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Sample records for locked 270-440 ghz

  1. Near- infrared, mode-locked waveguide lasers with multi-GHz repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, A.; Lagatsky, A. A.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhou, K. J.; Wang, Q.; Hogg, R. A.; Pradeesh, K.; Rafailov, E. U.; Resan, B.; Oehler, A. E. H.; Weingarten, K. J.; Sibbett, W.; Brown, C. T. A.; Shepherd, D. P.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we discuss mode-locking results obtained with low-loss, ion-exchanged waveguide lasers. With Yb3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide lasers, a repetition rate of up to 15.2 GHz was achieved at a wavelength of 1047 nm with an average power of 27 mW and pulse duration of 811 fs. The gap between the waveguide and the SESAM introduced negative group velocity dispersion via the Gires Tournois Interferometer (GTI) effect which allowed the soliton mode-locking of the device. A novel quantum dot SESAM was used to mode-lock Er3+, Yb3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide lasers around 1500 nm. Picosecond pulses were achieved at a maximum repetition rate of 6.8 GHz and an average output power of 30 mW. The repetition rate was tuned by more than 1 MHz by varying the pump power.

  2. Synchronized 4 × 12 GHz hybrid harmonically mode-locked semiconductor laser based on AWG.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Lu, D; Zhang, R; Zhao, L; Wang, W; Broeke, R; Ji, C

    2016-05-02

    We report a monolithically integrated synchronized four wavelength channel mode-locked semiconductor laser chip based on arrayed waveguide grating and fabricated in the InP material system. Device fabrication was completed in a multiproject wafer foundry run on the Joint European Platform for Photonic Integration of Components and Circuits. The integrated photonic chip demonstrated 5th harmonic electrical hybrid mode-locking operation with four 400 GHz spacing wavelength channels and synchronized to a 12.7 GHz RF clock, for nearly transform-limited optical pulse trains from a single output waveguide. A low timing jitter of 0.349 ps, and RF frequency locking range of ~50 MHz were also achieved.

  3. 175 GHz, 400-fs-pulse harmonically mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Keith G; Quarterman, Adrian H; Apostolopoulos, Vasilis; Beere, Harvey E; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A; Tropper, Anne C

    2012-03-26

    We report a harmonically mode-locked vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) producing 400 fs pulses at a repetition frequency of 175 GHz with an average output power of 300 mW. Harmonic mode-locking was established using a 300 µm thick intracavity single crystal diamond heat spreader in thermal contact with the front surface of the gain sample using liquid capillary bonding. The repetition frequency was set by the diamond microcavity and stable harmonic mode locking was achieved when the laser cavity length was tuned so that the laser operated on the 117th harmonic of the fundamental cavity. When an etalon placed intracavity next to the gain sample, but not in thermal contact was used pulse groups were observed. These contained 300 fs pulses with a spacing of 5.9 ps. We conclude that to achieve stable harmonic mode locking at repetition frequencies in the 100s of GHz range in a VECSEL there is a threshold pulse energy above which harmonic mode locking is achieved and below which groups of pulses are observed.

  4. 11-GHz waveguide Nd:YAG laser CW mode-locked with single-layer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Okhrimchuk, Andrey G.; Obraztsov, Petr A.

    2015-01-01

    We report stable, passive, continuous-wave (CW) mode-locking of a compact diode-pumped waveguide Nd:YAG laser with a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The depressed cladding waveguide in the Nd:YAG crystal is fabricated with an ultrafast laser inscription method. The saturable absorber is formed by direct deposition of CVD single-layer graphene on the output coupler. The few millimeter-long cavity provides generation of 16-ps pulses with repetition rates in the GHz range (up to 11.3 GHz) and 12 mW average power. Stable CW mode-locking operation is achieved by controlling the group delay dispersion in the laser cavity with a Gires–Tournois interferometer. PMID:26052678

  5. 11-GHz waveguide Nd:YAG laser CW mode-locked with single-layer graphene.

    PubMed

    Okhrimchuk, Andrey G; Obraztsov, Petr A

    2015-06-08

    We report stable, passive, continuous-wave (CW) mode-locking of a compact diode-pumped waveguide Nd:YAG laser with a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The depressed cladding waveguide in the Nd:YAG crystal is fabricated with an ultrafast laser inscription method. The saturable absorber is formed by direct deposition of CVD single-layer graphene on the output coupler. The few millimeter-long cavity provides generation of 16-ps pulses with repetition rates in the GHz range (up to 11.3 GHz) and 12 mW average power. Stable CW mode-locking operation is achieved by controlling the group delay dispersion in the laser cavity with a Gires-Tournois interferometer.

  6. Design of a high voltage multi-cavity 35 GHz phase-locked gyrotron oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-11-01

    This paper describes the design for an experimental high power, phase locked gyrotron oscillator. The electron beam is generated by a 1 MV pulseline accelerator, and the reference signal is provided by a 35 GHz, 20 kW magnetron. The expected output power is in the range of 1 to 10 MW. The design is based on a solid 1 MeV, 100 Amp, 4 mm electron beam with a momentum pitch ratio of 0.75. The locking signal from the magnetron is introduced via a prebunching cavity. A second (passive) bunching cavity is used to increase the locking frequency bandwidth obtainable with a given locking power. The bunching cavities are designed to operate in the fundamental TE 111 cylindrical cavity mode. Some competition from the TE 112 higher order axial mode could not be avoided due to the constraint on the minimum drift tube diameter set by the requirement to propagate the electron beam. The bunching cavities include two axial slots to control the cavity Q factor and suppress competing modes. Additional slots and apertures are used to suppress oscillation in the drift spaces. The output cavity operates in the TE sub 121 mode and is also slotted to reduce competing mode excitation. The maximum phase-locking bandwidth is estimated to be 0.1 percent and the time to achieve phase locked operation is about 20 nsec which is consistent with the pulselength of the NRL VEBA accelerator.

  7. 2.4 GHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Mode-Locking Structure to Enhance Gain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mode-locking method optimized for the cascode structure of an RF CMOS power amplifier. To maximize the advantage of the typical mode-locking method in the cascode structure, the input of the cross-coupled transistor is modified from that of a typical mode-locking structure. To prove the feasibility of the proposed structure, we designed a 2.4 GHz CMOS power amplifier with a 0.18 μm RFCMOS process for polar transmitter applications. The measured power added efficiency is 34.9%, while the saturated output power is 23.32 dBm. The designed chip size is 1.4 × 0.6 mm2. PMID:25045755

  8. A fully-differential phase-locked loop frequency synthesizer for 60-GHz wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lixue, Kuang; Baoyong, Chi; Lei, Chen; Wen, Jia; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-12-01

    A 40-GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer for 60-GHz wireless communication applications is presented. The electrical characteristics of the passive components in the VCO and LO buffers are accurately extracted with an electromagnetic simulator HFSS. A differential tuning technique is utilized in the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) to achieve higher common-mode noise rejection and better phase noise performance. The VCO and the divider chain are powered by a 1.0 V supply while the phase-frequency detector (PFD) and the charge pump (CP) are powered by a 2.5 V supply to improve the linearity. The measurement results show that the total frequency locking range of the frequency synthesizer is from 37 to 41 GHz, and the phase noise from a 40 GHz carrier is -97.2 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. Implemented in 65 nm CMOS, the synthesizer consumes a DC power of 62 mW, including all the buffers.

