high-symmetric two-dimensional photonic QCs with the same structures and parameters. In addition, some two-dimensional and three-dimensional localized states in defect-free photonic QCs have been found. It is evident that these unusual localized states can be explored by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy.

  15. Localization of ultra-low frequency waves in multi-ion plasmas of the planetary magnetosphere

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Eun -Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong -Hun

    2015-01-01

    By adopting a 2D time-dependent wave code, we investigate how mode-converted waves at the Ion-Ion Hybrid (IIH) resonance and compressional waves propagate in 2D density structures with a wide range of field-aligned wavenumbers to background magnetic fields. The simulation results show that the mode-converted waves have continuous bands across the field line consistent with previous numerical studies. These waves also have harmonic structures in frequency domain and are localized in the field-aligned heavy ion density well. Lastly, our results thus emphasize the importance of a field-aligned heavy ion density structure for ultra-low frequency wave propagation, and suggest that IIH wavesmore » can be localized in different locations along the field line.« less

  16. Fast neural solution of a nonlinear wave equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, Nikzad; Barhen, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    A neural algorithm for rapidly simulating a certain class of nonlinear wave phenomena using analog VLSI neural hardware is presented and applied to the Korteweg-de Vries partial differential equation. The corresponding neural architecture is obtained from a pseudospectral representation of the spatial dependence, along with a leap-frog scheme for the temporal evolution. Numerical simulations demonstrated the robustness of the proposed approach.

  17. Fast Neural Solution Of A Nonlinear Wave Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad

    1996-01-01

    Neural algorithm for simulation of class of nonlinear wave phenomena devised. Numerically solves special one-dimensional case of Korteweg-deVries equation. Intended to be executed rapidly by neural network implemented as charge-coupled-device/charge-injection device, very-large-scale integrated-circuit analog data processor of type described in "CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision" (NPO-18972).

  18. On the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation in n+1 dimensions: exact solutions, the Cauchy problem for small initial data and wave breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakov, S. V.; Santini, P. M.

    2011-10-01

    We study the (n + 1)-dimensional generalization of the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (dKP) equation, a universal equation describing the propagation of weakly nonlinear, quasi-one-dimensional waves in n + 1 dimensions, and arising in several physical contexts, such as acoustics, plasma physics and hydrodynamics. For n = 2, this equation is integrable, and has been recently shown to be a prototype model equation in the description of the two-dimensional wave breaking of localized initial data. We construct an exact solution of the (n + 1)-dimensional model containing an arbitrary function of one variable, corresponding to its parabolic invariance, describing waves, constant on their paraboloidal wave front, breaking simultaneously in all points of it. Then, we use such a solution to build a uniform approximation of the solution of the Cauchy problem, for small and localized initial data, showing that such a small and localized initial data evolving according to the (n + 1)-dimensional dKP equation break, in the long time regime, if and only if 1 ⩽ n ⩽ 3, i.e., in physical space. Such a wave breaking takes place, generically, in a point of the paraboloidal wave front, and the analytic aspects of it are given explicitly in terms of the small initial data.

  19. Traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duanmu, M.; Whitaker, N.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Vainchtein, A.; Rubin, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by earlier studies of artificial perceptions of light called phosphenes, we analyze traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators modeling this phenomenon. We examine the discrete model problem in its co-traveling frame and systematically obtain the corresponding traveling waves in one spatial dimension. Direct numerical simulations as well as linear stability analysis are employed to reveal the parameter regions where the traveling waves are stable, and these waves are, in turn, connected to the standing waves analyzed in earlier work. We also consider a two-dimensional extension of the model and demonstrate the robust evolution and stability of planar fronts. Our simulations also suggest the radial fronts tend to either annihilate or expand and flatten out, depending on the phase value inside and the parameter regime. Finally, we observe that solutions that initially feature two symmetric fronts with bulged centers evolve in qualitative agreement with experimental observations of phosphenes.

  20. Alternate solution for the cylindrical Helmholtz vector equation applied to helical elastic guided waves in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannajosyula, Haraprasad; Nino, Giovanni F.

    2015-03-01

    Elastic helical guided wave propagation in pipes that has recently gained importance in applications related to tomography and structural health monitoring is analyzed using an alternate formalism. Closed form exponential function based solutions for the Helmholtz vector equation in cylindrical polar coordinates are derived. Relationship of these alternate solutions for the Helmholtz vector equation with the traditional integer order Bessel function based formulation - that has been established for the corresponding solutions of Helmholtz scalar equation in prior literature - is presented. The solutions are single valued at every point in the physical space, and therefore, unlike traditional non-integer order Bessel function based methods, the formulation presented herein preserves the physical uniqueness of the field quantities involved in the wave propagation. The alternate solutions, when applied to the boundary value problem of an isotropic elastic pipe with stress free boundaries, yield a formulation for helical guided wave propagation. A class of helical guided wave modes that have a constant helix angle across the wall thickness of the pipe is predicted. Dispersion characteristics for guided wave propagation such as phase velocity curves; displacement profiles for some points of interest on the phase velocity curves, for select helical angles are presented. The results are compared against traditional notions about helical guided wave propagation.

  1. Transient axial solution for plane and axisymmetric waves focused by a paraboloidal reflector.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Te; Zhu, Jinying; Haberman, Michael R

    2013-04-01

    A time domain analytical solution is presented to calculate the pressure response along the axis of a paraboloidal reflector for a normally incident plane wave. This work is inspired by Hamilton's axial solution for an ellipsoidal mirror and the same methodology is employed in this paper. Behavior of the reflected waves along reflector axis is studied, and special interest is placed on focusing gain obtained at the focal point. This analytical solution indicates that the focusing gain is affected by reflector geometry and the time derivative of the input signal. In addition, focused pressure response in the focal zone given by various reflector geometries and input frequencies are also investigated. This information is useful for selecting appropriate reflector geometry in a specific working environment to achieve the best signal enhancement. Numerical simulation employing the finite element method is used to validate the analytical solution, and visualize the wave field to provide a better understanding of the propagation of reflected waves. This analytical solution can be modified to apply to non-planar incident waves with axisymmetric wavefront and non-uniform pressure distribution. An example of incident waves with conical-shaped wavefront is presented.

  2. Multi-soliton, multi-breather and higher order rogue wave solutions to the complex short pulse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Liming; Feng, Bao-Feng; Zhu, Zuonong

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the general analytic solutions to the complex short pulse (CSP) equation including soliton, breather and rogue wave solutions. With the aid of a generalized Darboux transformation, we construct the N-bright soliton solution in a compact determinant form, the N-breather solution including the Akhmediev breather and a general higher order rogue wave solution. The first and second order rogue wave solutions are given explicitly and analyzed. The asymptotic analysis is performed rigorously for both the N-soliton and the N-breather solutions. All three forms of the analytical solutions admit either smoothed-, cusped- or looped-type ones for the CSP equation depending on the parameters. It is noted that, due to the reciprocal (hodograph) transformation, the rogue wave solution to the CSP equation can be a smoothed, cusponed or a looped one, which is different from the rogue wave solution found so far.

  3. A simplified method for thermal analysis of a cowl leading edge subject to intense local shock-wave-interference heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, David M.; Camarda, Charles J.; Scotti, Stephen J.

    1992-03-01

    Type IV shock wave interference heating on a blunt body causes extremely intense heating over a very localized region of the body. An analytical solution is presented to a heat transfer problem that approximates the shock wave interference heating of an engine cowl leading edge of the National Aero-Space Plane. The problem uses a simplified geometry to represent the leading edge. An analytical solution is developed that provides a means for approximating maximum temperature differences between the outer and inner surface temperatures of the leading edge. The solution is computationally efficient and, as a result, is well suited for conceptual and preliminary design or trade studies. Transient and steady state analyses are conducted, and results obtained from the analytical solution are compared with results of 2-D thermal finite element analyses over a wide range of design parameters. Isotropic materials as well as laminated composite materials are studied. Results of parametric studies are presented to indicate the effects of the thickness of the cowl leading edge and the width of the region heated by the shock wave interference on the thermal response of the leading edge.

  4. A simplified method for thermal analysis of a cowl leading edge subject to intense local shock-wave-interference heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, David M.; Camarda, Charles J.; Scotti, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Type IV shock wave interference heating on a blunt body causes extremely intense heating over a very localized region of the body. An analytical solution is presented to a heat transfer problem that approximates the shock wave interference heating of an engine cowl leading edge of the National Aero-Space Plane. The problem uses a simplified geometry to represent the leading edge. An analytical solution is developed that provides a means for approximating maximum temperature differences between the outer and inner surface temperatures of the leading edge. The solution is computationally efficient and, as a result, is well suited for conceptual and preliminary design or trade studies. Transient and steady state analyses are conducted, and results obtained from the analytical solution are compared with results of 2-D thermal finite element analyses over a wide range of design parameters. Isotropic materials as well as laminated composite materials are studied. Results of parametric studies are presented to indicate the effects of the thickness of the cowl leading edge and the width of the region heated by the shock wave interference on the thermal response of the leading edge.

  5. A new model for algebraic Rossby solitary waves in rotation fluid and its solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao-Deng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Gao, Yu-Fang; Yin, Bao-Shu; Feng, Xing-Ru

    2015-09-01

    A generalized Boussinesq equation that includes the dissipation effect is derived to describe a kind of algebraic Rossby solitary waves in a rotating fluid by employing perturbation expansions and stretching transformations of time and space. Using this equation, the conservation laws of algebraic Rossby solitary waves are discussed. It is found that the mass, the momentum, the energy, and the velocity of center of gravity of the algebraic solitary waves are conserved in the propagation process. Finally, the analytical solution of the equation is generated. Based on the analytical solution, the properties of the algebraic solitary waves and the dissipation effect are discussed. The results point out that, similar to classic solitary waves, the dissipation can cause the amplitude and the speed of solitary waves to decrease; however, unlike classic solitary waves, the algebraic solitary waves can split during propagation and the decrease of the detuning parameter can accelerate the occurrence of the solitary waves fission phenomenon. Project supported by the Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environment and Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Project, China (Grant No. 2012010), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41205082 and 41476019), the Special Funds for Theoretical Physics of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447205), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), China.

  6. An exact solution for effects of topography on free Rayleigh waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.Z.

    2004-01-01

    An exact solution for the effects of topography on Rayleigh wave amplification is presented. The solution is obtained by incorporating conformal mapping into complex-variable stress functions developed for free Rayleigh wave propagation in an elastic half-space with a flat upper surface. Results are presented for free Rayleigh wave propagation across isolated symmetric ridges and valleys. It is found for wavelengths that are comparable to ridge widths that horizontal Rayleigh wave amplitudes are amplified at ridge crests and that vertical amplitudes are strongly reduced near ridge crests relative to horizontal and vertical amplitudes of free Rayleigh waves in the flat case. Horizontal amplitudes are strongly deamplified at valley bottoms relative to those for the flat case for Rayleigh wavelengths comparable to valley widths. Wave amplitudes in the symmetric ridges and valleys asymptotically approach those for the flat case with increased wavelengths, increased ridge and valley widths, and with horizontal distance from and depth below the isolated ridges and valleys. Also, prograde particle motion is predicted near crests of narrow ridges and near the bottoms of narrow valleys. Finally, application of the theory at two sites known for topographic wave amplification gives a predicted surface wave amplification ratio of 3.80 at the ridge center for a frequency of 1.0 Hz at Robinwood Ridge in northern California and a predicted surface wave amplification ratio of 1.67 at the ridge center for the same frequency at the Cedar Hill Nursery site at Tarzana in southern California.

  7. A new semi-analytical solution for inertial waves in a rectangular parallelepiped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurijanyan, S.; Bokhove, O.; Maas, L. R. M.

    2013-12-01

    A study of inertial gyroscopic waves in a rotating homogeneous fluid is undertaken both theoretically and numerically. A novel approach is presented to construct a semi-analytical solution of a linear three-dimensional fluid flow in a rotating rectangular parallelepiped bounded by solid walls. The three-dimensional solution is expanded in vertical modes to reduce the dynamics to the horizontal plane. On this horizontal plane, the two dimensional solution is constructed via superposition of "inertial" analogs of surface Poincaré and Kelvin waves reflecting from the walls. The infinite sum of inertial Poincaré waves has to cancel the normal flow of two inertial Kelvin waves near the boundaries. The wave system corresponding to every vertical mode results in an eigenvalue problem. Corresponding computations for rotationally modified surface gravity waves are in agreement with numerical values obtained by Taylor ["Tidal oscillations in gulfs and basins," Proc. London Math. Soc., Ser. 2 XX, 148-181 (1921)], Rao ["Free gravitational oscillations in rotating rectangular basins," J. Fluid Mech. 25, 523-555 (1966)] and also, for inertial waves, by Maas ["On the amphidromic structure of inertial waves in a rectangular parallelepiped," Fluid Dyn. Res. 33, 373-401 (2003)] upon truncation of an infinite matrix. The present approach enhances the currently available, structurally concise modal solution introduced by Maas. In contrast to Maas' approach, our solution does not have any convergence issues in the interior and does not suffer from Gibbs phenomenon at the boundaries. Additionally, an alternative finite element method is used to contrast these two semi-analytical solutions with a purely numerical one. The main differences are discussed for a particular example and one eigenfrequency.

  8. Electromagnetic Waves with Frequencies Near the Local Proton Gryofrequency: ISEF-3 1 AU Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B.

    1993-01-01

    Low Frequency electromagnetic waves with periods near the local proton gyrofrequency have been detected near 1 AU by the magnetometer onboard ISEE-3. For these 1 AU waves two physical processes are possible: solar wind pickup of nuetral (interstellar?) particles and generation by relativistic electron beams propagating from the Sun.

  9. Alfvén wave collisions, the fundamental building block of plasma turbulence. II. Numerical solution

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, K. D.; Howes, G. G.; Dorland, W.

    2013-07-15

    This paper presents the numerical verification of an asymptotic analytical solution for the nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating Alfvén waves, the fundamental building block of astrophysical plasma turbulence. The analytical solution, derived in the weak turbulence limit using the equations of incompressible MHD, is compared to a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation of an Alfvén wave collision. The agreement between these methods signifies that the incompressible solution satisfactorily describes the essential dynamics of the nonlinear energy transfer, even under the weakly collisional plasma conditions relevant to many astrophysical environments.

  10. Non-linear multi-plane wave solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vega, H. J.

    1988-12-01

    New solutions of self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) equations are constructed in Minkowski space-time for the gauge group SL(2, ℂ). After proposing a Lorentz covariant formulation of Yang's equations, a set of Ansätze for exact non-linear multiplane wave solutions are proposed. The gauge fields are rational functions of e x·ki ( K {/i 2}=0, 1≦ i≦ N) for these Ansätze. At least, three families of multisoliton type solutions are derived explicitly. Their asymptotic behaviour shows that non-linear waves scatter non-trivially in Minkowski SDYM.

  11. New Exact Traveling Wave Solutions of Some Nonlinear Higher-Dimensional Physical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Sakthivel, Rathinasamy

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, some new traveling wave solutions of the (4 + 1)-dimensional Fokas equation, (3 + 1)-dimensional Jumbo-Miwa equation and (2 + 1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equation are obtained through the ({GG)-expansion technique. The key idea of this technique is to take full advantage of a Riccati equation involving two parameters and use its solutions in obtaining the traveling wave solutions. The results reveal that this technique is very effective and powerful for solving higher-dimensional nonlinear problems arising in mathematical physics.

  12. Spin wave localization in one-dimensional magnonic microcavity comprising yttrium iron garnet

    SciTech Connect

    Kanazawa, Naoki; Goto, Taichi Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2014-08-28

    We demonstrate the localization of magnetostatic surface waves, i.e., spin waves, in a one-dimensional magnonic microcavity substantialized with periodical conductivity modulation. The narrow localized state is observed inside band gaps and is responsible for a sharp transmission peak. The experimental results strongly agree with the theoretical prediction made with the shape magnetic anisotropy of the propagating medium composed of yttrium iron garnet taken into account.

  13. Weak solutions and blow-up for wave equations of p-Laplacian type with supercritical sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Pei; Rammaha, Mohammad A.; Toundykov, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates a quasilinear wave equation with Kelvin-Voigt damping, utt - Δpu - Δut = f(u), in a bounded domain Ω ⊂ ℝ3 and subject to Dirichlét boundary conditions. The operator Δp, 2 < p < 3, denotes the classical p-Laplacian. The nonlinear term f(u) is a source feedback that is allowed to have a supercritical exponent, in the sense that the associated Nemytskii operator is not locally Lipschitz from W0 1 , p ( Ω ) into L2(Ω). Under suitable assumptions on the parameters, we prove existence of local weak solutions, which can be extended globally provided the damping term dominates the source in an appropriate sense. Moreover, a blow-up result is proved for solutions with negative initial total energy.

  14. Water Wave Solutions of the Coupled System Zakharov-Kuznetsov and Generalized Coupled KdV Equations

    PubMed Central

    Seadawy, A. R.; El-Rashidy, K.

    2014-01-01

    An analytic study was conducted on coupled partial differential equations. We formally derived new solitary wave solutions of generalized coupled system of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) and KdV equations by using modified extended tanh method. The traveling wave solutions for each generalized coupled system of ZK and KdV equations are shown in form of periodic, dark, and bright solitary wave solutions. The structures of the obtained solutions are distinct and stable. PMID:25374940

  15. Water wave solutions of the coupled system Zakharov-Kuznetsov and generalized coupled KdV equations.

    PubMed

    Seadawy, A R; El-Rashidy, K

    2014-01-01

    An analytic study was conducted on coupled partial differential equations. We formally derived new solitary wave solutions of generalized coupled system of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) and KdV equations by using modified extended tanh method. The traveling wave solutions for each generalized coupled system of ZK and KdV equations are shown in form of periodic, dark, and bright solitary wave solutions. The structures of the obtained solutions are distinct and stable. PMID:25374940

  16. Discrimination of Mixed Taste Solutions using Ultrasonic Wave and Soft Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yohichiro; Kimura, Futoshi; Mikami, Tsuyoshi; Kitama, Masataka

    In this study, ultrasonic wave acoustic properties of mixed taste solutions were investigated, and the possibility of taste sensing based on the acoustical properties obtained was examined. In previous studies, properties of solutions were discriminated based on sound velocity, amplitude and frequency characteristics of ultrasonic waves propagating through the five basic taste solutions and marketed beverages. However, to make this method applicable to beverages that contain many taste substances, further studies are required. In this paper, the waveform of an ultrasonic wave with frequency of approximately 5 MHz propagating through mixed solutions composed of sweet and salty substance was measured. As a result, differences among solutions were clearly observed as differences in their properties. Furthermore, these mixed solutions were discriminated by a self-organizing neural network. The ratio of volume in their mixed solutions was estimated by a distance-type fuzzy reasoning method. Therefore, the possibility of taste sensing was shown by using ultrasonic wave acoustic properties and the soft computing, such as the self-organizing neural network and the distance-type fuzzy reasoning method.

  17. Localized Nonlinear Waves in Systems with Time- and Space-Modulated Nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym; Konotop, Vladimir V.

    2008-04-25

    Using similarity transformations we construct explicit nontrivial solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equations with potentials and nonlinearities depending both on time and on the spatial coordinates. We present the general theory and use it to calculate explicitly nontrivial solutions such as periodic (breathers), resonant, or quasiperiodically oscillating solitons. Some implications to the field of matter waves are also discussed.

  18. Solitons and nonlinear waves along quantum vortex filaments under the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation.

    PubMed

    Van Gorder, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Very recent experimental work has demonstrated the existence of Kelvin waves along quantized vortex filaments in superfluid helium. The possible configurations and motions of such filaments is of great physical interest, and Svistunov previously obtained a Hamiltonian formulation for the dynamics of quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature limit under the assumption that the vortex filament is essentially aligned along one axis, resulting in a two-dimensional (2D) problem. It is standard to approximate the dynamics of thin filaments by employing the local induction approximation (LIA), and we show that by putting the two-dimensional LIA into correspondence with the first equation in the integrable Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa-Schimizu (WKIS) hierarchy, we immediately obtain solutions to the two-dimensional LIA, such as helix, planar, and self-similar solutions. These solutions are obtained in a rather direct manner from the WKIS equation and then mapped into the 2D-LIA framework. Furthermore, the approach can be coupled to existing inverse scattering transform results from the literature in order to obtain solitary wave solutions including the analog of the Hasimoto one-soliton for the 2D-LIA. One large benefit of the approach is that the correspondence between the 2D-LIA and the WKIS allows us to systematically obtain vortex filament solutions directly in the Cartesian coordinate frame without the need to solve back from curvature and torsion. Implications of the results for the physics of experimentally studied solitary waves, Kelvin waves, and postvortex reconnection events are mentioned.

  19. Solitons and nonlinear waves along quantum vortex filaments under the low-temperature two-dimensional local induction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Gorder, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    Very recent experimental work has demonstrated the existence of Kelvin waves along quantized vortex filaments in superfluid helium. The possible configurations and motions of such filaments is of great physical interest, and Svistunov previously obtained a Hamiltonian formulation for the dynamics of quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature limit under the assumption that the vortex filament is essentially aligned along one axis, resulting in a two-dimensional (2D) problem. It is standard to approximate the dynamics of thin filaments by employing the local induction approximation (LIA), and we show that by putting the two-dimensional LIA into correspondence with the first equation in the integrable Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa-Schimizu (WKIS) hierarchy, we immediately obtain solutions to the two-dimensional LIA, such as helix, planar, and self-similar solutions. These solutions are obtained in a rather direct manner from the WKIS equation and then mapped into the 2D-LIA framework. Furthermore, the approach can be coupled to existing inverse scattering transform results from the literature in order to obtain solitary wave solutions including the analog of the Hasimoto one-soliton for the 2D-LIA. One large benefit of the approach is that the correspondence between the 2D-LIA and the WKIS allows us to systematically obtain vortex filament solutions directly in the Cartesian coordinate frame without the need to solve back from curvature and torsion. Implications of the results for the physics of experimentally studied solitary waves, Kelvin waves, and postvortex reconnection events are mentioned.

  20. Efficient localization of terahertz waves within a gradient dielectric-filled metallic grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenyu; Ju, Dongquan; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2014-12-01

    We proposed a gradient dielectric-filled metallic grating to spatially localize wide-band terahertz waves at different locations for different frequencies. The dispersion relations for terahertz waves propagating along gratings with different filling-depths were developed under the first-order approximation based on the spoof surface plasmon theory. The structure can localize terahertz waves at the frequency regime from 0.7 to 1.3 THz, as the filling-depth H gradually increases from 0 to 50 µm. By filling with active media such as nematic liquid crystals, the trapping location can be effectively tuned, providing potential to realize controllable and compact integrated THz devices.

  1. Localized Electromagnetic Waves: Interactions with Surfaces and Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nicholas R.

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves with nanostructures is an important area of research for signal processing devices, magnetic data storage, biosensors and a variety of other applications. In this work, we present analytic and numerical calculations for oscillating electric and magnetic fields coupling with excitations in magnetic materials as well as metallic and dielectric materials, near their resonance frequencies. One of the problems with the miniaturization of signal processing components is that there is a cutoff frequency associated with the transverse electric (TE) mode in waveguides. However, it is usually the TE mode which is used to achieve nonreciprocity for devices such as isolators. As a first step to circumvent this problem we looked at the absorption of electromagnetic waves in an antiferromagnet and a ferrite when the incident wave is at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetization direction. We calculated reflectivity and attenuated total reflectivity and found absorption and nonreciprocity, asymmetric behavior for waves traveling in opposite directions, for a broad range of propagation angles. Subsequently we also performed calculations for a transverse magnetic mode in a waveguide. The wave was allowed to propagate at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetization direction of the ferrite in the waveguide. We again found nonreciprocity for a wide range of angles. Our results show that this system could be used as an on-chip isolator with isolation values over 75 dB/cm in the 50 GHz range. We explored another signal processing device operating in the GHz range: a nonlinear phase shifter. Using Fe as the magnetic material allows the phase shifter to operate over a wide frequency and power range. We found a differential phase shift of greater than 50° over 3 cm for this device. The theoretical results compared well with experimental measurements. Finally, we study surface plasmon polaritons propagating along a metallic

  2. Attenuation of transverse waves by using a metamaterial beam with lateral local resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsin-Haou; Lin, Chi-Kuang; Tan, Kwek-Tze

    2016-08-01

    This study numerically and experimentally investigated the wave propagation and vibrational behavior of a metamaterial beam with lateral local resonators. A two-dimensional simplified analytical model was proposed for feasibly and accurately capturing the in-plane dispersion behavior, which can be used for the initial design. The out-of-plane wave motions, however, required advanced three-dimensional (3D) modeling. Through experimental validations, 3D finite element simulations were demonstrated to be suitable for advanced design and analysis. This study provided a basis for designing metabeams for transverse wave mitigation. The proposed concept can be further extended to 3D metamaterial plates for wave and vibrational mitigation applications.

  3. Insights to caving processes from localization of microseismic swarms induced by salt solution mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennart Kinscher, Jannes; Bernard, Pascal; Contrucci, Isabelle; Mangeney, Anne; Piguet, Jack Pierre; Bigarre, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve our understanding of hazardous ground failures, caving processes, and collapses of large natural or man-made underground cavities, we studied microseismicity induced by the development and collapse of a salt solution mining cavity with a diameter of ~ 200 m at Cerville-Buissoncourt in Lorraine, France. Microseismicity was recorded as part of a large geophysical, multi-parameter monitoring research project (GISOS) by a local, high resolution, triggered 40 Hz geophone monitoring system consisting of five one-component and four three-component borehole stations located around and in the center of the cavity. The recorded microseismic events are very numerous (~ 50.000 recorded event files) where the major portion (~ 80 %) appear in unusual swarming sequences constituted by complex clusters of superimposed microseismic events. Body wave phase based routine tools for microseismic event detection and localization face strong limitations in the treatment of these signals. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed two probabilistic methods being able to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics in a semi-automatic manner. The first localization approach uses simple signal amplitude estimates on different frequency bands, and an attenuation model to constrain hypocenter source location. The second approach was designed to identify significantly polarized P wave energies and the associated polarization angles. Both approaches and its probabilistic conjunction were applied to the data of a two months lasting microseismic crisis occurring one year before the final collapse that was related to caving processes leading to a maximal growth of ~ 50 m of the cavity roof. The obtained epicenter locations show systematic spatio-temporal migration trends observed for different time scales. During three phases of major swarming activity, epicenter migration trends appear in the order of several seconds to minutes, are spatially constrained, and show partially a

  4. Localized waves supported by the rotating waveguide array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-09-01

    We show that truncated rotating square waveguide arrays support new types of localized modes that exist even in the linear case, in complete contrast to localized excitations in nonrotating arrays requiring nonlinearity for their existence and forming above the energy flow threshold. These new modes appear either around array center, since rotation leads to the emergence of the effective attractive potential with a minimum at the rotation axis, or in the array corners, in which case localization occurs due to competition between centrifugal force (in terms of quasi-particle analogy) and total internal reflection at the interface of the truncated array. The degree of localization of the central and corner modes mediated by rotation increases with rotation frequency. Stable rotating soliton families bifurcating from linear modes are analyzed in both focusing and defocusing media.

  5. Localized waves supported by the rotating waveguide array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-09-01

    We show that truncated rotating square waveguide arrays support new types of localized modes that exist even in the linear case, in complete contrast to localized excitations in nonrotating arrays requiring nonlinearity for their existence and forming above the energy flow threshold. These new modes appear either around an array center, since the rotation leads to the emergence of the effective attractive potential with a minimum at the rotation axis, or in the array corners, in which case localization occurs due to competition between the centrifugal force and total internal reflection at the interface of the truncated array. The degree of localization of the central and corner modes mediated by the rotation increases with the rotation frequency. The stable rotating soliton families bifurcating from linear modes are analyzed in both focusing and defocusing media. PMID:27607984

  6. Localized waves supported by the rotating waveguide array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Fangwei; Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-09-01

    We show that truncated rotating square waveguide arrays support new types of localized modes that exist even in the linear case, in complete contrast to localized excitations in nonrotating arrays requiring nonlinearity for their existence and forming above the energy flow threshold. These new modes appear either around an array center, since the rotation leads to the emergence of the effective attractive potential with a minimum at the rotation axis, or in the array corners, in which case localization occurs due to competition between the centrifugal force and total internal reflection at the interface of the truncated array. The degree of localization of the central and corner modes mediated by the rotation increases with the rotation frequency. The stable rotating soliton families bifurcating from linear modes are analyzed in both focusing and defocusing media.

  7. Rossby Wave Instability in Locally Isothermal and Polytropic Disks: Three-dimensional Linear Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2012-07-01

    Numerical calculations of the linear Rossby wave instability (RWI) in global three-dimensional (3D) disks are presented. The linearized fluid equations are solved for vertically stratified, radially structured disks with either a locally isothermal or polytropic equation of state, by decomposing the vertical dependence of the perturbed hydrodynamic quantities into Hermite and Gegenbauer polynomials, respectively. It is confirmed that the RWI operates in 3D. For perturbations with vertical dependence assumed above, there is little difference in growth rates between 3D and two-dimensional (2D) calculations. Comparison between 2D and 3D solutions of this type suggests the RWI is predominantly a 2D instability and that 3D effects, such as vertical motion, can be interpreted as a perturbative consequence of the dominant 2D flow. The vertical flow around corotation, where vortex formation is expected, is examined. In locally isothermal disks, the expected vortex center remains in approximate vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. For polytropic disks, the vortex center has positive vertical velocity, whose magnitude increases with decreasing polytropic index n.

  8. ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY IN LOCALLY ISOTHERMAL AND POLYTROPIC DISKS: THREE-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2012-07-20

    Numerical calculations of the linear Rossby wave instability (RWI) in global three-dimensional (3D) disks are presented. The linearized fluid equations are solved for vertically stratified, radially structured disks with either a locally isothermal or polytropic equation of state, by decomposing the vertical dependence of the perturbed hydrodynamic quantities into Hermite and Gegenbauer polynomials, respectively. It is confirmed that the RWI operates in 3D. For perturbations with vertical dependence assumed above, there is little difference in growth rates between 3D and two-dimensional (2D) calculations. Comparison between 2D and 3D solutions of this type suggests the RWI is predominantly a 2D instability and that 3D effects, such as vertical motion, can be interpreted as a perturbative consequence of the dominant 2D flow. The vertical flow around corotation, where vortex formation is expected, is examined. In locally isothermal disks, the expected vortex center remains in approximate vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. For polytropic disks, the vortex center has positive vertical velocity, whose magnitude increases with decreasing polytropic index n.

  9. Non local resonances in weak turbulence of gravity-capillary water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordant, Nicolas; Aubourg, Quentin

    2015-11-01

    We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of wave turbulence of surface waves on water. In the limit of weak non linearity an energy cascade in scale is predicted by the Weak Turbulence Theory. Energy transfers are predicted to occur among resonant waves. We use a Fourier Transform Profilometry technique that provides a 2D measurement of the water surface deformation that is resolved in time and scale. The principle is to project a pattern on the surface of water which diffuses light thanks to the addition of a Titanium oxyde powder. The pattern can then be inverted to provide the elevation of the water surface. Our wave tank is 70 cm long and we investigate waves that lie is the vicinity of the capillary-gravity crossover with frequencies between 1Hz and 100 Hz. We compute 3-wave correlations so that to study the non linear coupling and the energy transfers among resonant waves. We observe a 3-wave non linear coupling which is dominantly unidirectional and non local in scale: a low frequency gravity wave can be coupled to 2 high frequency capillary waves. We will also discuss the importance of approximate resonances in the wave coupling.

  10. Detonation Waves Parameters for Fefo/nitrobenzene Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, V. M.; Utkin, A. V.; Garanin, V. A.; Torunov, S. I.

    2009-12-01

    The dependence of detonation parameters for (bis-(2-fluoro-2, 2-dinitroethyl) formal)/nitrobenzene solution (FEFO/NB) on NB concentration was defined. Velocity profiles of the boundary between HE and water window were recorded by laser interferometer VISAR. It was found that particle velocity in a pure FEFO was strongly oscillating with the oscillation amplitude ˜50 m/s. It means that detonation front is unstable and heterogeneities size is about 10 μm. The average velocity profile corresponds to ZND model. The reaction time is equal to ˜400 ns, C-J pressure and particle velocity are 24 GPa and 2.0 km/s respectively. For FEFO/NB solution it was found that at low NB concentrations (10-20%) oscillations disappeared and detonation front was stable. When the NB concentration increased up to 30% high-frequency oscillations appeared again. The measurements of reaction zone structure up to critical concentration were conducted, it was about 45%. At average particle velocity profiles Von Neumann spike was distinctly registered. It was shown that in a pure FEFO and in solutions with NB concentration exceeding 30%) detonation front was unstable.

  11. Detonation waves parameters for FEFO/nitrobenzene solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, Valentina; Utkin, Alexander; Garanin, Victor; Torunov, Sergey

    2009-06-01

    The dependence of detonation parameters for (bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal)/nitrobenzene solution (FEFO/NB) from NB concentration was defined. Velocity profiles of the boundary between HE and water window were recorded by laser interferometer VISAR. It was found that particle velocity in a pure FEFO was strongly oscillating with the oscillation amplitude ˜50 m/s. It means that detonation front is unstable and irregularity size is about 10 mkm. The average velocity profile corresponds to ZND model. The reaction time is equal to ˜ 400ns, C-J pressure and particle velocity are 24 GPa and 2.0 km/s respectively. For FEFO/NB solution it was found that at low NB concentrations (10-20%) oscillations disappeared and detonation front was stable. When the NB concentration was increased up to 30 % high-frequency oscillations appeared again. The measurements of reaction zone structure up to critical concentration were conducted, it was about 45%. At average particle velocity profiles Von Neumann spike was distinctly registered. It was shown that in a pure FEFO and in solutions with NB concentration exceeding 30% detonation front was unstable.

