Science.gov

Sample records for location system sistema

  1. Operational gunshot location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showen, Robert

    1997-02-01

    The nation's first operational trial of a gunshot location system is underway in Redwood City, California. The system uses acoustic sensors widely distributed over an impacted community. The impulses received at each sensor allow triangulation of the gunfire location and prompt police dispatch. A computer display shows gunfire location superimposed on a map showing property boundaries. Police are responding to system events immediately and in a community-policing investigative role.

  2. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  3. Automatic vehicle location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic vehicle detection system is disclosed, in which each vehicle whose location is to be detected carries active means which interact with passive elements at each location to be identified. The passive elements comprise a plurality of passive loops arranged in a sequence along the travel direction. Each of the loops is tuned to a chosen frequency so that the sequence of the frequencies defines the location code. As the vehicle traverses the sequence of the loops as it passes over each loop, signals only at the frequency of the loop being passed over are coupled from a vehicle transmitter to a vehicle receiver. The frequencies of the received signals in the receiver produce outputs which together represent a code of the traversed location. The code location is defined by a painted pattern which reflects light to a vehicle carried detector whose output is used to derive the code defined by the pattern.

  4. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  5. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  6. Sonar Locator Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An underwater locator device called a Pinger is attached to an airplane's flight recorder for recovery in case of a crash. Burnett Electronics Pinger Model 512 resulted from a Burnett Electronics Laboratory, Inc./Langley Research Center contract for development of a search system for underwater mines. The Pinger's battery-powered transmitter is activated when immersed in water, and sends multidirectional signals for up to 500 hours. When a surface receiver picks up the signal, a diver can retrieve the pinger and the attached airplane flight recorder. Other pingers are used to track whales, mark underwater discoveries and assist oil drilling vessels.

  7. Object Locating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable system is provided that is operational for determining, with three dimensional resolution, the position of a buried object or approximately positioned object that may move in space or air or gas. The system has a plurality of receivers for detecting the signal front a target antenna and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The relative permittivity and conductivity of the medium in which the object is located is used along with the measured phase signal to determine a distance between the object and each of the plurality of receivers. Knowing these distances. an iteration technique is provided for solving equations simultaneously to provide position coordinates. The system may also be used for tracking movement of an object within close range of the system by sampling and recording subsequent position of the object. A dipole target antenna. when positioned adjacent to a buried object, may be energized using a separate transmitter which couples energy to the target antenna through the medium. The target antenna then preferably resonates at a different frequency, such as a second harmonic of the transmitter frequency.

  8. Heterogeneity of nervous system mitochondria: location, location, location!

    PubMed

    Dubinsky, Janet M

    2009-08-01

    Mitochondrial impairments have been associated with many neurological disorders, from inborn errors of metabolism or genetic disorders to age and environmentally linked diseases of aging (DiMauro S., Schon E.A. 2008. Mitochondrial disorders in the nervous system. Annu. Rev., Neurosci. 31, 91-123.). In these disorders, specific nervous system components or brain regions appear to be initially more susceptible to the triggering event or pathological process. Such regional variation in susceptibility to multiple types of stressors raises the possibility that inherent differences in mitochondrial function may mediate some aspect of pathogenesis. Regional differences in the distribution or number of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzyme activities, enzyme expression levels, mitochondrial genes or availability of necessary metabolites become attractive explanations for selective vulnerability of a nervous system structure. While regionally selective mitochondrial vulnerability has been documented, regional variations in other cellular and tissue characteristics may also contribute to metabolic impairment. Such environmental variables include high tonic firing rates, neurotransmitter phenotype, location of mitochondria within a neuron, or the varied tissue perfusion pressure of different cerebral arterial branches. These contextual variables exert regionally distinct regulatory influences on mitochondria to tune their energy production to local demands. Thus to understand variations in mitochondrial functioning and consequent selective vulnerability to injury, the organelle must be placed within the context of its cellular, functional, developmental and neuroanatomical environment.

  9. Improved integrated sniper location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figler, Burton D.; Spera, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    In July of 1995, Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems, of Lexington, Massachusetts began the development of an integrated sniper location system for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and for the Department of the Navy's Naval Command Control & Ocean Surveillance Center, RDTE Division in San Diego, California. The I-SLS integrates acoustic and uncooled infrared sensing technologies to provide an affordable and highly effective sniper detection and location capability. This system, its performance and results from field tests at Camp Pendleton, California, in October 1996 were described in a paper presented at the November 1996 SPIE Photonics East Symposium1 on Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security. The I-SLS combines an acoustic warning system with an uncooled infrared warning system. The acoustic warning system has been developed by SenTech, Inc., of Lexington, Massachusetts. This acoustic warning system provides sniper detection and coarse location information based upon the muzzle blast of the sniper's weapon and/or upon the shock wave produced by the sniper's bullet, if the bullet is supersonic. The uncooled infrared warning system provides sniper detection and fine location information based upon the weapon's muzzle flash. In addition, the uncooled infrared warning system can provide thermal imagery that can be used to accurately locate and identify the sniper. Combining these two technologies improves detection probability, reduces false alarm rate and increases utility. In the two years since the last report of the integrated sniper location system, improvements have been made and a second field demonstration was planned. In this paper, we describe the integrated sniper location system modifications in preparation for the new field demonstration. In addition, fundamental improvements in the uncooled infrared sensor technology continue to be made. These improvements include higher sensitivity (lower minimum resolvable temperature

  10. Wireless Damage Location Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A wireless damage location sensing system uses a geometric-patterned wireless sensor that resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response that will experience a change when the sensor experiences a change in its geometric pattern. The sensing system also includes a magnetic field response recorder for wirelessly transmitting the time-varying magnetic field and for wirelessly detecting the harmonic response. The sensing system compares the actual harmonic response to a plurality of predetermined harmonic responses. Each predetermined harmonic response is associated with a severing of the sensor at a corresponding known location thereof so that a match between the actual harmonic response and one of the predetermined harmonic responses defines the known location of the severing that is associated therewith.

  11. Underwater Acoustic Beacon Location System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-23

    300087 1 of 31 UNDERWATER ACOUSTIC BEACON LOCATION SYSTEM [0001] The present application claims the benefit of United States Provisional...Application Serial Number 62/297,179 filed on February 19, 2016 by the inventor, Steven E. Crocker and entitled “Underwater Acoustic Beacon...None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0004] An acoustic detection system is provided in which the detection system can

  12. Short range radio locator system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A radio location system comprises a wireless transmitter that outputs two megahertz period bursts of two gigahertz radar carrier signals. A receiver system determines the position of the transmitter by the relative arrival of the radar bursts at several component receivers set up to have a favorable geometry and each one having a known location. One receiver provides a synchronizing gating pulse to itself and all the other receivers to sample the ether for the radar pulse. The rate of the synchronizing gating pulse is slightly offset from the rate of the radar bursts themselves, so that each sample collects one finely-detailed piece of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver each pulse period. Thousands of sequential pulse periods provide corresponding thousand of pieces of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver, in expanded, not real time. Therefore the signal processing can be done with relatively low-frequency, inexpensive components. A conventional microcomputer is then used to find the position of the transmitter by geometric triangulation based on the relative time-of-flight information.

  13. Short range radio locator system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    A radio location system comprises a wireless transmitter that outputs two megahertz period bursts of two gigahertz radar carrier signals. A receiver system determines the position of the transmitter by the relative arrival of the radar bursts at several component receivers set up to have a favorable geometry and each one having a known location. One receiver provides a synchronizing gating pulse to itself and all the other receivers. The rate of the synchronizing gating pulse is slightly offset from the rate of the radar bursts themselves, so that each sample collects one finely-detailed piece of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver each pulse period. Thousands of sequential pulse periods provide corresponding thousand of pieces of information about the time-of-flight of the radar pulse to each receiver, in expanded, not real time. Therefore the signal processing can be done with relatively low-frequency, inexpensive components. A conventional microcomputer is then used to find the position of the transmitter by geometric triangulation based on the relative time-of-flight information. 5 figs.

  14. Statistical theory of passive location systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrieri, D. J.

    1984-03-01

    A derivation of the principal algorithms and an analysis of the performance of the two most important passive location systems for stationary transmitters, hyperbolic location systems and direction-finding location systems, are presented. The concentration ellipse, the circular error probability, and the geometric dilution of precision are defined and related to the location-system and received-signal characteristics. Doppler and other passive location systems are briefly discussed.

  15. Locate and rescue system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Two types of search and rescue systems not involving satellites are studied; one using a network radio communications link and the other a characteristic beacon signal. Line of slight limitation of VHF radio and beacon signals limit the range (approximately 25 miles) between the origin of the distress signal and the mobile rescue unit.

  16. A study of satellite emergency locator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Satellite emergency locator systems were studied. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility and hardware requirements for satellite systems capable of identifying and locating the position emergency locator transmitters and emergency position indicating radio beacons. Both geosynchronous and near-polar-orbiting satellites were considered. One of the most important aspects of the study was to minimize the cost of the hardware required.

  17. Optimal Sensor Locations for System Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Element Model . 19 3. A METHODOLOGY FOR OPTIMAL SENSOR LOCATIONS FOR PARAMETRIC IDENTIFICATION ................. 37 3.1. Introduction... parametric identification of structural systems depends on the location at which sensors are placed and data gathered, very little by way of a...picture on optimal sensor locations for parametric identification in a noisy measurement 6 z, -. -" environment. Section IV deals with an important aspect

  18. TWRS information locator database system design description

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-13

    This document gives an overview and description of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD)system design. The TWRS ILD system is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  19. Emitter location errors in electronic recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matuszewski, Jan; Dikta, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The paper describes some of the problems associated with emitter location calculations. This aspect is the most important part of the series of tasks in the electronic recognition systems. The basic tasks include: detection of emission of electromagnetic signals, tracking (determining the direction of emitter sources), signal analysis in order to classify different emitter types and the identification of the sources of emission of the same type. The paper presents a brief description of the main methods of emitter localization and the basic mathematical formulae for calculating their location. The errors' estimation has been made to determine the emitter location for three different methods and different scenarios of emitters and direction finding (DF) sensors deployment in the electromagnetic environment. The emitter has been established using a special computer program. On the basis of extensive numerical calculations, the evaluation of precise emitter location in the recognition systems for different configuration alignment of bearing devices and emitter was conducted. The calculations which have been made based on the simulated data for different methods of location are presented in the figures and respective tables. The obtained results demonstrate that calculation of the precise emitter location depends on: the number of DF sensors, the distances between emitter and DF sensors, their mutual location in the reconnaissance area and bearing errors. The precise emitter location varies depending on the number of obtained bearings. The higher the number of bearings, the better the accuracy of calculated emitter location in spite of relatively high bearing errors for each DF sensor.

  20. System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method of determining locations of lightning strikes has been described. The system includes multiple receivers located around an area of interest, such as a space center or airport. Each receiver monitors both sound and electric fields. The detection of an electric field pulse and a sound wave are used to calculate an area around each receiver in which the lighting is detected. A processor is coupled to the receivers to accurately determine the location of the lighting strike. The processor can manipulate the receiver data to compensate for environmental variables such as wind, temperature, and humidity. Further, each receiver processor can discriminate between distant and local lightning strikes.

  1. Global positioning automatic vehicle location system

    SciTech Connect

    Papatheofanis, B.J.; Hasenack, M.L.; Teller, R.T.; Ramsey, G.F.

    1997-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a unique facility covering over 43 square miles. The Emergency Management and Response Office (EM&R) is required to respond, provide Incident Command (IC), and coordination for all Laboratory emergencies. This requires IC`s and support staff to respond to the actual scene of the incident. Since the IC is under numerous constraints and stress, the office wanted the capability of locating the EM&R vehicles on an electronic map. An automated vehicle location (AVL) system was required for the additional safety of the emergency response personal. The requirements for the AVL system include total automatic tracking and low cost. After careful consideration, it was determined that the most efficient and cost effective system would be based on packet radio technology as the transmission media. The location is determined by the Department of Defense Global Positioning System (GPS). The system that was designed and constructed required four components to be interfaced and communicate with each other. The first component was a GPS receiver which actually provides the location information, equipped with a digital interface to communicate location information remotely. The second component is a modem that interfaces the GPS digital interface information to a radio. The third component is the radio itself which allows for the actual information transfer from the remote GPS receiver and modem. The fourth component is the software package that provides moving maps and displays the vehicle location on that map. The equipment was all commercial off-the-shelf that only required proper integration and packaging for the AVL application. This paper describes the steps taken in the integration of the equipment into the AVL package.

  2. GE intelligent personal radiation locator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanoff, Brian D.; Du, Yanfeng; Dixon, Walter V., III; Rao, Naresh K.; Li, Wen; Claus, Bernhard; Topka, Terry; Moore, Branden; Gordon, Jeffrey S.

    2009-05-01

    The GE Intelligent Personal Radiation Locator (IPRL) system consists of multiple hand held radiation detectors and a base station. Each mobile unit has a CZT Compton camera radiation detector and can identify isotopes and determine the direction from which the radiation is detected. Using GPS and internal orientation sensors, the system continuously transforms all directional data into real-world coordinates. Detected radiation is wirelessly transmitted to the base station for system-wide analysis and situational awareness. Data can also be exchanged wirelessly between peers to enhance the overall detection efficiency of the system. The key design features and performance characteristics of the GE IPRL system are described.

  3. The locator system for wandering individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Shayla

    1992-01-01

    Configurations and operation strategies are described for a wanderer locator system based on wireless radio frequency communication designed to monitor elderly patients who may wander beyond safe perimeters in the home or in an institutional setting. The modular components of this wandering notification system are (1) portable transmitter/receivers to be worn or carried by the patient and the caretaker, (2) detectors to be mounted in doorways or other perimeters of a safe area, (3) programmable central processing units to control, communicate with, and/or trace the portable and remote devices, and (4) a cathode ray tube that can display information on patient location or system status. Photographs of all system components and illustrations of operations concepts are included.

  4. Radio System for Locating Emergency Workers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William; Medelius, Pedro; Starr, Stan; Bedette, Guy; Taylor, John; Moerk, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A system based on low-power radio transponders and associated analog and digital electronic circuitry has been developed for locating firefighters and other emergency workers deployed in a building or other structure. The system has obvious potential for saving lives and reducing the risk of injuries. The system includes (1) a central station equipped with a computer and a transceiver; (2) active radio-frequency (RF) identification tags, each placed in a different room or region of the structure; and (3) transponder units worn by the emergency workers. The RF identification tags can be installed in a new building as built-in components of standard fire-detection devices or ground-fault electrical outlets or can be attached to such devices in a previously constructed building, without need for rewiring the building. Each RF identification tag contains information that uniquely identifies it. When each tag is installed, information on its location and identity are reported to, and stored at, the central station. In an emergency, if a building has not been prewired with RF identification tags, leading emergency workers could drop sequentially numbered portable tags in the rooms of the building, reporting the tag numbers and locations by radio to the central station as they proceed.

  5. Intelligent geocoding system to locate traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao; Parker, Steven; Liu, Yi; Graettinger, Andrew J; Forde, Susie

    2013-01-01

    State agencies continue to face many challenges associated with new federal crash safety and highway performance monitoring requirements that use data from multiple and disparate systems across different platforms and locations. On a national level, the federal government has a long-term vision for State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to report state route and off-state route crash data in a single network. In general, crashes occurring on state-owned or state maintained highways are a priority at the Federal and State level; therefore, state-route crashes are being geocoded by state DOTs. On the other hand, crashes occurring on off-state highway system do not always get geocoded due to limited resources and techniques. Creating and maintaining a statewide crash geographic information systems (GIS) map with state route and non-state route crashes is a complicated and expensive task. This study introduces an automatic crash mapping process, Crash-Mapping Automation Tool (C-MAT), where an algorithm translates location information from a police report crash record to a geospatial map and creates a pinpoint map for all crashes. The algorithm has approximate 83 percent mapping rate. An important application of this work is the ability to associate the mapped crash records to underlying business data, such as roadway inventory and traffic volumes. The integrated crash map is the foundation for effective and efficient crash analyzes to prevent highway crashes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A expert system for locating distribution system faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.Y.; Lu, F.C.; Chien, Y. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Liu, J.P.; Lin, J.T. ); Yu, H.S.; Kuo, R.T )

    1991-01-01

    A rule-based expert system is designed to locate the faults in a distribution system. Distribution system component data and network topology are stored in the database. A set of heuristic rules are compiled from the dispatchers' experience and are imbedded in the rule base. To locate distribution system fault, an inference engine is developed to perform deductive reasonings on the rules in the knowledge base. The inference engine comprises three major parts: the dynamic searching method, the backtracking approach, and the set intersection operation. The expert system is implemented on a personal computer using the artificial intelligence language PROLOG. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the expert system has been applied to locate faults in a real underground distribution system.

  7. Cancers by Body Location/System

    Cancer.gov

    A list of all cancers, organized by location and/or function in the body. Cancers on the list are linked to information about treatment, supportive care, screening, prevention, clinical trials, and other topics.

  8. Multipurpose locator tag system : LDRD 65145 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenway, Douglas Jr.; Schuster, Gary R.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed to determine the capability of the Pinpoint Locator system, a commercial system designed and manufactured by RF Technologies. It is intended for use in finding people with locator badges in multi-story buildings. The Pinpoint system evaluated is a cell-based system, meaning it can only locate badges within an area bordered by its antennas.

  9. Position location technique and GDOP analysis in multistatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lixing; Sun, Zhongkang

    Position location methods and GDOP analysis in multistatic systems are presented, and a unified equation of position location and that of location error for several kinds of location methods is introduced. A unified mathematical expression for GDOP is also derived. A method for arranging the geometrical position of stations is discussed as an illustration.

  10. 46 CFR 58.60-5 - Industrial systems: Locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial systems: Locations. 58.60-5 Section 58.60-5... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Industrial Systems and Components on Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODU) § 58.60-5 Industrial systems: Locations. An industrial system under this subpart must not be in a space...

  11. Simple system for locating ground loops.

    PubMed

    Bellan, P M

    2007-06-01

    A simple low-cost system for rapid identification of the cables causing ground loops in complex instrumentation configurations is described. The system consists of an exciter module that generates a 100 kHz ground loop current and a detector module that determines which cable conducts this test current. Both the exciter and detector are magnetically coupled to the ground circuit so there is no physical contact to the instrumentation system under test.

  12. Simple system for locating ground loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellan, P. M.

    2007-06-01

    A simple low-cost system for rapid identification of the cables causing ground loops in complex instrumentation configurations is described. The system consists of an exciter module that generates a 100kHz ground loop current and a detector module that determines which cable conducts this test current. Both the exciter and detector are magnetically coupled to the ground circuit so there is no physical contact to the instrumentation system under test.

  13. Small Comet Abundance and Solar System Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. B.; Moore, J.; Zahnle, K.

    2001-12-01

    We present geological, historical, and observational evidence which implies that the proportion of small comets is related to where in the solar system the population is counted. A detailed count of craters in the 1-5 km size range on Jupiter's moon Europa yields a slope of -1.45 for the cumulative size-frequency crater distribution. This is strongly depleted in small objects relative to the far outer solar system. We compare the Europan distribution to crater counts on Neptune's moon Triton and extrapolated observational evidence of Kuiper Belt Objects. We find that small comets appear to be rarer at Triton than in the Kuiper Belt, and that small comets are five times rarer at Europa than they appear to be at Triton. We have extended our study into the inner solar system by considering the discovery histories of long and short period comets. We find that, while large comets have been discovered at ever-increasing rates over the last few centuries, small comets have not paralleled this increase. In one example, the known number of small Jupiter-family comets in Earth-crossing orbits has not changed significantly in the two and a half centuries since comet detection has been intensely pursued. In another example, we focus on the sungrazing comets as found by the SOHO satellite and otherwise. Many of the sungrazers are undoubtedly small comets. But 94 of the 95 known sungrazers follow the same orbit - i.e., they are fragments of one great comet disrupted by close passage to the Sun long ago. Thus SOHO could see unique small comets, if they were present, and so the number of unique small objects in the inner solar system is few to none. Small comets are therefore found relatively frequently in the outer solar system, but their numbers decrease by the orbit of Jupiter, and they are very rare in the inner solar system. One explanation for this decrease is the preferential sublimation and coupled sublimation-enhancing disaggregation of small icy bodies as they approach

  14. Leak locating microphone, method and system for locating fluid leaks in pipes

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Spevak, Lev

    1994-01-01

    A leak detecting microphone inserted directly into fluid within a pipe includes a housing having a first end being inserted within the pipe and a second opposed end extending outside the pipe. A diaphragm is mounted within the first housing end and an acoustic transducer is coupled to the diaphragm for converting acoustical signals to electrical signals. A plurality of apertures are provided in the housing first end, the apertures located both above and below the diaphragm, whereby to equalize fluid pressure on either side of the diaphragm. A leak locating system and method are provided for locating fluid leaks within a pipe. A first microphone is installed within fluid in the pipe at a first selected location and sound is detected at the first location. A second microphone is installed within fluid in the pipe at a second selected location and sound is detected at the second location. A cross-correlation is identified between the detected sound at the first and second locations for identifying a leak location.

  15. Study of advanced system for position location and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Concepts are investigated for improving location precision and system capacity relative to current satellite based data collection and location systems. The TRILOC concept provides either or both improvements in location and system capacity by utilizing three measurements acquired during a single transmission from a platform for location purposes. The location algorithm is developed, and range differences are measured onboard the satellite. An error analysis then relates platform location errors to the precision with which the measurements are made. The second concept is to increase system capacity by means of directive antennas onboard the satellite for reducing interference and/or reducing platform power. The potential advantages and disadvantages of both sweeping and fixed directive antennas for random access systems are evaluated.

  16. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system and station location. 73.6025... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6025 Antenna system and station location. (a) Applications for modified Class A TV facilities proposing the use of directional...

  17. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB...

  18. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB...

  19. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna system and station location. 73.6025... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6025 Antenna system and station location. (a) Applications for modified Class A TV facilities proposing the use of directional...

  20. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna system and station location. 73.6025... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6025 Antenna system and station location. (a) Applications for modified Class A TV facilities proposing the use of directional...

  1. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna system and station location. 73.6025... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6025 Antenna system and station location. (a) Applications for modified Class A TV facilities proposing the use of directional...

  2. 47 CFR 73.6025 - Antenna system and station location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna system and station location. 73.6025... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6025 Antenna system and station location. (a) Applications for modified Class A TV facilities proposing the use of directional...

  3. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB...

  4. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB...

  5. 47 CFR 73.685 - Transmitter location and antenna system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmitter location and antenna system. 73.685... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.685 Transmitter location and antenna system... and antenna height above average terrain employed, the following minimum field strength in dB...

  6. Detection and Location of Structural Degradation in Mechanical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.; Damiano, B.; Phillips, L.D.

    1999-08-30

    The investigation of a diagnostic method for detecting and locating the source of structural degradation in a mechanical system is described in this paper. The diagnostic method uses a mathematical model of the mechanical system to determine relationships between system parameters and measurable spectral features. These relationships are incorporated into a neural network, which associates measured spectral features with system parameters. Condition diagnosis is performed by presenting the neural network with measured spectral features and comparing the system parameters estimated by the neural network to previously estimated values. Changes in the estimated system parameters indicate the location and severity of degradation in the mechanical system.

  7. TWRS information locator database system administrator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    This document is a guide for use by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Locator Database (ILD) System Administrator. The TWRS ILD System is an inventory of information used in the TWRS Systems Engineering process to represent the TWRS Technical Baseline. The inventory is maintained in the form of a relational database developed in Paradox 4.5.

  8. Computer Assisted Reference Locator (CARL) System: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, William A.

    The Computer Assisted Reference Locator (CARL) is a computer-based information retrieval system which uses coordinate indexing. Objectives established in designing the system are: (1) simplicity of reference query and retrieval; (2) ease of system maintenance; and (3) adaptability for alternative computer systems. The source documents input into…

  9. Uncooled infrared sensors for an integrated sniper location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Timothy J.; Figler, Burton D.

    1997-02-01

    Since July of 1995, Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems of Lexington, Massachusetts has been developing an integrated sniper location system for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and for the Department of the Navy's Naval Command Control & Ocean Surveillance Center, RDTE Division in San Diego, California. This system integrates two technologies to provide an affordable and highly effective sniper detection and location capability. The integrated sniper location system is being developed for use by the military and by law enforcement agencies. It will be man portable and can be used by individuals, at fixed ground sites, on ground vehicles, and on low flying aircraft. The integrated sniper location system combines an acoustic warning system with an uncooled infrared warning system. The acoustic warner is being developed by SenTech, Inc. of Lexington, Massachusetts. This acoustic warner provides sniper detection and coarse location information based upon the muzzle blast of the sniper's weapon and/or upon the shock wave produced by the sniper's bullet, if the bullet is supersonic. The uncooled infrared warning system provides sniper detection and fine location information based upon the weapons's muzzle flash. Combining the two technologies improves detection probability and reduces false alarm rate. This paper describes the integrated sniper location system, focusing on the uncooled infrared sensor and its associated signal processing. In addition, preliminary results from Phase I testing of the system are presented. Finally, the paper addresses the plans for implementing Phases II and III, during which the system will be optimized in terms of detection and location performance, size, weight, power, and cost.

  10. Quality control and integration aspects of vehicle location systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberius, C. C. J. M.

    1991-08-01

    Quality control and integration aspects of vehicle location systems are addressed in a feasibility study of an integrated navigation system for vehicle location applications. The data handling of such an integrated navigation system is implemented by means of a Kalman filter. The Kalman filter model consists of a dynamic model, which describes the motions of the vehicle, and a measurement model, which relates all kinds of observables to the system. Simulations were carried out in order to gain insight in the process of designing an optimal filter (optimal in the sense of precision and reliability). The theory of quality control appears to be feasible to operate in vehicle navigation. The navigation system considered consists of an arbitrary radio or satellite positioning system (coordinate observables), an (differential) odometer (observable velocity or distance travelled), and a magnetic compass (observable heading). The results of this system may serve as an indication of how to design a vehicle location system.

  11. 40. View of dual projector system located in MWOC facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. View of dual projector system located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102 by Bessler Company. System used to project images in MWOC on backlit screen system with fiber optic electro/mechanical system linked to computer output to indicate information on screen linked with display from projector system. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. Artificial neural network for location estimation in wireless communication systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    In a wireless communication system, wireless location is the technique used to estimate the location of a mobile station (MS). To enhance the accuracy of MS location prediction, we propose a novel algorithm that utilizes time of arrival (TOA) measurements and the angle of arrival (AOA) information to locate MS when three base stations (BSs) are available. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are widely used techniques in various areas to overcome the problem of exclusive and nonlinear relationships. When the MS is heard by only three BSs, the proposed algorithm utilizes the intersections of three TOA circles (and the AOA line), based on various neural networks, to estimate the MS location in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm for different NLOS error distributions. The numerical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can obtain more precise location estimation under different NLOS environments.

  13. 44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. LOCK, ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, HAULAGE ENGINES, ELECTRICAL DETAILS AND LOCATION. February 1938 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  14. MARVEL: A system that recognizes world locations with stereo vision

    SciTech Connect

    Braunegg, D.J. . Artificial Intelligence Lab.)

    1993-06-01

    MARVEL is a system that supports autonomous navigation by building and maintaining its own models of world locations and using these models and stereo vision input to recognize its location in the world and its position and orientation within that location. The system emphasizes the use of simple, easily derivable features for recognition, whose aggregate identifies a location, instead of complex features that also require recognition. MARVEL is designed to be robust with respect to input errors and to respond to a gradually changing world by updating its world location models. In over 1,000 recognition tests using real-world data, MARVEL yielded a false negative rate under 10% with zero false positives.

  15. 46 CFR 58.60-5 - Industrial systems: Locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Industrial systems: Locations. 58.60-5 Section 58.60-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Industrial Systems and Components on Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

  16. 46 CFR 58.60-5 - Industrial systems: Locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Industrial systems: Locations. 58.60-5 Section 58.60-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Industrial Systems and Components on Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

  17. 46 CFR 58.60-5 - Industrial systems: Locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Industrial systems: Locations. 58.60-5 Section 58.60-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Industrial Systems and Components on Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

  18. 46 CFR 58.60-5 - Industrial systems: Locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Industrial systems: Locations. 58.60-5 Section 58.60-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Industrial Systems and Components on Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

  19. The use of home location to proxy injury location and implications for regionalized trauma system planning.

    PubMed

    Myers, Sage R; Branas, Charles C; Kallan, Michael J; Wiebe, Douglas J; Nance, Michael L; Carr, Brendan G

    2011-11-01

    Trauma system planners use patient home address as a proxy for injury location, although this proxy has not been validated. We sought to determine the precision of this proxy by evaluating the relationship between the location of injury death and the location of residence. This national descriptive analysis used the Multiple Cause of Death data files from 1999 to 2006 to determine the proportion of subjects in which county of residence (RC) matched county of death for all US injury deaths. Subgroup analyses were completed by age and injury intentionality using two sample tests of proportions. χ(2) tests were used to evaluate differences in concordance over time and by size of the RC. Analysis included 3,141 US counties and 1,255,881 subjects. A total of 73.4% of subjects died in the RC and 87.7% died in the RC or a contiguous county. Intentional injury deaths were more likely than unintentional to happen within a decedent's RC (85.1% vs. 68.1%, p < 0.001) and within the RC or contiguous county (93.4% vs. 85.2%, p < 0.001). Adult injury deaths were more likely than pediatric to happen within a decedent's RC (73.6% vs. 68.4%, p < 0.001) and within the RC or contiguous county (87.9% vs. 84.2%, p < 0.001). Subjects from larger counties were more likely to die within the RC or a contiguous county (same p < 0.001, same or adjacent p < 0.001). The preponderance of fatal injury deaths occur close to home. This supports the practice of trauma system's planning using home location available in administrative data to proxy injury location.

  20. Tracking and location technologies for the criminal justice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John H.

    1995-05-01

    Electronic monitoring systems are being used by the criminal justice system to effect behavioral modifications of persons in pre-release prgrams, on parole, and on probation. State-of-the-art electronic monitoring systems are merely radio frequency proximity detection systems that operate over limited ranges, on the order of 45 to 70 meters. One major defect with proximity detection systems is that when the clients leave the area being monitored, there is no way to ensure that the clients are behaving properly. As a result, electronic monitoring systems are only applied to a restricted number of cases of low risk criminal offenders. There is a growing need for community-wide tracking and location technologies to increase the safety and security provided by the electronic monitoring systems, and to expand the number of cliets monitored by these systems. In this paper, a review is made of the tracking and location technologies that are currently available or under development. Also presented is a brief overview of Westinghouse's program with the National Institute of Justice. This program aims to demonstrate the practicality of one possible tracking and location technology, spread spectrum based time-of-arrival location systems, for intelligently tracking people on probation and parole.

  1. Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

  2. Person-Locator System Based On Wristband Radio Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Frederick W.; Blaes, Brent R.; Chandler, Charles W.

    1995-01-01

    Computerized system based on wristband radio frequency (RF), passive transponders is being developed for use in real-time tracking of individuals in custodial institutions like prisons and mental hospitals. Includes monitoring system that contains central computer connected to low-power, high-frequency central transceiver. Transceiver connected to miniature transceiver nodes mounted unobtrusively at known locations throughout the institution. Wristband transponders embedded in common hospital wristbands. Wristbands tamperproof: each contains embedded wire loop which, when broken or torn off and discarded, causes wristband to disappear from system, thus causing alarm. Individuals could be located in a timely fashion at relatively low cost.

  3. Reliable Location-Based Services from Radio Navigation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Di; Boneh, Dan; Lo, Sherman; Enge, Per

    2010-01-01

    Loran is a radio-based navigation system originally designed for naval applications. We show that Loran-C’s high-power and high repeatable accuracy are fantastic for security applications. First, we show how to derive a precise location tag—with a sensitivity of about 20 meters—that is difficult to project to an exact location. A device can use our location tag to block or allow certain actions, without knowing its precise location. To ensure that our tag is reproducible we make use of fuzzy extractors, a mechanism originally designed for biometric authentication. We build a fuzzy extractor specifically designed for radio-type errors and give experimental evidence to show its effectiveness. Second, we show that our location tag is difficult to predict from a distance. For example, an observer cannot predict the location tag inside a guarded data center from a few hundreds of meters away. As an application, consider a location-aware disk drive that will only work inside the data center. An attacker who steals the device and is capable of spoofing Loran-C signals, still cannot make the device work since he does not know what location tag to spoof. We provide experimental data supporting our unpredictability claim. PMID:22163532

  4. Reliable location-based services from radio navigation systems.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Di; Boneh, Dan; Lo, Sherman; Enge, Per

    2010-01-01

    Loran is a radio-based navigation system originally designed for naval applications. We show that Loran-C's high-power and high repeatable accuracy are fantastic for security applications. First, we show how to derive a precise location tag--with a sensitivity of about 20 meters--that is difficult to project to an exact location. A device can use our location tag to block or allow certain actions, without knowing its precise location. To ensure that our tag is reproducible we make use of fuzzy extractors, a mechanism originally designed for biometric authentication. We build a fuzzy extractor specifically designed for radio-type errors and give experimental evidence to show its effectiveness. Second, we show that our location tag is difficult to predict from a distance. For example, an observer cannot predict the location tag inside a guarded data center from a few hundreds of meters away. As an application, consider a location-aware disk drive that will only work inside the data center. An attacker who steals the device and is capable of spoofing Loran-C signals, still cannot make the device work since he does not know what location tag to spoof. We provide experimental data supporting our unpredictability claim.

  5. 43. View of CSMR room equipment locator and system checkout ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. View of CSMR room equipment locator and system checkout console for detection radars and rearward communication data links in transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. Photovoltaic systems in remote locations: An experience summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, A. F.

    1985-05-01

    Since 1979, the NASA Lewis Research Center has been responsible for the design, installation and operational support of 58 photovoltaic systems located in 27 countries. Together these systems contain 77.1 kW of photovoltaic modules and provide power for a variety of loads ranging from single low-power street light systems to a utility type power system for a village of over 150 people. Systems installation, reliability, operation, maintenance and repair experience is given and major problem areas are listed. Experience indicates that photovoltaic system technology is a proven technology, but that developing countries need to better posture themselves to acquire and utilize the technology. Recommendations are given.

  7. Architecture for Multi-Technology Real-Time Location Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodas, Javier; Barral, Valentín; Escudero, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    The rising popularity of location-based services has prompted considerable research in the field of indoor location systems. Since there is no single technology to support these systems, it is necessary to consider the fusion of the information coming from heterogeneous sensors. This paper presents a software architecture designed for a hybrid location system where we can merge information from multiple sensor technologies. The architecture was designed to be used by different kinds of actors independently and with mutual transparency: hardware administrators, algorithm developers and user applications. The paper presents the architecture design, work-flow, case study examples and some results to show how different technologies can be exploited to obtain a good estimation of a target position. PMID:23435050

  8. Locating the system in a system of care.

    PubMed

    Foster-Fishman, Pennie G; Droege, Erin

    2010-02-01

    While systems of care are recognized as a systems-level intervention, a gap remains between systems theory and practice that challenges the effectiveness of future system of care efforts. This article explores the extent to which the expanded system of care definition proposed by Hodges et al. [Hodges, S. Ferreira, K., Israel, N., & Mazza, J. (this issue). Systems of care, featherless bipeds, and the measure of all things. Evaluation and Program Planning] addresses this gap and suggests ideas for strengthening its systemic focus. Specifically, recommendations address considerations for assigning and adapting appropriate boundaries around intervention efforts and leveraging critical system characteristics and interactions to promote systems change. Implications for system of care practice and theory are discussed.

  9. MARVEL: A System for Recognizing World Locations with Stereo Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Baxandall 1983]) to plan their daily commutes or vacation excursions. 147 148 CHAPTER 9. LOCATION RECOGNITION AND THE WORFLD MODEL 9.1 Introduction...Inc. 1982. Baxandall , L. World Guide to Nude Beaches and Recreation. New York: Harmony Books. 1983. Binford, T. 0. Survey of stereo mapping systems

  10. 75. GENERAL VIEW OF PORTABLE PAYLOAD AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM LOCATED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. GENERAL VIEW OF PORTABLE PAYLOAD AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM LOCATED ON NORTH SIDE OF SLC-3W LIQUID OXYGEN APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. System Finds Horizontal Location of Center of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Albert S.; Howard, Richard T.; Brewster, Linda L.

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system rapidly and repeatedly determines the horizontal location of the center of gravity of a laboratory vehicle that slides horizontally on three air bearings (see Figure 1). Typically, knowledge of the horizontal center-of-mass location of such a vehicle is needed in order to balance the vehicle properly for an experiment and/or to assess the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The system includes a load cell above each air bearing, electronic circuits that generate digital readings of the weight on each load cell, and a computer equipped with software that processes the readings. The total weight and, hence, the mass of the vehicle are computed from the sum of the load-cell weight readings. Then the horizontal position of the center of gravity is calculated straightforwardly as the weighted sum of the known position vectors of the air bearings, the contribution of each bearing being proportional to the weight on that bearing. In the initial application for which this system was devised, the center- of-mass calculation is particularly simple because the air bearings are located at corners of an equilateral triangle. However, the system is not restricted to this simple geometry. The system acquires and processes weight readings at a rate of 800 Hz for each load cell. The total weight and the horizontal location of the center of gravity are updated at a rate of 800/3 approx. equals 267 Hz. In a typical application, a technician would use the center-of-mass output of this instrumentation system as a guide to the manual placement of small weights on the vehicle to shift the center of gravity to a desired horizontal position. Usually, the desired horizontal position is that of the geometric center. Alternatively, this instrumentation system could be used to provide position feedback for a control system that would cause weights to be shifted automatically (see Figure 2) in an effort to keep the center of gravity at the geometric center.

  12. Analysis of Meteorological Satellite location and data collection system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. G.; Reed, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    A satellite system that employs a spaceborne RF interferometer to determine the location and velocity of data collection platforms attached to meteorological balloons is proposed. This meteorological advanced location and data collection system (MALDCS) is intended to fly aboard a low polar orbiting satellite. The flight instrument configuration includes antennas supported on long deployable booms. The platform location and velocity estimation errors introduced by the dynamic and thermal behavior of the antenna booms and the effects of the presence of the booms on the performance of the spacecraft's attitude control system, and the control system design considerations critical to stable operations are examined. The physical parameters of the Astromast type of deployable boom were used in the dynamic and thermal boom analysis, and the TIROS N system was assumed for the attitude control analysis. Velocity estimation error versus boom length was determined. There was an optimum, minimum error, antenna separation distance. A description of the proposed MALDCS system and a discussion of ambiguity resolution are included.

  13. Lightning location system supervising Swedish power transmission network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melin, Stefan A.

    1991-01-01

    For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize lightning damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide lightning location system (LLS) for accurately locating lightning ground strikes. Lightning data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when lightning; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected lightning; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to lightning, using archived lightning data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.

  14. Optimum Location of Voltage Regulators in the Radial Distribution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkuti, Surender Reddy; Lho, Young Hwan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm is proposed for the optimum voltage control, which is applicable for the large Radial Distribution Systems (RDSs). In the RDSs, voltage levels at different buses can be maintained within the specified limits using the conductor grading or placing the Voltage Regulators (VRs) and capacitors at suitable locations. The proposed Back Tracking Algorithm (BTA) proposes the optimal location, number and tap positions of VRs to maintain the voltage profile within the desired limits and decreases losses in the system, which in turn maximizes the net savings in the operation of distribution system. In addition to BTA, an approach using the fuzzy logic called Fuzzy Expert System (FES) is also proposed, and the results of FES are compared with the results of BTA. This heuristic algorithm proposes the optimal location and tap setting of VRs, which contributes a smooth voltage profile along the network. It also used to access the minimum number of initially considered VRs, by moving them in such way as to control the network voltage at minimum possible cost. It is concluded that the FES also gives the optimal placement and the number along with the tap settings of VRs. The proposed FES contributes good voltage regulation, and decreases the power loss which in turn increases the net savings when compared to the BTA. The effectiveness of the proposed heuristic approaches are examined on practical 47 bus and 69 bus Radial Distribution Systems (RDSs).

  15. Using Kalman filters to reduce noise from RFID location system.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Pedro Henriques; Xavier, José; Silva, Daniel Castro; Reis, Luís Paulo; Petry, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many technologies that support location systems involving intrusive and nonintrusive equipment and also varying in terms of precision, range, and cost. However, the developers some time neglect the noise introduced by these systems, which prevents these systems from reaching their full potential. Focused on this problem, in this research work a comparison study between three different filters was performed in order to reduce the noise introduced by a location system based on RFID UWB technology with an associated error of approximately 18 cm. To achieve this goal, a set of experiments was devised and executed using a miniature train moving at constant velocity in a scenario with two distinct shapes-linear and oval. Also, this train was equipped with a varying number of active tags. The obtained results proved that the Kalman Filter achieved better results when compared to the other two filters. Also, this filter increases the performance of the location system by 15% and 12% for the linear and oval paths respectively, when using one tag. For a multiple tags and oval shape similar results were obtained (11-13% of improvement).

  16. Using Kalman Filters to Reduce Noise from RFID Location System

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, José; Reis, Luís Paulo; Petry, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many technologies that support location systems involving intrusive and nonintrusive equipment and also varying in terms of precision, range, and cost. However, the developers some time neglect the noise introduced by these systems, which prevents these systems from reaching their full potential. Focused on this problem, in this research work a comparison study between three different filters was performed in order to reduce the noise introduced by a location system based on RFID UWB technology with an associated error of approximately 18 cm. To achieve this goal, a set of experiments was devised and executed using a miniature train moving at constant velocity in a scenario with two distinct shapes—linear and oval. Also, this train was equipped with a varying number of active tags. The obtained results proved that the Kalman Filter achieved better results when compared to the other two filters. Also, this filter increases the performance of the location system by 15% and 12% for the linear and oval paths respectively, when using one tag. For a multiple tags and oval shape similar results were obtained (11–13% of improvement). PMID:24592186

  17. Identifying healthcare activities using a real-time location system.

    PubMed

    Cagle, Rick; Darling, Erika; Kim, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses human resource allocation in a Veterans Health Administration audiology clinic as a model for clinics facing similar challenges in maximizing quality, safety, and effectiveness of care. A framework is proposed combining automatic identification technology with simulation and visualization software, asserting a relationship between location of staff within the facility and clinical activity, focusing healthcare staff on high-value activities to deliver safe, quality care. This enables "what-if" analyses of potential resource allocation scenarios, correlating location information from radiofrequency identification tags worn by clinicians and technicians in the clinic as part of a real-time location system, then inferring probable activity from the data. Once the baseline "as-is" can be established, the model will be refined to supply predictive analyses of resource allocation and management. Simulations of activities in specialized spaces saves time managing resources, which means more time can be spent on patient safety and increased satisfaction.

  18. Design of a TDOA location engine and development of a location system based on chirp spread spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Rong; Yu, Xiao-Qing; Zheng, Shu-Wang; Ye, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Location based services (LBS) provided by wireless sensor networks have garnered a great deal of attention from researchers and developers in recent years. Chirp spread spectrum (CSS) signaling formatting with time difference of arrival (TDOA) ranging technology is an effective LBS technique in regards to positioning accuracy, cost, and power consumption. The design and implementation of the location engine and location management based on TDOA location algorithms were the focus of this study; as the core of the system, the location engine was designed as a series of location algorithms and smoothing algorithms. To enhance the location accuracy, a Kalman filter algorithm and moving weighted average technique were respectively applied to smooth the TDOA range measurements and location results, which are calculated by the cooperation of a Kalman TDOA algorithm and a Taylor TDOA algorithm. The location management server, the information center of the system, was designed with Data Server and Mclient. To evaluate the performance of the location algorithms and the stability of the system software, we used a Nanotron nanoLOC Development Kit 3.0 to conduct indoor and outdoor location experiments. The results indicated that the location system runs stably with high accuracy at absolute error below 0.6 m.

  19. Development of High Accuracy Impedance Type Fault Locator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urano, Shoichi; Yamada, Takeshi; Ooura, Yoshifumi; Yamaguchi, Yasutaka; Makimura, Tatsuya

    The authors have developed an innovative FL (Fault Locator) System, which takes the 3-phase unbalance into consideration by simulation of a power transmission line with the distributed constant circuit and use of the theory of mode transformation. The system developed by the authors automatically reads the waveform data of voltage and current from the fault recorder which is time-synchronized to the GPS (Global Positioning System) and measures distance to the fault point using the above-mentioned data and power transmission system data which are set in advance. The authors carried out field tests of the FL System developed by the authors on fourteen lines of the 66kV power transmission system of TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company) and obtained good results that showed a mean error of 0.43[km]. This paper presents these results.

  20. A novel container truck locating system based on vision technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Junji; Shi, Li; Mi, Weijian

    2008-10-01

    On a container dock, the container truck must be parked right under the trolley of the container crane before loading (unloading) a container to (from) it. But it often uses nearly one minute to park the truck at the right position because of the difficulty of aiming the truck at the trolley. A monocular machine vision system is designed to locate the locomotive container truck, give the information about how long the truck need to go ahead or go back, and thereby help the driver park the truck fleetly and correctly. With this system time is saved and the efficiency of loading and unloading is increased. The mathematical model of this system is presented in detail. Then the calibration method is described. At last the experiment result testifies the validity and precision of this locating system. The prominent characteristic of this system is simple, easy to be implemented, low cost, and effective. Furthermore, this research work verifies that a monocular vision system can detect 3D size on condition that the length and width of a container are known, which greatly extends the function and application of a monocular vision system.

  1. Enabling affordable and efficiently deployed location based smart home systems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Damian; McLoone, Sean; Dishongh, Terry

    2009-01-01

    With the obvious eldercare capabilities of smart environments it is a question of "when", rather than "if", these technologies will be routinely integrated into the design of future houses. In the meantime, health monitoring applications must be integrated into already complete home environments. However, there is significant effort involved in installing the hardware necessary to monitor the movements of an elder throughout an environment. Our work seeks to address the high infrastructure requirements of traditional location-based smart home systems by developing an extremely low infrastructure localisation technique. A study of the most efficient method of obtaining calibration data for an environment is conducted and different mobile devices are compared for localisation accuracy and cost trade-off. It is believed that these developments will contribute towards more efficiently deployed location-based smart home systems.

  2. Single Station System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An embodiment of the present invention uses a single detection system to approximate a location of lightning strikes. This system is triggered by a broadband RF detector and measures a time until the arrival of a leading edge of the thunder acoustic pulse. This time difference is used to determine a slant range R from the detector to the closest approach of the lightning. The azimuth and elevation are determined by an array of acoustic sensors. The leading edge of the thunder waveform is cross-correlated between the various acoustic sensors in the array to determine the difference in time of arrival, AT. A set of AT S is used to determine the direction of arrival, AZ and EL. The three estimated variables (R, AZ, EL) are used to locate a probable point of the lightning strike.

  3. Bayesian techniques to analyze and merge lightning locating system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitzer, Phillip M.; Burchfield, Jeffrey C.

    2016-12-01

    As more lightning locating systems (LLSs) become available, there is a growing need to assess how each LLS performs and how to best merge data from multiple LLSs. A Bayesian analysis is used to compare the worldwide data of LLSs from three providers for November 2014 to October 2015: Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN, Earth Networks), the combined data from the Global Lightning Detection 360 and National Lightning Detection Network (Vaisala), and the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, University of Washington). By using the union of the data sets we are able to determine an estimate for the upper limit of the absolute detection efficiency of each system. Globally, ENTLN detected 56.8% of the discharges, the combined Vaisala networks detected 59.8%, and WWLLN detected 7.9%. In addition, there were 2.842 × 109 unique discharges detected by these LLSs, an average of 90.1 strokes/s.