  9. Optical 40 GHz pulse source module based on a monolithically integrated mode locked DBR laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huettl, B.; Kaiser, R.; Kroh, M.; Schubert, C.; Jacumeit, G.; Heidrich, H.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the performance characteristics of compact optical 40 GHz pulse laser modules consisting of a monolithic mode-locked MQW DBR laser on GaInAsP/InP are reported. The monolithic devices were fabricated as tunable multi-section buried heterostructure lasers. A DBR grating is integrated at the output port of an extended cavity in order to meet the standardized ITU wavelength channels allocated in the spectral window around 1.55 μm in optical high speed communication networks. The fabricated 40 GHz lasers modules not only emit short optical pulses (< 1.5 ps) with very low amplitude noise (<1.5 %) and phase noise levels (timing jitter: 50 fs) but also enable good pulse-to-pulse phase and long-term stability. A wavelength tuning range of 6 nm is possible and large locking bandwidths between 100 ... 260 MHz are observed. All data have been achieved by operating the lasers in a hybrid mode-locking scheme with a required minimum micro-wave power of only 12 dBm for pulse synchronization. Details on laser chip architecture and module performance are summarized and the results of a stable and error free module performance in first 160 Gb/s (4 x 40 Gb/s OTDM) RZ-DPSK transmission experiments are presented.

  10. Tunable 12×10 GHz mode-locked semiconductor fiber laser incorporating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei

    2011-06-01

    A stable multiwavelength mode-locked semiconductor fiber ring laser incorporating a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) filter was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) serves as an optically controlled mode-locking element due to gain exhaustion caused by external injected optical pulses. Another SOA severs as a constant-gain medium. A fiber MZI filter with a temperature control is incorporated into the fiber ring cavity to acquire a stable and tunable multiwavelength oscillation. Twelve wavelengths are synchronously mode-locked at 10 GHz, pulse width of mode-locked pulse are about 30 ps. Proposed multiwavelength mode-locked semiconductor fiber ring laser has some distinct advantages, such as simple and compact structure, easy integration, convenient tuning, good stability, potential high repetition rate operating, which has potential application in the future WDM communication system.

  11. Wavelength-tunable 10 GHz actively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yan; Tong, Xinglin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Li; Hu, Pan; Chen, Liang

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a widely wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked fiber laser based on semiconductor optical amplifier. Beneficiating from the actively mode-locking operation and the wavelength-tunable characteristics of a Fabry-Perot filter, different harmonic mode-locking orders, from the fundamental mode-locking order (18.9 MHz) to the 520th order (9.832 GHz), can be easily achieved. The spectral bandwidth corresponding to the fundamental repetition rate is 0.12 nm with the pulse duration of 9.8 ns, leading to the TBP value of 146, which is about 460 times the transform-limited value for soliton pulse. The highest repetition rate of the mode-locked pulses we obtained is 9.832 GHz, with a signal-to-noise ratio up to 50 dB. The theoretical transform-limited pulse duration is 21 ps. Meanwhile, the central wavelength can be continuously tuned over 43.4 nm range (1522.8-1566.2 nm). The higher repetition rate and the widely tuning wavelength range make the fiber laser to own great potential and promising prospects in areas such as optical communication and photonic analog-to-digital conversion (ADC).

  12. A passively mode-locked fiber laser at 1.54 mum with a fundamental repetition frequency reaching 2 GHz.

    PubMed

    McFerran, J J; Nenadovic, L; Swann, W C; Schlager, J B; Newbury, N R

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate a fundamentally mode-locked fiber laser with a repetition frequency in excess of 2 GHz at a central wavelength of 1.535 mum. Co-doped ytterbium-erbium fiber provides the gain medium for the laser, affording high gain per unit length, while a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SAM) provides the pulse shaping mechanism in a standing wave cavity. Results are shown confirming cw mode-locking for 1 GHz and 2 GHz repetition frequency systems. The response of the frequency comb output to pump power variations is shown to follow a single pole response. The timing jitter of a 540MHz repetition-rate laser has been suppressed to below 100 fs through phase-lead compensated feedback to the pump power. Alternatively, a single comb line of a 850MHz repetition-rate laser has been phase-locked to a narrow linewidth cw laser with an in-loop phase jitter of 0.06 rad(2). The laser design is compatible with low-noise oscillator applications.

  13. Active mode locking at 50 GHz repetition frequency by half-frequency modulation of monolithic semiconductor lasers integrated with electroabsorption modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kenji; Kotaka, Isamu; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Mitsuo

    1996-10-01

    Active mode locking achieved at a 50 GHz repetition frequency by modulation at half (25 GHz) the cavity resonance frequency using a monolithic mode-locked InGaAsP laser integrated with an electroabsorption modulator is described. A pulse width of around 3 ps and a high suppression ratio of more than 33 dB of the intensity modulation at the driving frequency are obtained.

  14. 10 GHz, 1.1 ps optical pulse generation from a regeneratively mode-locked Yb fiber laser in the 1.1 μm band.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kengo; Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2011-12-05

    We report a 10 GHz harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked Yb fiber laser with a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique at 1.1 μm. Stable mode locking was achieved by optimizing the average dispersion of the fiber cavity to an anomalous dispersion to operate as a soliton laser. As a result, a 1.1 ps optical pulse with a timing jitter of 140 fs was successfully generated.

  15. 200-GHz and 50-GHz AWG channelized linewidth dependent transmission of weak-resonant-cavity FPLD injection-locked by spectrally sliced ASE.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Cheng, Tzu-Kang; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Lin; Lin, Yi-Hong

    2009-09-28

    In a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) based DWDM-PON system with an array-waveguide-grating (AWG) channelized amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source located at remote node, we study the effect of AWG filter bandwidth on the transmission performances of the 1.25-Gbit/s directly modulated WRC-FPLD transmitter under the AWG channelized ASE injection-locking. With AWG filters of two different channel spacings at 50 and 200 GHz, several characteristic parameters such as interfered reflection, relatively intensity noise, crosstalk reduction, side-mode-suppressing ratio and power penalty of BER effect of the WRC-FPLD transmitted data are compared. The 200-GHz AWG filtered ASE injection minimizes the noises of WRC-FPLD based ONU transmitter, improving the power penalty of upstream data by -1.6 dB at BER of 10(-12). In contrast, the 50-GHz AWG channelized ASE injection fails to promote better BER but increases the power penalty by + 1.5 dB under back-to-back transmission. A theoretical modeling elucidates that the BER degradation up to 4 orders of magnitude between two injection cases is mainly attributed to the reduction on ASE injection linewidth, since which concurrently degrades the signal-to-noise and extinction ratios of the transmitted data stream.

  16. Advanced, phase-locked, 100 kW, 1.3 GHz magnetron

    DOE PAGES

    Read, Michael; Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; ...