  12. Absence of localized acoustic waves in a scale-free correlated random system.

    PubMed

    Costa, A E B; de Moura, F A B F

    2011-02-16

    We numerically study the propagation of acoustic waves in a one-dimensional medium with a scale-free long-range correlated elasticity distribution. The random elasticity distribution is assumed to have a power spectrum S(k) ∼ 1/k(α). By using a transfer-matrix method we solve the discrete version of the scalar wave equation and compute the localization length. In addition, we apply a second-order finite-difference method for both the time and spatial variables and study the nature of the waves that propagate in the chain. Our numerical data indicate the presence of extended acoustic waves for a high degree of correlations. In contrast with local correlations, we numerically demonstrate that scale-free correlations promote a stable phase of free acoustic waves in the thermodynamic limit. PMID:21406919

  13. Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen

    2003-12-01

    We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems.

  14. Approximate solutions to a nonintegrable problem of propagation of elliptically polarised waves in an isotropic gyrotropic nonlinear medium, and periodic analogues of multisoliton complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, V A; Petnikova, V M; Potravkin, N N; Shuvalov, V V

    2014-02-28

    Using the linearization method, we obtain approximate solutions to a one-dimensional nonintegrable problem of propagation of elliptically polarised light waves in an isotropic gyrotropic medium with local and nonlocal components of the Kerr nonlinearity and group-velocity dispersion. The consistent evolution of two orthogonal circularly polarised components of the field is described analytically in the case when their phases vary linearly during propagation. The conditions are determined for the excitation of waves with a regular and 'chaotic' change in the polarisation state. The character of the corresponding nonlinear solutions, i.e., periodic analogues of multisoliton complexes, is analysed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  15. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitz, F. F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-03-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18-125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the non-plane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ~200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high stress

  16. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  17. Transient Localized Wave Patterns and Their Application to Migraine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Transient dynamics is pervasive in the human brain and poses challenging problems both in mathematical tractability and clinical observability. We investigate statistical properties of transient cortical wave patterns with characteristic forms (shape, size, duration) in a canonical reaction-diffusion model with mean field inhibition. The patterns are formed by ghost behavior near a saddle-node bifurcation in which a stable traveling wave (node) collides with its critical nucleation mass (saddle). Similar patterns have been observed with fMRI in migraine. Our results support the controversial idea that waves of cortical spreading depression (SD) have a causal relationship with the headache phase in migraine and, therefore, occur not only in migraine with aura (MA), but also in migraine without aura (MO), i.e., in the two major migraine subtypes. We suggest a congruence between the prevalence of MO and MA with the statistical properties of the traveling waves’ forms according to which two predictions follow: (i) the activation of nociceptive mechanisms relevant for headache is dependent upon a sufficiently large instantaneous affected cortical area; and (ii) the incidence of MA is reflected in the distance to the saddle-node bifurcation. We also observed that the maximal instantaneous affected cortical area is anticorrelated to both SD duration and total affected cortical area, which can explain why the headache is less severe in MA than in MO. Furthermore, the contested notion of MO attacks with silent aura is resolved. We briefly discuss model-based control and means by which neuromodulation techniques may affect pathways of pain formation. PMID:23718283

  18. Analytical solutions and rogue waves in (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zheng-Yi; Ma, Song-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Analytical solutions in terms of rational-like functions are presented for a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with time-varying coefficients and a harmonica potential using the similarity transformation and a direct ansatz. Several free functions of time t are involved to generate abundant wave structures. Three types of elementary functions are chosen to exhibit the corresponding nonlinear rogue wave propagations.

  19. One Single Static Measurement Predicts Wave Localization in Complex Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Gondel, Alexane; Dubois, Marc; Atlan, Michael; Feppon, Florian; Labbé, Aimé; Gillot, Camille; Garelli, Alix; Ernoult, Maxence; Mayboroda, Svitlana; Filoche, Marcel; Sebbah, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    A recent theoretical breakthrough has brought a new tool, called the localization landscape, for predicting the localization regions of vibration modes in complex or disordered systems. Here, we report on the first experiment which measures the localization landscape and demonstrates its predictive power. Holographic measurement of the static deformation under uniform load of a thin plate with complex geometry provides direct access to the landscape function. When put in vibration, this system shows modes precisely confined within the subregions delineated by the landscape function. Also the maxima of this function match the measured eigenfrequencies, while the minima of the valley network gives the frequencies at which modes become extended. This approach fully characterizes the low frequency spectrum of a complex structure from a single static measurement. It paves the way for controlling and engineering eigenmodes in any vibratory system, especially where a structural or microscopic description is not accessible.

  20. One Single Static Measurement Predicts Wave Localization in Complex Structures.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Gondel, Alexane; Dubois, Marc; Atlan, Michael; Feppon, Florian; Labbé, Aimé; Gillot, Camille; Garelli, Alix; Ernoult, Maxence; Mayboroda, Svitlana; Filoche, Marcel; Sebbah, Patrick

    2016-08-12

    A recent theoretical breakthrough has brought a new tool, called the localization landscape, for predicting the localization regions of vibration modes in complex or disordered systems. Here, we report on the first experiment which measures the localization landscape and demonstrates its predictive power. Holographic measurement of the static deformation under uniform load of a thin plate with complex geometry provides direct access to the landscape function. When put in vibration, this system shows modes precisely confined within the subregions delineated by the landscape function. Also the maxima of this function match the measured eigenfrequencies, while the minima of the valley network gives the frequencies at which modes become extended. This approach fully characterizes the low frequency spectrum of a complex structure from a single static measurement. It paves the way for controlling and engineering eigenmodes in any vibratory system, especially where a structural or microscopic description is not accessible. PMID:27563967

  1. Quantum Hasimoto transformation and nonlinear waves on a superfluid vortex filament under the quantum local induction approximation.

    PubMed

    Van Gorder, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    The Hasimoto transformation between the classical LIA (local induction approximation, a model approximating the motion of a thin vortex filament) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) has proven very useful in the past, since it allows one to construct new solutions to the LIA once a solution to the NLS is known. In the present paper, the quantum form of the LIA (which includes mutual friction effects) is put into correspondence with a type of complex nonlinear dispersive partial differential equation (PDE) with cubic nonlinearity (similar in form to a Ginsburg-Landau equation, with additional nonlinear terms). Transforming the quantum LIA in such a way enables one to obtain quantum vortex filament solutions once solutions to this dispersive PDE are known. From our quantum Hasimoto transformation, we determine the form and behavior of Stokes waves, a standing one-soliton, traveling waves, and similarity solutions under normal and binormal friction effects. The quantum Hasimoto transformation is useful when normal fluid velocity is relatively weak, so for the case where the normal fluid velocity is dominant we resort to other approaches. We exhibit a number of solutions that exist only in the presence of the normal fluid velocity and mutual friction terms (which would therefore not exist in the limit taken to obtain the classical LIA, decaying into line filaments under such a limit), examples of which include normal fluid driven helices, stationary and propagating topological solitons, and a vortex ring whose radius varies inversely with the normal fluid magnitude. We show that, while chaos may not be impossible under the quantum LIA, it should not be expected to arise from traveling waves along quantum vortex filaments under the quantum LIA formulation. PMID:26066272

  2. Quantum Hasimoto transformation and nonlinear waves on a superfluid vortex filament under the quantum local induction approximation.

    PubMed

    Van Gorder, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    The Hasimoto transformation between the classical LIA (local induction approximation, a model approximating the motion of a thin vortex filament) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) has proven very useful in the past, since it allows one to construct new solutions to the LIA once a solution to the NLS is known. In the present paper, the quantum form of the LIA (which includes mutual friction effects) is put into correspondence with a type of complex nonlinear dispersive partial differential equation (PDE) with cubic nonlinearity (similar in form to a Ginsburg-Landau equation, with additional nonlinear terms). Transforming the quantum LIA in such a way enables one to obtain quantum vortex filament solutions once solutions to this dispersive PDE are known. From our quantum Hasimoto transformation, we determine the form and behavior of Stokes waves, a standing one-soliton, traveling waves, and similarity solutions under normal and binormal friction effects. The quantum Hasimoto transformation is useful when normal fluid velocity is relatively weak, so for the case where the normal fluid velocity is dominant we resort to other approaches. We exhibit a number of solutions that exist only in the presence of the normal fluid velocity and mutual friction terms (which would therefore not exist in the limit taken to obtain the classical LIA, decaying into line filaments under such a limit), examples of which include normal fluid driven helices, stationary and propagating topological solitons, and a vortex ring whose radius varies inversely with the normal fluid magnitude. We show that, while chaos may not be impossible under the quantum LIA, it should not be expected to arise from traveling waves along quantum vortex filaments under the quantum LIA formulation.

  3. Numerical study of solute transport in shallow beach aquifers subjected to waves and tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2015-02-01

    A numerical study was conducted to investigate the fate of solute in a laboratory beach in response to waves and tides. A new temporal upscaling approach labeled "net inflow" was introduced to address impacts of waves on solute transport within beaches. Numerical simulations using a computational fluid dynamic model were used as boundary conditions for the two-dimensional variably saturated flow and solute transport model MARUN. The modeling approach was validated against experimental data of solute transport due to waves and tides. Exchange fluxes across the beach face and subsurface solute transport (e.g., trajectory, movement speed, and residence time) were quantified. Simulation results revealed that waves increased the exchange fluxes, and engendered a wider exchange flux zone along the beach surface. Compared to tide-only forcing, waves superimposed on tide caused the plume to be deeper into the beach, and to migrate more seaward. The infiltration into the beach was found to be directly proportional to the general hydraulic gradient in the beach and inversely proportional to the matrix retention (or capillary) capacity. The simulations showed that a higher inland water table would attenuate wave-caused seawater infiltration, which might impact beach geochemical processes (e.g., nutrient recycle and redox condition), especially at low tide zone. The concept of biochemical residence time maps (BRTM) was introduced to account for the net effect of limiting concentration of chemicals on biochemical reactions. It was found that waves shifted the BRTMs downward and seaward in the beach, and subsequently they engendered different biochemical conditions within the beach.

  4. Effects of polarization on the transmission and localization of classical waves in weakly scattering metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asatryan, Ara A.; Botten, Lindsay C.; Byrne, Michael A.; Freilikher, Valentin D.; Gredeskul, Sergey A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; McPhedran, Ross C.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2010-11-01

    We summarize the results of our comprehensive analytical and numerical studies of the effects of polarization on the Anderson localization of classical waves in one-dimensional random stacks. We consider homogeneous stacks composed entirely of normal materials or metamaterials, and also mixed stacks composed of alternating layers of a normal material and a metamaterial. We extend the theoretical study developed earlier for the case of normal incidence [A. A. Asatryan , Phys. Rev. B 81, 075124 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevB.81.075124] to the case of off-axis incidence. For the general case where both the refractive indices and layer thicknesses are random, we obtain the long-wave and short-wave asymptotics of the localization length over a wide range of incidence angles (including the Brewster “anomaly” angle). At the Brewster angle, we show that the long-wave localization length is proportional to the square of the wavelength, as for the case of normal incidence, but with a proportionality coefficient substantially larger than that for normal incidence. In mixed stacks with only refractive-index disorder, we demonstrate that p -polarized waves are strongly localized, while for s polarization the localization is substantially suppressed, as in the case of normal incidence. In the case of only thickness disorder, we study also the transition from localization to delocalization at the Brewster angle.

  5. Anderson localization of electromagnetic waves in randomly-stratified magnetodielectric media with uniform impedance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihong

    2015-06-01

    The propagation and the Anderson localization of electromagnetic waves in a randomly-stratified slab, where both the dielectric permittivity and the magnetic permeability depend on one spatial coordinate in a random manner, is theoretically studied. The case where the wave impedance is uniform, while the refractive index is random, is considered in detail. The localization length and the disorder-averaged transmittance of s and p waves incident obliquely on the slab are calculated as a function of the incident angle θ and the strength of randomness in a numerically precise manner, using the invariant imbedding method. It is found that the waves incident perpendicularly on the slab are delocalized, while those incident obliquely are localized. As the incident angle increases from zero, the localization length decreases from infinity monotonically to some finite value. The localization length is found to depend on the incident angle as θ-4 and a simple analytical formula, which works quite well for weak disorder and small incident angles, is derived. The localization length does not depend on the wave polarization, but the disorder-averaged transmittance generally does.

  6. Contradiction within wave optics and its solution within a particle picture.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Konrad

    2015-02-01

    It is shown that the condition provided by paraxial wave optics for the resonance frequencies of the eigenmodes of an optical resonator leads to a contradiction, if the resonator is divided into subcavities. Moreover, it is shown that the results obtained in this way imply a violation of energy conservation. Since for nearly plane waves, paraxial wave optics becomes exact within wave optics, this contradiction also concerns wave optics. A solution for this problem is proposed within a particle picture as presented recently by the author. It is based on a consideration of the change of momentum of a photon bouncing between two equiphase surfaces with vanishing distance. This leads to a transverse force exerted on the photon. Assigning a relativistic mass to the photon leads to a Schrödinger equation describing a transverse motion of the photon. In this way the transverse modes of an optical resonator can be understood as the quantum mechanical eigenfunctions of a single photon.

  7. Computation of viscous blast wave solutions with an upwind finite volume method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molvik, Gregory A.

    1987-01-01

    A fully conservative, viscous, implicit, upwind, finite-volume scheme for the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations is described with application to blast wave flow fields. In this scheme, shocks are captured without the oscillations typical of central differencing techniques and wave speeds are accurately predicted. The finite volume philosophy ensures conservation and since boundary conditions are also treated conservatively, accurate reflections of waves from surfaces are assured. Viscous terms in the governing equations are treated in a manner consistent with the finite volume philosophy, resulting in very accurate prediction of boundary layer quantities. Numerical results are presented for four viscous problems: a steady boundary layer, a shock-induced boundary layer, a blast wave/cylinder interaction and a blast wave/supersonic missile interaction. Comparisons of the results with an established boundary layer code, similarity solution, and experimental data show excellent agreement.

  8. Millimetre-Wave Backhaul for 5G Networks: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Chen, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The trend for dense deployment in future 5G mobile communication networks makes current wired backhaul infeasible owing to the high cost. Millimetre-wave (mm-wave) communication, a promising technique with the capability of providing a multi-gigabit transmission rate, offers a flexible and cost-effective candidate for 5G backhauling. By exploiting highly directional antennas, it becomes practical to cope with explosive traffic demands and to deal with interference problems. Several advancements in physical layer technology, such as hybrid beamforming and full duplexing, bring new challenges and opportunities for mm-wave backhaul. This article introduces a design framework for 5G mm-wave backhaul, including routing, spatial reuse scheduling and physical layer techniques. The associated optimization model, open problems and potential solutions are discussed to fully exploit the throughput gain of the backhaul network. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the potential benefits of the proposed method for the 5G mm-wave backhaul design.

  9. Exact soliton-on-plane-wave solutions for two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru; Liu, W M

    2006-06-01

    By means of the Darboux transformation, we obtain analytical solutions for a soliton set on top of a plane-wave background in coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations describing a binary Bose-Einstein condensate. We consider basic properties of the solutions with and without the cross interaction [cross phase modulation (XPM)] between the two components of the background. In the absence of the XPM, this solutions maintain properties of one-component condensates, such as the modulation instability (MI); in the presence of the cross interaction, the solutions exhibit different properties, such as restriction of the MI and soliton splitting.

  10. 3-D wave propagation solution of a stable resonator, free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, A.; Cover, R. A.; Labbe, R. H.

    1983-11-01

    Rigorous numerical solutions of a stable resonator, free-electron laser are obtained using 3-D wave propagation algorithms in the presence of a radially and azimuthally varying gain. Assumptions of this time-independent formulation of the loaded-resonator cavity are discussed. Wave propagation in the cavity is performed by computing numerically the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction integral by the Gardner-Fresnel-Kirchoff algorithm. Results of steady-state numerical iterative solutions, in which both the gain and the optical fields achieve self-consistency throughout the resonator, are presented. These consist of: (1) mode pattern and (2) variations in gain with variations in the resonator parameters.

  11. The existence of traveling wave solutions for a bistable three-component lattice dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jong-Shenq; Wu, Chin-Chin

    2016-01-01

    We study the traveling wave solutions for a three-component lattice dynamical system. This problem arises in the modeling of three species competing two food resources in an environment with migration in which the habitat is one-dimensional and is divided into countable niches. We are concerned with the case when two species have different preferences of food and the third species has both preferences of food. To understand which species win the competition under the bistable condition, the existence of a traveling wave solution for this lattice dynamical system is proven.

  12. One-dimensional wave propagation in rods of variable cross section: A WKBJ solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ochi, Simeon C. U.; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    As an important step in the characterization of a particular dynamic surface displacement transducer (IQI Model 501), a one-dimensional wave propagation in isotropic nonpiezoelectric and piezoelectric rods of variable cross section are presented. With the use of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin-Jeffreys (WKBJ) approximate solution technique, an approximate formula, which relates the ratio of the amplitudes of a propagating wave observed at any two locations along the rod to the ratio of the cross sectional radii at these respective locations, is derived. The domains of frequency for which the approximate solution is valid are discussed for piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric materials.

  13. High-accuracy deterministic solution of the Boltzmann equation for the shock wave structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, E. A.; Bondar, Ye. A.; Kokhanchik, A. A.; Poleshkin, S. O.; Ivanov, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    A new deterministic method of solving the Boltzmann equation has been proposed. The method has been employed in numerical studies of the plane shock wave structure in a hard sphere gas. Results for Mach numbers and have been compared with predictions of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has been used to obtain the reference solution. Particular attention in estimating the solution accuracy has been paid to a fine structural effect: the presence of a total temperature peak exceeding the temperature value further downstream. The results of solving the Boltzmann equation for the shock wave structure are in excellent agreement with the DSMC predictions.

  14. New Exact Solutions of the CDGSK Equation Related to a Non-local Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Senyue; Ruan, Hangyu; Chen, Weizhong; Wang, Zhenli; Chen, Lili

    1994-10-01

    A non-local symmetry of the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera (CDGSK) equation has been used for finding exact solution in two different ways. Firstly, using the standard prolongation approach, we obtain the finite Lie Bäcklund transformation and the single soliton solution. Secondly, combining some local symmetries and the nonlocal symmetry, we get the group invariant solution which is described by the Weierstrass elliptic function and is deduced to the so-called interacting soliton for a special parameter.

  15. Testing spontaneous localization theories with matter-wave interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmrichter, Stefan; Haslinger, Philipp; Arndt, Markus; Hornberger, Klaus

    2011-04-15

    We propose to test the theory of continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) in an all-optical time-domain Talbot-Lau interferometer for clusters with masses exceeding 10{sup 6} amu. By assessing the relevant environmental decoherence mechanisms, as well as the growing size of the particles relative to the grating fringes, we argue that it will be feasible to test the quantum superposition principle in a mass range excluded by recent estimates of the CSL effect.

  16. Efficient solution procedures for systems with local non-linearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahimbegovic, Adnan; Wilson, Edward L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents several methods for enhancing computational efficiency in both static and dynamic analysis of structural systems with localized nonlinear behavior. A significant reduction of computational effort with respect to brute-force nonlinear analysis is achieved in all cases at the insignificant (or no) loss of accuracy. The presented methodologies are easily incorporated into a standard computer program for linear analysis.

  17. Exact solution to plane-wave scattering by an ideal "left-handed" wedge.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Smith, Douglas; Loschialpo, Peter

    2006-02-01

    An exact analytical solution to the problem of plane-wave diffraction by a penetrable left-handed medium (LHM) epsilon = micro = -1 wedge of arbitrary angle (subject to valid physical constraints) is presented. Standard analysis involving discontinuous angular eigenfunctions and even/odd symmetry decomposition resulted in a discrete spectrum leading to a series solution resembling the traditional perfect electric conductor wedge solution but exhibiting the expected negative refraction phenomenology. Numerical results are presented, some of which seemed paradoxical but are explainable by classical means. A new type of illusory edge radiation is observed and explained. Also, a novel edge-launched interface standing wave is observed on the directly illuminated side. The exact analytical solution is verified by comparison with finite-difference time-domain simulation on causal LHM materials.

  18. Analytical Solutions Involving Shock Waves for Testing Debris Avalanche Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungkasi, Sudi; Roberts, Stephen Gwyn

    2012-10-01

    Analytical solutions to debris avalanche problems involving shock waves are derived. The debris avalanche problems are described in two different coordinate systems, namely, the standard Cartesian and topography-linked coordinate systems. The analytical solutions can then be used to test debris avalanche numerical models. In this article, finite volume methods are applied as the numerical models. We compare the performance of the finite volume method with reconstruction of the conserved quantities based on stage, height, and velocity to that of the conserved quantities based on stage, height, and momentum for solving the debris avalanche problems involving shock waves. The numerical solutions agree with the analytical solution. In addition, both reconstructions lead to similar numerical results. This article is an extension of the work of Mangeney et al. (Pure Appl Geophys 157(6-8):1081-1096, 2000).

  19. Solution of the stochastic generalized shallow-water wave equation using RVT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Abdallah; Selim, Mustafa M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, some exact solutions of the stochastic generalized nonlinear shallow-water wave (SGNSWW) equation are obtained. This equation is an important equation in fluid mechanics field. Opposite to what is usually assumed in the literature, the coefficients of the nonlinear terms in this stochastic nonlinear partial differential equation (SNLPDE) are considered to be random quantities. The random variable transformation (RVT) technique is combined with the modified extended-tanh function method (METFM) to get the stochastic solutions represented by the probability density functions (PDFs) of the solution processes in terms of the PDFs of the random coefficients. These solutions are illustrated graphically along the spacial and time dimensions at a certain wave speed.

  20. Initial Value Problem Solution of Nonlinear Shallow Water-Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2006-10-06

    The initial value problem solution of the nonlinear shallow water-wave equations is developed under initial waveforms with and without velocity. We present a solution method based on a hodograph-type transformation to reduce the nonlinear shallow water-wave equations into a second-order linear partial differential equation and we solve its initial value problem. The proposed solution method overcomes earlier limitation of small waveheights when the initial velocity is nonzero, and the definition of the initial conditions in the physical and transform spaces is consistent. Our solution not only allows for evaluation of differences in predictions when specifying an exact initial velocity based on nonlinear theory and its linear approximation, which has been controversial in geophysical practice, but also helps clarify the differences in runup observed during the 2004 and 2005 Sumatran tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  1. Joint Inversion of Earthquake Source Parameters with local and teleseismic body waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Ni, S.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    In the classical source parameter inversion algorithm of CAP (Cut and Paste method, by Zhao and Helmberger), waveform data at near distances (typically less than 500km) are partitioned into Pnl and surface waves to account for uncertainties in the crustal models and different amplitude weight of body and surface waves. The classical CAP algorithms have proven effective for resolving source parameters (focal mechanisms, depth and moment) for earthquakes well recorded on relatively dense seismic network. However for regions covered with sparse stations, it is challenging to achieve precise source parameters . In this case, a moderate earthquake of ~M6 is usually recorded on only one or two local stations with epicentral distances less than 500 km. Fortunately, an earthquake of ~M6 can be well recorded on global seismic networks. Since the ray paths for teleseismic and local body waves sample different portions of the focal sphere, combination of teleseismic and local body wave data helps constrain source parameters better. Here we present a new CAP mothod (CAPjoint), which emploits both teleseismic body waveforms (P and SH waves) and local waveforms (Pnl, Rayleigh and Love waves) to determine source parameters. For an earthquake in Nevada that is well recorded with dense local network (USArray stations), we compare the results from CAPjoint with those from the traditional CAP method involving only of local waveforms , and explore the efficiency with bootstraping statistics to prove the results derived by CAPjoint are stable and reliable. Even with one local station included in joint inversion, accuracy of source parameters such as moment and strike can be much better improved.

  2. Local error estimates for discontinuous solutions of nonlinear hyperbolic equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    1989-01-01

    Let u(x,t) be the possibly discontinuous entropy solution of a nonlinear scalar conservation law with smooth initial data. Suppose u sub epsilon(x,t) is the solution of an approximate viscosity regularization, where epsilon greater than 0 is the small viscosity amplitude. It is shown that by post-processing the small viscosity approximation u sub epsilon, pointwise values of u and its derivatives can be recovered with an error as close to epsilon as desired. The analysis relies on the adjoint problem of the forward error equation, which in this case amounts to a backward linear transport with discontinuous coefficients. The novelty of this approach is to use a (generalized) E-condition of the forward problem in order to deduce a W(exp 1,infinity) energy estimate for the discontinuous backward transport equation; this, in turn, leads one to an epsilon-uniform estimate on moments of the error u(sub epsilon) - u. This approach does not follow the characteristics and, therefore, applies mutatis mutandis to other approximate solutions such as E-difference schemes.

  3. Localized modes of the Hirota equation: Nth order rogue wave and a separation of variable technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Gui; Qin, Zhenyun; Chow, Kwok Wing; Ee, Bernard K.

    2016-10-01

    The Hirota equation is a special extension of the intensively studied nonlinear Schrödinger equation, by incorporating third order dispersion and one form of the self-steepening effect. Higher order rogue waves of the Hirota equation can be calculated theoretically through a Darboux-dressing transformation by a separation of variable approach. A Taylor expansion is used and no derivative calculation is invoked. Furthermore, stability of these rogue waves is studied computationally. By tracing the evolution of an exact solution perturbed by random noise, it is found that second order rogue waves are generally less stable than first order ones.

  4. The local structure factor near an interface; beyond extended capillary-wave models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, A. O.; Rascón, C.; Evans, R.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the local structure factor S (zq) at a free liquid-gas interface in systems with short-ranged intermolecular forces and determine the corrections to the leading-order, capillary-wave-like, Goldstone mode divergence of S (zq) known to occur for parallel (i.e. measured along the interface) wavevectors q\\to 0 . We show from explicit solution of the inhomogeneous Ornstein-Zernike equation that for distances z far from the interface, where the profile decays exponentially, S (zq) splits unambiguously into bulk and interfacial contributions. On each side of the interface, the interfacial contributions can be characterised by distinct liquid and gas wavevector dependent surface tensions, {σ l}(q) and {σg}(q) , which are determined solely by the bulk two-body and three-body direct correlation functions. At high temperatures, the wavevector dependence simplifies and is determined almost entirely by the appropriate bulk structure factor, leading to positive rigidity coefficients. Our predictions are confirmed by explicit calculation of S (zq) within square-gradient theory and the Sullivan model. The results for the latter predict a striking temperature dependence for {σ l}(q) and {σg}(q) , and have implications for fluctuation effects. Our results account quantitatively for the findings of a recent very extensive simulation study by Höfling and Dietrich of the total structure factor in the interfacial region, in a system with a cut-off Lennard-Jones potential, in sharp contrast to extended capillary-wave models which failed completely to describe the simulation results.

  5. Global stability of travelling wave fronts for non-local diffusion equations with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Lv, G.

    2014-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the global stability of travelling wave fronts for non-local diffusion equations with delay. We prove that the non-critical travelling wave fronts are globally exponentially stable under perturbations in some exponentially weighted L^\\infty-spaces. Moreover, we obtain the decay rates of \\sup_{x\\in{R}}\\vert u(x,t)-\\varphi(x+ct)\\vert using weighted energy estimates.

  6. Local wave climate and long-term bed shear stress characteristics in Monterey Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Five and a half years of wave measurements at two stations in Monterey Bay, CA show that the local wave climate at the South (Marina station) is markedly different from that at the North (Santa Cruz Harbor station). Measured significant wave heights at the Marina station are profoundly greater than at the Santa Cruz Harbor station, especially during winter. During summer, southerly or southwesterly Pacific Ocean swells can be dominant, and therefore, the peak wave periods at the Marina station, protected from these swells by the Monterey Peninsula headland, are much shorter than at the Santa Cruz station. This disparity of wave characteristics at the two stations are the direct causes of the difference in the long-term probability of sediment suspension and transport. Sheet-flow conditions, under which significant sand transport events presumably take place, occur about 20 to 40 times more often at the Marina station than at the Santa Cruz Harbor station.

  7. Fractal dimensions of wave functions and local spectral measures on the Fibonacci chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macé, Nicolas; Jagannathan, Anuradha; Piéchon, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical framework for understanding the wave functions and spectrum of an extensively studied paradigm for quasiperiodic systems, namely the Fibonacci chain. Our analytical results, which are obtained in the limit of strong modulation of the hopping amplitudes, are in good agreement with published numerical data. In the perturbative limit, we show a symmetry of wave functions under permutation of site and energy indices. We compute the wave-function renormalization factors and from them deduce analytical expressions for the fractal exponents corresponding to individual wave functions, as well as their global averages. The multifractality of wave functions is seen to appear at next-to-leading order in ρ . Exponents for the local spectral density are given, in extremely good accord with numerical calculations. Interestingly, our analytical results for exponents are observed to describe the system rather well even for values of ρ well outside the domain of applicability of perturbation theory.

  8. Quantifying local exciton, charge resonance, and multiexciton character in correlated wave functions of multichromophoric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, David; Krylov, Anna I.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for quantifying the contributions of local excitation, charge resonance, and multiexciton configurations in correlated wave functions of multichromophoric systems is presented. The approach relies on fragment-localized orbitals and employs spin correlators. Its utility is illustrated by calculations on model clusters of hydrogen, ethylene, and tetracene molecules using adiabatic restricted-active-space configuration interaction wave functions. In addition to the wave function analysis, this approach provides a basis for a simple state-specific energy correction accounting for insufficient description of electron correlation. The decomposition scheme also allows one to compute energies of the diabatic states of the local excitonic, charge-resonance, and multi-excitonic character. The new method provides insight into electronic structure of multichromophoric systems and delivers valuable reference data for validating excitonic models.

  9. Shock wave emission from laser-induced cavitation bubbles in polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Brujan, Emil-Alexandru

    2008-09-01

    The role of extensional viscosity on the acoustic emission from laser-induced cavitation bubbles in polymer solutions and near a rigid boundary is investigated by acoustic measurements. The polymer solutions consist of a 0.5% polyacrylamide (PAM) aqueous solution with a strong elastic component and a 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) aqueous solution with a weak elastic component. A reduction of the maximum amplitude of the shock wave pressure and a prolongation of the oscillation period of the bubble were found in the elastic PAM solution. It might be caused by an increased resistance to extensional flow which is conferred upon the liquid by the polymer additive. In both polymer solutions, however, the shock pressure decays proportionally to r(-1) with increasing distance r from the emission centre.

  10. Acoustical model of small calibre ballistic shock waves in air for automatic sniper localization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan R.; Salinas, Renato A.; Abidi, Mongi A.

    2007-04-01

    The phenomenon of ballistic shock wave emission by a small calibre projectile at supersonic speed is quite relevant in automatic sniper localization applications. When available, ballistic shock wave analysis makes possible the estimation of the main ballistic features of a gunfire event. The propagation of ballistic shock waves in air is a process which mainly involves nonlinear distortion, or steepening, and atmospheric absorption. Current ballistic shock waves propagation models used in automatic sniper localization systems only consider nonlinear distortion effects. This means that only the rates of change of shock peak pressure and the N-wave duration with distance are considered in the determination of the miss distance. In the present paper we present an improved acoustical model of small calibre ballistic shock wave propagation in air, intended to be used in acoustics-based automatic sniper localization applications. In our approach, we have considered nonlinear distortion, but additionally we have also introduced the effects of atmospheric sound absorption. Atmospheric absorption is implemented in the time domain in order to get faster calculation times than those computed in frequency domain. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that atmospheric absorption plays a fundamental role in the rise times of the shocks, and introduce the rate of change of the rise time with distance as a third parameter to be used in the determination of the miss distance. This lead us to a more accurate and robust estimation of the miss distance, and consequently of the projectile trajectory, and the spatial coordinates of the gunshot origin.

  11. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSORPTION, EMISSIVITY REDUCTION, AND LOCAL SUPPRESSION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, D.-Y.; Liang, Z.-C.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-05-01

    The power of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions is lower relative to the quiet Sun. Absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of acoustic waves contribute to the observed power reduction in magnetic regions. We propose a model for the energy budget of acoustic waves propagating through a sunspot in terms of the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of the sunspot. Using the property that the waves emitted along the wave path between two points have no correlation with the signal at the starting point, we can separate the effects of these three mechanisms. Applying this method to helioseismic data filtered with direction and phase-velocity filters, we measure the fraction of the contribution of each mechanism to the power deficit in the umbra of the leading sunspot of NOAA 9057. The contribution from absorption is 23.3 {+-} 1.3%, emissivity reduction 8.2 {+-} 1.4%, and local suppression 68.5 {+-} 1.5%, for a wave packet corresponding to a phase velocity of 6.98 x 10{sup -5} rad s{sup -1}.