  4. 11. "INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT LOCATION, TEST STAND TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. "INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT LOCATION, TEST STAND TERMINAL ROOM, PLANS AND SECTION." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-0912; sheet 106 of 148; file no. 1321/57. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, instrumentation room, bays and console plan. Specifications No. Eng-04-353-55-72; drawing no. 60-09-12; sheet 110 of 148; file no. 1321/61. Stamped: Record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Ambiguity resolution in systems using Omega for position location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenkel, G.; Gan, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The lane ambiguity problem prevents the utilization of the Omega system for many applications such as locating buoys and balloons. The method of multiple lines of position introduced herein uses signals from four or more Omega stations for ambiguity resolution. The coordinates of the candidate points are determined first through the use of the Newton iterative procedure. Subsequently, a likelihood function is generated for each point, and the ambiguity is resolved by selecting the most likely point. The method was tested through simulation.

  7. Evaluation of Seismic Event Location Methods on the Regional Event Location System (RELS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-26

    the LOCATION method of locating events with correlation matrix. These 15 events include 12 explosions used in Tables I - III, plus two French Sahara ...Poupinet, G. (1976). Sur 1existence d’un manteau a teres faible vitesse sous lea Alps occidentals et sea implications tectoniques. Bull. Soc. feol

  8. System and method for optically locating microchannel positions

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, Laurence R.; Kimbrough, Joseph; Balch, Joseph; Davidson, J. Courtney

    2001-01-01

    A system and method is disclosed for optically locating a microchannel position. A laser source generates a primary laser beam which is directed at a microchannel plate. The microchannel plates include microchannels at various locations. A back-reflectance beam detector receives a back-reflected beam from the plate. The back-reflected beam is generated when the primary beam reflects off of the plate. A photodiode circuit generates a trigger signal when the back-reflected beam exceeds a predetermined threshold, indicating a presence of the microchannel. The method of the present invention includes the steps of generating a primary beam, directing the primary beam to a plate containing a microchannel, receiving from the plate a back-reflected beam generated in response to the primary beam, and generating a trigger signal when the back-reflected beam exceeds a predetermined threshold which corresponds to a presence of the microchannel.

  9. Economical wind powered bioventing systems successfully applied at remote locations

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.; Klein, J.; Dillon, T. Jr.; Wilson, B.; Walker, K.

    1996-12-31

    Wind-powered bioventing systems were designed to operate at remote locations in the absence of electrical power. Laboratory measurements of soil respiration under bioventing conditions indicated the biodegradation of up to 25 mg of weathered diesel per kg of site soil per day. Further testing demonstrated the potential for harnessing wind-power to stimulate air movement through vadose zone soil. Several wind-powered bioventing systems were installed near Nome, Alaska. In situ respiration tests, soil gas composition measurements and measurable pressure changes in the soil indicated that the systems were capable of aerating the soil. Diesel range oil measurements indicated contaminant reductions up to 90% after only two treatments seasons. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of wind-powered biovents. The low cost, low maintenance, and simplicity of the biovents make them a very attractive treatment option for windy, remote sites with unsaturated soil impacted by biodegradable contaminants.

  10. Equipment location in hospitals using RFID-based positioning system.

    PubMed

    Shirehjini, Ali Asghar Nazari; Yassine, Abdulsalam; Shirmohammadi, Shervin

    2012-11-01

    Throughout various complex processes within hospitals, context-aware services and applications can help to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. For example, sensors and radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies for e-health have been deployed to improve the flow of material, equipment, personal, and patient. Bed tracking, patient monitoring, real-time logistic analysis, and critical equipment tracking are famous applications of real-time location systems (RTLS) in hospitals. In fact, existing case studies show that RTLS can improve service quality and safety, and optimize emergency management and time critical processes. In this paper, we propose a robust system for position and orientation determination of equipment. Our system utilizes passive (RFID) technology mounted on flooring plates and several peripherals for sensor data interpretation. The system is implemented and tested through extensive experiments. The results show that our system's average positioning and orientation measurement outperforms existing systems in terms of accuracy. The details of the system as well as the experimental results are presented in this paper.

  11. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven

    2006-04-01

    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  12. Location and acquisition of objects in unpredictable locations. [a teleoperator system with a computer for manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A. J.; Park, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    A teleoperator system with a computer for manipulator control to combine the capabilities of both man and computer to accomplish a task is described. This system allows objects in unpredictable locations to be successfully located and acquired. By using a method of characterizing the work-space together with man's ability to plan a strategy and coarsely locate an object, the computer is provided with enough information to complete the tedious part of the task. In addition, the use of voice control is shown to be a useful component of the man/machine interface.

  13. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  14. System and Method for Detecting Cracks and their Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for detecting cracks and their location in a structure. A circuit coupled to a structure has capacitive strain sensors coupled sequentially and in parallel to one another. When excited by a variable magnetic field, the circuit has a resonant frequency that is different for unstrained and strained states. In terms of strained states, the resonant frequency is indicative of a region of the circuit that is experiencing strain induced by strain in a region of the structure in proximity to the region of the circuit. An inductor is electrically coupled to one end of each circuit. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the variable magnetic field to the inductor and senses the resonant frequency of the circuit so-excited by the variable magnetic field.

  15. Methods, systems and devices for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects

    DOEpatents

    Roybal, Lyle Gene [Idaho Falls, ID; Kotter, Dale Kent [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho Falls, ID; Spencer, David Frazer [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-26

    Methods for detecting and locating ferromagnetic objects in a security screening system. One method includes a step of acquiring magnetic data that includes magnetic field gradients detected during a period of time. Another step includes representing the magnetic data as a function of the period of time. Another step includes converting the magnetic data to being represented as a function of frequency. Another method includes a step of sensing a magnetic field for a period of time. Another step includes detecting a gradient within the magnetic field during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a peak value of the gradient detected during the period of time. Another step includes identifying a portion of time within the period of time that represents when the peak value occurs. Another step includes configuring the portion of time over the period of time to represent a ratio.

  16. Multipath induced errors in meteorological Doppler/interferometer location systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    One application of an RF interferometer aboard a low-orbiting spacecraft to determine the location of ground-based transmitters is in tracking high-altitude balloons for meteorological studies. A source of error in this application is reflection of the signal from the sea surface. Through propagating and signal analysis, the magnitude of the reflection-induced error in both Doppler frequency measurements and interferometer phase measurements was estimated. The theory of diffuse scattering from random surfaces was applied to obtain the power spectral density of the reflected signal. The processing of the combined direct and reflected signals was then analyzed to find the statistics of the measurement error. It was found that the error varies greatly during the satellite overpass and attains its maximum value at closest approach. The maximum values of interferometer phase error and Doppler frequency error found for the system configuration considered were comparable to thermal noise-induced error.

  17. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  18. Location, Location, Location!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  19. Contribution of Geographic Information Systems and location models to planning of wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Leitão, J P; Matos, J S; Gonçalves, A B; Matos, J L

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the contributions of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and location models towards planning regional wastewater systems (sewers and wastewater treatment plants) serving small agglomerations, i.e. agglomerations with less than 2,000 inhabitants. The main goal was to develop a decision support tool for tracing and locating regional wastewater systems. The main results of the model are expressed in terms of number, capacity and location of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) and the length of main sewers. The decision process concerning the location and capacity of wastewater systems has a number of parameters that can be optimized. These parameters include the total sewer length and number, capacity and location of WWTP. The optimization of parameters should lead to the minimization of construction and operation costs of the integrated system. Location models have been considered as tools for decision support, mainly when a geo-referenced database can be used. In these cases, the GIS may represent an important role for the analysis of data and results especially in the preliminary stage of planning and design. After selecting the spatial location model and the heuristics, two greedy algorithms were implemented in Visual Basic for Applications on the ArcGIS software environment. To illustrate the application of these algorithms a case study was developed, in a rural area located in the central part of Portugal.

  20. The Location GNSS Modules for the Components of Proteus System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzostowski, K.; Darakchiev, R.; Foks-Ryznar, A.; Sitek, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Proteus system - the Integrated Mobile System for Counterterrorism and Rescue Operations is a complex innovative project. To assure the best possible localization of mobile components of the system, many different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) modules were taken into account. In order to chose the best solution many types of tests were done. Full results and conclusions are presented in this paper. The idea of measurements was to test modules in GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS) with EGNOS system specification according to certain algorithms. The tests had to answer the question: what type of GNSS modules should be used on different components with respect to specific usage of Proteus system. The second goal of tests was to check the solution quality of integrated GNSS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) and its possible usage in some Proteus system components.

  1. 49 CFR 325.57 - Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Stationary Test § 325.57 Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 shall be located at...

  2. 49 CFR 325.57 - Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Stationary Test § 325.57 Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 shall be located at...

  3. 49 CFR 325.57 - Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Stationary Test § 325.57 Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 shall be located at...

  4. 49 CFR 325.57 - Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Stationary Test § 325.57 Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 shall be located at...

  5. 49 CFR 325.57 - Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Stationary Test § 325.57 Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 shall be located at...

  6. Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) Positioning Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    source of position data depending on the environment and system requirements. This option could allow navigation of the UAV in a GPS - denied environment...the source of position data depending on the environment and system requirements. This option could allow the UAV to be navigated in a GPS denied environment

  7. Laser measuring system accurately locates point coordinates on photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doede, J. H.; Lindenmeyer, C. W.; Vonderohe, R. H.

    1966-01-01

    Laser activated ultraprecision ranging apparatus interfaced with a computer determines point coordinates on a photograph. A helium-neon gas CW laser provides collimated light for a null balancing optical system. This system has no mechanical connection between the ranging apparatus and the photograph.

  8. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  9. Automatic cross-sectioning and monitoring system locates defects in electronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, G.; Slaughter, B.

    1971-01-01

    System consists of motorized grinding and lapping apparatus, sample holder, and electronic control circuit. Low power microscope examines device to pinpoint location of circuit defect, and monitor displays output signal when defect is located exactly.

  10. Noise pair velocity and range echo location system

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, David J.

    1999-01-01

    An echo-location method for microwaves, sound and light capable of using incoherent and arbitrary waveforms of wide bandwidth to measure velocity and range (and target size) simultaneously to high resolution. Two interferometers having very long and nearly equal delays are used in series with the target interposed. The delays can be longer than the target range of interest. The first interferometer imprints a partial coherence on an initially incoherent source which allows autocorrelation to be performed on the reflected signal to determine velocity. A coherent cross-correlation subsequent to the second interferometer with the source determines a velocity discriminated range. Dithering the second interferometer identifies portions of the cross-correlation belonging to a target apart from clutter moving at a different velocity. The velocity discrimination is insensitive to all slowly varying distortions in the signal path. Speckle in the image of target and antenna lobing due to parasitic reflections is minimal for an incoherent source. An arbitrary source which varies its spectrum dramatically and randomly from pulse to pulse creates a radar elusive to jamming. Monochromatic sources which jigger in frequency from pulse to pulse or combinations of monochromatic sources can simulate some benefits of incoherent broadband sources. Clutter which has a symmetrical velocity spectrum will self-cancel for short wavelengths, such as the apparent motion of ground surrounding target from a sidelooking airborne antenna.

  11. Noise pair velocity and range echo location system

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-02-16

    An echo-location method for microwaves, sound and light capable of using incoherent and arbitrary waveforms of wide bandwidth to measure velocity and range (and target size) simultaneously to high resolution is disclosed. Two interferometers having very long and nearly equal delays are used in series with the target interposed. The delays can be longer than the target range of interest. The first interferometer imprints a partial coherence on an initially incoherent source which allows autocorrelation to be performed on the reflected signal to determine velocity. A coherent cross-correlation subsequent to the second interferometer with the source determines a velocity discriminated range. Dithering the second interferometer identifies portions of the cross-correlation belonging to a target apart from clutter moving at a different velocity. The velocity discrimination is insensitive to all slowly varying distortions in the signal path. Speckle in the image of target and antenna lobing due to parasitic reflections is minimal for an incoherent source. An arbitrary source which varies its spectrum dramatically and randomly from pulse to pulse creates a radar elusive to jamming. Monochromatic sources which jigger in frequency from pulse to pulse or combinations of monochromatic sources can simulate some benefits of incoherent broadband sources. Clutter which has a symmetrical velocity spectrum will self-cancel for short wavelengths, such as the apparent motion of ground surrounding target from a sidelooking airborne antenna. 46 figs.

  12. Locating Gender Bias and Systemic Discrimination in Public Schooling Bureaucracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    The current bureaucratic model used in administering public education in Canada displays a systemic gender bias that results from sociopolitical-cultural assumptions concerning gender roles, capitalism, hierarchy, and patriarchy. A proposed neo-bureaucracy would replace individual ownership of success with an accent on teamwork and group…

  13. Locating Gender Bias and Systemic Discrimination in Public Schooling Bureaucracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jull, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    The current bureaucratic model used in administering public education in Canada displays a systemic gender bias that results from sociopolitical-cultural assumptions concerning gender roles, capitalism, hierarchy, and patriarchy. A proposed neo-bureaucracy would replace individual ownership of success with an accent on teamwork and group…

  14. Development of an Integrated Robotic Radioisotope Identification and Location System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-05

    468 Radium - 226 Ra226 1 1600 186 Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and dismantled weapons sound like tempting targets for a terrorist to...system within a robotic base in order to inspect an area for either radioisotopes that could be used for a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or are... used for a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or are classified as Special Nuclear Material (SNM). In the current security climate, such a

  15. Emergency Department Real Time Location System Patient and Equipment Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Interface the RTLS Server to the Hospital’s bio- medical device asset management system. This interface will provide real-time positional data which will be...TYPE OF REPORT: Revised Annual Report PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702...SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort

  16. An FBG impact location system based on broadband light source and improved TDoA algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Dan-dan; Sui, Qing-mei; Wang, Ming; Guo, Dong-mei; Sai, Yao-zhang

    2017-07-01

    When a structure material is damaged by impact events, the reliability and lifetime of the material will be severely affected. So impact location is considered as the prime approach for structural health and damage monitoring. In this study, a novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) impact location system based on broadband light source is designed, aiming at the shortcoming of existing location systems based on FBG. An improved localization algorithm based on the time difference of arrival (TDoA) is proposed for impact location. According to this algorithm, the impact position can be accurately predicted without wave velocity. Impact planar location experiments are carried out for verification of the FBG impact location system and algorithm on a 400 mm×400 mm×3 mm aluminum alloy plate. The resulted locating error shows high precision and good stability of the proposed system.

  17. Baseline System Costs for 50.0 MW Enhanced Geothermal System -- A Function of: Working Fluid, Technology, and Location, Location, Location

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Paul; Selman, Nancy; Volpe, Anthony Della; Moss, Deborah; Mobley, Rick; Dickey, Halley; Unruh, Jeffery; Hitchcock, Chris; Tanguay, Jasmine; Butler, Steven; Stacey, Robert; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Pruess, Karsten; Gutoski, Greg; Fay, Jamie M.; Stitzer, John T.; Oglesby, Ken

    2012-04-30

    Substantial unexploited opportunity exists for the US, and the world, in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). As a result of US DOE investment, new drilling technology, new power generation equipment and cycles enable meaningful power production, in a compact and modular fashion; at lower and lower top side EGS working fluid temperatures and in a broader range of geologies and geographies. This cost analysis effort supports the expansion of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), furthering DOE strategic themes of energy security and sub goal of energy diversity; reducing the Nation's dependence on foreign oil while improving the environment.

  18. Development of an accurate transmission line fault locator using the global positioning system satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Harry

    1994-01-01

    A highly accurate transmission line fault locator based on the traveling-wave principle was developed and successfully operated within B.C. Hydro. A transmission line fault produces a fast-risetime traveling wave at the fault point which propagates along the transmission line. This fault locator system consists of traveling wave detectors located at key substations which detect and time tag the leading edge of the fault-generated traveling wave as if passes through. A master station gathers the time-tagged information from the remote detectors and determines the location of the fault. Precise time is a key element to the success of this system. This fault locator system derives its timing from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. System tests confirmed the accuracy of locating faults to within the design objective of +/-300 meters.

  19. Theoretical and experimental investigations of sensor location for optimal aeroelastic system state estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the design of an active control system is obtaining the information needed for effective feedback. This involves the combination of sensing and estimation. A sensor location index is defined as the weighted sum of the mean square estimation errors in which the sensor locations can be regarded as estimator design parameters. The design goal is to choose these locations to minimize the sensor location index. The choice of the number of sensors is a tradeoff between the estimation quality based upon the same performance index and the total costs of installing and maintaining extra sensors. An experimental study for choosing the sensor location was conducted on an aeroelastic system. The system modeling which includes the unsteady aerodynamics model developed by Stephen Rock was improved. Experimental results verify the trend of the theoretical predictions of the sensor location index for different sensor locations at various wind speeds.

  20. Study On Burst Location Technology under Steady-state in Water Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianpin; Li, Shuping; Wang, Shaowei; He, Fang; He, Zhixun; Cao, Guodong

    2010-11-01

    According to the characteristics of hydraulic information under the state of burst in water distribution system, to get the correlation of monitoring values and burst location and locate the position of burst on time by mathematical fitting. This method can effectively make use of the information of SCADA in water distribution system to active locating burst position. A new idea of burst location in water distribution systems to shorten the burst time, reduce the impact on urban water supply, economic losses and waste of water resources.

  1. An Integrated Learning Management System for Location-Based Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailer, Christian; Kiefer, Peter; Raubal, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance and challenges of a location-based learning platform that supports mobile learning in education. We present the design of an integrated management system for location-based mobile learning. Independent of the taught subject, the objective of the system is an easy-to-understand user interface for both - teachers…

  2. Outdoor Education Support System with Location Awareness Using RFID and Symbology Tags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osawa, Noritaka; Noda, Katsuji; Tsukagoshi, Satoru; Noma, Yutaka; Ando, Akikazu; Shibuya, Tomoharu; Kondo, Kimio

    2007-01-01

    A support system for outdoor learning using exploratory observation was developed. The system uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and two-dimensional (2D) symbology tags to locate positions on a horticultural farm and its surrounding forests. Students were able to get a location-dependent description and an educational hint for…

  3. 49 CFR 325.37 - Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Highway Operations § 325.37 Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 of...

  4. 49 CFR 325.37 - Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Highway Operations § 325.37 Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 of...

  5. 49 CFR 325.37 - Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Highway Operations § 325.37 Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 of...

  6. 49 CFR 325.37 - Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Highway Operations § 325.37 Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 of...

  7. 49 CFR 325.37 - Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Highway Operations § 325.37 Location and operation of sound level measurement system; highway operations. (a) The microphone of a sound level measurement system that conforms to the rules in § 325.23 of...

  8. Outdoor Education Support System with Location Awareness Using RFID and Symbology Tags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osawa, Noritaka; Noda, Katsuji; Tsukagoshi, Satoru; Noma, Yutaka; Ando, Akikazu; Shibuya, Tomoharu; Kondo, Kimio

    2007-01-01

    A support system for outdoor learning using exploratory observation was developed. The system uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and two-dimensional (2D) symbology tags to locate positions on a horticultural farm and its surrounding forests. Students were able to get a location-dependent description and an educational hint for…

  9. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  10. Recording wildlife locations with the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid system

    Treesearch

    T. G. Grubb; W. L. Eakle

    1988-01-01

    The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) international, planar, grid system is described and shown to offer greater simplicity, efficiency and accuracy for plotting wildlife locations than the more familiar Latitude-Longitude (Latilong) and Section-Township-Range (Cadastral) systems, and the State planar system. Use of the UTM system is explained with examples.

  11. Electromagnetic retransmission system for locating trapped mine workers. Open file report (final), August 1978-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, F.H.; Hansen, P.K.

    1980-02-01

    The electromagnetic retransmission system is a new, automated method of locating trapped mine workers. This technique overcomes many limitations inherent in electromagnetic direction finding by reducing the effects of the conducting ground to an acceptable maximum, by finding position accurately in the presence of antenna tilt, and by eliminating the need for the receiver to be located directly above the subsurface transmitter.

  12. Improvements of the offshore earthquake locations in the Earthquake Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ta-Yi; Hsu, Hsin-Chih

    2017-04-01

    Since 2014 the Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system has been operated and been used to issue warnings to schools. In 2015 the system started to provide warnings to the public in Taiwan via television and the cell phone. Online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 28 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. The eBEAR system in average can provide more warning time than the current EEW system (3.2 s and 5.5 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively). However, offshore earthquakes were usually located poorly because only P-wave arrivals were used in the eBEAR system. Additionally, in the early stage of the earthquake early warning system, only fewer stations are available. The poor station coverage may be a reason to answer why offshore earthquakes are difficult to locate accurately. In the Geiger's inversion procedure of earthquake location, we need to put an initial hypocenter and origin time into the location program. For the initial hypocenter, we defined some test locations on the offshore area instead of using the average of locations from triggered stations. We performed 20 programs concurrently running the Geiger's method with different pre-defined initial position to locate earthquakes. We assume that if the program with the pre-defined initial position is close to the true earthquake location, during the iteration procedure of the Geiger's method the processing time of this program should be less than others. The results show that using pre-defined locations for trial-hypocenter in the inversion procedure is able to improve the accurate of offshore earthquakes. Especially for EEW system, in the initial stage of the EEW system, only use 3 or 5 stations to locate earthquakes may lead to bad results because of poor station coverage. In this study, the pre-defined trial-locations provide a feasible way to improve the estimations of

  13. A study on the expert system for fault location estimation in underground cable

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.H.; Chung, W.G.; Shin, M.C.; Park, S.W.; Lee, M.H.; Seo, Y.P.; Choi, H.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an expert system for fault location estimation and fault type classification of underground cable systems. Many works on protection of underground cable have been reported in literature. However, these methods have a major disadvantage that need to stop power supplies while the proposed system does not. The system is simulated with CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) and MATLAB. EMTP data is used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed expert system.

  14. A hybrid mobile-based patient location tracking system for personal healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Chew, S H; Chong, P A; Gunawan, E; Goh, K W; Kim, Y; Soh, C B

    2006-01-01

    In the next generation of Infocommunications, mobile Internet-enabled devices and third generation mobile communication networks have become reality, location based services (LBS) are expected to be a major area of growth. Providing information, content and services through positioning technologies forms the platform for new services for users and developers, as well as creating new revenue channels for service providers. These crucial advances in location based services have opened up new opportunities in real time patient tracking for personal healthcare applications. In this paper, a hybrid mobile-based location technique using the global positioning system (GPS) and cellular mobile network infrastructure is employed to provide the location tracking capability. This function will be integrated into the patient location tracking system (PLTS) to assist caregivers or family members in locating patients such as elderly or dependents when required, especially in emergencies. The capability of this PLTS is demonstrated through a series of location detection tests conducted over different operating conditions. Although the model is at its initial stage of development, it has shown relatively good accuracy for position tracking and potential of using integrated wireless technology to enhance the existing personal healthcare communication system through location based services.

  15. Automated correction of room location errors in anesthesia information management systems.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Piotrowski, Elizabeth

    2008-09-01

    Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) and operating room information management systems (ORIMS) are both used in operating rooms (OR). Anesthesia providers use AIMS to document their care in near real-time, including milestone events, and these systems automatically record vital signs from patient monitors. Circulating nurses use ORIMS primarily to document procedural information. Because of automatic documentation, AIMS would be ideal platforms for OR managerial decision support if the correct locations of cases in progress were known accurately. Trust is diminished if recommendations are poor. We compiled room location error rates from prior analyses of ORIMS data. Data from 24 consecutive 4-wk periods (45,459 cases) were analyzed from one hospital where both ORIMS and AIMS data were available. The actual location of cases was inferred from the physical location of the workstation recording the majority of pulse oximetry saturations. These were compared to the listed location in the AIMS and the final corrected location in the ORIMS. The scheduled and final ORIMS locations were compared to determine how often location changes were updated before the start of anesthesia. The location of cases was inferred in near real-time by using the identifier of the AIMS workstation transmitting pulse oximetry saturated electrocardiogram heart rate, and end-tidal CO(2) partial pressures. Location error rates ranged from 0% to 7.5% at 42 hospitals. The error rate at the studied hospital was just 0.4%, showing that the hospital was suitable for investigation. The 0.4% error rate was based on cases listed as overlapping in the same OR, and thus under-estimated the actual error rate in the ORIMS (1.0%). With education, there was a decrease in the moved cases in the ORIMS whose location was not changed before the start of anesthesia (9.3%-2.0%, P < 10(-5)). Despite the significant improvement (P < 10(-5)) in the error rate between the AIMS listed and actual locations

  16. Emergency Department Real-Time Location System Patient and Equipment Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    improve patient satisfaction , and increase asset utilization. The project will also focus on researching opportunities to leverage the technology in...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0721 TITLE: Emergency Department Real-Time Location System Patient and Equipment Tracking PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE Emergency Department Real-Time Location System Patient and Equipment Tracking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0721 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  17. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.409 Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire...

  18. A proposal to design a Location-based Mobile Cardiac Emergency System (LMCES).

    PubMed

    Keikhosrokiani, Pantea; Mustaffa, Norlia; Zakaria, Nasriah; Sarwar, Muhammad Imran

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare for elderly people has become a vital issue. The Wearable Health Monitoring System (WHMS) is used to manage and monitor chronic disease in elderly people, postoperative rehabilitation patients and persons with special needs. Location-aware healthcare is achievable as positioning systems and telecommunications have been developed and have fulfilled the technology needed for this kind of healthcare system. In this paper, the researchers propose a Location-Based Mobile Cardiac Emergency System (LMCES) to track the patient's current location when Emergency Medical Services (EMS) has been activated as well as to locate the nearest healthcare unit for the ambulance service. The location coordinates of the patients can be retrieved by GPS and sent to the healthcare centre using GPRS. The location of the patient, cell ID information will also be transmitted to the LMCES server in order to retrieve the nearest health care unit. For the LMCES, we use Dijkstra's algorithm for selecting the shortest path between the nearest healthcare unit and the patient location in order to facilitate the ambulance's path under critical conditions.

  19. Delivery and application of precise timing for a traveling wave powerline fault locator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has successfully operated an in-house developed powerline fault locator system since 1986. The BPA fault locator system consists of remotes installed at cardinal power transmission line system nodes and a central master which polls the remotes for traveling wave time-of-arrival data. A power line fault produces a fast rise-time traveling wave which emanates from the fault point and propagates throughout the power grid. The remotes time-tag the traveling wave leading edge as it passes through the power system cardinal substation nodes. A synchronizing pulse transmitted via the BPA analog microwave system on a wideband channel sychronizes the time-tagging counters in the remote units to a different accuracy of better than one microsecond. The remote units correct the raw time tags for synchronizing pulse propagation delay and return these corrected values to the fault locator master. The master then calculates the power system disturbance source using the collected time tags. The system design objective is a fault location accuracy of 300 meters. BPA's fault locator system operation, error producing phenomena, and method of distributing precise timing are described.

  20. Delivery and application of precise timing for a traveling wave powerline fault locator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Street, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has successfully operated an in-house developed powerline fault locator system since 1986. The BPA fault locator system consists of remotes installed at cardinal power transmission line system nodes and a central master which polls the remotes for traveling wave time-of-arrival data. A power line fault produces a fast rise-time traveling wave which emanates from the fault point and propagates throughout the power grid. The remotes time-tag the traveling wave leading edge as it passes through the power system cardinal substation nodes. A synchronizing pulse transmitted via the BPA analog microwave system on a wideband channel sychronizes the time-tagging counters in the remote units to a different accuracy of better than one microsecond. The remote units correct the raw time tags for synchronizing pulse propagation delay and return these corrected values to the fault locator master. The master then calculates the power system disturbance source using the collected time tags. The system design objective is a fault location accuracy of 300 meters. BPA's fault locator system operation, error producing phenomena, and method of distributing precise timing are described.

  1. GPS travelling wave fault locator systems: Investigation into the anomalous measurements related to lightning strikes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Mousa, A.M.

    1996-07-01

    A new fault location system based on the travelling wave principle and capable of locating faults on power lines to within {+-}one tower span (300m) has been successfully developed and applied to B.C. Hydro`s extensive 500 kV network. Unlike earlier schemes which are based on impedance measurements, its accuracy is not affected by load conditions, high grounding resistance and most notably series capacitor banks. This system measures the time of arrival of a fault-generated travelling wave at the line terminals using the precise timing signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Operating experience with the fault locator on lightning related faults indicated highly accurate results were obtained for the majority of the cases. In a few of the lightning-caused disturbances, the system gave anomalous measurements. This paper describes the operation of the system, summarizes the operating experience and explains the observed anomalous measurements.

  2. Geographic Location of a Computer Node Examining a Time-to-Location Algorithm and Multiple Autonomous System Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    network problems is identified. 2.3.7 Skitter A CAIDA topology probing tool is similar to traceroute and ping, except it has increased timestamp...Characterization (Extended Version), CAIDA Technical Report, 2002. [Car03] Carr C., Reverse Geographic Location of a Computer Node, Thesis Air Force

  3. Enabling location privacy and medical data encryption in patient telemonitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Kazatzopoulos, Leonidas; Delakouridis, Konstantinos; Hadjiefthymiades, Stathes

    2009-11-01

    Patient telemonitoring systems (PTS) deal with the acquisition, processing, and secure transmission of a patient's physiological and physical parameters to a remote location, where expert medical knowledge is available. In emergency situations, when the patient's life is threatened, the trend in modern PTS is to transmit the current location of the patient. Although research in communications security has led to mechanisms that sufficiently protect medical data, research related to location privacy area is still in its early stages. This paper proposes an architecture that enhances PTS through location privacy and data encryption. We study the most popular PTS technologies in conjunction with location privacy architectures and propose an innovative scheme that exploits a point-to-point protocol called Mist. We describe a prototype implementation, developed for validating the proposed framework along with the corresponding evaluation results.

  4. Experience gained in operation of the VLF ATD lightning location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Anthony C. L.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) Meteorological Office's Very Low Frequency (VLF) Arrival Time Difference (ATD) System for long-range location of lightning flashes started automatic international issue of lightning-location products on 17 Jun. 1988. Data from before and after this formal start-date were carefully scrutinized to judge performance. Techniques for estimating location accuracy include internal consistency and comparisons against other systems. Other areas studied were range (up to several thousand km); detection efficiency, saturation effects in active situations, and communication difficulties (for this redundant system); and spurious fix rate. Care was taken to assess the potential of the system, in addition to identifying the operational difficulties of the present implementation.

  5. The status of accurately locating forest inventory and analysis plots using the Global Positioning System

    Treesearch

    Michael Hoppus; Andrew Lister

    2007-01-01

    Historically, field crews used Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates to establish and relocate plots, as well as document their general location. During the past 5 years, the increase in Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities and in customer requests to use the spatial relationships between Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data and other GIS...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  8. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  9. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  10. 7 CFR 1955.56 - Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... System (CBRS). 1955.56 Section 1955.56 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Management of Property § 1955.56 Real property located in Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS). (a... within a CBRS where: (1) The action goes beyond maintenance, replacement-in-kind, reconstruction, or...

  11. Location Based Services for Outdoor Ecological Learning System: Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Feng, Ruei-Ting; Li, Kun Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to demonstrate how location-based services were implemented in ubiquitous outdoor ecological learning system. In an elementary school in northern Taiwan, two fifth grade classes on an ecology project were randomly selected: The experimental group could access the ecological learning system on hand-held devices while the control…

  12. Active Learning and Engagement with the Wireless Indoor Location Device (WILD) Learning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldwin, M.; Samson, P. J.; Ojeda, L.; Miller, T.; Yu, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Wireless Indoor Location Device (WILD) Learning System being developed at the University of Michigan and the Education Technology company A2 Motus LLC provides a unique platform for social learning by allowing students to become active participants in live simulations of complex systems, like hurricane formation. The WILD Learning System enables teachers to engage students in kinesthetic activities that explore complex models from a wide variety of STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Art and Math) disciplines. The system provides students' location, orientation and motion within the classroom and assigns each student different parameters depending on the activity. For example, students learning about hurricanes could be assigned atmospheric pressure levels and asked to arrange themselves around the room to simulate a hurricane. The Wild Learning System software then takes the students' pressure readings and locations and projects their locations overlaid onto a real-time generated simulated pressure weather map enabling the observation of how their arrangement influences the pressure structure. The teacher then could have the students orient themselves in the direction they think the resulting wind field will be based on the pressure contours as the system can show an arrow originating from each of the students position in the direction that they are facing. The system also could incorporate a student response-type system for the instructor to then directly question students about other concepts and record their response to both the kinesthetic activity and other formative assessment questions. The WILD Learning System consists of a sensor package for each student in the class, beacons to enable precise localization of the students, software to calculate student location information, and educational software for a variety of activities. In addition, a software development kit (SDK) is under development that would allow others to create additional learning

  13. A framework for UWB-based communication and location tracking systems for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Chóliz, Juan; Hernández, Angela; Valdovinos, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology is nowadays one of the most promising technologies for medium-short range communications. It has a wide range of applications including wireless sensor networks (WSN) with simultaneous data transmission and location tracking. The combination of location and data transmission is important in order to increase flexibility and reduce the cost and complexity of the system deployment. In this scenario, accuracy is not the only evaluation criteria, but also the amount of resources associated to the location service, as it has an impact not only on the location capacity of the system but also on the sensor data transmission capacity. Although several studies can be found in the literature addressing UWB-based localization, these studies mainly focus on distance estimation and position calculation algorithms. Practical aspects such as the design of the functional architecture, the procedure for the transmission of the associated information between the different elements of the system, and the need of tracking multiple terminals simultaneously in various application scenarios, are generally omitted. This paper provides a complete system level evaluation of a UWB-based communication and location system for Wireless Sensor Networks, including aspects such as UWB-based ranging, tracking algorithms, latency, target mobility and MAC layer design. With this purpose, a custom simulator has been developed, and results with real UWB equipment are presented too.

  14. Location Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    With rapid development of sensor and wireless mobile devices, it is easy to access mobile users' location information anytime and anywhere. On one hand, LBS is becoming more and more valuable and important. On the other hand, location privacy issues raised by such applications have also gained more attention. However, due to the specificity of location information, traditional privacy-preserving techniques in data publishing cannot be used. In this chapter, we will introduce location privacy, and analyze the challenges of location privacy-preserving, and give a survey of existing work including the system architecture, location anonymity and query processing.

  15. A location-based notification- and visualization-system indicating social activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Sammy; Edlich, Stefan

    2009-02-01

    This paper examines the implementation of a notification- and visualization-system generally aiming to provide users with a comprehensive possibility to spontaneously get in touch and stay in contact with their friends and acquaintances. Essential part of the system is the mobile application, based on the Google Android platform, which can be used to keep track about the spatial positions of a user's contacts. One of the main aspects of the presented system is the automatic contact alert mechanism, which notifies users every time that one or more of their contacts are located nearby. In case a contact is in vicinity the application initiates a visual and/or acoustic signal on the mobile device. At any time users are able to easily take a glance at a geographical map displaying the surrounding area of their current position and all of their online contacts within this area. Moreover, users have the possibility to retrieve further information for each of their displayed contacts (if provided by the contact), such as their current activity or specific location metadata, e.g. the speed, direction and distance of a contact to the user's own location. Additionally, a user can explicitly look out for a specific contact, regardless of where the contact is located globally, as long as the contact is logged on to the system and shares his/her location information. Furthermore, the system supports the exchange of location- and event-messages, enabling users to easily share location data or set up appointments with their contacts. Another main feature of the prototype is the automatic location context determination, which provides users not just the raw location information on a map, but also the contextual meaning specified by the contact. That means users can see that a contact is e.g. at home or at work, when the user is indeed within the spatial range of his home or work location. The system can detect automatically if a user reaches one of his most common places and

  16. Application of a satellite communication and location system for bomb damage assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, J.P.

    1994-09-01

    The Global Verification and Location System (GVLS) is a satellite based communication package proposed for the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIR satellites. This system provides the capability to relay bursts of information from small, low power mobile transmitters to command and control facilities. Communication paths through multiple GPS satellites within the field of view allow location of the transmitter using time difference of arrival (TDOA) techniques. Alternately, the transmitter can transmit its own location if known by various other means. Intended applications include determination of the status and location of high-valued assets such as shipments of proliferation-sensitive nuclear materials and treaty-limited items or downed air crews and special operations forces in need of extraction from hostile territory. GVLS provides an enabling technology which can be applied to weapon impact location. The remote transmitter is small and light enough to be integrated into a weapon delivery vehicle, such as a cruise missile, and requires power only during the last second of flight. The antenna is a conformal patch design, therefore minimizing aerodynamic considerations. Precise impact locations are determined by the GVLS system and can be communicated to responsible commands in near real time allowing rapid bomb damage assessment and retargeting without the typical delays of overhead reconnaissance. Since burst data communication is used, weapon status immediately prior to impact can be transmitted providing knowledge of proper arming sequence and other pertinent information. If desired, periodic bursts can be transmitted while in flight, enabling in-course tracking of the weapon. If fully deployed, the GVLS system would consist of communication relays on 24 GPS satellites, five ground stations deployed worldwide, and portable base stations for authorized users to receive and display locations and contents of their transmissions.

  17. A comprehensive monitoring system for damage identification and location in large structural and mechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W.; Prime, M.B.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project has focused on developing and experimentally verifying a suite of analytical tools for identifying the onset of damage in structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics. A MATLAB-based computer code referred to as Damage Identification And Modal Analysis of Data (DIAMOND) was developed. The code was then extensively exercised on data obtained from a variety of test structures. The most notable structure was an in situ bridge located ten mile north of Truth or Consequences, New Mexico. The suite of tools contained in DIAMOND is now being applied to the nuclear weapons enhanced surveillance program and an industrial partner has asked to enter into a partnership so that they can implement routines from DIAMOND into their commercial damage assessment hardware for large civil engineering structures. Because of the large volume of requests from around the world for DIAMOND, it can now be downloaded from the web site: http://esaea-www.esa.lanl.gov/damage{_}id.

  18. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Jones, Harry W.

    2003-01-01

    Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is used by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) community to quantify mission costs of technologies for space applications (Drysdale et al, 1999, Levri et al, 2000). Mass is used as a cost measure because the mass of an object determines propulsion (acceleration) cost (i.e. amount of fuel needed), and costs relating to propulsion dominate mission cost. Mission location drives mission cost because acceleration is typically required to initiate and complete a change in location. Total mission costs may be reduced by minimizing the mass of materials that must be propelled to each distinct location. In order to minimize fuel requirements for missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), the hardware and astronauts may not all go to the same location. For example, on a Lunar or Mars mission, some of the hardware or astronauts may stay in orbit while the rest of the hardware and astronauts descend to the planetary surface. In addition, there may be disposal of waste or used hardware at various mission locations to avoid propulsion of mass that is no longer needed in the mission. This paper demonstrates how using location factors in the calculation of ESM can account for the effects of various acceleration events and can improve the accuracy and value of the ESM metric to mission planners. Even a mission with one location can benefit from location factor analysis if the alternative technologies under consideration consume resources at different rates. For example, a mission that regenerates resources will have a relatively constant mass compared to one that uses consumables and vents/discards mass along the way. This paper shows examples of how location factors can affect ESM calculations and how the inclusion of location factors can change the relative value of technologies being considered for development.

  19. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Jones, Harry W.

    2003-01-01

    Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is used by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) community to quantify mission costs of technologies for space applications (Drysdale et al, 1999, Levri et al, 2000). Mass is used as a cost measure because the mass of an object determines propulsion (acceleration) cost (i.e. amount of fuel needed), and costs relating to propulsion dominate mission cost. Mission location drives mission cost because acceleration is typically required to initiate and complete a change in location. Total mission costs may be reduced by minimizing the mass of materials that must be propelled to each distinct location. In order to minimize fuel requirements for missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), the hardware and astronauts may not all go to the same location. For example, on a Lunar or Mars mission, some of the hardware or astronauts may stay in orbit while the rest of the hardware and astronauts descend to the planetary surface. In addition, there may be disposal of waste or used hardware at various mission locations to avoid propulsion of mass that is no longer needed in the mission. This paper demonstrates how using location factors in the calculation of ESM can account for the effects of various acceleration events and can improve the accuracy and value of the ESM metric to mission planners. Even a mission with one location can benefit from location factor analysis if the alternative technologies under consideration consume resources at different rates. For example, a mission that regenerates resources will have a relatively constant mass compared to one that uses consumables and vents/discards mass along the way. This paper shows examples of how location factors can affect ESM calculations and how the inclusion of location factors can change the relative value of technologies being considered for development.

  20. Modified Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for better location of joint axis systems in robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1986-01-01

    The Denavit-Hartenberg parameters define the relative location of successive joint axis systems in a robot arm. A recent justifiable criticism is that one of these parameters becomes extremely large when two successive joints have near-parallel rotational axes. Geometrically, this parameter then locates a joint axis system at an excessive distance from the robot arm and, computationally, leads to an ill-conditioned transformation matrix. In this paper, a simple modification (which results from constraining a transverse vector between successive joint rotational axes to be normal to one of the rotational axes, instead of both) overcomes this criticism and favorably locates the joint axis system. An example is given for near-parallel rotational axes of the elbow and shoulder joints in a robot arm. The regular and modified parameters are extracted by an algebraic method with simulated measurement data. Unlike the modified parameters, extracted values of the regular parameters are very sensitive to measurement accuracy.

  1. Real-time locating systems (RTLS) in healthcare: a condensed primer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Real-time locating systems (RTLS, also known as real-time location systems) have become an important component of many existing ubiquitous location aware systems. While GPS (global positioning system) has been quite successful as an outdoor real-time locating solution, it fails to repeat this success indoors. A number of RTLS technologies have been used to solve indoor tracking problems. The ability to accurately track the location of assets and individuals indoors has many applications in healthcare. This paper provides a condensed primer of RTLS in healthcare, briefly covering the many options and technologies that are involved, as well as the various possible applications of RTLS in healthcare facilities and their potential benefits, including capital expenditure reduction and workflow and patient throughput improvements. The key to a successful RTLS deployment lies in picking the right RTLS option(s) and solution(s) for the application(s) or problem(s) at hand. Where this application-technology match has not been carefully thought of, any technology will be doomed to failure or to achieving less than optimal results. PMID:22741760

  2. A definition study of an Advanced Data Collection and Location System (ADCLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The technical and economic advantages of developing an Advanced Data Collection and Location System (ADCLS) to operate within the Earth Observation System (EOS) planned for Polar Platform, as a replacement and/or augmentation of the existing ARGOS data collection system were assessed. The cost/effectiveness of ADCLS with respect to ARGOS hinges on the traffic and quality of service demand of the future user constituency.

  3. Demonstration of multispectral target locator using collocated RF antenna/LWIR joint sensor system and datacube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Woo-Yong; Park, James; Kakas, George; Noyola, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Recently, we configured RF antennas and a LWIR camera connected to an actuator system to form a collocated sensor system. We also developed a GUI which directly controls both RF and IR systems, azimuth motion, as well as performs post-processing for data integration and location finding. RF range data and LWIR images were collected simultaneously by using our configured sensor system as azimuth was varied from 0 to 70°. Series of collected RF data was transformed into a single 2-D radar image showing range profile of targets against azimuth. For LWIR, data was aligned into a single panoramic image as a function of azimuth by incorporating shift parameters observed in the measurements. Both RF/IR images were then arranged into a 3-D datacube, having azimuth as a common domain, and this datacube directly provided locational information of targets. For demonstration, we successfully located objects such as a corner reflector and a blackbody source under a dark background. In addition, we highlight some additional features available in our sensor system including target classification using both Euclidean and SVM based multi-classifier techniques, and tracking capability for region of interest on moving targets. Future work would be to improve the current system for outdoor measurement to locate distant targets.

  4. Photovoltaic-systems development: Best locations for near-term residential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, G.; Sussman, G.; Thomas, T.

    1982-07-01

    This study identifies urban locations where the development of residential photovoltaic energy systems can reasonably be expected in the near future. PV system costs and values used in the analysis are based on US Department of Energy estimates and forecast. The analysis assumes first that all state and federal policies affecting the price of PV systems in 1980-1981 will be in effect in 1984. Thus, DOE cost goals for PV systems are reduced to reflect various state and federal subsidies applicable in 1980-1981. The method used to identify likely urban areas is conjoint analysis. Each US (Continental) Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area's potential as a market for residential PV systems is determined first. Second, a small set of location descriptions are ranked according to the decision maker's evaluation of each location's market potential for residential PV systems. Fourth, the rankings assigned by the experts are evaluated by means of regression equations to derive weights for defining the relative importance of each set of location characteristics.

  5. DORIS precise orbit determination and location system performances of ultra stable oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, M.

    1992-06-01

    Elements of the DORIS (Doppler precise positioning System) performances and performances of the DORIS USO (Ultra Stable Oscillators) are described. The DORIS system was designed and developed to meet new needs in precision orbit determination and high accuracy beacon location. DORIS payload was integrated on three French SPOT satellites and on the Topex-Poseidon NASA satellite. The first model DORIS SPOT 2 began operating on 22 Jan. 1990. The fundamental measurement precision depends strongly on the stability of USO, which are used in the onboard receiver, and in ground location beacons.

  6. Some methods of computing platform transmitter terminal location estimates. [ARGOS system; whale tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoisington, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A position estimation algorithm was developed to track a humpback whale tagged with an ARGOS platform after a transmitter deployment failure and the whale's diving behavior precluded standard methods. The algorithm is especially useful where a transmitter location program exists; it determines the classical keplarian elements from the ARGOS spacecraft position vectors included with the probationary file messages. A minimum of three distinct messages are required. Once the spacecraft orbit is determined, the whale is located using standard least squares regression techniques. Experience suggests that in instances where circumstances inherent in the experiment yield message data unsuitable for the standard ARGOS reduction, (message data may be too sparse, span an insufficient period, or include variable-length messages). System ARGOS can still provide much valuable location information if the user is willing to accept the increased location uncertainties.

  7. Some methods of computing platform transmitter terminal location estimates. [ARGOS system; whale tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoisington, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A position estimation algorithm was developed to track a humpback whale tagged with an ARGOS platform after a transmitter deployment failure and the whale's diving behavior precluded standard methods. The algorithm is especially useful where a transmitter location program exists; it determines the classical keplarian elements from the ARGOS spacecraft position vectors included with the probationary file messages. A minimum of three distinct messages are required. Once the spacecraft orbit is determined, the whale is located using standard least squares regression techniques. Experience suggests that in instances where circumstances inherent in the experiment yield message data unsuitable for the standard ARGOS reduction, (message data may be too sparse, span an insufficient period, or include variable-length messages). System ARGOS can still provide much valuable location information if the user is willing to accept the increased location uncertainties.

  8. 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chien-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Construction site managers could benefit from being able to visualize on-site construction objects. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to improve the efficiency of construction object management. The objective of this study is to develop a 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects. An RFID 3D location sensing algorithm combining Simulated Annealing (SA) and a gradient descent method is proposed to determine target object location. In the algorithm, SA is used to stabilize the search process and the gradient descent method is used to reduce errors. The locations of the analyzed objects are visualized using the 3D-Web-GIS system. A real construction site is used to validate the applicability of the proposed method, with results indicating that the proposed approach can provide faster, more accurate, and more stable 3D positioning results than other location sensing algorithms. The proposed system allows construction managers to better understand worksite status, thus enhancing managerial efficiency.