    2017-03-06

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., in collaboration with Fermilab and Communications & Power Industries, LLC, is developing a phase-locked, 100 kW peak, 10 kW average power magnetron-based RF system for driving accelerators. Here, phase locking will be achieved using an approach originating at Fermilab that includes control of both amplitude and phase on a fast time scale.

  17. Advanced, phase-locked, 100 kW, 1.3 GHz magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Michael; Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Chase, Brian; Walker, Chris; Conant, Jeff

    2017-03-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., in collaboration with Fermilab and Communications & Power Industries, LLC, is developing a phase-locked, 100 kW peak, 10 kW average power magnetron-based RF system for driving accelerators. Phase locking will be achieved using an approach originating at Fermilab that includes control of both amplitude and phase on a fast time scale.

  18. Repetition-frequency-tunable mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser between 2.78 and 7.87 GHz.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Keith G; Quarterman, Adrian H; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Tropper, Anne C

    2011-11-07

    We report a repetition frequency tunable, passively mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser (VECSEL) with continuous repetition frequency tuning between 2.78 and 7.87 GHz using mechanical tuning of the laser cavity length. The laser emits near-transform-limited, sub-500-fs pulses over almost an octave tuning range between 2.78 and 5 GHz. At repetition rates above 6 GHz the pulse duration increases to ~2.5 ps. Over the entire tuning range the laser emits an average output power of 40 ± 5 mW in a fundamental transverse mode. The change in pulse duration highlights a change in the dominant modelocking mechanism which forms the pulses. At high repetition frequencies the pulse duration is set by the saturable absorber recovery time. At low repetition frequencies the fluence and peak intensity on the SESAM increases to a point where the fast pulse shaping mechanisms of the optical Stark effect and carrier thermalization dominate the pulse shortening.

  19. Up to 400 GHz burst-mode pulse generation from a hybrid harmonic mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Lai, Yinchieh

    2017-02-01

    By inserting a birefringence filter with FSR  =  100 GHz inside a hybrid mode-locked Er-doped fibre laser, we successfully generate ps to sub-ps optical burst pulses with the intra-burst pulse rate up to 400 GHz. Multiplication of the intra-burst pulse rate is attributed to a new effect analogous to rational harmonic mode-locking, which occurs due to the relative alignment of the cavity harmonic frequencies, the external phase modulation induced frequencies, and the filter-selected frequencies.

  20. Alternative laser system for cesium magneto-optical trap via optical injection locking to sideband of a 9-GHz current-modulated diode laser.

    PubMed

    Diao, Wenting; He, Jun; Liu, Zhi; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2012-03-26

    By optical injection of an 852-nm extended-cavity diode laser (master laser) to lock the + 1-order sideband of a ~9-GHz-current-modulated diode laser (slave laser), we generate a pair of phase-locked lasers with a frequency difference up to ~9-GHz for a cesium (Cs) magneto-optical trap (MOT) with convenient tuning capability. For a cesium MOT, the master laser acts as repumping laser, locked to the Cs 6S₁/₂ (F = 3) - 6P₃/₂ (F' = 4) transition. When the + 1-order sideband of the 8.9536-GHz-current-modulated slave laser is optically injection-locked, the carrier operates on the Cs 6S₁/₂ (F = 4) - 6P₃/₂ (F' = 5) cooling cycle transition with -12 MHz detuning and acts as cooling/trapping laser. When carrying a 9.1926-GHz modulation signal, this phase-locked laser system can be applied in the fields of coherent population trapping and coherent manipulation of Cs atomic ground states.

  1. A low spur, low jitter 10-GHz phase-locked loop in 0.13-μm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niansong, Mei; Yu, Sun; Bo, Lu; Yaohua, Pan; Yumei, Huang; Zhiliang, Hong

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a 10-GHz low spur and low jitter phase-locked loop (PLL). An improved low phase noise VCO and a dynamic phase frequency detector with a short delay reset time are employed to reduce the noise of the PLL. We also discuss the methodology to optimize the high frequency prescaler's noise and the charge pump's current mismatch. The chip was fabricated in a SMIC 0.13-μm RF CMOS process with a 1.2-V power supply. The measured integrated RMS jitter is 757 fs (1 kHz to 10 MHz); the phase noise is -89 and -118.1 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz and 1 MHz frequency offset, respectively; and the reference frequency spur is below -77 dBc. The chip size is 0.32 mm2 and the power consumption is 30.6 mW.

  2. 2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Meng; Liu, Hao; Zheng, Xu-Wu; Luo, Ai-Ping; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Zhang, Han; Wen, Shuang-Chun; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2013-12-15

    We report on the generation of passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser using a microfiber-based topological insulator (TI) Bi(2)Te(3) saturable absorber (SA). The optical deposition method was employed to fabricate the microfiber-based TISA. By virtue of the excellent nonlinear optical property of the proposed TISA, the fiber laser could operate at the pulse repetition rate of 2.04 GHz under a pump power of 126 mW, corresponding to the 418th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results demonstrate that the microfiber-based TI photonic device can operate as both the high nonlinear optical component and the SA in fiber lasers, and could also find other applications in the related fields of photonics.

  3. 320 Gbps to 10 GHz sub-clock recovery using a PPLN-based opto-electronic phase-locked loop.

    PubMed

    Ware, Cédric; Oxenløwe, Leif K; Gómez Agis, Fausto; Mulvad, Hans C; Galili, Michael; Kurimura, Sunao; Nakajima, Hirochika; Ichikawa, Junichiro; Erasme, Didier; Clausen, Anders T; Jeppesen, Palle

    2008-03-31

    We present successful extraction of a 10 GHz clock from single-wavelength 160 and 320 Gbps OTDM data streams, using an opto-electronic phase-locked loop based on three-wave mixing in periodically-poled lithium niobate as a phase comparator.

  4. A low-phase-noise 18 GHz Kerr frequency microcomb phase-locked over 65 THz

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S.-W.; Yang, J.; Lim, J.; Zhou, H.; Yu, M.; Kwong, D.-L.; Wong, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Laser frequency combs are coherent light sources that simultaneously provide pristine frequency spacings for precision metrology and the fundamental basis for ultrafast and attosecond sciences. Recently, nonlinear parametric conversion in high-Q microresonators has been suggested as an alternative platform for optical frequency combs, though almost all in 100 GHz frequencies or more. Here we report a low-phase-noise on-chip Kerr frequency comb with mode spacing compatible with high-speed silicon optoelectronics. The waveguide cross-section of the silicon nitride spiral resonator is designed to possess small and flattened group velocity dispersion, so that the Kerr frequency comb contains a record-high number of 3,600 phase-locked comb lines. We study the single-sideband phase noise as well as the long-term frequency stability and report the lowest phase noise floor achieved to date with −130 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset for the 18 GHz Kerr comb oscillator, along with feedback stabilization to achieve frequency Allan deviations of 7 × 10−11 in 1 s. The reported system is a promising compact platform for achieving self-referenced Kerr frequency combs and also for high-capacity coherent communication architectures. PMID:26311406