  12. Identification and mitigation of T-S waves using localized dynamic surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitay, Michael; Tuna, Burak A.; Dell'Orso, Haley

    2016-06-01

    The control of transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow over a flat plate using localized dynamic surface modifications was explored experimentally in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's subsonic wind tunnel. Dynamic surface modification, via a pair of Piezoelectrically Driven Oscillating Surface (PDOS) actuators, was used to excite and control the T-S wave over a flat plate. Creating an upstream, localized small disturbance at the most amplified frequency of fact = 250 Hz led to phase-locking the T-S wave. This enabled observation of the excited T-S wave using phase-locked stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. The growth of the T-S wave as it moved downstream was also measured using this technique (25% growth over four wavelengths of the excited wave). Activation of a downstream PDOS actuator (in addition to the upstream PDOS) at the appropriate amplitude and phase shift resulted in attenuation of the peak amplitude of the coherent velocity fluctuations (by up to 68%) and a substantial reduction of the degree of coherence of the T-S wave. Since the PDOS actuators used in this work were localized, the effect of the control strategy was confined to the region directly downstream of the PDOS actuator.

  13. GLOBAL AND LOCAL CUTOFF FREQUENCIES FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATING ALONG SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Routh, S.; Musielak, Z. E.; Hammer, R. E-mail: zmusielak@uta.edu

    2013-01-20

    It is a well-established result that the propagation of linear transverse waves along a thin but isothermal magnetic flux tube is affected by the existence of the global cutoff frequency, which separates the propagating and non-propagating waves. In this paper, the wave propagation along a thin and non-isothermal flux tube is considered and a local cutoff frequency is derived. The effects of different temperature profiles on this local cutoff frequency are studied by considering different power-law temperature distributions, as well as the semi-empirical VAL C model of the solar atmosphere. The obtained results show that the conditions for wave propagation strongly depend on the temperature gradients. Moreover, the local cutoff frequency calculated for the VAL C model gives constraints on the range of wave frequencies that are propagating in different parts of the solar atmosphere. These theoretically predicted constraints are compared to observational data and are used to discuss the role played by transverse tube waves in the atmospheric heating and dynamics, and in the excitation of solar atmospheric oscillations.

  14. Local probing of magnetic films by optical excitation of magnetostatic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, A. I.; Kozhaev, M. A.; Vetoshko, P. M.; Dodonov, D. V.; Prokopov, A. R.; Shumilov, A. G.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Berzhanskii, V. N.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-06-01

    Excitation of volume and surface magnetostatic spin waves in ferrite garnet films by circularly polarized laser pulses utilizing to the inverse magnetooptical Faraday effect has been studied experimentally. The region of excitation of the magnetostatic spin waves is determined by the diameter of the laser beam (˜10 μm). At the same time, the characteristic propagation length of the modes is 30 μm. A method of finding the local characteristics of a magnetic film, in particular, the cubic and uniaxial anisotropy constants, based on the analysis of the azimuthal-angle dependence of the spectrum of the magnetostatic spin waves has been proposed.

  15. Rescaled Local Interaction Simulation Approach for Shear Wave Propagation Modelling in Magnetic Resonance Elastography.

    PubMed

    Hashemiyan, Z; Packo, P; Staszewski, W J; Uhl, T

    2016-01-01

    Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808

  16. Rescaled Local Interaction Simulation Approach for Shear Wave Propagation Modelling in Magnetic Resonance Elastography

    PubMed Central

    Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.

    2016-01-01

    Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808

  17. Molecular quantum robotics: particle and wave solutions, illustrated by “leg-over-leg” walking along microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Remarkable biological examples of molecular robots are the proteins kinesin-1 and dynein, which move and transport cargo down microtubule “highways,” e.g., of the axon, to final nerve nodes or along dendrites. They convert the energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical forces and can thereby push them forwards or backwards step by step. Such mechano-chemical cycles that generate conformal changes are essential for transport on all different types of substrate lanes. The step length of an individual molecular robot is a matter of nanometers but the dynamics of each individual step cannot be predicted with certainty (as it is a random process). Hence, our proposal is to involve the methods of quantum field theory (QFT) to describe an overall reliable, multi–robot system that is composed of a huge set of unreliable, local elements. The methods of QFT deliver techniques that are also computationally demanding to synchronize the motion of these molecular robots on one substrate lane as well as across lanes. Three different challenging types of solutions are elaborated. The impact solution reflects the particle point of view; the two remaining solutions are wave based. The second solution outlines coherent robot motions on different lanes. The third solution describes running waves. Experimental investigations are needed to clarify under which biological conditions such different solutions occur. Moreover, such a nano-chemical system can be stimulated by external signals, and this opens a new, hybrid approach to analyze and control the combined system of robots and microtubules externally. Such a method offers the chance to detect mal-functions of the biological system. PMID:26005415

  18. Cylindrical gravitational waves with two degrees of freedom: An exact solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piran, T.; Safier, P. N.; Katz, J.

    1986-07-01

    The exact two-parameter solution of Einstein's equations described below represents ingoing and outgoing cylindrical gravitational waves with two degrees of polarization. It has been obtained from the Kerr metric by applying a well-known trick but, unlike the Kerr metric, it has no singularities.

  19. Existence of travelling wave solutions for a Fisher-Kolmogorov system with biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan

    2016-07-01

    We consider a Fisher-Kolmogorov system with applications in oncology Pérez-García et al. (2015). Of interest is the question of the existence of travelling front solutions of the system. When the speed of the travelling wave is sufficiently large, existence of such fronts is shown using singular geometric perturbation theory.

  20. DETECTION, LOCALIZATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BURSTS IN A PULSAR TIMING ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, Lee Samuel; Lommen, Andrea N.

    2010-08-01

    Efforts to detect gravitational waves by timing an array of pulsars have traditionally focused on stationary gravitational waves, e.g., stochastic or periodic signals. Gravitational wave bursts-signals whose duration is much shorter than the observation period-will also arise in the pulsar timing array waveband. Sources that give rise to detectable bursts include the formation or coalescence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), the periapsis passage of compact objects in highly elliptic or unbound orbits about an SMBH, or cusps on cosmic strings. Here, we describe how pulsar timing array data may be analyzed to detect and characterize these bursts. Our analysis addresses, in a mutually consistent manner, a hierarchy of three questions. (1) What are the odds that a data set includes the signal from a gravitational wave burst? (2) Assuming the presence of a burst, what is the direction to its source? (3) Assuming the burst propagation direction, what is the burst waveform's time dependence in each of its polarization states? Applying our analysis to synthetic data sets, we find that we can detect gravitational waves even when the radiation is too weak to either localize the source or infer the waveform, and detect and localize sources even when the radiation amplitude is too weak to permit the waveform to be determined. While the context of our discussion is gravitational wave detection via pulsar timing arrays, the analysis itself is directly applicable to gravitational wave detection using either ground- or space-based detector data.

  1. Prospects for Observing and Localizing Gravitational-Wave Transients with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We present a possible observing scenario for the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We determine the expected sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals, and study the capability of the network to determine the sky location of the source. We report our findings for gravitational-wave transients, with particular focus on gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of binary neutron-star systems, which are considered the most promising for multi-messenger astronomy. The ability to localize the sources of the detected signals depends on the geographical distribution of the detectors and their relative sensitivity, and 90% credible regions can be as large as thousands of square degrees when only two sensitive detectors are operational. Determining the sky position of a significant fraction of detected signals to areas of 5 deg^2 to 20 deg^2 will require at least three detectors of sensitivity within a factor of ~2 of each other and with a broad frequency bandwidth. Should the third LIGO detector be relocated to India as expected, a significant fraction of gravitational-wave signals will be localized to a few square degrees by gravitational-wave observations alone.

  2. On the accurate long-time solution of the wave equation in exterior domains: Asymptotic expansions and corrected boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas; Hariharan, S. I.; Maccamy, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the solution of scattering problems for the wave equation using approximate boundary conditions at artificial boundaries. These conditions are explicitly viewed as approximations to an exact boundary condition satisfied by the solution on the unbounded domain. We study the short and long term behavior of the error. It is provided that, in two space dimensions, no local in time, constant coefficient boundary operator can lead to accurate results uniformly in time for the class of problems we consider. A variable coefficient operator is developed which attains better accuracy (uniformly in time) than is possible with constant coefficient approximations. The theory is illustrated by numerical examples. We also analyze the proposed boundary conditions using energy methods, leading to asymptotically correct error bounds.

  3. Anderson localization of matter waves in quantum-chaos theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, E.; Pilati, S.

    2015-06-01

    We study the Anderson localization of atomic gases exposed to three-dimensional optical speckles by analyzing the statistics of the energy-level spacings. This method allows us to consider realistic models of the speckle patterns, taking into account the strongly anisotropic correlations which are realized in concrete experimental configurations. We first compute the mobility edge Ec of a speckle pattern created using a single laser beam. We find that Ec drifts when we vary the anisotropy of the speckle grains, going from higher values when the speckles are squeezed along the beam propagation axis to lower values when they are elongated. We also consider the case where two speckle patterns are superimposed, forming interference fringes, and we find that Ec is increased compared to the case of idealized isotropic disorder. We discuss the important implications of our findings for cold-atom experiments.

  4. Data-driven and calibration-free Lamb wave source localization with sparse sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Harley, Joel B; Moura, José M F

    2015-08-01

    Most Lamb wave localization techniques require that we know the wave's velocity characteristics; yet, in many practical scenarios, velocity estimates can be challenging to acquire, are unavailable, or are unreliable because of the complexity of Lamb waves. As a result, there is a significant need for new methods that can reduce a system's reliance on a priori velocity information. This paper addresses this challenge through two novel source localization methods designed for sparse sensor arrays in isotropic media. Both methods exploit the fundamental sparse structure of a Lamb wave's frequency-wavenumber representation. The first method uses sparse recovery techniques to extract velocities from calibration data. The second method uses kurtosis and the support earth mover's distance to measure the sparseness of a Lamb wave's approximate frequency-wavenumber representation. These measures are then used to locate acoustic sources with no prior calibration data. We experimentally study each method with a collection of acoustic emission data measured from a 1.22 m by 1.22 m isotropic aluminum plate. We show that both methods can achieve less than 1 cm localization error and have less systematic error than traditional time-of-arrival localization methods. PMID:26276960

  5. The APOSTLE simulations: solutions to the Local Group's cosmic puzzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, Till; Frenk, Carlos S.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Furlong, Michelle; Helly, John. C.; Jenkins, Adrian; Oman, Kyle A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Trayford, James; White, Simon D. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Local Group galaxies offer some of the most discriminating tests of models of cosmic structure formation. For example, observations of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda satellite populations appear to be in disagreement with N-body simulations of the `lambda cold dark matter' (ΛCDM) model: there are far fewer satellite galaxies than substructures in CDM haloes (the `missing satellites' problem); dwarf galaxies seem to avoid the most massive substructures (the `too-big-to-fail' problem); and the brightest satellites appear to orbit their host galaxies on a thin plane (the `planes of satellites' problem). Here we present results from APOSTLE (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment), a suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of 12 volumes selected to match the kinematics of the Local Group (LG) members. Applying the EAGLE code to the LG environment, we find that our simulations match the observed abundance of LG galaxies, including the satellite galaxies of the MW and Andromeda. Due to changes to the structure of haloes and the evolution in the LG environment, the simulations reproduce the observed relation between stellar mass and velocity dispersion of individual dwarf spheroidal galaxies without necessitating the formation of cores in their dark matter profiles. Satellite systems form with a range of spatial anisotropies, including one similar to the MWs, confirming that such a configuration is not unexpected in ΛCDM. Finally, based on the observed velocity dispersion, size, and stellar mass, we provide estimates of the maximum circular velocity for the haloes of nine MW dwarf spheroidals.

  6. Long-wave Marangoni convection in a layer of surfactant solution: Bifurcation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, M.; Oron, A.; Nepomnyashchy, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    We carry out a bifurcation analysis of the deformational mode of oscillatory Marangoni instability emerging in a heated layer of surfactant solution in the presence of the Soret effect and surfactant sorption at the free surface. The analysis is based on a set of long-wave evolution equations derived in our earlier work. By means of weakly nonlinear expansions about the instability threshold, we access the stability of a variety of convective patterns including single traveling and standing waves, superpositions of two traveling and two standing waves, and superpositions of three traveling waves. We have found that stability of convective patterns depends strongly on surfactant sorption; in particular, when adsorption is sufficiently strong the bifurcation is subcritical for any physically feasible value of system parameters.

  7. Single-image-based solution for optics temperature-dependent nonuniformity correction in an uncooled long-wave infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanpeng; Tisse, Christel-Loic

    2014-02-01

    In this Letter, we propose an efficient and accurate solution to remove temperature-dependent nonuniformity effects introduced by the imaging optics. This single-image-based approach computes optics-related fixed pattern noise (FPN) by fitting the derivatives of correction model to the gradient components, locally computed on an infrared image. A modified bilateral filtering algorithm is applied to local pixel output variations, so that the refined gradients are most likely caused by the nonuniformity associated with optics. The estimated bias field is subtracted from the raw infrared imagery to compensate the intensity variations caused by optics. The proposed method is fundamentally different from the existing nonuniformity correction (NUC) techniques developed for focal plane arrays (FPAs) and provides an essential image processing functionality to achieve completely shutterless NUC for uncooled long-wave infrared (LWIR) imaging systems.

  8. Scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media: analytic solution and applications.

    PubMed Central

    Boas, D A; O'Leary, M A; Chance, B; Yodh, A G

    1994-01-01

    We present an analytic solution for the scattering of diffuse photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneities within turbid media. The analytic result is compared to experimental measurements. Close agreement between theory and experiment permits the use of the theory to determine the properties of unknown sphere-like objects embedded in turbid media. The analytic solution is extended to encompass several problems of practical interest in imaging, including the influence of multiple sources, multiple objects, and boundaries on the characterization of spherical inhomogeneities. We also extend the solution to encompass time-domain measurements. Images PMID:8197151

  9. Analytical solutions of electromagnetic waves in focusing and magnifying cylindrical hyperlenses: Green's function approach.

    PubMed

    Tapsanit, Piyawath; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko

    2014-01-13

    The analytical solutions of the electromagnetic waves in the inhomogeneous cylindrical hyperlens (CH) comprising concentric cylindrical layers (CCLs) with multiple point sources located either outside the structure in the focusing process or inside the core in the magnifying process are obtained by means of Green's function analysis. The solutions are consistent with FDTD simulation in both processes. The sub-wavelength focal spot λ/16.26 from two point sources with wavelength 465 nm is demonstrated in the CH made by alternating silver and silica CCLs. Our solutions are expected to be the efficient tools for designing the sub-wavelength focusing and imaging cylindrical hyperlens.

  10. 3D WKB solution for fast magnetoacoustic wave behaviour around an X-line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, J. A.; Botha, G. J. J.; Régnier, S.; Spoors, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    Context. We study the propagation of a fast magnetoacoustic wave in a 3D magnetic field created from two magnetic dipoles. The magnetic topology contains an X-line. Aims: We aim to contribute to the overall understanding of MHD wave propagation within inhomogeneous media, specifically around X-lines. Methods: We investigate the linearised, 3D MHD equations under the assumptions of ideal and cold plasma. We utilise the WKB approximation and Charpit's method during our investigation. Results: It is found that the behaviour of the fast magnetoacoustic wave is entirely dictated by the local, inhomogeneous, equilibrium Alfvén speed profile. All parts of the wave experience refraction during propagation, where the magnitude of the refraction effect depends on the location of an individual wave element within the inhomogeneous magnetic field. The X-line, along which the Alfvén speed is identically zero, acts as a focus for the refraction effect. There are two main types of wave behaviour: part of the wave is either trapped by the X-line or escapes the system, and there exists a critical starting region around the X-line that divides these two types of behaviour. For the set-up investigated, it is found that 15.5% of the fast wave energy is trapped by the X-line. Conclusions: We conclude that linear, β = 0 fast magnetoacoustic waves can accumulate along X-lines and thus these will be specific locations of fast wave energy deposition and thus preferential heating. The work here highlights the importance of understanding the magnetic topology of a system. We also demonstrate how the 3D WKB technique described in this paper can be applied to other magnetic configurations.

  11. Selective localization of myosin-I proteins in macropinosomes and actin waves.

    PubMed

    Brzeska, Hanna; Koech, Hilary; Pridham, Kevin J; Korn, Edward D; Titus, Margaret A

    2016-02-01

    Class I myosins are widely expressed with roles in endocytosis and cell migration in a variety of cell types. Dictyostelium express multiple myosin Is, including three short-tailed (Myo1A, Myo1E, Myo1F) and three long-tailed (Myo1B, Myo1C, Myo1D). Here we report the molecular basis of the specific localizations of short-tailed Myo1A, Myo1E, and Myo1F compared to our previously determined localization of long-tailed Myo1B. Myo1A and Myo1B have common and unique localizations consistent with the various features of their tail region; specifically the BH sites in their tails are required for their association with the plasma membrane and heads are sufficient for relocalization to the front of polarized cells. Myo1A does not localize to actin waves and macropinocytic protrusions, in agreement with the absence of a tail region which is required for these localizations of Myo1B. However, in spite of the overall similarity of their domain structures, the cellular distributions of Myo1E and Myo1F are quite different from Myo1A. Myo1E and Myo1F, but not Myo1A, are associated with macropinocytic cups and actin waves. The localizations of Myo1E and Myo1F in macropinocytic structures and actin waves differ from the localization of Myo1B. Myo1B colocalizes with F-actin in the actin waves and at the tips of mature macropinocytic cups whereas Myo1E and Myo1F are in the interior of actin waves and along the entire surface of macropinocytic cups. Our results point to different mechanisms of targeting of short- and long-tailed myosin Is, and are consistent with these myosins having both shared and divergent cellular functions.

  12. Exact solutions of unsteady Korteweg-de Vries and time regularized long wave equations.

    PubMed

    Islam, S M Rayhanul; Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we implement the exp(-Φ(ξ))-expansion method to construct the exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). Here we consider two model equations, namely the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and the time regularized long wave (TRLW) equation. These equations play significant role in nonlinear sciences. We obtained four types of explicit function solutions, namely hyperbolic, trigonometric, exponential and rational function solutions of the variables in the considered equations. It has shown that the applied method is quite efficient and is practically well suited for the aforementioned problems and so for the other NLEEs those arise in mathematical physics and engineering fields. PACS numbers: 02.30.Jr, 02.70.Wz, 05.45.Yv, 94.05.Fq.

  13. Exact solutions of unsteady Korteweg-de Vries and time regularized long wave equations.

    PubMed

    Islam, S M Rayhanul; Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we implement the exp(-Φ(ξ))-expansion method to construct the exact traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). Here we consider two model equations, namely the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and the time regularized long wave (TRLW) equation. These equations play significant role in nonlinear sciences. We obtained four types of explicit function solutions, namely hyperbolic, trigonometric, exponential and rational function solutions of the variables in the considered equations. It has shown that the applied method is quite efficient and is practically well suited for the aforementioned problems and so for the other NLEEs those arise in mathematical physics and engineering fields. PACS numbers: 02.30.Jr, 02.70.Wz, 05.45.Yv, 94.05.Fq. PMID:25810953

  14. The small data solutions of general 3-D quasilinear wave equations. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bingbing; Witt, Ingo; Yin, Huicheng

    2016-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work in [8], where the authors established the global existence of smooth small data solutions to the general 3-D quasilinear wave equation ∑ i , j = 0 3 gij (u , ∂ u) ∂ij2 u = 0 when the weak null condition holds. In the present paper, we show that the smooth small data solutions of equation ∑ i , j = 0 3 gij (u , ∂ u) ∂ij2 u = 0 will blow up in finite time when the weak null condition does not hold and a generic nondegenerate condition on the initial data is satisfied, moreover, a precise blowup time is completely determined. Therefore, collecting the main results in this paper and [8], we have given a basically complete study on the blowup or global existence of small data solutions to the 3-D quasilinear wave equation ∑ i , j = 0 3 gij (u , ∂ u) ∂ij2 u = 0.

  15. Computation of homoclinic solutions to periodic orbits in a reduced water-wave problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champneys, A. R.; Lord, G. J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper concerns homoclinic solutions to periodic orbits in a fourth-order Hamiltonian system arising from a reduction of the classical water-wave problem in the presence of surface tension. These solutions correspond to travelling solitary waves which converge to non-decaying ripples at infinity. An analytical result of Amick and Toland (1992), showing the existence of such homoclinic orbits to small-amplitude periodic orbits in a singular limit, is extended numerically. Also, a related result by Amick and McLeod (1991), showing the non-existence of homoclinic solutions to zero, is motivated geometrically. A general boundary-value method is constructed for continuation of homoclinic orbits to periodic orbits in Hamiltonian and reversible systems. Numerical results are presented using the path-following software AUTO, showing that the Amick-Toland solutions persist well away from the singular limit and for large-amplitude periodic orbits. Special account is taken of the phase shift between the two periodic solutions in the asymptotic limits. Furthermore, new multi-modal homoclinic solutions to periodic orbits are shown to exist under a transversality hypothesis, which is verified a posteriori by explicit computation. Continuation of these new solutions reveals limit points with respect to the singular parameter.

  16. Influence of a Propagating Megahertz Surface Acoustic Wave on the Pattern Deposition of Solute Mass off an Evaporating Solution.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Sameer; Zigelman, Anna; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Manor, Ofer

    2016-09-20

    We study the influence of a megahertz Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), propagating in a solid substrate, on the pattern deposition of a solute mass off an evaporating solution. An experimental procedure, where a film of a solution undergoes a controlled evaporation in a chamber, shows that the SAW alters the state of the pattern deposition. Increasing the power of the SAW supports an increase in the density of the deposited patterns. Beyond threshold conditions, the deposited patterns merge and we observe the deposition of a solid film. A simplified theory suggests that the SAW deforms the geometry of the film, which is predominantly governed by the capillary stress. The deformation of the film taking place alongside with the evaporation of the solution increases the concentration near the pinned three phase contact line at the front of the film, which is closer to the source of the SAW, on the expense of the concentration at the rear. The increased concentration translates to the deposition of solute mass over an increased area near the front of the film, which explains the experimental observation.

  17. Influence of a Propagating Megahertz Surface Acoustic Wave on the Pattern Deposition of Solute Mass off an Evaporating Solution.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Sameer; Zigelman, Anna; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Manor, Ofer

    2016-09-20

    We study the influence of a megahertz Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), propagating in a solid substrate, on the pattern deposition of a solute mass off an evaporating solution. An experimental procedure, where a film of a solution undergoes a controlled evaporation in a chamber, shows that the SAW alters the state of the pattern deposition. Increasing the power of the SAW supports an increase in the density of the deposited patterns. Beyond threshold conditions, the deposited patterns merge and we observe the deposition of a solid film. A simplified theory suggests that the SAW deforms the geometry of the film, which is predominantly governed by the capillary stress. The deformation of the film taking place alongside with the evaporation of the solution increases the concentration near the pinned three phase contact line at the front of the film, which is closer to the source of the SAW, on the expense of the concentration at the rear. The increased concentration translates to the deposition of solute mass over an increased area near the front of the film, which explains the experimental observation. PMID:27552064

  18. ANTENNA RADIATION NEAR THE LOCAL PLASMA FREQUENCY BY LANGMUIR WAVE EIGENMODES

    SciTech Connect

    Malaspina, David M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Ergun, Robert E. E-mail: cairns@physics.usyd.edu.au

    2012-08-10

    Langmuir waves (LWs) in the solar wind are generated by electron beams associated with solar flares, interplanetary shock fronts, planetary bow shocks, and magnetic holes. In principle, LWs localized as eigenmodes of density fluctuations can emit electromagnetic (EM) radiation by an antenna mechanism near the local plasma frequency f{sub p} and twice the local plasma frequency. In this work, analytic expressions are derived for the radiated electric and magnetic fields and power generated near f{sub p} by LW eigenmodes. The EM wave power emitted near f{sub p} is predicted as a function of the eigenmode length scale L, maximum electric field, driving electron beam speed, and the ambient plasma density and temperature. The escape to a distant observer of f{sub p} radiation from a localized Langmuir eigenmode is also briefly explored as a function of the plasma conditions.

  19. New Travelling Wave Solutions of Burgers Equation with Finite Transport Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, Rathinasamy; Chun, Changbum; Lee, Jonu

    2010-09-01

    The nonlinear evolution equations with finite memory have a wide range of applications in science and engineering. The Burgers equation with finite memory transport (time-delayed) describes convection-diffusion processes. In this paper, we establish the new solitary wave solutions for the time-delayed Burgers equation. The extended tanh method and the exp-function method have been employed to reveal these new solutions. Further, we have calculated the numerical solutions of the time-delayed Burgers equation with initial conditions by using the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). Our results show that the extended tanh and exp-function methods are very effective in finding exact solutions of the considered problem and HPM is very powerful in finding numerical solutions with good accuracy for nonlinear partial differential equations without any need of transformation or perturbation

  20. Periodic wave solutions of coupled integrable dispersionless equations by residue harmonic balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, A. Y. T.; Yang, H. X.; Guo, Z. J.

    2012-11-01

    We introduce the residue harmonic balance method to generate periodic solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. A PDE is firstly transformed into an associated ODE by a wave transformation. The higher-order approximations to the angular frequency and periodic solution of the ODE are obtained analytically. To improve the accuracy of approximate solutions, the unbalanced residues appearing in harmonic balance procedure are iteratively considered by introducing an order parameter to keep track of the various orders of approximations and by solving linear equations. Finally, the periodic solutions of PDEs result. The proposed method has the advantage that the periodic solutions are represented by Fourier functions rather than the sophisticated implicit functions as appearing in most methods.

  1. Traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Duanmu, M.; Whitaker, N.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Vainchtein, A.; Rubin, J. E.

    2016-02-27

    Artificial perceptions of light called phosphenes were motivated by earlier studies. We analyze traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators modeling this phenomenon. We examine the discrete model problem in its co-traveling frame and systematically obtain the corresponding traveling waves in one spatial dimension. Direct numerical simulations as well as linear stability analysis are employed to reveal the parameter regions where the traveling waves are stable, and these waves are, in turn, connected to the standing waves analyzed in earlier work. We also consider a two-dimensional extension of the model and demonstrate the robust evolutionmore » and stability of planar fronts. Moreover, our simulations also suggest the radial fronts tend to either annihilate or expand and flatten out, depending on the phase value inside and the parameter regime. Finally, we observe that solutions that initially feature two symmetric fronts with bulged centers evolve in qualitative agreement with experimental observations of phosphenes.« less

  2. Multi-rogue waves solutions: from the NLS to the KP-I equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubard, P.; Matveev, V. B.

    2013-12-01

    Our discovery of multi-rogue wave (MRW) solutions in 2010 completely changed the viewpoint on the links between the theory of rogue waves and integrable systems, and helped explain many phenomena which were never understood before. It is enough to mention the famous Three Sister waves observed in oceans, the creation of a regular approach to studying higher Peregrine breathers, and the new understanding of 2 + 1 dimensional rogue waves via the NLS-KP correspondence. This article continues the study of the MRW solutions of the NLS equation and their links with the KP-I equation started in a previous series of articles (Dubard et al 2010 Eur. Phys. J. 185 247-58, Dubard and Matveev 2011 Natural Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 11 667-72, Matveev and Dubard 2010 Proc. Int. Conf. FNP-2010 (Novgorod, St Petersburg) pp 100-101, Dubard 2010 PhD Thesis). In particular, it contains a discussion of the large parametric asymptotics of these solutions, which has never been studied before.

  3. Disorder in Quantum Vacuum: Casimir-Induced Localization of Matter Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G. A.; Messina, R.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Maia Neto, P. A.

    2010-11-19

    Disordered geometrical boundaries such as rough surfaces induce important modifications to the mode spectrum of the electromagnetic quantum vacuum. In analogy to Anderson localization of waves induced by a random potential, here we show that the Casimir-Polder interaction between a cold atomic sample and a rough surface also produces localization phenomena. These effects, that represent a macroscopic manifestation of disorder in quantum vacuum, should be observable with Bose-Einstein condensates expanding in proximity of rough surfaces.

  4. Disorder in quantum vacuum: Casimir-induced localization of matter waves.

    PubMed

    Moreno, G A; Messina, R; Dalvit, D A R; Lambrecht, A; Maia Neto, P A; Reynaud, S

    2010-11-19

    Disordered geometrical boundaries such as rough surfaces induce important modifications to the mode spectrum of the electromagnetic quantum vacuum. In analogy to Anderson localization of waves induced by a random potential, here we show that the Casimir-Polder interaction between a cold atomic sample and a rough surface also produces localization phenomena. These effects, that represent a macroscopic manifestation of disorder in quantum vacuum, should be observable with Bose-Einstein condensates expanding in proximity of rough surfaces.

  5. LOCALIZATION OF SHORT DURATION GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENTS WITH THE EARLY ADVANCED LIGO AND VIRGO DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Katsavounidis, Erik; Vedovato, Gabriele; Klimenko, Sergey

    2015-02-20

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors will begin collecting science data in 2015. With first detections expected to follow, it is important to quantify how well generic gravitational-wave transients can be localized on the sky. This is crucial for correctly identifying electromagnetic counterparts as well as understanding gravitational-wave physics and source populations. We present a study of sky localization capabilities for two search and parameter estimation algorithms: coherent WaveBurst, a constrained likelihood algorithm operating in close to real-time, and LALInferenceBurst, a Markov chain Monte Carlo parameter estimation algorithm developed to recover generic transient signals with latency of a few hours. Furthermore, we focus on the first few years of the advanced detector era, when we expect to only have two (2015) and later three (2016) operational detectors, all below design sensitivity. These detector configurations can produce significantly different sky localizations, which we quantify in detail. We observe a clear improvement in localization of the average detected signal when progressing from two-detector to three-detector networks, as expected. Although localization depends on the waveform morphology, approximately 50% of detected signals would be imaged after observing 100-200 deg{sup 2} in 2015 and 60-110 deg{sup 2} in 2016, although knowledge of the waveform can reduce this to as little as 22 deg{sup 2}. This is the first comprehensive study on sky localization capabilities for generic transients of the early network of advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, including the early LIGO-only two-detector configuration.

  6. Over-reflection of slow magnetosonic waves by homogeneous shear flow: Analytical solution

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrov, Z. D.; Maneva, Y. G.; Hristov, T. S.; Mishonov, T. M.

    2011-08-15

    We have analyzed the amplification of slow magnetosonic (or pseudo-Alfvenic) waves (SMW) in incompressible shear flow. As found here, the amplification depends on the component of the wave-vector perpendicular to the direction of the shear flow. Earlier numerical results are consistent with the general analytic solution for the linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations, derived here for the model case of pure homogeneous shear (without Coriolis force). An asymptotically exact analytical formula for the amplification coefficient is derived for the case when the amplification is sufficiently large.

  7. Stability and Asymptotic Behavior of Periodic Traveling Wave Solutions of Viscous Conservation Laws in Several Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Myunghyun; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    Under natural spectral stability assumptions motivated by previous investigations of the associated spectral stability problem, we determine sharp L p estimates on the linearized solution operator about a multidimensional planar periodic wave of a system of conservation laws with viscosity, yielding linearized L 1 ∩ L p → L p stability for all {p ≥q 2} and dimensions {d ≥q 1} and nonlinear L 1 ∩ H s → L p ∩ H s stability and L 2-asymptotic behavior for {p≥q 2} and {d≥q 3} . The behavior can in general be rather complicated, involving both convective (that is, wave-like) and diffusive effects.

  8. Local stimulation of cultured myocyte cells by femtosecond laser-induced stress wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yung-En; Wu, Cheng-Chi; Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Maezawa, Yasuyo; Okano, Kazunori; Masuhara, Hiroshi; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2010-12-01

    When an 800 nm femtosecond laser is tightly focused into cell culture medium a stress wave is generated at the laser focal point. Since the stress wave localizes in a few tens of μm, it is possible to locally stimulate single cells in vitro. In this work, several kinds of cultured mammalian cells, HeLa, PC12, P19CL6, and C2C12, were stimulated by the stress wave and the cell growth after the stress loading with the laser irradiation was investigated. In comparison with the control conditions, cell growth after the laser irradiation was enhanced for the cells of C2C12 and P19CL6, which can differentiate into myocytes, and suppressed for PC12 and HeLa cell lines. These results suggest a possibility of cell growth enhancement due to myogenic cells response to the femtosecond laser-induced stress.

  9. Simultaneous large band gaps and localization of electromagnetic and elastic waves in defect-free quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianbao; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Wenxing; Wang, Tongbiao; Liu, Nianhua; Liao, Qinghua

    2016-04-18

    We report numerically large and complete photonic and phononic band gaps that simultaneously exist in eight-fold phoxonic quasicrystals (PhXQCs). PhXQCs can possess simultaneous photonic and phononic band gaps over a wide range of geometric parameters. Abundant localized modes can be achieved in defect-free PhXQCs for all photonic and phononic polarizations. These defect-free localized modes exhibit multiform spatial distributions and can confine simultaneously electromagnetic and elastic waves in a large area, thereby providing rich selectivity and enlarging the interaction space of optical and elastic waves. The simulated results based on finite element method show that quasiperiodic structures formed of both solid rods in air and holes in solid materials can simultaneously confine and tailor electromagnetic and elastic waves; these structures showed advantages over the periodic counterparts.