  9. 3D-Web-GIS RFID Location Sensing System for Construction Objects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Construction site managers could benefit from being able to visualize on-site construction objects. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to improve the efficiency of construction object management. The objective of this study is to develop a 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects. An RFID 3D location sensing algorithm combining Simulated Annealing (SA) and a gradient descent method is proposed to determine target object location. In the algorithm, SA is used to stabilize the search process and the gradient descent method is used to reduce errors. The locations of the analyzed objects are visualized using the 3D-Web-GIS system. A real construction site is used to validate the applicability of the proposed method, with results indicating that the proposed approach can provide faster, more accurate, and more stable 3D positioning results than other location sensing algorithms. The proposed system allows construction managers to better understand worksite status, thus enhancing managerial efficiency. PMID:23864821

  10. Design of the Dual Stone Locating System on an Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptor

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Yong-Ren; Manousakas, Ioannis; Liang, Shen-Min; Chang, Chien-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptors are very popular for the treatment of urinary stones all over the world. They depend basically upon either X-ray fluoroscopy or ultrasound scans to detect the stones before therapy begins. To increase the effectiveness of treatment this study took advantage of both X-ray and ultrasound to develop a dual stone locating system with image processing modules. Its functions include the initial stone locating mode with stone detection by fluorescent images and the follow-up automatic stone tracking mode made by constant ultrasound scanning. The authors have integrated both apparatus and present the operating principles for both modes. The system used two in vitro experiments to justify its abilities of stone location in all procedures. PMID:23337335

  11. Developing a fuzzy decision support system to determine the location of a landfill site.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria C M; Lima, Beatriz S L P; Evsukoff, Alexandre G; Vieira, Ian N

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents two case studies of municipal solid waste site location using a decision-support system based on fuzzy logic. This problem is very complex, as it requires the evaluation of different criteria, which involve environmental, social and economic data. Such data deal with a wide range of information that presents not only quantitative, but also qualitative knowledge. In order to deal with this characteristic, the developed system employs fuzzy rules due to its ability to treat linguistic variables and the human way of thinking. Conventional approaches tend to be less effective in dealing with the imprecise or vague nature of the linguistic assessment. A case study for selecting the location of a new municipal solid waste landfill for the city of Petropolis in Rio de Janeiro is presented. Testing of the proposed method was carried out using data from the municipal solid waste location for another municipality in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  12. Development of a leak location system for use on underground electric power transmission cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. A.

    1982-10-01

    This report describes a study to evaluate methods for locating leaks of dielectric fluid from buried high voltage cable systems. Two primary types of leak location systems were investigated: (1) systems that will rapidly isolate the leak within a manhole section, typically 1000 m long on a feeder that might be 30 km long; and (2) systems that will then pinpoint the location of the leak. Rapid leak isolation was accomplished by developing an enhanced conductivity oil probe which allows the injection of a small quantity of conductive oil and which indicates the path of the oil as it drifts downstream in the direction of the leak. Two methods for pinpointing the leak were proven. The more successful method was the use of trained leak location dogs which were found to have far better sensitivity than instruments and which could detect cable oil alone without the need for additives. A tracer gas injection and detection scheme was developed for use in areas where the dogs may be unsuitable.

  13. Accuracy of an acoustic location system for monitoring the position of duetting songbirds in tropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Mennill, Daniel J.; Burt, John M.; Fristrup, Kurt M.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    A field test was conducted on the accuracy of an eight-microphone acoustic location system designed to triangulate the position of duetting rufous-and-white wrens (Thryothorus rufalbus) in Costa Rica’s humid evergreen forest. Eight microphones were set up in the breeding territories of twenty pairs of wrens, with an average inter-microphone distance of 75.2±2.6 m. The array of microphones was used to record antiphonal duets broadcast through stereo loudspeakers. The positions of the loudspeakers were then estimated by evaluating the delay with which the eight microphones recorded the broadcast sounds. Position estimates were compared to coordinates surveyed with a global-positioning system (GPS). The acoustic location system estimated the position of loudspeakers with an error of 2.82±0.26 m and calculated the distance between the “male” and “female” loudspeakers with an error of 2.12±0.42 m. Given the large range of distances between duetting birds, this relatively low level of error demonstrates that the acoustic location system is a useful tool for studying avian duets. Location error was influenced partly by the difficulties inherent in collecting high accuracy GPS coordinates of microphone positions underneath a lush tropical canopy, and partly by the complicating influence of irregular topography and thick vegetation on sound transmission. PMID:16708941

  14. 33 CFR 169.115 - Where is the southeastern reporting system located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... southeastern reporting system located? Geographical boundaries of the southeastern area include coastal waters... Atlantic seaboard in Florida and Georgia. The area coordinates (NAD 83) extends from the shoreline east to longitude 80°51.6′ W with the southern and northern boundaries at latitude 30°00′ N and 31°27′ N...

  15. A New Position Location System Using DTV Transmitter Identification Watermark Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianbin; Wu, Yiyan; Chouinard, Jean-Yves

    2006-12-01

    A new position location technique using the transmitter identification (TxID) RF watermark in the digital TV (DTV) signals is proposed in this paper. Conventional global positioning system (GPS) usually does not work well inside buildings due to the high frequency and weak field strength of the signal. In contrast to the GPS, the DTV signals are received from transmitters at relatively short distance, while the broadcast transmitters operate at levels up to the megawatts effective radiated power (ERP). Also the RF frequency of the DTV signal is much lower than the GPS, which makes it easier for the signal to penetrate buildings and other objects. The proposed position location system based on DTV TxID signal is presented in this paper. Practical receiver implementation issues including nonideal correlation and synchronization are analyzed and discussed. Performance of the proposed technique is evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations and compared with other existing position location systems. Possible ways to improve the accuracy of the new position location system is discussed.

  16. RF beam center location method and apparatus for power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The receiving element in wireless power transmission systems intercepts the greatest possible portion of the transmitted energy beam. Summing the output energy of all receivers in a planar array makes it possible to determine the location of the center of energy of the incident beam on a receiving array of antenna elements so that the incident beam is in the microwave region.

  17. 33 CFR 169.115 - Where is the southeastern reporting system located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... southeastern reporting system located? Geographical boundaries of the southeastern area include coastal waters... Atlantic seaboard in Florida and Georgia. The area coordinates (NAD 83) extends from the shoreline east to longitude 80°51.6′ W with the southern and northern boundaries at latitude 30°00′ N and 31°27′...

  18. Variable phase propagation velocity for long-range lightning location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongjian; Koh, Kuang Liang; Mezentsev, Andrew; Enno, Sven-Erik; Sugier, Jacqueline; Füllekrug, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The electromagnetic wave propagation velocity at low radio frequencies is an important input parameter for lightning location systems that use time of arrival (TOA) method. This velocity is normally fixed at or near the speed of light. However, this study finds that the radio waves from two submarine communication transmitters at 20.9 kHz and 23.4 kHz exhibit phase propagation velocities that are 0.51% slower and 0.64% faster than the speed of light as a result of sky wave contributions and ground effects. Therefore, a novel technique with a variable phase propagation velocity is implemented for the first time in the TOA method and applied to electric field recordings with a long-baseline lightning location system that consists of four radio receivers in western Europe. The lightning locations inferred from variable velocities improve the accuracy of locations inferred from a fixed velocity by 0.89-1.06 km when compared to the lightning locations reported by the UK MetOffice. The normal distributions of the observed phase propagation velocities in small geographic areas are not centered at the speed of light. Consequently, representative velocities can be calculated for many small geographic areas to produce a velocity map over central France where numerous lightning discharges occurred. This map reflects the impact of sky waves and ground effects on the calculation of lightning locations as a result of the network configuration. It is concluded that the use of variable phase propagation velocities mitigates the influence of sky waves and ground effects in long-range lightning location networks.

  19. A review of underwater acoustic systems and methods for locating objects lost at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Information related to the location of objects lost at sea is presented. Acoustic devices attached to an object prior to being transported is recommended as a homing beacon. Minimum requirements and some environmental constraints are defined. Methods and procedures for search and recovery are also discussed. Both an interim system and a more advanced system are outlined. Controlled acoustic emission to enhance security is the theme followed.

  20. Experiences with the DGPS-based Tramway Location System in Mannheim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Dietmar

    1998-09-01

    Because of increasing traffic in urban areas, public transport has to become more attractive and efficient by introducing computer-aided dynamic passenger information and on-line vehicle location. The tram location pilot system described makes vehicle scheduling and control systems independent of expensive location infrastructure (e.g. beacons). It uses on-board autonomous DGPS positioning with dead reckoning and a radio link to the control centre. The evaluation of the measured vehicle positions clearly demonstrates that operational accuracy requirements for public transport applications are met. The whole Tramway Location System (TLS) is structured into the 3 segments: on-board equipment, components of the operation centre and roadside equipment. The trial set-up for dynamic real-time measurements of the positioning accuracy is described, and the results of the evaluation of more than 7300 position fixes at 15 geodetically measured reference points along the tramway are presented. The conclusions indicate that, during runs in city environments, DGPS combined with dead reckoning achieves vehicle positioning precise enough to enable a reliable, improved and up-to-date passenger information service at the stops.

  1. New interferometric method to locate aspheric in the partial null aspheric testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Wei; Dong, Liu; Chao, Tian; Lei, Zhang; Yang, Yongying

    2012-10-01

    The partial null interferometric aspheric testing technique, based on the Twyman-Green interferometer system, is very useful and of good versatility. In this technique, the under-test aspheric needs to be located precisely. Taking advantage of ray tracing and digital image processing technique, a new method to locate aspheric is proposed. Firstly, model and simulate the Twyman-Green interferometer system in the ray tracing software ZEMAX, find an optimal test position and generate an optimal referenced interferogram. Record the interferogram and make it a target for the experimental interferogram to achieve. At the same time, an experimental interferogram can be obtained by building the same testing system experimentally. Process the one-dimensional gray scale data in X-axis of the two interferograms, two curves, indicating the black and white change of the interference fringes, are obtained. By comparing the normalized X coordinates of the peaks of the two curves, we can determine whether the under-test aspheric is positioned well. In order to locate the aspheric precisely, the aspheric has to be moved repeatedly to get a perfect interferogram whose peaks of interference fringes match well with those of the target interferogram. An experiment for testing a paraboloid with diameter 100mm and asphericity 50μm is carried out. The result shows that this kind of locating method has an Accuracy of 3-5μm, which demonstrates that the method is practicable and high-precision.

  2. Optimization of pressure gauge locations for water distribution systems using entropy theory.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Do Guen; Chang, Dong Eil; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2012-12-01

    It is essential to select the optimal pressure gauge location for effective management and maintenance of water distribution systems. This study proposes an objective and quantified standard for selecting the optimal pressure gauge location by defining the pressure change at other nodes as a result of demand change at a specific node using entropy theory. Two cases are considered in terms of demand change: that in which demand at all nodes shows peak load by using a peak factor and that comprising the demand change of the normal distribution whose average is the base demand. The actual pressure change pattern is determined by using the emitter function of EPANET to reflect the pressure that changes practically at each node. The optimal pressure gauge location is determined by prioritizing the node that processes the largest amount of information it gives to (giving entropy) and receives from (receiving entropy) the whole system according to the entropy standard. The suggested model is applied to one virtual and one real pipe network, and the optimal pressure gauge location combination is calculated by implementing the sensitivity analysis based on the study results. These analysis results support the following two conclusions. Firstly, the installation priority of the pressure gauge in water distribution networks can be determined with a more objective standard through the entropy theory. Secondly, the model can be used as an efficient decision-making guide for gauge installation in water distribution systems.

  3. Novel kidney segmentation system to describe tumour location for nephron-sparing surgery.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Rocco; De Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Panebianco, Valeria; Duddalwar, Vinay; Simone, Giuseppe; Leslie, Scott; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Tejura, Tapas; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Costantini, Maunela; Desai, Mihir; Gallucci, Michele; Gill, Inderbir Singh

    2015-06-01

    To propose a novel system based on segmental renal anatomy for objectively reporting location of clinical T1 masses for nephron-sparing surgery. The kidney was subdivided into 12 standard segments, based on the computed tomography images. In 103 patients (105 cT1 tumours), three blinded radiologists (A, B, and C) prospectively reported segmental tumour location, size, and tumour-feeding arteries. Baseline, peri-operative, and post-operative data of 98 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy (PN) were prospectively collected, and the correlation between segmental tumour location and peri-operative data was evaluated. Kappa statistics were used to measure the inter-observer agreements. Tumour location could be assigned to the defined renal segment in all cases. Median tumour size was 2.8 cm (range 0.6-5.8). Inter-observer concordance was as follows: A versus B 0.82 (95% CI 0.74-0.90); A versus C 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.95); and B versus C 0.84 (95% CI 0.76-0.92). First, second, third, and fourth segments were involved by the tumour in 23, 39, 17, and 21% of cases, respectively. Number of segments involved by the tumour correlated with tumour size (p = 0.007), number of tumour-feeding arteries (p = 0.001), estimated blood loss during PN (p = 0.03), and trended towards higher post-operative complication rate (p = 0.07). Tumour-feeding arteries were identifiable in 80 patients (76%). Kidney segmentation (KS) system is an objective and reproducible radiologic method of universally reporting tumour location according to 12 renal segments. By adding descriptive information on tumour characteristics in candidates for nephron-sparing surgery, this novel KS system could serve as an adjunct to current nephrometry systems.

  4. Identifying and locating land irrigated by center-pivot irrigation systems using satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. O.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology for using Landsat imagery for the identification and location of land irrigated by center-pivot irrigation systems is presented. The procedure involves the use of sets of Landsat band 5 imagery taken separated in time by about three weeks during the irrigation season, a zoom transfer scope and mylar base maps to record the locations of center pivots. Further computer processing of the data has been used to obtain plots of center-pivot irrigation systems and tables indicating the distribution and growth of systems by county for the state of Nebraska, and has been found to be in 95% agreement with current high-altitude IR photography. The information obtainable can be used for models of ground-water aquifers or resource planning.

  5. Design of a laser system for instantaneous location of a longwall shearer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, R.

    1981-01-01

    Calculations and measurements for the design of a laser system for instantaneous location of a longwall shearer were made. The designs determine shearer location to approximately one foot. The roll, pitch, and yaw angles of the shearer track are determined to approximately two degrees. The first technique uses the water target system. A single silicon sensor system and three gallium arsenide laser beams are used in this technique. The second technique is based on an arrangement similar to that employed in aircraft omnidirectional position finding. The angle between two points is determined by combining information in an onmidirectional flash with a scanned, narrow beam beacon. It is concluded that this approach maximizes the signal levels.

  6. An up-to-date instrumentation system for detection, location and characterization of AE signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcredi, D.; Sala, A.; Tornelli, C.

    1988-11-01

    An acoustic emission data overseeing system (AEDOS) has been developed for detection, location, and multiparametrical analysis of AE events such as amplitude, rise time, duration, energy, and delay time. The equipment comprises three main sections: the 'in field part' to detect and condition the AE events; the 'front end' that collects all the signals, makes the first screening among the signals, and measures the main parameters of the events; and the 'computer' to set up the system, to store the data, to analyze and display parametric isthograms, graphics, and location maps, and to supply an easy menu driven interface to the operator. A detailed functional description including performance specification of the system is given.

  7. Study of LZ-Based Location Prediction and Its Application to Transportation Recommender Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Carrion, Alicia; Garcia-Rubio, Carlos; Campo, Celeste; Cortés-Martín, Alberto; Garcia-Lozano, Estrella; Noriega-Vivas, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Predicting users' next location allows to anticipate their future context, thus providing additional time to be ready for that context and react consequently. This work is focused on a set of LZ-based algorithms (LZ, LeZi Update and Active LeZi) capable of learning mobility patterns and estimating the next location with low resource needs, which makes it possible to execute them on mobile devices. The original algorithms have been divided into two phases, thus being possible to mix them and check which combination is the best one to obtain better prediction accuracy or lower resource consumption. To make such comparisons, a set of GSM-based mobility traces of 95 different users is considered. Finally, a prototype for mobile devices that integrates the predictors in a public transportation recommender system is described in order to show an example of how to take advantage of location prediction in an ubiquitous computing environment. PMID:22969357

  8. Automated learning of generative models for subcellular location: building blocks for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Murphy, Robert F

    2007-12-01

    The goal of location proteomics is the systematic and comprehensive study of protein subcellular location. We have previously developed automated, quantitative methods to identify protein subcellular location families, but there have been no effective means of communicating their patterns to integrate them with other information for building cell models. We built generative models of subcellular location that are learned from a collection of images so that they not only represent the pattern, but also capture its variation from cell to cell. Our models contain three components: a nuclear model, a cell shape model and a protein-containing object model. We built models for six patterns that consist primarily of discrete structures. To validate the generated images, we showed that they are recognized with reasonable accuracy by a classifier trained on real images. We also showed that the model parameters themselves can be used as features to discriminate the classes. The models allow the synthesis of images with the expectation that they are drawn from the same underlying statistical distribution as the images used to train them. They can potentially be combined for many proteins to yield a high resolution location map in support of systems biology.

  9. The evolution of location and data collection systems in the United States.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morakis, J. C.; Cote, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite location and data collection systems development began in the early 1960's in NASA and the French CNES. These systems were initially developed for application to meteorology and oceanography as a means of tracking moving platforms on a global scale. Additional applications such as geology, hydrology, and ecology have since evolved. To date, five successful missions have been completed. With each successive launch, systems improved in accordance with user requirements - particularly reduction in cost and complexity of platform equipment. With planned launches, facilities will be available to the user community through 1980; NASA is currently forecasting needs beyond 1980.

  10. The Solar System/El Sistema Solar--A Fully Integrated Instructional Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Heukelem, Tom; Mercado, Maria de Jesus

    This lesson plan for the second grade uses information on the solar system to provide science education for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in San Diego, California. The lesson has been developed to be taught in a bilingual class, a Spanish-language immersion class, or a two-way bilingual class. Lessons are arranged so that native…

  11. Investigacion Participativa y Gestion de Sistemas Educativos. (Participatory Research and the Management of Educational Systems).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Elements which, when put in harmony, might generate powerful tools for social change and educational development are (1) the ever present need of the educational systems to evaluate their performance; (2) the universal acceptance of the life-long education concept as a major guideline to design educational programs; (3) the trend toward a…

  12. Utilizing patient geographic information system data to plan telemedicine service locations.

    PubMed

    Soares, Neelkamal; Dewalle, Joseph; Marsh, Ben

    2017-09-01

    To understand potential utilization of clinical services at a rural integrated health care system by generating optimal groups of telemedicine locations from electronic health record (EHR) data using geographic information systems (GISs). This retrospective study extracted nonidentifiable grouped data of patients over a 2-year period from the EHR, including geomasked locations. Spatially optimal groupings were created using available telemedicine sites by calculating patients' average travel distance (ATD) to the closest clinic site. A total of 4027 visits by 2049 unique patients were analyzed. The best travel distances for site groupings of 3, 4, 5, or 6 site locations were ranked based on increasing ATD. Each one-site increase in the number of available telemedicine sites decreased minimum ATD by about 8%. For a given group size, the best groupings were very similar in minimum travel distance. There were significant differences in predicted patient load imbalance between otherwise similar groupings. A majority of the best site groupings used the same small number of sites, and urban sites were heavily used. With EHR geospatial data at an individual patient level, we can model potential telemedicine sites for specialty access in a rural geographic area. Relatively few sites could serve most of the population. Direct access to patient GIS data from an EHR provides direct knowledge of the client base compared to methods that allocate aggregated data. Geospatial data and methods can assist health care location planning, generating data about load, load balance, and spatial accessibility.

  13. An airport runway centerline location method for one-off aerial imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Shule; Xu, Tingfa; Ni, Guoqiang; Shao, Xiaoguang

    2010-11-01

    An airport runway centerline location method is proposed for extracting airport runway in images from one-off aerial imaging system. One-off aerial imaging system captures image at an altitude about one kilometer or below, thus detailed feature of the scenery reveals itself clearly. The proposed method relies on this precondition to detect and locate centerline of airport runway. This method has four steps: edge detection, dominating line orientation extraction, distance histogram building and centerline location. A salient edge detection method is developed with Sobel detector, which could detect edges of runway strips at the disturbance of edges features from surrounding objects. Then, a traditional Hough transform is performed to build a Hough map, within which the dominating line orientation is extracted. After getting the dominating line orientation, a reference straight line is chosen for building distance histogram. This distance histogram is a one-dimensional one, built up with the distance of all edge pixels in the edge map to the reference line. Airport centerline has a three-peak pattern in the one-dimensional distance histogram, and the center peak is corresponding to the centerline of airport runway. Experiments with simulated images show this method could location airport runway centerline effectively.

  14. Video camera system for locating bullet holes in targets at a ballistics tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Rummler, D. R.; Goad, W. K.

    1990-01-01

    A system consisting of a single charge coupled device (CCD) video camera, computer controlled video digitizer, and software to automate the measurement was developed to measure the location of bullet holes in targets at the International Shooters Development Fund (ISDF)/NASA Ballistics Tunnel. The camera/digitizer system is a crucial component of a highly instrumented indoor 50 meter rifle range which is being constructed to support development of wind resistant, ultra match ammunition. The system was designed to take data rapidly (10 sec between shoots) and automatically with little operator intervention. The system description, measurement concept, and procedure are presented along with laboratory tests of repeatability and bias error. The long term (1 hour) repeatability of the system was found to be 4 microns (one standard deviation) at the target and the bias error was found to be less than 50 microns. An analysis of potential errors and a technique for calibration of the system are presented.

  15. Detecting target velocity and location using a novel optoelectronic sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chi Ching

    2004-12-01

    We propose a cost-effective, compact, and robust optoelectronic sensing system for measuring ballistic impact velocity and distribution of the projectile motion. The key elements consisted of this system are four photo-gates hybridized by compound one-dimensional prism array and analog/digital electronic components. The number of light sources and photodetectors used in a photo-gate was reduced to one pair of that. The time interval passing each pair can be measured precisely (~10-8 s). The average velocity and location of projectile are carried out according the measured time intervals. The system can precisely measure the velocity of a bullet as it leaves a gun barrel and the velocity toward the trajectory outside the firearm. Furthermore, the system uses a commonly found low-powered laser pointer as light source. Compared with other optoelectronic sensing systems that use high-powered lasers, our system is both economical and safe.

  16. Video camera system for locating bullet holes in targets at a ballistics tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burner, A. W.; Rummler, D. R.; Goad, W. K.

    1990-08-01

    A system consisting of a single charge coupled device (CCD) video camera, computer controlled video digitizer, and software to automate the measurement was developed to measure the location of bullet holes in targets at the International Shooters Development Fund (ISDF)/NASA Ballistics Tunnel. The camera/digitizer system is a crucial component of a highly instrumented indoor 50 meter rifle range which is being constructed to support development of wind resistant, ultra match ammunition. The system was designed to take data rapidly (10 sec between shoots) and automatically with little operator intervention. The system description, measurement concept, and procedure are presented along with laboratory tests of repeatability and bias error. The long term (1 hour) repeatability of the system was found to be 4 microns (one standard deviation) at the target and the bias error was found to be less than 50 microns. An analysis of potential errors and a technique for calibration of the system are presented.

  17. Systems and Methods for Locating a Target in a GPS-Denied Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdock, Ronald G. (Inventor); Mackay, John D. (Inventor); Cummins, Douglas A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system for locating an object in a GPS-denied environment includes first and second stationary nodes of a network and an object out of synchronization with a common time base of the network. The system includes one or more processors that are configured to estimate distances between the first stationary node and the object and a distance between the second stationary node and the object by comparing time-stamps of messages relayed between the object and the nodes. A position of the object can then be trilaterated using a location of each of the first and second stationary nodes and the measured distances between the object and each of the first and second stationary nodes.

  18. Development of satellite position location system for aircraft and boat distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    An international satellite system for the detection and location of distress beacons carried on aircraft and vessels is in its technical checkout phase. User demonstration and evaluation (D&E) will start in early 1983 and continue for two years. The D&E phase and a subsequent transition period will form the basis for improved search and rescue operations for the 1980's and beyond. The system, called COSPAS/SARSAT, has international participation involving the U.S., Canada, and France as SARSAT members and joint participation with the Soviet Union's COSPAS Project. Norway and the U.K. have recently joined as investigators. Average position location error of the satellite aided processing is expected to be from 10-20KM for the existing 121.5/243 MHz distress beacons and from 2-5KM for experimental beacons transmitting in the 406 MHz band.

  19. Distributed fiber sensing system with wide frequency response and accurate location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yi; Feng, Hao; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2016-02-01

    A distributed fiber sensing system merging Mach-Zehnder interferometer and phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR) is demonstrated for vibration measurement, which requires wide frequency response and accurate location. Two narrow line-width lasers with delicately different wavelengths are used to constitute the interferometer and reflectometer respectively. A narrow band Fiber Bragg Grating is responsible for separating the two wavelengths. In addition, heterodyne detection is applied to maintain the signal to noise rate of the locating signal. Experiment results show that the novel system has a wide frequency from 1 Hz to 50 MHz, limited by the sample frequency of data acquisition card, and a spatial resolution of 20 m, according to 200 ns pulse width, along 2.5 km fiber link.

  20. Development of satellite position location system for aircraft and boat distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    An international satellite system for the detection and location of distress beacons carried on aircraft and vessels is in its technical checkout phase. User demonstration and evaluation (D&E) will start in early 1983 and continue for two years. The D&E phase and a subsequent transition period will form the basis for improved search and rescue operations for the 1980's and beyond. The system, called COSPAS/SARSAT, has international participation involving the U.S., Canada, and France as SARSAT members and joint participation with the Soviet Union's COSPAS Project. Norway and the U.K. have recently joined as investigators. Average position location error of the satellite aided processing is expected to be from 10-20KM for the existing 121.5/243 MHz distress beacons and from 2-5KM for experimental beacons transmitting in the 406 MHz band.

  1. A facility location model for municipal solid waste management system under uncertain environment.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinay; Bhurjee, A K; Karmakar, Subhankar; Dikshit, A K

    2017-12-15

    In municipal solid waste management system, decision makers have to develop an insight into the processes namely, waste generation, collection, transportation, processing, and disposal methods. Many parameters (e.g., waste generation rate, functioning costs of facilities, transportation cost, and revenues) in this system are associated with uncertainties. Often, these uncertainties of parameters need to be modeled under a situation of data scarcity for generating probability distribution function or membership function for stochastic mathematical programming or fuzzy mathematical programming respectively, with only information of extreme variations. Moreover, if uncertainties are ignored, then the problems like insufficient capacities of waste management facilities or improper utilization of available funds may be raised. To tackle uncertainties of these parameters in a more efficient manner an algorithm, based on interval analysis, has been developed. This algorithm is applied to find optimal solutions for a facility location model, which is formulated to select economically best locations of transfer stations in a hypothetical urban center. Transfer stations are an integral part of contemporary municipal solid waste management systems, and economic siting of transfer stations ensures financial sustainability of this system. The model is written in a mathematical programming language AMPL with KNITRO as a solver. The developed model selects five economically best locations out of ten potential locations with an optimum overall cost of [394,836, 757,440] Rs.(1) /day ([5906, 11,331] USD/day) approximately. Further, the requirement of uncertainty modeling is explained based on the results of sensitivity analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microwave detection system for locating hemorrhage sites within the cranium and other regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Ronald G., Sr.; Pasala, Krishna M.; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.

    1998-05-01

    A novel method for location and characterization of discontinuities in biological system is presented. The method uses electromagnetic waves in the microwave and RF region and a modified algorithm previously used for the estimation of the angle of arrival of radar signals. Results are presented for the case of a skull section backed by porcine brain and the same section backed by a layer of blood backed by porcine brain.

  3. Advanced Passive Acoustic Leak Location and Detection Verification System for Underground Fuel Pipelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    Conference (March 1993). 4. E. G. Eckert, M. R. Fierro , and J. W. Maresca, Jr., “A Passive-Acoustic Approach to the Detection of Leaking Valves in...Pressurized Pipelines,” Technical Report for Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vista Research Project 1050, Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View...California (August 1994). 5. E. G. Eckert, M. R. Fierro , and J. W. Maresca, Jr., “Demonstration of a Gas Acoustic Tracer (GAT) Method for the Location of

  4. Discrete optimization of isolator locations for vibration isolation systems: An analytical and experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S.

    1996-05-17

    An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.

  5. An IEEE802.15.4-Based System for Locating Children on Their School Commutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Baba, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    With the increasing number of crimes and accidents in which children are becoming involved, there is a growing demand for devices to safeguard children's security by detecting their locations on their way to and from school. This paper proposes a system that uses an IEEE802.15.4-standard network to detect children's locations. To overcome the susceptibility of radio interference from nearby wireless LANs, frequency division multiplexing is applied to this IEEE802.15.4-based network, toward improving data acquisition from terminal units. The effectiveness of the system was field-tested with elementary school students who used about 400 IEEE 802.15.4-compliant terminal units. An experiment verified that the use of frequency division multiplexing in an environment where radio interference by wireless LANs is strong allowed the network to double the success rate of information communication from terminal units relative to that without frequency division multiplexing. In the experiment for detecting elementary schoolers' arrival at and departure from school, the terminal detection rate was 99% and the terminal detection rate on the designated school routes was 90%. These results prove the effectiveness of the system in detecting locations.

  6. Removal of an acid fume system contaminated with perchlorates located within hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Henslee, S.P.; Vroman, W.R.; Krsul, J.R.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Knighton, G.C.

    1992-09-01

    An add scrubbing system located within the confines of a highly radioactive hot cell at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was remotely removed. The acid scrubbing system was routinely used for the dissolution of irradiated reactor fuel samples and structural materials. Perchloric acid was one of the acids used in the dissolution process and remained in the system with its inherent risks. Personnel could not enter the hot cell to perform the dismantling of the acid scabbing system due to the high radiation field and the explosion potential associated with the perchlorates. A robot was designed and built at ANL-W and used to dismantle the system without the need for personnel entry into the hot cell. The robot was also used for size reduction of removed components and loading of the removed components into waste containers.

  7. Resonances and Tides in Natural Satellites Systems. (Breton Title: Ressonâncias e Marés em Sistemas de Satélites Naturais.) Resonancias y Mareas en Sistemas de Satélites Naturales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegari, Nelson, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    In this work we describe some aspects of the dynamics of the mean-motion resonances. Emphasis to the case of resonances between regular satellites of the giant planets will be given, even so some aspects of the physics of the resonances in extra-solar planetary systems are also briefly treated. The role of the resonances in satellites systems is discussed through examples, showing how certain resonances, and its relations with the tidal dissipation effects, can be the key of the explanation of some phenomena still not explained in the Solar System. Amongst some examples we highlight the problem of the resurfacing of Enceladus, the existence of active volcanoes in Io, and the possible existence of the subsurface ocean in Europe. This work has as objective the divulgation of some topics in Celestial Mechanics and Planetary Sciences for an undergraduate public in exact sciences, as Astronomy and Physics, and not their detailed description. Neste trabalho descrevemos alguns aspectos da dinâmica de ressonâncias de movimentos médios. Será dada ênfase maior ao caso de ressonâncias entre satélites regulares dos planetas gigantes, embora alguns aspectos da física das ressonâncias em sistemas planetários extra-solares também sejam discutidos brevemente. A importância do estudo de ressonâncias em sistemas de satélites é discutida mais detalhadamente através de exemplos, mostrando como certas ressonâncias e suas relações com efeitos de dissipação de maré podem ser a chave de parte da explicação de alguns fenômenos ainda não explicados no Sistema Solar. Dentre vários exemplos destacamos o problema da remodelagem da superfície do satélite Enceladus, a existência de vulcões ativos em Io, e a possível existência do oceano subterrâneo em Europa. Este trabalho tem como objetivo a divulgação de alguns tópicos de Mecânica Celeste e Planetologia para um público de nível de graduação em disciplinas na área de exatas, em especial Astronomia e F

  8. Design and demonstration of an advanced data collection/position location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The final report on a breadboard evaluation and demonstration program is reported concerning the applicability of MSK modulation and chirp-z transformer technology in Advanced Data Collection/Position Location (ADC/PL) systems. The program effort consisted of three phases - design, testing, and evaluation. Section 2 describes the breadboard hardware built during the design phase of the program, Section 3 describes the tests conducted on the breadboard and the results of the tests, and Section 4 presents a brief analysis and summary of the findings of the breadboard tests and develops a sample ADC/PL system which incorporates both MSK modulation and a chirp-z transformer.

  9. Locational Marginal Pricing in the Campus Power System at the Power Distribution Level

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jun; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, David Wenzhong

    2016-11-14

    In the development of smart grid at distribution level, the realization of real-time nodal pricing is one of the key challenges. The research work in this paper implements and studies the methodology of locational marginal pricing at distribution level based on a real-world distribution power system. The pricing mechanism utilizes optimal power flow to calculate the corresponding distributional nodal prices. Both Direct Current Optimal Power Flow and Alternate Current Optimal Power Flow are utilized to calculate and analyze the nodal prices. The University of Denver campus power grid is used as the power distribution system test bed to demonstrate the pricing methodology.

  10. Feasibility of real-time location systems in monitoring recovery after major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Dorrell, Robert D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Clark, Clancy J

    2017-06-07

    Early mobilization after major abdominal surgery decreases postoperative complications and length of stay, and has become a key component of enhanced recovery pathways. However, objective measures of patient movement after surgery are limited. Real-time location systems (RTLS), typically used for asset tracking, provide a novel approach to monitoring in-hospital patient activity. The current study investigates the feasibility of using RTLS to objectively track postoperative patient mobilization. The real-time location system employs a meshed network of infrared and RFID sensors and detectors that sample device locations every 3 s resulting in over 1 million data points per day. RTLS tracking was evaluated systematically in three phases: (1) sensitivity and specificity of the tracking device using simulated patient scenarios, (2) retrospective passive movement analysis of patient-linked equipment, and (3) prospective observational analysis of a patient-attached tracking device. RTLS tracking detected a simulated movement out of a room with sensitivity of 91% and specificity 100%. Specificity decreased to 75% if time out of room was less than 3 min. All RTLS-tagged patient-linked equipment was identified for 18 patients, but measurable patient movement associated with equipment was detected for only 2 patients (11%) with 1-8 out-of-room walks per day. Ten patients were prospectively monitored using RTLS badges following major abdominal surgery. Patient movement was recorded using patient diaries, direct observation, and an accelerometer. Sensitivity and specificity of RTLS patient tracking were both 100% in detecting out-of-room ambulation and correlated well with direct observation and patient-reported ambulation. Real-time location systems are a novel technology capable of objectively and accurately monitoring patient movement and provide an innovative approach to promoting early mobilization after surgery.

  11. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach.

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-06-04

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved.

  12. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved. PMID:27271638

  13. Cost goals for a residential photovoltaic/thermal liquid collector system set in three northern locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwoodie, T. L.; Kavanaugh, J. P.

    1980-10-01

    The allowable costs for a residential PV/T liquid collector system are compared with those of both PV only and side-by-side PV and thermal collector systems. Four typs of conventional energy systems provide backup: all oil, all gas, all electric resistance, and electric resistance hot water with space heating by parallel heat pump. Electric space cooling is modeled, and the electric utility serves as backup for all electrical needs. The analysis is separated into two parts: (1) a base case study using conservative market and financial parameters for comparing PV/T economics in three northern locations; and (2) the sensitivity of PV/T economics to pertinent physical, market, and financial variables is examined. The difference in economic outlook for PV/T in retrofit applications is also estimated. It is indicated that, it for northern locations modeled, is less than that of separate (side-by-side) collector systems, at total array areas between 40-80 sq m. Below this range, allowable costs diverge, benefiting optimally sized separate collector systems.

  14. A Collaborative Location Based Travel Recommendation System through Enhanced Rating Prediction for the Group of Users

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Logesh; Vairavasundaram, Subramaniyaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth of web and its applications has created a colossal importance for recommender systems. Being applied in various domains, recommender systems were designed to generate suggestions such as items or services based on user interests. Basically, recommender systems experience many issues which reflects dwindled effectiveness. Integrating powerful data management techniques to recommender systems can address such issues and the recommendations quality can be increased significantly. Recent research on recommender systems reveals an idea of utilizing social network data to enhance traditional recommender system with better prediction and improved accuracy. This paper expresses views on social network data based recommender systems by considering usage of various recommendation algorithms, functionalities of systems, different types of interfaces, filtering techniques, and artificial intelligence techniques. After examining the depths of objectives, methodologies, and data sources of the existing models, the paper helps anyone interested in the development of travel recommendation systems and facilitates future research direction. We have also proposed a location recommendation system based on social pertinent trust walker (SPTW) and compared the results with the existing baseline random walk models. Later, we have enhanced the SPTW model for group of users recommendations. The results obtained from the experiments have been presented. PMID:27069468

  15. A Collaborative Location Based Travel Recommendation System through Enhanced Rating Prediction for the Group of Users.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Logesh; Vairavasundaram, Subramaniyaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth of web and its applications has created a colossal importance for recommender systems. Being applied in various domains, recommender systems were designed to generate suggestions such as items or services based on user interests. Basically, recommender systems experience many issues which reflects dwindled effectiveness. Integrating powerful data management techniques to recommender systems can address such issues and the recommendations quality can be increased significantly. Recent research on recommender systems reveals an idea of utilizing social network data to enhance traditional recommender system with better prediction and improved accuracy. This paper expresses views on social network data based recommender systems by considering usage of various recommendation algorithms, functionalities of systems, different types of interfaces, filtering techniques, and artificial intelligence techniques. After examining the depths of objectives, methodologies, and data sources of the existing models, the paper helps anyone interested in the development of travel recommendation systems and facilitates future research direction. We have also proposed a location recommendation system based on social pertinent trust walker (SPTW) and compared the results with the existing baseline random walk models. Later, we have enhanced the SPTW model for group of users recommendations. The results obtained from the experiments have been presented.

  16. Wire position system to consistently measure and record the location change of girders following ground changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, S. B.; Lee, H. G.; Y Back, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Several parts that comprise the large scientific device should be installed and operated at the accurate three-dimensional location coordinates (X, Y, and Z) where they should be subjected to survey and alignment. The location of the aligned parts should not be changed in order to ensure that the electron beam parameters (Energy 10 GeV, Charge 200 pC, and Bunch Length 60 fs, Emittance X/Y 0.481 μm/0.256 μm) of PAL-XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) remain stable and can be operated without any problems. As time goes by, however, the ground goes through uplift and subsidence, which consequently deforms building floors. The deformation of the ground and buildings changes the location of several devices including magnets and RF accelerator tubes, which eventually leads to alignment errors (∆X, ∆Y, and ∆Z). Once alignment errors occur with regard to these parts, the electron beam deviates from its course and beam parameters change accordingly. PAL-XFEL has installed the Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) to measure and record the vertical change of buildings and ground consistently and systematically and the Wire Position System (WPS) to measure the two dimensional changes of girders. This paper is designed to introduce the operating principle and design concept of WPS and discuss the current situation regarding installation and operation.

  17. Monitoring of manufacturing processes in the automotive industry using indoor location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, LM; Belu, N.; Rachieru, N.; Mazăre, AG; Anghel, D.-C.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method for locating the operators, equipment and parts using radio communications systems. Specifically there will be radio transceiver arranged in a network of active and passive radio receivers placed on personnel, equipment or parts. Based on a radio triangulation method, it is determined the location of the all resources and parts involved in manufacturing process. The transceivers communicate with each other via “routers” - also components of the network. Such a structure may extend over large distances even in indoor spaces where there are obstacles (walls between rooms). The location is done by determining the power of transmission signal for at least three end points. The receiver position is then transmitted over the network through routers, to a central server where all positions of the resources are centralized. Our solution is a non-invasive and low cost method for determining resource position in the factory. The system can be used for both resource planning production for current process more efficient and for further analysis of the movement of resources during previous processes with possible adjustments to the workspace and re-planning of resources for future processes.

  18. Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu; Lou, Shang Ling; Liao, Wen Bo; Jehle, Robert

    2014-05-15

    The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67 species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes size as an indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology across a subset of 29 species. We found a significant association of mating system and spawning location with sperm morphology. However, when removing the effects of body mass or absolute testes mass for species for which such data were available, this effect became non-significant. Consistent with predictions from sperm competition theory, we found a positive correlation between sperm morphology and relative testes size after taking phylogeny into account. Our findings suggest that sexual selection in Chinese anurans favors longer sperm when the level of sperm competition is high. Pre-copulatory male-male competition and spawning location, on the other hand, do not affect the evolution of sperm morphology after taking body mass and absolute testes mass into account.

  19. Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67 species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes size as an indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology across a subset of 29 species. Results We found a significant association of mating system and spawning location with sperm morphology. However, when removing the effects of body mass or absolute testes mass for species for which such data were available, this effect became non-significant. Consistent with predictions from sperm competition theory, we found a positive correlation between sperm morphology and relative testes size after taking phylogeny into account. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sexual selection in Chinese anurans favors longer sperm when the level of sperm competition is high. Pre-copulatory male-male competition and spawning location, on the other hand, do not affect the evolution of sperm morphology after taking body mass and absolute testes mass into account. PMID:24884745

  20. Location precision analysis of stereo thermal anti-sniper detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuqing; Lu, Ya; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Weiqi

    2012-06-01

    Anti-sniper detection devices are the urgent requirement in modern warfare. The precision of the anti-sniper detection system is especially important. This paper discusses the location precision analysis of the anti-sniper detection system based on the dual-thermal imaging system. It mainly discusses the following two aspects which produce the error: the digital quantitative effects of the camera; effect of estimating the coordinate of bullet trajectory according to the infrared images in the process of image matching. The formula of the error analysis is deduced according to the method of stereovision model and digital quantitative effects of the camera. From this, we can get the relationship of the detecting accuracy corresponding to the system's parameters. The analysis in this paper provides the theory basis for the error compensation algorithms which are put forward to improve the accuracy of 3D reconstruction of the bullet trajectory in the anti-sniper detection devices.

  1. A methodology for identifying vulnerable locations to taste and odour problems in a drinking water system.

    PubMed

    Proulx, F; Rodriguez, M J; Sérodes, J; Bouchard, C

    2007-01-01

    In this research, methodology was developed to identify locations vulnerable to taste and odour problems in a distribution system. The methodology was based on a multicriteria procedure combining spatial information on consumer complaints and popular perception of tap water. The first step in the described methodology consisted of mapping complaints regarding tap water made by the population between 2002 and 2004 using a geographical information system (GIS). The second step consisted of analysing results of a questionnaire-based mail survey, also through GIS. The information generated using the above steps was integrated using a multicriteria and spatial approach allowing segregation of the distribution system into delineated zones, according to their vulnerability to occurrences of taste and odour problems. The identification of vulnerable sectors in a distribution system will help water managers to implement a better-targeted water quality monitoring programme--one that considers odours and tastes of drinking water--within the management process.

  2. Self-contained local broadband seismogeodetic early warning system: Detection and location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, D. E.; Bock, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake and local tsunami early warning is critical to mitigating adverse impacts of large-magnitude earthquakes. An optimal system must rely on near-source data to maximize warning time. To this end, we have developed a self-contained seismogeodetic early warning system employing an optimal combination of high-frequency information from strong-motion accelerometers and low-frequency information from collocated Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) instruments to estimate real-time displacements and velocities. Like GNSS, and unlike broadband seismometers, seismogeodetic stations record the full waveform, including static offset, without clipping in the near-field or saturating for large magnitude earthquakes. However, GNSS alone cannot provide a self-contained system and requires an external seismic trigger. Seismogeodetic stations detect P wave arrivals with the same sensitivity as strong-motion accelerometers and thus provide a stand-alone system. We demonstrate the utility of near-source seismogeodesy for event detection and location with analysis of the 2010 Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah, Baja, California and 2014 Mw6.0 Napa, California strike-slip events, and the 2014 Mw8.2 Iquique, Chile subduction zone earthquake using observatory-grade accelerometers and GPS data. We present lessons from the 2014 Mw4.0 Piedmont, California and 2016 Mw5.2 Borrego Springs, California earthquakes, recorded by our seismogeodetic system with Micro-Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometers and GPS data and reanalyzed retrospectively. We conclude that our self-contained seismogeodetic system is suitable for early warning for earthquakes of significance (>M5) using either observatory-grade or MEMS accelerometers. Finally, we discuss the effect of network design on hypocenter location and suggest the deployment of additional seismogeodetic stations for the western U.S.

  3. Neural network based system for damage identification and location in structural and mechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W.; Prime, M.B.; Cornwell, P.; Kam, M.; Straser, E.G.; Hoerst, B.C.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Recent advances in wireless, remotely monitored data acquisition systems coupled with the development of vibration-based damage detection algorithms make the possibility of self- or remotely-monitored structures and mechanical systems appear to be within the capabilities of current technology. However, before such a system can be relied upon to perform this monitoring, the variability of the vibration properties that are the basis for the damage detection algorithm must be understood and quantified. This understanding is necessary so that the artificial intelligence/expert system that is employed to discriminate when changes in modal properties are indicative of damage will not yield false indications of damage. To this end, this project has focused on developing statistical methods for quantifying variability in identified vibration proper ties of structural and mechanical systems.

  4. Use of the emergency Incident Command System for school-located mass influenza vaccination clinics.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Marsha; Kist, Anne; Schieber, Richard A

    2012-03-01

    In Palm Beach County, Florida, the fall 2005 influenza vaccination season was interrupted by Hurricane Wilma, a particularly destructive storm that resulted in flooding, power outages, extensive property damage, and suspension of many routine community services. In its aftermath, all public health resources were immediately turned to the response and recovery process. School-located mass influenza vaccination (SLV) clinics were scheduled to begin in 1 week, but were necessarily postponed for a month. The juxtaposition of these 2 major public health events afforded the school district, health department, and other community services an opportunity to see their similarities and adopt the Incident Command System structure to manage the SLV clinics across West Palm Beach County, Florida, a geographically large county. Other lessons were learned during the hurricane concerning organizations and people, processes, and communications, and were applicable to school-located mass influenza vaccination programs, and vice versa. Those lessons are related here.

  5. System, method and computer-readable medium for locating physical phenomena

    DOEpatents

    Weseman, Matthew T [Idaho Falls, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-02-26

    A method, system and computer product for detecting the location of a deformation of a structure includes baselining a defined energy transmitting characteristic for each of the plurality of laterally adjacent conductors attached to the structure. Each of the plurality of conductors includes a plurality of segments coupled in series and having an associated unit value representative of the defined energy transmitting characteristic. The plurality of laterally adjacent conductors includes a plurality of identity groups with each identity group including at least one of the plurality of segments from each of the plurality of conductors. Each of the plurality of conductors are monitored for a difference in the defined energy transmitting characteristic when compared with a baseline energy transmitting characteristic for each of the plurality of conductors. When the difference exceeds a threshold value, a location of the deformation along the structure is calculated.

  6. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE's Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Cadaver study. Comparative groups. HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.811). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.981). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.290). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.523). As for radiation exposure, HELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A and Group C whatever at L4/L5 level or L5/S1 level (P>0

  7. Cloud Microphysical Properties in Mesoscale Convective Systems: An Intercomparison of Three Tropical Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel; Leroy, Delphine; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Coutris, Pierre; Delanoë, Julien; Protat, Alain; Dezitter, Fabien; Grandin, Alice; Strapp, John W.; Lilie, Lyle E.

    2017-04-01

    Mesoscale Convective Systems are complex cloud systems which are primarily the result of specific synoptic conditions associated with mesoscale instabilities leading to the development of cumulonimbus type clouds (Houze, 2004). These systems can last several hours and can affect human societies in various ways. In general, weather and climate models use simplistic schemes to describe ice hydrometeors' properties. However, MCS are complex cloud systems where the dynamic, radiative and precipitation processes depend on spatiotemporal location in the MCS (Houze, 2004). As a consequence, hydrometeor growth processes in MCS vary in space and time, thereby impacting shape and concentration of ice crystals and finally CWC. As a consequence, differences in the representation of ice properties in models (Li et al., 2007, 2005) lead to significant disagreements in the quantification of ice cloud effects on climate evolution (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report). An accurate estimation of the spatiotemporal CWC distribution is therefore a key parameter for evaluating and improving numerical weather prediction (Stephens et al., 2002). The main purpose of this study is to show ice microphysical properties of MCS observed in three different locations in the tropical atmosphere: West-African continent, Indian Ocean, and Northern Australia. An intercomparison study is performed in order to quantify how similar or different are the ice hydrometeors' properties in these three regions related to radar reflectivity factors and temperatures observed in respective MCS.