  5. Widely tunable laser frequency offset lock with 30 GHz range and 5 THz offset.

    PubMed

    Biesheuvel, J; Noom, D W E; Salumbides, E J; Sheridan, K T; Ubachs, W; Koelemeij, J C J

    2013-06-17

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile method to greatly extend the tuning range of optical frequency shifting devices, such as acousto-optic modulators (AOMs). We use this method to stabilize the frequency of a tunable narrow-band continuous-wave (CW) laser to a transmission maximum of an external Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with a tunable frequency offset. This is achieved through a servo loop which contains an in-loop AOM for simple radiofrequency (RF) tuning of the optical frequency over the full 30 GHz mode-hop-free tuning range of the CW laser. By stabilizing the length of the FPI to a stabilized helium-neon (HeNe) laser (at 5 THz offset from the tunable laser) we simultaneously transfer the ~ 1 MHz absolute frequency stability of the HeNe laser to the entire 30 GHz range of the tunable laser. Thus, our method allows simple, wide-range, fast and reproducible optical frequency tuning and absolute optical frequency measurements through RF electronics, which is here demonstrated by repeatedly recording a 27-GHz-wide molecular iodine spectrum at scan rates up to 500 MHz/s. General technical aspects that determine the performance of the method are discussed in detail.

  6. Generation of 10 GHz transform-limited pulse train from dual-pump mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li; Yang, Bojun; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Yu, Li

    2006-09-01

    A dual-pump 10 GHz mode-locking erbium-doped fiber laser was demonstrated. With 10-GHz signal modulation of the modulator, less than 12 ps mode-locked pulse at 10 GHz repetition rate with 1.097 mW average output power was obtained. The corresponding spectrum width is 0.277 nm, which is centered at 1561 nm. The corresponding product of time and bandwidth is Δv*Δt which equals 0.433. Gaussian pulse shape is assumed, the output pulse is almost transform limited. Compared with single-pump fiber ring laser, the dual-pump fiber ring laser is helpful for suppression of supermode noise, which make this kind of fiber ring laser more stable.

  7. 1.55 μm hydrogen cyanide optical frequency-stabilized and 10 GHz repetition-rate-stabilized mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masato; Yoshida, Kazuki; Kasai, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2016-10-17

    We describe a 1.55 μm hydrogen cyanide (HCN) optical frequency and repetition rate stabilized mode-locked fiber laser, where the optical frequency was locked to the P(10) HCN absorption line and the repetition rate was locked to 9.95328 GHz by using a microwave phase-locked loop. The optical frequency stability of the laser reached 5 x 10-11 with an integration time τ of 1 s. With a bidirectional pumping scheme, the laser output power reached 64.6 mW. To obtain a short pulse train, the average dispersion in the cavity was managed so that it was zero around 1.55 μm, resulting in a 0.95 ps pulse train. In addition, the stabilization of the optical frequency and the repetition rate, meant that the entire spectral profile remained the same for 24 hours.

  8. Laser frequency locking with 46  GHz offset using an electro-optic modulator for magneto-optical trapping of francium atoms.

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Aoki, T; Ezure, S; Kato, K; Hayamizu, T; Kawamura, H; Inoue, T; Arikawa, H; Ishikawa, T; Aoki, T; Uchiyama, A; Sakamoto, K; Ito, S; Itoh, M; Ando, S; Hatakeyama, A; Hatanaka, K; Imai, K; Murakami, T; Nataraj, H S; Shimizu, Y; Sato, T; Wakasa, T; Yoshida, H P; Sakemi, Y

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate frequency offset locking between two laser sources using a waveguide-type electro-optic modulator (EOM) with 10th-order sidebands for magneto-optical trapping of Fr atoms. The frequency locking error signal was successfully obtained by performing delayed self-homodyne detection of the beat signal between the repumping frequency and the 10th-order sideband component of the trapping light. Sweeping the trapping-light and repumping-light frequencies with keeping its frequency difference of 46 GHz was confirmed over 1 GHz by monitoring the Doppler absorption profile of I₂. This technique enables us to search for a resonance frequency of magneto-optical trapping of Fr.

  9. Laser frequency locking with 46 GHz offset using an electro-optic modulator for magneto-optical trapping of francium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Aoki, T.; Ezure, S.; Kato, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Kawamura, H.; Inoue, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Aoki, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Ito, S.; Itoh, M.; Ando, S.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Nataraj, H. S.; Shimizu, Y.; Sato, T.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrated a frequency offset locking between two laser sources using a waveguide-type electro-optic modulator (EOM) with 10th-order sidebands for magneto-optical trapping of Fr atoms. The frequency locking error signal was successfully obtained by performing delayed self-homodyne detection of the beat signal between the repumping frequency and the 10th-order sideband component of the trapping light. Sweeping the trapping-light and repumping-light frequencies with keeping its frequency difference of 46 GHz was confirmed over 1 GHz by monitoring the Doppler absorption profile of I2. This technique enables us to search for a resonance frequency of magneto-optical trapping of Fr.

  10. Tunable GHz pulse repetition rate operation in high-power TEM(00)-mode Nd:YLF lasers at 1047 nm and 1053 nm with self mode locking.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y J; Tzeng, Y S; Tang, C Y; Huang, Y P; Chen, Y F

    2012-07-30

    We report on a high-power diode-pumped self-mode-locked Nd:YLF laser with the pulse repetition rate up to several GHz. A novel tactic is developed to efficiently select the output polarization state for achieving the stable TEM(00)-mode self-mode-locked operations at 1053 nm and 1047 nm, respectively. At an incident pump power of 6.93 W and a pulse repetition rate of 2.717 GHz, output powers as high as 2.15 W and 1.35 W are generated for the σ- and π-polarization, respectively. We experimentally find that decreasing the separation between the gain medium and the input mirror not only brings in the pulse shortening thanks to the enhanced effect of the spatial hole burning, but also effectively introduces the effect of the spectral filtering to lead the Nd:YLF laser to be in a second harmonic mode-locked status. Consequently, pulse durations as short as 8 ps and 8.5 ps are obtained at 1053 nm and 1047 nm with a pulse repetition rate of 5.434 GHz.

  11. C2H2 absolutely optical frequency-stabilized and 40 GHz repetition-rate-stabilized, regeneratively mode-locked picosecond erbium fiber laser at 1.53 microm.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato

    2008-11-15

    We have succeeded in the simultaneous stabilization of the optical frequency and repetition rate of a regeneratively mode-locked picosecond erbium-doped fiber ring laser. The optical frequency was locked to the molecular absorption of C2H2 in the 1.5 microm band, and the repetition rate was stabilized to a 40 GHz synthesizer by using a microwave phase-locked loop. The optical frequency stability of the pulse train reached 2x10(-11) for tau=10-100 s. The key to success is the independent control of the repetition rate without disturbing the optical cavity condition.