  10. Directional cloaking of flexural waves in a plate with a locally resonant metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Andrea; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Rupin, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the numerical design of a directional invisibility cloak for backward scattered elastic waves propagating in a thin plate (A0 Lamb waves). The directional cloak is based on a set of resonating beams that are attached perpendicular to the plate and are arranged at a sub-wavelength scale in ten concentric rings. The exotic effective properties of this locally resonant metamaterial ensure coexistence of bandgaps and directional cloaking for certain beam configurations over a large frequency band. The best directional cloaking was obtained when the resonators' length decreases from the central to the outermost ring. In this case, flexural waves experience a vanishing index of refraction when they cross the outer layers, leading to a frequency bandgap that protects the central part of the cloak. Numerical simulation shows that there is no back-scattering in these configurations. These results might have applications in the design of seismic-wave protection devices. PMID:25920831

  11. Directional cloaking of flexural waves in a plate with a locally resonant metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Andrea; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Rupin, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the numerical design of a directional invisibility cloak for backward scattered elastic waves propagating in a thin plate (A0 Lamb waves). The directional cloak is based on a set of resonating beams that are attached perpendicular to the plate and are arranged at a sub-wavelength scale in ten concentric rings. The exotic effective properties of this locally resonant metamaterial ensure coexistence of bandgaps and directional cloaking for certain beam configurations over a large frequency band. The best directional cloaking was obtained when the resonators' length decreases from the central to the outermost ring. In this case, flexural waves experience a vanishing index of refraction when they cross the outer layers, leading to a frequency bandgap that protects the central part of the cloak. Numerical simulation shows that there is no back-scattering in these configurations. These results might have applications in the design of seismic-wave protection devices.

  12. Simultaneous Local and Teleseismic P-Wave Velocity Tomography in Western Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C. R.; Alarcon, E.; Ochoa, J.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    In western Mexico, the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North America plate has deformed and fragmented the overriding plate, forming several structural rifts and crustal blocks. To improve the current tomographic images of the continental crust and uppermost mantle in this complex area, we used P-wave arrivals of local and teleseismic earthquakes along with the Fast Marching Method tomography technique. Our traveltime datasets include 2100 local earthquakes P-wave arrival times and 5,062 P-wave relative arrival time residuals of teleseismic earthquakes. The local earthquake phase picking was manually corrected and the relative arrival time residuals were estimated using the Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation method. All earthquakes occurred between 2006 and 2007 and were recorded by seismic stations deployed during the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone (MARS) experiment. The temporal seismic network consisted of 50 stations equipped with Streckeisen STS-2 and Quanterra Q330. We use an iterative nonlinear tomographic procedure and the fast marching method to map the residual patterns as P wave velocity anomalies. We followed an inversion scheme consisting of: (1) selection of a local and teleseismic earthquake, (2) estimation of improved 1-D reference velocity model, and (3) checkerboard testing to determine the optimum configuration of the velocity nodes, and inversion parameters, finally (4) perform final tomography and results analysis.

  13. A semi-analytic model for localized variable charge dust acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Gougam, Leila Ait; Aoutou, Kamal

    2006-09-15

    A semi-analytic model for nonlinear variable charge dust acoustic waves is outlined. It is shown that rarefactive variable charge dust acoustic solitons involving cusped density humps can exist. The effects of dust dynamics as well as equilibrium dust charge on these nonlinear localized structures are briefly discussed.

  14. Photonic nanojets as a versatile optical tool for wave super-localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geints, Yu. E.; Zemlyanov, A. A.; Panina, E. K.

    2016-08-01

    The dimensional parameters and intensity of localized light structures (area "photonic nanojet"—PNJ) formed in the near field scattering of the optical wave by dielectric micron particles are studied. The difference between the PNJ characteristics of homogeneous quartz microparticles of different spatial shape and orientation are shown.

  15. Approximation of traveling wave solutions in wall-bounded flows using resolvent modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeon, Beverley; Graham, Michael; Moarref, Rashad; Park, Jae Sung; Sharma, Ati; Willis, Ashley

    2014-11-01

    Significant recent attention has been devoted to computing and understanding exact traveling wave solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. These solutions can be interpreted as the state-space skeleton of turbulence and are attractive benchmarks for studying low-order models of wall turbulence. Here, we project such solutions onto the velocity response (or resolvent) modes supplied by the gain-based resolvent analysis outlined by McKeon & Sharma (JFM, 2010). We demonstrate that in both pipe (Pringle et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 2009) and channel (Waleffe, JFM, 2001) flows, the solutions can be well-described by a small number of resolvent modes. Analysis of the nonlinear forcing modes sustaining these solutions reveals the importance of small amplitude forcing, consistent with the large amplifications admitted by the resolvent operator. We investigate the use of resolvent modes as computationally cheap ``seeds'' for the identification of further traveling wave solutions. The support of AFOSR under Grants FA9550-09-1-0701, FA9550-12-1-0469, FA9550-11-1-0094 and FA9550-14-1-0042 (program managers Rengasamy Ponnappan, Doug Smith and Gregg Abate) is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Dissipative MHD solutions for resonant Alfven waves in 1-dimensional magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Marcel; Ruderman, Michail S.; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper extends the analysis by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg (1991) on resonant Alfven waves in nonuniform magnetic flux tubes. It proves that the fundamental conservation law for resonant Alfven waves found in ideal MHD by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg remains valid in dissipative MHD. This guarantees that the jump conditions of Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg, that connect the ideal MHD solutions for xi(sub r), and P' across the dissipative layer, are correct. In addition, the present paper replaces the complicated dissipative MHD solutions obtained by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg for xi(sub r), and P' in terms of double integrals of Hankel functions of complex argument of order 1/3 with compact analytical solutions that allow a straight- forward mathematical and physical interpretation. Finally, it presents an analytical dissipative MHD solution for the component of the Lagrangian displacement in the magnetic surfaces perpen- dicular to the magnetic field lines xi(sub perpendicular) which enables us to determine the dominant dynamics of resonant Alfven waves in dissipative MHD.

  17. On the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with arbitrary nonlinearity and dimensionality: exact solutions, longtime asymptotics of the Cauchy problem, wave breaking and shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santucci, F.; Santini, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    We study the generalization of the dispersionless Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (dKP) equation in n+1 dimensions and with nonlinearity of degree m+1, a model equation describing the propagation of weakly nonlinear, quasi one-dimensional waves in the absence of dispersion and dissipation, and arising in several physical contexts, like acoustics, plasma physics, hydrodynamics and nonlinear optics. In 2 + 1 dimensions and with quadratic nonlinearity, this equation is integrable through a novel inverse scattering transform, and it has been recently shown to be a prototype model equation in the description of the two-dimensional wave breaking of localized initial data. In higher dimensions and with higher nonlinearity, the generalized dKP equations are not integrable, but their invariance under motions on the paraboloid allows one to construct in this paper a family of exact solutions describing waves constant on their paraboloidal wave front and breaking simultaneously in all points of it, developing after breaking either multivaluedness or single-valued discontinuous profiles (shocks). Then such exact solutions are used to build the longtime behavior of the solutions of the Cauchy problem, for small and localized initial data, showing that wave breaking of small initial data takes place in the longtime regime if and only if m(n-1)≤slant 2. Lastly, the analytic aspects of such wave breaking are investigated in detail in terms of the small initial data, in both cases in which the solution becomes multivalued after breaking or it develops a shock. These results, contained in the 2012 master’s thesis of one of the authors (FS) [1], generalize those obtained in [2] for the dKP equation in n+1 dimensions with quadratic nonlinearity, and are obtained following the same strategy.

  18. Streamwise-Localized Solutions at the Onset of Turbulence in Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, M.; Mellibovsky, F.; Roland, N.; Hof, B.

    2013-05-01

    Although the equations governing fluid flow are well known, there are no analytical expressions that describe the complexity of turbulent motion. A recent proposition is that in analogy to low dimensional chaotic systems, turbulence is organized around unstable solutions of the governing equations which provide the building blocks of the disordered dynamics. We report the discovery of periodic solutions which just like intermittent turbulence are spatially localized and show that turbulent transients arise from one such solution branch.

  19. Some New Traveling Wave Exact Solutions of the (2+1)-Dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli Equations

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jian-ming; Zhang, Fu; Yuan, Wen-jun; Huang, Zi-feng

    2014-01-01

    We employ the complex method to obtain all meromorphic exact solutions of complex (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equations (BLP system of equations). The idea introduced in this paper can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations. Our results show that all rational and simply periodic traveling wave exact solutions of the equations (BLP) are solitary wave solutions, the complex method is simpler than other methods, and there exist some rational solutions ur,2(z) and simply periodic solutions us,2–6(z) which are not only new but also not degenerated successively by the elliptic function solutions. We believe that this method should play an important role for finding exact solutions in the mathematical physics. For these new traveling wave solutions, we give some computer simulations to illustrate our main results. PMID:24678276

  20. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ABSORPTION, LOCAL SUPPRESSION, AND EMISSIVITY REDUCTION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN MAGNETIC REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, D.-Y.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Liang Zhichao; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-11-20

    Observed acoustic power in magnetic regions is lower than the quiet Sun because of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions. In the previous studies, we have developed a method to measure the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of sunspots. In this study, we go one step further to measure the spatial distributions of three coefficients in two active regions, NOAA 9055 and 9057. The maps of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression coefficients correlate with the magnetic map, including plage regions, except the emissivity reduction coefficient of NOAA 9055 where the emissivity reduction coefficient is too weak and lost among the noise.

  1. Wave propagation through random media: A local method of small perturbations based on the Helmholtz equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosse, Ralf

    1990-01-01

    Propagation of sound through the turbulent atmosphere is a statistical problem. The randomness of the refractive index field causes sound pressure fluctuations. Although no general theory to predict sound pressure statistics from given refractive index statistics exists, there are several approximate solutions to the problem. The most common approximation is the parabolic equation method. Results obtained by this method are restricted to small refractive index fluctuations and to small wave lengths. While the first condition is generally met in the atmosphere, it is desirable to overcome the second. A generalization of the parabolic equation method with respect to the small wave length restriction is presented.

  2. Local- and field-scale stochastic-advective vertical solute transport in horizontally heterogeneous unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Richa; Prakash, A.; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2014-08-01

    Description of field-scale solute transport in unsaturated soils is essential for assessing the degree of contamination, estimating fluxes past a control plane and for designing remedial measures. The flow field is usually described by numerical solution of the Richards equation followed by numerical solution of the advection-dispersion equation to describe contaminant movement. These numerical solutions are highly complex, and do not provide the insights that are possible from simpler analytical representations. In this study, analytical solutions at the local scale are developed to describe purely advective vertical transport of a conservative solute along the principle characteristic of the flow field. Local-scale model development is simplified by using a sharp-front approximation for water movement. These local solutions are then upscaled to field-scale solute transport by adopting a lognormally distributed horizontal hydraulic conductivity field to represent the natural heterogeneity observed in field soils. Analytical expressions are developed for the mean behavior of solute transport at the field scale. Comparisons with experimental observations find that trends of field-scale solute behavior are reasonably reproduced by the model. The accuracy of the proposed solution improves with increasing spatial variability in the hydraulic conductivity as revealed by further comparisons with numerical results of the Richards equation-based field-scale solute movement. In some cases, the sharp-front approximation may lead to anomalous field-scale behavior depending on the role of pre and postponded conditions in the field, and this limitation is discussed. The proposed method shows promise for describing field-scale solute movement in loamy sand and sandy loam soils.

  3. Numerical solutions of several reflected shock-wave flow fields with nonequilibrium chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Presley, L. L.; Williams, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    The method of characteristics for a chemically reacting gas is used in the construction of the time-dependent, one-dimensional flow field resulting from the normal reflection of an incident shock wave at the end wall of a shock tube. Nonequilibrium chemical reactions are allowed behind both the incident and reflected shock waves. All the solutions are evaluated for oxygen, but the results are generally representative of any inviscid, nonconducting, and nonradiating diatomic gas. The solutions clearly show that: (1) both the incident- and reflected-shock chemical relaxation times are important in governing the time to attain steady state thermodynamic properties; and (2) adjacent to the end wall, an excess-entropy layer develops wherein the steady state values of all the thermodynamic variables except pressure differ significantly from their corresponding Rankine-Hugoniot equilibrium values.

  4. Influence of Millimeter Electromagnetic Waves on Fluorescence of Water-Saline Solutions of Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardevanyan, P. O.; Antonyan, A. P.; Shahinyan, M. A.; Mikaelyan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of electromagnetic waves of the millimeter region on the conformation and fluorescence characteristics of human serum albumin was studied. It is shown that the irradiation of the albumin solution leads to an increase of the fluorescence intensity depending on the duration of irradiation. At an irradiation frequency of 48 GHz the fluorescence intensity of albumin hardly changes at all, while at 41.8 and 51.8 GHz it increases. It is also shown that when the irradiation frequency is 51.8 GHz, the intensity of the albumin solution fluorescence increases with increase of the irradiation time.

  5. Explicit Solution of Nonlinear ZK-BBM Wave Equation Using Exp-Function Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, J.; Tolou, N.; Khatami, I.; Barari, A.; Ganji, D. D.

    This study is devoted to studying the (2+1)-dimensional ZK-BBM (Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Benjamin-Bona-Mahony) wave equation in an analytical solution. The analysis is based on the implementation a new method, called Exp-function method. The obtained results from the proposed approximate solution have been verified with those obtained by the extended tanh method. It shows that the obtained results of these methods are the same; while Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations of engineering problems in the terms of accuracy and efficiency.

  6. Controllable Discrete Rogue Wave Solutions of the Ablowitz—Ladik Equation in Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Yong

    2016-07-01

    With the aid of symbolic computation Maple, the discrete Ablowitz—Ladik equation is studied via an algebra method, some new rational solutions with four arbitrary parameters are constructed. By analyzing related parameters, the discrete rogue wave solutions with alterable positions and amplitude for the focusing Ablowitz—Ladik equations are derived. Some properties are discussed by graphical analysis, which might be helpful for understanding physical phenomena in optics. Supported by the Beijing Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 1153004, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2015M570161 and the Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61471406

  7. Nonlinear self-adjointness and invariant solutions of a 2D Rossby wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoiasu, Rodica; Constantinescu, Radu

    2014-02-01

    The paper investigates the nonlinear self-adjointness of the nonlinear inviscid barotropic nondivergent vorticity equation in a beta-plane. It is a particular form of Rossby equation which does not possess variational structure and it is studied using a recently method developed by Ibragimov. The conservation laws associated with the infinite-dimensional symmetry Lie algebra models are constructed and analyzed. Based on this Lie algebra, some classes of similarity invariant solutions with nonconstant linear and nonlinear shears are obtained. It is also shown how one of the conservation laws generates a particular wave solution of this equation.

  8. Electromagnetic waves with frequencies near the local proton gyrofrequency: ISEE-3 1 AU observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Arballo, John K.; Mok, John; Smith, Edward J.; Mason, Glenn M.; Tan, Lun C.

    1994-01-01

    Low Frequency (LF) electromagnetic waves with periods near the local proton gyrofrequency have been detected in interplanetary space by the magnetometer onboard International-Sun-Earth-Explorer-3 (ISEE-3). Transverse peak-to-peak amplitudes as large as delta vector B/absolute value of B approximately 0.4 have been noted with compressional components (Delta absolute value of B/absolute value of B) typically less than or = 0.1. Generally, the waves have even smaller amplitudes, or are not detectable within the solar wind turbulence. The waves are elliptically/linearly polarized and are often, but not always, found to propagate nearly along vector B(sub zero). Both right- and left-hand polarizations in the spacecraft-frame have been detected. The waves are observed during all orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field, with the Parker spiral orientation being the most common case. Because the waves are detected at and near the local proton cyclotron frequency, the generation mechanism must almost certainly be solar wind pickup of freshly created hydrogen ions. Possible sources for the hydrogen are the Earth's atmosphere, coronal mass ejections from the Sun, comets and interstellar neutral atoms. At this time it is not obvious which potential source is the correct one. Statistical tests employing over one year of ISEE-3 data will be done in the near future to eliminate/confirm some of these possibilities.

  9. Anti-de Sitter-wave solutions of higher derivative theories.

    PubMed

    Gürses, Metin; Hervik, Sigbjørn; Şişman, Tahsin Çağrı; Tekin, Bayram

    2013-09-01

    We show that the recently found anti-de Sitter (AdS)-plane and AdS-spherical wave solutions of quadratic curvature gravity also solve the most general higher derivative theory in D dimensions. More generally, we show that the field equations of such theories reduce to an equation linear in the Ricci tensor for Kerr-Schild spacetimes having type-N Weyl and type-N traceless Ricci tensors.

  10. Parallel iterative procedures for approximate solutions of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.

    1994-12-31

    Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.

  11. Existence of infinitely many periodic solutions for the radially symmetric wave equation with resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianyi; Zhang, Zhitao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the periodic-Dirichlet problem for a forced nonlinear wave equation with resonance utt - Δu = μu + a (t , x)| u | p - 1 u in a n-dimensional ball. Under some suitable assumptions on μ, p and a (t , x), we prove the existence of infinitely many radially symmetric time-periodic solutions for the problem by variational methods.

  12. Multiple-Resonance Local Wave Functions for Accurate Excited States in Quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Zulfikri, Habiburrahman; Amovilli, Claudio; Filippi, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a novel class of local multideterminant Jastrow-Slater wave functions for the efficient and accurate treatment of excited states in quantum Monte Carlo. The wave function is expanded as a linear combination of excitations built from multiple sets of localized orbitals that correspond to the bonding patterns of the different Lewis resonance structures of the molecule. We capitalize on the concept of orbital domains of local coupled-cluster methods, which is here applied to the active space to select the orbitals to correlate and construct the important transitions. The excitations are further grouped into classes, which are ordered in importance and can be systematically included in the Jastrow-Slater wave function to ensure a balanced description of all states of interest. We assess the performance of the proposed wave function in the calculation of vertical excitation energies and excited-state geometry optimization of retinal models whose π → π* state has a strong intramolecular charge-transfer character. We find that our multiresonance wave functions recover the reference values of the total energies of the ground and excited states with only a small number of excitations and that the same expansion can be flexibly used at very different geometries. Furthermore, significant computational saving can also be gained in the orbital optimization step by selectively mixing occupied and virtual orbitals based on spatial considerations without loss of accuracy on the excitation energy. Our multiresonance wave functions are therefore compact, accurate, and very promising for the calculation of multiple excited states of different character in large molecules.

  13. Noninvasive Method for Measuring Local Pulse Wave Velocity by Dual Pulse Wave Doppler: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Yang, Yong; Yuan, Li-jun; Liu, Jie; Duan, Yun-you; Cao, Tie-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a noninvasive dual pulse wave Doppler (DPWD) method, which involves simultaneous recording of flow velocity of two independent sample volumes with a measurable distance, for measuring the local arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) through in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The DPWD mode of Hitachi HI Vision Preirus ultrasound system with a 5–13MHz transducer was used. An in vitro model was designed to compare the PWV of a homogeneous rubber tubing with the local PWV of its middle part measured by DPWD method. In the in vivo study, local PWV of 45 hypertensive patients (25 male, 49.8±3.1 years) and 45 matched healthy subjects (25 male, 49.3±3.0 years) were investigated at the left common carotid artery (LCCA) by DPWD method. Results In the in vitro study, the local PWV measured by DPWP method and the PWV of the homogeneous rubber tubing did not show statistical difference (5.16 ± 0.28 m/s vs 5.03 ± 0.15 m/s, p = 0.075). The coefficient of variation (CV) of the intra- and inter- measurements for local PWV were 3.46% and 4.96%, for the PWV of the homogeneous rubber tubing were 0.99% and 1.98%. In the in vivo study, a significantly higher local PWV of LCCA was found in the hypertensive patients as compared to that in healthy subjects (6.29±1.04m/s vs. 5.31±0.72m/s, P = 0.019). The CV of the intra- and inter- measurements in hypertensive patients were 2.22% and 3.94%, in healthy subjects were 2.07% and 4.14%. Conclusions This study demonstrated the feasibility of the noninvasive DPWD method to determine the local PWV, which was accurate and reproducible not only in vitro but also in vivo studies. This noninvasive echocardiographic method may be illuminating to clinical use. PMID:25786124

  14. High-order rogue wave solutions for the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Chen; Guo, Boling; Ling, Liming

    2016-04-01

    We study on dynamics of high-order rogue wave in two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on the generalized Darboux transformation and formal series method, we obtain the high-order rogue wave solution without the special limitation on the wave vectors. As an application, we exhibit the first, second-order rogue wave solutions and the superposition of them by computer plotting. We find the distribution patterns for vector rogue waves are much more abundant than the ones for scalar rogue waves, and also different from the ones obtained with the constrain conditions on background fields. The results further enrich and deepen our realization on rogue wave excitation dynamics in such diverse fields as Bose-Einstein condensates, nonlinear fibers, and superfluids.

  15. Excitation of ship waves by a submerged object: New solution to the classical problem.

    PubMed

    Arzhannikov, A V; Kotelnikov, I A

    2016-08-01

    We have proposed a new method for solving the problem of ship waves excited on the surface of a nonviscous liquid by a submerged object that moves at a variable speed. As a first application of this method, we have obtained a new solution to the classic problem of ship waves generated by a submerged ball that moves rectilinearly with constant velocity parallel to the equilibrium surface of the liquid. For this example, we have derived asymptotic expressions describing the vertical displacement of the liquid surface in the limit of small and large values of the Froude number. The exact solution is presented in the form of two terms, each of which is reduced to one-dimensional integrals. One term describes the "Bernoulli hump" and another term the "Kelvin wedge." As a second example, we considered vertical oscillation of the submerged ball. In this case, the solution leads to the calculation of one-dimensional integral and describes surface waves propagating from the epicenter above the ball. PMID:27627389

  16. Validating the solutions of the D-Wave quantum annealers through graph mirroring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Dilina; Hall, J. S.; Novotny, M. A.

    D-Wave quantum annealers seek to find the ground states of Ising spin glasses. The problem Hamiltonian is formulated as an undirected graph that can be embedded into the device's native disordered Chimera graph structure. However, depending on the complexity of the problem and the specifications of the annealing schedule, the device may not necessarily find the global minimum during a given annealing process. We present a method, which we call answer checking, that enhances the expectation that the solution provided by the device is the true ground state of the problem. The underlying principle is to embed a mirrored graph G' of the original graph G, and connect the two graphs via ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic couplers. This allows one to rule out solutions for the composite graph that do not comply with the underlying mirror symmetry inherent to the true ground state, which in turn, reduces the uncertainty associated with the solutions. Using the 1097 qubit D-Wave 2X, we test this approach by applying it to a range of problems, including random spanning trees and generally allowed graphs G. Supported in part by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. D-Wave time provided by USRA.

  17. On the cubic zero-order solution of electromagnetic waves. I. Periodic slabs with lossy plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyoung-In; Mok, Jinsik

    2010-07-15

    Electromagnetic waves are considered for periodic structures consisting of lossy plasmonic components and dielectric host media. For the plasmonic components, not only low-loss metals but also high-loss gas plasmas are taken into consideration. For small filling fractions of the plasmonic components, the intercell interactions are kept to a minimum. In this way, the zero-order solution to the dispersion relation is solved by focusing on its cubic nonlinearity in frequency. Analysis shows that there are two types of solutions: propagating waves and stationary states, depending on the magnitudes of the temporal attenuation rates. Depending on the relative strengths of the material loss of the plasmonic component and its filling fraction, several key critical parameters for the transitions between these two solution types are thus identified. In the following companion paper of Paper II, the cubic nonlinearities in frequency of the dispersion relations stem from different origins. Notwithstanding, they lead to strikingly similar features such as the transitions in wave types and Hopf bifurcations.

  18. On travelling wave solutions of a generalized Davey-Stewartson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Alp; Erbay, Saadet

    2005-02-01

    The generalized Davey-Stewartson (GDS) equations, as derived by Babaoglu & Erbay (2004, Int. J. Non-Linear Mech., 39, 941-949), is a system of three coupled equations in (2 + 1) dimensions modelling wave propagation in an infinite elastic medium. The physical parameters ({gamma}, m1, m2, {lambda} and n) of the system allow one to classify the equations as elliptic-elliptic-elliptic (EEE), elliptic-elliptic-hyperbolic (EEH), elliptic-hyperbolic-hyperbolic (EHH), hyperbolic-elliptic-elliptic (HEE), hyperbolic-hyperbolic-hyperbolic (HHH) and hyperbolic-elliptic-hyperbolic (HEH) (Babaoglu et alE, 2004, preprint). In this note, we only consider the EEE and HEE cases and seek travelling wave solutions to GDS systems. By deriving Pohozaev-type identities we establish some necessary conditions on the parameters for the existence of travelling waves, when solutions satisfy some integrability conditions. Using the explicit solutions given in Babaoglu & Erbay (2004) we also show that the parameter constraints must be weaker in the absence of such integrability conditions.

  19. Excitation of ship waves by a submerged object: New solution to the classical problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzhannikov, A. V.; Kotelnikov, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    We have proposed a new method for solving the problem of ship waves excited on the surface of a nonviscous liquid by a submerged object that moves at a variable speed. As a first application of this method, we have obtained a new solution to the classic problem of ship waves generated by a submerged ball that moves rectilinearly with constant velocity parallel to the equilibrium surface of the liquid. For this example, we have derived asymptotic expressions describing the vertical displacement of the liquid surface in the limit of small and large values of the Froude number. The exact solution is presented in the form of two terms, each of which is reduced to one-dimensional integrals. One term describes the "Bernoulli hump" and another term the "Kelvin wedge." As a second example, we considered vertical oscillation of the submerged ball. In this case, the solution leads to the calculation of one-dimensional integral and describes surface waves propagating from the epicenter above the ball.

  20. Nonlinear simplified model to study localization of kinetic Alfvén wave

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. P. Gaur, Nidhi

    2014-04-15

    We have presented the numerical simulation of the coupled equations governing the dynamics of kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) and ion acoustic wave in the intermediate β plasma, where β is the ratio of thermal pressure to the background magnetic pressure. We have also developed a simplified model for this nonlinear interaction using the results obtained from the simulation to understand the physics of nonlinear evolution of KAW. Localization of magnetic field intensity of KAW has been studied by means of the simplified model.

  1. Matter wave transport and Anderson localization in anisotropic three-dimensional disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piraud, Marie; Pezzé, Luca; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    We study quantum transport of matter waves in anisotropic three-dimensional disorder. First, we show that structured correlations can induce rich effects, such as anisotropic suppression of the white-noise limit and inversion of the transport anisotropy. Second, we show that the localization threshold (mobility edge) is strongly affected by a disorder-induced shift of the energy states, which we calculate. Our work is directly relevant to ultracold-matter waves in optical disorder, and implications on recent experiments are discussed. It also offers scope for further studies of anisotropy effects in other systems with controlled disorder, where counterparts of the discussed effects can be expected.

  2. Damage localization in metallic plate structures using edge-reflected lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimkhanlou, A.; Dubuc, B.; Salamone, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a model-based guided ultrasonic waves imaging algorithm, in which multiple ultrasonic echoes caused by reflections from the plate’s boundaries are leveraged to enhance imaging performance. An analytical model is proposed to estimate the envelope of scattered waves. Correlation between the estimated and experimental data is used to generate images. The proposed method is validated through experimental tests on an aluminum plate instrumented with three low profile piezoelectric transducers. Different damage conditions are simulated including through-thickness holes. Results are compared with two other imaging localization methods, that is, delay and sum and minimum variance.

  3. Interaction of charged particles with localized electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma.

    PubMed

    Kominis, Y; Ram, A K; Hizanidis, K

    2012-01-01

    Charged particle interaction with localized wave packets in a magnetic field is formulated using the canonical perturbation theory and the Lie transform theory. An electrostatic wave packet characterized by a wide range of group and phase velocities as well as spatial extent along and across the magnetic field is considered. The averaged changes in the momentum along the magnetic field, the angular momentum, and the guiding center position for an ensemble of particles due to their interaction with the wave packet are determined analytically. Both resonant and ponderomotive effects are included. For the case of a Gaussian wave packet, closed-form expressions include the dependency of the ensemble averaged particle momenta and guiding center position variations on wave packet parameters and particle initial conditions. These expressions elucidate the physics of the interaction which is markedly different from the well known case of particle interaction with plane waves and are relevant to a variety of applications ranging from space and astrophysical plasmas to laboratory and fusion plasmas, as well as accelerators and microwave devices. PMID:22400685

  4. Kinetic Alfvén wave turbulence and formation of localized structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. P.; Modi, K. V.

    2013-08-15

    This work presents non-linear interaction of magnetosonic wave with kinetic Alfvén wave for intermediate β-plasma (m{sub e}/m{sub i}≪β≪1). A set of dimensionless equations have been developed for analysis by considering ponderomotive force due to pump kinetic Alfvén wave in the dynamics of magnetosonic wave. Stability analysis has been done to study modulational instability or linear growth rate. Further, numerical simulation has been carried out to study the nonlinear stage of instability and resulting power spectrum applicable to solar wind around 1 AU. Due to the nonlinearity, background density of magnetosonic wave gets modified which results in localization of kinetic Alfvén wave. From the obtained results, we observed that spectral index follows k{sup −3.0}, consistent with observation received by Cluster spacecraft for the solar wind around 1 AU. The result shows the steepening of power spectrum which may be responsible for heating and acceleration of plasma particles in solar wind.

  5. Millimetre-Wave Backhaul for 5G Networks: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Chen, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The trend for dense deployment in future 5G mobile communication networks makes current wired backhaul infeasible owing to the high cost. Millimetre-wave (mm-wave) communication, a promising technique with the capability of providing a multi-gigabit transmission rate, offers a flexible and cost-effective candidate for 5G backhauling. By exploiting highly directional antennas, it becomes practical to cope with explosive traffic demands and to deal with interference problems. Several advancements in physical layer technology, such as hybrid beamforming and full duplexing, bring new challenges and opportunities for mm-wave backhaul. This article introduces a design framework for 5G mm-wave backhaul, including routing, spatial reuse scheduling and physical layer techniques. The associated optimization model, open problems and potential solutions are discussed to fully exploit the throughput gain of the backhaul network. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the potential benefits of the proposed method for the 5G mm-wave backhaul design. PMID:27322265

  6. Analytical solution of the problem of a shock wave in the collapsing gas in Lagrangian coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuropatenko, V. F.; Shestakovskaya, E. S.

    2016-10-01

    It is proposed the exact solution of the problem of a convergent shock wave and gas dynamic compression in a spherical vessel with an impermeable wall in Lagrangian coordinates. At the initial time the speed of cold ideal gas is equal to zero, and a negative velocity is set on boundary of the sphere. When t > t0 the shock wave spreads from this point into the gas. The boundary of the sphere will move under the certain law correlated with the motion of the shock wave. The trajectories of the gas particles in Lagrangian coordinates are straight lines. The equations determining the structure of the gas flow between the shock front and gas border have been found as a function of time and Lagrangian coordinate. The dependence of the entropy on the velocity of the shock wave has been found too. For Lagrangian coordinates the problem is first solved. It is fundamentally different from previously known formulations of the problem of the self-convergence of the self-similar shock wave to the center of symmetry and its reflection from the center, which was built up for the infinite area in Euler coordinates.

  7. Millimetre-Wave Backhaul for 5G Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Chen, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The trend for dense deployment in future 5G mobile communication networks makes current wired backhaul infeasible owing to the high cost. Millimetre-wave (mm-wave) communication, a promising technique with the capability of providing a multi-gigabit transmission rate, offers a flexible and cost-effective candidate for 5G backhauling. By exploiting highly directional antennas, it becomes practical to cope with explosive traffic demands and to deal with interference problems. Several advancements in physical layer technology, such as hybrid beamforming and full duplexing, bring new challenges and opportunities for mm-wave backhaul. This article introduces a design framework for 5G mm-wave backhaul, including routing, spatial reuse scheduling and physical layer techniques. The associated optimization model, open problems and potential solutions are discussed to fully exploit the throughput gain of the backhaul network. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the potential benefits of the proposed method for the 5G mm-wave backhaul design. PMID:27322265

  8. Shock compression modeling of metallic single crystals: comparison of finite difference, steady wave, and analytical solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lloyd, Jeffrey T.; Clayton, John D.; Austin, Ryan A.; McDowell, David L.

    2015-07-10

    Background: The shock response of metallic single crystals can be captured using a micro-mechanical description of the thermoelastic-viscoplastic material response; however, using a such a description within the context of traditional numerical methods may introduce a physical artifacts. Advantages and disadvantages of complex material descriptions, in particular the viscoplastic response, must be framed within approximations introduced by numerical methods. Methods: Three methods of modeling the shock response of metallic single crystals are summarized: finite difference simulations, steady wave simulations, and algebraic solutions of the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. For the former two numerical techniques, a dislocation density based framework describes themore » rate- and temperature-dependent shear strength on each slip system. For the latter analytical technique, a simple (two-parameter) rate- and temperature-independent linear hardening description is necessarily invoked to enable simultaneous solution of the governing equations. For all models, the same nonlinear thermoelastic energy potential incorporating elastic constants of up to order 3 is applied. Results: Solutions are compared for plate impact of highly symmetric orientations (all three methods) and low symmetry orientations (numerical methods only) of aluminum single crystals shocked to 5 GPa (weak shock regime) and 25 GPa (overdriven regime). Conclusions: For weak shocks, results of the two numerical methods are very similar, regardless of crystallographic orientation. For strong shocks, artificial viscosity affects the finite difference solution, and effects of transverse waves for the lower symmetry orientations not captured by the steady wave method become important. The analytical solution, which can only be applied to highly symmetric orientations, provides reasonable accuracy with regards to prediction of most variables in the final shocked state but, by construction, does not provide

  9. Shock compression modeling of metallic single crystals: comparison of finite difference, steady wave, and analytical solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Jeffrey T.; Clayton, John D.; Austin, Ryan A.; McDowell, David L.