  8. Combining global positioning system and accelerometer data to determine the locations of physical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Blossom, Jeff; Field, Alison E; Chiang, Sylvia R; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Kleinman, Ronald E

    2012-05-01

    National trends indicate that children and adolescents are not achieving sufficient levels of physical activity. Combining global positioning system (GPS) technology with accelerometers has the potential to provide an objective determination in locations where youth engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal methods for collecting combined accelerometer and GPS data in youth, to best locate where children spend time and are physically active. A convenience sample of 24 mid-school children in Massachusetts was included. Accelerometers and GPS units were used to quantify and locate childhood physical activity over 5 weekdays and 2 weekend days. Accelerometer and GPS data were joined by time and mapped with a geographical information system (GIS) using ArcGIS software. Data were collected in winter, spring, summer in 2009-2010, collecting a total of 26,406 matched datapoints overall. Matched data yield was low (19.1% total), regardless of season (winter, 12.8%; spring, 30.1%; summer, 14.3%). Teacher-provided, pre-charged equipment yielded the most matched (30.1%; range: 10.1-52.3%) and greatest average days (6.1 days) of data. Across all seasons, children spent most of their time at home. Outdoor use patterns appeared to vary by season, with street use increasing in spring, and park and playground use increasing in summer. Children spent equal amounts of physical activity time at home and walking in the streets. Overall, the various methods for combining GPS and accelerometer data provided similarly low amounts of combined data. No combined GPS and accelerometer data collection method proved superior in every data return category, but use of GIS to map joined accelerometer and GPS data can demarcate childhood physical activity locations.

  9. Thoughts on Seeing "El Sistema"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast…

  10. Thoughts on Seeing "El Sistema"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast…

  11. A hybrid thermal video and FTIR spectrometer system for rapidly locating and characterizing gas leaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David J.; Wadsworth, Winthrop; Salvaggio, Carl; Messinger, David W.

    2006-08-01

    Undiscovered gas leaks, known as fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality and present a loss of product for industry. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial leak detection and repair programs can be expensive to administer. An efficient, accurate and cost effective method for detecting and quantifying gas leaks would both save industries money by identifying production losses and improve regional air quality. Specialized thermal video systems have proven effective in rapidly locating gas leaks. These systems, however, do not have the spectral resolution for compound identification. Passive FTIR spectrometers can be used for gas compound identification, but using these systems for facility surveys is problematic due to their small field of view. A hybrid approach has been developed that utilizes the thermal video system to locate gas plumes using real time visualization of the leaks, coupled with the high spectral resolution FTIR spectrometer for compound identification and quantification. The prototype hybrid video/spectrometer system uses a sterling cooled thermal camera, operating in the MWIR (3-5 μm) with an additional notch filter set at around 3.4 μm, which allows for the visualization of gas compounds that absorb in this narrow spectral range, such as alkane hydrocarbons. This camera is positioned alongside of a portable, high speed passive FTIR spectrometer, which has a spectral range of 2 - 25 μm and operates at 4 cm -1 resolution. This system uses a 10 cm telescope foreoptic with an onboard blackbody for calibration. The two units are optically aligned using a turning mirror on the spectrometer's telescope with the video camera's output.

  12. A ZigBee-Based Location-Aware Fall Detection System for Improving Elderly Telecare

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Ning; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2014-01-01

    Falls are the primary cause of accidents among the elderly and frequently cause fatal and non-fatal injuries associated with a large amount of medical costs. Fall detection using wearable wireless sensor nodes has the potential of improving elderly telecare. This investigation proposes a ZigBee-based location-aware fall detection system for elderly telecare that provides an unobstructed communication between the elderly and caregivers when falls happen. The system is based on ZigBee-based sensor networks, and the sensor node consists of a motherboard with a tri-axial accelerometer and a ZigBee module. A wireless sensor node worn on the waist continuously detects fall events and starts an indoor positioning engine as soon as a fall happens. In the fall detection scheme, this study proposes a three-phase threshold-based fall detection algorithm to detect critical and normal falls. The fall alarm can be canceled by pressing and holding the emergency fall button only when a normal fall is detected. On the other hand, there are three phases in the indoor positioning engine: path loss survey phase, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) collection phase and location calculation phase. Finally, the location of the faller will be calculated by a k-nearest neighbor algorithm with weighted RSSI. The experimental results demonstrate that the fall detection algorithm achieves 95.63% sensitivity, 73.5% specificity, 88.62% accuracy and 88.6% precision. Furthermore, the average error distance for indoor positioning is 1.15 ± 0.54 m. The proposed system successfully delivers critical information to remote telecare providers who can then immediately help a fallen person. PMID:24743841

  13. A ZigBee-based location-aware fall detection system for improving elderly telecare.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Ning; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2014-04-16

    Falls are the primary cause of accidents among the elderly and frequently cause fatal and non-fatal injuries associated with a large amount of medical costs. Fall detection using wearable wireless sensor nodes has the potential of improving elderly telecare. This investigation proposes a ZigBee-based location-aware fall detection system for elderly telecare that provides an unobstructed communication between the elderly and caregivers when falls happen. The system is based on ZigBee-based sensor networks, and the sensor node consists of a motherboard with a tri-axial accelerometer and a ZigBee module. A wireless sensor node worn on the waist continuously detects fall events and starts an indoor positioning engine as soon as a fall happens. In the fall detection scheme, this study proposes a three-phase threshold-based fall detection algorithm to detect critical and normal falls. The fall alarm can be canceled by pressing and holding the emergency fall button only when a normal fall is detected. On the other hand, there are three phases in the indoor positioning engine: path loss survey phase, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) collection phase and location calculation phase. Finally, the location of the faller will be calculated by a k-nearest neighbor algorithm with weighted RSSI. The experimental results demonstrate that the fall detection algorithm achieves 95.63% sensitivity, 73.5% specificity, 88.62% accuracy and 88.6% precision. Furthermore, the average error distance for indoor positioning is 1.15 ± 0.54 m. The proposed system successfully delivers critical information to remote telecare providers who can then immediately help a fallen person.

  14. Shoulder bony landmarks location using the EOS low-dose stereoradiography system: a reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Xavier; Stanchina, Claire; Billuart, Fabien; Skalli, Wafa

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the reproducibility of shoulder bony landmarks location using the EOS low-dose stereoradiography system, in order to validate this new tool for the study of gleno-humeral pseudo-kinematics. An inter and intraobserver reproducibility study of shoulder bony landmarks location concerning 22 healthy volunteers. This study concerned the neutral position, arm at rest. Humerus and scapula were modeled with simple geometric shapes using specific software. Those shapes were positioned on A-P and lateral x-rays views. Images analysis of the 22 subjects was carried out three times (n(r) = 3), by two observers (n(o) = 2), for a total of n(tot) = 132 analyses. We obtained a very good reproducibility for the humeral head center and the diaphysis axis with 95% confidence interval (IC95%) inferior to 1.09 mm and 0.41 degrees, respectively. The uncertainty was higher for the lateral and medial epicondyles. Regarding the scapular bony landmarks, we observed a good reproducibility for the tip of the coracoid process, the inferior glenoid rim, and the axillar border with a 95% confidence interval lower than 2.13, 2.91 mm, and 3.67 degrees, respectively. The uncertainty was higher for the most postero-lateral point of the acromion and the superior glenoid rim. Our analysis of the x-rays obtained with the EOS low-dose stereoradiography system assessed the location reliability and reproducibility of specific scapular and humeral bony landmarks. This work opens the way to gleno-humeral pseudo-kinematics analysis using EOS imaging system.

  15. Detection and location of fouling on photovoltaic panels using a drone-mounted infrared thermography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lifu; Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Hongming; Sun, Xuejian

    2017-01-01

    Due to weathering and external forces, solar panels are subject to fouling and defects after a certain amount of time in service. These fouling and defects have direct adverse consequences such as low-power efficiency. Because solar power plants usually have large-scale photovoltaic (PV) panels, fast detection and location of fouling and defects across large PV areas are imperative. A drone-mounted infrared thermography system was designed and developed, and its ability to detect rapid fouling on large-scale PV panel systems was investigated. The infrared images were preprocessed using the K neighbor mean filter, and the single PV module on each image was recognized and extracted. Combining the local and global detection method, suspicious sites were located precisely. The results showed the flexible drone-mounted infrared thermography system to have a strong ability to detect the presence and determine the position of PV fouling. Drone-mounted infrared thermography also has good technical feasibility and practical value in the detection of PV fouling detection.

  16. Optimal design and dispatch of a system of diesel generators, photovoltaics and batteries for remote locations

    DOE PAGES

    Scioletti, Michael S.; Newman, Alexandra M.; Goodman, Johanna K.; ...

    2017-05-08

    Renewable energy technologies, specifically, solar photovoltaic cells, combined with battery storage and diesel generators, form a hybrid system capable of independently powering remote locations, i.e., those isolated from larger grids. If sized correctly, hybrid systems reduce fuel consumption compared to diesel generator-only alternatives. We present an optimization model for establishing a hybrid power design and dispatch strategy for remote locations, such as a military forward operating base, that models the acquisition of different power technologies as integer variables and their operation using nonlinear expressions. Our cost-minimizing, nonconvex, mixed-integer, nonlinear program contains a detailed battery model. Due to its complexities, wemore » present linearizations, which include exact and convex under-estimation techniques, and a heuristic, which determines an initial feasible solution to serve as a “warm start” for the solver. We determine, in a few hours at most, solutions within 5% of optimality for a candidate set of technologies; these solutions closely resemble those from the nonlinear model. Lastly, our instances contain real data spanning a yearly horizon at hour fidelity and demonstrate that a hybrid system could reduce fuel consumption by as much as 50% compared to a generator-only solution.« less

  17. A Map/INS/Wi-Fi Integrated System for Indoor Location-Based Service Applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunyang; Lan, Haiyu; Gu, Fuqiang; Yu, Fei; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2017-06-02

    In this research, a new Map/INS/Wi-Fi integrated system for indoor location-based service (LBS) applications based on a cascaded Particle/Kalman filter framework structure is proposed. Two-dimension indoor map information, together with measurements from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value, are integrated for estimating positioning information. The main challenge of this research is how to make effective use of various measurements that complement each other in order to obtain an accurate, continuous, and low-cost position solution without increasing the computational burden of the system. Therefore, to eliminate the cumulative drift caused by low-cost IMU sensor errors, the ubiquitous Wi-Fi signal and non-holonomic constraints are rationally used to correct the IMU-derived navigation solution through the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Moreover, the map-aiding method and map-matching method are innovatively combined to constrain the primary Wi-Fi/IMU-derived position through an Auxiliary Value Particle Filter (AVPF). Different sources of information are incorporated through a cascaded structure EKF/AVPF filter algorithm. Indoor tests show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the accumulation of positioning errors of a stand-alone Inertial Navigation System (INS), and provide a stable, continuous and reliable indoor location service.

  18. A Map/INS/Wi-Fi Integrated System for Indoor Location-Based Service Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chunyang; Lan, Haiyu; Gu, Fuqiang; Yu, Fei; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a new Map/INS/Wi-Fi integrated system for indoor location-based service (LBS) applications based on a cascaded Particle/Kalman filter framework structure is proposed. Two-dimension indoor map information, together with measurements from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) value, are integrated for estimating positioning information. The main challenge of this research is how to make effective use of various measurements that complement each other in order to obtain an accurate, continuous, and low-cost position solution without increasing the computational burden of the system. Therefore, to eliminate the cumulative drift caused by low-cost IMU sensor errors, the ubiquitous Wi-Fi signal and non-holonomic constraints are rationally used to correct the IMU-derived navigation solution through the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Moreover, the map-aiding method and map-matching method are innovatively combined to constrain the primary Wi-Fi/IMU-derived position through an Auxiliary Value Particle Filter (AVPF). Different sources of information are incorporated through a cascaded structure EKF/AVPF filter algorithm. Indoor tests show that the proposed method can effectively reduce the accumulation of positioning errors of a stand-alone Inertial Navigation System (INS), and provide a stable, continuous and reliable indoor location service. PMID:28574471

  19. Analysis of Terrestrial Planet Formation by the Grand Tack Model: System Architecture and Tack Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasser, R.; Matsumura, S.; Ida, S.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.

    2016-04-01

    The Grand Tack model of terrestrial planet formation has emerged in recent years as the premier scenario used to account for several observed features of the inner solar system. It relies on the early migration of the giant planets to gravitationally sculpt and mix the planetesimal disk down to ˜1 au, after which the terrestrial planets accrete from material remaining in a narrow circumsolar annulus. Here, we investigate how the model fares under a range of initial conditions and migration course-change (“tack”) locations. We run a large number of N-body simulations with tack locations of 1.5 and 2 au and test initial conditions using equal-mass planetary embryos and a semi-analytical approach to oligarchic growth. We make use of a recent model of the protosolar disk that takes into account viscous heating, includes the full effect of type 1 migration, and employs a realistic mass-radius relation for the growing terrestrial planets. Our results show that the canonical tack location of Jupiter at 1.5 au is inconsistent with the most massive planet residing at 1 au at greater than 95% confidence. This favors a tack farther out at 2 au for the disk model and parameters employed. Of the different initial conditions, we find that the oligarchic case is capable of statistically reproducing the orbital architecture and mass distribution of the terrestrial planets, while the equal-mass embryo case is not.

  20. ANALYSIS OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION BY THE GRAND TACK MODEL: SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND TACK LOCATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brasser, R.; Ida, S.; Matsumura, S.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.

    2016-04-20

    The Grand Tack model of terrestrial planet formation has emerged in recent years as the premier scenario used to account for several observed features of the inner solar system. It relies on the early migration of the giant planets to gravitationally sculpt and mix the planetesimal disk down to ∼1 au, after which the terrestrial planets accrete from material remaining in a narrow circumsolar annulus. Here, we investigate how the model fares under a range of initial conditions and migration course-change (“tack”) locations. We run a large number of N-body simulations with tack locations of 1.5 and 2 au and test initial conditions using equal-mass planetary embryos and a semi-analytical approach to oligarchic growth. We make use of a recent model of the protosolar disk that takes into account viscous heating, includes the full effect of type 1 migration, and employs a realistic mass–radius relation for the growing terrestrial planets. Our results show that the canonical tack location of Jupiter at 1.5 au is inconsistent with the most massive planet residing at 1 au at greater than 95% confidence. This favors a tack farther out at 2 au for the disk model and parameters employed. Of the different initial conditions, we find that the oligarchic case is capable of statistically reproducing the orbital architecture and mass distribution of the terrestrial planets, while the equal-mass embryo case is not.

  1. Network Location-Aware Service Recommendation with Random Walk in Cyber-Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuyu; Yu, Fangzheng; Xu, Yueshen; Yu, Lifeng; Mu, Jinglong

    2017-09-08

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) have received much attention from both academia and industry. An increasing number of functions in CPS are provided in the way of services, which gives rise to an urgent task, that is, how to recommend the suitable services in a huge number of available services in CPS. In traditional service recommendation, collaborative filtering (CF) has been studied in academia, and used in industry. However, there exist several defects that limit the application of CF-based methods in CPS. One is that under the case of high data sparsity, CF-based methods are likely to generate inaccurate prediction results. In this paper, we discover that mining the potential similarity relations among users or services in CPS is really helpful to improve the prediction accuracy. Besides, most of traditional CF-based methods are only capable of using the service invocation records, but ignore the context information, such as network location, which is a typical context in CPS. In this paper, we propose a novel service recommendation method for CPS, which utilizes network location as context information and contains three prediction models using random walking. We conduct sufficient experiments on two real-world datasets, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods and verify that the network location is indeed useful in QoS prediction.

  2. Network Location-Aware Service Recommendation with Random Walk in Cyber-Physical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yuyu; Yu, Fangzheng; Xu, Yueshen; Yu, Lifeng; Mu, Jinglong

    2017-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) have received much attention from both academia and industry. An increasing number of functions in CPS are provided in the way of services, which gives rise to an urgent task, that is, how to recommend the suitable services in a huge number of available services in CPS. In traditional service recommendation, collaborative filtering (CF) has been studied in academia, and used in industry. However, there exist several defects that limit the application of CF-based methods in CPS. One is that under the case of high data sparsity, CF-based methods are likely to generate inaccurate prediction results. In this paper, we discover that mining the potential similarity relations among users or services in CPS is really helpful to improve the prediction accuracy. Besides, most of traditional CF-based methods are only capable of using the service invocation records, but ignore the context information, such as network location, which is a typical context in CPS. In this paper, we propose a novel service recommendation method for CPS, which utilizes network location as context information and contains three prediction models using random walking. We conduct sufficient experiments on two real-world datasets, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods and verify that the network location is indeed useful in QoS prediction. PMID:28885602

  3. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie

    2002-01-01

    It is the goal of developers of advanced life support researcher to develop technology that reduces the cost of life support for future space missions and thereby enables missions that are currently infeasible or too expensive. Because the cost of propulsion dominates the cost of hardware emplacement in space and because the mass of a deliverable object controls its propulsive requirements, equivalent system mass (ESM) is used as a means for accounting for mission costs. ESM is typically calculated by adding to the actual mass the equivalent amount of mass that must be added to a mission due to other characteristics of a piece of hardware such as the item s volume or energy requirements. This approach works well for comparing different pieces of hardware when they go to the same location in space. However, different locations in mission space such low Earth orbit, Mars surface, or full trip to Mars and return to low Earth orbit require vastly different amounts of propulsion. Moving an object from Earth surface to the Martian surface and returning it to Earth will require as much as 100 times the propulsion that is required to move the object to low Earth orbit only. This paper presents the case for including the effect that location can have on cost as a part of ESM and suggests a method for achieving this improvement of ESM.

  4. Capacitated location of collection sites in an urban waste management system

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiani, Gianpaolo; Lagana, Demetrio; Manni, Emanuele; Triki, Chefi

    2012-07-15

    Urban waste management is becoming an increasingly complex task, absorbing a huge amount of resources, and having a major environmental impact. The design of a waste management system consists in various activities, and one of these is related to the location of waste collection sites. In this paper, we propose an integer programming model that helps decision makers in choosing the sites where to locate the unsorted waste collection bins in a residential town, as well as the capacities of the bins to be located at each collection site. This model helps in assessing tactical decisions through constraints that force each collection area to be capacitated enough to fit the expected waste to be directed to that area, while taking into account Quality of Service constraints from the citizens' point of view. Moreover, we propose an effective constructive heuristic approach whose aim is to provide a good solution quality in an extremely reduced computational time. Computational results on data related to the city of Nardo, in the south of Italy, show that both exact and heuristic approaches provide consistently better solutions than that currently implemented, resulting in a lower number of activated collection sites, and a lower number of bins to be used.

  5. Systems analysis of the installation, mounting, and activation of emergency locator transmitters in general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    A development program was developed to design and improve the Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) transmitter and to improve the installation in the aircraft and its activation subsystem. There were 1135 general aviation fixed wing aircraft accident files reviewed. A detailed description of the damage to the aircraft was produced. The search aspects of these accidents were studied. As much information as possible about the ELT units in these cases was collected. The data should assist in establishing installation and mounting criteria, better design standards for activation subsystems, and requirements for the new ELT system design in the area of crashworthiness.

  6. Differential Global Positioning System for the Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System: Testing, results, and user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Hubbard, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory integrated and tested a Global Positioning System (GPS) for use with the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center`s (NEODTC) Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System (STOLS). The GPS automatically and continuously provides latitude, longitude, and elevation information at the mobile GPS unit. The results of testing the GPS are shown in this report. The results reveal accuracies in the submeter range in real time and within a few centimeters using post-processing software. A description of hardware and software components is also included, along with system drawings and parts lists.

  7. Emergency Locator Transmitter System Performance During Three Full-Scale General Aviation Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full-scale crash tests were conducted on three Cessna 172 aircraft at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research facility during the summer of 2015. The purpose of the three tests was to evaluate the performance of commercially available Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) systems and support development of enhanced installation guidance. ELTs are used to provide location information to Search and Rescue (SAR) organizations in the event of an aviation distress situation, such as a crash. The crash tests simulated three differing severe but survivable crash conditions, in which it is expected that the onboard occupants have a reasonable chance of surviving the accident and would require assistance from SAR personnel. The first simulated an emergency landing onto a rigid surface, while the second and third simulated controlled flight into terrain. Multiple ELT systems were installed on each airplane according to federal regulations. The majority of the ELT systems performed nominally. In the systems which did not activate, post-test disassembly and inspection offered guidance for non-activation cause in some cases, while in others, no specific cause could be found. In a subset of installations purposely disregarding best practice guidelines, failure of the ELT-to-antenna cabling connections were found. Recommendations for enhanced installation guidance of ELT systems will be made to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 229 for consideration for adoption in a future release of ELT minimum operational performance specifications. These recommendations will be based on the data gathered during this test series as well as a larger series of crash simulations using computer models that will be calibrated based on these data

  8. Ground penetrating imaging radar system for locating and mapping subsurface structures: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackman, R.H.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the first phase of a two phase program directed at the development of an advanced Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR) system. This system will be capable of locating and mapping buried pipes, utilities lines and other conducting and non-conducting subsurface structures to depths of 4 meters. The system will employ advanced radar hardware technology and advanced signal and image processing capable of generating robust 3-dimensional subsurface maps. The system will be designed for both on- and off-road operation and for real time imaging. The first phase of the program: (1) established a proof of principle for the GPIR concept through a series of subsurface imaging experiments at the Lockheed Martin Ground Penetrating Radar site; (2) developed a system model for prediction of system performance; (3) developed an engineering design for the phase 2 program. In the third element, radar hardware and antenna technologies were evaluated for suitability for the buried utilities problem and selected for further phase 2 development and integration. The program objectives, approach and organization are described further in the Introduction.

  9. Validation of an acoustic location system to monitor Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) long calls.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Brigitte; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Willems, Erik P; Mitra Setia, Tatang; Wipfli, Urs; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-07-01

    The long call is an important vocal communication signal in the widely dispersed, semi-solitary orangutan. Long calls affect individuals' ranging behavior and mediate social relationships and regulate encounters between dispersed individuals in a dense rainforest. The aim of this study was to test the utility of an Acoustic Location System (ALS) for recording and triangulating the loud calls of free-living primates. We developed and validated a data extraction protocol for an ALS used to record wild orangutan males' long calls at the Tuanan field site (Central Kalimantan). We installed an ALS in a grid of 300 ha, containing 20 SM2+ recorders placed in a regular lattice at 500 m intervals, to monitor the distribution of calling males in the area. The validated system had the following main features: (i) a user-trained software algorithm (Song Scope) that reliably recognized orangutan long calls from sound files at distances up to 700 m from the nearest recorder, resulting in a total area of approximately 900 ha that could be monitored continuously; (ii) acoustic location of calling males up to 200 m outside the microphone grid, which meant that within an area of approximately 450 ha, call locations could be calculated through triangulation. The mean accuracy was 58 m, an error that is modest relative to orangutan mobility and average inter-individual distances. We conclude that an ALS is a highly effective method for detecting long-distance calls of wild primates and triangulating their position. In combination with conventional individual focal follow data, an ALS can greatly improve our knowledge of orangutans' social organization, and is readily adaptable for studying other highly vocal animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mapping the physical location of Telecenter using the geospatial information systems: A requirement of spatial digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohari, Abdul Manaf; Hin, Cheng Wei; Fuad, Nurwahida

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a study of Telecenter lifetime value is vital to academician, government and non-profit organization where Telecenter has great contribute to the nation development of rural community. Telecenter as important location of enhance the relationship of socio-economic, where placed all non-profit activity into single location platform. Consistently, previous studies mentioned Telecenter have significance contribution toward the nation, however, research and knowledge still lacking regarding the location factors that affecting the Telecenter specifically on spatial aspects of physical location environment. This research aimed to understand the requirement of spatial digital mapping the physical location of Telecenter, according to location of user and it environment, by using the geospatial information systems references, as called grid coordinate systems. The suggestion and implications of this study are briefly explored where spatial location factor plays important role in determine the lifetime value of Telecenter.

  11. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.12 Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the...

  12. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.12 Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the...

  13. Design and Test of an Event Detector and Locator for the ReflectoActive Seals System

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Brad J

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to research, design, develop and test a novel instrument for detecting fiber optic loop continuity and spatially locating fiber optic breaches. The work is for an active seal system called ReflectoActive{trademark} Seals whose purpose is to provide real time container tamper indication. A Field Programmable Gate Array was used to implement a loop continuity detector and a spatial breach locator based on a high acquisition speed single photon counting optical time domain reflectometer. Communication and other control features were added in order to create a usable instrument that met defined requirements. A host graphical user interface was developed to illustrate system use and performance. The resulting device meets performance specifications by exhibiting a dynamic range of 27dB and a spatial resolution of 1.5 ft. The communication scheme used expands installation options and allows the device to communicate to a central host via existing Local Area Networks and/or the Internet.

  14. Human Location Detection System Using Micro-Electromechanical Sensor for Intelligent Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnin, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presented the development of sensory system for detection of both the presence and the location of human in a room spaces using MEMS Thermal sensor. The system is able to detect the surface temperature of occupants by a non-contact detection at the maximum of 6 meters far. It can be integrated to any swing type of electrical appliances such as standing fan or a similar devices. Differentiating human from other moving and or static object by heat variable is nearly impossible since human, animals and electrical appliances produce heat. The uncontrollable heat properties which can change and transfer will add to the detection issue. Integrating the low cost MEMS based thermal sensor can solve the first of human sensing problem by its ability to detect human in stationary. Further discrimination and analysis must therefore be made to the measured temperature data to distinguish human from other objects. In this project, the fan is properly designed and program in such a way that it can adapt to different events starting from the human sensing stage to its dynamic and mechanical moving parts. Up to this stage initial testing to the Omron D6T microelectromechanical thermal sensor is currently under several experimental stages. Experimental result of the sensor tested on stationary and motion state of human are behaviorally differentiable and successfully locate the human position by detecting the maximum temperature of each sensor reading.

  15. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015. PMID:26633395

  16. Process Mining Methodology for Health Process Tracking Using Real-Time Indoor Location Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Lizondo, Aroa; Monton, Eduardo; Benedi, Jose-Miguel; Traver, Vicente

    2015-11-30

    The definition of efficient and accurate health processes in hospitals is crucial for ensuring an adequate quality of service. Knowing and improving the behavior of the surgical processes in a hospital can improve the number of patients that can be operated on using the same resources. However, the measure of this process is usually made in an obtrusive way, forcing nurses to get information and time data, affecting the proper process and generating inaccurate data due to human errors during the stressful journey of health staff in the operating theater. The use of indoor location systems can take time information about the process in an unobtrusive way, freeing nurses, allowing them to engage in purely welfare work. However, it is necessary to present these data in a understandable way for health professionals, who cannot deal with large amounts of historical localization log data. The use of process mining techniques can deal with this problem, offering an easily understandable view of the process. In this paper, we present a tool and a process mining-based methodology that, using indoor location systems, enables health staff not only to represent the process, but to know precise information about the deployment of the process in an unobtrusive and transparent way. We have successfully tested this tool in a real surgical area with 3613 patients during February, March and April of 2015.

  17. Detection and location of multiple events by MARS. Final report. [Multiple Arrival Recognition System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Masso, J.F.; Archambeau, C.B.; Savino, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    Seismic data from two explosions was processed using the Systems Science and Software MARS (Multiple Arrival Recognition System) seismic event detector in an effort to determine their relative spatial and temporal separation on the basis of seismic data alone. The explosions were less than 1.0 kilometer apart and were separated by less than 0.5 sec in origin times. The seismic data consisted of nine local accelerograms (r < 1.0 km) and four regional (240 through 400 km) seismograms. The MARS processing clearly indicates the presence of multiple explosions, but the restricted frequency range of the data inhibits accurate time picks and hence limits the precision of the event location.

  18. Ultra-wide Range Gamma Detector System for Search and Locate Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D. Mackenzie Odell; Harpring, Larry J.; Moore, Frank S. Jr.; French, Phillip J.; Gordon, John R.

    2005-10-26

    Collecting debris samples following a nuclear event requires that operations be conducted from a considerable stand-off distance. An ultra-wide range gamma detector system has been constructed to accomplish both long range radiation search and close range hot sample collection functions. Constructed and tested on a REMOTEC Andros platform, the system has demonstrated reliable operation over six orders of magnitude of gamma dose from 100's of uR/hr to over 100 R/hr. Functional elements include a remotely controlled variable collimator assembly, a NaI(Tl)/photomultiplier tube detector, a proprietary digital radiation instrument, a coaxially mounted video camera, a digital compass, and both local and remote control computers with a user interface designed for long range operations. Long range sensitivity and target location, as well as close range sample selection performance are presented.

  19. Majority and location-based fusers for systems of PAC concept learners

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.; Oblow, E.M. . Intelligent Systems Section)

    1994-05-01

    A system of probably and approximately correct learners of Valiant type that infer concepts from a sample is considered. Each learner had been trained by a sample using the methods of minimizing the empirical error, and no examples are available to the fuser. A majority fuser is known to make the composite system better than the best of the learners in terms of normalized confidence (that corresponds to the same precision value). An analysis of general majority fusers is carried out to obtain bounds on actual and expected errors. Conditions under which the r-of-N fuser performs better, in terms of normalized confidence or precision, than best of the individual learners are obtained. For a special class of statistically independent learners, slightly weaker conditions are obtained. Two fusers that use the location information of a test point are proposed, and are shown to be better than a learner with least empirical error.

  20. Investigative techniques used to locate the liquid hydrogen leakage on the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammock, William R., Jr.; Cota, Phillip E., Jr.; Rosenbaum, Bernard J.; Barrett, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Standard leak detection methods at ambient temperature have been developed in order to prevent excessive leakage from the Space Shuttle liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen Main Propulsion System. Unacceptable hydrogen leakage was encountered on the Columbia and Atlantis flight vehicles in the summer of 1990 after the standard leak check requirements had been satisfied. The leakage was only detectable when the fuel system was exposed to subcooled liquid hydrogen during External Tank loading operations. Special instrumentation and analytical tools were utilized during a series of propellant tanking tests in order to identify the sources of the hydrogen leakage. After the leaks were located and corrected, the physical characteristics of the leak sources were analyzed in an effort to understand how the discrepancies were introduced and why the leakage had evaded the standard leak detection methods. As a result of the post-leak analysis, corrective actions and leak detection improvements have been implemented in order to preclude a similar incident.

  1. Study of flight data recorder, underwater locator beacon, data logger and flarm collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timi, Purnota Hannan; Shermin, Saima; Rahman, Asifur

    2017-06-01

    Flight data recorder is one of the most important sources of flight data in event of aviation disaster which records a wide range of flight parameters including altitude, airspeed, heading etc. and also helps monitoring and analyzing aircraft performance. Cockpit voice recorder records radio microphone transmissions and sounds in the cockpit. These devices help to find out and understand the root causes of aircraft crashes and help building better aircraft systems and technical solutions to prevent similar type of crashes in future, which lead to improvement in safety of aircrafts and passengers. There are other devices also which enhance the aircraft safety and assists in emergency or catastrophic situations. This paper discusses the concept of Flight Data Recorder (FDR), Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR), Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB), Data logger and flarm-collision avoidance system for aircraft and their applications in aviation.

  2. The model of the optical-electronic control system of vehicles location at level crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verezhinskaia, Ekaterina A.; Gorbachev, Aleksei A.; Maruev, Ivan A.; Shavrygina, Margarita A.

    2016-04-01

    Level crossing - one of the most dangerous sections of the road network, where railway line crosses motor road at the same level. The collision of trains with vehicles at a level crossing is a serious type of road traffic accidents. The purpose of this research is to develop complex optical electronic control system of vehicles location in the dangerous zone of level crossing. The system consists of registration blocks (including photodetector, lens, infrared emitting diode), determinant devices and camera installed within the boundaries of level crossing. The system performs detection of objects (vehicles) by analysing the time of the object movement opposite to the registration block and level of the reflected signal from the object. The paper presents theoretical description and experimental research of main principles of the system operation. Experimental research of the system model with selected optical-electronic components have confirmed the possibility of metal objects detection at the required distance (0.5 - 2 m) with different values of background illuminance.

  3. Compact battery-less information terminal (CoBIT) for location-based support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Takuichi; Itoh, Hideo; Yamamoto, Yoshinobu; Nakashima, Hideyuki

    2002-06-01

    The target of ubiquitous computing environment is to support users to get necessary information and services in a situation-dependent form. Therefore, we propose a location-based information support system by using Compact Battery-less Information Terminal (CoBIT). A CoBIT can communicate with the environmental system and with the user by only the energy supply from the environment. It has a solar cell and get a modulated light from an environmental optical beam transmitter. The current from the solar cell is directly (or through passive circuit) introduced into an earphone, which generates sound for the user. The current is also used to make vibration, LED signal or electrical stimulus on the skin. The sizes of CoBITs are about 2cm in diameter, 3cm in length, which can be hanged on ears conveniently. The cost of it would be only about 1 dollar if produced massively. The CoBIT also has sheet type corner reflector, which reflect optical beam back in the direction of the light source. Therefore the environmental system can easily detect the terminal position and direction as well as some simple signs from the user by multiple cameras with infra-red LEDs. The system identifies the sign by the modulated patterns of the reflected light, which the user makes by occluding the reflector by hand. The environmental system also recognizes other objects using other sensors and displays video information on a nearby monitor in order to realize situated support.

  4. Rifting Attractor Structures in the Baikal Rift System: Location and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyuchevskii, Anatoly V.

    2014-07-01

    The current geodynamics and tectonophysics of the Baikal rift system (BRS) as recorded in lithospheric stress and strain are discussed in the context of self organization of nonlinear dissipative dynamic systems and nonlinear media. The regional strain field inferred from instrumental seismic moment and fault radius data for almost 70,000 MLH ⩾ 2.0 events of 1968 through 1994 shows a complex pattern with zones of high strain anisotropy in the central part and both flanks of the rift system (the South Baikal, Hovsgöl, and Muya rift basins, respectively). The three zones of local strain anisotropy highs coincide with domains of predominantly vertical stress where earthquakes of different magnitudes are mostly of normal slip geometry. Pulse-like reversals of principal stresses in the high-strain domains appear to be nonlinear responses of the system to subcrustal processes. In this respect, the BRS lithosphere is interpreted in terms of the self organization theory as a geological dissipative system. Correspondingly, the domains of high strain anisotropy and stress change, called rifting attractor structures (RAS), are the driving forces of its evolution. The location and nonlinear dynamics of the rifting attractors have controlled lithospheric stress and strain of the rift system over the period of observations, and the same scenario may have been valid also in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic rifting history. The suggested model of a positive-feedback (fire-like) evolution of nonlinear dynamical systems with rifting attractors opens a new perspective on the current geodynamics and tectonophysics of the Baikal rift system.

  5. In vivo accuracy of two electronic foramen locators based on different operation systems.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho de; Araújo, Rebeca Bastos Rocha; Silva, Francisco Cláudio Fernandes Alves e; Luna-Cruz, Suyane Maria; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Fernandes, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the accuracy of two electronic foramen locators (EFLs) based on different operation systems - Root ZX and Propex II. Ten healthy adult patients needing premolar extractions due to orthodontic reasons participated in the study, providing a sample of 17 noncarious, non-restored, vital teeth (n= 24 canals). After coronal access preparation and cervical preflaring and prior to tooth extraction, the root canal length was measured alternating the two EFLs. All measurements were performed with K-files well fitted to the canal diameter at the level that each EFL indicated the apical foramen in their display (APEX or 0.0). The last K-file were fixed in place with cyanoacrylate, the tooth was extracted, and the apical 4 mm of each root were resected to measure the distance between the file tip and the apical foramen. The mean errors based on the absolute values of discrepancies were 0.30 ± 0.29 mm (Root ZX) and 0.32 ± 0.27 mm (Propex II). Analysis by the Wilcoxon test for paired samples showed no statistically significant differences between the electronic canal measurements performed with the EFLs (p=0.587). The apical foramen was accurately located in 75% (Root ZX) and 66.7% (Propex II) of the cases, considering a ±0.5 mm error margin, with no statistically significant difference by the chi-square test. Despite having different measurement mechanisms, both EFLs were capable of locating the apical foramen with high accuracy in vivo. Under the tested clinical conditions, Root ZX and Propex II displayed similar results.

  6. High precision locating control system based on VCM for Talbot lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lixin; Deng, Qian; Hu, Song

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the high precision and efficiency requirements of Z-direction locating in Talbot lithography, a control system based on Voice Coil Motor (VCM) was designed. In this paper, we built a math model of VCM and its moving characteristic was analyzed. A double-closed loop control strategy including position loop and current loop were accomplished. The current loop was implemented by driver, in order to achieve the rapid follow of the system current. The position loop was completed by the digital signal processor (DSP) and the position feedback was achieved by high precision linear scales. Feed forward control and position feedback Proportion Integration Differentiation (PID) control were applied in order to compensate for dynamic lag and improve the response speed of the system. And the high precision and efficiency of the system were verified by simulation and experiments. The results demonstrated that the performance of Z-direction gantry was obviously improved, having high precision, quick responses, strong real-time and easily to expend for higher precision.

  7. Modeling and Performance Analysis of Movement-Based Group Location Management Using RFID Sensing in Public Transportation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yun Won

    2012-01-01

    Location management, which consists of location registration and paging, is essential to provide mobile communication services to mobile stations (MSs). Since MSs riding on a public transportation system (TS) generates significant location registration signaling loads simultaneously when a TS with riding MSs moves between location areas (LAs), group location management was proposed. Under the group location management, an MS performs group registration when it gets on a TS and performs group deregistration when it gets off a TS. Then, only a TS updates its current location when it changes LA, on behalf of all riding MSs. In this paper, movement-based group location management using radio frequency identification (RFID) is proposed, where the MS’s getting on and getting off behaviors are detected using RFID and only location update of a TS is carried out if the number of crossed cells from the last updated cell exceeds a predefined movement threshold, on behalf of all riding MSs. Then, we develop an analytical model for the performance analysis of the movement-based group location management and analyze the effects of various parameters on the performance. The results show that the movement-based group location management has reduced signaling cost compared with movement-based individual location management, and optimal performance can be achieved by choosing appropriate movement threshold values. PMID:23443368

  8. Modeling and performance analysis of movement-based group location management using RFID sensing in public transportation systems.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yun Won

    2012-11-22

    Location management, which consists of location registration and paging, is essential to provide mobile communication services to mobile stations (MSs). Since MSs riding on a public transportation system (TS) generates significant location registration signaling loads simultaneously when a TS with riding MSs moves between location areas (LAs), group location management was proposed. Under the group location management, an MS performs group registration when it gets on a TS and performs group deregistration when it gets off a TS. Then, only a TS updates its current location when it changes LA, on behalf of all riding MSs. In this paper, movement-based group location management using radio frequency identification (RFID) is proposed, where the MS's getting on and getting off behaviors are detected using RFID and only location update of a TS is carried out if the number of crossed cells from the last updated cell exceeds a predefined movement threshold, on behalf of all riding MSs. Then, we develop an analytical model for the performance analysis of the movement-based group location management and analyze the effects of various parameters on the performance. The results show that the movement-based group location management has reduced signaling cost compared with movement-based individual location management, and optimal performance can be achieved by choosing appropriate movement threshold values.

  9. Locating and Measuring the High Mass Ejecta from the Unstable Massive Star System eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The luminous, massive binary system eta Carinae is both one of the nearest and most unstable objects in a class of evolved massive stars, near the end of its lifetime before expected destruction in a supernova. It experienced a major outburst in 1843, producing the well-known Homunculus nebula, containing some 15 to 40 Msun in warm (~170 K) and cool (90-110 K) dust and associated gas, according to mid-infrared ISO spectroscopy. The location of this material is very uncertain, due to large apertures of the spectroscopic observations, and lack of direct imaging beyond 25 microns. We propose to use the FORCAST imager with long wavelength filters to better locate and estimate the mass in thermal components of this material that may be resolved, constraining it to the interior regions or bipolar lobes of the Homunculus nebula, or in outer ejecta that would support the hypothesis of a major event prior to the 1843 eruption. This is crucial to understanding the mass-loss history of this object on the edge of a final supernova explosion, and provide constraints on the distribution and extinction properties of the dust in 3D hydrodynamical + radiative transfer numerical modeling of the Homunculus nebula.

  10. Greater trochanter location measurement using a three-dimensional motion capture system during prone hip extension.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Su; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The greater trochanter (GT) is an important structure in biomedical research, but the measurement methods require development. This study presents data from a new measurement method that does not use GT-marker-based measurement (No GT-m) in comparison with GT-marker based measurement (GT-m). [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 20 healthy subjects, who were asked to perform and maintain a prone position and then move to the prone hip extension. A motion capture system collected the kinematic data and the location of the GT was calculated by two measurements. [Results] GT migration distance differed significantly between the two measurements and the coefficient of the variation value was lower for the No GT-m method. Thigh lengths of the No GT-m method were comparable to the original lengths. There were significant differences between the GT-m and the other methods. [Conclusions] These data suggest that the GT-m method yielded a lower precision with a smaller GT migration distance. In the comparison of thigh length, the No GT-m method was in close agreement with the original length. We suggest that determining the location of the GT using the No GT-m has greater accuracy than the GT-m method.

  11. Greater trochanter location measurement using a three-dimensional motion capture system during prone hip extension

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ji-Su; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The greater trochanter (GT) is an important structure in biomedical research, but the measurement methods require development. This study presents data from a new measurement method that does not use GT-marker-based measurement (No GT-m) in comparison with GT-marker based measurement (GT-m). [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 20 healthy subjects, who were asked to perform and maintain a prone position and then move to the prone hip extension. A motion capture system collected the kinematic data and the location of the GT was calculated by two measurements. [Results] GT migration distance differed significantly between the two measurements and the coefficient of the variation value was lower for the No GT-m method. Thigh lengths of the No GT-m method were comparable to the original lengths. There were significant differences between the GT-m and the other methods. [Conclusions] These data suggest that the GT-m method yielded a lower precision with a smaller GT migration distance. In the comparison of thigh length, the No GT-m method was in close agreement with the original length. We suggest that determining the location of the GT using the No GT-m has greater accuracy than the GT-m method. PMID:28265151

  12. Trial of real-time locating and messaging system with Bluetooth low energy.

    PubMed

    Arisaka, Naoya; Mamorita, Noritaka; Isonaka, Risa; Kawakami, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Akihiro

    2016-09-14

    Hospital real-time location systems (RTLS) are increasing efficiency and reducing operational costs, but room access tags are necessary. We developed three iPhone 5 applications for an RTLS and communications using Bluetooth low energy (BLE). The applications were: Peripheral device tags, Central beacons, and a Monitor. A Peripheral communicated with a Central using BLE. The Central communicated with a Monitor using sockets on TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) via a WLAN (wireless local area network). To determine a BLE threshold level for the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), relationships between signal strength and distance were measured in our laboratory and on the terrace. The BLE RSSI threshold was set at -70 dB, about 10 m. While an individual with a Peripheral moved around in a concrete building, the Peripheral was captured in a few 10-sec units at about 10 m from a Central. The Central and Monitor showed and saved the approach events, location, and Peripheral's nickname sequentially in real time. Remote Centrals also interactively communicate with Peripherals by intermediating through Monitors that found the nickname in the event database. Trial applications using BLE on iPhones worked well for patient tracking, and messaging in indoor environments.

  13. The timing and location of GDNF expression determines enteric nervous system structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongtao; Hughes, Inna; Planer, William; Parsadanian, Alexander; Grider, John R.; Vohra, Bhupinder P.S.; Keller-Peck, Cynthia; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Ret signaling is critical for formation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) because Ret activation promotes ENS precursor survival, proliferation, and migration and provides trophic support for mature enteric neurons. While these roles are well established, we now provide evidence that increasing levels of the Ret ligand GDNF in mice causes alterations in ENS structure and function that are critically dependent on the time and location of increased GDNF availability. This is demonstrated using two different strains of transgenic mice and by injecting newborn mice with GDNF. Furthermore, because different subclasses of ENS precursors withdraw from the cell cycle at different times during development, increases in GDNF at specific times alter the ratio of neuronal subclasses in the mature ENS. In addition, we confirm that esophageal neurons are GDNF responsive and demonstrate that the location of GDNF production influences neuronal process projection for NADPH diaphorase expressing, but not acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, or tryptophan hydroxylase expressing small bowel myenteric neurons. We further demonstrate that changes in GDNF availability influence intestinal function in vitro and in vivo. Thus, changes in GDNF expression can create a wide variety of alterations in ENS structure and function and may in part contribute to human motility disorders. PMID:20107080

  14. Locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems using embedded optimization and simulation models.

    PubMed

    Bashi-Azghadi, Seyyed Nasser; Kerachian, Reza

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for optimally locating monitoring wells in groundwater systems in order to identify an unknown pollution source using monitoring data. The methodology is comprised of two different single and multi-objective optimization models, a Monte Carlo analysis, MODFLOW, MT3D groundwater quantity and quality simulation models and a Probabilistic Support Vector Machine (PSVM). The single-objective optimization model, which uses the results of the Monte Carlo analysis and maximizes the reliability of contamination detection, provides the initial location of monitoring wells. The objective functions of the multi-objective optimization model are minimizing the monitoring cost, i.e. the number of monitoring wells, maximizing the reliability of contamination detection and maximizing the probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. The PSVMs are calibrated and verified using the results of the single-objective optimization model and the Monte Carlo analysis. Then, the PSVMs are linked with the multi-objective optimization model, which maximizes both the reliability of contamination detection and probability of detecting an unknown pollution source. To evaluate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed methodology, it is applied to Tehran Refinery in Iran.

  15. A Survey of Algorithms and Systems for Expert Location in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappas, Theodoros; Liu, Kun; Terzi, Evimaria

    Given a particular task and a set of candidates, one often wants to identify the right expert (or set of experts) that can perform the given task. We call this problem the expert-location problem and we survey its different aspects as they arise in practice. For example, given the activities of candidates within a context (e.g., authoring a document, answering a question), we first describe methods for evaluating the level of expertise for each of them. Often, experts are organized in networks that correspond to social networks or organizational structures of companies. We next devote part of the chapter for describing algorithms that compute the expertise level of individuals by taking into account their position in such a network. Finally, complex tasks often require the collective expertise of more than one experts. In such cases, it is more realistic to require a team of experts that can collaborate towards a common goal. We describe algorithms that identify effective expert teams within a network of experts. The chapter is a survey of different algorithms for expertise evaluation and team identification. We highlight the basic algorithmic problems and give some indicative algorithms that have been developed in the literature. We conclude the chapter by providing a comprehensive overview of real-life systems for expert location.

  16. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Network and topology for identifying, locating and quantifying physical phenomena, systems and methods for employing same

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, John G.; Moore, Karen A.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2005-05-10

    A method and system for detecting, locating and quantifying a physical phenomena such as strain or a deformation in a structure. A plurality of laterally adjacent conductors may each include a plurality of segments. Each segment is constructed to exhibit a unit value representative of a defined energy transmission characteristic. A plurality of identity groups are defined with each identity group comprising a plurality of segments including at least one segment from each of the plurality of conductors. The segments contained within an identity group are configured and arranged such that each of their associated unit values may be represented by a concatenated digit string which is a unique number relative to the other identity groups. Additionally, the unit values of the segments within an identity group maintain unique ratios with respect to the other unit values in the identity group.