  12. Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Zheng, Xu-Wu; Qi, You-Li; Liu, Hao; Luo, Ai-Ping; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Wen-Cheng; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Zhang, Han

    2014-09-22

    We reported on the generation of high-order harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser using a microfiber-based molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) saturable absorber (SA). Taking advantage of both the saturable absorption and large third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of the few-layer MoS(2), up to 2.5 GHz repetition rate HML pulse could be obtained at a pump power of 181 mW, corresponding to 369th harmonic of fundamental repetition frequency. The results provide the first demonstration of the simultaneous applications of both highly nonlinear and saturable absorption effects of the MoS(2), indicating that the microfiber-based MoS(2) photonic device could serve as high-performance SA and highly nonlinear optical component for application fields such as ultrafast nonlinear optics.

  13. Towards a beyond 1 GHz solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: External lock operation in an external current mode for a 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masato; Ebisawa, Yusuke; Tennmei, Konosuke; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Hosono, Masami; Takasugi, Kenji; Hase, Takashi; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Nakagome, Hideki; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Yamazaki, Toshio; Maeda, Hideaki

    2012-10-01

    Achieving a higher magnetic field is important for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). But a conventional low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet cannot exceed 1 GHz (23.5 T) due to the critical magnetic field. Thus, we started a project to replace the Nb3Sn innermost coil of an existing 920 MHz NMR (21.6 T) with a Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) innermost coil. Unfortunately, the HTS magnet cannot be operated in persistent current mode; an external dc power supply is required to operate the NMR magnet, causing magnetic field fluctuations. These fluctuations can be stabilized by a field-frequency lock system based on an external NMR detection coil. We demonstrate here such a field-frequency lock system in a 500 MHz LTS NMR magnet operated in an external current mode. The system uses a 7Li sample in a microcoil as external NMR detection system. The required field compensation is calculated from the frequency of the FID as measured with a frequency counter. The system detects the FID signal, determining the FID frequency, and calculates the required compensation coil current to stabilize the sample magnetic field. The magnetic field was stabilized at 0.05 ppm/3 h for magnetic field fluctuations of around 10 ppm. This method is especially effective for a magnet with large magnetic field fluctuations. The magnetic field of the compensation coil is relatively inhomogeneous in these cases and the inhomogeneity of the compensation coil can be taken into account.

  14. Phase noise analysis of a 10-GHz optical injection-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser-based optoelectronic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronel, Juan; Varón, Margarita; Rissons, Angélique

    2016-09-01

    The optical injection locking (OIL) technique is proposed to reduce the phase noise of a carrier generated for a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based optoelectronic oscillator. The OIL technique permits the enhancement of the VCSEL direct modulation bandwidth as well as the stabilization of the optical noise of the laser. A 2-km delay line, 10-GHz optical injection-locked VCSEL-based optoelectronic oscillator (OILVBO) was implemented. The internal noise sources of the optoelectronic oscillator components were characterized and analyzed to understand the noise conversion of the system into phase noise in the oscillator carrier. The implemented OILVBO phase noise was -105.7 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz from the carrier; this value agrees well with the performed simulated analysis. From the computed and measured phase noise curves, it is possible to infer the noise processes that take place inside the OILVBO. As a second measurement of the oscillation quality, a time-domain analysis was done through the Allan's standard deviation measurement, reported for first time for an optoelectronic oscillator using the OIL technique.

  15. Femtosecond harmonic mode-locking of a fiber laser at 3.27 GHz using a bulk-like, MoSe2-based saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Koo, Joonhoi; Park, June; Lee, Junsu; Jhon, Young Min; Lee, Ju Han

    2016-05-16

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of a bulk-like, MoSe2-based saturable absorber (SA) as a passive harmonic mode-locker for the production of femtosecond pulses from a fiber laser at a repetition rate of 3.27 GHz. By incorporating a bulk-like, MoSe2/PVA-composite-deposited side-polished fiber as an SA within an erbium-doped-fiber-ring cavity, mode-locked pulses with a temporal width of 737 fs to 798 fs can be readily obtained at various harmonic frequencies. The fundamental resonance frequency and the maximum harmonic-resonance frequency are 15.38 MHz and 3.27 GHz (212th harmonic), respectively. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the output pulses are systematically investigated as a function of the pump power. The output pulses exhibited Gaussian-temporal shapes irrespective of the harmonic order, and even when their spectra possessed hyperbolic-secant shapes. The saturable absorption and harmonic-mode-locking performance of our prepared SA are compared with those of previously demonstrated SAs that are based on other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). To the best of the authors' knowledge, the repetition rate of 3.27 GHz is the highest frequency that has ever been demonstrated regarding the production of femtosecond pulses from a fiber laser that is based on SA-induced passive harmonic mode-locking.

  16. Integrated optical phase locked loop.

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Kim, Jungwon; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; DeRose, Christopher T.; Kartner, Franz X.; Byun, Hyunil; Nejadmalayeri, Amir H.; Watts, Michael R.; Zortman, William A.

    2010-12-01

    A silicon photonics based integrated optical phase locked loop is utilized to synchronize a 10.2 GHz voltage controlled oscillator with a 509 MHz mode locked laser, achieving 32 fs integrated jitter over 300 kHz bandwidth.

  17. 50-GHz repetition-rate, 280-fs pulse generation at 100-mW average power from a mode-locked laser diode externally compressed in a pedestal-free pulse compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Kohichi R.; Sato, Kenji

    2002-07-01

    280-fs pedestal-free pulses are generated at average output powers exceeding 100 mW at a repetition rate of 50 GHz by compression of the output of a mode-locked laser diode (MLLD) by use of a pedestal-free pulse compressor (PFPC). The MLLD consists of a monolithically integrated chirped distributed Bragg reflector, a gain section, and an electroabsorption modulator. The PFPC is composed of a dispersion-flattened dispersion-decreasing fiber and a dispersion-flattened dispersion-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror. Frequency modulation for linewidth broadening is used to overcome the power limitation imposed by stimulated Brillouin scattering.

  18. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers.

    PubMed

    Tahvili, M S; Du, L; Heck, M J R; Nötzel, R; Smit, M K; Bente, E A J M

    2012-03-26

    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two lobes provide a coherent bandwidth and are verified to lead to two synchronized optical pulses. The generated optical pulses are elongated in time due to a chirp which shows opposite signs over the two spectral lobes. Self-induced mode-locking in the single-section laser shows that the dual-wavelength spectra correspond to emission from ground state. In the hybrid mode-locking regime, a map of locking range is presented by measuring the values of timing jitter for several values of power and frequency of the external electrical modulating signal. An overview of the systematic behavior of InAs/InP(100) quantum dot mode-locked lasers is presented as conclusion.