    2015-07-10

    Background: The shock response of metallic single crystals can be captured using a micro-mechanical description of the thermoelastic-viscoplastic material response; however, using a such a description within the context of traditional numerical methods may introduce a physical artifacts. Advantages and disadvantages of complex material descriptions, in particular the viscoplastic response, must be framed within approximations introduced by numerical methods. Methods: Three methods of modeling the shock response of metallic single crystals are summarized: finite difference simulations, steady wave simulations, and algebraic solutions of the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. For the former two numerical techniques, a dislocation density based framework describes the rate- and temperature-dependent shear strength on each slip system. For the latter analytical technique, a simple (two-parameter) rate- and temperature-independent linear hardening description is necessarily invoked to enable simultaneous solution of the governing equations. For all models, the same nonlinear thermoelastic energy potential incorporating elastic constants of up to order 3 is applied. Results: Solutions are compared for plate impact of highly symmetric orientations (all three methods) and low symmetry orientations (numerical methods only) of aluminum single crystals shocked to 5 GPa (weak shock regime) and 25 GPa (overdriven regime). Conclusions: For weak shocks, results of the two numerical methods are very similar, regardless of crystallographic orientation. For strong shocks, artificial viscosity affects the finite difference solution, and effects of transverse waves for the lower symmetry orientations not captured by the steady wave method become important. The analytical solution, which can only be applied to highly symmetric orientations, provides reasonable accuracy with regards to prediction of most variables in the final shocked state but, by construction, does not provide insight

  10. Localized and Non-Localized Solutions of q-Deformed Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, K.; Sogami, I. S.

    2007-04-01

    Eigenfunctions of the Fock and non-Fock irreducible representations are explicitly derived for the q-deformed oscillators of the Macfarlane and Dubna types. While the Fock representations are composed of localized functions, the non-Fock representations consist of nonlocal oscillating functions which are constructed for the first time in this paper. The concept of the q-Hermite functions is generalized to include both the Fock and non-Fock types in a unified manner.

  11. Estimation of local pulse wave velocity using arterial diameter waveforms: Experimental validation in sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Estimation of arterial stiffness using local pulse wave velocity (PWV) promises to be very useful for noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. In this work we estimated in an instrumented sheep, the local aortic pulse wave velocity using two sonomicrometry diameter sensors (separated 7.5 cm) according to the transit time method (PWVTT) with a sampling rate of 4 KHz. We simultaneously measured aortic pressure in order to determine from pressure-diameter loops (PWVPDLoop), the "true" local aortic pulse wave velocity. A pneumatic cuff occluder was implanted in the aorta in order to compare both methods under a wide range of pressure levels. Mean pressure values ranged from 47 to 101 mmHg and mean proximal diameter values from 12.5. to 15.2 mm. There were no significant differences between PWVTT and PWVPDLoop values (451±43 vs. 447±48 cm/s, p = ns, paired t-test). Both methods correlated significantly (R = 0.81, p<0.05). The mean difference between both methods was only -4±29 cm/s, whereas the range of the limits of agreement (mean ± 2 standard deviation) was -61 to +53 cm/s, showing no trend. In conclusion, the diameter waveforms transit time method was found to allow an accurate and precise estimation of the local aortic PWV.

  12. Local wave particle resonant interaction causing energetic particle prompt loss in DIII-D plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. B.; Fu, G. Y.; White, R. B.; Wang, X. G.

    2015-11-01

    A new wave particle resonance mechanism is found explaining the first-orbit prompt neutral beam-ion losses induced by shear Alfvén Eigenmodes (AEs) in the DIII-D tokamak. Because of the large banana width, a typical trapped beam ion can only interact locally with a core localised Alfvén Eigenmode for a fraction of its orbit, i.e. part of its inner leg of the banana orbit. These trapped beam ions can experience substantial radial kick within one bounce as long as the phases of the wave seen by the particles are nearly constant during this local interaction. A wave particle resonant condition is found based on the locally averaged particle orbit frequencies over the interaction part of the particle orbit. It is further found that the frequency width of the local resonance is quite large because the interaction time is short. This implies that particles over a considerable region of phase space can interact effectively with the localised AEs and experience large radial kicks within one bounce orbit. The radial kick size is found numerically and analytically to scale linearly in AE amplitude and is about 5 cm for typical experimental parameters. These results are consistent with experimental measurement.

  13. Interaction of a propagating guided matter wave with a localized potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattobigio, G. L.; Couvert, A.; Georgeot, B.; Guéry-Odelin, D.

    2010-08-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to describe the interaction of a propagating guided matter wave with a localized potential in terms of quantum scattering in a confined environment. We analyze how this scattering correlates the longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom, and work out analytically the output state under the Born approximation using a Gaussian localized potential. In this limit, it is possible to engineer the potential and achieve coherent control of the output channels. The robustness of this approximation is studied by comparing the stationary scattering theory to numerical simulations involving incident wave packets. It remains valid in a domain of weak localized potential that is achievable experimentally. We deduce a possible method to determine the longitudinal coherence length of a guided atom laser. Then, we detail the non-perturbative regime of the interaction of the guided matter wave with the localized potential using a coupled channel approach. This approach is worked out explicitly with a square potential. It yields new non-perturbative effects such as the occurrence of confinement-induced resonances. The perspectives opened up by this work for experiments are discussed.

  14. Travelling-wave and separated variable solutions of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bountis, Tassos; Nobre, Fernando D.

    2016-08-01

    Some interesting nonlinear generalizations have been proposed recently for the linear Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations of quantum and relativistic physics. These novel equations involve a real parameter q and reduce to the corresponding standard linear equations in the limit q → 1. Their main virtue is that they possess plane-wave solutions expressed in terms of a q-exponential function that can vanish at infinity, while preserving the Einstein energy-momentum relation for all q. In this paper, we first present new travelling wave and separated variable solutions for the main field variable Ψ ( x → , t ) , of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE), within the q-exponential framework, and examine their behavior at infinity for different values of q. We also solve the associated equation for the second field variable Φ ( x → , t ) , derived recently within the context of a classical field theory, which corresponds to Ψ ∗ ( x → , t ) for the linear Schroedinger equation in the limit q → 1. For x ∈ ℜ, we show that certain perturbations of these q-exponential solutions Ψ(x, t) and Φ(x, t) are unbounded and hence would lead to divergent probability densities over the full domain -∞ < x < ∞. However, we also identify ranges of q values for which these solutions vanish at infinity, and may therefore be physically important.

  15. LIGO: Impacting science education through gravity-wave research in the local community and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Stephen

    2012-02-01

    We describe our integration of the science teacher pre-service and in-service education programs at Southern University (SUBR) with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) Science Education Center (SEC). Inquiry-based interactive exhibits are employed wherein we emphasize classical physics concepts of oscillations, waves, wave propagation, interference, resonance, lasers, light and Newtonian gravity. An aggressive museum docent training program is providing a means for undergraduates to learn how to effectively communicate science concepts within informal learning environments. This local educational partnership will ultimately create a science education continuum of engagement, working at multiple levels and multiple audiences to strengthen science literacy within the targeted STEM African-American community. Following a brief overview of our program of LIGO-related optical materials research, we give a detailed presentation of our K-12 science teacher preparation program with results.

  16. Local Finite-Amplitude Wave Activity as an Objective Diagnostic of Midlatitude Extreme Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Lu, J.; Burrows, D. A.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate-related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this work, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura (2015) is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) for characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trends of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  17. Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jian; Burrows, D. Alex; Leung, L. Ruby

    2015-12-01

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate-related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this letter, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura (2015) is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500 hPa geopotential height for characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in the literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trends of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  18. Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jian; Burrows, Alex D.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-12-28

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this letter, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura [2015] is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) to characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trend13 s of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  19. Self adaptive solution strategies: Locally bound constrained Newton Raphson solution algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, Joe

    1991-01-01

    A summary is given of strategies which enable the automatic adjustment of the constraint surfaces recently used to extend the range and numerical stability/efficiency of nonlinear finite element equation solvers. In addition to handling kinematic and material induced nonlinearity, both pre-and postbuckling behavior can be treated. The scheme employs localized bounds on various hierarchical partitions of the field variables. These are used to resize, shape, and orient the global constraint surface, thereby enabling essentially automatic load/deflection incrementation. Due to the generality of the approach taken, it can be implemented in conjunction with the constraints of an arbitrary functional type. To benchmark the method, several numerical experiments are presented. These include problems involving kinematic and material nonlinearity, as well as pre- and postbuckling characteristics. Also included is a list of papers published in the course of the work.

  20. Fatigue damage localization using time-domain features extracted from nonlinear Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ming; Su, Zhongqing; Lu, Ye; Cheng, Li

    2014-03-01

    Nonlinear guided waves are sensitive to small-scale fatigue damage that may hardly be identified by traditional techniques. A characterization method for fatigue damage is established based on nonlinear Lamb waves in conjunction with the use of a piezoelectric sensor network. Theories on nonlinear Lamb waves for damage detection are first introduced briefly. Then, the ineffectiveness of using pure frequency-domain information of nonlinear wave signals for locating damage is discussed. With a revisit to traditional gross-damage localization techniques based on the time of flight, the idea of using temporal signal features of nonlinear Lamb waves to locate fatigue damage is introduced. This process involves a time-frequency analysis that enables the damage-induced nonlinear signal features, which are either undiscernible in the original time history or uninformative in the frequency spectrum, to be revealed. Subsequently, a finite element modeling technique is employed, accounting for various sources of nonlinearities in a fatigued medium. A piezoelectric sensor network is configured to actively generate and acquire probing Lamb waves that involve damageinduced nonlinear features. A probability-based diagnostic imaging algorithm is further proposed, presenting results in diagnostic images intuitively. The approach is experimentally verified on a fatigue-damaged aluminum plate, showing reasonably good accuracy. Compared to existing nonlinear ultrasonics-based inspection techniques, this approach uses a permanently attached sensor network that well accommodates automated online health monitoring; more significantly, it utilizes time-domain information of higher-order harmonics from time-frequency analysis, and demonstrates a great potential for quantitative characterization of small-scale damage with improved localization accuracy.

  1. A One-Dimensional Solution of the Photoacoustic Wave Equation and its Relationship with Optical Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cywiak, D.; Barreiro-Argüelles, M. D.; Cywiak, M.; Landa-Curiel, A.; Garcia-Segundo, C.; Gutierrez-Juárez, G.

    2013-09-01

    A study based on the general solution of the one-dimensional photoacoustic (PA) wave equation for an acoustic plane source is presented. This study relies on obtaining the impulse response of the PA system considering a heating function proportional to the Lambert-Beer law and spatially bounded by a rectangle function. The PA pressure is obtained by convoluting the impulse response with the temporal profile of the exciting pulse of light. With the obtained solution, it is possible to comprise, on a single expression, the PA pressure profile for optically thin samples (whose dimensions are smaller than the optical absorption length) and optically opaque samples (whose dimensions are larger than the optical absorption length). In the limit of weak absorption, the solution is in good agreement with the one for a uniform distribution of energy. Also, a study of the dependence of the acoustic pressure with the duration of the laser pulse is included.

  2. Joint Inversion for Earthquake Depths Using Local Waveforms and Amplitude Spectra of Rayleigh Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhe; Ni, Sidao; Chu, Risheng; Zhan, Zhongwen

    2016-08-01

    Reliable earthquake depth is fundamental to many seismological problems. In this paper, we present a method to jointly invert for centroid depths with local (distance < 5°) seismic waveforms and regional (distance of 5°-15°) Rayleigh wave amplitude spectra on sparse networks. We use earthquake focal mechanisms and magnitudes retrieved with the Cut-and-Paste (CAP) method to compute synthetic amplitude spectra of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave for a range of depths. Then we grid search to find the optimal depth that minimizes the joint misfit of amplitude spectra and local waveforms. As case studies, we apply this method to the 2008 Wells, Nevada Mw6.0 earthquake and a Mw5.6 outer-rise earthquake to the east of Japan Trench in 2013. Uncertainties estimated with a bootstrap re-sampling approach show that this joint inversion approach constrains centroid depths well, which are also verified by independent teleseismic depth-phase data.

  3. Abl Interactor 1 (Abi-1) Wave-Binding and SNARE Domains Regulate Its Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling, Lamellipodium Localization, and Wave-1 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Echarri, Asier; Lai, Margaret J.; Robinson, Matthew R.; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2004-01-01

    The Abl interactor 1 (Abi-1) protein has been implicated in the regulation of actin dynamics and localizes to the tips of lamellipodia and filopodia. Here, we show that Abi-1 binds the actin nucleator protein Wave-1 through an amino-terminal Wave-binding (WAB) domain and that disruption of the Abi-1-Wave-1 interaction prevents Abi-1 from reaching the tip of the lamellipodium. Abi-1 binds to the Wave homology domain of Wave-1, a region that is required for translocation of Wave-1 to the lamellipodium. Mouse embryo fibroblasts that lack one allele of Abi-1 and are homozygous null for the related Abi-2 protein exhibit decreased Wave-1 protein levels. This phenotype is rescued by Abi-1 proteins that retain Wave-1 binding but not by Abi-1 mutants that cannot bind to Wave-1. Moreover, we uncovered an overlapping SNARE domain in the amino terminus of Abi-1 that interacts with Syntaxin-1, a SNARE family member. Further, we demonstrated that Abi-1 shuttles in and out of the nucleus in a leptomycin B (LMB)-dependent manner and that complete nuclear translocation of Abi-1 in the absence of LMB requires the combined inactivation of the SNARE, WAB, and SH3 domains of Abi-1. Thus, Abi-1 undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and functions at the leading edge to regulate Wave-1 localization and protein levels. PMID:15143189

  4. Effects of the local resonance on the wave propagation in periodic frame structures: generalized Newtonian mechanics.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Céline; Boutin, Claude; Hans, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the wave propagation in infinite two-dimensional structures made up of the periodic repetition of frames. Such materials are highly anisotropic and, because of lack of bracing, can present a large contrast between the shear and compression deformabilities. Moreover, when the thickness to length ratio of the frame elements is small, these elements can resonate in bending at low frequencies when compressional waves propagate in the structure. The frame size being small compared to the wavelength of the compressional waves, the homogenization method of periodic discrete media is extended to situations with local resonance, and it is applied to identify the macroscopic behavior at the leading order. In particular, the local resonance in bending leads to an effective mass different from the real mass and to the generalization of the Newtonian mechanics at the macroscopic scale. Consequently, compressional waves become dispersive and frequency bandgaps occur. The physical origin of these phenomena at the microscopic scale is also presented. Finally, a method is proposed for the design of such materials. PMID:23039554

  5. Local probing of propagating acoustic waves in a gigahertz echo chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Martin V.; Santos, Paulo V.; Johansson, Göran; Delsing, Per

    2012-04-01

    In the same way that micro-mechanical resonators resemble guitar strings and drums, surface acoustic waves resemble the sound these instruments produce, but moving over a solid surface rather than through air. In contrast with oscillations in suspended resonators, such propagating mechanical waves have not before been studied near the quantum mechanical limits. Here, we demonstrate local probing of surface acoustic waves with a displacement sensitivity of 30amRMSHz-1/2 and detection sensitivity on the single-phonon level after averaging, at a frequency of 932MHz. Our probe is a piezoelectrically coupled single-electron transistor, which is sufficiently fast, non-destructive and localized to enable us to track pulses echoing back and forth in a long acoustic cavity, self-interfering and ringing the cavity up and down. We project that strong coupling to quantum circuits will enable new experiments, and hybrids using the unique features of surface acoustic waves. Prospects include quantum investigations of phonon-phonon interactions, and acoustic coupling to superconducting qubits for which we present favourable estimates.

  6. Effects of the local resonance on the wave propagation in periodic frame structures: generalized Newtonian mechanics.

    PubMed

    Chesnais, Céline; Boutin, Claude; Hans, Stéphane

    2012-10-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the wave propagation in infinite two-dimensional structures made up of the periodic repetition of frames. Such materials are highly anisotropic and, because of lack of bracing, can present a large contrast between the shear and compression deformabilities. Moreover, when the thickness to length ratio of the frame elements is small, these elements can resonate in bending at low frequencies when compressional waves propagate in the structure. The frame size being small compared to the wavelength of the compressional waves, the homogenization method of periodic discrete media is extended to situations with local resonance, and it is applied to identify the macroscopic behavior at the leading order. In particular, the local resonance in bending leads to an effective mass different from the real mass and to the generalization of the Newtonian mechanics at the macroscopic scale. Consequently, compressional waves become dispersive and frequency bandgaps occur. The physical origin of these phenomena at the microscopic scale is also presented. Finally, a method is proposed for the design of such materials.

  7. Wave scattering of complex local site in a layered half-space by using a multidomain IBEM: incident plane SH waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Zhenning; Yin, Xiao

    2016-06-01

    A multidomain indirect boundary element method (IBEM) is proposed to study the wave scattering of plane SH waves by complex local site in a layered half-space. The new method, using both the full-space and layered half-space Green's functions as its fundamental solutions can also be regarded as a coupled method of the full-space IBEM and half-space IBEM. First, the whole model is decomposed into independent closed regions and an opened layered half-space region with all of the irregular interfaces; then, fictitious uniformly distributed loads are applied separately on the boundaries of each region, and scattered fields of the closed regions and the opened layered half-space region are constructed by calculating the full-space and layered half-space Green's functions, respectively; finally, all of the regions are assembled to establish the linear algebraic system that arises from discretization. The densities of the distributed loads are determined directly by solving the algebraic system. The accuracy and capability of the new approach are verified extensively by comparing its results with those of published approaches for a class of hills, valleys and embedded inclusions. And the capability of the new method is further displayed when it is used to investigate a hill-triple layered valley-hill coupled topography in a multilayered half-space. All of the numerical calculations presented in this paper demonstrate that the new method is very suitable for solving multidomain coupled multilayered wave scattering problems with the merits of high accuracy and representing the scattered fields in different kinds of regions more reasonably and flexibly.

  8. Exact combined traveling wave solutions and multi-symplectic structure of the variant Boussinesq-Whitham-Broer-Kaup type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Zi-Chen; Li, Qing-Jun; Wei, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The homogeneous balance of undetermined coefficients method (HBUCM) is firstly proposed to construct not only the exact traveling wave solutions, three-wave solutions, homoclinic solutions, N-soliton solutions, but also multi-symplectic structures of some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs). By applying the proposed method to the variant Boussinesq equations (VBEs), the exact combined traveling wave solutions and a multi-symplectic structure of the VBEs are obtained directly. Then, the definition and a multi-symplectic structure of the variant Boussinesq-Whitham-Broer-Kaup type equations (VBWBKTEs) which can degenerate to the VBEs, the Whitham-Broer-Kaup equations (WBKEs) and the Broer-Kaup equations (BKEs) are given in the multi-symplectic sense. The HBUCM is also a standard and computable method, which can be generalized to obtain the exact solutions and multi-symplectic structures for some types of NLPDEs.

  9. Experimental investigation of the local wave speed in a draft tube with cavitation vortex rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, C.; Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Nicolet, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    Hydraulic machines operating in a wider range are subjected to cavitation developments inducing undesirable pressure pulsations which could lead to potential instability of the power plant. The occurrence of pulsating cavitation volumes in the runner and the draft tube is considered as a mass source of the system and is depending on the cavitation compliance. This dynamic parameter represents the cavitation volume variation with the respect to a variation of pressure and defines implicitly the local wave speed in the draft tube. This parameter is also decisive for an accurate prediction of system eigen frequencies. Therefore, the local wave speed in the draft tube is intrinsically linked to the eigen frequencies of the hydraulic system. Thus, if the natural frequency of a hydraulic system can be determined experimentally, it also becomes possible to estimate a local wave speed in the draft tube with a numerical model. In the present study, the reduced scale model of a Francis turbine (v=0.29) was investigated at off-design conditions. In order to measure the first eigenmode of the hydraulic test rig, an additional discharge was injected at the inlet of the hydraulic turbine at a variable frequency and amplitude to excite the system. Thus, with different pressure sensors installed on the test rig, the first eigenmode was determined. Then, a hydro-acoustic test rig model was developed with the In-house EPFL SIMSEN software and the local wave speed in the draft tube was adjusted to obtain the same first eigen frequency as that measured experimentally. Finally, this method was applied for different Thoma and Froude numbers at part load conditions.

  10. Self-bound dipolar droplet: A localized matter wave in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, D.; Wilson, R. M.; Bisset, R. N.; Blakie, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate that a dipolar condensate can be prepared into a three-dimensional wave packet that remains localized when released in free space. Such self-bound states arise from the interplay of the two-body interactions and quantum fluctuations. We develop a phase diagram for the parameter regimes where these self-bound states are stable, examine their properties, and demonstrate how they can be produced in current experiments.

  11. Integral representation of singular solutions to BVP for the wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Aleksey

    2014-12-01

    We consider the Protter problem for the four-dimensional wave equation, where the boundary conditions are posed on a characteristic surface and on a non-characteristic one. In particular, we consider a case when the right-hand side of the equation is of the form of harmonic polynomial. This problem is known to be ill-posed, because its adjoint homogeneous problem has infinitely many nontrivial classical solutions. The solutions of the Protter problem may have strong power type singularity isolated at one boundary point. Bounded solutions are possible only if the right-hand side of the equation is orthogonal to all the classical solutions of the adjoint homogeneous problem, which in fact is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the classical solvability of the problem. In this paper we offer an explicit integral form of the solutions of the problem, which is more simple than the known so far. Additionally, we give a condition on the coefficients of the harmonic polynomial to obtain not only bounded but also continuous solution.

  12. Exact density functional and wave function embedding schemes based on orbital localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Ferenczy, György G.; Kállay, Mihály

    2016-08-01

    Exact schemes for the embedding of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of wave function methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density functional is employed.

  13. Full 3D dispersion curve solutions for guided waves in generally anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando Quintanilla, F.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Craster, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    Dispersion curves of guided waves provide valuable information about the physical and elastic properties of waves propagating within a given waveguide structure. Algorithms to accurately compute these curves are an essential tool for engineers working in non-destructive evaluation and for scientists studying wave phenomena. Dispersion curves are typically computed for low or zero attenuation and presented in two or three dimensional plots. The former do not always provide a clear and complete picture of the dispersion loci and the latter are very difficult to obtain when high values of attenuation are involved and arbitrary anisotropy is considered in single or multi-layered systems. As a consequence, drawing correct and reliable conclusions is a challenging task in the modern applications that often utilize multi-layered anisotropic viscoelastic materials. These challenges are overcome here by using a spectral collocation method (SCM) to robustly find dispersion curves in the most complicated cases of high attenuation and arbitrary anisotropy. Solutions are then plotted in three-dimensional frequency-complex wavenumber space, thus gaining much deeper insight into the nature of these problems. The cases studied range from classical examples, which validate this approach, to new ones involving materials up to the most general triclinic class for both flat and cylindrical geometry in multi-layered systems. The apparent crossing of modes within the same symmetry family in viscoelastic media is also explained and clarified by the results. Finally, the consequences of the centre of symmetry, present in every crystal class, on the solutions are discussed.

  14. Forests as a natural seismic metamaterial: Rayleigh wave bandgaps induced by local resonances.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Andrea; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Gueguen, Philippe; Craster, Richard V

    2016-01-01

    We explore the thesis that resonances in trees result in forests acting as locally resonant metamaterials for Rayleigh surface waves in the geophysics context. A geophysical experiment demonstrates that a Rayleigh wave, propagating in soft sedimentary soil at frequencies lower than 150 Hz, experiences strong attenuation, when interacting with a forest, over two separate large frequency bands. This experiment is interpreted using finite element simulations that demonstrate the observed attenuation is due to bandgaps when the trees are arranged at the sub-wavelength scale with respect to the incident Rayleigh wave. The repetitive bandgaps are generated by the coupling of the successive longitudinal resonances of trees with the vertical component of the Rayleigh wave. For wavelengths down to 5 meters, the resulting bandgaps are remarkably large and strongly attenuating when the acoustic impedance of the trees matches the impedance of the soil. Since longitudinal resonances of a vertical resonator are inversely proportional to its length, a man-made engineered array of resonators that attenuates Rayleigh waves at frequency ≤10 Hz could be designed starting from vertical pillars coupled to the ground with longitudinal resonance ≤10 Hz. PMID:26750489

  15. Forests as a natural seismic metamaterial: Rayleigh wave bandgaps induced by local resonances.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Andrea; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Gueguen, Philippe; Craster, Richard V

    2016-01-11

    We explore the thesis that resonances in trees result in forests acting as locally resonant metamaterials for Rayleigh surface waves in the geophysics context. A geophysical experiment demonstrates that a Rayleigh wave, propagating in soft sedimentary soil at frequencies lower than 150 Hz, experiences strong attenuation, when interacting with a forest, over two separate large frequency bands. This experiment is interpreted using finite element simulations that demonstrate the observed attenuation is due to bandgaps when the trees are arranged at the sub-wavelength scale with respect to the incident Rayleigh wave. The repetitive bandgaps are generated by the coupling of the successive longitudinal resonances of trees with the vertical component of the Rayleigh wave. For wavelengths down to 5 meters, the resulting bandgaps are remarkably large and strongly attenuating when the acoustic impedance of the trees matches the impedance of the soil. Since longitudinal resonances of a vertical resonator are inversely proportional to its length, a man-made engineered array of resonators that attenuates Rayleigh waves at frequency ≤10 Hz could be designed starting from vertical pillars coupled to the ground with longitudinal resonance ≤10 Hz.

  16. Forests as a natural seismic metamaterial: Rayleigh wave bandgaps induced by local resonances

    PubMed Central

    Colombi, Andrea; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Gueguen, Philippe; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the thesis that resonances in trees result in forests acting as locally resonant metamaterials for Rayleigh surface waves in the geophysics context. A geophysical experiment demonstrates that a Rayleigh wave, propagating in soft sedimentary soil at frequencies lower than 150 Hz, experiences strong attenuation, when interacting with a forest, over two separate large frequency bands. This experiment is interpreted using finite element simulations that demonstrate the observed attenuation is due to bandgaps when the trees are arranged at the sub-wavelength scale with respect to the incident Rayleigh wave. The repetitive bandgaps are generated by the coupling of the successive longitudinal resonances of trees with the vertical component of the Rayleigh wave. For wavelengths down to 5 meters, the resulting bandgaps are remarkably large and strongly attenuating when the acoustic impedance of the trees matches the impedance of the soil. Since longitudinal resonances of a vertical resonator are inversely proportional to its length, a man-made engineered array of resonators that attenuates Rayleigh waves at frequency ≤10 Hz could be designed starting from vertical pillars coupled to the ground with longitudinal resonance ≤10 Hz. PMID:26750489

  17. Forests as a natural seismic metamaterial: Rayleigh wave bandgaps induced by local resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombi, Andrea; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Gueguen, Philippe; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the thesis that resonances in trees result in forests acting as locally resonant metamaterials for Rayleigh surface waves in the geophysics context. A geophysical experiment demonstrates that a Rayleigh wave, propagating in soft sedimentary soil at frequencies lower than 150 Hz, experiences strong attenuation, when interacting with a forest, over two separate large frequency bands. This experiment is interpreted using finite element simulations that demonstrate the observed attenuation is due to bandgaps when the trees are arranged at the sub-wavelength scale with respect to the incident Rayleigh wave. The repetitive bandgaps are generated by the coupling of the successive longitudinal resonances of trees with the vertical component of the Rayleigh wave. For wavelengths down to 5 meters, the resulting bandgaps are remarkably large and strongly attenuating when the acoustic impedance of the trees matches the impedance of the soil. Since longitudinal resonances of a vertical resonator are inversely proportional to its length, a man-made engineered array of resonators that attenuates Rayleigh waves at frequency ≤10 Hz could be designed starting from vertical pillars coupled to the ground with longitudinal resonance ≤10 Hz.

  18. Strong localization of an acoustic wave in a sub-wavelength slot between two plates.

    PubMed

    Cai, Feiyan; Li, Fei; Meng, Long; Wu, Junru; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-03-01

    The dispersion relation of the acoustic field in a sub-wavelength slot (its width is smaller than the acoustic wavelength) between two identical plates immersed in an inviscid liquid is theoretically analyzed. Each plate has a phononic crystal structure consisting of periodical grooves drilled in one of outer sides of each plate. It is found that highly localization of acoustic energy can be achieved in the sub-wavelength slot when a traveling acoustic wave is incident upon the slots. The associate physical principle is as follows: The lowest anti-symmetric non-leaky A0 mode of the Lamb wave of each individual thin plate propagating as an evanescent wave extends to the liquid from opposite direction; when the width of the slot is much smaller than the characteristic decay length of the evanescent wave in the liquid, the constructive interference of evanescent waves of the both plates takes place, leading to a strong acoustic field in the slot. This system has potential to serve as an excellent candidate for the ultrasensitive microscopic chemical/biological stimulators and sensors.

  19. An analysis of spatiotemporal localized solutions in the variable coefficients (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with six different forms of dispersion parameters.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, K; Senthilvelan, M

    2016-07-01

    We construct spatiotemporal localized envelope solutions of a (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with varying coefficients such as dispersion, nonlinearity and gain parameters through similarity transformation technique. The obtained localized rational solutions can serve as prototypes of rogue waves in different branches of science. We investigate the characteristics of constructed localized solutions in detail when it propagates through six different dispersion profiles, namely, constant, linear, Gaussian, hyperbolic, logarithm, and exponential. We also obtain expressions for the hump and valleys of rogue wave intensity profiles for these six dispersion profiles and study the trajectory of it in each case. Further, we analyze how the intensity of another localized solution, namely, breather, changes when it propagates through the aforementioned six dispersion profiles. Our studies reveal that these localized solutions co-exist with the collapsing solutions which are already found in the (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The obtained results will help to understand the corresponding localized wave phenomena in related fields.

  20. Characterizing wave propagation to improve indoor step-level person localization using floor vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshekari, Mostafa; Pan, Shijia; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize frequency-dependent wave propagation of footstep induced floor vibration to improve robustness of vibration-based occupant localization. Occupant localization is an essential part of many smart structure applications (e.g., energy management, patient/customer tracking, etc.). Exist- ing techniques include visual (e.g. cameras and IR sensors), acoustic, RF, and load-based approaches. These approaches have many deployment and operational requirements that limits their adaptation. To overcome these limitations, prior work has utilized footstep-induced vibrations to allow sparse sensor configuration and non-intrusive detection. However, frequency dependent propagation characteristics and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of footstep-induced vibrations change the shape of the signal. Furthermore, estimating the wave propagation velocity for forming the multilateration equations and localizing the footsteps is a challenging task. They, in turn, lead to large errors of localization. In this paper, we present a structural vibration based indoor occupant localization technique using improved time-difference-of-arrival between multiple vibration sensors. In particular we overcome signal distortion by decomposing the signal into frequency components and focusing on high energy components for accurate indoor localization. Such decomposition leverages the frequency-specific propagation characteristics and reduces the effect of low SNR (by choosing the components of highest energy). Furthermore, we develop a velocity calibration method that finds the optimal velocity which minimizes the localization error. We validate our approach through field experiments in a building with human participants. We are able to achieve an average localization error of less than 0.21 meters, which corresponds to a 13X reduction in error when compared to the baseline method using raw data.

  1. Hybrid local FEM/global LISA modeling of damped guided wave propagation in complex composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid modeling technique for the efficient simulation of guided wave generation, propagation, and interaction with damage in complex composite structures. A local finite element model is deployed to capture the piezoelectric effects and actuation dynamics of the transmitter, while the global domain wave propagation and interaction with structural complexity (structure features and damage) are solved utilizing a local interaction simulation approach (LISA). This hybrid approach allows the accurate modeling of the local dynamics of the transducers and keeping the LISA formulation in an explicit format, which facilitates its readiness for parallel computing. The global LISA framework was extended through the 3D Kelvin-Voigt viscoelasticity theory to include anisotropic damping effects for composite structures, as an improvement over the existing LISA formulation. The global LISA framework was implemented using the compute unified device architecture running on graphic processing units. A commercial preprocessor is integrated seamlessly with the computational framework for grid generation and material property allocation to handle complex structures. The excitability and damping effects are successfully captured by this hybrid model, with experimental validation using the scanning laser doppler vibrometry. To demonstrate the capability of our hybrid approach for complex structures, guided wave propagation and interaction with a delamination in a composite panel with stiffeners is presented.

  2. Hybrid local FEM/global LISA modeling of damped guided wave propagation in complex composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid modeling technique for the efficient simulation of guided wave generation, propagation, and interaction with damage in complex composite structures. A local finite element model is deployed to capture the piezoelectric effects and actuation dynamics of the transmitter, while the global domain wave propagation and interaction with structural complexity (structure features and damage) are solved utilizing a local interaction simulation approach (LISA). This hybrid approach allows the accurate modeling of the local dynamics of the transducers and keeping the LISA formulation in an explicit format, which facilitates its readiness for parallel computing. The global LISA framework was extended through the 3D Kelvin–Voigt viscoelasticity theory to include anisotropic damping effects for composite structures, as an improvement over the existing LISA formulation. The global LISA framework was implemented using the compute unified device architecture running on graphic processing units. A commercial preprocessor is integrated seamlessly with the computational framework for grid generation and material property allocation to handle complex structures. The excitability and damping effects are successfully captured by this hybrid model, with experimental validation using the scanning laser doppler vibrometry. To demonstrate the capability of our hybrid approach for complex structures, guided wave propagation and interaction with a delamination in a composite panel with stiffeners is presented.