  18. Influence of propulsion system size, shape, and location on supersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Roe, M. H.; Tyson, R. M.; Mairs, R. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of various propulsion system parameters on the characteristics of a supersonic transport were investigated. The effects of arbitrarily scaling engine size on wave drag, friction drag, drag-due-to-lift, wing sizing, airplane balance, and airplane weight were studied. These evaluations were made for two families of nacelle shapes, resulting from typical turbojet and turbofan installations. Also examined were effects of nacelle location, and the wing camber plane deformations required to cancel the nacelle interference pressure field at cruise Mach number (2.7 M) were determined. The most drag-sensitive parameter is found to be nacelle shape. Similarly, wing deformation requirements are found to be primarily affected by nacelle shape. Effects of engine size variations are noted primarily in airplane gross weight.

  19. Space station integrated wall design and penetration damage control. Task 4: Impact detection/location system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, J. M.; Lempriere, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A program to develop a methodology is documented for detecting and locating meteoroid and debris impacts and penetrations of a wall configuration currently specified for use on space station. Testing consisted of penetrating and non-penetrating hypervelocity impacts on single and dual plate test configurations, including a prototype 1.22 m x 2.44 m x 3.56 mm (4 ft x 8 ft x 0.140 in) aluminum waffle grid backwall with multilayer insulation and a 0.063-in shield. Acoustic data were gathered with transducers and associated data acquisition systems and stored for later analysis with a multichannel digitizer. Preliminary analysis of test data included sensor evaluation, impact repeatability, first waveform arrival, and Fourier spectral analysis.

  20. Health systems engineering as an improvement strategy: a case example using location-allocation modeling.

    PubMed

    Watts, Bradley V; Shiner, Brian; Ceyhan, Mehmet E; Musdal, Hande; Sinangil, Seda; Benneyan, James

    2013-01-01

    Finding the optimal geographic location for a medical service is a common challenge for healthcare organizations. However, there is limited use or description of methods to determine the optimal location of a medical service. We describe a case study of how location-allocation techniques used by industrial engineers assisted a regional healthcare network develop a plan for optimal location of sleep medicine services within its network.

  1. Modeling and performance analysis of an improved movement-based location management scheme for packet-switched mobile communication systems.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yun Won; Kwon, Jae Kyun; Park, Suwon

    2014-01-01

    One of the key technologies to support mobility of mobile station (MS) in mobile communication systems is location management which consists of location update and paging. In this paper, an improved movement-based location management scheme with two movement thresholds is proposed, considering bursty data traffic characteristics of packet-switched (PS) services. The analytical modeling for location update and paging signaling loads of the proposed scheme is developed thoroughly and the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with that of the conventional scheme. We show that the proposed scheme outperforms the conventional scheme in terms of total signaling load with an appropriate selection of movement thresholds.

  2. Definition study of land/sea civil user navigational location monitoring systems for NAVSTAR GPS: User requirements and systems concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devito, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A low-cost GPS civil-user mobile terminal whose purchase cost is substantially an order of magnitude less than estimates for the military counterpart is considered with focus on ground station requirements for position monitoring of civil users requiring this capability and the civil user navigation and location-monitoring requirements. Existing survey literature was examined to ascertain the potential users of a low-cost NAVSTAR receiver and to estimate their number, function, and accuracy requirements. System concepts are defined for low cost user equipments for in-situ navigation and the retransmission of low data rate positioning data via a geostationary satellite to a central computing facility.

  3. A pattern recognition system for locating small volvanoes in Magellan SAR images of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, M. C.; Fayyad, U. M.; Smyth, P.; Aubele, J. C.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Magellan data set constitutes an example of the large volumes of data that today's instruments can collect, providing more detail of Venus than was previously available from Pioneer Venus, Venera 15/16, or ground-based radar observations put together. However, data analysis technology has not kept pace with data collection and storage technology. Due to the sheer size of the data, complete and comprehensive scientific analysis of such large volumes of image data is no longer feasible without the use of computational aids. Our progress towards developing a pattern recognition system for aiding in the detection and cataloging of small-scale natural features in large collections of images is reported. Combining classical image processing, machine learning, and a graphical user interface, the detection of the 'small-shield' volcanoes (less than 15km in diameter) that constitute the most abundant visible geologic feature in the more that 30,000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the surface of Venus are initially targeted. Our eventual goal is to provide a general, trainable tool for locating small-scale features where scientists specify what to look for simply by providing examples and attributes of interest to measure. This contrasts with the traditional approach of developing problem specific programs for detecting Specific patterns. The approach and initial results in the specific context of locating small volcanoes is reported. It is estimated, based on extrapolating from previous studies and knowledge of the underlying geologic processes, that there should be on the order of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) of these volcanoes visible in the Magellan data. Identifying and studying these volcanoes is fundamental to a proper understanding of the geologic evolution of Venus. However, locating and parameterizing them in a manual manner is forbiddingly time-consuming. Hence, the development of techniques to partially automate this task were undertaken. The primary

  4. Measuring Chemotherapy Appointment Duration and Variation Using Real-Time Location Systems.

    PubMed

    Barysauskas, Constance M; Hudgins, Gina; Gill, Katie Kupferberg; Camuso, Kristen M; Bagley, Janet; Rozanski, Sheila; Kadish, Sarah

    Clinical schedules drive resource utilization, cost, and patient wait time. Accurate appointment duration allocation ensures appropriate staffing ratios to daily caseloads and maximizes scarce resources. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) infusion appointment duration is adjusted by regimen using a consensus method of experts including pharmacists, nurses, and administrators. Using real-time location system (RTLS), we examined the accuracy of observed appointment duration compared with the scheduled duration. Appointment duration was calculated using RTLS at DFCI between August 1, 2013, and September 30, 2013. Duration was defined as the total time a patient occupied an infusion chair. The top 10 administered infusion regimens were investigated (n = 805). Median observed appointment durations were statistically different than the scheduled durations. Appointment durations were shorter than scheduled 98% (C), 95% (I), and 75% (F) of the time and longer than scheduled 77% (A) and 76% (G) of the time. Fifty-six percent of the longer than scheduled (A) appointments were at least 30 minute longer. RTLS provides reliable and unbiased data to improve schedule accuracy. Replacing consensus with system-based data may improve clinic flow, relieve staff stress, and increase patient satisfaction. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate factors that impact variation in appointment duration.

  5. Use of geographical information system data for emergency management points of distribution analysis with POD Locator 2.0.

    PubMed

    Chung, Christopher A

    In 2010, the article Location and Analysis of Emergency Management Point of Distributions (PODs) for Hurricane Ike was published in the Journal of Emergency Management. Using a program titled point of distribution locator (POD Locator 1.0), the article reported a 46 percent improvement in positioning PODs over the locations selected by emergency managers during Hurricane Ike in 2008. While the program could produce more effective POD locations for a given situation, a major weakness of the program was the difficulty with which population and location data were manually entered into the program for subsequent analysis. This prevented organizations that could have otherwise benefited from the program from successfully utilizing it without additional training. This research effort focuses on the leveraging of readily available geographic information system (GIS) electronic data to address this problem. Analysis of the difference between the previous manual data entry method and the GIS assisted method was statistically significant.

  6. Evaluating pictogram prediction in a location-aware augmentative and alternative communication system.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luís Filipe; de Oliveira, Luís Caldas; de Matos, David Martins

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the performance of two statistical location-aware pictogram prediction mechanisms, with an all-purpose (All) pictogram prediction mechanism, having no location knowledge. The All approach had a unique language model under all locations. One of the location-aware alternatives, the location-specific (Spec) approach, made use of specific language models for pictogram prediction in each location of interest. The other location-aware approach resulted from combining the Spec and the All approaches, and was designated the mixed approach (Mix). In this approach, the language models acquired knowledge from all locations, but a higher relevance was assigned to the vocabulary from the associated location. Results from simulations showed that the Mix and Spec approaches could only outperform the baseline in a statistically significant way if pictogram users reuse more than 50% and 75% of their sentences, respectively. Under low sentence reuse conditions there were no statistically significant differences between the location-aware approaches and the All approach. Under these conditions, the Mix approach performed better than the Spec approach in a statistically significant way.

  7. 78 FR 57855 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “System for Locating People Using Electricity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for ``System for Locating People Using Electricity Dependent Medical Equipment During Public Health Emergencies Ideation Challenge'' AGENCY: Office...

  8. Multidimensional evaluation of a radio frequency identification wi-fi location tracking system in an acute-care hospital setting

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewska, Barbara; Graham, Alecia; Gavrilova, Marina; Wah, Dannel; Gilgen, Jonathan; Coke, Jason; Burden, Jack; Nayyar, Shikha; Kaunda, Joseph; Yergens, Dean; Baylis, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Real-time locating systems (RTLS) have the potential to enhance healthcare systems through the live tracking of assets, patients and staff. This study evaluated a commercially available RTLS system deployed in a clinical setting, with three objectives: (1) assessment of the location accuracy of the technology in a clinical setting; (2) assessment of the value of asset tracking to staff; and (3) assessment of threshold monitoring applications developed for patient tracking and inventory control. Simulated daily activities were monitored by RTLS and compared with direct research team observations. Staff surveys and interviews concerning the system's effectiveness and accuracy were also conducted and analyzed. The study showed only modest location accuracy, and mixed reactions in staff interviews. These findings reveal that the technology needs to be refined further for better specific location accuracy before full-scale implementation can be recommended. PMID:22298566

  9. The enhanced locating performance of an integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm for radio monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Wu, Chi-Lin; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2014-04-24

    The rapid development of wireless broadband communication technology has affected the location accuracy of worldwide radio monitoring stations that employ time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) location technology. In this study, TDOA-based location technology was implemented in Taiwan for the first time according to International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication (ITU-R) recommendations regarding monitoring and location applications. To improve location accuracy, various scenarios, such as a three-dimensional environment (considering an unequal locating antenna configuration), were investigated. Subsequently, the proposed integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm was evaluated in the metropolitan area of Tainan. The results indicated that the location accuracy at a circular error probability of 50% was less than 60 m when a multipath effect was present in the area. Moreover, compared with hyperbolic algorithms that have been applied in conventional TDOA-based location systems, the proposed algorithm yielded 17-fold and 19-fold improvements in the mean difference when the location position of the interference station was favorable and unfavorable, respectively. Hence, the various forms of radio interference, such as low transmission power, burst and weak signals, and metropolitan interference, was proved to be easily identified, located, and removed.

  10. The Enhanced Locating Performance of an Integrated Cross-Correlation and Genetic Algorithm for Radio Monitoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Wu, Chi-Lin; Cheng, Hsu-Chih

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of wireless broadband communication technology has affected the location accuracy of worldwide radio monitoring stations that employ time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) location technology. In this study, TDOA-based location technology was implemented in Taiwan for the first time according to International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication (ITU-R) recommendations regarding monitoring and location applications. To improve location accuracy, various scenarios, such as a three-dimensional environment (considering an unequal locating antenna configuration), were investigated. Subsequently, the proposed integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm was evaluated in the metropolitan area of Tainan. The results indicated that the location accuracy at a circular error probability of 50% was less than 60 m when a multipath effect was present in the area. Moreover, compared with hyperbolic algorithms that have been applied in conventional TDOA-based location systems, the proposed algorithm yielded 17-fold and 19-fold improvements in the mean difference when the location position of the interference station was favorable and unfavorable, respectively. Hence, the various forms of radio interference, such as low transmission power, burst and weak signals, and metropolitan interference, was proved to be easily identified, located, and removed. PMID:24763254

  11. Use of Loran-C navigation system to accurately determine sampling site location in an above ground cooling reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, R.E.; Blankinship, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental monitoring programs often require accurate determination of sampling site locations in aquatic environments. This is especially true when a {open_quotes}picture{close_quotes} of high resolution is needed for observing a changing variable in a given area and location is assumed to be important to the distribution of that variable. Sample site location can be difficult if few visible land marks are available for reference on a large body of water. The use of navigational systems such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and its predecessor, Loran-C, provide an excellent method for sample site location. McFarland (1992) discusses the practicality of GPS for location determination. This article discusses the use of Loran-C in a sampling scheme implemented at the South Texas Project Electrical Generating Station (STPEGS), Wadsworth, Texas.

  12. Determining accessibility to dermatologists and teledermatology locations in Kentucky: demonstration of an innovative geographic information systems approach.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Gary William; Buker, Carol Marie

    2010-01-01

    Teledermatology provides a partial solution to the problem of accessibility to dermatology services in underserved areas, yet methodologies to determine the locations and geographic dimensions of these areas and the locational efficiency of remote teledermatology sites have been found wanting. This article illustrates an innovative Geographic Information Systems approach using dermatologists' addresses, U.S. Census population data, and the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System. Travel-time-based service areas were calculated and mapped for each dermatologist in the state of Kentucky and for possible locations of several remote teledermatology sites. Populations within the current and possible remote service areas were determined. These populations and associated maps permit assessment of the locational efficiency of the current distribution of dermatologists, location of underserved areas, and the potential contribution of proposed hypothetical teledermatology sites. This approach is a valuable and practical tool for evaluating access to current distributions of dermatologists as well as planning for and implementing teledermatology.

  13. Assessing Locations of Energy Transfer/Deposit in the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, J.; Song, P.

    2014-12-01

    It has long been believed that most of energy transferred from the magnetosphere and deposited in the ionosphere-thermosphere system occurs in the auroral zone, the region of strong field-aligned current density. Recent observations of the Poynting flux to the ionosphere and theoretical investigations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling show that the strongest energy transfer may be in the polar cap proper where the plasma flow speed is high and not where the flow reverses. This implies that the field-aligned current is not the primary agent of the energy transfer into the ionosphere-thermosphere system and that other physical progresses are at play. Recent simulation studies using an inductive-dynamic approach (including self-consistent solutions of Faraday's law and retaining inertia terms in the ion momentum equations) on the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling indicate that the energy transfer is through Alfven waves propagating to the ionosphere/thermosphere and the energy deposition is via the frictional heating caused by relative motion between ions and neutrals. In this study we assess the locations of the energy transfer and deposition by employing a self-consistent inductive-dynamic ionosphere-thermosphere model. In a 2-D numerical simulation (dawn-dusk meridian plane), we solve the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple species of ions and neutrals including photochemistry and Maxwell's equations. By simulating responses of the ionosphere-thermosphere system to enhanced magnetosphere convection, we show that the strongest energy transfer occurs in the polar cap proper instead of the auroral zone.

  14. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  15. Location of the Fisher-Widom line for systems interacting through short-ranged potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, C.; Rull, L.F.; Lago, S. |

    1995-04-01

    For finite-ranged potentials the behavior of the total correlation function {ital h}({ital r}) at large distances can be of two different types. In three-dimensional systems at low densities the function {ital r} {ital h}({ital r}) presents exponential decay whereas at high densities it presents exponentially damped oscillatory decay. The locus of points on the phase diagram where a transition from exponential to oscillatory decay occurs is denoted as the Fisher-Widom line after the work of these authors [M. E. Fisher and B. Widom, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 3756 (1969)]. These authors exactly computed the Fisher-Widom line for several one-dimensional systems and conjectured that the same behavior could occur in three dimensions. In this work the Fisher-Widom line is computed for a three-dimensional finite-range potential by using the structural information obtained from the reference hypernetted chain theory which is probably the most successful theory of liquid structure available now. By combining these results with computer simulations of the vapor-liquid equilibria of the considered model the Fisher-Widom line is located within the phase diagram of the model. For the considered model the Fisher-Widom line cuts the liquid branch of the vapor liquid equilibria at a reduced temperature of {ital T}/{ital T}{sub {ital c}}=0.88 and a reduced density of {rho}/{rho}{sub {ital c}}=2.07. The effect of the range of the potential on the location of the Fisher-Widom line is also considered. Increasing the range of the potential reduces the region of the phase diagram where oscillatory behavior of the function {ital r} {ital h}({ital r}) occurs. The long-range decay of a Lennard Jones fluid is also considered. Decay of {ital h}({ital r}) to zero at large distances is different for a Lennard-Jones potential and for a finite-ranged potential. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Performances of Different Global Positioning System Devices for Time-Location Tracking in Air Pollution Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Liu, Zhen; Houston, Douglas; Jaimes, Guillermo; McConnell, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Background: People’s time-location patterns are important in air pollution exposure assessment because pollution levels may vary considerably by location. A growing number of studies are using global positioning systems (GPS) to track people’s time-location patterns. Many portable GPS units that archive location are commercially available at a cost that makes their use feasible for epidemiological studies. Methods: We evaluated the performance of five portable GPS data loggers and two GPS cell phones by examining positional accuracy in typical locations (indoor, outdoor, in-vehicle) and factors that influence satellite reception (building material, building type), acquisition time (cold and warm start), battery life, and adequacy of memory for data storage. We examined stationary locations (eg, indoor, outdoor) and mobile environments (eg, walking, traveling by vehicle or bus) and compared GPS locations to highly-resolved US Geological Survey (USGS) and Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangle (DOQQ) maps. Results: The battery life of our tested instruments ranged from <9 hours to 48 hours. The acquisition of location time after startup ranged from a few seconds to >20 minutes and varied significantly by building structure type and by cold or warm start. No GPS device was found to have consistently superior performance with regard to spatial accuracy and signal loss. At fixed outdoor locations, 65%–95% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices. At fixed indoor locations, 50%–80% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices except one. Most of the GPS devices performed well during commuting on a freeway, with >80% of points within 10-m of the DOQQ route, but the performance was significantly impacted by surrounding structures on surface streets in highly urbanized areas. Conclusions: All the tested GPS devices had limitations, but we identified several devices which showed

  17. Performances of different global positioning system devices for time-location tracking in air pollution epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Liu, Zhen; Houston, Douglas; Jaimes, Guillermo; McConnell, Rob

    2010-11-23

    People's time-location patterns are important in air pollution exposure assessment because pollution levels may vary considerably by location. A growing number of studies are using global positioning systems (GPS) to track people's time-location patterns. Many portable GPS units that archive location are commercially available at a cost that makes their use feasible for epidemiological studies. We evaluated the performance of five portable GPS data loggers and two GPS cell phones by examining positional accuracy in typical locations (indoor, outdoor, in-vehicle) and factors that influence satellite reception (building material, building type), acquisition time (cold and warm start), battery life, and adequacy of memory for data storage. We examined stationary locations (eg, indoor, outdoor) and mobile environments (eg, walking, traveling by vehicle or bus) and compared GPS locations to highly-resolved US Geological Survey (USGS) and Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangle (DOQQ) maps. The battery life of our tested instruments ranged from <9 hours to 48 hours. The acquisition of location time after startup ranged from a few seconds to >20 minutes and varied significantly by building structure type and by cold or warm start. No GPS device was found to have consistently superior performance with regard to spatial accuracy and signal loss. At fixed outdoor locations, 65%-95% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices. At fixed indoor locations, 50%-80% of GPS points fell within 20-m of the corresponding DOQQ locations for all the devices except one. Most of the GPS devices performed well during commuting on a freeway, with >80% of points within 10-m of the DOQQ route, but the performance was significantly impacted by surrounding structures on surface streets in highly urbanized areas. All the tested GPS devices had limitations, but we identified several devices which showed promising performance for tracking subjects' time

  18. Earliest effects of sudden occlusions on pressure profiles in selected locations of the human systemic arterial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majka, Marcin; Gadda, Giacomo; Taibi, Angelo; Gałązka, Mirosław; Zieliński, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a numerical simulation method for predicting the time dependence (wave form) of pressure at any location in the systemic arterial system in humans. The method uses the matlab-Simulink environment. The input data include explicitly the geometry of the arterial tree, treated up to an arbitrary bifurcation level, and the elastic properties of arteries as well as rheological parameters of blood. Thus, the impact of anatomic details of an individual subject can be studied. The method is applied here to reveal the earliest stages of mechanical reaction of the pressure profiles to sudden local blockages (thromboses or embolisms) of selected arteries. The results obtained with a purely passive model provide reference data indispensable for studies of longer-term effects due to neural and humoral mechanisms. The reliability of the results has been checked by comparison of two available sets of anatomic, elastic, and rheological data involving (i) 55 and (ii) 138 arterial segments. The remaining arteries have been replaced with the appropriate resistive elements. Both models are efficient in predicting an overall shift of pressure, whereas the accuracy of the 55-segment model in reproducing the detailed wave forms and stabilization times turns out dependent on the location of the blockage and the observation point.

  19. Earliest effects of sudden occlusions on pressure profiles in selected locations of the human systemic arterial system.

    PubMed

    Majka, Marcin; Gadda, Giacomo; Taibi, Angelo; Gałązka, Mirosław; Zieliński, Piotr

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a numerical simulation method for predicting the time dependence (wave form) of pressure at any location in the systemic arterial system in humans. The method uses the matlab-Simulink environment. The input data include explicitly the geometry of the arterial tree, treated up to an arbitrary bifurcation level, and the elastic properties of arteries as well as rheological parameters of blood. Thus, the impact of anatomic details of an individual subject can be studied. The method is applied here to reveal the earliest stages of mechanical reaction of the pressure profiles to sudden local blockages (thromboses or embolisms) of selected arteries. The results obtained with a purely passive model provide reference data indispensable for studies of longer-term effects due to neural and humoral mechanisms. The reliability of the results has been checked by comparison of two available sets of anatomic, elastic, and rheological data involving (i) 55 and (ii) 138 arterial segments. The remaining arteries have been replaced with the appropriate resistive elements. Both models are efficient in predicting an overall shift of pressure, whereas the accuracy of the 55-segment model in reproducing the detailed wave forms and stabilization times turns out dependent on the location of the blockage and the observation point.

  20. On Location Estimation Technique Based of the Time of Flight in Low-power Wireless Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Miroslav; Simek, Milan; Krajsa, Ondrej; Cervenka, Vladimir; Pal, Tamas

    2015-04-01

    This study deals with the distance estimation issue in low-power wireless systems being usually used for sensor networking and interconnecting the Internet of Things. There is an effort to locate or track these sensor entities for different needs the radio signal time of flight principle from the theoretical and practical side of application research is evaluated. Since these sensor devices are mainly targeted for low power consumption appliances, there is always need for optimization of any aspects needed for regular sensor operation. For the distance estimation we benefit from IEEE 802.15.4a technology, which offers the precise ranging capabilities. There is no need for additional hardware to be used for the ranging task and all fundamental measurements are acquired within the 15.4a standard compliant hardware in the real environment. The proposed work examines the problems and the solutions for implementation of distance estimation algorithms for WSN devices. The main contribution of the article is seen in this real testbed evaluation of the ranging technology.

  1. System for locating the sources of wideband dE/dt from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, E. M.; Medelius, P. J.; Davis, S.

    1994-01-01

    A system has been developed to measure wideband electic field derivatives (dE/dt) at five ground stations in a 15 km x 15 km network at Kennedy Space Center. Individual station responses are normalized using digital filters. Pulse-timing resolution is improved to much less than 50-ns sample interval by interpolation using packing in the frequency domain. A time tag for each pulse is defined as the mean of the times of the rising-edge half peak, peak, and falling-edge half peak. The standard deviation in these times defines the timing error and is shown to be a function of noise and bandwidth rather than digitization rate. Each of the four unknowns for a pulse source location (x,y,z) and time of occurrence (t) is found from the five time-tag measurements using different weightings for all five combinations of the four-station hyperbolic equations. Weighting factors and errors in x,y,z and t are estimated using error propagation techniques.

  2. Investigation of a real-time location system of corneal astigmatic axis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Guo; Pan, An-Peng; Zheng, Ke; Yu, A-Yong

    2017-01-01

    To construct a real-time computerized location system (RCLS) to analyze and display the axis of corneal astigmatism and to compare its accuracy with the Scheimpflug method. Fifty-seven eyes of 39 volunteers with corneal astigmatism more than 1.00 diopter (D) were recruited. The RCLS was composed of a circular light-emitting diode (LED) light source, surgical microscope, surgical video system, computer and self-programming image analysis software. Scheimpflug imaging measurements (Pentacam HR, Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) were performed on all subjects to determine the axis and power of corneal astigmatism. Thereafter, the axis of corneal astigmatism was analyzed in real-time and displayed by the RCLS on supine position, and videos were recorded. The MB-Ruler 4.0 software was used to measure the astigmatic axis. The accuracy of the RCLS was compared with the Scheimpflug method. The RCLS was able to display the axis of corneal astigmatism in real-time. The axial deviation of corneal astigmatism between the two methods was 0.63 ± 3.78° when astigmatism was 1.00 to 2.00 D and decreased to 0.06 ± 1.38° when astigmatism was greater than 2.00 D. A linear correlation of astigmatic axis was noted between the two methods: AxisRCLS = 1.01 × AxisScheimpflug - 1.02 (R(2) = 0.998, P < 0.001). The Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the RCLS agreed sufficiently well with the Scheimpflug method. The RCLS can accurately analyze and display the axis for corneal astigmatism greater than 1.00 D in real-time. The RCLS simplifies marking procedures and may have potential clinical application to improve the postoperative visual outcomes in surgical correction of corneal astigmatism.

  3. Location detection and tracking of moving targets by a 2D IR-UWB radar system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Han; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2015-03-19

    In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF) is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking.

  4. Location Detection and Tracking of Moving Targets by a 2D IR-UWB Radar System

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van-Han; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    In indoor environments, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and long-range tracking radar systems are not optimal, because of signal propagation limitations in the indoor environment. In recent years, the use of ultra-wide band (UWB) technology has become a possible solution for object detection, localization and tracking in indoor environments, because of its high range resolution, compact size and low cost. This paper presents improved target detection and tracking techniques for moving objects with impulse-radio UWB (IR-UWB) radar in a short-range indoor area. This is achieved through signal-processing steps, such as clutter reduction, target detection, target localization and tracking. In this paper, we introduce a new combination consisting of our proposed signal-processing procedures. In the clutter-reduction step, a filtering method that uses a Kalman filter (KF) is proposed. Then, in the target detection step, a modification of the conventional CLEAN algorithm which is used to estimate the impulse response from observation region is applied for the advanced elimination of false alarms. Then, the output is fed into the target localization and tracking step, in which the target location and trajectory are determined and tracked by using unscented KF in two-dimensional coordinates. In each step, the proposed methods are compared to conventional methods to demonstrate the differences in performance. The experiments are carried out using actual IR-UWB radar under different scenarios. The results verify that the proposed methods can improve the probability and efficiency of target detection and tracking. PMID:25808773

  5. Applying a Systemic Procedure to Locate Career Decision-Making Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Amir, Tamar

    2010-01-01

    Locating clients' career decision-making difficulties is one of the first steps in career counseling. The authors demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a systematic 4-stage procedure for locating and interpreting career decision-making difficulties by analyzing responses of 626 college students (collected by Tai, 2007) to the Career…

  6. Accuracy of five electronic foramen locators with different operating systems: an ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    de VASCONCELOS, Bruno Carvalho; BUENO, Michelli de Medeiros; LUNA-CRUZ, Suyane Maria; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; FERNANDES, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, ex vivo, the precision of five electronic root canal length measurement devices (ERCLMDs) with different operating systems: the Root ZX, Mini Apex Locator, Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15, and the possible influence of the positioning of the instrument tips short of the apical foramen. Material and Methods: Forty-two mandibular bicuspids had their real canal lengths (RL) previously determined. Electronic measurements were performed 1.0 mm short of the apical foramen (-1.0), followed by measurements at the apical foramen (0.0). The data resulting from the comparison of the ERCLMD measurements and the RL were evaluated by the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests at a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering the measurements performed at 0.0 and -1.0, the precision rates for the ERCLMDs were: 73.5% and 47.1% (Root ZX), 73.5% and 55.9% (Mini Apex Locator), 67.6% and 41.1% (Propex II), 61.7% and 44.1% (iPex), and 79.4% and 44.1% (RomiApex A-15), respectively, considering ±0.5 mm of tolerance. Regarding the mean discrepancies, no differences were observed at 0.0; however, in the measurements at -1.0, the iPex, a multi-frequency ERCLMD, had significantly more discrepant readings short of the apical foramen than the other devices, except for the Propex II, which had intermediate results. When the ERCLMDs measurements at -1.0 were compared with those at 0.0, the Propex II, iPex and RomiApex A-15 presented significantly higher discrepancies in their readings. Conclusions: Under the conditions of the present study, all the ERCLMDs provided acceptable measurements at the 0.0 position. However, at the -1.0 position, the ERCLMDs had a lower precision, with statistically significant differences for the Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15. PMID:23739852

  7. Apparatus for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by squid gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Overton, Jr., William C.; Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  8. Apparatus for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, W.C. Jr.; Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1984-03-13

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  9. 78 FR 64216 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “System for Locating People Using Electricity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for ``System for Locating People Using... Health and Human Services (HHS). Award Approving Official: Dr. Nicole Lurie, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The deadline for all submissions to the ``System...

  10. The importance of the location of sodium chlorite application in a multipollutant flue gas cleaning system.

    PubMed

    Krzyzynska, Renata; Hutson, Nick D

    2012-06-01

    In this study, removing sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury (Hg) from simulated flue gas was investigated in two laboratory-sized bubbling reactors that simulated an oxidizing reactor (where the NO and Hg(0) oxidation reactions are expected to occur) and a wet limestone scrubber, respectively. A sodium chlorite solution was used as the oxidizing agent. The sodium chlorite solution was an effective additive that enhanced the NO(x), Hg, and SO2 capture from the flue gas. Furthermore, it was discovered that the location of the sodium chlorite application (before, in, or after the wet scrubber) greatly influences which pollutants are removed and the amount removed. This effect is related to the chemical conditions (pH, absence/presence of particular gases) that are present at different positions throughout the flue gas cleaning system profile. The research results indicated that there is a potential to achieve nearly zero SO2, NO(x), and Hg emissions (complete SO2, NO, and Hg removals and -90% of NO(x) absorption from initial values of 1500 ppmv of SO2, 200 ppmv of NO(x), and 206 microg/m3 of Hg(0)) from the flue gas when sodium chlorite was applied before the wet limestone scrubber. However applying the oxidizer after the wet limestone scrubber was the most effective configuration for Hg and NO(x) control for extremely low chlorite concentrations (below 0.002 M) and therefore appears to be the best configuration for Hg control or as an additional step in NO(x) recleaning (after other NO(x) control facilities). The multipollutant scrubber, into which the chlorite was injected simultaneously with the calcium carbonate slurry, appeared to be the least expensive solution (when consider only capital cost), but exhibited the lowest NO(x) absorption at -50%. The bench-scale test results presented can be used to develop performance predictions for a full- or pilot-scale multipollutant flue gas cleaning system equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization

  11. Sistema de Transferencia de Archivos para Estudiantes Migrantes: Un Mejor Entendimiento para Padres. (Migrant Student Record Transfer System: A Better Understanding for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Senaida I.

    When migrant children are enrolled in the Migrant Education Program, they are also enrolled in the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), a national system which accumulates educational and health information for each child on a computer located in Little Rock, Arkansas. The system affords teachers the opportunity to review the records,…

  12. Sistema de Transferencia de Archivos para Estudiantes Migrantes: Un Mejor Entendimiento para Padres. (Migrant Student Record Transfer System: A Better Understanding for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Senaida I.

    When migrant children are enrolled in the Migrant Education Program, they are also enrolled in the Migrant Student Record Transfer System (MSRTS), a national system which accumulates educational and health information for each child on a computer located in Little Rock, Arkansas. The system affords teachers the opportunity to review the records,…

  13. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy system and methods for determining spatial locations of defects

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, David F.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Propp, W. Alan; Glenn, Anne W.; Shaw, Peter G.

    2006-08-08

    A method and apparatus for determining spatial locations of defects in a material are described. The method includes providing a plurality of electrodes in contact with a material, applying a sinusoidal voltage to a select number of the electrodes at a predetermined frequency, determining gain and phase angle measurements at other of the electrodes in response to applying the sinusoidal voltage to the select number of electrodes, determining impedance values from the gain and phase angle measurements, computing an impedance spectrum for an area of the material from the determined impedance values, and comparing the computed impedance spectrum with a known impedance spectrum to identify spatial locations of defects in the material.

  14. The visual system's intrinsic bias and knowledge of size mediate perceived size and location in the dark

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liu; He, Zijiang J.; Ooi, Teng Leng

    2013-01-01

    Dimly lit targets in the dark are perceived as located about an implicit slanted surface that delineates the visual system's intrinsic bias (Ooi, Wu, & He, 2001). If the intrinsic bias reflects our internal model of visual space – as proposed here – its influence should extend beyond target localization. Our first two experiments demonstrated that the intrinsic bias also influences perceived target size. We employed a size-matching task and an action task to measure the perceived size of a dimly lit target at various locations in the dark. Then using the size distance invariance hypothesis along with the accurately perceived target angular declination, we converted the perceived sizes to locations. We found that the derived locations from the size judgment tasks can be fitted by slanted curves that resemble the intrinsic bias profile from judged target locations. Our third experiment revealed that armed with the explicit knowledge of target size, perceived target locations in the dark follow an intrinsic bias-like profile that is slightly shifted farther from the observer than the profile obtained without knowledge of target size, i.e., slightly more veridical. Altogether, we showed that the intrinsic bias serves as an internal model, or memory, of ground surface layouts when the visual system cannot rely on external depth information. This memory/model can also be weakly influenced by top-down knowledge. PMID:23751007

  15. Enhanced 911/global position system wizard: a telemedicine application for the prevention of severe hypoglycemia--monitor, alert, and locate.

    PubMed

    Dassau, Eyal; Jovanovic, Lois; Doyle, Francis J; Zisser, Howard C

    2009-11-01

    Intensive insulin therapy has an inherent risk of hypoglycemia that can lead to loss of consciousness, cardiac arrhythmia, seizure, and death ("dead-in-bed syndrome"). This risk of hypoglycemia is a major concern for patients, families, and physicians. The need for an automated system that can alert in the event of severe hypoglycemia is evident. In engineering systems, where there is a risk of malfunction of the primary control system, alert and safety mechanisms are implemented in layers of protection. This concept has been adopted in the proposed system that integrates a hypoglycemia prediction algorithm with a global position system (GPS) locator and short message service such that the current glucose value with the rate of change (ROC) and the location of the subject can be communicated to a predefined list. Furthermore, if the system is linked to the insulin pump, it can suspend the pump or decrease the basal insulin infusion rate to prevent the pending event. The system was evaluated on clinical datasets of glucose tracings from the DexCom Seven system. Glucose tracings were analyzed for hypoglycemia events and then a text message was broadcast to a predefined list of people who were notified with the glucose value, ROC, GPS coordinates, and a Google map of the location. In addition to providing a safety layer to a future artificial pancreas, this system also can be easily implemented in current continuous glucose monitors to help provide information and alerts to people with diabetes.

  16. Investigating the momentum balance of a plasma pinch: An air-side stereoscopic imaging system for locating probes

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Jason Intrator, T. P.; Feng, Y.; Swan, H. O.; Klarenbeek, J.; Gao, K.

    2014-10-01

    The momentum balance of a plasma pinch in the Reconnection Scaling Experiment (RSX) is examined in three dimensions using several repositionable, insertable probes. A new camera-based system described here triangulates the locations of the probe tips so that their measurements are spatially registered. The optical system locates probes to within ±1.5 mm of their absolute 3D position in the vessel and to within ±0.7 mm relative to other probes, on the order of the electron inertial length (1–2 mm)

  17. Method of and system for classifying emergency locating transmitters and emergency positions indicating radio beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wren, Paul E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    During a distress call, a distress location transmitter 10 generates a high frequency carrier signal 40 that is modulated by a predetermined distress waveform characteristic 29. The classification of user associated with the distress call is identified by periodically interrupting modulation 42; user classification is determined by the repetition rate of the interruptions, the interruption periods, or both.

  18. Time-location analysis for exposure assessment studies of children using a novel global positioning system instrument.

    PubMed

    Elgethun, Kai; Fenske, Richard A; Yost, Michael G; Palcisko, Gary J

    2003-01-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology is used widely for business and leisure activities and offers promise for human time-location studies to evaluate potential exposure to environmental contaminants. In this article we describe the development of a novel GPS instrument suitable for tracking the movements of young children. Eleven children in the Seattle area (2-8 years old) wore custom-designed data-logging GPS units integrated into clothing. Location data were transferred into geographic information systems software for map overlay, visualization, and tabular analysis. Data were grouped into five location categories (in vehicle, inside house, inside school, inside business, and outside) to determine time spent and percentage reception in each location. Additional experiments focused on spatial resolution, reception efficiency in typical environments, and sources of signal interference. Significant signal interference occurred only inside concrete/steel-frame buildings and inside a power substation. The GPS instruments provided adequate spatial resolution (typically about 2-3 m outdoors and 4-5 m indoors) to locate subjects within distinct microenvironments and distinguish a variety of human activities. Reception experiments showed that location could be tracked outside, proximal to buildings, and inside some buildings. Specific location information could identify movement in a single room inside a home, on a playground, or along a fence line. The instrument, worn in a vest or in bib overalls, was accepted by children and parents. Durability of the wiring was improved early in the study to correct breakage problems. The use of GPS technology offers a new level of accuracy for direct quantification of time-location activity patterns in exposure assessment studies.

  19. Time-location analysis for exposure assessment studies of children using a novel global positioning system instrument.

    PubMed Central

    Elgethun, Kai; Fenske, Richard A; Yost, Michael G; Palcisko, Gary J

    2003-01-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology is used widely for business and leisure activities and offers promise for human time-location studies to evaluate potential exposure to environmental contaminants. In this article we describe the development of a novel GPS instrument suitable for tracking the movements of young children. Eleven children in the Seattle area (2-8 years old) wore custom-designed data-logging GPS units integrated into clothing. Location data were transferred into geographic information systems software for map overlay, visualization, and tabular analysis. Data were grouped into five location categories (in vehicle, inside house, inside school, inside business, and outside) to determine time spent and percentage reception in each location. Additional experiments focused on spatial resolution, reception efficiency in typical environments, and sources of signal interference. Significant signal interference occurred only inside concrete/steel-frame buildings and inside a power substation. The GPS instruments provided adequate spatial resolution (typically about 2-3 m outdoors and 4-5 m indoors) to locate subjects within distinct microenvironments and distinguish a variety of human activities. Reception experiments showed that location could be tracked outside, proximal to buildings, and inside some buildings. Specific location information could identify movement in a single room inside a home, on a playground, or along a fence line. The instrument, worn in a vest or in bib overalls, was accepted by children and parents. Durability of the wiring was improved early in the study to correct breakage problems. The use of GPS technology offers a new level of accuracy for direct quantification of time-location activity patterns in exposure assessment studies. PMID:12515689

  20. System and method for measuring ocean surface currents at locations remote from land masses using synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Lawrence E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A system for measuring ocean surface currents from an airborne platform is disclosed. A radar system having two spaced antennas wherein one antenna is driven and return signals from the ocean surface are detected by both antennas is employed to get raw ocean current data which are saved for later processing. There are a pair of global positioning system (GPS) systems including a first antenna carried by the platform at a first location and a second antenna carried by the platform at a second location displaced from the first antenna for determining the position of the antennas from signals from orbiting GPS navigational satellites. Data are also saved for later processing. The saved data are subsequently processed by a ground-based computer system to determine the position, orientation, and velocity of the platform as well as to derive measurements of currents on the ocean surface.

  1. Tracking the MSL-SAM methane detection source location Through Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-García, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    olivine indicate could be the case, then it might explain the observed fast destruction of methane [7]. In an effort to better address the potential mixing and remaining questions, atmospheric circulation studies of Gale Crater were performed with the Mars Re-gional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). The model was focused on rover locations using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the in-nermost grid that is centered over the landing [8, 9]. MRAMS is ideally suited for this investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simulate Mars' at-mospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface properties [10, 11]. In order to characterize seasonal mixing changes throughout the Martian year, simulations were con-ducted at Ls 0, 90, 180 and 270. Two additional sim-ulations at Ls 225 and 315 were explored to better understand the unique meteorological setting cen-tered around Ls 270. Ls 270 was shown to be an anomalous season when air within and outside the crater was well mixed by strong, flushing, northerly flow and large amplitude breaking mountain waves: air flowing downslope at night is cold enough to penetrate all the way to the surface. At other seasons, the air in the crater is more isolated -but not com-pletely- from the surrounding environment: mesoscale simulations indicate that the air flowing down the crater rims does not easily make it to the crater floor. Instead, the air encounters very cold and stable air pooled in the bottom of the crater, which forces the air to glide right over the colder, more dense air below. Thus, the mixing of near-surface crater air with the external environment is potentially more limited than around Ls 270. 2. Tracking methane source location The rise in concentration was reported to start around sol 300 (˜Ls 336), peaked shortly after sol 520 (˜Ls 82), and then dropped to background val-ues prior to sol 575 (˜Ls 103). Two scenarios are considered in the context of the

  2. Accurate prediction of V1 location from cortical folds in a surface coordinate system

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Oliver P.; Rajendran, Niranjini; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Augustinack, Jean C.; Wiggins, Graham; Wald, Lawrence L.; Rosas, H. Diana; Potthast, Andreas; Schwartz, Eric L.; Fischl, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated substantial variability of the location of primary visual cortex (V1) in stereotaxic coordinates when linear volume-based registration is used to match volumetric image intensities (Amunts et al., 2000). However, other qualitative reports of V1 location (Smith, 1904; Stensaas et al., 1974; Rademacher et al., 1993) suggested a consistent relationship between V1 and the surrounding cortical folds. Here, the relationship between folds and the location of V1 is quantified using surface-based analysis to generate a probabilistic atlas of human V1. High-resolution (about 200 μm) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7 T of ex vivo human cerebral hemispheres allowed identification of the full area via the stria of Gennari: a myeloarchitectonic feature specific to V1. Separate, whole-brain scans were acquired using MRI at 1.5 T to allow segmentation and mesh reconstruction of the cortical gray matter. For each individual, V1 was manually identified in the high-resolution volume and projected onto the cortical surface. Surface-based intersubject registration (Fischl et al., 1999b) was performed to align the primary cortical folds of individual hemispheres to those of a reference template representing the average folding pattern. An atlas of V1 location was constructed by computing the probability of V1 inclusion for each cortical location in the template space. This probabilistic atlas of V1 exhibits low prediction error compared to previous V1 probabilistic atlases built in volumetric coordinates. The increased predictability observed under surface-based registration suggests that the location of V1 is more accurately predicted by the cortical folds than by the shape of the brain embedded in the volume of the skull. In addition, the high quality of this atlas provides direct evidence that surface-based intersubject registration methods are superior to volume-based methods at superimposing functional areas of cortex, and therefore are better

  3. Improving regional seismic event location through calibration of the international monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, M; Hanley, W; M; Myers, S C; Pasyanos; Schultz, C; Swenson, J

    1999-07-27

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we are working to help calibrate the 170 seismic stations that are part of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring network, in order to enhance the network's ability to locate small seismic events. These low magnitude events are likely to be recorded by only the closest of seismic stations, ranging from local to near teleseismic distances. At these distance ranges, calibration statistics become highly nonstationary, challenging us to develop more general statistical models for proper calibration. To meet the goals outlined above, we are developing a general nonstationary framework to accurately calibrate seismic travel-time predictions over the full distance range, from local, to regional, to teleseismic distances. The objective of this framework is to develop valid region-specific corrections for the Middle Fast, North Africa, and portions of the Soviet Union, to assess our progress towards meeting calibration goals, and to perform cost-benefit analysis for future calibrations. The framework integrates six core components essential to accurate calibration. First, is the compilation and statistical characterization of well located reference events, including aftershock sequences, mining explosions and rockbursts, calibration explosions, and teleseismically constrained events (Harris et al., SSA 1999; Hanley et al., SSA 1999). Second, is the development of generalized velocity models based on these reference events (McNamara et al., SSA 1998; Pasyanos, SSA 1999). Third, is the development of nonstationary spatial corrections (nonstationary Bayesian kriging) that refine the base velocity models (Schultz et al., SSA 1998). The fourth component is the development of a detection model on a station-by-station basis. The fifth component is the cross-validation of calibration results to ensure internal consistency along with the continual benchmarking of our nonstationary model where event locations are

  4. Pickless event detection and location: The waveform correlation event detection system (WCEDS) revisited

    DOE PAGES

    Arrowsmith, Stephen John; Young, Christopher J.; Ballard, Sanford; ...

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm for seismic event monitoring breaks the event detection problem down into a series of processing stages that can be categorized at the highest level into station-level processing and network-level processing algorithms (e.g., Le Bras and Wuster (2002)). At the station-level, waveforms are typically processed to detect signals and identify phases, which may subsequently be updated based on network processing. At the network-level, phase picks are associated to form events, which are subsequently located. Furthermore, waveforms are typically directly exploited only at the station-level, while network-level operations rely on earth models to associate and locate the events thatmore » generated the phase picks.« less

  5. Pickless event detection and location: The waveform correlation event detection system (WCEDS) revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowsmith, Stephen John; Young, Christopher J.; Ballard, Sanford; Slinkard, Megan Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The standard paradigm for seismic event monitoring breaks the event detection problem down into a series of processing stages that can be categorized at the highest level into station-level processing and network-level processing algorithms (e.g., Le Bras and Wuster (2002)). At the station-level, waveforms are typically processed to detect signals and identify phases, which may subsequently be updated based on network processing. At the network-level, phase picks are associated to form events, which are subsequently located. Furthermore, waveforms are typically directly exploited only at the station-level, while network-level operations rely on earth models to associate and locate the events that generated the phase picks.

  6. Multicentric Dentigerous Dermoid Cyst with an Unusual Location in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Geyik, Abidin Murat; Geyik, Sırma; Erkutlu, Ibrahim; Alptekin, Mehmet; Gezgin, Inan; Dokur, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are benign and congenital ectodermal inclusions. Their occurrence in an intracranial location is quite rare. They constitute 0.1 to 0.7% of all intracranial tumors. Their occurrence in the fourth ventricle and their multicentric feature are extraordinary. A 12-year-old boy was admitted to our clinic with a dermoid cyst with sixth cranial nerve involvement. He had symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. This case is the first dermoid cyst in the literature at this unusual location; a mature tooth structure was found within the cyst, which extended over the cervical subsegments. There was a second dermoid cyst in the thoracic spine (multicentric). Our aim is to present an atypical dermoid cyst along with radiodiagnostic characteristics and macroscopic findings. PMID:28824982

  7. Multicentric Dentigerous Dermoid Cyst with an Unusual Location in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Geyik, Abidin Murat; Geyik, Sırma; Erkutlu, Ibrahim; Alptekin, Mehmet; Gezgin, Inan; Dokur, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Dermoid cysts are benign and congenital ectodermal inclusions. Their occurrence in an intracranial location is quite rare. They constitute 0.1 to 0.7% of all intracranial tumors. Their occurrence in the fourth ventricle and their multicentric feature are extraordinary. A 12-year-old boy was admitted to our clinic with a dermoid cyst with sixth cranial nerve involvement. He had symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. This case is the first dermoid cyst in the literature at this unusual location; a mature tooth structure was found within the cyst, which extended over the cervical subsegments. There was a second dermoid cyst in the thoracic spine (multicentric). Our aim is to present an atypical dermoid cyst along with radiodiagnostic characteristics and macroscopic findings.