  19. Compact 0.3-to-1.125 GHz self-biased phase-locked loop for system-on-chip clock generation in 0.18 µm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Liyuan; Feng, Peng; Liu, Jian; Wu, Nanjian

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a compact ring-oscillator-based self-biased phase-locked loop (SBPLL) for system-on-chip (SoC) clock generation. It adopts the proposed triple-well NMOS source degeneration voltage-to-current (V-I) converter instead of the operational amplifier (OPAMP) based V-I converter and a proposed simple start-up circuit with a negligible area to save power and area. The SBPLL is implemented in the 0.18 µm CMOS process, and it occupies 0.048 mm2 active core. The measurement results show the SBPLL can generate output frequency in a wide range from 300 MHz to 1.125 GHz with a constant loop bandwidth that is around 5 MHz and a relatively low jitter performance that is less than 4.9 mUI over the entire covered frequency range. From -20 to 70 °C the rms jitter variation and loop bandwidth variation at 1.125 GHz are 0.2 ps and 350 kHz, respectively. The rms jitter performance variation of all covered frequency points is less than 10% in the supply range from 1.5 to 1.7 V. Such SBPLL shows robustness over environmental variation. The maximum power consumption is 5.6 mW with 1.6 V supply at an output frequency of 1.125 GHz.

  20. Exploring transverse pattern formation in a dual-polarization self-mode-locked monolithic Yb: KGW laser and generating a 25-GHz sub-picosecond vortex beam via gain competition.

    PubMed

    Chang, M T; Liang, H C; Su, K W; Chen, Y F

    2016-04-18

    Formation of transverse modes in a dual-polarization self-mode-locked monolithic Yb: KGW laser under high-power pumping is thoroughly explored. It is experimentally observed that the polarization-resolved transverse patterns are considerably affected by the pump location in the transverse plane of the gain medium. In contrast, the longitudinal self-mode-locking is nearly undisturbed by the pump position, even under the high-power pumping. Under central pumping, a vortex beam of the Laguerre-Gaussian LGp,l mode with p = 1 and l = 1 can be efficiently generated through the process of the gain competition with a sub-picosecond pulse train at 25.3 GHz and the output power can be up to 1.45 W at a pump power of 10.0 W. Under off-center pumping, the symmetry breaking causes the transverse patterns to be dominated by the high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes. Numerical analyses are further performed to manifest the symmetry breaking induced by the off-center pumping.

  1. Widely tunable 11 GHz femtosecond fiber laser based on a nonmode-locked source [Widely tunable 11 GHz femtosecond fiber laser based on a non-modelocked source

    SciTech Connect

    Prantil, Matthew A.; Cormier, Eric; Dawson, Jay W.; Gibson, David J.; Messerly, Michael J.; Barty, C. P. J.

    2013-08-19

    An 11 GHz fiber laser built on a modulated CW platform is described and characterized. This compact, vibrationinsensitive, fiber based system can be operated at wavelengths compatible with high energy fiber technology, is driven by an RF signal directly, and is tunable over a wide range of drive frequencies. The demonstration system when operated at 1040 nm is capable of 50 ns bursts of 575 micro-pulses produced at a macro-pulse rate of 83 kHz where the macro-pulse and micro-pulse energies are 1.8 μJ and 3.2 nJ respectively. Micro-pulse durations of 850 fs are demonstrated. Finally, we discuss extensions to shorter duration.

  2. Widely tunable 11 GHz femtosecond fiber laser based on a nonmode-locked source [Widely tunable 11 GHz femtosecond fiber laser based on a non-modelocked source

    DOE PAGES

    Prantil, Matthew A.; Cormier, Eric; Dawson, Jay W.; ...

    2013-08-19

    An 11 GHz fiber laser built on a modulated CW platform is described and characterized. This compact, vibrationinsensitive, fiber based system can be operated at wavelengths compatible with high energy fiber technology, is driven by an RF signal directly, and is tunable over a wide range of drive frequencies. The demonstration system when operated at 1040 nm is capable of 50 ns bursts of 575 micro-pulses produced at a macro-pulse rate of 83 kHz where the macro-pulse and micro-pulse energies are 1.8 μJ and 3.2 nJ respectively. Micro-pulse durations of 850 fs are demonstrated. Finally, we discuss extensions to shortermore » duration.« less

  3. A 90-GHz Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.T.; Hogan, M.J.; Ferrario, M.; Serafini, L.; /Frascati /INFN, Milan

    2005-09-12

    Photocathode rf guns depend on mode locked laser systems to produce an electron beam at a given phase of the rf. In general, the laser pulse is less than {sigma}{sub z} = 10{sup o} of rf phase in length and the required stability is on the order of {Delta}{phi} = 1{sup o}. At 90 GHz (W-band), these requirements correspond to {sigma}{sub z} = 333 fsec and {Delta}{phi} = 33 fsec. Laser system with pulse lengths in the fsec regime are commercially available, the timing stability is a major concern. We propose a multi-cell W-band photoinjector that does not require a mode locked laser system. Thereby eliminating the stability requirements at W-band. The laser pulse is allowed to be many rf periods long. In principle, the photoinjector can now be considered as a thermionic rf gun. Instead of using an alpha magnet to compress the electron bunch, which would have a detrimental effect on the transverse phase space quality due to longitudinal phase space mixing, we propose to use long pulse laser system and a pair of undulators to produce a low emittance, high current, ultra-short electron bunch for beam dynamics experiments in the 90 GHz regime.

  4. Locking hinge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The space station configuration currently studied utilizes structures which require struts to be hinged in the middle in the stowed mode and locked into place in the deployed mode. Since there are hundreds of hinges involved, it is necessary that they have simple, positive locking features with a minimum of joint looseness or slack. This invention comprises two similar housings hinged together with a spring loaded locking member which assists in making as well as breaking the lock. This invention comprises a bracket hinge and bracket members with a spring biased and movable locking member. The locking or latch member has ear parts received in locking openings where wedging surfaces on the ear parts cooperate with complimentary surfaces on the bracket members for bringing the bracket members into a tight end-to-end alignment when the bracket members are in an extended position. When the locking member is moved to an unlocking position, pivoting of the hinge about a pivot pin automatically places the locking member to retain the locking member in an unlocked position. In pivoting the hinge from an extended position to a folded position, longitudinal spring members are placed under tension over annular rollers so that the spring tension in a folded position assists in return of the hinge from a folded to an extended position. Novelty lies in the creation of a locking hinge which allows compact storage and easy assembly of structural members having a minimal number of parts.

  5. 41. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GATES -- LIFT GATE, GATE LEAVES -- GENERAL ASSEMBLY. M-L 26(R) 21/28 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  6. 39. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GATES -- MITER GATE -- GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND SECTION. M-L 26(R) 21/1 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  7. 44. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GUIDEWALLS -DOWNSTREAM GUIDEWALL, PARTIAL ISOMETRIC VIEW. M-L 26(R) 26/40 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  8. Locking mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Gary L.; Goin, Jr., Jesse L.; Kirby, Patrick G.; McKenna, John P.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a motorized linkage for operating a door strike. A six volt power source, controlled by a security code, rotates a small electric motor when a proper security code is given. The motor rotates a shaft which engages a coil spring. This moves a locking cam. When a catch on the locking cam separates from the locking lever catch, the latch bolt keeper may be manipulated by a user.