  3. Broadband Lamb Wave Trapping in Cellular Metamaterial Plates with Multiple Local Resonances

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, De-Gang; Li, Yong; Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the Lamb wave propagation in cellular metamaterial plates constructed by bending-dominated and stretch-dominated unit-cells with the stiffness differed by orders of magnitude at an ultralow density. The simulation results show that ultralight metamaterial plates with textured stubs deposited on the surface can support strong local resonances for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes at low frequencies, where Lamb waves at the resonance frequencies are highly localized in the vibrating stubs. The resonance frequency is very sensitive to the geometry of textured stubs. By reasonable design of the geometry of resonant elements, we establish a simple loaded-bar model with the array of oscillators having a gradient relative density (or weight) that can support multiple local resonances, which permits the feasibility of a broadband Lamb wave trapping. Our study could be potentially significant in designing ingenious weight-efficient acoustic devices for practical applications, such as shock absorption, cushioning, and vibrations traffic, etc. PMID:25790858

  4. The Influence of Locally Increased Gravity Wave Drag on the Middle Atmosphere Circulation - A Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilienthal, Friederike; Sacha, Petr; Jacobi, Christoph; Pisoft, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Internal gravity waves (GW) are one of the most dominant features in the middle atmosphere. They are a main contributor for energy and angular momentum transport and thus play an important role for atmospheric dynamics such as the Quasi Biennial Oscillation or the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). GPS radio occultation measurements (e.g. Sacha et al., 2015) have shown that GW can appear in local hotspots, e.g. in the lower stratosphere of the Eastern Asia/North-western Pacific (EA/NP) region. Using these data as an input for the GW parameterization of a 3D primitive equation model for the middle and upper atmosphere (MUAM) we study the dynamical effects of such a localized breaking region. We further introduce an additional artificial GW drag in the lower stratosphere EA/NP region and show that a localized GW forcing is more efficient in creating planetary waves (PWs) than zonally uniform GW forcing. We observe PWs propagating both equatorward and poleward and upward along the edge of the polar vortex. Possible consequences for the polar vortex stability and stratosphere-troposphere exchange in the tropical region are discussed. Finally, applying 3D wave activity flux and 3D residual circulation diagnostics, we investigated the possible role of this area in the longitudinal variability of the BDC with a hypothesis of its enhanced downwelling branch in this region.

  5. On Locally Deformed Stratified Media : Applications To Rough Surfaces And Guided Wave Devices With Corrugated Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, R.; Hugonin, J. P.

    1984-12-01

    In 1977, we published two papers on the diffraction of electromagnetic waves at a locally deformed flat boundary surface and at a locally deformed plane wave-guide. Since this time, an important theoretical and numerical study of locally deformed stratified media has been carried out in our lab. This study has been summarized three years ago in the J.O.S.A. and it has been presented last year as a thesis dissertation. But both the J.O.S.A. paper and the thesis are difficult to read for non specialists because the involved mathematics are rather subtle and, at least, tedious for experimenters. In other words, an important work has been done, which seems to be unknown to most of "practical people". We thought that a SPIE meeting is a good opportunity to cure this regrettable situation. A computer program is now available which probably might be very useful for those working on rough dielectric surfaces and on guided wave devices with corrugated boundaries. We would like to present to engineers the possibilities and the limits of this big computer code called hereafter Program (P)

  6. The bound state solution for the Morse potential with a localized mass profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraboutalebi, S.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate an analytical solution for the Schrödinger equation with a position-dependent mass distribution, with the Morse potential via Laplace transformations. We considered a mass function localized around the equilibrium position. The mass distribution depends on the energy spectrum of the state and the intrinsic parameters of the Morse potential. An exact bound state solution is obtained in the presence of this mass distribution.

  7. Discussions on equivalent solutions and localized structures via the mapping method based on Riccati equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling; Cheng, Xuan; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Although the mapping method based on Riccati equation was proposed to obtain variable separation solutions many years ago, two important problems have not been studied: i) the equivalence of variable separation solutions by means of the mapping method based on Riccati equation with the radical sign combined ansatz; and ii) lack of physical meanings for some localized structures constructed by variable separation solutions. In this paper, we re-study the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equation via the mapping method based on Riccati equation and prove that nine types of variable separation solutions are actually equivalent to each other. Moreover, we also re-study localized structures constructed by variable separation solutions. Results indicate that some localized structures reported in the literature are lacking real values due to the appearance of the divergent and un-physical phenomenon for the initial field. Therefore, we must be careful with the initial field to avoid the appearance of some un-physical or even divergent structures in it when we construct localized structures for the potential field.

  8. Bifurcation and exact traveling wave solutions of a modified nonlinearly dispersive mK (m,n,k) equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Chen, Li-Qun; Zhang, Jianming

    2013-10-01

    Bifurcation and exact solutions of the modified nonlinearly dispersive mK (m,n,k) equation with nonlinear dispersion um-1ut+a(un)x+b(uk)xxx = 0,nk≠0 are investigated in this paper. As a result, under different parameter conditions, abundant compactons, peakons and solitary solutions including not only some known results but also some new ones are obtained. We also point out the original reason of the existence of the non-smooth traveling wave solutions. The approach we used here is also suitable for the study of traveling wave solutions of some other nonlinear equations.

  9. Analytical solution for the Klein-Gordon equation and action function of the solution for the Dirac equation in counterpropagating laser waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Huayu; Huang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Nonperturbative calculation of QED processes involving a strong electromagnetic field, especially provided by strong laser facilities at present and in the near future, generally resorts to the Furry picture with the use of analytical solutions of particle dynamical equations, such as the Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation. However, only for limited field configurations such as a plane-wave field could the equations be solved analytically. Studies have shown significant interest in QED processes in a strong field composed of two counterpropagating laser waves, but the exact solution in such a field is out of reach. In this paper, inspired by the observation of the structure of the solutions in a plane-wave field, we develop a method and obtain the analytical solution for the Klein-Gordon equation and equivalently the action function of the solution for the Dirac equation in this field, under a largest dynamical parameter condition that there exists an inertial frame in which the particle free momentum is far larger than the other field dynamical parameters. The applicable range of the solution is demonstrated and its validity is proven clearly. The result has the advantages of Lorentz covariance, clear structure, and close similarity to the solution in a plane-wave field, and thus favors convenient application.

  10. Local problems, local solutions: improving tuberculosis control at the district level in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the causes of a low cure rate at the district level of a tuberculosis (TB) control programme and to formulate, implement, and evaluate an intervention to improve the situation. METHODS: The study setting was Mzuzu (population 60,000), where the annual smear-positive pulmonary TB incidence was 160 per 100,000 and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence was 67% among TB patients. There is one TB treatment unit, but several other organizations are involved with TB control. An examination of case-holding activities was carried out, potential areas for improvement were identified, and interventions performed. FINDINGS: In 1990-91, the cure rate was 24% among smear-positive cases (29% among survivors to end of treatment). Problems identified included a fragmented TB control programme; inadequate training and supervision; suboptimal recording of patients' addresses; and nonadherence to national TB control programme protocols. These problems were addressed, and in 1992-93 the cure rate rose to 68% (relative risk (RR) = 2.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 4.96)) and to 92% among survivors to the end of treatment (RR = 3.12 (95% CI = 1.84, 5.29)). High cure rates are therefore achievable despite high HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Simple, inexpensive, local programmatic interventions can dramatically improve TB case holding. This study demonstrates the need for evaluation, training, and supervision at all levels of the programme. PMID:11242817

  11. Interfacial wave theory of dendrite growth - Global mode solution and quantum condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jian-Jun

    1990-01-01

    The signal feedback process at the edge of the dendrite tip is investigated, and the global instability mechanism of the system is derived. A mechanism is developed to describe a discrete set of unstable global modes for the system. Called WEASR, the method considers the wave emission at the turning point and signal reflections between the turning point and the front edge of the tip. It is shown that the method can obtain the asymptotic solutions for the unstable global modes and the quantum condition for the corresponding eigenvalues. A turning point called the pattern formation condition is shown to be crucial in the formation of dendritic structure and the choice of the final tip velocity. The wave emission process is outlined, and the importance of a signal feedback process at the edge of the dendrite tip is demonstrated. Parameters such as stability and surface tension can be analyzed in terms of their effects on WEASR modes.

  12. MicroResearch--Finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Tobias R; Bortolussi, Robert; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-06-01

    The urgent need in Africa for research capacity building has been recognized by African leaders and governments for many years. However, lack of large research funding opportunities has been seen as a major obstacle to improving research capacity in precisely those countries that need it the most. Microfinance has shown that a small infusion of capital can "prime the pump" to creative local economic productivity. In a similar way, MicroResearch has proven effective in promoting a similar bottom-up strategy to find sustainable solutions to local health challenges through local community focused research. Specifically, MicroResearch through hands-on didactic courses, mentoring and small-scale research funding promotes small research projects that improve research skills across the entire health-care provider spectrum to unleash a culture of inquiry. This in turn stimulates health care providers to identify the locally most relevant obstacles that need to be overcome and implement locally feasible and sustainable solutions. MicroResearch is a bottom-up strategy proven effective at finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges.

  13. An improved UK local magnitude scale from analysis of shear and Lg-wave amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, David C.

    2007-05-01

    The amplitudes of shear and Lg waves recorded at UK seismograph stations from local earthquakes in the range 0-600 km have been subjected to an analysis of variance, allowing separation of the effects of earthquake size, distance and station corrections for each recording site. The propagation paths sample mainly the central to western part of the UK, with good north-south coverage. The analysis of 385 amplitude readings at 28 stations from 40 earthquakes showed that the effects of both distance and station (site) corrections were statistically significant. Tables of corrections for both distance and station effects have been derived to allow local magnitude ML to be determined more accurately from horizontal and vertical component records. One set of tables allows the estimation of an ML which is consistent with the original Richter definition of ML, with a standard deviation which is smaller than that produced by the theoretical attenuation curve, defined according to attenuation in Southern California, which has customarily been used to calculate ML in the UK. The reduction in standard deviation is mainly due to the incorporation of station terms to correct for station effects, since the theoretical and observed variations of attenuation with distance are similar. This similarity implies that Southern California and the UK show a similar variation of distance-dependent attenuation for Lg waves, which was not expected in view of the differences in geology and tectonics. Another set of tables is provided to calculate an ML which is consistent with the body wave magnitude mb determined by the International Data Centre from station records of the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty Organization's global monitoring network. The decay with distance of the predominantly Lg-wave amplitude values gives a value of 440 +/- 50 for Lg Q at a frequency of 3 Hz, in agreement with estimates obtained from spectral displacement amplitudes of Lg waves in the UK.

  14. Low-frequency four-wave mixing spectroscopy of biomolecules in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bunkin, Aleksei F; Pershin, S M

    2011-01-24

    Four-wave mixing (FWM) spectroscopy is used to detect the rotational resonances of H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecules in DNA and denatured DNA aqueous solutions in the range {+-}10 cm{sup -1} with a spectral resolution of 3 GHz. It is found that the resonance contribution of the rotational transitions of these molecules increases significantly in solutions rather than in distilled water. This fact is interpreted as a manifestation of specific properties of a hydration layer at DNA-water and denatured DNA-water interfaces. Analysis of the FWM spectra shows that the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecules in the hydration layer of the DNA solution increases by a factor of 3 after denaturation. The FWM spectra of aqueous solutions of {alpha}-chymotrypsin protein are obtained in the range {+-}7cm{sup -1} at the protein concentrations between 0 and 20 mg cm{sup -3}. It is found that the hypersound velocity in the protein aqueous solution, measured by the shift of Brillouin components in the scattering spectrum, obeys a cubic dependence on the protein concentration and reaches a value of about 3000 m s{sup -1} at 20 mg cm{sup -3}. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  15. An analytical solution of finite-amplitude solitary kinetic Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Wang, D.; Faelthammar, C.

    1995-12-01

    An analytical solution of finite-amplitude solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) in a low-{beta} ({beta}{much_lt}{ital m}{sub {ital e}}/{ital m}{sub {ital i}}{much_lt}1) plasma is presented. This solution has been compared with the solution of the Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation in the small-amplitude limit. It is found that the KdV soliton solution is valid only for the maximum relative density perturbation {ital N}{sub {ital m}}{lt}0.1. For the larger {ital N}{sub {ital m}}, the exact analytical solution shows that the SKAWs have a much wider structure and much stronger perturbed fields than the KdV solitons with the same {ital N}{sub {ital m}}. Moreover, the relations between the width and the amplitude of SKAWs are also considerably different from that of the KdV solitons. In addition, the possibility for applying these results to some events observed from the Freja scientific satellite is discussed. (The Freja is a Swedish--German scientific project for the investigation of ionospheric and magnetospheric plasmas, and the Freja satellite was launched on a Long-March II rocket of China on October 6, 1992.) {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. Numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with wave operator on unbounded domains.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongwei; Wu, Xiaonan; Zhang, Jiwei

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we generalize the unified approach proposed in Zhang et al. [J. Zhang, Z. Xu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. E 78, 026709 (2008)] to design the nonlinear local absorbing boundary conditions (LABCs) for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with wave operator on unbounded domains. In fact, based on the methodology underlying the unified approach, we first split the original equation into two parts-the linear equation and the nonlinear equation-then achieve a one-way operator to approximate the linear equation to make the wave outgoing, and finally combine the one-way operator with the nonlinear equation to achieve the nonlinear LABCs. The stability of the equation with the nonlinear LABCs is also analyzed by introducing some auxiliary variables, and some numerical examples are presented to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of our proposed method.

  17. Study of localized structures of kinetic Alfvén wave and generation of turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Anju Sharma, R. P. Yadav, Nitin

    2015-06-15

    Localization of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAW) due to ponderomotive nonlinearity can be regarded as an important mechanism for heating the space plasmas. The present paper investigates the effect of background density fluctuations on the formation of large amplitude localized structures and turbulent spectrum of KAW applicable to magnetopause. The dynamical equations are derived, taking into account the ponderomotive nonlinearity of the KAW as well as the background fluctuations which are in the form of ion acoustic waves. The system is studied numerically as well as semi-analytically. The results reveal that the presence of density fluctuations affects the formation of localized structures. These fluctuations affecting the localization of KAW may also affect heating and acceleration of plasma. Respective turbulent scaling for the different amplitude of background fluctuations has also been studied. The relevance of the numerical results has been discussed with the THEMIS observations near the magnetopause [C. Chaston et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L17S08 (2008)].

  18. Transport solutions of the Lamé equations and shock elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeyeva, L. A.; Kaishybaeva, G. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Lamé system describing the dynamics of an isotropic elastic medium affected by a steady transport load moving at subsonic, transonic, or supersonic speed is considered. Its fundamental and generalized solutions in a moving frame of reference tied to the transport load are analyzed. Shock waves arising in the medium at supersonic speeds are studied. Conditions on the jump in the stress, displacement rate, and energy across the shock front are obtained using distribution theory. Numerical results concerning the dynamics of an elastic medium influenced by concentrated transport loads moving at sub-, tran- and supersonic speeds are presented.

  19. Quasi-periodic wave solutions and asymptotic properties for a fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries type equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chun-Yan; Tian, Shou-Fu; Wang, Xiu-Bin; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2016-07-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries type (fKdV-type) equation with time-dependent coefficients, which can be used to describe many nonlinear phenomena in fluid mechanics, ocean dynamics and plasma physics. The binary Bell polynomials are employed to find its Hirota’s bilinear formalism with an extra auxiliary variable, based on which its N-soliton solutions can be also directly derived. Furthermore, by considering multi-dimensional Riemann theta function, a lucid and straightforward generalization of the Hirota-Riemann method is presented to explicitly construct the multiperiodic wave solutions of the equation. Finally, the asymptotic properties of these periodic wave solutions are strictly analyzed to reveal the relationships between periodic wave solutions and soliton solutions.

  20. From plane waves to local Gaussians for the simulation of correlated periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, George H.; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Grüneis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    We present a simple, robust, and black-box approach to the implementation and use of local, periodic, atom-centered Gaussian basis functions within a plane wave code, in a computationally efficient manner. The procedure outlined is based on the representation of the Gaussians within a finite bandwidth by their underlying plane wave coefficients. The core region is handled within the projected augment wave framework, by pseudizing the Gaussian functions within a cutoff radius around each nucleus, smoothing the functions so that they are faithfully represented by a plane wave basis with only moderate kinetic energy cutoff. To mitigate the effects of the basis set superposition error and incompleteness at the mean-field level introduced by the Gaussian basis, we also propose a hybrid approach, whereby the complete occupied space is first converged within a large plane wave basis, and the Gaussian basis used to construct a complementary virtual space for the application of correlated methods. We demonstrate that these pseudized Gaussians yield compact and systematically improvable spaces with an accuracy comparable to their non-pseudized Gaussian counterparts. A key advantage of the described method is its ability to efficiently capture and describe electronic correlation effects of weakly bound and low-dimensional systems, where plane waves are not sufficiently compact or able to be truncated without unphysical artifacts. We investigate the accuracy of the pseudized Gaussians for the water dimer interaction, neon solid, and water adsorption on a LiH surface, at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory.

  1. From plane waves to local Gaussians for the simulation of correlated periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Booth, George H; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Grüneis, Andreas

    2016-08-28

    We present a simple, robust, and black-box approach to the implementation and use of local, periodic, atom-centered Gaussian basis functions within a plane wave code, in a computationally efficient manner. The procedure outlined is based on the representation of the Gaussians within a finite bandwidth by their underlying plane wave coefficients. The core region is handled within the projected augment wave framework, by pseudizing the Gaussian functions within a cutoff radius around each nucleus, smoothing the functions so that they are faithfully represented by a plane wave basis with only moderate kinetic energy cutoff. To mitigate the effects of the basis set superposition error and incompleteness at the mean-field level introduced by the Gaussian basis, we also propose a hybrid approach, whereby the complete occupied space is first converged within a large plane wave basis, and the Gaussian basis used to construct a complementary virtual space for the application of correlated methods. We demonstrate that these pseudized Gaussians yield compact and systematically improvable spaces with an accuracy comparable to their non-pseudized Gaussian counterparts. A key advantage of the described method is its ability to efficiently capture and describe electronic correlation effects of weakly bound and low-dimensional systems, where plane waves are not sufficiently compact or able to be truncated without unphysical artifacts. We investigate the accuracy of the pseudized Gaussians for the water dimer interaction, neon solid, and water adsorption on a LiH surface, at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory.

  2. From plane waves to local Gaussians for the simulation of correlated periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Booth, George H; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Grüneis, Andreas

    2016-08-28

    We present a simple, robust, and black-box approach to the implementation and use of local, periodic, atom-centered Gaussian basis functions within a plane wave code, in a computationally efficient manner. The procedure outlined is based on the representation of the Gaussians within a finite bandwidth by their underlying plane wave coefficients. The core region is handled within the projected augment wave framework, by pseudizing the Gaussian functions within a cutoff radius around each nucleus, smoothing the functions so that they are faithfully represented by a plane wave basis with only moderate kinetic energy cutoff. To mitigate the effects of the basis set superposition error and incompleteness at the mean-field level introduced by the Gaussian basis, we also propose a hybrid approach, whereby the complete occupied space is first converged within a large plane wave basis, and the Gaussian basis used to construct a complementary virtual space for the application of correlated methods. We demonstrate that these pseudized Gaussians yield compact and systematically improvable spaces with an accuracy comparable to their non-pseudized Gaussian counterparts. A key advantage of the described method is its ability to efficiently capture and describe electronic correlation effects of weakly bound and low-dimensional systems, where plane waves are not sufficiently compact or able to be truncated without unphysical artifacts. We investigate the accuracy of the pseudized Gaussians for the water dimer interaction, neon solid, and water adsorption on a LiH surface, at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. PMID:27586908

  3. Localized Ionospheric Particle Acceleration and Wave Acceleration of Auroral Ions: Amicist Data Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Kristina A.

    1999-01-01

    Research supported by this grant covered two main topics: auroral ion acceleration from ELF-band wave activity, and from VLF-spikelet (lower hybrid solitary structure) wave activity. Recent auroral sounding rocket data illustrate the relative significance of various mechanisms for initiating auroral ion outflow. Two nightside mechanisms are shown in detail. The first mechanism is ion acceleration within lower hybrid solitary wave events. The new data from this two payload mission show clearly that: (1) these individual events are spatially localized to scales approximately 100 m wide perpendicular to B, in agreement with previous investigations of these structures, and (2) that the probability of occurrence of the events is greatest at times of maximum VLF wave intensity. The second mechanism is ion acceleration by broadband, low frequency electrostatic waves, observed in a 30 km wide region at the poleward edge of the arc. The ion fluxes from the two mechanisms are compared and it is shown that while lower hybrid solitary structures do indeed accelerate ions in regions of intense VLF waves, the outflow from the electrostatic ion wave acceleration region is dominant for the aurora investigated by this sounding rocket, AMICIST. The fluxes are shown to be consistent with DE-1 and Freja outflow measurements, indicating that the AMICIST observations show the low altitude, microphysical signatures of nightside auroral outflow. In this paper, we present a review of sounding rocket observations of the ion acceleration seen nightside auroral zone lower hybrid solitary structures. Observations from Topaz3, Amicist, and Phaze2 are presented on various spatial scales, including the two-point measurements of the Amicist mission. From this collection of observations, we will demonstrate the following characteristics of transverse ion acceleration (TAI) in LHSS. The ion acceleration process is narrowly confined to 90 degrees pitch angle, in spatially confined regions of up to a

  4. Local magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and the wave-driven dynamo in accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, Ethan T.; Diamond, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    We consider the consequences of magnetic buoyancy and the magnetic shearing instability (MSI) on the strength and organization of the magnetic field in a thin accretion disk. We discuss a model in which the wave-driven dynamo growth rate is balanced by the dissipative effects of the MSI. As in earlier work, the net helicity is due to small advective motions driven by nonlinear interactions between internal waves. Assuming a simple model of the internal wave spectrum generated from the primary m = 1 internal waves, we find that the magnetic energy density saturates at about (H/r) exp 4/3 times the local pressure (where H is the disk thickness and r is its radius). On very small scales the shearing instability will produce an isotropic fluctuating field. For a stationary disk this is equivalent to a dimensionless 'viscosity' of about (H/r) exp 4/3. The vertical and radial diffusion coefficients will be comparable to each other. Magnetic buoyancy will be largely suppressed by the turbulence due to the MSI. We present a rough estimate of its effects and find that it removes magnetic flux from the disk at a rate comparable to that caused by turbulent diffusion.

  5. Initial-Boundary Value Problem Solution of the Nonlinear Shallow-water Wave Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, U.; Aydin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The hodograph transformation solutions of the one-dimensional nonlinear shallow-water wave (NSW) equations are usually obtained through integral transform techniques such as Fourier-Bessel transforms. However, the original formulation of Carrier and Greenspan (1958 J Fluid Mech) and its variant Carrier et al. (2003 J Fluid Mech) involve evaluation integrals. Since elliptic integrals are highly singular as discussed in Carrier et al. (2003), this solution methodology requires either approximation of the associated integrands by smooth functions or selection of regular initial/boundary data. It should be noted that Kanoglu (2004 J Fluid Mech) partly resolves this issue by simplifying the resulting integrals in closed form. Here, the hodograph transform approach is coupled with the classical eigenfunction expansion method rather than integral transform techniques and a new analytical model for nonlinear long wave propagation over a plane beach is derived. This approach is based on the solution methodology used in Aydın & Kanoglu (2007 CMES-Comp Model Eng) for wind set-down relaxation problem. In contrast to classical initial- or boundary-value problem solutions, here, the NSW equations are formulated to yield an initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) solution. In general, initial wave profile with nonzero initial velocity distribution is assumed and the flow variables are given in the form of Fourier-Bessel series. The results reveal that the developed method allows accurate estimation of the spatial and temporal variation of the flow quantities, i.e., free-surface height and depth-averaged velocity, with much less computational effort compared to the integral transform techniques such as Carrier et al. (2003), Kanoglu (2004), Tinti & Tonini (2005 J Fluid Mech), and Kanoglu & Synolakis (2006 Phys Rev Lett). Acknowledgments: This work is funded by project ASTARTE- Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV

  6. An Operator Method for Field Moments from the Extended Parabolic Wave Equation and Analytical Solutions of the First and Second Moments for Atmospheric Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The extended wide-angle parabolic wave equation applied to electromagnetic wave propagation in random media is considered. A general operator equation is derived which gives the statistical moments of an electric field of a propagating wave. This expression is used to obtain the first and second order moments of the wave field and solutions are found that transcend those which incorporate the full paraxial approximation at the outset. Although these equations can be applied to any propagation scenario that satisfies the conditions of application of the extended parabolic wave equation, the example of propagation through atmospheric turbulence is used. It is shown that in the case of atmospheric wave propagation and under the Markov approximation (i.e., the delta-correlation of the fluctuations in the direction of propagation), the usual parabolic equation in the paraxial approximation is accurate even at millimeter wavelengths. The comprehensive operator solution also allows one to obtain expressions for the longitudinal (generalized) second order moment. This is also considered and the solution for the atmospheric case is obtained and discussed. The methodology developed here can be applied to any qualifying situation involving random propagation through turbid or plasma environments that can be represented by a spectral density of permittivity fluctuations.

  7. Continuous time random walks for non-local radial solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentz, Marco; Kang, Peter K.; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2015-08-01

    This study formulates and analyzes continuous time random walk (CTRW) models in radial flow geometries for the quantification of non-local solute transport induced by heterogeneous flow distributions and by mobile-immobile mass transfer processes. To this end we derive a general CTRW framework in radial coordinates starting from the random walk equations for radial particle positions and times. The particle density, or solute concentration is governed by a non-local radial advection-dispersion equation (ADE). Unlike in CTRWs for uniform flow scenarios, particle transition times here depend on the radial particle position, which renders the CTRW non-stationary. As a consequence, the memory kernel characterizing the non-local ADE, is radially dependent. Based on this general formulation, we derive radial CTRW implementations that (i) emulate non-local radial transport due to heterogeneous advection, (ii) model multirate mass transfer (MRMT) between mobile and immobile continua, and (iii) quantify both heterogeneous advection in a mobile region and mass transfer between mobile and immobile regions. The expected solute breakthrough behavior is studied using numerical random walk particle tracking simulations. This behavior is analyzed by explicit analytical expressions for the asymptotic solute breakthrough curves. We observe clear power-law tails of the solute breakthrough for broad (power-law) distributions of particle transit times (heterogeneous advection) and particle trapping times (MRMT model). The combined model displays two distinct time regimes. An intermediate regime, in which the solute breakthrough is dominated by the particle transit times in the mobile zones, and a late time regime that is governed by the distribution of particle trapping times in immobile zones. These radial CTRW formulations allow for the identification of heterogeneous advection and mobile-immobile processes as drivers of anomalous transport, under conditions relevant for field tracer

  8. Wave Impact on a Wall: Comparison of Experiments with Similarity Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Duncan, J. H.; Lathrop, D. P.

    2014-11-01

    The impact of a steep water wave on a fixed partially submerged cube is studied with experiments and theory. The temporal evolution of the water surface profile upstream of the front face of the cube in its center plane is measured with a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique using frame rates up to 4,500 Hz. For a small range of cube positions, the surface profiles are found to form a nearly circular arc with upward curvature between the front face of the cube and a point just downstream of the wave crest. As the crest approaches the cube, the effective radius of this portion of the profile decreases rapidly. At the same time, the portion of the profile that is upstream of the crest approaches a straight line with a downward slope of about 15°. As the wave impact continues, the circular arc shrinks to zero radius with very high acceleration and a sudden transition to a high-speed vertical jet occurs. This flow singularity is modeled with a power-law scaling in time, which is used to create a time-independent system of equations of motion. The scaled governing equations are solved numerically and the similarly scaled measured free surface shapes, are favorably compared with the solutions. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Soliton solutions and chaotic motions of the Zakharov equations for the Langmuir wave in the plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, Hui-Ling; Tian, Bo Wang, Yu-Feng; Liu, De-Yin

    2015-03-15

    For the interaction between the high-frequency Langmuir waves and low-frequency ion-acoustic waves in the plasma, the Zakharov equations are studied in this paper. Via the Hirota method, we obtain the soliton solutions, based on which the soliton propagation is presented. It is found that with λ increasing, the amplitude of u decreases, whereas that of v remains unchanged, where λ is the ion-acoustic speed, u is the slowly-varying envelope of the Langmuir wave, and v is the fluctuation of the equilibrium ion density. Both the head-on and bound-state interactions between the two solitons are displayed. We observe that with λ decreasing, the interaction period of u decreases, while that of v keeps unchanged. It is found that the Zakharov equations cannot admit any chaotic motions. With the external perturbations taken into consideration, the perturbed Zakharov equations are studied for us to see the associated chaotic motions. Both the weak and developed chaotic motions are investigated, and the difference between them roots in the relative magnitude of the nonlinearities and perturbations. The chaotic motions are weakened with λ increasing, or else, strengthened. Periodic motion appears when the nonlinear terms and external perturbations are balanced. With such a balance kept, one period increases with λ increasing.

  10. Effect of localized microstructural evolution on higher harmonic generation of guided wave modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gloria; Liu, Yang; Yao, Xiaochu; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2015-03-01

    Higher harmonic generation of ultrasonic waves has the potential to be used to detect precursors to macroscale damage of phenomenon like fatigue due to microstructural evolution contributing to nonlinear material behavior. Aluminum plates having various plastic zone sizes were plastically deformed to different levels. The fundamental shear horizontal mode was then generated in the plate samples via a magnetostrictive transducer. After propagating through the plastic zone the primary wave mode (SH0) and its third harmonic (sh0) were received by a second transducer. Results of a parallel numerical study using the S1-s2 Lamb mode pair, where sensitivity to changes in third order elastic constants were investigated, are described within the context of the experimental results. Specimens used within both studies are geometrically similar and have double edge notches for dog bone samples that introduce localized plastic deformation. Through both studies, the size of the plastic zone with respect to the propagation distance and damage intensity influence the higher harmonics.

  11. Attraction of spiral waves by localized inhomogeneities with small-world connections in excitable media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Lu, Ying; Jiang, Minxi; Ouyang, Qi

    2004-05-01

    Trapping and untrapping of spiral tips in a two-dimensional homogeneous excitable medium with local small-world connections are studied by numerical simulation. In a homogeneous medium which can be simulated with a lattice of regular neighborhood connections, the spiral wave is in the meandering regime. When changing the topology of a small region from regular connections to small-world connections, the tip of the spiral waves is attracted by the small-world region, where the average path length declines with the introduction of long distant connections. The “trapped” phenomenon also occurs in regular lattices where the diffusion coefficient of the small region is increased. The above results can be explained by the eikonal equation, the Luther equation, and the relation between the core radius and the diffusion coefficient.

  12. Group-theoretic solution of the scalar wave equation in a multiply connected domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. N.; Singh, G. S.

    1994-06-01

    The solution of the two-dimensional scalar Helmholtz wave equation is discussed in a domain consisting of N+2 boundaries wherein there is one central boundary and N circles are located symmetrically within a closed space such that the system as a whole has N-fold rotational symmetry. The general solution for this complicated domain has been found to reproduce the results corresponding to simpler structures with lesser number of boundaries. Furthermore, the rotational symmetry of the system is exploited to obtain the group-theoretic solution of the composite problem leading to symmetry-induced simplifications. The numerical results pertaining to the lowest and some of the higher modes are presented for N=1 and 2. The plot of the lowest eigenvalue as a function of eccentricity exhibits maximum for symmetric as well as antisymmetric modes whenever there are at least two inner boundaries. This behavior has universal character in the sense that the maximum shows up irrespective of the values of the geometrical parameters other than the eccentricity. The computations involving the group-theoretic aspects have been found to have fast convergence highlighting the significance of our approach to deal with the solution for a class of multidisciplinary problems coming within the purview of the Helmholtz equation.

  13. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jordá, José M

    2016-02-01

    Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations Ax=b, where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O(NlogN) memory and executing an iteration in O(Nlog(2)N) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps. PMID:26986436

  14. The Method of Decomposition in Invariant Structures: Exact Solutions for N Internal Waves in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnikov, Victor

    2015-11-01

    The Navier-Stokes system of PDEs is reduced to a system of the vorticity, continuity, Helmholtz, and Lamb-Helmholtz PDEs. The periodic Dirichlet problems are formulated for conservative internal waves vanishing at infinity in upper and lower domains. Stationary kinematic Fourier (SKF) structures, stationary kinematic Euler-Fourier (SKEF) structures, stationary dynamic Euler-Fourier (SDEF) structures, and SKEF-SDEF structures of three spatial variables and time are constructed to consider kinematic and dynamic problems of the three-dimensional theory of the Newtonian flows with harmonic velocity. Exact solutions for propagation and interaction of N internal waves in the upper and lower domains are developed by the method of decomposition in invariant structures and implemented through experimental and theoretical programming in Maple. Main results are summarized in a global existence theorem for the strong solutions. The SKEF, SDEF, and SKEF-SDEF structures of the cumulative flows are visualized by two-parametric surface plots for six fluid-dynamic variables.

  15. Comparison of spherical wave ray tracing and exact boundary value solutions for spherical radomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, D. A.; Overfelt, P. L.; White, D. J.