  8. Method and system for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location

    DOEpatents

    Karnowski, Thomas P [Knoxville, TN; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya [Knoxville, TN; Chaum, Edward [Memphis, TN

    2012-07-10

    A method for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location that includes analyzing a retinal image and determining at least two sets of coordinates locating an optic disc in the retinal image. The sets of coordinates can be determined using first and second image analysis techniques that are different from one another. An accuracy parameter can be calculated and compared to a primary risk cut-off value. A high confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is less than the primary risk cut-off value and a low confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is greater than the primary risk cut-off value. The primary risk cut-off value being selected to represent an acceptable risk of misdiagnosis of a disease having retinal manifestations by the automated technique.

  9. Geocenter location and variations in earth orientation using global positioning system measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S. C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the use of GPS ground and flight tracking data to measure short-period earth orientation variations and changes in geocenter location. Comparisons between GPS-estimated earth rotation variations and those calculated from ocean tide models suggest that observed subdaily variations in earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Our preliminary GPS estimates for geocenter location agree with an independent satellite laser ranging estimates to 10-15 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low-earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales less than 1 day.

  10. The retentive forces of the locator attachment system at different angulations.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, A; Juszczyk, A S; Clark, R K F; Radford, D R

    2012-12-01

    The change of retentive force of three types of Locator inserts when the implant analogue was positioned perpendicular to horizontal, 5 degrees and 10 degrees to perpendicular after 4,200 cycles in vitro was measured using an EnduraTech fatigue testing machine lubricated with artificial saliva. The more rapid decrease in retention occurred up to three months and stabilized after one year of simulated use. The Locator inserts provided more retention when the analogue was placed at 5 degrees to perpendicular compared to 0 degrees and 10 degrees after 9 months of simulated clinical use. After 2 years of simulated clinical use, there was a reduction in retention for all the three inserts of between 70% and 80%.

  11. Data Compression Trade-Offs for TDOA/FDOA Geo-Location Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    FI element as [ ] st coustic scenario it is c ion for a WSS process the FIM for the two cases. In particular, for the a hittle’s Theorem” to...focused in four areas: (1) New Theoretical Results: Data compression ideas were applied to the issue of how to select and configure a set of available...sensors for location processing. This proved to be a challenging task. (2) Refine & Extend Previous Results: The short-time Fourier transform (STFT

  12. Cortical systems mediating visual attention to both objects and spatial locations

    PubMed Central

    Shomstein, Sarah; Behrmann, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    Natural visual scenes consist of many objects occupying a variety of spatial locations. Given that the plethora of information cannot be processed simultaneously, the multiplicity of inputs compete for representation. Using event-related functional MRI, we show that attention, the mechanism by which a subset of the input is selected, is mediated by the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Of particular interest is that PPC activity is differentially sensitive to the object-based properties of the input, with enhanced activation for those locations bound by an attended object. Of great interest too is the ensuing modulation of activation in early cortical regions, reflected as differences in the temporal profile of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response for within-object versus between-object locations. These findings indicate that object-based selection results from an object-sensitive reorienting signal issued by the PPC. The dynamic circuit between the PPC and earlier sensory regions then enables observers to attend preferentially to objects of interest in complex scenes. PMID:16840559

  13. The Visual System's Intrinsic Bias and Knowledge of Size Mediate Perceived Size and Location in the Dark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Liu; He, Zijiang J.; Ooi, Teng Leng

    2013-01-01

    Dimly lit targets in the dark are perceived as located about an implicit slanted surface that delineates the visual system's intrinsic bias (Ooi, Wu, & He, 2001). If the intrinsic bias reflects the internal model of visual space--as proposed here--its influence should extend beyond target localization. Our first 2 experiments demonstrated that…

  14. The Visual System's Intrinsic Bias and Knowledge of Size Mediate Perceived Size and Location in the Dark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Liu; He, Zijiang J.; Ooi, Teng Leng

    2013-01-01

    Dimly lit targets in the dark are perceived as located about an implicit slanted surface that delineates the visual system's intrinsic bias (Ooi, Wu, & He, 2001). If the intrinsic bias reflects the internal model of visual space--as proposed here--its influence should extend beyond target localization. Our first 2 experiments demonstrated that…

  15. Spatial products available for identifying areas of likely wildfire ignitions using lightning location data-Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS)

    Treesearch

    Paul Sopko; Larry Bradshaw; Matt Jolly

    2016-01-01

    The Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS, www.wfas.net) is a one-stop-shop giving wildland fire managers the ability to assess fire potential ranging in scale from national to regional and temporally from 1 to 5 days. Each day, broad-area maps are produced from fire weather station and lightning location networks. Three products are created using 24 hour...

  16. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  17. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge

  18. Individual information beam broadcasting system using a PAL-SLM based CGH beam former for the location based information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Shunichi; Itoh, Hideo; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Takuichi; Lin, Xin; Tokuda, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    As an implementation of ubiquitous information service environments, we have been researching location-based information service systems at indoor and short distance area. The system should provide adequate information services, which fit the user's attributes, such as language, knowledge level and the volume of information, what is so-called "Right now, Here, and for Me" information services. Keeping privacy and security of the user is an important issue. Spatial optical communication technique is used for the system because the technique is easy to implement a location- and direction-based communication system. Information broadcasting in an area can be realized by an omnidirectional modulated light emission. However, the omnidirectional beam causes spill out of secure information to others, and has lower energy conservation than a focused beam communication. In this paper, a new spatial optical information broadcasting system, which can focus modulated beams only to intended users. CGH (Computer Generated Hologram) technique on a SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) is proposed and demonstrated. The system is composed of a PAL-SLM (Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator), an eye-safe semiconductor laser or a semiconductor laser pumped YAG laser for the beam emitter, and an infrared video camera with an infrared LED illuminator for user locator. Experimental results of beam deflecting characteristics are described on beam uniformity, deflecting angle and the enhancement, communication characteristics, and real time tracking of user with a corner-reflecting sheet.

  19. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

  20. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

  1. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

  2. 46 CFR 108.409 - Location and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... detection system. 108.409 Section 108.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and spacing of tubing in pneumatic fire detection system. (a) All tubing in a pneumatic fire detection... exposed in the space. (c) A pneumatic fire detection system must be set to activate after approximately a...

  3. Laser communication system for controlling several functions at a location remote to the laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcher, E. E.; Rowland, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A multichannel laser remote control system is described. The system is used in areas where radio frequency, acoustic, and hardware control systems are unsatisfactory or prohibited and where line of sight is unobstructed. A modulated continuous wave helium-neon laser is used as the transmitter and a 360 degree light collector serves as the antenna at the receiver.

  4. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  5. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  6. Pointwise Stabilization of a Hybrid System and Optimal Location of Actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Ammari, Kais Saidi, Abdelkader

    2007-06-15

    We consider a pointwise stabilization problem for a model arising in the control of noise. We prove that we have exponential stability for the low frequencies but not for the high frequencies. Thus, we give an explicit polynomial decay estimation at high frequencies that is valid for regular initial data while clarifying that the behavior of the constant which intervenes in this estimation there, functions as the frequency of cut. We propose a numerical approximation of the model and study numerically the best location of the actuator at low frequencies.

  7. On intra-supply chain system with an improved distribution plan, multiple sales locations and quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Huang, Chao-Chih; Chiang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Mei-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Transnational companies, operating in extremely competitive global markets, always seek to lower different operating costs, such as inventory holding costs in their intra- supply chain system. This paper incorporates a cost reducing product distribution policy into an intra-supply chain system with multiple sales locations and quality assurance studied by [Chiu et al., Expert Syst Appl, 40:2669-2676, (2013)]. Under the proposed cost reducing distribution policy, an added initial delivery of end items is distributed to multiple sales locations to meet their demand during the production unit's uptime and rework time. After rework when the remaining production lot goes through quality assurance, n fixed quantity installments of finished items are then transported to sales locations at a fixed time interval. Mathematical modeling and optimization techniques are used to derive closed-form optimal operating policies for the proposed system. Furthermore, the study demonstrates significant savings in stock holding costs for both the production unit and sales locations. Alternative of outsourcing product delivery task to an external distributor is analyzed to assist managerial decision making in potential outsourcing issues in order to facilitate further reduction in operating costs.

  8. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    DOEpatents

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  9. Evaluation of control laws and actuator locations for control systems applicable to deformable astronomical telescope mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Some of the major difficulties associated with large orbiting astronomical telescopes are the cost of manufacturing the primary mirror to precise tolerances and the maintaining of diffraction-limited tolerances while in orbit. One successfully demonstrated approach for minimizing these problem areas is the technique of actively deforming the primary mirror by applying discrete forces to the rear of the mirror. A modal control technique, as applied to active optics, has previously been developed and analyzed. The modal control technique represents the plant to be controlled in terms of its eigenvalues and eigenfunctions which are estimated via numerical approximation techniques. The report includes an extension of previous work using the modal control technique and also describes an optimal feedback controller. The equations for both control laws are developed in state-space differential form and include such considerations as stability, controllability, and observability. These equations are general and allow the incorporation of various mode-analyzer designs; two design approaches are presented. The report also includes a technique for placing actuator and sensor locations at points on the mirror based upon the flexibility matrix of the uncontrolled or unobserved modes of the structure. The locations selected by this technique are used in the computer runs which are described. The results are based upon three different initial error distributions, two mode-analyzer designs, and both the modal and optimal control laws.

  10. Methods for detecting seismic events at known locations using NORESS (Norwegian Experimental Seismic System) data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.O.; Stearns, S.D.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    The difficulty of detecting, locating and identifying low-magnitude seismic events has been an ongoing problem. In this note, we describe processing methods that help us to find low-magnitude seismic events. A series of algorithms with beamforming has been developed and has proven effective in helping to discover very low yield events. The beamforming technique consists of determining the array element time delays for the specific source region using previously established events. This allows us to concentrate the array to look at the specified source location. Examples of this type of analysis are provided. In the analysis of seismic data one may be in possession of other information, e.g., newspaper reports of an earthquake. Using this information to concentrate the search for an event will often identify an otherwise overlooked signal. The algorithms for this type of search are incorporated into computer software that includes capabilities for plotting, spectral and signal-to-noise estimation, direction finding, and other functions. 2 refs., 25 figs.

  11. Comparison of global positioning system (GPS) tracking and parent-report diaries to characterize children's time-location patterns.

    PubMed

    Elgethun, Kai; Yost, Michael G; Fitzpatrick, Cole T E; Nyerges, Timothy L; Fenske, Richard A

    2007-03-01

    Respondent error, low resolution, and study participant burden are known limitations of diary timelines used in exposure studies such as the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS). Recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have produced tracking devices sufficiently portable, functional and affordable to utilize in exposure assessment science. In this study, a differentially corrected GPS (dGPS) tracking device was compared to the NHEXAS diary timeline. The study also explored how GPS can be used to evaluate and improve such diary timelines by determining which location categories and which respondents are least likely to record "correct" time-location responses. A total of 31 children ages 3-5 years old wore a dGPS device for all waking hours on a weekend day while their parents completed the NHEXAS diary timeline to document the child's time-location pattern. Parents misclassified child time-location approximately 48% of the time using the NHEXAS timeline in comparison to dGPS. Overall concordance between methods was marginal (kappa=0.33-0.35). The dGPS device found that on average, children spent 76% of the 24-h study period in the home. The diary underestimated time the child spent in the home by 17%, while overestimating time spent inside other locations, outside at home, outside in other locations, and time spent in transit. Diary data for time spent outside at home and time in transit had the lowest response concordance with dGPS. The diaries of stay-at-home mothers and mothers working unskilled labor jobs had lower concordance with dGPS than did those of the other participants. The ability of dGPS tracking to collect continuous rather than categorical (ordinal) data was also demonstrated. It is concluded that automated GPS tracking measurements can improve the quality and collection efficiency of time-location data in exposure assessment studies, albeit for small cohorts.

  12. Evaluation and Analysis of Array Antennas for Passive Coherent Location (PCL) Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-15

    follows: Boresight: The direction that the antenna is designed to point. Main Lobe: The primary or maximum beam of the antenna. Beamwidth: The width...Since low cost and covertness are the primary needs for PCL systems, this fact results in not manipulating the receiver aperture itself. For this...Radar Systems (3rd Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2001. [15] Gaspare, Galati . Advanced Radar Techniques and Systems. United Kingdom

  13. Experience using an automated fault location system with a time-of-flight wall detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, D.; Greiman, W.; Hall, D.; Balaban, D.; Day, C.

    1990-08-01

    We describe the architecture of a general purpose monitoring system and give examples of its use with a 300 element detector array in a relativistic heavy ion experiment. The system has a simple and well defined interface between the detector specific parts of the system and those which are independent of any detector specific features. Tracking simple statistics on the fundamental data items (ADC and TDC values) are sufficient to diagnose the higher level components in the system. The monitoring of on-line beam data provides a sensitive monitor of global parameters of the experiment.

  14. Location | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  15. A novel approach to find and optimize bin locations and collection routes using a geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Seyed Mohammad Hassan; Danesh, Shahnaz; Karrabi, Seyed Mohsen; Shad, Rouzbeh

    2017-07-01

    One of the major challenges in big cities is planning and implementation of an optimized, integrated solid waste management system. This optimization is crucial if environmental problems are to be prevented and the expenses to be reduced. A solid waste management system consists of many stages including collection, transfer and disposal. In this research, an integrated model was proposed and used to optimize two functional elements of municipal solid waste management (storage and collection systems) in the Ahmadabad neighbourhood located in the City of Mashhad - Iran. The integrated model was performed by modelling and solving the location allocation problem and capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) through Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results showed that the current collection system is not efficient owing to its incompatibility with the existing urban structure and population distribution. Application of the proposed model could significantly improve the storage and collection system. Based on the results of minimizing facilities analyses, scenarios with 100, 150 and 180 m walking distance were considered to find optimal bin locations for Alamdasht, C-metri and Koohsangi. The total number of daily collection tours was reduced to seven as compared to the eight tours carried out in the current system (12.50% reduction). In addition, the total number of required crews was minimized and reduced by 41.70% (24 crews in the current collection system vs 14 in the system provided by the model). The total collection vehicle routing was also optimized such that the total travelled distances during night and day working shifts was cut back by 53%.

  16. Identifying elements of the plumbing system beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, from the source locations of very-long-period signals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.; Bond, T.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed 16 seismic events recorded by the Hawaiian broad-band seismic network at Kilauca Volcano during the period September 9-26, 1999. Two distinct types of event are identified based on their spectral content, very-long-period (VLP) waveform, amplitude decay pattern and particle motion. We locate the VLP signals with a method based on analyses of semblance and particle motion. Different source regions are identified for the two event types. One source region is located at depths of ~1 km beneath the northeast edge of the Halemaumau pit crater. A second region is located at depths of ~8 km below the northwest quadrant of Kilauea caldera. Our study represents the first time that such deep sources have been identified in VLP data at Kilauea. This discovery opens the possibility of obtaining a detailed image of the location and geometry of the magma plumbing system beneath this volcano based on source locations and moment tensor inversions of VLP signals recorded by a permanent, large-aperture broad-band network.

  17. Assessing application uniformity of a variable rate irrigation system in a windy location

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems are commercially available and can easily be retrofitted onto moving sprinkler systems. However, there are few reports on the application performance of such equipment. In this study, application uniformity of two center pivots equipped with a commercial VRI sy...

  18. User Resistance and Trust in a Clinical RFID Employee Location Tracking Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    User resistance has been identified as a factor in information systems implementation failures in the health care industry. RFID, radio frequency identification, is being incorporated into new health care information systems in order to effect cost reductions by tracking, identifying and monitoring individuals and medical items. This is the first…

  19. User Resistance and Trust in a Clinical RFID Employee Location Tracking Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    User resistance has been identified as a factor in information systems implementation failures in the health care industry. RFID, radio frequency identification, is being incorporated into new health care information systems in order to effect cost reductions by tracking, identifying and monitoring individuals and medical items. This is the first…

  20. Test of Detonation Locator System AN/GSS-4. Operation PLUMBBOB, Desert Rock VII and VIII, Project 50.3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    SFERICS ?h Area of Surveillance 9+ Sferics Frequency 98 SKY WAVE DELAY DATA 100 VI 1 Chapter 5 DISCUSSION 102 SYSTEM OPERATION 102 Evaluation ...miles and 200 miles. The use of Detonation Locator System AN/GSS-4 during Operation Plumbbob was an experiment to evaluate the improved system concept...u n.-ccl a;; tlv r^forcnco^ sinco all tetonntiOltS vore -jclioduled vlth refoi-cncc to tiatt tJranlo fro i MfVi Tlio teclmiquc ucod ruido it

  1. Systems and methods for locating and imaging proppant in an induced fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, David F.; Bartel, Lewis C.

    2016-02-02

    Born Scattering Inversion (BSI) systems and methods are disclosed. A BSI system may be incorporated in a well system for accessing natural gas, oil and geothermal reserves in a geologic formation beneath the surface of the Earth. The BSI system may be used to generate a three-dimensional image of a proppant-filled hydraulically-induced fracture in the geologic formation. The BSI system may include computing equipment and sensors for measuring electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the fracture before and after the fracture is generated, adjusting the parameters of a first Born approximation model of a scattered component of the surface electromagnetic fields using the measured electromagnetic fields, and generating the image of the proppant-filled fracture using the adjusted parameters.

  2. LDAR observations of a developing thunderstorm correlated with field mill, ground strike location, and weather radar data including the first report of the design and capabilities of a new, time-of-arrival Ground-strike Location System (GSLS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poehler, H. A.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment designed to observe and measure a thunderstorm prior to, during, and after its development over the Kennedy Space Center was successful. Correlated measurements of airborne field strength, ground-based field strength, LDAR lightning discharge location in the clouds, weather radar percipitation echoes, plus ground strike location with the new KSC Ground Strike Location System (GSLS) were gathered, and reported. This test marks the first operational use of the GSLS System, and this report contains the first report of its design and capabilities.

  3. El Sistema's Open Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about Venezuela's national youth orchestra program called El Sistema whose attributes offer a direct challenge to traditional Western music practices. As U.S. classical music--and all "high arts"--struggle to find relevance to more than the small "arts club" percentage of the U.S. populace, El…

  4. El Sistema's Open Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about Venezuela's national youth orchestra program called El Sistema whose attributes offer a direct challenge to traditional Western music practices. As U.S. classical music--and all "high arts"--struggle to find relevance to more than the small "arts club" percentage of the U.S. populace, El…

  5. A Distribution-class Locational Marginal Price (DLMP) Index for Enhanced Distribution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinbode, Oluwaseyi Wemimo

    The smart grid initiative is the impetus behind changes that are expected to culminate into an enhanced distribution system with the communication and control infrastructure to support advanced distribution system applications and resources such as distributed generation, energy storage systems, and price responsive loads. This research proposes a distribution-class analog of the transmission LMP (DLMP) as an enabler of the advanced applications of the enhanced distribution system. The DLMP is envisioned as a control signal that can incentivize distribution system resources to behave optimally in a manner that benefits economic efficiency and system reliability and that can optimally couple the transmission and the distribution systems. The DLMP is calculated from a two-stage optimization problem; a transmission system OPF and a distribution system OPF. An iterative framework that ensures accurate representation of the distribution system's price sensitive resources for the transmission system problem and vice versa is developed and its convergence problem is discussed. As part of the DLMP calculation framework, a DCOPF formulation that endogenously captures the effect of real power losses is discussed. The formulation uses piecewise linear functions to approximate losses. This thesis explores, with theoretical proofs, the breakdown of the loss approximation technique when non-positive DLMPs/LMPs occur and discusses a mixed integer linear programming formulation that corrects the breakdown. The DLMP is numerically illustrated in traditional and enhanced distribution systems and its superiority to contemporary pricing mechanisms is demonstrated using price responsive loads. Results show that the impact of the inaccuracy of contemporary pricing schemes becomes significant as flexible resources increase. At high elasticity, aggregate load consumption deviated from the optimal consumption by up to about 45 percent when using a flat or time-of-use rate. Individual load

  6. 33 CFR 169.115 - Where is the southeastern reporting system located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mandatory Ship Reporting Systems for the Protection of Northern Right Whales § 169.115 Where is the... Atlantic seaboard in Florida and Georgia. The area coordinates (NAD 83) extends from the shoreline east...

  7. 33 CFR 169.115 - Where is the southeastern reporting system located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mandatory Ship Reporting Systems for the Protection of Northern Right Whales § 169.115 Where is the... Atlantic seaboard in Florida and Georgia. The area coordinates (NAD 83) extends from the shoreline east...

  8. 33 CFR 169.115 - Where is the southeastern reporting system located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mandatory Ship Reporting Systems for the Protection of Northern Right Whales § 169.115 Where is the... Atlantic seaboard in Florida and Georgia. The area coordinates (NAD 83) extends from the shoreline east...

  9. An operational expert system to analyze and locate faults occurring on MV networks

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrin, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an operational expert system analyzing faults occurring on medium voltage networks. After a brief description of the <> method, that led to the development of the software, the LAURE functions and architecture are explained. The analysis and calculation module is detailed, as well as the configuration and the request parts. The paper also displays the experimentation results and the organization held to operate the system.

  10. Computer Vision System For Locating And Identifying Defects In Hardwood Lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conners, Richard W.; Ng, Chong T.; Cho, Tai-Hoon; McMillin, Charles W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing an automatic cutup system for use in the rough mills of the hardwood furniture and fixture industry. In particular, this paper describes attempts to create the vision system that will power this automatic cutup system. There are a number of factors that make the development of such a vision system a challenge. First there is the innate variability of the wood material itself. No two species look exactly the same, in fact, they can have a significant visual difference in appearance among species. Yet a truly robust vision system must be able to handle a variety of such species, preferably with no operator intervention required when changing from one species to another. Secondly, there is a good deal of variability in the definition of what constitutes a removable defect. The hardwood furniture and fixture industry is diverse in the nature of the products that it makes. The products range from hardwood flooring to fancy hardwood furniture, from simple mill work to kitchen cabinets. Thus depending on the manufacturer, the product, and the quality of the product the nature of what constitutes a removable defect can and does vary. The vision system must be such that it can be tailored to meet each of these unique needs, preferably without any additional program modifications. This paper will describe the vision system that has been developed. It will assess the current system capabilities, and it will discuss the directions for future research. It will be argued that artificial intelligence methods provide a natural mechanism for attacking this computer vision application.

  11. Intelligent Photovoltaic Systems by Combining the Improved Perturbation Method of Observation and Sun Location Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajie; Shi, Yunbo; Yu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Currently, tracking in photovoltaic (PV) systems suffers from some problems such as high energy consumption, poor anti-interference performance, and large tracking errors. This paper presents a solar PV tracking system on the basis of an improved perturbation and observation method, which maximizes photoelectric conversion efficiency. According to the projection principle, we design a sensor module with a light-intensity-detection module for environmental light-intensity measurement. The effect of environmental factors on the system operation is reduced, and intelligent identification of the weather is realized. This system adopts the discrete-type tracking method to reduce power consumption. A mechanical structure with a level-pitch double-degree-of-freedom is designed, and attitude correction is performed by closed-loop control. A worm-and-gear mechanism is added, and the reliability, stability, and precision of the system are improved. Finally, the perturbation and observation method designed and improved by this study was tested by simulated experiments. The experiments verified that the photoelectric sensor resolution can reach 0.344°, the tracking error is less than 2.5°, the largest improvement in the charge efficiency can reach 44.5%, and the system steadily and reliably works. PMID:27327657

  12. Intelligent Photovoltaic Systems by Combining the Improved Perturbation Method of Observation and Sun Location Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Shi, Yunbo; Yu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Currently, tracking in photovoltaic (PV) systems suffers from some problems such as high energy consumption, poor anti-interference performance, and large tracking errors. This paper presents a solar PV tracking system on the basis of an improved perturbation and observation method, which maximizes photoelectric conversion efficiency. According to the projection principle, we design a sensor module with a light-intensity-detection module for environmental light-intensity measurement. The effect of environmental factors on the system operation is reduced, and intelligent identification of the weather is realized. This system adopts the discrete-type tracking method to reduce power consumption. A mechanical structure with a level-pitch double-degree-of-freedom is designed, and attitude correction is performed by closed-loop control. A worm-and-gear mechanism is added, and the reliability, stability, and precision of the system are improved. Finally, the perturbation and observation method designed and improved by this study was tested by simulated experiments. The experiments verified that the photoelectric sensor resolution can reach 0.344°, the tracking error is less than 2.5°, the largest improvement in the charge efficiency can reach 44.5%, and the system steadily and reliably works.

  13. Long-term environmental trends: selection of sampling locations in a reactor-aquatic cooling system.

    PubMed

    Revsin, B K; Watson, J E

    1993-02-01

    The study objective was to determine whether environmental radionuclide accumulations were occurring in an aquatic system with a 13-y history of supplying a power plant with reactor-cooling water as well as receiving plant discharge. The aquatic system consisted of the following: 1) a reactor-cooling lake; 2) a secondary lake approximately 8 km downstream; and 3) a small stream that interfaced with the two lakes. Gamma-emitting radionuclides were identified and quantified in samples of benthic sediments obtained from representative areas of the aquatic system. This study demonstrated that in a reactor-aquatic cooling system, the component of the aquatic system most likely to experience radionuclide accumulation will not necessarily be the reactor-cooling lake, but will be that component of the aquatic system whose benthic sediments contain the highest concentrations of organic matter. Further, it was shown that the quantity of oxidizable organic matter present in a sediment is a good predictor or marker for potential sites of radionuclide accumulation (i.e., 60Co and 137Cs).

  14. Improvements in mining induced microseismic source locations at the Lucky Friday mine using an automated whole-waveform analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Douglas A.; Sprenke, Kenneth F.

    1992-09-01

    For years, severe rockburst problems at the Lucky Friday mine in northern Idaho have been a persistent safety hazard and an impediment to production. An MP250 based microseismic monitoring system, which uses simple voltage threshold picking of first arrivals, has been used in this mine since 1973 to provide source locations and energy estimates of seismic events. Recently, interest has been expressed in developing a whole waveform microseismic monitoring system for the mine to provide more accurate source locations and information about source characteristics. For this study, we have developed a prototype whole-waveform microseismic monitoring system based on a 80386 computer equipped with a 50 kHz analog-digital convertor board. The software developed includes a data collection program, a data analysis program, and an event detection program. Whole-waveform data collected and analyzed using this system during a three-day test have been employed to investigate sources of error in the hypocenter location process and to develop an automatic phase picker appropriate for microseismic events. Comparison of hypocenter estimates produced by the MP250 system to those produced by the whole-waveform system shows that significant timing errors are common in the MP250 system and that these errors caused a large part of the scatter evident in the daily activity plots produced at the mine. Simulations and analysis of blast data show that analytical control over the solutions is strongly influenced by the array geometry. Within the geophone array, large errors in the velocity model or moderate timing errors may result in small changes in the solution, but outside the array, the solution is very sensitive to small changes in the data. Our whole-waveform detection program picks event onset times and determines event durations by analysis of a segmented envelope function (SEF) derived from the microseismic signal. The detection program has been tested by comparing its arrival time

  15. [Records and documentation system. Its location within a program of alimentary, nutritional and metabolic intervention].

    PubMed

    Santana Porbén, S

    2005-01-01

    To present the Records and Documentation System of the Metabolic, Nutrient and Feeding Intervention Program (PRINUMA), as conducted by the Nutritional Support Group (GAN) of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital (Havana City, Cuba). Every action conducted upon the patient must have a document backup. Likewise, this action should be exhaustively described in a Standerdized Operating Procedure (SPO). The Records and Documentation System must provide with: (1) Primmary records for registering the actions conducted upon the patients, (2) SOP manuals gathering the actions prescribed in the PRINUMA for the recognition, treatment and prevention of hospital malnutrition (HM), and (3) Computerized clinical registries for storing, manipulation and dissemination of data collected by the GAN during its local operation. The ISO 9001-9003 standard was adopted for describing the actions prescribed by the PRINUMA into the corresponding SOPs. Access 7.0 for Windows (Microsoft, USA) was used for the programming and operation of the GAN'S computerized Clinical Registry. Three phases were defined for the implementation of this System: I: start-up (minimal); II: extended; III: total (global). System implementation is in phase II. A Procedure Manual has been written with clinical, anthropometric, dietetic, dietotherapeutical and analytical actions prescribed by the PRINUMA for the treatment of HM. There is a second Manual reuniting the actions fostered by the PRINUMA's Quality Control & Assurance and the Records & Documentations Systems. GAN also has a Nutritional Clinical History and a computerized Clinical Registryt serving as digital counterpart of the former. The Registry stores data of varying type collected from over 1.800 patients attended in the 8 years of the GAN existence. The implementation of the PRINUMA's Records and Documentation System has allowed the elaboration of judgements about the utility and safety of the intervention measures installed in the institution by the GAN

  16. A decision modeling for phasor measurement unit location selection in smart grid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Yup

    As a key technology for enhancing the smart grid system, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) provides synchronized phasor measurements of voltages and currents of wide-area electric power grid. With various benefits from its application, one of the critical issues in utilizing PMUs is the optimal site selection of units. The main aim of this research is to develop a decision support system, which can be used in resource allocation task for smart grid system analysis. As an effort to suggest a robust decision model and standardize the decision modeling process, a harmonized modeling framework, which considers operational circumstances of component, is proposed in connection with a deterministic approach utilizing integer programming. With the results obtained from the optimal PMU placement problem, the advantages and potential that the harmonized modeling process possesses are assessed and discussed.

  17. Design of cold chain logistics remote monitoring system based on ZigBee and GPS location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Xiaoping; Shao, Heling

    2017-03-01

    This paper designed a remote monitoring system based on Bee Zig wireless sensor network and GPS positioning, according to the characteristics of cold chain logistics. The system consisted of the ZigBee network, gateway and monitoring center. ZigBee network temperature acquisition modules and GPS positioning acquisition module were responsible for data collection, and then send the data to the host computer through the GPRS network and Internet to realize remote monitoring of vehicle with functions of login permissions, temperature display, latitude and longitude display, historical data, real-time alarm and so on. Experiments showed that the system is stable, reliable and effective to realize the real-time remote monitoring of the vehicle in the process of cold chain transport.

  18. The Development of Automated Systems for Metaphase Location in Cytogenetic Preparations of Human Bone Marrow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Neal

    1990-01-01

    Cytogenetic evaluation of human bone marrow cells is one of the principal sources of diagnostic and prognostic information in the evaluation of the myeloid leukemias. In the majority of cases, these diseases are characterized by non-random chromosomal changes in the cells of the malignant clone. The chromosomal abnormalities are present only in the leukemic cells, which are distributed along with normal cells in the bone marrow and throughout the circulation. The objective of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that suitable criteria could be established for automated metaphase detection using human bone marrow preparations. This involved computerized, low resolution scanning of a specimen slide, and the measurement of object features which allowed metaphases to be adequately distinguished from nuclei and debris. Two approaches were investigated. The first used a line-scanning system, in which microscope slides were scanned line by line with a linear CCD detector, and focussing was performed automatically. Eighteen signal features were measured for each detected object. Three group discriminant function analysis was performed on objects from a large number of slides from both types of preparations, in order to distinguish metaphases from nuclei and debris. The second method evaluated the use of a frame scanning system. Objects were detected in a frame-by-frame scan of microscope slides, using a two dimensional CD camera. Feature measurements were performed for all objects within a specified area range, and three group discriminant function analysis was performed on data from a large number of slides. In both approaches, the performance of the discriminant functions was evaluated on independent samples collected from a number of patients, in order to determine the operational error rates of the systems. The sensitivity of the line scan system for metaphase detection was 86%, compared to 92% for the frame scanning system, while the specificity was 84% for the line

  19. Sistemas Eolicos Pequenos para Generacion de Electridad (Spanish version of Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-07-01

    This Spanish version of the popular Small Wind Electric Systems: A U.S. Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and economics. Topics include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  20. DSSTox EPA Integrated Risk Information System Structure-Index Locator File: SDF File and Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was developed and is maintained by EPA's Office of Research and Developement, National Center for Environmental Assessment. IRIS is a database of human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances fou...

  1. Small Area Inertial Navigation Tracking (SAINT) System for Precise Location of Buried UXO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    inertial navigation tracking system (SAINT) technology integrated with an EM61-HH metal detector . The primary objective of this demonstration was to...positioning reference frame. This demonstration highlighted the integration of SAINT with a standard EM61-HH metal detector . The primary objective was to

  2. DSSTox EPA Integrated Risk Information System Structure-Index Locator File: SDF File and Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was developed and is maintained by EPA's Office of Research and Developement, National Center for Environmental Assessment. IRIS is a database of human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances fou...

  3. Transfer alignment from a personal locator system to a handheld or head-mounted instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, Lauro; Borenstein, Johann

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a method for computing position and attitude of an instrument attached to the human body such as a handheld or head-mounted video camera. The system uses two Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). One IMU is part of our earlier-developed Personal Dead-Reckoning (PDR) system, which tracks the position and heading of a walking person relative to a known starting position. The other IMU is rigidly attached to the handheld or head-mounted instrument. Our existing PDR system is substantially more accurate than conventional IMU-based systems because the IMU is mounted on the foot of the user where error correction techniques can be applied that are unavailable for IMUs mounted anywhere else on the body. However, if the walker is waving a handheld or head-mounted instrument, the position and attitude of the instrument is not known. Equipping the instrument with an additional IMU is by itself an unsatisfactory solution because that IMU is subject to accelerometer and gyro drift, which, unlike in the case of the foot-mounted IMU, cannot be corrected and cause unbounded position and heading errors. Our approach uses transfer alignment techniques and takes advantage of the fact that the handheld IMU moves with the walker. This constraint is used to bound and correct errors by a Kalman filter. The paper explains our method and presents extensive experimental results. The results show up to a five-fold reduction in heading errors for the handheld IMU.

  4. Identifying and locating surface defects in wood: Part of an automated lumber processing system

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Charles W. McMillin; Kingyao Lin; Ramon E. Vasquez-Espinosa

    1983-01-01

    Continued increases in the cost of materials and labor make it imperative for furniture manufacturers to control costs by improved yield and increased productivity. This paper describes an Automated Lumber Processing System (ALPS) that employs computer tomography, optical scanning technology, the calculation of an optimum cutting strategy, and 1 computer-driven laser...

  5. Locating Damage Using Integrated Global-Local Approach with Wireless Sensing System and Single-Chip Impedance Measurement Device

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Shih-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study developed an integrated global-local approach for locating damage on building structures. A damage detection approach with a novel embedded frequency response function damage index (NEFDI) was proposed and embedded in the Imote2.NET-based wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) system to locate global damage. Local damage is then identified using an electromechanical impedance- (EMI-) based damage detection method. The electromechanical impedance was measured using a single-chip impedance measurement device which has the advantages of small size, low cost, and portability. The feasibility of the proposed damage detection scheme was studied with reference to a numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure and a small-scale experimental steel frame. Numerical and experimental analysis using the integrated global-local SHM approach reveals that, after NEFDI indicates the approximate location of a damaged area, the EMI-based damage detection approach can then identify the detailed damage location in the structure of the building. PMID:24672359

  6. Fiber-Optic Defect and Damage Locator System for Wind Turbine Blades

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Vahid Sotoudeh; Dr. Richard J. Black; Dr. Behzad Moslehi; Mr. Aleks Plavsic

    2010-10-30

    IFOS in collaboration with Auburn University demonstrated the feasibility of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) integrated sensor system capable of providing real time in-situ defect detection, localization and quantification of damage. In addition, the system is capable of validating wind turbine blade structural models, using recent advances in non-contact, non-destructive dynamic testing of composite structures. This new generation method makes it possible to analyze wind turbine blades not only non-destructively, but also without physically contacting or implanting intrusive electrical elements and transducers into the structure. Phase I successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technology with the construction of a 1.5 kHz sensor interrogator and preliminary instrumentation and testing of both composite material coupons and a wind turbine blade.

  7. Coverage versus supply cost in facility location: Physics of frustrated spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Li, Bo

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive coverage is crucial for communication, supply, and transportation networks, yet it is limited by the requirement of extensive infrastructure and heavy energy consumption. Here, we draw an analogy between spins in antiferromagnet and outlets in supply networks, and apply techniques from the studies of disordered systems to elucidate the effects of balancing the coverage and supply costs on the network behavior. A readily applicable, coverage optimization algorithm is derived. Simulation results show that magnetized and antiferromagnetic domains emerge and coexist to balance the need for coverage and energy saving. The scaling of parameters with system size agrees with the continuum approximation in two dimensions and the tree approximation in random graphs. Due to frustration caused by the competition between coverage and supply cost, a transition between easy and hard computation regimes is observed. We further suggest a local expansion approach to greatly simplify the message updates which shed light on simplifications in other problems.

  8. Optical FIBer Intrusion LOCation Sensor System (FIBLOC) for Surface and Subsurface Perimeter Protection. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    of Management and Wudget. Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188). Weenington. DC 20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT...of construction attempted to mimic widely- used cable manufacturing procedures. It became apparent that specialized tooling and equipment were...used in the FIBLOC system. 7 i§ mU Figure 2-2. Schematic of mirrored fiber with coupler. 2.5 FIBLOC CABLE FABRICATION. The tools used to fabricate the

  9. Multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) for optimal locations of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) facilities.

    PubMed

    Tsangaratos, P; Kallioras, A; Pizpikis, Th; Vasileiou, E; Ilia, I; Pliakas, F

    2017-12-15

    Managed Aquifer Recharge is a wide-spread well-established groundwater engineering method which is largely seen as sound and sustainable solution to water scarcity hydrologically sensitive areas, such as the Circum Mediterranean. The process of site selection for the installation of a MAR facility is of paramount importance for the feasibility and effectiveness of the project itself, especially when the facility will include the use of waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, as in the case of Soil-Aquifer-Treatment systems. The main objective of this study is to present the developed framework of a multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) that integrates within a dynamic platform the main groundwater engineering parameters associated with MAR applications together with the general geographical features which determine the effectiveness of such a project. The proposed system will provide an advanced coupled DSS-GIS tool capable of handling local MAR-related issues -such as hydrogeology, topography, soil, climate etc., and spatially distributed variables -such as societal, economic, administrative, legislative etc., with special reference to Soil-Aquifer-Treatment technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Case of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Located at Brain Stem in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is confined to the brain, eyes, and/or leptomeninges without evidence of a systemic primary tumor. Although the tumor can affect all age groups, it is rare in childhood; thus, its incidence and prognosis in children have not been well defined and the best treatment strategy remains unclear. A nine-year old presented at our department with complaints of diplopia, dizziness, dysarthria, and right side hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance image suggested a diffuse brain stem glioma with infiltration into the right cerebellar peduncle. The patient was surgically treated by craniotomy and frameless stereotactic-guided biopsy, and unexpectedly, the histopathology of the mass was consistent with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity for CD20 and CD79a. Accordingly, we performed a staging work-up for systemic lymphoma, but no evidence of lymphoma elsewhere in the body was obtained. In addition, she had a negative serologic finding for human immunodeficient virus, which confirmed the histopathological diagnosis of PCNSL. She was treated by radiosurgery at 12 Gy and subsequent adjuvant combination chemotherapy based on high dose methotrexate. Unfortunately, 10 months after the tissue-based diagnosis, she succumbed due to an acute hydrocephalic crisis. PMID:27867930

  11. Locating binding poses in protein-ligand systems using reconnaissance metadynamics

    PubMed Central

    Söderhjelm, Pär; Tribello, Gareth A.; Parrinello, Michele

    2012-01-01

    A molecular dynamics-based protocol is proposed for finding and scoring protein-ligand binding poses. This protocol uses the recently developed reconnaissance metadynamics method, which employs a self-learning algorithm to construct a bias that pushes the system away from the kinetic traps where it would otherwise remain. The exploration of phase space with this algorithm is shown to be roughly six to eight times faster than unbiased molecular dynamics and is only limited by the time taken to diffuse about the surface of the protein. We apply this method to the well-studied trypsin–benzamidine system and show that we are able to refind all the poses obtained from a reference EADock blind docking calculation. These poses can be scored based on the length of time the system remains trapped in the pose. Alternatively, one can perform dimensionality reduction on the output trajectory and obtain a map of phase space that can be used in more expensive free-energy calculations. PMID:22440749

  12. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system. PMID:22319282

  13. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  14. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prospective nonrandomized control study. The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED). Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic time, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time. A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture time(s) were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P

  15. The prognostic value of a classification system for centrally located liver tumors in the setting of hepatocellular carcinoma after mesohepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jianguo; Chen, Shuting; Wu, Hong; Du, Chengyou

    2016-12-01

    A classification system of centrally located liver tumors (CLLTs) was proposed by our group in 2013, which divided CLLTs into four subtypes by focusing on the involvement of resected segments and the anatomical location of lesions relative to the principal hepatic vascular structures. The current study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and compare the surgical outcomes of the different CLLTs classification system for patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) underwent mesohepatectomy (MH). Moreover, we sought to validate the prognostic value of the new classification system. Data from 353 consecutive patients with centrally located HCC who were treated with MH between 2005 and 2013 were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. The 1-, 3-, and 5-y overall recurrence rates were 21.4%, 41.3%, and 55.6%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-y overall (OS) and corresponding recurrence-free survival rates (RFS) were 82.5%, 61.6%, 40.2%, and 68.8%, 42.5%, 30.7%, respectively. According the CLLTs classification system, 106 patients were classified as type I, 68 as type II, 94 as type III and 85 as type IV. There were no significant differences in RFS rate among the CLLTs groups, however, a significant decrease in OS rates was observed in the type IV classification, respectively. Multivariate analysis reveal that patients with microvascular invasion, portal vein thrombosis, the largest tumor size≥5 cm, tumor number≥3, liver cirrhosis, hepatic inflow occlusion ≥60 min, intraoperative blood loss≥1500 ml, pTNM staging and CLLTs classification of Type IV to be independent adverse factors for long-term survivals. The classification system of CLLTs is meant to help clinicians in defining the extent of resection, providing a risk assessment and predicting prognosis. However, it is need to be validated in more HCC patients and medical centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cuerpo de Paz Manual de Sistema de Programacion y Capacitacion (Peace Corps Programming and Training System Manual): T0063.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This Spanish version of the Peace Corps Programming and Training System Manual is designed to help field staff members of the Peace Corps train volunteers. Its task descriptions, guidelines, examples, and definitions are intended to be practical and informative rather than restrictive. The manual is divided into six major sections: (1)…

  17. LOCATING THE TRAILING EDGE OF THE CIRCUMBINARY RING IN THE KH 15D SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Capelo, Holly L.; Herbst, William; Leggett, S. K.; Hamilton, Catrina M.; Johnson, John A.

    2012-09-20

    Following two years of complete occultation of both stars in the binary T Tauri star KH 15D by its opaque circumbinary ring, KH 15D has abruptly brightened again during apastron phases, reaching I = 15 mag. Here, we show that the brightening is accompanied by a change in spectral class from K6/K7 (the spectral class of star A) to {approx}K1, and a bluing of the system in V - I by about 0.3 mag. A radial velocity measurement confirms that, at apastron, we are now seeing direct light from star B, which is more luminous and of earlier spectral class than star A. Evidently, the trailing edge of the occulting screen has just become tangent to one anse of star B's projected orbit. This confirms a prediction of the precession models, supports the view that the tilted ring is self-gravitating, and ushers in a new era of the system's evolution that should be accompanied by the same kind of dramatic phenomena observed from 1995 to 2009. It also promotes KH 15D from a single-lined to a double-lined eclipsing binary, greatly enhancing its value for testing pre-main-sequence models. The results of our study strengthen the case for truncation of the outer ring at around 4 AU by a sub-stellar object such as an extremely young giant planet. The system is currently at an optimal configuration for detecting the putative planet and we urge expedient follow-up observations.

  18. A novel field search and rescue system based on SIM card location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huihui; Guo, Shutao; Cui, Dejing

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, the rapid development of outdoor sports and adventure leads to the increase of the frequency of missing accidents. On the other hand, it becomes much more convenient and efficient for the criminals to escape with the help of new technologies. So we have developed a long-distance raids targeted field search and rescue system which utilizes RSSI ranging and Kalman filtering algorithm to realize remote positioning and dynamic supervision management only by a mobile phone with a SIM card, without any additional terminal equipment.

  19. A comparison of temporal and location-based sampling strategies for global positioning system-triggered electronic diaries.

    PubMed

    Törnros, Tobias; Dorn, Helen; Reichert, Markus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-11-21

    Self-reporting is a well-established approach within the medical and psychological sciences. In order to avoid recall bias, i.e. past events being remembered inaccurately, the reports can be filled out on a smartphone in real-time and in the natural environment. This is often referred to as ambulatory assessment and the reports are usually triggered at regular time intervals. With this sampling scheme, however, rare events (e.g. a visit to a park or recreation area) are likely to be missed. When addressing the correlation between mood and the environment, it may therefore be beneficial to include participant locations within the ambulatory assessment sampling scheme. Based on the geographical coordinates, the database query system then decides if a self-report should be triggered or not. We simulated four different ambulatory assessment sampling schemes based on movement data (coordinates by minute) from 143 voluntary participants tracked for seven consecutive days. Two location-based sampling schemes incorporating the environmental characteristics (land use and population density) at each participant's location were introduced and compared to a time-based sampling scheme triggering a report on the hour as well as to a sampling scheme incorporating physical activity. We show that location-based sampling schemes trigger a report less often, but we obtain more unique trigger positions and a greater spatial spread in comparison to sampling strategies based on time and distance. Additionally, the location-based methods trigger significantly more often at rarely visited types of land use and less often outside the study region where no underlying environmental data are available.

  20. Location and Electronic Nature of Phosphorus in the Si Nanocrystal--SiO2 System.

    PubMed

    König, Dirk; Gutsch, Sebastian; Gnaser, Hubert; Wahl, Michael; Kopnarski, Michael; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Zacharias, Margit; Hiller, Daniel

    2015-05-22

    Up to now, no consensus exists about the electronic nature of phosphorus (P) as donor for SiO2-embedded silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs). Here, we report on hybrid density functional theory (h-DFT) calculations of P in the SiNC/SiO2 system matching our experimental findings. Relevant P configurations within SiNCs, at SiNC surfaces, within the sub-oxide interface shell and in the SiO2 matrix were evaluated. Atom probe tomography (APT) and its statistical evaluation provide detailed spatial P distributions. For the first time, we obtain ionisation states of P atoms in the SiNC/SiO2 system at room temperature using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, eliminating structural artefacts due to sputtering as occurring in XPS. K energies of P in SiO2 and SiNC/SiO2 superlattices (SLs) were calibrated with non-degenerate P-doped Si wafers. results confirm measured core level energies, connecting and explaining XANES spectra with h-DFT electronic structures. While P can diffuse into SiNCs and predominantly resides on interstitial sites, its ionization probability is extremely low, rendering P unsuitable for introducing electrons into SiNCs embedded in SiO2. Increased sample conductivity and photoluminescence (PL) quenching previously assigned to ionized P donors originate from deep defect levels due to P.