  9. Locked Out.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Veronica; Soekadar, Surjo R; Clausen, Jens

    2017-10-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can enable communication for persons in severe paralysis including locked-in syndrome (LIS); that is, being unable to move or speak while aware. In cases of complete loss of muscle control, termed "complete locked-in syndrome," a BCI may be the only viable solution to restore communication. However, a widespread ignorance regarding quality of life in LIS, current BCIs, and their potential as an assistive technology for persons in LIS, needlessly causes a harmful situation for this cohort. In addition to their medical condition, these persons also face social barriers often perceived as more impairing than their physical condition. Through social exclusion, stigmatization, and frequently being underestimated in their abilities, these persons are being locked out in addition to being locked-in. In this article, we (1) show how persons in LIS are being locked out, including how key issues addressed in the existing literature on ethics, LIS, and BCIs for communication, such as autonomy, quality of life, and advance directives, may reinforce these confinements; (2) show how these practices violate the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and suggest that we have a moral responsibility to prevent and stop this exclusion; and (3) discuss the role of BCIs for communication as one means to this end and suggest that a novel approach to BCI research is necessary to acknowledge the moral responsibility toward the end users and avoid violating the human rights of persons in LIS.

  10. 42. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GATES -- LIFT GATE, DOWNSTREAM LEAF, D.S. ELEVATION & GIRDERS. M-L 26(R) 21/29 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  11. 40. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LOCK GATES -- MITER GATE, D.S. & U.S. ELEVATION, SECTIONS. M-L 26(R) 21/2 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  12. The 30 GHz communications satellite low noise receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffek, L. J.; Smith, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    A Ka-band low noise front end in proof of concept (POC) model form for ultimate spaceborne communications receiver deployment was developed. The low noise receiver consists of a 27.5 to 30.0 GHz image enhanced mixer integrated with a 3.7 to 6.2 GHz FET low noise IF amplifier and driven by a self contained 23.8 GHz phase locked local oscillator source. The measured level of receiver performance over the 27.3 to 30.0 GHz RF/3.7 to 6.2 GHz IF band includes 5.5 to 6.5 dB (typ) SSB noise figure, 20.5 + or - 1.5 dB conversion gain and +23 dBm minimum third order two tone intermodulation output intercept point.

  13. The 30 GHz communications satellite low noise receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffek, L. J.; Smith, D. W.

    1983-10-01

    A Ka-band low noise front end in proof of concept (POC) model form for ultimate spaceborne communications receiver deployment was developed. The low noise receiver consists of a 27.5 to 30.0 GHz image enhanced mixer integrated with a 3.7 to 6.2 GHz FET low noise IF amplifier and driven by a self contained 23.8 GHz phase locked local oscillator source. The measured level of receiver performance over the 27.3 to 30.0 GHz RF/3.7 to 6.2 GHz IF band includes 5.5 to 6.5 dB (typ) SSB noise figure, 20.5 + or - 1.5 dB conversion gain and +23 dBm minimum third order two tone intermodulation output intercept point.

  14. Simultaneous fundamental and subharmonic/ harmonic frequency signals generation from a dual-cavity fiber laser based on regenerative mode-locking and active mode-locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, Yuejiao; Jiang, Yang; Tian, Jing; Bai, Guangfu; Xia, Yi; He, Yutong; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a dual-cavity mode-locked laser, which is able to simultaneously output two optical pulses with different wavelengths and frequency. In this dual-cavity configuration, one cavity works as a regenerative mode-locked laser and outputs signal with a fundamental repetition frequency, the other one acts as an active mode-locked laser and generates signal with subharmonic or harmonic frequency by fine tuning the cavity length. In experimental demonstration, 5 GHz signal from regenerative mode-locked cavity and 2.5/ 5/ 10/ 15/ 20 GHz signal from active mode-locked cavity are simultaneously obtained. Additionally, signals in active mode-locked cavity get further super-mode suppression.

  15. A multi-band fast-locking delay-locked loop with jitter-bounded feature.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lai, Hung-Jing; Lin, Meng-Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a fast-locking delay-locked loop (DLL) with jitter-bounded feature is presented. In the proposed fast-locking mechanism, a frequency estimator and a programmable voltage circuit are developed to rapidly switch the control node of voltage-controlled delay line to a voltage level near the final required value. After that, the DLL output will be quickly locked by the following charge pumping on the loop filter. In the jitter-bounded approach, two phase-frequency detectors and a tunable delay are employed to hold the output clock jitter between two reference inputs after the DLL is locked. Furthermore, to enhance the flexibility of the presented DLL, a frequency multiplier with fewer active devices is also developed to provide high-frequency clock output for wideband applications. The presented DLL is implemented in a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS technology. The active area without contact pads is 0.34 × 0.41 mm(2). A minimum lock time of six clock cycles is measured from no reference input to locked state. The output frequency ranges of the DLL and the frequency multiplier can be measured from 200 to 400 MHz and from 1 to 2 GHz, respectively. The power dissipation of the presented DLL is 31.5 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage.

  16. Purge Lock Server

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Kevin

    2012-08-21

    The software provides a simple web api to allow users to request a time window where a file will not be removed from cache. HPSS provides the concept of a "purge lock". When a purge lock is set on a file, the file will not be removed from disk, entering tape only state. A lot of network file protocols assume a file is on disk so it is good to purge lock a file before transferring using one of those protocols. HPSS's purge lock system is very coarse grained though. A file is either purge locked or not. Nothing enforces quotas, timely unlocking of purge locks, or managing the races inherent with multiple users wanting to lock/unlock the same file. The Purge Lock Server lets you, through a simple REST API, specify a list of files to purge lock and an expire time, and the system will ensure things happen properly.

  17. 56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM -- CONCRETE MONOLITH PLAN AND WALL ELEVATIONS (WITH LOCK APPURTENANCES). Drawing V-601 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  18. 26. Central compression lock, north span facing north. Compression lock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Central compression lock, north span facing north. Compression lock locks two spans together at highest point. There are three compression locks. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 12. LOCK GATES AT THE SWAMP LOCKS, SEPARATING THE UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOCK GATES AT THE SWAMP LOCKS, SEPARATING THE UPPER AND LOWER LOCK CHAMBERS, SHOWING PADDLE VALVES, LOOKING WEST: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  20. Self-mode-locked quantum-dot vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Mahmoud; Nakdali, Dalia Al; Möller, Christoph; Fedorova, Ksenia A; Wichmann, Matthias; Shakfa, Mohammad Khaled; Zhang, Fan; Rahimi-Iman, Arash; Rafailov, Edik U; Koch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    We present the first self-mode-locked optically pumped quantum-dot semiconductor disk laser. Our mode-locked device emits sub-picosecond pulses at a wavelength of 1040 nm and features a record peak power of 460 W at a repetition rate of 1.5 GHz. In this work, we also investigate the temperature dependence of the pulse duration as well as the time-bandwidth product for stable mode locking.

  1. Generation of low-timing-jitter femtosecond pulse trains with 2 GHz repetition rate via external repetition rate multiplication.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Sickler, Jason W; Fendel, Peter; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Wilken, Tobias; Holzwarth, Ronald; Hänsch, Theodor W

    2008-05-01

    Generation of low-timing-jitter 150 fs pulse trains at 1560 nm with 2 GHz repetition rate is demonstrated by locking a 200 MHz fundamental polarization additive-pulse mode-locked erbium fiber laser to high-finesse external Fabry-Perot cavities. The timing jitter and relative intensity noise of the repetition-rate multiplied pulse train are investigated.