    Much radome analysis is based on plane wave ray tracing techniques which combine conceptual simplicity with reasonable accuracy. As increasing demands on the performance of airborne antennas necessitate more accurate methods of analysis for the enclosing radome, an exact idea of the limits of applicability of the ray-optical approximation becomes more critical. In an effort to contribute to this subject, we have taken a single layer spherical radome excited by a dipole source oriented parallel to the z-axis and computed its transmitted electric and magnetic fields using a spherical wave ray tracing technique and also by solving the electromagnetic boundary value problem exactly. The exact solution is used as a standard against which the ray tracing approximation can be compared. In this paper, we compare the field patterns of the two solutions by varying the dipole offset distance, the observation point position, wall thickness, dielectric constant, wavelength, and curvature. Parameter values and the compared field patterns are examined in terms of the theory, and conclusions are drawn as to which parameters affect agreement most strongly.

  16. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Jordá, José M.

    2016-02-01

    Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations A x =b , where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O (N logN ) memory and executing an iteration in O (N log2N ) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

  17. Local amplification of seismic waves from the Denali earthquake and damaging seiches in Lake Union, Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barberopoulou, A.; Qamar, A.; Pratt, T.L.; Creager, K.C.; Steele, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mw7.9 Denali, Alaska earthquake of 3 November, 2002, caused minor damage to at least 20 houseboats in Seattle, Washington by initiating water waves in Lake Union. These water waves were likely initiated during the large amplitude seismic surface waves from this earthquake. Maps of spectral amplification recorded during the Denali earthquake on the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) strong-motion instruments show substantially increased shear and surface wave amplitudes coincident with the Seattle sedimentary basin. Because Lake Union is situated on the Seattle basin, the size of the water waves may have been increased by local amplification of the seismic waves by the basin. Complete hazard assessments require understanding the causes of these water waves during future earthquakes. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Buffered lidocaine and bupivacaine mixture – the ideal local anesthetic solution?

    PubMed Central

    Best, Corliss A; Best, Alyssa A; Best, Timothy J; Hamilton, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    The use of injectable local anesthetic solutions to facilitate pain-free surgery is an integral component of many procedures performed by the plastic surgeon. In many instances, a solution that has both rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia is optimal. A combination of lidocaine and bupivacaine, plain or with epinephrine, is readily available in most Canadian health care settings where such procedures are performed, and fulfills these criteria. However, commercially available solutions of both medications are acidic and cause a burning sensation on injection. Buffering to neutral pH with sodium bicarbonate is a practical method to mitigate the burning sensation, and has the added benefit of increasing the fraction of nonionized lipid soluble drug available. The authors report on the proportions of the three drugs to yield a neutral pH, and the results of an initial survey regarding the use of the combined solution with epinephrine in hand surgery. PMID:26090348

  19. Local structure of the halite-sylvine solid solution according to the computer simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Urusov, V. S. Leonenko, E. V.

    2008-09-15

    The structural, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of halite NaCl and sylvine KCl and the miscibility properties of the NaCl-KCl solid solution found by computer simulation are in good agreement with the experimental data. Analysis of the relaxation of the solid solution structure suggests that both anion and cation sublattices are distorted; however, the anion sublattice is distorted much more strongly. Calculations of the local bond valence at all types of ions in the solid solution show opposite deviations from the balance at cations, whereas the general balance is retained. The values of the electrostatic potential in the ion positions reflect weakening of bonding in the solid solution with respect to its pure components. In addition, with an increase in the average interatomic distance in the first coordination sphere around cations, the modulus of the electrostatic potential at cations decreases.

  20. Integrable nonlinear coupled waves with an exact asymptotic singular solution in the context of laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifi, A.

    2016-07-01

    A special case of coupled integrable nonlinear equations with a singular dispersion law is derived in the context of the small amplitude limit of general wave equations in a fluid-type warm electrons/cold ions plasma irradiated by a continuous laser beam. This model accounts for a nonlinear mode coupling of the electrostatic wave with the ion sound wave and is shown to be highly unstable. Its instability is understood as a continuous secular transfer of energy from the electrostatic wave to the ion sound wave through the ponderomotive force. The exact asymptotic solution of the system is constructed and shows that the dynamics of the energy transfer results in a singular asymptotic behavior of the ion sound wave, which explains the low penetration of the incident laser beam.

  1. Integrable nonlinear coupled waves with an exact asymptotic singular solution in the context of laser–plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifi, A.

    2016-07-01

    A special case of coupled integrable nonlinear equations with a singular dispersion law is derived in the context of the small amplitude limit of general wave equations in a fluid-type warm electrons/cold ions plasma irradiated by a continuous laser beam. This model accounts for a nonlinear mode coupling of the electrostatic wave with the ion sound wave and is shown to be highly unstable. Its instability is understood as a continuous secular transfer of energy from the electrostatic wave to the ion sound wave through the ponderomotive force. The exact asymptotic solution of the system is constructed and shows that the dynamics of the energy transfer results in a singular asymptotic behavior of the ion sound wave, which explains the low penetration of the incident laser beam.

  2. Periodontal ligament injection in the dog primary dentition: spread of local anaesthetic solution.

    PubMed

    Tagger, E; Tagger, M; Sarnat, H; Mass, E

    1994-09-01

    The spread of local anaesthetic solution administered with a pressure syringe has not been studied as extensively in young animals having primary or mixed dentitions as in adult animals. The purpose of this investigation was to study the distribution of local anaesthetic solution injected into the periodontal ligament of young dogs. India ink was added to carpules containing 2% lidocaine and 1:100,000 epinephrine, and the spread of solution was examined macroscopically and microscopically. Injections were made with a pressure syringe (Ligmaject) at 58 sites mesial and distal to primary teeth in five dogs aged 3-9 months. Three dogs were killed within 12 hours, the other two after 5 days. Spread of the ink was studied in non-decalcified slabs, in three-dimensional cleared specimens, and in histological sections. The solution usually reached the alveolar bone crest, seeped under the periosteum and alongside vascular channels into bone marrow, reaching natural cavities such as the crypts of tooth buds and the mandibular canal. The ink did not penetrate into the enamel organ or contact the permanent tooth buds. The solution appeared to spread along the path of least resistance, governed by the intricacies of anatomical structures and fascial planes. Therefore the risk of mechanical damage to permanent tooth germs appears to be minimal. PMID:7811670

  3. A trade-off solution between model resolution and covariance in surface-wave inversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Miller, R.D.; Zeng, C.

    2010-01-01

    Regularization is necessary for inversion of ill-posed geophysical problems. Appraisal of inverse models is essential for meaningful interpretation of these models. Because uncertainties are associated with regularization parameters, extra conditions are usually required to determine proper parameters for assessing inverse models. Commonly used techniques for assessment of a geophysical inverse model derived (generally iteratively) from a linear system are based on calculating the model resolution and the model covariance matrices. Because the model resolution and the model covariance matrices of the regularized solutions are controlled by the regularization parameter, direct assessment of inverse models using only the covariance matrix may provide incorrect results. To assess an inverted model, we use the concept of a trade-off between model resolution and covariance to find a proper regularization parameter with singular values calculated in the last iteration. We plot the singular values from large to small to form a singular value plot. A proper regularization parameter is normally the first singular value that approaches zero in the plot. With this regularization parameter, we obtain a trade-off solution between model resolution and model covariance in the vicinity of a regularized solution. The unit covariance matrix can then be used to calculate error bars of the inverse model at a resolution level determined by the regularization parameter. We demonstrate this approach with both synthetic and real surface-wave data. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.

  4. Many-body Localization Transition in Rokhsar-Kivelson-type wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Yu, Xiongjie; Cho, Gil Young; Clark, Bryan; Fradkin, Eduardo

    We construct a family of many-body wave functions to study the many-body localization phase transition. The wave functions have a Rokhsar-Kivelson form, in which the weight for the configurations are chosen from the Gibbs weights of a classical spin glass model, known as the Random Energy Model, multiplied by a random sign structure to represent a highly excited state. These wave functions show a phase transition into an MBL phase. In addition, we see three regimes of entanglement scaling with subsystem size: scaling with entanglement corresponding to an infinite temperature thermal phase, constant scaling, and a sub-extensive scaling between these limits. Near the phase transition point, the fluctuations of the Renyi entropies are non-Gaussian. We find that Renyi entropies with different Renyi index transition into the MBL phase at different points and have different scaling behavior, suggesting a multifractal behavior. This work was supported in part by DMR-1064319 and DMR-1408713 (XC,GYC,EF) at the University of Illinois, PHY11-25915 at KITP (EF), DOE, SciDAC FG02-12ER46875 (BKC and XY), and the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government (GYC).

  5. Detection and localization of single-source gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-J.; Wen, L.; Hobbs, G.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Madison, D. R.; Manchester, R. N.; Kerr, M.; Rosado, P. A.; Wang, J.-B.

    2015-05-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) can be used to search for very low frequency (10-9-10-7 Hz) gravitational waves (GWs). In this paper, we present a general method for the detection and localization of single-source GWs using PTAs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new method for three types of signals: monochromatic waves as expected from individual supermassive binary black holes in circular orbits, GWs from eccentric binaries and GW bursts. We also test its implementation in realistic data sets that include effects such as uneven sampling and heterogeneous data spans and measurement precision. It is shown that our method, which works in the frequency domain, performs as well as published time-domain methods. In particular, we find it equivalent to the Fe-statistic for monochromatic waves. We also discuss the construction of null streams - data streams that have null response to GWs, and the prospect of using null streams as a consistency check in the case of detected GW signals. Finally, we present sensitivities to individual supermassive binary black holes in eccentric orbits. We find that a monochromatic search that is designed for circular binaries can efficiently detect eccentric binaries with both high and low eccentricities, while a harmonic summing technique provides greater sensitivities only for binaries with moderate eccentricities.

  6. Shear Wave Splitting from Local Earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Arroucau, P.; Vlahovic, G.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we investigate crustal anisotropy in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ), by analyzing shear wave splitting from local earthquake data. The NMSZ is centrally located in the United States, spanning portions of western Tennessee, northeastern Arkansas, and southeastern Missouri. The NMSZ is also the location in which three of the largest known earthquakes took place in North America, occurring in 1811-1812. Although many seismic studies have been performed in this region, there is no consensus about which driving mechanism could satisfy both the current observations, as well as the historically observed seismicity. Therefore, it is important to continue investigating the NMSZ, to gain a better understanding of its seismicity, and the possible mechanisms that drive it. The automated technique developed by Savage et al. (2010) is used to perform the shear wave splitting measurements at 120 seismic stations within the NMSZ. The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis provided data for 1151 earthquakes spanning the years 2003-2011. The initial event selection was reduced to 245 earthquakes ranging in magnitude from 2.0 to 4.6, which fell within the shear wave window of one or more of the stations. The results of this study provide information about orientation of microcracks in the upper portion of the crust; future work will include analysis for temporal and spatial variations in order to assess the state of stress in the region.

  7. Stable standing waves for a NLS on star graphs as local minimizers of the constrained energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Riccardo; Cacciapuoti, Claudio; Finco, Domenico; Noja, Diego

    2016-05-01

    On a star graph made of N ≥ 3 halflines (edges) we consider a Schrödinger equation with a subcritical power-type nonlinearity and an attractive delta interaction located at the vertex. From previous works it is known that there exists a family of standing waves, symmetric with respect to the exchange of edges, that can be parametrized by the mass (or L2-norm) of its elements. Furthermore, if the mass is small enough, then the corresponding symmetric standing wave is a ground state and, consequently, it is orbitally stable. On the other hand, if the mass is above a threshold value, then the system has no ground state. Here we prove that orbital stability holds for every value of the mass, even if the corresponding symmetric standing wave is not a ground state, since it is anyway a local minimizer of the energy among functions with the same mass. The proof is based on a new technique that allows to restrict the analysis to functions made of pieces of soliton, reducing the problem to a finite-dimensional one. In such a way, we do not need to use direct methods of Calculus of Variations, nor linearization procedures.

  8. Localized structures in a nonlinear wave equation stabilized by negative global feedback: one-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional kinks.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Horacio G; Zhabotinsky, Anatol A; Epstein, Irving R

    2006-07-01

    We study the evolution of fronts in a nonlinear wave equation with global feedback. This equation generalizes the Klein-Gordon and sine-Gordon equations. Extending previous work, we describe the derivation of an equation governing the front motion, which is strongly nonlinear, and, for the two-dimensional case, generalizes the damped Born-Infeld equation. We study the motion of one- and two-dimensional fronts, finding a much richer dynamics than for the classical case (with no global feedback), leading in most cases to a localized solution; i.e., the stabilization of one phase inside the other. The nature of the localized solution depends on the strength of the global feedback as well as on other parameters of the model.

  9. Hybrid Matter-Wave-Microwave Solitons Produced by the Local-Field Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jieli; Dong, Guangjiong; Malomed, Boris A.

    2015-07-01

    It was recently found that the electric local-field effect (LFE) can lead to a strong coupling of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) to off-resonant optical fields. We demonstrate that the magnetic LFE gives rise to a previously unexplored mechanism for coupling a (pseudo-) spinor BEC or fermion gas to microwaves (MWs). We present a theory for the magnetic LFE and find that it gives rise to a short-range attractive interaction between two components of the (pseudo) spinor, and a long-range interaction between them. The latter interaction, resulting from deformation of the magnetic field, is locally repulsive but globally attractive, in sharp contrast with its counterpart for the optical LFE, produced by phase modulation of the electric field. Our analytical results, confirmed by the numerical computations, show that the long-range interaction gives rise to modulational instability of the spatially uniform state, and it creates stable ground states in the form of hybrid matter-wave-microwave solitons (which seem like one-dimensional magnetic monopoles), with a size much smaller than the MW wavelength, even in the presence of arbitrarily strong contact intercomponent repulsion. The setting is somewhat similar to exciton-polaritonic condensates in semiconductor microcavities. The release of matter waves from the soliton may be used for the realization of an atom laser. The analysis also applies to molecular BECs with rotational states coupled by the electric MW field.

  10. Localization and broadband follow-up of the gravitational-wave transient GW150914

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abbott, B. P.

    2016-07-20

    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize themore » follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Furthermore, detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.« less

  11. Localization and Broadband Follow-up of the Gravitational-wave Transient GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. C.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. C.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavagliá, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. C.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. G.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R. J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palliyaguru, N.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; Allison, J.; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Chatterjee, S.; Chippendale, A. P.; Edwards, P. G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, Ian; Hotan, A.; Indermuehle, B.; Marvil, J.; McConnell, D.; Murphy, T.; Popping, A.; Reynolds, J.; Sault, R. J.; Voronkov, M. A.; Whiting, M. T.; Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) Collaboration; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cunniffe, R.; Jelínek, M.; Tello, J. C.; Oates, S. R.; Hu, Y.-D.; Kubánek, P.; Guziy, S.; Castellón, A.; García-Cerezo, A.; Muñoz, V. F.; Pérez del Pulgar, C.; Castillo-Carrión, S.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Hudec, R.; Caballero-García, M. D.; Páta, P.; Vitek, S.; Adame, J. A.; Konig, S.; Rendón, F.; Mateo Sanguino, T. de J.; Fernández-Muñoz, R.; Yock, P. C.; Rattenbury, N.; Allen, W. H.; Querel, R.; Jeong, S.; Park, I. H.; Bai, J.; Cui, Ch.; Fan, Y.; Wang, Ch.; Hiriart, D.; Lee, W. H.; Claret, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Pandey, S. B.; Mediavilla, T.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; BOOTES Collaboration; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Armstrong, R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Berger, E.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brout, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.-F.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Frieman, J.; Fryer, C. L.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Herner, K.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Johnson, M. D.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A. G.; Kind, M. C.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; Maia, M. A. G.; Margutti, R.; Marriner, J.; Martini, P.; Matheson, T.; Melchior, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R.; Petravick, D.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Roe, N.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rosell, A. C.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Scolnic, D.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, N.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Stebbins, A.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.; Dark Energy Survey; Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration; Connaughton, V.; Burns, E.; Goldstein, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Zhang, B.-B.; Hui, C. M.; Jenke, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Giles, M. M.; Gibby, M. H.; Greiner, J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Mailyan, B.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Roberts, O.; Sparke, L.; Stanbro, M.; Toelge, K.; Veres, P.; Yu, H.-F.; Blackburn, L.; Fermi GBM Collaboration; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bruel, P.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Marelli, M.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Salvetti, D.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Venters, T. M.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zhu, S.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Brocato, E.; Cappellaro, E.; Covino, S.; Grado, A.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Amati, L.; Antonelli, L. A.; Capaccioli, M.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Getman, F.; Giuffrida, G.; Iannicola, G.; Limatola, L.; Lisi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P.; Melandri, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Possenti, A.; Pulone, L.; Rossi, A.; Stamerra, A.; Stella, L.; Testa, V.; Tomasella, L.; Yang, S.; GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm (GRAWITA); Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Ferrigno, C.; Hanlon, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Laurent, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Roques, J. P.; Savchenko, V.; Ubertini, P.; INTEGRAL Collaboration; Kasliwal, M. M.; Singer, L. P.; Cao, Y.; Duggan, G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Bhalerao, V.; Miller, A. A.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Manulis, I.; Rana, J.; Laher, R.; Masci, F.; Surace, J.; Rebbapragada, U.; Cook, D.; Van Sistine, A.; Sesar, B.; Perley, D.; Ferreti, R.; Prince, T.; Kendrick, R.; Horesh, A.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) Collaboration; Hurley, K.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Aptekar, R. L.; Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Rau, A.; von Kienlin, A.; Zhang, X.; Smith, D. M.; Cline, T.; Krimm, H.; InterPlanetary Network; Abe, F.; Doi, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Kawabata, K. S.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Ohta, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Yoshida, M.; J-GEM Collaboration; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Ellman, N.; Rostami, S.; La Silla–QUEST Survey; Bersier, D. F.; Bode, M. F.; Collins, C. A.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Darnley, M. J.; Galloway, D. K.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Mazzali, P.; Mundell, C. G.; Piascik, A. S.; Pollacco, Don; Steele, I. A.; Ulaczyk, K.; Liverpool Telescope Collaboration; Broderick, J. W.; Fender, R. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Rowlinson, A.; Stappers, B. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Collaboration; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tyurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelian, G.; Budnev, N. M.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Poleshuk, V.; Tlatov, A.; Yurkov, V.; MASTER Collaboration; Kawai, N.; Serino, M.; Negoro, H.; Nakahira, S.; Mihara, T.; Tomida, H.; Ueno, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Matsuoka, M.; MAXI Collaboration; Croft, S.; Feng, L.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Williams, A.; Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA) Collaboration; Smartt, S. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Smith, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Young, D. R.; Wright, D. E.; Schultz, A.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Magnier, E. A.; Primak, N.; Rest, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J.; Waters, C.; Willman, M.; Pan-STARRS Collaboration; Olivares E., F.; Campbell, H.; Kotak, R.; Sollerman, J.; Smith, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Anderson, J. P.; Botticella, M. T.; Chen, T.-W.; Della Valle, M.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Kupfer, T.; Harmanen, J.; Galbany, L.; Le Guillou, L.; Lyman, J. D.; Maguire, K.; Mitra, A.; Nicholl, M.; Razza, A.; Terreran, G.; Valenti, S.; Gal-Yam, A.; PESSTO Collaboration; Ćwiek, A.; Ćwiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Opiela, R.; Zaremba, M.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Pi of Sky Collaboration; Onken, C. A.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Wolf, C.; Yuan, F.; SkyMapper Collaboration; Evans, P. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Giommi, P.; Marshall, F. E.; Nousek, J.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Palmer, D.; Perri, M.; Siegel, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Swift Collaboration; Klotz, A.; Turpin, D.; Laugier, R.; TAROT, Zadko, Algerian National Observatory, C2PU Collaboration; Beroiz, M.; Peñuela, T.; Macri, L. M.; Oelkers, R. J.; Lambas, D. G.; Vrech, R.; Cabral, J.; Colazo, C.; Dominguez, M.; Sanchez, B.; Gurovich, S.; Lares, M.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Padilla, N.; Pereyra, N. A.; Benacquista, M.; TOROS Collaboration; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Levan, A. J.; Steeghs, D.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Watson, D.; Irwin, M.; Fernandez, C. G.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Schulze, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Thoene, C. C.; Cano, Z.; Rosswog, S.; VISTA Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline, and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.

  12. Spatial localization of resistive drift wave structure in tokamak edge plasmas with an embedded magnetic island

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shilin; Qu, Hongpeng; Li, Jiquan; Kishimoto, Y.

    2014-10-15

    Resistive drift wave instability is investigated numerically in tokamak edge plasma confined by sheared slab magnetic field geometry with an embedded magnetic island. The focus is on the structural characteristics of eigenmode inside the island, where the density profile tends to be flattened. A transition of the dominant eigenmode occurs around a critical island width w{sub c}. For thin islands with a width below w{sub c}, two global long wavelength eigenmodes with approximately the same growth rate but different eigenfrequency are excited, which are stabilized by the magnetic island through two-dimensional mode coupling in both x and y (corresponding to radial and poloidal in tokamak) directions. On the other hand, a short wavelength eigenmode, which is destabilized by thick islands with a width above w{sub c}, dominates the edge fluctuation, showing a prominent structural localization in the region between the X-point and the O-point of the magnetic island. The main destabilization mechanism is identified as the mode coupling in the y direction, which is similar to the so-called toroidal coupling in tokamak plasmas. These three eigenmodes may coexist in the drift wave fluctuation for the island with a width around w{sub c}. It is demonstrated that the structural localization results mainly from the quasilinear flattening of density profile inside the magnetic island.

  13. Detection and localization of continuous gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays: the role of pulsar terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.-J.; Wen, L.; Xiong, J.; Xu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Mohanty, S. D.; Hobbs, G.; Manchester, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    A pulsar timing array is a Galactic-scale detector of nanohertz gravitational waves (GWs). Its target signals contain two components: the `Earth term' and the `pulsar term' corresponding to GWs incident on the Earth and pulsar, respectively. In this work we present a Frequentist method for the detection and localization of continuous waves that takes into account the pulsar term and is significantly faster than existing methods. We investigate the role of pulsar terms by comparing a full-signal search with an Earth-term-only search for non-evolving black hole binaries. By applying the method to synthetic data sets, we find that (i) a full-signal search can slightly improve the detection probability (by about five per cent); (ii) sky localization is biased if only Earth terms are searched for and the inclusion of pulsar terms is critical to remove such a bias; (iii) in the case of strong detections (with signal-to-noise ratio ≳30), it may be possible to improve pulsar distance estimation through GW measurements.

  14. Ultrasonic guided wave based horizontal crack imaging in metal plate by local wavenumber analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. G.; Xu, B. Q.; Luo, Y.; Xu, G. D.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves are one of the most prominent tools for SHM in plate-like structure. However, complex propagation characteristics of guided waves as well as traditional contact ultrasonic transducers limit its application in the practical damage detection. Scanning Laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) technology is an effective non-contact method to obtain ultrasonic guided wavefield with ultra-high spatial resolution. Based on abundant wavefield data, wavenumber imaging algorithms are capable of not only damage location, but also assessment of damage characteristics such as size and shape. In this work, we adopt local wavenumber analysis method for horizontal crack detection in platelike structure. Instead of using SLDV in experiment, 3D finite element numerical method is adopted to obtain full ultrasonic guided wavefield data. Since the horizontal cracks result in decrease of local thickness, the wavenumber in corresponding area shows significant increase, which is used as indicators for crack imaging. The effects of different damage shapes, depths and spatial window sizes on imaging are also discussed. Numerical simulation results and imaging algorithm laid the foundation for the method applied in experiment and practice.

  15. Localization of the SFT inspired nonlocal linear models and exact solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernov, S. Yu.

    2011-05-01

    A general class of gravitational models driven by a nonlocal scalar field with a linear or quadratic potential is considered. We study the action with an arbitrary analytic function ℱ(□ g ), which has both simple and double roots. The way of localization of nonlocal Einstein equations is generalized on models with linear potentials. Exact solutions in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi I metrics are presented.

  16. Rapid guided wave delamination detection and quantification in composites using global-local sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a rapid guided ultrasonic wave inspection approach through global inspection by phased array beamforming and local damage evaluation via wavenumber analysis. The global-local approach uses a hybrid system consisting of a PZT wafer and a non-contact laser vibrometer. The overall inspection is performed in two steps. First, a phased array configured by a small number of measurements performs beamforming and beamsteering over the entire plate in order to detect and locate the presence of the damage. A local area is identified as target damage area for the second step. Then a high density wavefield measurement is taken over the target damage area and a spatial wavenumber imaging is performed to quantitatively evaluate the damage. The two-step inspection has been applied to locate and quantify impact-induced delamination damage in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite plate. The detected delamination location, size and shape agree well with those of an ultrasonic C-scan. For the test case studied in this work the global-local approach reduced the total composite inspection (damage detection and characterization) time by ∼97% compared to using a full scan approach.

  17. Response of a chemical wave to local pulse irradiation in the ruthenium-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Shogo; Ezaki, Takato; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Kei; Nishiura, Yasumasa

    2015-04-14

    The photo-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction system was investigated to understand the response of wave propagation to local pulse stimulation in an excitable field. When the chemical wave was irradiated with a bright pulse or a dark pulse, the speed of wave propagation decreased or increased. The timing of pulse irradiation that significantly affected the speed of chemical wave propagation was different with the bright and dark pulses. That is, there is a sensitive point in the chemical wave. The experimental results were qualitatively reproduced by a numerical calculation based on a three-variable Oregonator model that was modified for the photosensitive BZ reaction. These results suggest that the chemical wave is sensitive to the timing of pulse irradiation due to the rates of production of an activator and an inhibitor in the photochemical reaction.

  18. Local decomposition of solid solutions, nanostructures and optical materials with negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchuk, Valeriy M.; Sobolev, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a possibility of use of the controlled decomposition of solid solutions of oxides with perovskite structure in the state of coexisting domains of the antiferroelectric (AFE) and ferroelectric (FE) phases for manufacturing materials with the negative refractive index is demonstrated. The lead zirconate titanate-based solid solutions are considered as an example of substances suitable for creation of such materials. Manufactured composites constitute a dielectric AFE matrix with a structure of conducting interphase boundaries separating domains of the FE and AFE phases. The electric conductivity of the interphase boundaries occurs as a result of the local decomposition of the solid solutions in the vicinity of these boundaries. The decomposition process and consequently the conductivity of the interphase boundaries can be controlled by means of external influences.

  19. Waves on Thin Plates: A New (Energy Based) Method on Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Kvalheim Eriksen, Fredrik; Lengliné, Olivier; Daniel, Guillaume; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2016-04-01

    Noisy acoustic signal localization is a difficult problem having a wide range of application. We propose a new localization method applicable for thin plates which is based on energy amplitude attenuation and inversed source amplitude comparison. This inversion is tested on synthetic data using a direct model of Lamb wave propagation and on experimental dataset (recorded with 4 Brüel & Kjær Type 4374 miniature piezoelectric shock accelerometers, 1 - 26 kHz frequency range). We compare the performance of this technique with classical source localization algorithms, arrival time localization, time reversal localization, localization based on energy amplitude. The experimental setup consist of a glass / plexiglass plate having dimensions of 80 cm x 40 cm x 1 cm equipped with four accelerometers and an acquisition card. Signals are generated using a steel, glass or polyamide ball (having different sizes) quasi perpendicular hit (from a height of 2-3 cm) on the plate. Signals are captured by sensors placed on the plate on different locations. We measure and compare the accuracy of these techniques as function of sampling rate, dynamic range, array geometry, signal to noise ratio and computational time. We show that this new technique, which is very versatile, works better than conventional techniques over a range of sampling rates 8 kHz - 1 MHz. It is possible to have a decent resolution (3cm mean error) using a very cheap equipment set. The numerical simulations allow us to track the contributions of different error sources in different methods. The effect of the reflections is also included in our simulation by using the imaginary sources outside the plate boundaries. This proposed method can easily be extended for applications in three dimensional environments, to monitor industrial activities (e.g boreholes drilling/production activities) or natural brittle systems (e.g earthquakes, volcanoes, avalanches).

  20. Numerical solution of wave equations for the stability of the inner cometo-sheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Krishna M.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Goldstein, Bruce E.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical solution of the MHD wave equations for stability of the cometary sheath determined by the balance between the inward Lorentz body force and the outward ion-neutral drag force is obtained by using a two-point boundary value method. The eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions are obtained numerically by treating the cometary inner sheath as a layer of finite thickness, bounded by the contact surface, i.e., the diamagnetic cavity boundary. The magnetic field structure discovered in the ionosphere of Comets Halley and Giacobini-Zinner is found to be unstable. The effects of finite plasma pressure, dissociative recombination, and mass loading due to photoionization are found to be stabilizing but are unable to quench the instability completely. It is also found that the higher the neutral production rate the lesser is the growth rate for the instability.

  1. Global existence and exponential decay of the solution for a viscoelastic wave equation with a delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qiuyi; Yang, Zhifeng

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we consider initial-boundary value problem of viscoelastic wave equation with a delay term in the interior feedback. Namely, we study the following equation together with initial-boundary conditions of Dirichlet type in Ω × (0, + ∞) and prove that for arbitrary real numbers μ 1 and μ 2, the above-mentioned problem has a unique global solution under suitable assumptions on the kernel g. This improve the results of the previous literature such as Nicaise and Pignotti (SIAM J. Control Optim 45:1561-1585, 2006) and Kirane and Said-Houari (Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 62:1065-1082, 2011) by removing the restriction imposed on μ 1 and μ 2. Furthermore, we also get an exponential decay results for the energy of the concerned problem in the case μ 1 = 0 which solves an open problem proposed by Kirane and Said-Houari (Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 62:1065-1082, 2011).

  2. Pulsed plane wave analytic solutions for generic shapes and the validation of Maxwell's equations solvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrow, Maurice; Vastano, John A.; Lomax, Harvard

    1992-01-01

    Generic shapes are subjected to pulsed plane waves of arbitrary shape. The resulting scattered electromagnetic fields are determined analytically. These fields are then computed efficiently at field locations for which numerically determined EM fields are required. Of particular interest are the pulsed waveform shapes typically utilized by radar systems. The results can be used to validate the accuracy of finite difference time domain Maxwell's equations solvers. A two-dimensional solver which is second- and fourth-order accurate in space and fourth-order accurate in time is examined. Dielectric media properties are modeled by a ramping technique which simplifies the associated gridding of body shapes. The attributes of the ramping technique are evaluated by comparison with the analytic solutions.

  3. Highly nonlinear wave solutions in a dual to the chiral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, S. G.; Ranken, Evan

    2016-05-01

    We consider a two-dimensional scalar field theory with a nilpotent current algebra, which is dual to the Principal Chiral Model. The quantum theory is renormalizable and not asymptotically free; the theory is strongly coupled at short distances (encountering a Landau pole). We suggest it can serve as a toy model for λ ϕ4 theory in four dimensions, just as the principal chiral model is a useful toy model for Yang-Mills theory. We find some classical wave solutions that survive the strong coupling limit and quantize them by the collective variable method. They describe excitations with an unusual dispersion relation ω ∝|k |2/3 . Perhaps they are the "preons" at strong coupling, the bound states of which form massless particles over long distances.

  4. Experimental Validation of a Branched Solution Model for Magnetosonic Ionization Waves in Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Thomas; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Detailed measurements of the thermodynamic and electrodynamic plasma state variables within the plume of a pulsed plasma accelerator are presented. A quadruple Langmuir probe operating in current-saturation mode is used to obtain time resolved measurements of the plasma density, temperature, potential, and velocity along the central axis of the accelerator. This data is used in conjunction with a fast-framing, intensified CCD camera to develop and validate a model predicting the existence of two distinct types of ionization waves corresponding to the upper and lower solution branches of the Hugoniot curve. A deviation of less than 8% is observed between the quasi-steady, one-dimensional theoretical model and the experimentally measured plume velocity. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  5. Gravitational waves and stability of cosmological solutions in the theory with anomaly-induced corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, Júlio C.; Pelinson, Ana M.; Salles, Filipe de O.; Shapiro, Ilya L. E-mail: ana.pelinson@gmail.com E-mail: shapiro@fisica.ufjf.br

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of metric perturbations is explored in the gravity theory with anomaly-induced quantum corrections. Our first purpose is to derive the equation for gravitational waves in this theory on the general homogeneous and isotropic background, and then verify the stability of such background with respect to metric perturbations. The problem under consideration has several interesting applications. Our first purpose is to explore the stability of the classical cosmological solutions in the theory with quantum effects taken into account. There is an interesting literature about stability of Minkowski and de Sitter spaces and here we extend the consideration also to the radiation and matter dominated cosmologies. Furthermore, we analyze the behavior of metric perturbations during inflationary period, in the stable phase of the Modified Starobinsky inflation.

  6. Warped AdS 6 × S 2 in Type IIB supergravity I: local solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hoker, Eric; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the existence of solutions with 16 residual supersymmetries to Type IIB supergravity on a space-time of the formc AdS 6× S 2 warped over a two-dimensional Riemann surface Σ. The SO(2 , 5) × SO(3) isometry extends to invariance under the exceptional Lie superalgebra F (4). In the present paper, we construct the general Ansatz compatible with these symmetries, derive the corresponding reduced BPS equations, and obtain their complete local solution in terms of two locally holomorphic functions {A}_{± } on Σ, subject to certain positivity and regularity conditions. Globally, ( {A}+ , {A}- ) are allowed to be multiple-valued on Σ and be holomorphic sections of a holomorphic bundle over Σ with structure group contained in SU(1,1)× C . Globally regular solutions are expected to provide the near-horizon geometry of ( p, q) 5-brane and 7-brane webs which are holographic duals to five-dimensional conformal field theories. A preliminary analysis of the positivity and regularity conditions will be presented here, leaving the construction of globally regular solutions to a subsequent paper.