  1. Location and Electronic Nature of Phosphorus in the Si Nanocrystal − SiO2 System

    PubMed Central

    König, Dirk; Gutsch, Sebastian; Gnaser, Hubert; Wahl, Michael; Kopnarski, Michael; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Zacharias, Margit; Hiller, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Up to now, no consensus exists about the electronic nature of phosphorus (P) as donor for SiO2-embedded silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs). Here, we report on hybrid density functional theory (h-DFT) calculations of P in the SiNC/SiO2 system matching our experimental findings. Relevant P configurations within SiNCs, at SiNC surfaces, within the sub-oxide interface shell and in the SiO2 matrix were evaluated. Atom probe tomography (APT) and its statistical evaluation provide detailed spatial P distributions. For the first time, we obtain ionisation states of P atoms in the SiNC/SiO2 system at room temperature using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, eliminating structural artefacts due to sputtering as occurring in XPS. K energies of P in SiO2 and SiNC/SiO2 superlattices (SLs) were calibrated with non-degenerate P-doped Si wafers. results confirm measured core level energies, connecting and explaining XANES spectra with h-DFT electronic structures. While P can diffuse into SiNCs and predominantly resides on interstitial sites, its ionization probability is extremely low, rendering P unsuitable for introducing electrons into SiNCs embedded in SiO2. Increased sample conductivity and photoluminescence (PL) quenching previously assigned to ionized P donors originate from deep defect levels due to P. PMID:25997696

  2. Cell Locating with the Image Analysis System of the CAS-LIBB Single-Particle Microbeam Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Shaohu; Yu, Zengliang

    2005-06-01

    A single-particle microbeam facility has been constructed at the Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering (LIBB), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). At the CAS-LIBB microbeam facility, we have developed protocols to place exact numbers of charged particles through nuclear centroids of cells, at defined positions in the cytoplasm relative to the nucleus, and through defined fractions of cells in a population. In this paper, we address the methods for nucleus, cytoplasm and bystander (either a single or an exact number of ions is delivered to a certain percentage of cells in a population to study the bystander effects of radiation) irradiation in detail from the precision of target finding and cell locating in the image analysis system. Moreover, for cells touching slightly in an image, a watershed method is used to separate these touching objects; after that, the number of objects in an image is counted accurately and the irradiation points are located precisely.

  3. GIS management system of power plant staff based on wireless fidelity indoor location technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting

    2017-05-01

    The labor conditions and environment of electric power production are quite complicated. It is very difficult to realize the real-time supervision of the employees' working conditions and safety. Using the existing base stations in the power plant, the wireless fidelity network is established to realize the wireless coverage of the work site. We can use mobile phone to communicate and achieve positioning. The main content of this project is based on the special environment of the power plant, designed a suitable for ordinary Android mobile phone indoor wireless fidelity positioning system, real-time positioning and record the scene of each employee's movement trajectory, has achieved real-time staff check Gang, Staff in place, and for the safety of employees to provide a guarantee.

  4. The Phosphoarginine Energy-Buffering System of Trypanosoma brucei Involves Multiple Arginine Kinase Isoforms with Different Subcellular Locations

    PubMed Central

    Wadforth, Cath; Harley, Maggie; Colasante, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Phosphagen energy-buffering systems play an essential role in regulating the cellular energy homeostasis in periods of high-energy demand or energy supply fluctuations. Here we describe the phosphoarginine/arginine kinase system of the kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei, consisting of three highly similar arginine kinase isoforms (TbAK1-3). Immunofluorescence microscopy using myc-tagged protein versions revealed that each isoform is located in a specific subcellular compartment: TbAK1 is exclusively found in the flagellum, TbAK2 in the glycosome, and TbAK3 in the cytosol of T. brucei. The flagellar location of TbAK1 is dependent on a 22 amino acid long N-terminal sequence, which is sufficient for targeting a GFP-fusion protein to the trypanosome flagellum. The glycosomal location of TbAK2 is in agreement with the presence of a conserved peroxisomal targeting signal, the C-terminal tripeptide ‘SNL’. TbAK3 lacks any apparent targeting sequences and is accordingly located in the cytosol of the parasite. Northern blot analysis indicated that each TbAK isoform is differentially expressed in bloodstream and procyclic forms of T. brucei, while the total cellular arginine kinase activity was 3-fold higher in bloodstream form trypanosomes. These results suggest a substantial change in the temporal and spatial energy requirements during parasite differentiation. Increased arginine kinase activity improved growth of procyclic form T. brucei during oxidative challenges with hydrogen peroxide. Elimination of the total cellular arginine kinase activity by RNA interference significantly decreased growth (>90%) of procyclic form T. brucei under standard culture conditions and was lethal for this life cycle stage in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The putative physiological roles of the different TbAK isoforms in T. brucei are further discussed. PMID:23776565

  5. Prevention of a wrong-location misadministration through the use of an intradepartmental incident learning system.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric C; Smith, Koren; Harris, Kendra; Terezakis, Stephanie

    2012-11-01

    A series of examples are presented in which potential errors in the delivery of radiation therapy were prevented through use of incident learning. These examples underscore the value of reporting near miss incidents. Using a departmental incident learning system, eight incidents were noted over a two-year period in which fields were treated "out-of-sequence," that is, fields from a boost phase were treated, while the patient was still in the initial phase of treatment. As a result, an error-prevention policy was instituted in which radiation treatment fields are "hidden" within the oncology information system (OIS) when they are not in current use. In this way, fields are only available to be treated in the intended sequence and, importantly, old fields cannot be activated at the linear accelerator control console. No out-of-sequence treatments have been reported in more than two years since the policy change. Furthermore, at least three near-miss incidents were detected and corrected as a result of the policy change. In the first two, the policy operated as intended to directly prevent an error in field scheduling. In the third near-miss, the policy operated "off target" to prevent a type of error scenario that it was not directly intended to prevent. In this incident, an incorrect digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) was scheduled in the OIS for a patient receiving lung cancer treatment. The incorrect DRR had an isocenter which was misplaced by approximately two centimeters. The error was a result of a field from an old plan being scheduled instead of the intended new plan. As a result of the policy described above, the DRR field could not be activated for treatment however and the error was discovered and corrected. Other quality control barriers in place would have been unlikely to have detected this error. In these examples, a policy was adopted based on incident learning, which prevented several errors, at least one of which was potentially severe. These

  6. Observational Constraints on the Orbit and Location of Planet Nine in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael E.; Batygin, Konstantin

    2016-06-01

    We use an extensive suite of numerical simulations to constrain the mass and orbit of Planet Nine, the recently proposed perturber in a distant eccentric orbit in the outer solar system. We compare our simulations to the observed population of aligned eccentric high semimajor axis Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and determine which simulation parameters are statistically compatible with the observations. We find that only a narrow range of orbital elements can reproduce the observations. In particular, the combination of semimajor axis, eccentricity, and mass of Planet Nine strongly dictates the semimajor axis range of the orbital confinement of the distant eccentric KBOs. Allowed orbits, which confine KBOs with semimajor axis beyond 380 au, have perihelia roughly between 150 and 350 au, semimajor axes between 380 and 980 au, and masses between 5 and 20 Earth masses. Orbitally confined objects also generally have orbital planes similar to that of the planet, suggesting that the planet is inclined approximately 30°to the ecliptic. We compare the allowed orbital positions and estimated brightness of Planet Nine to previous and ongoing surveys which would be sensitive to the planet’s detection and use these surveys to rule out approximately two-thirds of the planet’s orbit. Planet Nine is likely near aphelion with an approximate brightness of 22< V< 25. At opposition, its motion, mainly due to parallax, can easily be detected within 24 hours.

  7. Indoor location system based on discriminant-adaptive neural network in IEEE 802.11 environments.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shih-Hau; Lin, Tsung-Nan

    2008-11-01

    This brief paper presents a novel localization algorithm, named discriminant-adaptive neural network (DANN), which takes the received signal strength (RSS) from the access points (APs) as inputs to infer the client position in the wireless local area network (LAN) environment. We extract the useful information into discriminative components (DCs) for network learning. The nonlinear relationship between RSS and the position is then accurately constructed by incrementally inserting the DCs and recursively updating the weightings in the network until no further improvement is required. Our localization system is developed in a real-world wireless LAN WLAN environment, where the realistic RSS measurement is collected. We implement the traditional approaches on the same test bed, including weighted kappa-nearest neighbor (WKNN), maximum likelihood (ML), and multilayer perceptron (MLP), and compare the results. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is much higher in accuracy compared with other examined techniques. The improvement can be attributed to that only the useful information is efficiently extracted for positioning while the redundant information is regarded as noise and discarded. Finally, the analysis shows that our network intelligently accomplishes learning while the inserted DCs provide sufficient information.

  8. Application of Excitation from Multiple Locations on a Simplified High-Lift System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

    2004-01-01

    A series of active flow control experiments were recently conducted on a simplified high-lift system. The purpose of the experiments was to explore the prospects of eliminating all but simply hinged leading and trailing edge flaps, while controlling separation on the supercritical airfoil using multiple periodic excitation slots. Excitation was provided by three. independently controlled, self-contained, piezoelectric actuators. Low frequency excitation was generated through amplitude modulation of the high frequency carrier wave, the actuators' resonant frequencies. It was demonstrated, for the first time, that pulsed modulated signal from two neighboring slots interact favorably to increase lift. Phase sensitivity at the low frequency was measured, even though the excitation was synthesized from the high-frequency carrier wave. The measurements were performed at low Reynolds numbers and included mean and unsteady surface pressures, surface hot-films, wake pressures and particle image velocimetry. A modest (6%) increase in maximum lift (compared to the optimal baseline) was obtained due t o the activation of two of the three actuators.

  9. Organization of the histaminergic system in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain: neuron number, location, and cotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Sundvik, Maria; Panula, Pertti

    2012-12-01

    Histamine is an essential factor in the ascending arousal system (AAS) during motivated behaviors. Histamine and hypocretin/orexin (hcrt) are proposed to be responsible for different aspects of arousal and wakefulness, histamine mainly for cognitive and motivated behaviors. In this study we visualized the entire histaminergic neuron population in adult male and female zebrafish brain and quantified the histaminergic neuron numbers. There were 40-45 histaminergic neurons in both male and female zebrafish brain. Further, we identified cotransmitters of histaminergic neurons in the ventrocaudal hypothalamus, i.e., around the posterior recess (PR) in adult zebrafish. Galanin, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were colocalized with histamine in some but not all neurons, a result that was verified by intracerebroventricular injections of colchicine into adult zebrafish. Fibers immunoreactive (ir) for galanin, GABA, TRH, or methionine-enkephalin (mENK) were dense in the ventrocaudal hypothalamus around the histaminergic neurons. In histamine-ir fibers TRH and galanin immunoreactivities were also detected in the ventral telencephalon. All these neurotransmitters are involved in maintaining the equilibrium of the sleep-wake state. Our results are in accordance with results from rats, further supporting the use of zebrafish as a tool to study molecular mechanisms underlying complex behaviors.

  10. [Costs analysis system; its location within a program for food, nutrition and metabolic intervention].

    PubMed

    Fernández Hernández, Ileana Sonia; Santana Porbén, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Every medical surgical action implies costs. Costs of medical provisions should be translated into tangible, and thus, measurable, benefits for the health status of the patient. Nutritional support therapies might increase the costs of medical provisions, but it is expected their implementation to result in lower morbidity and mortality rates as well as shortening of hospital stay, all of them leading to important savings. It is then required the assimilation of tools for costs analysis for a better management of nutritional support therapies. A proposal for the design of a hospital system (regarded anywhere in this text as SHACOST) for the analysis of the costs of interventions conducted in a patient in accordance with the guidelines included in the Metabolic, Nutrient and Food Intervention Program (referred everywhere for its Spanish acronym PRINUMA) is presented in this article. Hence, strategies are described to estimate the costs of a specified intervention. In addition, a primer on cost-effectiveness (ACE) and incremental cost-effectiveness (ACEI) analyses is shown relying on examples taken from the authors's experience in the provision of nutritional care to patients electively operated for a colorectal cancer. Finally, costs of surgical treatment of a mandibular tumor are described, followed by a discussion on how a better impact of the adopted surgical action could be achieved without considerable increases in total costs should a perioperatory nutritional support program be included. Implementation of SHACOST can provide the medical care teams with accounting tools required to assess the effectiveness of hospital nutritional support schemes, decide whether to acquire and introduce new technologies, and measure the impact of the performance of hospital forms for provision of nutritional care upon health management and perceived quality of life of the patient and their relatives.

  11. Traffic Sign Detection System for Locating Road Intersections and Roundabouts: The Chilean Case

    PubMed Central

    Villalón-Sepúlveda, Gabriel; Torres-Torriti, Miguel; Flores-Calero, Marco

    2017-01-01

    the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of PUC to develop driver assistance systems. PMID:28587071

  12. Traffic Sign Detection System for Locating Road Intersections and Roundabouts: The Chilean Case.

    PubMed

    Villalón-Sepúlveda, Gabriel; Torres-Torriti, Miguel; Flores-Calero, Marco

    2017-05-25

    the Robotics and Automation Laboratory of PUC to develop driver assistance systems.

  13. Real-Time Safety Risk Assessment Based on a Real-Time Location System for Hydropower Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns. PMID:25114958

  14. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  15. Favorable locations for piezo actuators in plates with good control effectiveness and minimal change in system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuri, K. D.; Seshu, P.

    2007-12-01

    Placement and sizing of piezo actuators is normally based on control effectiveness. However, retrofitting of piezoelectric actuators alters the inherent stiffness/mass properties of the parent structure. In rotating structures, the additional mass due to piezo patches contributes to the centrifugal stiffening force. The parent structure is originally designed to have a certain natural frequency spectrum in relation to the disturbance excitation. In the event of failure of the active system, the dynamics of the structure with piezos (now rendered passive) will therefore become significant. Thus it will be helpful to determine locations for mounting piezo patches based on minimal natural frequency change yet with good control authority. In this study, a finite element based procedure for plate structures is presented. Favorable locations for mounting piezos based on minimal natural frequency changes are iteratively evolved from an initial configuration wherein the whole plate is covered with piezos. A modal controllability approach has been used for finding piezo mounting locations from a good controllability perspective. The procedure is demonstrated for simply supported square, swept-back, circular and rotating rectangular plates considering the first four modes.

  16. An ARC/INFO point coverage of Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS) locations in eleven western states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.

    1999-01-01

    This ARC/Info coverage, derived from the USGS Mineral Resource Data System (MRDS), contains 60,490 records that fall within the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming. The dataset has 13 fields containing information on record identification, location, commodity, geology, and deposit type. The data for this report was retrieved from the master database as a tab text file and imported into a Microsoft Access database. The data was then imported into ESRI’s ArcView where shape files were created. These shape files were then converted into an ARC/INFO coverage.

  17. Application of geographic information systems to investigating associations between social status and burial location in medieval Trino Vercellese (Piedmont, Italy).

    PubMed

    Stewart, Marissa C; Vercellotti, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Socioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested. This study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th-13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that greater growth outcomes are associated with privileged burials located inside the church by examining osteometric data (femoral bicondylar length [N = 74], maximum tibial length [N = 62], and the sum of the two measurements [N = 59]) in a geographic information system (GIS) of the cemetery. Getis-Ord G Hot Spot analysis identified significant (90% CI) spatial clustering of high osteometric values within the church, while low values clustered in areas of the cemetery farther from the church. These results, supported by the results of interpolation analyses, became more pronounced when z-scores were calculated to combine the male and female samples and the analyses were repeated. Overall, the findings corroborate the observation that the spatial distribution of osteometric data reflects socioeconomic status differences within the population. This research exemplifies the advantages of integrating bioarchaeology and spatial analysis to examine mortuary behavior and health outcomes in highly stratified societies where access to resources is demarcated in both life and in death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A new analytical method for the classification of time-location data obtained from the global positioning system (GPS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Kiyoung; Yang, Wonho; Yu, Seung Do

    2012-08-01

    Although the global positioning system (GPS) has been suggested as an alternative way to determine time-location patterns, its use has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new analytical method of classifying time-location data obtained by GPS. A field technician carried a GPS device while simulating various scripted activities and recorded all movements by the second in an activity diary. The GPS device recorded geological data once every 15 s. The daily monitoring was repeated 18 times. The time-location data obtained by the GPS were compared with the activity diary to determine selection criteria for the classification of the GPS data. The GPS data were classified into four microenvironments (residential indoors, other indoors, transit, and walking outdoors); the selection criteria used were used number of satellites (used-NSAT), speed, and distance from residence. The GPS data were classified as indoors when the used-NSAT was below 9. Data classified as indoors were further classified as residential indoors when the distance from the residence was less than 40 m; otherwise, they were classified as other indoors. Data classified as outdoors were further classified as being in transit when the speed exceeded 2.5 m s(-1); otherwise, they were classified as walking outdoors. The average simple percentage agreement between the time-location classifications and the activity diary was 84.3 ± 12.4%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.71. The average differences between the time diary and the GPS results were 1.6 ± 2.3 h for the time spent in residential indoors, 0.9 ± 1.7 h for the time spent in other indoors, 0.4 ± 0.4 h for the time spent in transit, and 0.8 ± 0.5 h for the time spent walking outdoors. This method can be used to determine time-activity patterns in exposure-science studies.

  19. The development and validation of a Real Time Location System to reliably monitor everyday activities in natural contexts

    PubMed Central

    Drassal, Allan; Aunger, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The accurate measurement of behaviour is vitally important to many disciplines and practitioners of various kinds. While different methods have been used (such as observation, diaries, questionnaire), none are able to accurately monitor behaviour over the long term in the natural context of people’s own lives. The aim of this work was therefore to develop and test a reliable system for unobtrusively monitoring various behaviours of multiple individuals within the same household over a period of several months. Methods A commercial Real Time Location System was adapted to meet these requirements and subsequently validated in three households by monitoring various bathroom behaviours. Results The results indicate that the system is robust, can monitor behaviours over the long-term in different households and can reliably distinguish between individuals. Precision rates were high and consistent. Recall rates were less consistent across households and behaviours, although recall rates improved considerably with practice at set-up of the system. The achieved precision and recall rates were comparable to the rates observed in more controlled environments using more valid methods of ground truthing. Conclusion These initial findings indicate that the system is a valuable, flexible and robust system for monitoring behaviour in its natural environment that would allow new research questions to be addressed. PMID:28196100

  20. FCaZm intelligent recognition system for locating areas prone to strong earthquakes in the Andean and Caucasian mountain belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvishiani, A. D.; Dzeboev, B. A.; Agayan, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The fuzzy clustering and zoning method (FCAZm) of systems analysis is suggested for recognizing the areas of the probable generation of the epicenters of significant, strong, and the strongest earthquakes. FCAZm is a modified version of the previous FCAZ algorithmic system, which is advanced by the creation of the blocks of artificial intelligence that develop the system-forming algorithms. FCAZm has been applied for recognizing areas where the epicenters of the strongest ( M ≥ 73/4) earthquakes within the Andes mountain belt in the South America and significant earthquakes ( M ≥ 5) in the Caucasus can emerge. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed by the seismic-history type control experiments. The recognized highly seismic zones were compared with the ones previously recognized by the EPA method and by the initial version of the FCAZ system. The modified FCAZm system enabled us to pass from simple pattern recognition in the problem of recognizing the locations of the probable emergence of strong earthquakes to systems analysis. In particular, using FCAZm we managed to uniquely recognize a subsystem of highly seismically active zones from the nonempty complement using the exact boundary.

  1. Parachute recovery location aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silbert, M. N.; Moltedo, A. D.; Bedy, E. P., Sr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents various types of location aid devices that may be used individually or in some combination to locate parachutes designed for the recovery of scientific data and instrumentation that have impacted on the earth's surface. Systems may be used on either recovery parachute systems or high altitude parachute systems. It is noted that all location aids are passive during the data gathering period of flight. Initial results of test data from two types of direction finder receivers are presented as well as their application and use with parachute borne and other location transmitters.

  2. Constraining the Movement of the Spiral Features and the Locations of Planetary Bodies Within the AB Aur System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Wisniewski, John P.; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Fukagawa, Misato; Abe, Lyu

    2016-01-01

    We present a new analysis of multi-epoch, H-band, scattered light images of the AB Aur system. We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simultaneously model the systems spectral energy distribution (SED) and H-band polarized intensity (PI) imagery. We find that a disk-dominated model, as opposed to one that is envelope dominated, can plausibly reproduce AB Aurs SED and near-IR imagery. This is consistent with previous modeling attempts presented in the literature and supports the idea that at least a subset of AB Aurs spirals originate within the disk. In light of this, we also analyzed the movement of spiral structures in multi-epoch H-band total light and PI imagery of the disk. We detect no significant rotation or change in spatial location of the spiral structures in these data, which span a 5.8-year baseline. If such structures are caused by disk planet interactions, the lack of observed rotation constrains the location of the orbit of planetary perturbers to be 47 au.

  3. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  4. LOCATING PLANETESIMAL BELTS IN THE MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS HD 128311, HD 202206, HD 82943, AND HR 8799

    SciTech Connect

    Moro-Martin, Amaya; Malhotra, Renu; Bryden, Geoffrey; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Beichman, Charles A.; Lawler, Samantha M.

    2010-07-10

    In addition to the Sun, six other stars are known to harbor multiple planets and debris disks: HD 69830, HD 38529, HD 128311, HD 202206, HD 82943, and HR 8799. In this paper, we set constraints on the location of the dust-producing planetesimals around the latter four systems. We use a radiative transfer model to analyze the spectral energy distributions of the dust disks (including two new Spitzer IRS spectra presented in this paper), and a dynamical model to assess the long-term stability of the planetesimals' orbits. As members of a small group of stars that show evidence of harboring a multiple planets and planetesimals, their study can help us learn about the diversity of planetary systems.

  5. Implementation and Analysis of a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Pet Location Monitoring System for Domestic Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Erik; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Santesteban, Daniel; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-08-30

    The flexibility of new age wireless networks and the variety of sensors to measure a high number of variables, lead to new scenarios where anything can be monitored by small electronic devices, thereby implementing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Thanks to ZigBee, RFID or WiFi networks the precise location of humans or animals as well as some biological parameters can be known in real-time. However, since wireless sensors must be attached to biological tissues and they are highly dispersive, propagation of electromagnetic waves must be studied to deploy an efficient and well-working network. The main goal of this work is to study the influence of wireless channel limitations in the operation of a specific pet monitoring system, validated at physical channel as well as at functional level. In this sense, radio wave propagation produced by ZigBee devices operating at the ISM 2.4 GHz band is studied through an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching simulation tool, in order to analyze coverage/capacity relations for the optimal system selection as well as deployment strategy in terms of number of transceivers and location. Furthermore, a simplified dog model is developed for simulation code, considering not only its morphology but also its dielectric properties. Relevant wireless channel information such as power distribution, power delay profile and delay spread graphs are obtained providing an extensive wireless channel analysis. A functional dog monitoring system is presented, operating over the implemented ZigBee network and providing real time information to Android based devices. The proposed system can be scaled in order to consider different types of domestic pets as well as new user based functionalities.

  6. Implementation and Analysis of a Wireless Sensor Network-Based Pet Location Monitoring System for Domestic Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Erik; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Santesteban, Daniel; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of new age wireless networks and the variety of sensors to measure a high number of variables, lead to new scenarios where anything can be monitored by small electronic devices, thereby implementing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Thanks to ZigBee, RFID or WiFi networks the precise location of humans or animals as well as some biological parameters can be known in real-time. However, since wireless sensors must be attached to biological tissues and they are highly dispersive, propagation of electromagnetic waves must be studied to deploy an efficient and well-working network. The main goal of this work is to study the influence of wireless channel limitations in the operation of a specific pet monitoring system, validated at physical channel as well as at functional level. In this sense, radio wave propagation produced by ZigBee devices operating at the ISM 2.4 GHz band is studied through an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching simulation tool, in order to analyze coverage/capacity relations for the optimal system selection as well as deployment strategy in terms of number of transceivers and location. Furthermore, a simplified dog model is developed for simulation code, considering not only its morphology but also its dielectric properties. Relevant wireless channel information such as power distribution, power delay profile and delay spread graphs are obtained providing an extensive wireless channel analysis. A functional dog monitoring system is presented, operating over the implemented ZigBee network and providing real time information to Android based devices. The proposed system can be scaled in order to consider different types of domestic pets as well as new user based functionalities. PMID:27589751

  7. Puncture Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy with HE’s Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) System: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Hu, Annan; Zhu, Yanjie; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; He, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) usually requires numerous punctures under X-ray fluoroscopy. Repeated puncture will lead to more radiation exposure and reduce the beginners' confidence. Objective This cadaver study aimed to investigate the efficacy of HE’s Lumbar Location (HELLO) system in puncture reduction of PTED. Study design Cadaver study. Setting Comparative groups. Methods HELLO system consists of self-made surface locator and puncture locator. One senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of 20 cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of HELLO system (Group A). Additionally, the senior surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the right side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with traditional methods (Group B). On the other hand, an inexperienced surgeon conducted the puncture procedure of PTED on the left side of the cadavers at L4/L5 and L5/S1 level with the assistance of our HELLO system (Group C). Results At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.811). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in puncture times between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.981). At L4/L5 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.290). Similarly at L5/S1 level, there was significant difference in fluoroscopy time between Group A and Group B (P<0.001), but no significant difference was observed between Group A and Group C (P = 0.523). As for radiation exposure, HELLO system reduced 39%-45% radiation dosage when comparing Group A and Group B, but there was no significant difference in radiation exposure between Group A

  8. CI-KNOW: Cyberinfrastructure Knowledge Networks on the Web. A Social Network Enabled Recommender System for Locating Resources in Cyberinfrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H. D.; Contractor, N. S.; Yao, Y.

    2006-12-01

    A knowledge network is a multi-dimensional network created from the interactions and interconnections among the scientists, documents, data, analytic tools, and interactive collaboration spaces (like forums and wikis) associated with a collaborative environment. CI-KNOW is a suite of software tools that leverages automated data collection, social network theories, analysis techniques and algorithms to infer an individual's interests and expertise based on their interactions and activities within a knowledge network. The CI-KNOW recommender system mines the knowledge network associated with a scientific community's use of cyberinfrastructure tools and uses relational metadata to record connections among entities in the knowledge network. Recent developments in social network theories and methods provide the backbone for a modular system that creates recommendations from relational metadata. A network navigation portlet allows users to locate colleagues, documents, data or analytic tools in the knowledge network and to explore their networks through a visual, step-wise process. An internal auditing portlet offers administrators diagnostics to assess the growth and health of the entire knowledge network. The first instantiation of the prototype CI-KNOW system is part of the Environmental Cyberinfrastructure Demonstration project at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, which supports the activities of hydrologic and environmental science communities (CLEANER and CUAHSI) under the umbrella of the WATERS network environmental observatory planning activities (http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). This poster summarizes the key aspects of the CI-KNOW system, highlighting the key inputs, calculation mechanisms, and output modalities.

  9. Real-time monitoring system with accelerator controlling: An improvement of radiotherapy monitoring based on binocular location and classification.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lei; Chen, Da; Tang, Xiao-Bing; Ge, Yun; Chen, Ying; Li, Jun

    2017-02-21

    Real-time monitoring and amendment of patient position is important for the radiotherapy. However, using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) in the clinical practice generate different degrees of delay, so that they cannot achieve the purpose of real-time application. Meanwhile, a few products come with the function of the real-time monitoring and amendment, such as CyberKnife, which is too expensive for the common people. The objective of this study is to develop and test a novel independent system to monitor treatment center and amend the position of patient, which is applicable to most accelerators, based on binocular location. The system monitors the treatment center by tracking the markers attached to the patient. Once the treatment center shifts, the system uses the magic finger, which is developed to control the treatment bet automatically to adjust the treatment bed position. To improve the monitoring accuracy, we trained the data collected from the clinic based on SVM (Support Vector Machine). Thus, the training results assist users to adjust the feasible degree of the monitoring. The experiment results showed that using this new monitoring system, the monitoring resolution reached 0.5 mm, and the error ratio of the judgment was less than 1.5%.

  10. Assessing Location and Scale of Urban Nonpotable Water Reuse Systems for Life-Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    PubMed

    Kavvada, Olga; Horvath, Arpad; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Eisenstein, William A; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-12-20

    Nonpotable water reuse (NPR) is one option for conserving valuable freshwater resources. Decentralization can improve distribution system efficiency by locating treatment closer to the consumer; however, small treatment systems may have higher unit energy and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. This research explored the trade-off between residential NPR systems using a life-cycle approach to analyze the energy use and GHG emissions. Decentralized and centralized NPR options are compared to identify where decentralized systems achieve environmental advantages over centralized reuse alternatives, and vice versa, over a range of scales and spatial and demographic conditions. For high-elevation areas far from the centralized treatment plant, decentralized NPR could lower energy use by 29% and GHG emissions by 28%, but in low-elevation areas close to the centralized treatment plant, decentralized reuse could be higher by up to 85% (energy) and 49% (GHG emissions) for the scales assessed (20-2000 m(3)/day). Direct GHG emissions from the treatment processes were found to be highly uncertain and variable and were not included in the analysis. The framework presented can be used as a planning support tool to reveal the environmental impacts of integrating decentralized NPR with existing centralized wastewater infrastructure and can be adapted to evaluate different treatment technology scales for reuse.

  11. Decision support system for the optimal location of electrical and electronic waste treatment plants: a case study in greece.

    PubMed

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Moussiopoulos, Nu; Banias, G

    2010-05-01

    Environmentally sound end-of-life management of Electrical and Electronic Equipment has been realised as a top priority issue internationally, both due to the waste stream's continuously increasing quantities, as well as its content in valuable and also hazardous materials. In an effort to manage Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), adequate infrastructure in treatment and recycling facilities is considered a prerequisite. A critical number of such plants are mandatory to be installed in order: (i) to accommodate legislative needs, (ii) decrease transportation cost, and (iii) expand reverse logistics network and cover more areas. However, WEEE recycling infrastructures require high expenditures and therefore the decision maker need to be most precautious. In this context, special care should be given on the viability of infrastructure which is heavily dependent on facilities' location. To this end, a methodology aiming towards optimal location of Units of Treatment and Recycling is developed, taking into consideration economical together with social criteria, in an effort to interlace local acceptance and financial viability. For the decision support system's needs, ELECTRE III is adopted as a multicriteria analysis technique. The methodology's applicability is demonstrated with a real-world case study in Greece.

  12. Decision support system for the optimal location of electrical and electronic waste treatment plants: A case study in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Achillas, Ch.; Vlachokostas, Ch.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Banias, G.

    2010-05-15

    Environmentally sound end-of-life management of Electrical and Electronic Equipment has been realised as a top priority issue internationally, both due to the waste stream's continuously increasing quantities, as well as its content in valuable and also hazardous materials. In an effort to manage Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), adequate infrastructure in treatment and recycling facilities is considered a prerequisite. A critical number of such plants are mandatory to be installed in order: (i) to accommodate legislative needs, (ii) decrease transportation cost, and (iii) expand reverse logistics network and cover more areas. However, WEEE recycling infrastructures require high expenditures and therefore the decision maker need to be most precautious. In this context, special care should be given on the viability of infrastructure which is heavily dependent on facilities' location. To this end, a methodology aiming towards optimal location of Units of Treatment and Recycling is developed, taking into consideration economical together with social criteria, in an effort to interlace local acceptance and financial viability. For the decision support system's needs, ELECTRE III is adopted as a multicriteria analysis technique. The methodology's applicability is demonstrated with a real-world case study in Greece.

  13. Constraining the Movement of the Spiral Features and the Locations of Planetary Bodies within the AB Aur System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Wisniewski, John P.; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Fukagawa, Misato; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Currie, Thayne M.; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Inoue, Akio; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mayama, Satoshi; Miyama, Shoken; Momose, Munetake; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Schneider, Glenn H.; Serabyn, Eugene; Sitko, Michael L.; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-09-01

    We present a new analysis of multi-epoch, H-band, scattered light images of the AB Aur system. We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simultaneously model the system’s spectral energy distribution (SED) and H-band polarized intensity (PI) imagery. We find that a disk-dominated model, as opposed to one that is envelope-dominated, can plausibly reproduce AB Aur’s SED and near-IR imagery. This is consistent with previous modeling attempts presented in the literature and supports the idea that at least a subset of AB Aur’s spirals originate within the disk. In light of this, we also analyzed the movement of spiral structures in multi-epoch H-band total light and PI imagery of the disk. We detect no significant rotation or change in spatial location of the spiral structures in these data, which span a 5.8-year baseline. If such structures are caused by disk-planet interactions, the lack of observed rotation constrains the location of the orbit of planetary perturbers to be >47 au.

  14. Alternative study of type and location of flood control infrastructure in the drainage system, Avfour Kelor channel, Tuban regency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabrang, Rangga Adi; Wardoyo, Wasis

    2017-06-01

    The topography of Tuban Regency which is close to the sea has both advantage and disadvantage. The advantage is the main channels of drainage can be directly discharged into the sea, while the disadvantage is the flow of the channels will be influenced by the sea tide. However, the absence of the channel capacity of drainage to load the runoff from the catchment area of Afvour Kelor channel led to inundations in the downstream and upstream. In addition, in the middle of the downstream and the upstream of Afvour Kelor channel, precisely in the Perbon Village, inundation frequently takes place particularly in the rainy season. It is allegedly caused by, the extreme runoff from the catchment area of Afvour Kelor channel, in addition to the influence of the sea tide. Due to the prevailing problem and the absence of the solution from the related institutions, the effort to manage drainage system in the area through the debit arrangement of runoff of Afvour Kelor cannel is urgently required. There were 3 (three) flood control scenarios that were simulated in this research. The scenarios in this research consisted of: to join the plan from the location of 7 (seven) ponds, 1 (one) pond at a predetermined location, and normalization of the channel. Subsequently, the most optimal scenario would be selected and reviewed based on the water surface profile in the cross section of the lowest Avfour Kelor channel.

  15. Kinetics and intracellular location of intramolecular disulfide bond formation mediated by the cytoplasmic redox system encoded by vaccinia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Bisht, Himani; Brown, Erica; Moss, Bernard

    2010-03-15

    Poxviruses encode a redox system for intramolecular disulfide bond formation in cytoplasmic domains of viral proteins. Our objectives were to determine the kinetics and intracellular location of disulfide bond formation. The vaccinia virus L1 myristoylated membrane protein, used as an example, has three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Reduced and disulfide-bonded forms of L1 were distinguished by electrophoretic mobility and reactivity with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Because disulfide bonds formed during 5 min pulse labeling with radioactive amino acids, a protocol was devised in which dithiothreitol was present at this step. Disulfide bond formation was detected by 2 min after removal of reducing agent and was nearly complete in 10 min. When the penultimate glycine residue was mutated to prevent myristoylation, L1 was mistargeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and disulfide bond formation failed to occur. These data suggested that viral membrane association was required for oxidation of L1, providing specificity for the process.

  16. A model to locate potential areas for lake sturgeon spawning habitat construction in the St. Clair–Detroit River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennion, David; Manny, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    In response to a need for objective scientific information that could be used to help remediate loss of fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair River and Detroit River International Areas of Concern, this paper summarizes a large-scale geographic mapping investigation. Our study integrates data on two variables that many riverine fishes respond to in selecting where to spawn in these waters (water flow velocity and water depth) with available maps of the St. Clair–Detroit River System (SC–DRS). Our objectives were to locate and map these two physical components of fish habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair using a geographic information system (GIS) and to identify where, theoretically, fish spawning habitat could be remediated in these rivers. The target fish species to which this model applies is lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), but spawning reefs constructed for lake sturgeon in this system have been used for spawning by 17 species of fish. Our analysis revealed areas in each river that possessed suitable water velocity and depth for fish spawning and therefore could theoretically be remediated by the addition of rock-rubble substrate like that used at two previously remediated sites in the Detroit River at Belle Isle and Fighting Island. Results of our analysis revealed that only 3% of the total area of the SC–DRS possesses the necessary combination of water depth and high flow velocity to be indicated by the model as potential spawning habitat for lake sturgeon.

  17. A critical view of the 'social reinsertion' concept and its implications for the practice of psychologists in the area of mental health in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde).

    PubMed

    Frazatto, Carina F; Sawaia, Bader B

    2016-03-01

    Improving psychological practice in mental health services in the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) requires a critical analysis of core concepts of the psychiatric reform, such as 'social reinsertion'. This analysis, oriented by the dialectics of exclusion/inclusion, showed that this concept is impregnated with the adaptation paradigm and asylum view which prevents its effective implantation. The results suggest it is necessary to include social aspects in the discussion of mental health, articulating it with networks of social work and recuperating the revolutionary aspects of the psychiatric reform, thus demarcating the political nature of professional practices.

  18. The Forum for Defence of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) and its role in building community participation in the fight against the privatization of health.

    PubMed

    de Lara, Lutiane; Guareschi, Neuza Maria de Fátima

    2016-03-01

    Based on a Foucauldian framework, this article discusses the involvement of the Forum for Defence of the Sistema Único de Saúde in the fight against health care privatization. Community participation is a locus of experience that produces subjects implicated in the production of public health care. The locus of experience in this instance derives from the rejection of private elements that historically have been part of Brazilian public policies. It is an experience that produces workers and service users as agents able to defend the public system and endowed with instituting power. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. On the validity of the arithmetic-geometric mean method to locate the optimal solution in a supply chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2012-08-01

    Cardenas-Barron [Cardenas-Barron, L.E. (2010) 'A Simple Method to Compute Economic order Quantities: Some Observations', Applied Mathematical Modelling, 34, 1684-1688] indicates that there are several functions in which the arithmetic-geometric mean method (AGM) does not give the minimum. This article presents another situation to reveal that the AGM inequality to locate the optimal solution may be invalid for Teng, Chen, and Goyal [Teng, J.T., Chen, J., and Goyal S.K. (2009), 'A Comprehensive Note on: An Inventory Model under Two Levels of Trade Credit and Limited Storage Space Derived without Derivatives', Applied Mathematical Modelling, 33, 4388-4396], Teng and Goyal [Teng, J.T., and Goyal S.K. (2009), 'Comment on 'Optimal Inventory Replenishment Policy for the EPQ Model under Trade Credit Derived without Derivatives', International Journal of Systems Science, 40, 1095-1098] and Hsieh, Chang, Weng, and Dye [Hsieh, T.P., Chang, H.J., Weng, M.W., and Dye, C.Y. (2008), 'A Simple Approach to an Integrated Single-vendor Single-buyer Inventory System with Shortage', Production Planning and Control, 19, 601-604]. So, the main purpose of this article is to adopt the calculus approach not only to overcome shortcomings of the arithmetic-geometric mean method of Teng et al. (2009), Teng and Goyal (2009) and Hsieh et al. (2008), but also to develop the complete solution procedures for them.

  20. Construction of chromosomally located T7 expression system for production of heterologous secreted proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po Ting; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Chao, Yun-Peng; David Ho, Tuan-Hua; Yu, Su-May

    2010-05-12

    Bacillus subtilis is most commonly employed for secretion of recombinant proteins. To circumvent the problems caused by using plasmids, the T7 expression system known for its high efficiency was rebuilt in B. subtilis. Accordingly, a markerless and replicon-free method was developed for genomic insertion of DNAs. By the act of homologous recombination via the guide DNA, a suicidal vector carrying the gene of interest was integrated into genomic loci of bacteria. Removal of the inserted selection marker and replicon flanked by FRT sites was mediated by the FLP recombinase. By using the mentioned system, B. subtilis strain PT5 was constructed to harbor a genomic copy of the spac promoter-regulated T7 gene 1 located at wprA (encoding the cell wall-associated protease). Similarly, the T7 promoter-driven nattokinase or endoglucanase E1 of Thermomonospora fusca genes were also integrated into mpr (encoding an extracellular protease) of strain PT5. Consequently, the integrant PT5/Mmp-T7N or PT5/MT1-E1 resulted in a "clean" producer strain deprived of six proteases. After 24 h, the strain receiving induction was able to secret nattokinase and endoglucanase E1 with the volumetric activity reaching 10860 CU/mL and 8.4 U/mL, respectively. This result clearly indicates the great promise of the proposed approach for high secretion of recombinant proteins in B. subtilis.

  1. In vivo determination of the time and location of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems disintegration in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Christian; Albrecht, Karin; Greindl, Melanie; Wolf, Christian; Debbage, Paul; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect the time when and the location at which orally delivered mucoadhesive drugs are released. Drug delivery systems comprising tablets or capsules containing a mucoadhesive polymer were designed to deliver the polymer to the intestine in dry powder form. Dry Gd-DTPA [diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium(III) dihydrogen salt hydrate] powder was added to the mucoadhesive polymer, resulting in a susceptibility artifact that allows tracking of the application forms before their disintegration and that gives a strong positive signal on disintegration. Experiments were performed with rats using T(1)-weighted spin-echo imaging on a standard 1.5-T MRI system. The susceptibility artifact produced by the dry Gd-DTPA powder in tablets or capsules was clearly visible within the stomach of the rats and could be followed during movement towards the intestine. Upon disintegration, a strong positive signal was unambiguously observed. The time between ingestion and observation of a positive signal was significantly different for different application forms. Quantification of the remaining mucoadhesive polymer in the intestine 3 h after observed release showed significant differences in mucoadhesive effectiveness. MRI allows detection of the exact time of release of the mucoadhesive polymer in vivo, which is a prerequisite for a reliable quantitative comparison between different application forms.

  2. Reconstructing the Sky Location of Gravitational-Wave Detected Compact Binary Systems: Methodology for Testing and Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidney, T.; Aylott, B.; Christensen, N.; Farr, B.; Farr, W.; Feroz, F.; Gair, J.; Grover, K.; Graff, P.; Hanna, C.; Kalogera, V.; Mandel, I.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Pitkin, M.; Price, L.; Raymond, V.; Roever, C.; Singer, L.; vanderSluys, M.; Smith, R. J. E.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Vitale, S.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing the sky position of compact binary coalescences detected via gravitational waves is a central one for future observations with the ground-based network of gravitational-wave laser interferometers, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Different techniques for sky localization have been independently developed. They can be divided in two broad categories: fully coherent Bayesian techniques, which are high latency and aimed at in-depth studies of all the parameters of a source, including sky position, and "triangulation-based" techniques, which exploit the data products from the search stage of the analysis to provide an almost real-time approximation of the posterior probability density function of the sky location of a detection candidate. These techniques have previously been applied to data collected during the last science runs of gravitational-wave detectors operating in the so-called initial configuration. Here, we develop and analyze methods for assessing the self consistency of parameter estimation methods and carrying out fair comparisons between different algorithms, addressing issues of efficiency and optimality. These methods are general, and can be applied to parameter estimation problems other than sky localization. We apply these methods to two existing sky localization techniques representing the two above-mentioned categories, using a set of simulated inspiralonly signals from compact binary systems with a total mass of equal to or less than 20M solar mass and nonspinning components. We compare the relative advantages and costs of the two techniques and show that sky location uncertainties are on average a factor approx. equals 20 smaller for fully coherent techniques than for the specific variant of the triangulation-based technique used during the last science runs, at the expense of a factor approx. equals 1000 longer processing time.

  3. Fuzzy Inference System Approach for Locating Series, Shunt, and Simultaneous Series-Shunt Faults in Double Circuit Transmission Lines.

    PubMed

    Swetapadma, Aleena; Yadav, Anamika

    2015-01-01

    Many schemes are reported for shunt fault location estimation, but fault location estimation of series or open conductor faults has not been dealt with so far. The existing numerical relays only detect the open conductor (series) fault and give the indication of the faulty phase(s), but they are unable to locate the series fault. The repair crew needs to patrol the complete line to find the location of series fault. In this paper fuzzy based fault detection/classification and location schemes in time domain are proposed for both series faults, shunt faults, and simultaneous series and shunt faults. The fault simulation studies and fault location algorithm have been developed using Matlab/Simulink. Synchronized phasors of voltage and current signals of both the ends of the line have been used as input to the proposed fuzzy based fault location scheme. Percentage of error in location of series fault is within 1% and shunt fault is 5% for all the tested fault cases. Validation of percentage of error in location estimation is done using Chi square test with both 1% and 5% level of significance.

  4. Fuzzy Inference System Approach for Locating Series, Shunt, and Simultaneous Series-Shunt Faults in Double Circuit Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Swetapadma, Aleena; Yadav, Anamika

    2015-01-01

    Many schemes are reported for shunt fault location estimation, but fault location estimation of series or open conductor faults has not been dealt with so far. The existing numerical relays only detect the open conductor (series) fault and give the indication of the faulty phase(s), but they are unable to locate the series fault. The repair crew needs to patrol the complete line to find the location of series fault. In this paper fuzzy based fault detection/classification and location schemes in time domain are proposed for both series faults, shunt faults, and simultaneous series and shunt faults. The fault simulation studies and fault location algorithm have been developed using Matlab/Simulink. Synchronized phasors of voltage and current signals of both the ends of the line have been used as input to the proposed fuzzy based fault location scheme. Percentage of error in location of series fault is within 1% and shunt fault is 5% for all the tested fault cases. Validation of percentage of error in location estimation is done using Chi square test with both 1% and 5% level of significance. PMID:26413088

  5. A statistical approach for the assessment and redesign of the Nile Delta drainage system water-quality-monitoring locations.

    PubMed

    Khalil, B; Ouarda, T B M J; St-Hilaire, A

    2011-08-01

    There are several deficiencies in the statistical approaches proposed in the literature for the assessment and redesign of surface water-quality-monitoring locations. These deficiencies vary from one approach to another, but generally include: (i) ignoring the attributes of the basin being monitored; (ii) handling multivariate water quality data sequentially rather than simultaneously; (iii) focusing mainly on locations to be discontinued; and (iv) ignoring the reconstitution of information at discontinued locations. In this paper, a methodology that overcomes these deficiencies is proposed. In the proposed methodology, the basin being monitored is divided into sub-basins, and a hybrid-cluster analysis is employed to identify groups of sub-basins with similar attributes. A stratified optimum sampling strategy is then employed to identify the optimum number of monitoring locations at each of the sub-basin groups. An aggregate information index is employed to identify the optimal combination of locations to be discontinued. The proposed approach is applied for the assessment and redesign of the Nile Delta drainage water quality monitoring locations in Egypt. Results indicate that the proposed methodology allows the identification of (i) the optimal combination of locations to be discontinued, (ii) the locations to be continuously measured and (iii) the sub-basins where monitoring locations should be added. To reconstitute information about the water quality variables at discontinued locations, regression, artificial neural network (ANN) and maintenance of variance extension (MOVE) techniques are employed. The MOVE record extension technique is shown to result in a better performance than regression or ANN for the estimation of information about water quality variables at discontinued locations.

  6. Supplement analysis for a container system for the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel located at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-12

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the NEPA, 40 CFR 1502.9 (c), directs federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement when an agency makes substantial changes in the Proposed Action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are significant new circumstances or information relevant to environmental concerns and bearing on the Proposed Action or impacts. When it is unclear whether a supplemental environmental impact statement is required, DOE regulations (10 CFR 1021.314) direct the preparation of a supplement analysis to assist in making that determination. This supplement analysis evaluates the impacts of employing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) to prepare DOE SNF located at the INEEL for interim onsite storage and transport outside the State of Idaho. Impacts associated with DPC manufacturing, loading and storage of DOE-ID SNF into DPCs, transport of loaded DPCs outside Idaho, and the cumulative impacts are compared with the impacts previously analyzed in the SNF and INEL EIS and the Navy Container System EIS. This SA provides information to determine whether: (1) an existing EIS should be supplemented; (2) a new EIS should be prepared; or (3) no further NEPA documentation is required.

  7. Contact tracing with a real-time location system: A case study of increasing relative effectiveness in an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, Thomas R; Clements, Casey M; El-Sherif, Nibras; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Nestler, David M; Boggust, Andy; Ernste, Vickie K; Marisamy, Gomathi; Koenig, Kyle R; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2017-09-26

    Contact tracing is the systematic method of identifying individuals potentially exposed to infectious diseases. Electronic medical record (EMR) use for contact tracing is time-consuming and may miss exposed individuals. Real-time location systems (RTLSs) may improve contact identification. Therefore, the relative effectiveness of these 2 contact tracing methodologies were evaluated. During a pertussis outbreak in the United States, a retrospective case study was conducted between June 14 and August 31, 2016, to identify the contacts of confirmed pertussis cases, using EMR and RTLS data in the emergency department of a tertiary care medical center. Descriptive statistics and a paired t test (α = 0.05) were performed to compare contacts identified by EMR versus RTLS, as was correlation between pertussis patient length of stay and the number of potential contacts. Nine cases of pertussis presented to the emergency department during the identified time period. RTLS doubled the potential exposure list (P < .01). Length of stay had significant positive correlation with contacts identified by RTLS (ρ = 0.79; P = .01) but not with EMR (ρ = 0.43; P = .25). RTLS doubled the potential pertussis exposures beyond EMR-based contact identification. Thus, RTLS may be a valuable addition to the practice of contact tracing and infectious disease monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermophilic prokaryotic communities inhabiting the biofilm and well water of a thermal karst system located in Budapest (Hungary).

    PubMed

    Anda, Dóra; Makk, Judit; Krett, Gergely; Jurecska, Laura; Márialigeti, Károly; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Borsodi, Andrea K

    2015-07-01

    In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic approach were applied to reveal the morphological structure and genetic diversity of thermophilic prokaryotic communities of a thermal karst well located in Budapest (Hungary). Bacterial and archaeal diversity of the well water (73.7 °C) and the biofilm developed on the inner surface of an outflow pipeline of the well were studied by molecular cloning method. According to the SEM images calcium carbonate minerals serve as a surface for colonization of bacterial aggregates. The vast majority of the bacterial and archaeal clones showed the highest sequence similarities to chemolithoautotrophic species. The bacterial clone libraries were dominated by sulfur oxidizer Thiobacillus (Betaproteobacteria) in the water and Sulfurihydrogenibium (Aquificae) in the biofilm. A relatively high proportion of molecular clones represented genera Thermus and Bellilinea in the biofilm library. The most abundant phylotypes both in water and biofilm archaeal clone libraries were closely related to thermophilic ammonia oxidizer Nitrosocaldus and Nitrososphaera but phylotypes belonging to methanogens were also detected. The results show that in addition to the bacterial sulfur and hydrogen oxidation, mainly archaeal ammonia oxidation may play a decisive role in the studied thermal karst system.

  9. The Impact of the Domain Boundary on an Inhibitory System: Existence and Location of a Stationary Half Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaofeng; Shoup, David

    2015-11-01

    The nonlocal geometric variational problem derived from the Ohta-Kawasaki diblock copolymer theory is an inhibitory system with self-organizing properties. The free energy, defined on subsets of a prescribed measure in a domain, is a sum of a local perimeter functional and a nonlocal energy given by the Green's function of Poisson's equation on the domain with the Neumann boundary condition. The system has the property of preventing a disc from drifting towards the domain boundary. This raises the question of whether a stationary set may have its interface touch the domain boundary. It is proved that a small, perturbed half disc exists as a stable stationary set, where the circular part of its boundary is inside the domain, as the interface, and the almost flat part of its boundary coincides with part of the domain boundary. The location of the half disc depends on two quantities: the curvature of the domain boundary, and a remnant of the Green's function after one removes the fundamental solution and a reflection of the fundamental solution. This reflection is defined with respect to any sufficiently smooth domain boundary. It is an interesting new concept that generalizes the familiar notions of mirror image and circle inversion. When the nonlocal energy is weighted less against the local energy, the stationary half disc sits near a maximum of the curvature; when the nonlocal energy is weighted more, the half disc appears near a minimum of the remnant function. There is also an intermediate case where the half disc is near a minimum of a combination of the curvature and the remnant function.

  10. Telemetry narrows the search for sea lamprey spawning locations in the St. Clair-Detroit River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, Christopher; Jubar, Aaron K.; Barber, Jessica M.; Tallon, Kevin; Hondorp, Darryl W.

    2016-01-01

    Adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) abundance in Lake Erie has remained above targets set by fishery managers since 2005, possibly due to increased recruitment in the St. Clair-Detroit River System (SCDRS). Sea lamprey recruitment in the SCDRS poses an enormous challenge to sea lamprey control and assessment in Lake Erie because the SCDRS contains no dams to facilitate capture and discharge is at least an order of magnitude larger in the SCDRS than most other sea lamprey-producing tributaries in the Great Lakes. As a first step toward understanding population size, spatial distribution, and spawning habitat of adult sea lampreys in the SCDRS, we used acoustic telemetry to determine where sea lampreys ceased migration (due to spawning, death, or both) among major regions of the SCDRS. All tagged sea lampreys released in the lower Detroit River (N = 27) moved upstream through the Detroit River and entered Lake St. Clair. After entering Lake St. Clair, sea lampreys entered the St. Clair River (N = 22), Thames River (N = 1), or were not detected again (N = 4). Many sea lampreys (10 of 27) were last observed moving downstream (“fallback”) but we were unable to determine if those movements occurred before or after spawning, or while sea lampreys were dead or alive. Regardless of whether estimates of locations where sea lampreys ceased migration were based on the most upstream region occupied or final region occupied, most sea lampreys ceased migration in the St. Clair River or Lake St. Clair. Results suggest that spawning and rearing in the St. Clair River could be an important determinant of sea lamprey recruitment in the SCDRS and may direct future assessment and control activities in that system.

  11. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Zvi N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream. PMID:27242455

  12. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System.

    PubMed

    Roth, Zvi N

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream.

  13. Summary of flight tests of an airborne lighting locator system and comparison with ground-based measurements of precipitation and turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Crabill, N. L.

    1981-01-01

    Data from an airborne lightning locator system and data relating to storm intensity obtained by ground-based Doppler radars and the S-band research radar are presented. When comparing lightning locations from the airborne lightning locator system with ground-based Doppler radar measurements of reflectivity and spectrum width, the lightning locations tended to be further from the aircraft position than the Doppler radar contours, but at the same relative bearing from the aircraft as the Doppler contours. The results also show that convective storms generate little or no lightning for a significant part of their life cycle, but can produce at least moderate turbulence. Therefore, it is concluded that a lack of lightning activity cannot be accepted as an inference of a corresponding lack of other hazards to the flight of aircraft through convective storms.

  14. Apparatus and method for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Overton, W.C. Jr.; Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1981-05-22

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of the importance of existing hydraulic-head observation locations to advective-transport predictions, Death Valley regional flow system, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Mary C.; Ely, D. Matthew; Tiedeman, Claire R.; O'Brien, Grady M.; D'Agnese, Frank A.; Faunt, Claudia C.

    2001-01-01

    When a model is calibrated by nonlinear regression, calculated diagnostic statistics and measures of uncertainty provide a wealth of information about many aspects of the system. This report presents a method of ranking the likely importance of existing observation locations using measures of prediction uncertainty. It is suggested that continued monitoring is warranted at more important locations, and unwarranted or less warranted at less important locations. The report develops the methodology and then demonstrates it using the hydraulic-head observation locations of a three-layer model of the Death Valley regional flow system. The predictions of interest are subsurface transport from beneath Yucca Mountain and 14 Underground Test Areas. The advective component of transport is considered because it is the component most affected by the system dynamics represented by the scale model being used. The problem is addressed using the capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey computer program MODFLOW-2000, with its ADVective-Travel Observation (ADV) Package, and an additional computer program developed for this work. The methods presented in this report are used in three ways. (1) The ratings for individual observations are obtained by manipulating the measures of prediction uncertainty, and do not involve recalibrating the model. In this analysis, observation locations are each omitted individually and the resulting increase in uncertainty in the predictions is calculated. The uncertainty is quantified as standard deviations on the simulated advective transport. The increase in uncertainty is quantified as the percent increase in the standard deviations caused by omitting the one observation location from the calculation of standard deviations. In general, observation locations associated with larger increases are rated as more important. (2) Ratings for largely geographically based groups are obtained using a straightforward extension of the method used for

  16. Millipixel scale landmark location in images: The optics, the imaging system, and the Cramer-Rao bound on performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Jose Alejandro

    2005-11-01

    Landmark location uncertainty in digital images, which is extensively used in high precision photogrammetry and machine vision applications, consist of the error measurement when locating the position of a specific image feature. Landmark location uncertainty has been previously described in the literature for particular landmark designs within the scope of specific applications and using simplified models. For the first time, a general framework to determine landmark location uncertainty in presented in this work. The framework includes the determination of the performance floor by means of the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). The methodology presented, considers the complete physical model of image formation, including 6 degree of freedom, landmark to camera geometry, diffraction, defocus, lens distortion, gray-scale, pixel geometry, and pixel sensitive area. With the framework developed, an analysis tool was created to model true engineering cases to allow the investigator to predict performance for any configuration of landmark, camera, imager and estimator used. This tool includes the determination of the CRLB performance floor for the configuration used. Additionally, this work also pioneers novel landmark location estimation algorithms with confidence intervals at tens of milli-pixel level, which not only perform more than 10 times better than existing estimation algorithms but also has been experimentally verified. The Cramer-Rao Lower Bound methodology introduced in the present work establishes a theoretical statistical minimum limit on the landmark location uncertainty. Knowledge of this bound provides the means to evaluate the actual performance of both existing and future landmark location estimators. The approach presented in this work includes a mix of analysis, where feasible, and numerical work where required, including numerically deriving the partial derivatives needed to compute statistical distributions and the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound.

  17. Sensors Locate Radio Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    After receiving a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, Soneticom Inc., based in West Melbourne, Florida, created algorithms for time difference of arrival and radio interferometry, which it used in its Lynx Location System (LLS) to locate electromagnetic interference that can disrupt radio communications. Soneticom is collaborating with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to install and test the LLS at its field test center in New Jersey in preparation for deploying the LLS at commercial airports. The software collects data from each sensor in order to compute the location of the interfering emitter.

  18. Impact-Locator Sensor Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Byers, Terry; Gibbons, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Electronic sensor systems for detecting and locating impacts of rapidly moving particles on spacecraft have been invented. Systems of this type could also be useful on Earth in settings in which the occurrence of impacts and/or the locations of impacts are not immediately obvious and there are requirements to detect and quickly locate impacts to prevent or minimize damage.

  19. Poorer functionality is related to better quality of life response following the use of biological drugs: 6-month outcomes in a prospective cohort from the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde), Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Junior, Haliton Alves; dos Santos, Jéssica Barreto; Acurcio, Francisco Assis; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Alvares, Juliana; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Duarte; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2015-06-01

    We aim to analyze factors associated with the quality of life (QOL) response of individuals with rheumatic diseases treated by the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). Data from 428 patients using bDMARDs were collected using a standardized form at baseline and 6 months after the onset of treatment. The average reduction of the scores on EuroQol-five dimension was 0.11 ± 0.18 6 months after the onset of treatment with bDMARDs, denoting significant improvement of the participants' QOL. All the investigated types of disease exhibited significant improvement at the 6-month assessment, without any difference among them (p = 0.965). The participants with baseline poorest functionality and best QOL exhibited the best QOL outcomes after 6 months of treatment. Our study showed that the use of biological drugs induced considerable improvement in the participants' QOL.

  20. Field Demonstration of Electro-Scan Defect Location Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    A USEPA-sponsored field demonstration program was conducted to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on the electro-scan (FELL -41) pipeline condition assessment technology. Electro-scan technology can be used to estimate the magnitude and location of pote...

  1. Field Demonstration of Electro-Scan Defect Location Technology for Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    A USEPA-sponsored field demonstration program was conducted to gather technically reliable cost and performance information on the electro-scan (FELL -41) pipeline condition assessment technology. Electro-scan technology can be used to estimate the magnitude and location of pote...

  2. Development of a new tracer-encapsulated solid pellet injection system for more precise control of tracer-impurity-deposit location in LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, N.; Shoji, M.; Suzuki, C.; Funaba, H.; Hayashi, H.; Maeno, H.; Yokota, M.; Ogawa, H.; Sudo, S.

    2016-11-01

    A new tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection system has been developed additionally for the LHD heliotron. This system has three-dimensionally bended guide tubes, which allows us to inject the TESPEL obliquely on a poloidal cross-section of the LHD plasma. Consequently, this system enables us to control a tracer-impurity-deposited location more precisely. Moreover, this system can make it possible for the tracer impurity to be deposited even only inside the ergodic region (outside a last closed flux surface of the LHD plasma). A stereoscopic fast camera system has been also developed for capturing a three-dimensional TESPEL trajectory.

  3. [The location of employment in developing countries. Models of urbanization and comparative analyses of the Canadian and Mexican urban systems].

    PubMed

    Lemelin, A; Polese, M

    1993-01-01

    The rapid urban growth and increasing number of megacities in Latin America and other developing countries are fundamentally different phenomena than those observed at the time that location theory was developed. To examine whether existing location theory applies to developing countries, an econometric analysis of the relationship between urbanization, city size, and development was first conducted. The relationship between urbanization and development was expressed in the form of a series of regression analyses applied to World Bank data for 96 developing and developed countries. After logarithmic transformation, a simple equation associating total and total urban population of the country and per capita gross national product was able to explain 93% of the variance in total urban population. This result demonstrates that it is not possible to regard urbanization as abnormal. As to the size of particular cities, deviations from the "normal" trajectory of urbanization apparently originate in particular institutional features of some countries. Manifestations of overurbanization in Latin America demonstrate that urbanization is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition of development. A comparative study of spatial location of employment in different economic sectors in Canada and Mexico was next conducted. For this analysis, cities of over 25,000 population in Canada and Mexico were classified into 32 economic activity sectors, which were regrouped into 18 for the analysis. Two matrixes of ten city types and 18 and 32 employment groups were constructed for each country, with the corresponding number of employees noted. The employment information was transformed into quotients of location, with a quotient above 100 signifying concentration of employment. The results did not suggest that factors of localization of employment are different in developing countries. Models of localization of economic activities adopt analogous characteristics imposed by geography and

  4. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  5. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  6. Locating gravitational potential energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    2017-01-01

    Where does gravitational potential energy reside when a ball is in the air? The perfectly correct answer is that it is located in the ball-Earth system. Still, mechanical energy conservation problems are routinely solved by assigning a potential energy to the ball alone. Provided here is a proof that such an assignment introduces only an entirely undetectable error.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the importance of existing hydraulic-head observation locations to advective-transport predictions, Death Valley regional flow system, California and Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.C.; Ely, D.M.; Tiedeman, C.R.; O'Brien, G.M.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    2001-08-01

    When a model is calibrated by nonlinear regression, calculated diagnostic statistics and measures of uncertainty provide a wealth of information about many aspects of the system. This report presents a method of ranking the likely importance of existing observation locations using measures of prediction uncertainty. It is suggested that continued monitoring is warranted at more important locations, and unwarranted or less warranted at less important locations. The report develops the methodology and then demonstrates it using the hydraulic-head observation locations of a three-layer model of the Death Valley regional flow system (DVRFS). The predictions of interest are subsurface transport from beneath Yucca Mountain and 14 underground Test Area (UGTA) sites. The advective component of transport is considered because it is the component most affected by the system dynamics represented by the regional-scale model being used. The problem is addressed using the capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey computer program MODFLOW-2000, with its ADVective-Travel Observation (ADV) Package, and an additional computer program developed for this work.

  8. Using side scan sonar data in a geographic information system to locate and display lake trout spawning habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Waltermire, Robert G.; White, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    The National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has extensively used a side scan sonar to survey and pinpoint lake trout spawning grounds in the Great Lakes. The Geographic Information System (GIS) of the National Ecology Research Center produced maps from the side scan sonar data showing the exact location of the spawning grounds; this will enable current stocking programs to be carried out at those locations. These maps show the geographic position (latitude and longitude) of both the color-coded primary substrate types and the secondary substrate types, which are denoted by overstrikes. The maps must be supplemented with a Loran-C navigation grid for field use. The maps are proving useful to fishery managers by locating lake trout stocking areas in Lakes Michigan and Huron, as well as to researchers who investigate habitat quality on lake trout spawning grounds.

  9. Study of the primo-vascular system and location-dependent oxygen levels for a mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Hong, Minyoung; Park, Sarah S; Do, Hyunkyung; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Suh, Minah; Lee, Youngmi

    2012-07-01

    The two major circulatory systems, the lymph system and the blood vessel system, play significant roles in controlling embryonic development. The primo-vascular system (PVS) was recently reported as an additional circulatory system in various animals. In this paper, the PVS in a mouse embryo was investigated. The structural characterization of the PVS in the mouse placenta and umbilical cord, which was visualized with the trypan blue staining technique, was focused on. The PVS was well_developed in the mouse placenta area. Using a nanopore-based amperometric oxygen sensor, the oxygen levels at four different areas of the embryonic brain, placenta, blood vessel, and primo-vessel of the PVS were measured. The relatively higher oxygen levels that were measured at the primo-vessels than at the brain and the placenta, while still lower than the oxygen level that was measured at the blood vessels, may suggest a role of PVS in oxygen transport.

  10. Location of MTBE and toluene in the channel system of the zeolite mordenite: Adsorption and host-guest interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Arletti, Rossella; Martucci, Annalisa; Alberti, Alberto; Pasti, Luisa; Nassi, Marianna; Bagatin, Roberto

    2012-10-15

    This paper reports a study of the location of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and toluene molecules adsorbed in the pores of the organophylic zeolite mordenite from an aqueous solution. The presence of these organic molecules in the zeolite channels was revealed by structure refinement performed by the Rietveld method. About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the cavities of mordenite, representing 75% and 80% of the total absorption capacity of this zeolite. In both cases a water molecule was localized inside the side pocket of mordenite. The saturation capacity determined by the adsorption isotherms, obtained by batch experiments, and the weight loss given by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses were in very good agreement with these values. The interatomic distances obtained after the structural refinements suggest MTBE could be connected to the framework through a water molecule, while toluene could be bonded to framework oxygen atoms. The rapid and high adsorption of these hydrocarbons into the organophylic mordenite zeolite makes this cheap and environmental friendly material a suitable candidate for the removal of these pollutants from water. - graphical abstract: Location of MTBE (a) and toluene (b) in mordenite channels (projection along the [001] direction). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the MTBE and toluene adsorption process into an organophilic zeolite mordenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of MTBE and toluene in mordenite was determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the zeolite cavities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MTBE is connected to the framework through a water molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toluene is directly bonded to framework oxygen atoms.

  11. Indoor location-aware medical systems for smart homecare and telehealth monitoring: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Fendy; Redmond, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review of current progress in the application of state-of-the-art indoor positioning systems for telecare and telehealth monitoring. This review is the first in the literature that provides a comprehensive discussion on how existing wireless indoor positioning systems can benefit the development of home-based care systems. More specifically, this review provides an in-depth comparative study of how both system users and medical practitioners can get benefit from indoor positioning technologies; e.g. for real-time monitoring of patients suffering chronic cardiovascular conditions, general monitoring of activities of daily living (ADLs), fall detection systems for the elderly as well as indoor navigation systems for those suffering from visual impairments. Furthermore, it also details various aspects worth considering when choosing a certain technology for a specific healthcare application; e.g. the spatial precision demanded by the application, trade-offs between unobtrusiveness and complexity, and issues surrounding compliance and adherence with the use of wearable tags. Beyond the current state-of-the-art, this review also rigorously discusses several research opportunities and the challenges associated with each.

  12. Searching the source location of methane detected at Gale crater using the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2017-04-01

    The in situ detection of methane by SAM instrument has garnered significant attention. There are many major unresolved questions regarding this detection: 1) Where is the release location? 2) How spatially extensive is the release? 3) For how long is CH4 released? In an effort to better address the potential mixing and remaining questions, atmospheric circulation studies of Gale Crater were performed with MRAMS mesoscale model, ideally suited for this investigation. The model was focused on rover locations using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over the detection site. In order to characterize seasonal mixing changes throughout the Martian year, simulations were conducted at Ls0, 90, 180 and 270. The rise in CH4 concentration was reported to start around Ls336, peaked shortly after Ls82, and then dropped to background prior to Ls103. The aim of this work is to establish the amount of mixing during all seasons and to test whether CH4 releases inside or outside of Gale crater are consistent with SAM observations. The experiments were designed injecting four tracers into the model to simulate the transport of methane and to understand the mixing of air inside and outside the crater. Two scenarios are considered in the context of the circulations predicted by MRAMS. The first scenario is a punctual release of CH4 (tracer 1#) within the crater whereas in the second scenario that punctual release is outside the crater ( 100 km NW rover position). In both scenarios tracer 2# is placed from 200 to 500 meters above ground level (AGL) inside Gale crater, tracer 3# from 500 to 2,000 meters AGL inside Gale crater, and tracer 4# elsewhere (outside and above Gale crater). The punctual release is assumed to take place near the season when the rise of concentration was first noted (Ls336). Conclusions As expected, Ls270 was shown to be a fast mixing season when air within and outside the crater was well mixed by strong, flushing

  13. Comparison of apically extruded debris associated with several nickel-titanium systems after determining working length by apex locator.

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Ersan; Akkocan, Oguzhan; Furuncuoglu, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    To compare apically extruded debris using ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper Next (PTN), WaveOne (WO), Twisted File (TF), M-Two (MT), and Revo-S (RS) after determining the working length (WL) with root ZX. Seventy-two teeth were selected. The WL determination was performed with root ZX. The teeth were divided into six experimental groups, randomly. In groups, root canals were prepared with PTU to size F4/0.06, with PTN to size X4/0.06, with WO to size 40/0.08, with TF to size 40/0.04, with MT to size 40/0.06, and with RS to size AS40/0.06. After preparations were completed, final irrigation was performed with 2 mL distilled water, and a total of 10 mL of distilled water was used in each tooth. Tubes were stored in an incubator at 68°C for 5 days to evaporate the distilled water before weighing the dry debris. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. The RS group led to the highest amount of extruded debris, however, WO led to the least amount of extruded debris. There was no statistically difference among the groups (P > 0.05). The authors conclude that the results obtained might depend on the apex locator used to determine the WL.

  14. Comparison of apically extruded debris associated with several nickel-titanium systems after determining working length by apex locator

    PubMed Central

    Çiçek, Ersan; Akkocan, Oguzhan; Furuncuoglu, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: To compare apically extruded debris using ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper Next (PTN), WaveOne (WO), Twisted File (TF), M-Two (MT), and Revo-S (RS) after determining the working length (WL) with root ZX. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two teeth were selected. The WL determination was performed with root ZX. The teeth were divided into six experimental groups, randomly. In groups, root canals were prepared with PTU to size F4/0.06, with PTN to size X4/0.06, with WO to size 40/0.08, with TF to size 40/0.04, with MT to size 40/0.06, and with RS to size AS40/0.06. After preparations were completed, final irrigation was performed with 2 mL distilled water, and a total of 10 mL of distilled water was used in each tooth. Tubes were stored in an incubator at 68°C for 5 days to evaporate the distilled water before weighing the dry debris. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: The RS group led to the highest amount of extruded debris, however, WO led to the least amount of extruded debris. There was no statistically difference among the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The authors conclude that the results obtained might depend on the apex locator used to determine the WL. PMID:26957797

  15. Microseismic event location using an inverse method of joint P-S phase arrival difference and P-wave arrival difference in a borehole system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Wang, Liangshu; Guan, Luping; Guo, Quanshi; Cui, Shuguo; Yu, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The accuracy of hypocenter location is the essential issue for microseismic monitoring, and is the basis for evaluating the effect of fracture. Although the signal obtained from a borehole monitoring system has a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) than the surface system, a narrow monitoring aperture makes the location sensitive to noise and tends to be a misguided shape. In order to overcome this disadvantage and obtain a more accurate estimation of the source, we develop a ‘jointing method’, which combines the P-S phase arrival difference and P-wave arrival difference of each receiver pair (PSP) in the objective function. In the synthetic example, we compare the noise responses of three different location methods which are based on P-wave arrival time difference, P-S wave arrival time difference and the PSP method, respectively. This analysis shows that the P-wave arrival difference method is more sensitive to arrival time error than the others and the location results tend to be in a misleading line directed to the receivers. The P-S arrival difference method is more robust than the method using P-wave and its error distribution is perpendicular to the ray-path direction. The PSP method, as expected, is the most stable and accurate. When the P-S method and PSP method are applied to field data of a coal bed methane hydro-fracture process monitoring, the results indicate that the PSP method is preferable. The successful location with the PSP method proves that it is suitable for field data.

  16. Natural convection heat transfer from horizontal concentric and eccentric cylinder systems cooling in the ambient air and determination of inner cylinder location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atayılmaz, Ş. Özgür; Demir, Hakan; Sevindir, Mustafa Kemal; Ağra, Özden; Teke, İsmail; Dalkılıç, Ahmet Selim

    2017-08-01

    Heat transfer characteristics of horizontal copper concentric cylinders in the case of natural convection was investigated numerically and experimentally. While the inner cylinder had an electric heater to keep it at a constant temperature, annulus was filled with water. There were two different test sections as bare and concentric cylinder systems located in different ambient temperatures in a conditioned room for the comparison of the results. Comparison of average Nusselt numbers for the air side of the concentric cylinder system and the effective thermal conductivity of the annulus were calculated with both experimental data, numerical results and a well-known correlation. Annulus and the air side isotherms and streamlines are shown for RaL = 9 × 105-5 × 106 and Ra = 2 × 105-7 × 105 respectively. Additionally, a numerical study was conducted by forming eccentric cylinder systems to determine the optimum location of inner cylinder to maximize the heat transfer rate. Comparison of heat transfer rates from bare and concentric horizontal cylinders were done under steady state conditions. Heat transfer enhancement, the effect of the decrease in condensing temperature of the inner cylinder surface on COP of an ideal Carnot refrigeration cycle and rise in COP were determined in the study. Also the optimum location of inner cylinder to maximize the heat transfer rate was determined as at the bottom quadrant of outer cylinder.

  17. Natural convection heat transfer from horizontal concentric and eccentric cylinder systems cooling in the ambient air and determination of inner cylinder location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atayılmaz, Ş. Özgür; Demir, Hakan; Sevindir, Mustafa Kemal; Ağra, Özden; Teke, İsmail; Dalkılıç, Ahmet Selim

    2017-03-01

    Heat transfer characteristics of horizontal copper concentric cylinders in the case of natural convection was investigated numerically and experimentally. While the inner cylinder had an electric heater to keep it at a constant temperature, annulus was filled with water. There were two different test sections as bare and concentric cylinder systems located in different ambient temperatures in a conditioned room for the comparison of the results. Comparison of average Nusselt numbers for the air side of the concentric cylinder system and the effective thermal conductivity of the annulus were calculated with both experimental data, numerical results and a well-known correlation. Annulus and the air side isotherms and streamlines are shown for RaL = 9 × 105-5 × 106 and Ra = 2 × 105-7 × 105 respectively. Additionally, a numerical study was conducted by forming eccentric cylinder systems to determine the optimum location of inner cylinder to maximize the heat transfer rate. Comparison of heat transfer rates from bare and concentric horizontal cylinders were done under steady state conditions. Heat transfer enhancement, the effect of the decrease in condensing temperature of the inner cylinder surface on COP of an ideal Carnot refrigeration cycle and rise in COP were determined in the study. Also the optimum location of inner cylinder to maximize the heat transfer rate was determined as at the bottom quadrant of outer cylinder.

  18. The national- and international-wide prospects of future improvements of position location and time synchronization systems and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouzhva, Yuri G.; Balyasnikov, Boris N.; Korniyenko, Vladimir V.; Pushkina, Irina G.; Shebshayevich, Valentin S.; Denisov, Vladimir I.; Reutov, Alexander P.

    1990-01-01

    The concept being designed by the Leningrad Scientific Research Radio Technical Institute (LSRRI) of united positioning and timing service on the basis of the utilization of long-range and global radionavigation and common time systems and aids for different users is described. The estimate of its utilization on the national as well as on international scale is given.

  19. Two novel type II restriction-modification (RM) systems occupying genomically equivalent locations on the chromosomes of Listeria monocytogenes strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes is responsible for the potentially life-threatening foodborne disease listeriosis. One epidemic-associated clonal group of L. monocytogenes, epidemic clone I (ECI), harbors a Sau3AI-like restriction-modification (RM) system also present in the same genomic region in certain st...

  20. e-SpaceCam : Development of a Remote Cooperative Observation System for Telescopes with P2P(Peer-to-Peer) Agent Network Using Location Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, T.; Kato, S.

    2006-08-01

    Introduction. It is very important for astronomical study and observation to operate a telescope by oneself. However, there are various problems such as the cost and location to use the telescope. The most promising technology that solves those problems is a remote telescope system. However, an old and usual remote telescope system was Server & Client type system. Therefore, the remote telescope owners and the remote telescope users have to manage their telescope by themselves. Especially, enough knowledge of the network, the time and cost to control the telescopes are necessary for the remote telescope owners. So it is difficult for general telescope owners to offer their telescopes as remote telescopes. We are developing a new environment that manages the remote telescopes. The environment connects users who want to use telescopes with the telescopes connected with PC (RS232c, USB, etc) all over the world. Our goal is to develop an environment by which users are able to cooperate and to share a lot of telescopes and the observational data for the education and the observation. Methods. Our remote telescope system is established on the P2P agent network. Various agents execute tasks allocated instead of users. (to retrieve, to connect, to control, etc) So users needn't do irksome tasks. Our system mounts LL-Net (Location-based Logical Network). LL-Net can manage user nodes on the P2P network by a key made based on location information. Our system key is allocated by the longitude and latitude. Results and Discussion. Users can retrieve remote telescopes that suit them and connect with them. Telescope owners can make their telescopes remote telescopes without troublesome jobs. Logical network constructed with LL-Net enables telescopes which the user hoped to be retrieved efficiently. We investigate more suitable use of LL-Net for a remote telescope. We plan to realize to share the observational data and to make remote telescopes cooperate.

  1. Analysis of lightning electromagnetic field propagation in mountainous terrain and its effects on ToA-based lightning location systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongshuai; Azadifar, Mohammad; Rachidi, Farhad; Rubinstein, Marcos; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Sheshyekani, Keyhan; Zhang, Qilin; Wang, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the propagation effects on lightning-radiated electromagnetic fields over mountainous terrain by using a three-dimensional (3-D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We also discuss the time delay error in the time-of-arrival (ToA) technique currently used to locate lightning in detection networks, specifically. Furthermore, the accuracy of different approximate methods presented in the literature is discussed and tested by using our 3-D FDTD method. It is found that (1) the time delays and amplitudes of the lightning-radiated electromagnetic fields can be significantly affected by the presence of a mountainous terrain and associated diffraction phenomena; (2) for a finitely conducting ground, the time delay shows a slight increase with the increase of the observation distance, but the time delay resulting from the finite ground conductivity appears to be smaller than that caused by the mountainous terrain; and (3) the timing error associated with the ToA technique depends on the threshold times. Threshold times of 10% and 20% of the peak provide very similar results compared to those corresponding to the peak of the first derivative of the magnetic field, and the threshold time exceeds 50% of the initial rising amplitude of the signal. Furthermore, we have assessed the accuracy of two simplified methods (terrain-envelope method and tight-terrain fit method) to account for the time delays resulting from the propagation in a mountainous terrain. It is found that both methods result in time delays that are in reasonable agreement but always overestimating the results obtained using the full-wave 3-D FDTD approach for the perfectly conducting ground. These two methods represent interesting alternatives to account for the time delay over a nonflat terrain using the terrain model.

  2. Coso MT Site Locations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2011-05-04

    This data includes the locations of the MT data collected in and around the Coso Geothermal field that covered the West Flank area. These are the data that the 3D MT models were created from that were discussed in Phase 1 of the West Flank FORGE project. The projected coordinate system is NAD 1927 State Plane California IV FIPS 0404 and the Projection is Lambert Conformal Conic. Units are in feet.

  3. Cost And Performance Report; Advanced Passive Acoustic Leak Location and Detection Verification System for Underground Fuel Pipelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Pressurized Underground Pipelines,” Proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference (March 1993). 4. E. G. Eckert, M. R. Fierro , and J. W...Maresca, Jr., “A Passive-Acoustic Approach to the Detection of Leaking Valves in Pressurized Pipelines,” Technical Report for Martin Marietta Energy...Systems, Inc., Vista Research Project 1050, Vista Research, Inc., Mountain View, California (August 1994). 5. E. G. Eckert, M. R. Fierro , and J. W

  4. Modular Robotics for Delivering On-Site contamination Sensors and Mapping Systems to Difficult-to-Access Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Geisinger, Joseph

    2001-05-21

    Presently, characterization operations are scheduled for thousands of facilities and pieces of equipment throughout DOE sites, each of which requires manual surveying with handheld instruments and manual record keeping. Such work, particularly in difficult-to-access-areas, results in significant amounts of worker exposure, long timelines and additional secondary waste generation. Therefore, a distinct need exists for remote tools that can quickly deploy sensors and automated contamination mapping systems into these areas.

  5. Sistemas de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa en Belgica, Paises Bajos y Francia (Educational Documentation and Information Systems in Belgium, Holland, and France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi Etchelouz, Nelly Yvis

    This booklet describes the working and organization of the information and documentation systems in Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. The discussion begins with a look at the Belgium educational system and how information services operate within that system. The central library, specialized services, and specialized information centers are all…

  6. A Fuzzy Rule Based Decision Support System for Identifying Location of Water Harvesting Technologies in Rainfed Agricultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, I.; Vema, V. K.; Sudheer, K.

    2016-12-01

    Site suitability evaluation of water conservation structures in water scarce rainfed agricultural areas consist of assessment of various landscape characteristics and various criterion. Many of these landscape characteristic attributes are conveyed through linguistic terms rather than precise numeric values. Fuzzy rule based system are capable of incorporating uncertainty and vagueness, when various decision making criteria expressed in linguistic terms are expressed as fuzzy rules. In this study a fuzzy rule based decision support system is developed, for optimal site selection of water harvesting technologies. Water conservation technologies like farm ponds, Check dams, Rock filled dams and percolation ponds aid in conserving water for irrigation and recharging aquifers and development of such a system will aid in improving the efficiency of the structures. Attributes and criteria involved in decision making are classified into different groups to estimate the suitability of the particular technology. The developed model is applied and tested on an Indian watershed. The input attributes are prepared in raster format in ArcGIS software and suitability of each raster cell is calculated and output is generated in the form of a thematic map showing the suitability of the cells pertaining to different technologies. The output of the developed model is compared against the already existing structures and results are satisfactory. This developed model will aid in improving the sustainability and efficiency of the watershed management programs aimed at enhancing in situ moisture content.

  7. Preliminary constraints on the location of the recently hypothesized new planet of the Solar System from planetary orbital dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that the observed grouping of either the perihelia and the orbital planes of some observed distant Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) can be explained by the shepherding influence of a remote (150 au≲ qX≲350 au), still unseen massive object PX having planetary size (5 m_{oplus} ≲ mX≲20 m_{oplus}) and moving along an ecliptically inclined (22 deg≲ IX≲ 40 deg), eccentric (380 au≲ aX ≲980 au) Heliocentric bound orbit located in space at 80 deg≲ΩX≲120 deg and which is anti-aligned (120 deg≲ω_{ X}≲160 deg) with those of the considered KBOs. The trajectory of Saturn is nowadays known at essentially the same accuracy level of the inner planets due to the telemetry of the Cassini spacecraft. Thus, the expected perturbations dot{π}, dot{Ω} due to PX on the Kronian apsidal and draconitic orbital motions are theoretically investigated to tentatively constrain the configuration space of PX itself. To this aim, we compare our predictions dot{π}_{theo}, dot{Ω}_{theo} to the currently available experimental intervals of values Δdot{Ω}_{obs}, Δdot{π}_{ obs} determined by astronomers in the recent past without explicitly modeling and solving for PX itself. As such, our results, despite being plausible and in agreement to a large extent with other constraints released in the literature, should be regarded as proof-of-principle investigations aimed to encourage more accurate analyses in future. It turns out that the admissible region in its configuration space is moderately narrow as far as its position along its orbit, reckoned by the true anomaly fX, is concerned, being concentrated around approximately 130 deg≲ f X≲240 deg. PX is certainly far from its perihelion (fX=0 deg), in agreement with other recent studies. The future analysis of the data from the ongoing New Horizons mission might be helpful in further constraining the scenario considered here for PX. Its impact on the spacecraft's range over a multi-year span is

  8. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P < 0.001). The fluoroscopic times were 14.03 ± 2.54 in Group A and 25.19 ± 4.28 in Group B (P < 0.001). The preoperative location time was 4.67 ± 1.41 minutes in Group A and 6.98 ± 0.94 minutes in Group B (P < 0.001). The operation time was 79.42 ± 10.15 minutes in Group A and 89.65 ± 14.06 minutes in Group B (P = 0.002). The

  9. Sensor systems for precise location of depleted uranium in soil and for enhancing the recovery of both zero valence and uranium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Etheridge, J.A.; Monts, D.L.; Su, Y.; Waggoner, C.A.

    2007-07-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been the primary material used for the past two decades by the US military in armor piercing rounds. Domestic firing ranges that have been used for DU training purposes are located around the country and vary with regard to soil type, depth of vadose zone, and extent of contamination with other types of projectiles. A project is underway to develop a set of sensor systems to locate expended DU rounds and to process soil and debris to recover the material. Reactivity of zero valence DU material, even in dry sandy soils, results in rapid oxidation and diffusion of uranium minerals within the soil column. Detection techniques must be robust for both metallic and uranyl species. Radiological sensor techniques including both gamma spectroscopy and prompt gamma neutron analysis are being used in conjunction with electromagnetic imaging to locate the DU for excavation. Detection limits for both zero valence DU (ZVDU) and oxidized material will be discussed. Applicability of active and passive optical methods, such as spectral imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy, will be discussed as aids for achieving clean soil margins while excavating DU materials. Instrumentation selection for controlling processing equipment used to separate ZVDU and uranyl species from contaminated soil and debris will also be discussed. Preliminary findings for use of sodium iodide detectors and multichannel analyzer software are discussed for locating 25 and 105 mm DU penetrators. Optimum detector height of 15 cm (six inches) and detection depths up to 15 cm are discussed. A comparison of detector response of the Geonics EM61 MKII electromagnetic induction unit for DU and ferrous materials is reported. Difficulty of locating small DU penetrators using the one meter detection coil and differences in detector response for target orientation relative to the detection coil are reported. (authors)

  10. The perceptions of Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) users about including undergraduate students in Family Health Units (Unidades de Saúde da Família).

    PubMed

    Driusso, Patricia; Sato, Tatiana O; Joaquim, Regina H V T; Moccellin, Ana S; Mascarenhas, Silvia H Z; Salvini, Tania F

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum guidelines for health professionals in training recommend including health students in different levels of service in the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS). Thus, there is a need to investigate the perceptions of SUS users with regard to the students' participation. To evaluate the perceptions of SUS users about the participation of health students in Family Health Units (Unidades de Saúde da Família - USF). A total of 518 people were interviewed in the waiting room of eight USFs in São Carlos/São Paulo. The interviews were conducted by students using a semi-structured questionnaire, and the data were analyzed descriptively. A total of 391 (75.5%) women and 127 (24.5%) men, with a mean age of 42.0±17.5 years, were interviewed. Among these users, 33.1% had encountered students in the USF, mainly while receiving clinical care (52.1%) or during home visits (20.1%); 55.3% considered the student's performance very good, and 0.6% considered it very bad. Most of the interviewees (58.2%) evaluated the activity performed by the student as effective, whereas 8.2% considered it ineffective. The students were included primarily in individual assistance activities, and the care provided by the students was well accepted. Both the users' satisfaction scores and their reported expectations were positive.

  11. Wind turbine/generator set having a stator cooling system located between stator frame and active coils

    DOEpatents

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2012-11-13

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  12. Development of an immiscible polymer/polymer/nanoparticle system in order to study the location of nanoparticles at polymer/polymer interface by quantitative optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Luis Henrique B.; Canto, Leonardo B.; Canevarolo, Sebastião V.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years, stabilization of the phase morphology of immiscible polymer blends during melt compounding went through a new perspective by the use of inorganic nanoparticles as compatibilizers. Following the ideas of Ramsden and Pickering, the stabilization of the minor phase in immiscible polymer blends could be achieved with solid nanoparticles located at the interface of the phases, lowering the interfacial tension and acting as a physical barrier to droplet coalescence. In this work, the location of the silica nanoparticle in an immiscible polymer blend is studied using quantitative optical microscopy, measuring the total light scattering, i.e. turbidity, created by the use of hydrophilic and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles (hi-silica and hb-silica, respectively) in an immiscible polymer blend. The light scattering at the polymer/polymer interface is minimized choosing a PS/PC immiscible blend which has minimal difference in their refractive indices. On the other hand, the considerable difference in the refractive index of the chosen polymers and nanosilica would highlight the scattering effect of the silica nanoparticles if located at the polymer/polymer interface. The transmitted light intensity from neat PS/PC blends and some PS/PC/hl-silica systems were similar, showing only a small change in the range of the glass transition temperatures of the two polymers, which is an indication that the silica nanoparticles are dispersed inside the two polymer phases. However, the transmitted light intensity is greatly changed in the system PS/PC/hb-silica, containing the hydrophobic silica, which according to the wetting parameter should have the silica nanoparticles located mainly at the polymer/polymer interface.

  13. Development and evaluation of a decision-supporting model for identifying the source location of microbial intrusions in real gravity sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minyoung; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P

    2013-09-01

    Assuming a scenario of a hypothetical pathogenic outbreak, we aimed this study at developing a decision-support model for identifying the location of the pathogenic intrusion as a means of facilitating rapid detection and efficient containment. The developed model was applied to a real sewer system (the Campbell wash basin in Tucson, AZ) in order to validate its feasibility. The basin under investigation was divided into 14 sub-basins. The geometric information associated with the sewer network was digitized using GIS (Geological Information System) and imported into an urban sewer network simulation model to generate microbial breakthrough curves at the outlet. A pre-defined amount of Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is an indicator of fecal coliform bacteria, was hypothetically introduced into 56 manholes (four in each sub-basin, chosen at random), and a total of 56 breakthrough curves of E. coli were generated using the simulation model at the outlet. Transport patterns were classified depending upon the location of the injection site (manhole), various known characteristics (peak concentration and time, pipe length, travel time, etc.) extracted from each E. coli breakthrough curve and the layout of sewer network. Using this information, we back-predicted the injection location once an E. coli intrusion was detected at a monitoring site using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The results showed that ANNs identified the location of the injection sites with 57% accuracy; ANNs correctly recognized eight out of fourteen expressions with relying on data from a single detection sensor. Increasing the available sensors within the basin significantly improved the accuracy of the simulation results (from 57% to 100%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrating multi-criteria techniques with geographical information systems in waste facility location to enhance public participation.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Gary

    2006-04-01

    Despite recent U.K. Government commitments' to encourage public participation in environmental decision making, those exercises conducted to date have been largely confined to 'traditional' modes of participation such as the dissemination of information and in encouraging feedback on proposals through, for example, questionnaires or surveys. It is the premise of this paper that participative approaches that use IT-based methods, based on combined geographical information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation techniques that could involve the public in the decision-making process, have the potential to build consensus and reduce disputes and conflicts such as those arising from the siting of different types of waste facilities. The potential of these techniques are documented through a review of the existing literature in order to highlight the opportunities and challenges facing decision makers in increasing the involvement of the public at different stages of the waste facility management process. It is concluded that there are important lessons to be learned by researchers, consultants, managers and decision makers if barriers hindering the wider use of such techniques are to be overcome.

  15. [A case of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with severe fibrinoid necrosis located mainly in the glomerular afferent arteriole].

    PubMed

    Morioka, S; Makino, H; Wada, J; Shikata, K; Yamasaki, Y; Ogura, T; Amano, T; Asaumi, A; Okada, S; Ota, Z

    1995-01-01

    We report here, a patient of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with severe fibrinoid necrosis in the afferent arteriole of the glomerulus, in whom antiphospholipid antibody might have contributed to the pathogenesis. A 24-year-old female who was suffering from severe anemia with fragmented red blood cells, acute renal failure and thrombocytopenia, was admitted to our hospital. Further examinations revealed findings compatible with active lupus nephritis. Moreover, she was found to be positive for antiphospholipid antibody, and anticardiolipin antibody, as well as for lupus anticoagulant and syphilis test. Intensive treatment by methylprednisolone pulse therapy, hemodialysis, and double filtration plasmapheresis were performed. However, 13 days after admission she died suddenly because of intracranial hemorrhage. Pathological investigation of renal tissue revealed severe fibrinoid necrosis of the arterioles mainly in the glomerular afferent arteriole associated with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. In this case, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was associated with SLE. Antiphospholipid antibody was considered to be not only an accelerator in the arterial lesions of HUS, but also an initiator of HUS itself.

  16. Underwater hydrophone location survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Jack B.

    1993-01-01

    The Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) is a U.S. Navy test range located on Andros Island, Bahamas, and a Division of the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, RI. The Headquarters of AUTEC is located at a facility in West Palm Beach, FL. AUTEC's primary mission is to provide the U.S. Navy with a deep-water test and evaluation facility for making underwater acoustic measurements, testing and calibrating sonars, and providing accurate underwater, surface, and in-air tracking data on surface ships, submarines, aircraft, and weapon systems. Many of these programs are in support of Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW), undersea research and development programs, and Fleet assessment and operational readiness trials. Most tests conducted at AUTEC require precise underwater tracking (plus or minus 3 yards) of multiple acoustic signals emitted with the correct waveshape and repetition criteria from either a surface craft or underwater vehicle.

  17. Rapid Target Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisbee, John

    1985-12-01

    Like beauty, "real time" is in the eye of the beholder. Airborne electro-optical (EO) reconnaissance systems can transmit an image in real time to a display in an imagery interpreter's (II) console, but it then takes around 15 min for the II to issue his report. Thus, while the II sees real-time imagery, the officer in the field who requested the coverage sees a report that is not real time and that may be rapidly losing its value. The greatest delay in issuing the report comes from having to determine where the target is. This is currently done on the Analytical Photogrammetric Positioning System (APPS) that uses stereophotomaps to determine the x, y, z coordinates of a point on the ground; it takes many minutes to measure the position of each target. Our goal is to reduce that portion of the recce cycle that uses Itek technology--from time over target to issuance of a report--to less than 2 min. A still shorter time would be desirable in the face of rapidly moving targets,, but there is little point in making the time negligible compared to that required for Oil to evaluate the report and issue orders, plus the time required to respond to the orders. It is clear that we can achieve this 2-min goal only if we can greatly reduce the time it now takes to determine the location of a target. The accuracy with which a target is located should not suffer while the time is reduced. There is a tradeoff to be made between timeliness and accuracy when the target is moving: neither short time with poor accuracy nor high accuracy with long time is desirable. We have arbitrarily adopted goals in which a target can be located to about 100 ft in less than half a minute. The experiments reported here investigated one concept, called Rapid Target Locator (RATL), for achieving this performance.

  18. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  19. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  20. The Location of the CO2, Fundamental in Clathrate Hydrates and its Application to Infrared Spectra of Icy Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, S. A.; Mastrapa, R. M. E.; Bernstein, M. P.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2006-01-01

    CO2 is present on the surface of many Solar System objects, but not always as a segregated, pure ice. In pure CO2-ice, the fundamental absorption is located near 4.268 micron (2343.3 wavenumbers). However, on several objects, the CO2 fundamental is shifted to higher frequency. This shift may be produced by CO2 gas trapped in another material, or adsorbed onto minerals. We have seen that a mixture of H2O, CH3OH4 and CO2 forms a type II clathrate when heated to 125 K and produces a CO2 fundamental near 4.26 micron. The exact location of the feature is strongly dependent on the initial ratio of the three components. We are currently exploring various starting ratios relevant to the Solar System to determine the minimum amount of CH3OH needed to convert all of the CO2 to the clathrate, i.e. eliminate the splitting of the CO2 fundamental. We are testing the stability of the clathrate to thermal processing and UV photolysis, and documenting the changes seen in the spectra in the wavelength range from 1-5 micron. We acknowledge financial support from the Origins of Solar Systems Program, the Planetary Geology and Geophysics and the NASA Postdoctoral Program.