  7. A method based on local approximate solutions (LAS) for inverting transient flow in heterogeneous aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Jianying; Zhang, Ye

    2014-06-01

    An inverse method based on local approximate solutions (LAS inverse method) is proposed to invert transient flows in heterogeneous aquifers. Unlike the objective-function-based inversion techniques, the method does not require forward simulations to assess measurement-to-model misfits; thus the knowledge of aquifer initial conditions (IC) and boundary conditions (BC) is not required. Instead, the method employs a set of local approximate solutions of flow to impose continuity of hydraulic head and Darcy fluxes throughout space and time. Given sufficient (but limited) measurements, it yields well-posed systems of nonlinear equations that can be solved efficiently with optimization. Solution of the inversion includes parameters (hydraulic conductivities, specific storage coefficients) and flow field including the unknown IC and BC. Given error-free measurements, the estimated conductivities and specific storages are accurate within 10% of the true values. When increasing measurement errors are imposed, the estimated parameters become less accurate, but the inverse solution is still stable, i.e., parameter, IC, and BC estimation remains bounded. For a problem where parameter variation is unknown, highly parameterized inversion can reveal the underlying parameter structure, whereas equivalent conductivity and average storage coefficient can also be estimated. Because of the physically-based constraints placed in inversion, the number of measurements does not need to exceed the number of parameters for the inverse method to succeed.

  8. Incompressible SPH method based on Rankine source solution for violent water wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X.; Ma, Q. W.; Duan, W. Y.

    2014-11-01

    With wide applications, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method (abbreviated as SPH) has become an important numerical tool for solving complex flows, in particular those with a rapidly moving free surface. For such problems, the incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) has been shown to yield better and more stable pressure time histories than the traditional SPH by many papers in literature. However, the existing ISPH method directly approximates the second order derivatives of the functions to be solved by using the Poisson equation. The order of accuracy of the method becomes low, especially when particles are distributed in a disorderly manner, which generally happens for modelling violent water waves. This paper introduces a new formulation using the Rankine source solution. In the new approach to the ISPH, the Poisson equation is first transformed into another form that does not include any derivative of the functions to be solved, and as a result, does not need to numerically approximate derivatives. The advantage of the new approach without need of numerical approximation of derivatives is obvious, potentially leading to a more robust numerical method. The newly formulated method is tested by simulating various water waves, and its convergent behaviours are numerically studied in this paper. Its results are compared with experimental data in some cases and reasonably good agreement is achieved. More importantly, numerical results clearly show that the newly developed method does need less number of particles and so less computational costs to achieve the similar level of accuracy, or to produce more accurate results with the same number of particles compared with the traditional SPH and existing ISPH when it is applied to modelling water waves.

  9. New analytical solutions for dust acoustic solitary and periodic waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma with kappa distributed electrons and ions

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Asit; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2014-02-15

    Dust acoustic solitary waves and periodic waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma with kappa distributed electrons and ions are investigated through non-perturbative approach. Basic equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations involving electrostatic potential. After that by applying the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems to this system, we have studied the existence of solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions. New analytical solutions for the above waves are derived depending on the parametric space. Regarding the solitary and periodic wave solutions, the combined effects of temperature ratio (σ) of ions and electrons, spectral index (κ) and density ratio (p) are studied on characteristics of dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves and periodic waves. The spectral index (κ), density ratio (p) of ions and electrons and temperature ratio (σ) significantly influence the characteristics of dust acoustic solitary and periodic structures.

  10. Approximate solution wave propagation in TM mode through a graded interface of permittivity/permeability profile using asymptotic iteration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husein, Andri S.; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.; Hadi, Miftachul

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in transverse magnetic (TM) mode through the structure of materials interface that have permittivity or permeability profile graded positive-negative using asymptotic iteration method (AIM). As the optical character of materials, the permittivity and the permeability profiles have been designed from constant or hyperbolic functions. In this work we show the approximate solution to the distribution of the magnetic field and the wave vector of the eight models of materials.

  11. Analytical solutions for the seismic response of underground structures under SH wave propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Smerzini, C.; Aviles, J.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2008-07-08

    A theoretical approach is presented to study the antiplane seismic response of underground structures subjected to the incidence of plane waves. The structure is assumed to be a circular inclusion embedded in a homogenous, isotropic and linear visco-elastic halfspace and its mathematical formulation is approached through the theory of multiple scattering and diffraction. The inclusion may consist either of a cavity, with or without a ring-shaped boundary, or it may be filled in with a linear-elastic material, without loss of generality. The seismic response of the inclusion and its influence on surface ground motions are analyzed in both frequency and time domains. The dependence of the transfer function amplitudes on several parameters, such as the angle of incident SH waves, the frequency content of the excitation, the impedance contrast between the inclusion and the surrounding medium and the position along the ground surface, is underlined. Considering the lack of analytical solutions for quantifying the modification of ground motions induced by subterranean inhomogeneities, the results of this study can be used, on one side, as benchmark for both geophysical investigations and numerical dynamic soil-structure interaction studies, and, on the other side, to support the formulation of simplified approaches and/or formulas for the seismic design and assessment of underground structures.

  12. On the existence and stability of solitary-wave solutions to a class of evolution equations of Whitham type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrnström, Mats; Groves, Mark D.; Wahlén, Erik

    2012-10-01

    We consider a class of pseudodifferential evolution equations of the form \\begin{equation*} u_t + ( n(u) + Lu )_x = 0, \\end{equation*} in which L is a linear smoothing operator and n is at least quadratic near the origin; this class includes in particular the Whitham equation. A family of solitary-wave solutions is found using a constrained minimization principle and concentration-compactness methods for noncoercive functionals. The solitary waves are approximated by (scalings of) the corresponding solutions to partial differential equations arising as weakly nonlinear approximations; in the case of the Whitham equation the approximation is the Korteweg-deVries equation. We also demonstrate that the family of solitary-wave solutions is conditionally energetically stable.

  13. Overlapping local/global iteration framework for whole-core transport solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, N. Z.; Yuk, S.; Yoo, H. J.; Yun, S.

    2012-07-01

    In current practice of reactor design analysis, whole-core diffusion nodal method is used in which nodal parameters are provided by single-assembly lattice physics calculation with net current zero boundary condition. Thus, the whole-core solution is not transport, because the inter-assembly transport effect is not incorporated. In this paper, the overlapping local/global iteration framework is described that removes the limitation of the current method. It consists of two-level iterative computations: half-node overlapping local problems embedded in a global problem. The local problem can employ fine-group deterministic or continuous-energy stochastic (Monte Carlo) transport methods, while the global problem is an equivalent coarse-group transport model based on p-CMFD methodology. The method is tested on several highly heterogeneous multi-slab problems with encouraging results. (authors)

  14. Method of Multiple Scales and Travelling Wave Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional KdV Type Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, Burcu; Özer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we applied the method of multiple scales for Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equations and we derived nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations. So we get a relation between KdV type equations and NLS type equations. In addition, exact solutions were found for KdV type equations. The ( G'} over G )-expansion methods and the ( {G'} over G, {1 over G}} )-expansion methods were proposed to establish new exact solutions for KdV type differential equations. We obtained periodic and hyperbolic function solutions for these equations. These methods are very effective for getting travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs).

  15. Localization of small arms fire using acoustic measurements of muzzle blast and/or ballistic shock wave arrivals.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W; Ferguson, Brian G

    2012-11-01

    The accurate localization of small arms fire using fixed acoustic sensors is considered. First, the conventional wavefront-curvature passive ranging method, which requires only differential time-of-arrival (DTOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave to estimate the source position, is modified to account for sensor positions that are not strictly collinear (bowed array). Second, an existing single-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires both DTOA and differential angle-of-arrival (DAOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave and ballistic shock wave, is improved by replacing the basic external ballistics model (which describes the bullet's deceleration along its trajectory) with a more rigorous model and replacing the look-up table ranging procedure with a nonlinear (or polynomial) equation-based ranging procedure. Third, a new multiple-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires only DTOA measurements of the ballistic shock wave to localize the point of fire, is formulated. The first method is applicable to situations when only the muzzle blast wave is received, whereas the third method applies when only the ballistic shock wave is received. The effectiveness of each of these methods is verified using an extensive set of real data recorded during a 7 day field experiment. PMID:23145587

  16. Localization of small arms fire using acoustic measurements of muzzle blast and/or ballistic shock wave arrivals.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W; Ferguson, Brian G

    2012-11-01

    The accurate localization of small arms fire using fixed acoustic sensors is considered. First, the conventional wavefront-curvature passive ranging method, which requires only differential time-of-arrival (DTOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave to estimate the source position, is modified to account for sensor positions that are not strictly collinear (bowed array). Second, an existing single-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires both DTOA and differential angle-of-arrival (DAOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave and ballistic shock wave, is improved by replacing the basic external ballistics model (which describes the bullet's deceleration along its trajectory) with a more rigorous model and replacing the look-up table ranging procedure with a nonlinear (or polynomial) equation-based ranging procedure. Third, a new multiple-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires only DTOA measurements of the ballistic shock wave to localize the point of fire, is formulated. The first method is applicable to situations when only the muzzle blast wave is received, whereas the third method applies when only the ballistic shock wave is received. The effectiveness of each of these methods is verified using an extensive set of real data recorded during a 7 day field experiment.

  17. Importance of data quality and assessment of solution quality in local earthquake tomography: Application to the Alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, S.; Diehl, T.; Kissling, E.

    2009-04-01

    In arrival time tomography the minimum resolvable velocity perturbation depends on model parameterization and data quality. The quality of arrival time data is governed by picking accuracy and by consistency. While effects of the former in seismic tomography are dealt with by damping, effects of inconsistency are much more difficult to control. In this study we investigate the effect of inconsistently picked arrival time data in local earthquake tomography by comparing results from the Alpine region which were obtained using two data sets: i) a rather small data set of 13'000 arrival times that has been obtained by automated quality-weighted re-picking and ii) a rather large data set of 95'000 arrival times that has been taken from the ISC Bulletin. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity models were computed for each data set using the same model parameterization, ray tracing technique, and damping. Our results indicate that the upper crust is rather well resolved by the lower quality ISC data set due to higher data coverage compared to the smaller high-quality data set. Structures in the lower crust, however, are more clearly resolved by the smaller data set. To assess the solution quality, we ran several tests with synthetic velocity models and increasing noise level. Our results suggest that the ISC data set in principle has the potential to resolve structures with a high detail at all depth ranges but it is likely contaminated by a significant number of inconsistently picked data. Our results demonstrate that low-quality and inconsistent data can severely degrade the solution quality in seismic tomography. We further conclude that the effect of inconsistent data on the solution quality in seismic tomography can only be assessed through tests with synthetic velocity models.

  18. On the extension of solutions of the real to complex KdV equation and a mechanism for the construction of rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Gawad, H. I.; Tantawy, M.; Abo Elkhair, R. E.

    2016-07-01

    Rogue waves are more precisely defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. This remarkable height was measured (by Draupner in 1995). Thus, the need for constructing a mechanism for the rogue waves is of great utility. This motivated us to suggest a mechanism, in this work, that rogue waves may be constructed via nonlinear interactions of solitons and periodic waves. This suggestion is consolidated here, in an example, by studying the behavior of solutions of the complex (KdV). This is done here by the extending the solutions of its real version.

  19. Solution chemistry of Mo(III) and Mo(IV): Thermodynamic foundation for modeling localized corrosion.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P; Wilson, L; Wesolowski, David J

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the behavior of molybdenum dissolution products in systems that approximate localized corrosion environments, solubility of Mo(III) in equilibrium with solid MoO{sub 2} has been determined at 80 C as a function of solution acidity, chloride concentration and partial pressure of hydrogen. The measurements indicate a strong increase in solubility with acidity and chloride concentration and a weak effect of hydrogen partial pressure. The obtained results have been combined with literature data for systems containing Mo(III), Mo(IV), and Mo(VI) in solutions to develop a comprehensive thermodynamic model of aqueous molybdenum chemistry. The model is based on a previously developed framework for simulating the properties of electrolyte systems ranging from infinite dilution to solid saturation or fused salt limit. To reproduce the measurements, the model assumes the presence of a chloride complex of Mo(III) (i.e., MoCl{sup 2+}) and hydrolyzed species (MoOH{sup 2+}, Mo(OH){sup 2+}, and Mo(OH){sub 3}{sup 0}) in addition to the Mo{sup 3+} ion. The model generally reproduces the experimental data within experimental scattering and provides a tool for predicting the phase behavior and speciation in complex, concentrated aqueous solutions. Thus, it provides a foundation for simulating the behavior of molybdenum species in localized corrosion environments.

  20. Inverse solution technique of steady-state responses for local nonlinear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Guan, Xin; Zheng, Gangtie

    2016-03-01

    An inverse solution technique with the ability of obtaining complete steady-state primary harmonic responses of local nonlinear structures in the frequency domain is proposed in the present paper. In this method, the nonlinear dynamic equations of motion is first condensed from many to only one algebraic amplitude-frequency equation of relative motion. Then this equation is transformed into a polynomial form, and with its frequency as the unknown variable, the polynomial equation is solved by tracing all the solutions of frequency with the increase of amplitude. With this solution technique, some complicated dynamic behaviors such as sharp tuning, anomalous jumps, breaks in responses and detached resonance curves could be obtained. The proposed method is demonstrated and validated through a finite element beam under force excitations and a lumped parameter model with a local nonlinear element under base excitations. The phenomenon of detached resonance curves in the frequency response and its coupling effects with multiple linear modes in the latter example are observed.

  1. Local structure in the disordered solid solution of cis- and trans-perinones.

    PubMed

    Teteruk, Jaroslav L; Glinnemann, Jürgen; Heyse, Winfried; Johansson, Kristoffer E; van de Streek, Jacco; Schmidt, Martin U

    2016-06-01

    The cis- and trans-isomers of the polycyclic aromatic compound perinone, C26H12N4O2, form a solid solution (Vat Red 14). This solid solution is isotypic to the crystal structures of cis-perinone (Pigment Red 194) and trans-perinone (Pigment Orange 34) and exhibits a combined positional and orientational disorder: In the crystal, each molecular position is occupied by either a cis- or trans-perinone molecule, both of which have two possible molecular orientations. The structure of cis-perinone exhibits a twofold orientational disorder, whereas the structure of trans-perinone is ordered. The crystal structure of the solid solution was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Extensive lattice-energy minimizations with force-field and DFT-D methods were carried out on combinatorially complete sets of ordered models. For the disordered systems, local structures were calculated, including preferred local arrangements, ordering lengths, and probabilities for the arrangement of neighbouring molecules. The superposition of the atomic positions of all energetically favourable calculated models corresponds well with the experimentally determined crystal structures, explaining not only the atomic positions, but also the site occupancies and anisotropic displacement parameters. PMID:27240774

  2. Least squares collocation applied to local gravimetric solutions from satellite gravity gradiometry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An autonomous spaceborne gravity gradiometer mission is being considered as a post Geopotential Research Mission project. The introduction of satellite diometry data to geodesy is expected to improve solid earth gravity models. The possibility of utilizing gradiometer data for the determination of pertinent gravimetric quantities on a local basis is explored. The analytical technique of least squares collocation is investigated for its usefulness in local solutions of this type. It is assumed, in the error analysis, that the vertical gravity gradient component of the gradient tensor is used as the raw data signal from which the corresponding reference gradients are removed to create the centered observations required in the collocation solution. The reference gradients are computed from a high degree and order geopotential model. The solution can be made in terms of mean or point gravity anomalies, height anomalies, or other useful gravimetric quantities depending on the choice of covariance types. Selected for this study were 30 x 30 foot mean gravity and height anomalies. Existing software and new software are utilized to implement the collocation technique. It was determined that satellite gradiometry data at an altitude of 200 km can be used successfully for the determination of 30 x 30 foot mean gravity anomalies to an accuracy of 9.2 mgal from this algorithm. It is shown that the resulting accuracy estimates are sensitive to gravity model coefficient uncertainties, data reduction assumptions and satellite mission parameters.

  3. Performance enhancement of a photonic crystal microcavity and related localization of evanescent Bloch waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, Andika; Iskandar, Alexander A.; Tjia, May-On

    2011-08-01

    A study is carried out to investigate the possible enhancement of photonic crystal (PC) microcavity performance induced by geometrical and permittivity variations in relation to localization of the associated evanescent Bloch wave. The study is focused on PCs of hexagonally packed dielectric rods. A numerical scheme formulated on the basis of Green's function method with multipole expansion approximation is employed to exhibit explicitly the exponential growth curves of the spontaneous emission rate (F) and quality factor (Q) of the cavity with respect to increasing number of surrounding layers (N), which are characterized by their growth rates kF. While the same exponential growth pattern is found for PCs with different rod parameters, the associated growth rates do show distinct and significant differences, implying that an appropriate choice of the rod parameters may produce a large performance enhancement for the microcavity or achieve the same performance with a largely reduced surrounding layer number. Meanwhile, the corresponding spatial decay constants of the evanescent Bloch waves, represented by its smallest Im(k) in the photonic gap, are calculated by means of the extended plane-wave expansion method. The resulting smallest values of Im(k) show their strong correlation with kF as characterized by their linear relation. The study further demonstrates that a judicious choice of the defect rod parameters may also give rise to a remarkable performance enhancement of the microcavity, even at a reduced number of surrounding rod layers. Remarkably, the [kF,Im(k)] values of all PCs considered are located on the same linear correlation line.

  4. Spread of highly localized wave-packet in the tight-binding lattice: Entropic and information-theoretical characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cuevas, F.A.; Curilef, S.; Plastino, A.R.

    2011-10-15

    The spread of a wave-packet (or its deformation) is a very important topic in quantum mechanics. Understanding this phenomenon is relevant in connection with the study of diverse physical systems. In this paper we apply various 'spreading measures' to characterize the evolution of an initially localized wave-packet in a tight-binding lattice, with special emphasis on information-theoretical measures. We investigate the behavior of both the probability distribution associated with the wave packet and the concomitant probability current. Complexity measures based upon Renyi entropies appear to be particularly good descriptors of the details of the delocalization process. - Highlights: > Spread of highly localized wave-packet in the tight-binding lattice. > Entropic and information-theoretical characterization is used to understand the delocalization. > The behavior of both the probability distribution and the concomitant probability current is investigated. > Renyi entropies appear to be good descriptors of the details of the delocalization process.

  5. Traveling wave solutions of density-dependent nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation via the extended generalized Riccati equation mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kengne, Emmanuel; Saydé, Michel; Ben Hamouda, Fathi; Lakhssassi, Ahmed

    2013-11-01

    Analytical entire traveling wave solutions to the 1+1 density-dependent nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation via the extended generalized Riccati equation mapping method are presented in this paper. This equation can be regarded as an extension case of the Fisher-Kolmogoroff equation, which is used for studying insect and animal dispersal with growth dynamics. The analytical solutions are then used to investigate the effect of equation parameters on the population distribution.

  6. Master equation for a chemical wave front with perturbation of local equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Dziekan, P; Lemarchand, A; Nowakowski, B

    2011-08-28

    In order to develop a stochastic description of gaseous reaction-diffusion systems, which includes a reaction-induced departure from local equilibrium, we derive a modified expression of the master equation from analytical calculations based on the Boltzmann equation. We apply the method to a chemical wave front of Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov type, whose propagation speed is known to be sensitive to small perturbations. The results of the modified master equation are compared successfully with microscopic simulations of the particle dynamics using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The modified master equation constitutes an efficient tool at the mesoscopic scale, which incorporates the nonequilibrium effect without need of determining the particle velocity distribution function.

  7. Wave systems with direct processes and localized losses or gains: The nonunitary Poisson kernel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Argüello, A. M.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.; Martínez-Mares, M.

    2012-07-01

    We study the scattering of waves in systems with losses or gains simulated by imaginary potentials. This is done for a complex delta potential that corresponds to a spatially localized absorption or amplification. In the Argand plane the scattering matrix moves on a circle C centered on the real axis, but not at the origin, that is tangent to the unit circle. From the numerical simulations it is concluded that the distribution of the scattering matrix, when measured from the center of the circle C, agrees with the nonunitary Poisson kernel. This result is also obtained analytically by extending the analyticity condition, of unitary scattering matrices, to the no-unitary ones. We use this nonunitary Poisson kernel to obtain the distribution of nonunitary scattering matrices when measured from the origin of the Argand plane. The obtained marginal distributions have excellent agreement with the numerical results.

  8. Decay of density waves in coupled one-dimensional many-body-localized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelovšek, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This work analyzes the behavior of coupled disordered one-dimensional systems as modelled by identical fermionic Hubbard chains with the on-site potential disorder and coupling emerging through the interchain hopping t'. The study is motivated by the experiment on fermionic cold atoms on a disordered lattice, where a decay rate of the quenched density wave was measured. We present a derivation of the decay rate Γ within perturbation theory and show that, even at large disorder along the chains, the interaction leads to finite Γ >0 , the mechanism being the interaction-induced coupling of in-chain localized and interchain extended single-fermion states. Explicit expressions for Γ are presented for a weak interaction U U >t' . It is shown that, in both regimes, Γ increases with the interchain hopping t', as well as decreases with increasing disorder.

  9. Tunable compression of template banks for fast gravitational-wave detection and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2016-06-01

    One strategy for reducing the online computational cost of matched-filter searches for gravitational waves is to introduce a compressed basis for the waveform template bank in a grid-based search. In this paper, we propose and investigate several tunable compression schemes for a general template bank. Through offline compression, such schemes are shown to yield faster detection and localization of signals, along with moderately improved sensitivity and accuracy over coarsened banks at the same level of computational cost. This is potentially useful for any search involving template banks, and especially in the analysis of data from future space-based detectors such as eLISA, for which online grid searches are difficult due to the long-duration waveforms and large parameter spaces.

  10. On the Design of Passive Resonant Circuits to Measure Local Pulse Wave Velocity in a Stent.

    PubMed

    Schächtele, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    In-stent restenosis is a frequent complication after stent implantation. This article investigates the design of a passive sensor system to be integrated into a stent for the detection of an in-stent restenosis by measuring the local pulse wave velocity (PWV). The proposed system uses two resonant circuits consisting of a capacitive pressure sensor and a coil as transponders. The pressure sensors are located at the proximal and distal end of the stent. An alternating external magnetic field with a constant frequency is applied such that the resonance frequencies of the transponders cross the excitation frequency when the pulse wave passes. The time delay between the resonances at the transponders can be captured to obtain the PWV. A model for the measurement system and a correlation between transponder design parameters and minimal resolvable time delay are derived. This correlation is based on the criterion that the 3 dB bandwidth of the transponder resonances may not overlap in the measurement time interval. This correlation can be used to design and analyze a transponder system for the proposed measurement system. In an experiment, in which the pressure sensors have been emulated by varactor diodes, it could be shown that the model is valid and that the criterion is suitable. Finally, the relevant design parameters of the transponders have been identified and their limitations investigated. PMID:26800547

  11. On the Design of Passive Resonant Circuits to Measure Local Pulse Wave Velocity in a Stent.

    PubMed

    Schächtele, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    In-stent restenosis is a frequent complication after stent implantation. This article investigates the design of a passive sensor system to be integrated into a stent for the detection of an in-stent restenosis by measuring the local pulse wave velocity (PWV). The proposed system uses two resonant circuits consisting of a capacitive pressure sensor and a coil as transponders. The pressure sensors are located at the proximal and distal end of the stent. An alternating external magnetic field with a constant frequency is applied such that the resonance frequencies of the transponders cross the excitation frequency when the pulse wave passes. The time delay between the resonances at the transponders can be captured to obtain the PWV. A model for the measurement system and a correlation between transponder design parameters and minimal resolvable time delay are derived. This correlation is based on the criterion that the 3 dB bandwidth of the transponder resonances may not overlap in the measurement time interval. This correlation can be used to design and analyze a transponder system for the proposed measurement system. In an experiment, in which the pressure sensors have been emulated by varactor diodes, it could be shown that the model is valid and that the criterion is suitable. Finally, the relevant design parameters of the transponders have been identified and their limitations investigated.

  12. Crustal shear-wave splitting from local earthquakes in the Hengill triple junction, southwest Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, J.R.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.; Miller, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hengill region in SW Iceland is an unstable ridge-ridge-transform triple junction between an active and a waning segment of the mid-Atlantic spreading center and a transform that is transgressing southward. The triple junction contains active and extinct spreading segments and a widespread geothermal area. We evaluated shear-wave birefringence for locally recorded upper-crustal earthquakes using an array of 30 three-component digital seismographs. Fast-polarization directions, ??, are mostly NE to NNE, subparallel to the spreading axis and probably caused by fissures and microcracks related to spreading. However, there is significant variability in ?? throughout the array. The lag from fast to slow S is not proportional to earthquake depth (ray length), being scattered at all depths. The average wave-speed difference between qS1 and qS2 in the upper 2-5 km of the crust is 2-5%. Our results suggest considerable heterogeneity or strong S scattering.

  13. Millimeter Wave Detection of Localized Anomalies in the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank Insulating Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Case, J. T.; Abou-Khousa, M. A.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic accident emphasizes the growing need for developing and applying effective, robust and life-cycle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for inspecting the shuttle external fuel tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI). Millimeter wave NDT techniques were one of the methods chosen for evaluating their potential for inspecting these structures. Several panels with embedded anomalies (mainly voids) were produced and tested for this purpose. Near-field and far-field millimeter wave NDT methods were used for producing images of the anomalies in these panels. This paper presents the results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting localized anomalies in several SOFI panels. To this end, reflectometers at a relatively wide range of frequencies (Ka-band (26.5 - 40 GHz) to W-band (75 - 110 GHz)) and utilizing different types of radiators were employed. The resulting raw images revealed a significant amount of information about the interior of these panels. However, using simple image processing techniques the results were improved in particular as it relate s to detecting the smaller anomalies. This paper presents the results of this investigation and a discussion of these results.

  14. Global paths of time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation connecting arbitrary traveling waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, David M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-12-11

    We classify all bifurcations from traveling waves to non-trivial time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation that are predicted by linearization. We use a spectrally accurate numerical continuation method to study several paths of non-trivial solutions beyond the realm of linear theory. These paths are found to either re-connect with a different traveling wave or to blow up. In the latter case, as the bifurcation parameter approaches a critical value, the amplitude of the initial condition grows without bound and the period approaches zero. We propose a conjecture that gives the mapping from one bifurcation to its counterpart on the other side of the path of non-trivial solutions. By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the form of the exact solutions on the path connecting two traveling waves, which represents the Fourier coefficients of the solution as power sums of a finite number of particle positions whose elementary symmetric functions execute simple orbits in the complex plane (circles or epicycles). We then solve a system of algebraic equations to express the unknown constants in the new representation in terms of the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase, four integers (enumerating the bifurcation at each end of the path) and one additional bifurcation parameter. We also find examples of interior bifurcations from these paths of already non-trivial solutions, but we do not attempt to analyze their algebraic structure.

  15. Local, real-time measurement of drying films of aqueous polymer solutions using active microrheology.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Yoshiyuki; Leal, L Gary; Squires, Todd M

    2014-05-13

    Oscillatory microdisk rheometry was applied to evaluate the evolution of the viscoelastic properties at the surface of a film of an aqueous solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) during drying. The drying rate was measured concurrently, based upon measurements of the variation of film thickness. A fully hydrolyzed PVA solution shows a constant drying rate, while a less hydrolyzed PVA solution exhibits a decreased drying rate in the latter part of the drying process, which occurred at the same time as an increase of the elastic modulus. We suggest that this difference in behavior is a consequence of the fact that both the configuration of the PVA molecule and the strength of interaction with water depend on the degree to which the PVA is hydrolyzed. The polymer concentration at the film surface can be estimated from the measured viscosity at the surface for the fully hydrolyzed PVA solution, and this result then can be compared with two theoretical calculations: one in which the polymer concentration is assumed to remain uniform throughout the film, and the other in which the polymer concentration distribution is determined via a one-dimensional diffusion model. This comparison suggests that the polymer is first concentrated locally near the surface but later in the drying process the distribution of polymer becomes increasingly uniform, possibly due to a spontaneously generated convective flow inside the film.

  16. Global classical solutions of the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck equation with local alignment forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young-Pil

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the global well-posedness and time-asymptotic decay of the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck equation with local alignment forces. The equation can be formally derived from an agent-based model for self-organized dynamics called the Motsch–Tadmor model with noises. We present the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions to the equation around the global Maxwellian in the whole space. For the large-time behavior, we show the algebraic decay rate of solutions towards the equilibrium under suitable assumptions on the initial data. We also remark that the rate of convergence is exponential when the spatial domain is periodic. The main methods used in this paper are the classical energy estimates combined with hyperbolic–parabolic dissipation arguments.

  17. Experimental solution for scattered imaging of the interference of plasmonic and photonic mode waves launched by metal nano-slits.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Gao, Yaru; Jiang, Shuna; Ma, Li; Liu, Chunxiang; Cheng, Chuanfu

    2015-02-01

    Using an L-shaped metal nanoslit to generate waves of the pure photonic and plasmonic modes simultaneously, we perform an experimental solution for the scattered imaging of the interference of the two waves. From the fringe data of interference, the amplitudes and the wavevector components of the two waves are obtained. The initial phases of the two waves are obtained from the phase map reconstructed with the interference of the scattered image and the reference wave in the interferometer. The difference in the wavevector components gives rise to an additional phase delay. We introduce the scattering theory under Kirchhoff's approximation to metal slit regime and explain the wavevector difference reasonably. The solution of the quantities is a comprehensive reflection of excitation, scattering and interference of the two waves. By decomposing the polarized incident field with respect to the slit element, the scattered image produced by slit of arbitrary shape can be solved with the nanoscale Huygens-Fresnel principle. This is demonstrated by the experimental intensity pattern and phase map produced by a ring-slit and its consistency with the calculated results.

  18. Longitudinal frequency variation of long-lasting EMIC Pc1-Pc2 waves localized in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shiokawa, K.; Mann, I. R.; Park, J.-S.; Kwon, H.-J.; Hyun, K.; Jin, H.; Connors, M.

    2016-02-01

    Long-lasting (> 20 h) electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) Pc1-Pc2 waves were observed by the Athabasca (L =˜ 4.6) induction magnetometer and Canadian Array for Realtime Investigations of Magnetic Activity (L =˜ 4-6) fluxgate magnetometers on 5 April 2007. These waves showed a systematic frequency change with local time, the minimum frequency near dusk, and the maximum frequency near dawn. Assuming the plasmapause as a potential source region of the waves, we estimated the plasmapause location from localized proton enhancement (LPE) events observed at NOAA-Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites and METOP-2 satellites. We found that the longitudinal frequency variation of EMIC waves has a clear correlation with the estimated plasmapause location and that the waves are in the frequency band between the equatorial helium and oxygen gyrofrequencies at the estimated plasmapause. With our analysis results we suggest that the LPE events are caused by wave-particle interaction with the helium band EMIC waves generated near the plasmapause.

  19. More than just an eyesore: local insights and solutions on vacant land and urban health.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Eugenia; Branas, Charles; Keddem, Shimrit; Sellman, Jeffrey; Cannuscio, Carolyn

    2013-06-01

    Vacant land is a significant economic problem for many cities, but also may affect the health and safety of residents. In order for community-based solutions to vacant land to be accepted by target populations, community members should be engaged in identifying local health impacts and generating solutions. We conducted 50 in-depth semi-structured interviews with people living in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a city with high vacancy, about the impact of vacant land on community and individual health and safety, as well as ideas for solutions to vacant land. Participants described a neighborhood physical environment dominated by decaying abandoned homes and overgrown vacant lots which affected community well-being, physical health, and mental health. Vacant land was thought to affect community well-being by overshadowing positive aspects of the community, contributing to fractures between neighbors, attracting crime, and making residents fearful. Vacant land was described as impacting physical health through injury, the buildup of trash, and attraction of rodents, as well as mental health through anxiety and stigma. Participants had several ideas for solutions to vacant land in their community, including transformation of vacant lots into small park spaces for the elderly and playgrounds for youth, and the use of abandoned homes for subsidized housing and homeless shelters. A few participants took pride in maintaining vacant lots on their block, and others expressed interest in performing maintenance but lacked the resources to do so. Public health researchers and practitioners, and urban planners should engage local residents in the design and implementation of vacant land strategies. Furthermore, municipalities should ensure that the health and safety impact of vacant land helps drive policy decisions around vacant land.

  20. Induced EM field in a layered eccentric spheres model of the head: Plane-wave and localized source exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Skaropoulos, N.C.; Ioannidou, M.P.; Chrissoulidis, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    Understanding the interaction of EM radiation with humans is essential in a number of contemporary applications. Special attention is paid to the absorption of EM energy by the human head, which exhibits a resonant behavior in the frequency band 0.1--3 GHz. The use of handheld transceivers for wireless communications, which operate in close proximity to the head, has raised safety-related questions and questions concerning the effect of the head on the performance of the mobile phone antenna. The induced electromagnetic (EM) field in a layered eccentric spheres structure is determined through a concise analytical formulation based on indirect mode-matching (IMM). The exact analytical solution is applied to a six-layer model of the head. This model allows for eccentricity between the inner and outer sets of concentric spherical layers which simulate brain and skull, respectively. Excitation is provided by a nearby localized source or by an incident plane wave. The numerical application provides information about the total absorbed power, the absorption in each layer, and the spatial distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) at frequencies used by cellular phones. The effects of excitation frequency, eccentricity, exposure configuration, and antenna-head separation are investigated.