  2. Fast flux locked loop

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  3. Graphene based GHz detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Anthony K.; El Fatimy, Abdel; Barbara, Paola; Nath, Anindya; Campbell, Paul M.; Myers-Ward, Rachael; Daniels, Kevin; Gaskill, D. Kurt

    Graphene demonstrates great promise as a detector over a wide spectral range especially in the GHz range. This is because absorption is enhanced due to the Drude contribution. In the GHz range there are viable detection mechanisms for graphene devices. With this in mind, two types of GHz detectors are fabricated on epitaxial graphene using a lift off resist-based clean lithography process to produce low contact resistance. Both device types use asymmetry for detection, consistent with recent thoughts of the photothermoelectric effect (PTE) mechanism. The first is an antenna coupled device. It utilizes two dissimilar contact metals and the work function difference produces the asymmetry. The other device is a field effect transistor constructed with an asymmetric top gate that creates a PN junction and facilitates tuning the photovoltaic response. The response of both device types, tested from 100GHz to 170GHz, are reported. This work was sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (Award Number N000141310865).

  4. Overview of locking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, K.T.; Scott, S.H.; Wilde, M.G.; Highland, S.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to present technical information that should be useful for understanding and applying locking systems for physical protection and control. There are major sections on hardware for locks, vaults, safes, and security containers. Other topics include management of lock systems and safety considerations. This document also contains notes on standards and specifications and a glossary.

  5. Lock For Valve Stem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1991-01-01

    Simple, cheap device locks valve stem so its setting cannot be changed by unauthorized people. Device covers valve stem; cover locked in place with standard padlock. Valve lock made of PVC pipe and packing band. Shears, drill or punch, and forming rod only tools needed.

  6. High-repetition-rate ultrashort pulsed fiber ring laser using hybrid mode locking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Hongyu; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K

    2016-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a hybrid mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser by combining the rational harmonic mode-locking technique and passive mode locking based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. By carefully adjusting the modulation frequency and the polarization controllers in the cavity, a 30 GHz pulse train with improved stability and narrower pulse width is generated. The pulse width at 30 GHz using rational harmonic mode locking alone is 5.8 ps. This hybrid scheme narrows the pulse width to 1.9 ps at the repetition rate of 30 GHz. Numerical simulations are carried out that show good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiangwei, Yin; Ning, Li; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 × 0.28 mm2. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  8. 10 GHz fundamental mode fiber laser using a graphene saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Amos; Yamashita, Shinji

    2012-07-01

    All-fiber mode-locked lasers with fundamental repetition rates of several gigahertz are sought after for applications in optical communications and metrology. In this paper, we propose a fiber Fabry-Pérot laser mode-locked by a graphene-based saturable absorber that operates at a fundamental repetition rate of 9.67 GHz. We use this laser as the seed for the generation of supercontinuum with 0.08 nm mode spacing.

  9. Use of an Injection Locked Magnetron to Drive a Superconducting RF Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang, Robert Rimmer, G. Davis, Imran Tahir, Amos Dexter, Greame Burt, Richard Carter

    2010-05-01

    The use of an injection locked CW magnetron to drive a 2.45 GHz superconducting RF cavity has been successfully demonstrated. With a locking power less than -27 dB with respect to the output and with a phase control system acting on the locking signal, cavity phase was accurately controlled for hours at a time without loss of lock whilst suppressing microphonics. The phase control accuracy achieved was 0.8 deg. r.m.s. The main contributing disturbance limiting ultimate phase control was power supply ripple from the low specification switch mode power supply used for the experiment.

  10. Theoretical model for frequency locking a diode laser with a Faraday cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninger, P.; Shay, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    A new method was developed for frequency locking a diode lasers, called 'the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical transmitter (FADOT) laser locking', which is much simpler than other known locking schemes. The FADOT laser locking method uses commercial laser diodes with no antireflection coatings, an atomic Faraday cell with a single polarizer, and an output coupler to form a compound cavity. The FADOT method is vibration insensitive and exhibits minimal thermal expansion effects. The system has a frequency pull in the range of 443.2 GHz (9 A). The method has potential applications in optical communication, remote sensing, and pumping laser excited optical filters.

  11. Reconfigurable quantum dot monolithic multisection passive mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Xin, Y C; Li, Y; Kovanis, Vassilios; Gray, A L; Zhang, L; Lester, L F

    2007-06-11

    We investigate the dynamical response of a quantum dot photonic integrated circuit formed with a combination of eleven passive and active gain cells operating when these cells are appropriately biased as a multi-section quantum dot passively mode-locked laser. When the absorber section is judiciously positioned in the laser cavity then fundamental frequency and harmonic mode-locking at repetition rates from 7.2GHz to 51GHz are recorded. These carefully engineered multi-section configurations that include a passive wave-guide section significantly lower the pulse width up to 34% from 9.7 to 6.4 picoseconds, as well increase by 49% the peak pulsed power from 150 to 224 mW, in comparison to conventional two-section configurations that are formed on the identical device under the same average power. In addition an ultra broad operation range with pulse width below ten picoseconds is obtained with the 3rd-harmonic mode-locking configuration. A record peak power of 234 mW for quantum dot mode-locked lasers operating over 40 GHz is reported for the first time.

  12. Locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Locked-in syndrome is a rare neuropsychological disorder. Its primary features are quadriplegia and paralysis of the cranial nerves except for those responsible for vertical eye movements. The differential diagnosis includes persistent vegetative state, brain death, minimally conscious states, C3 transection of the spinal cord, and conversion locked-in syndrome. Etiologies of locked-in syndrome include hemorrhagic and thrombotic events, tumors affecting the ventral pons, infectious agents, iatrogenic causes, trauma, metabolic abnormalities, and other miscellaneous causes. The clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, neuropsychological assessment, rehabilitation, and prognosis of patients with locked-in syndrome are discussed.

  13. Electronic locking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwkoop, E.

    An electronic locking system was developed to remove the disadvantages of conventional mechanical door locks. The electrolock has to replace existing locks. Therefore, the techniques of Surface Mount Technology and Application Specific Integrated Circuit were applied to overcome the space limitations. The key consists of a metal rod with grip equipped with a contactless chip. When the key is inserted in the lock, a magnetic field is generated in the cylinder which induces a voltage in the chip. Therefore a battery is not required. The chip then emits inductively a code which is unique for each key. The electrolock was successfully tested.

  14. 38. VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE, WITH MAIN LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF AUXILIARY LOCK MITER GATE, WITH MAIN LOCK UPSTREAM MITER GATE AND UPSTREAM GUIDEWALL IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING WEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  15. 55. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM CONTROL HOUSE -- BUILDING SECTION. M-L 26(R) 92/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  16. 54. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM CONTROL HOUSE -- BUILDING SECTION. M-L 26(R) 92/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  17. 53. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). AUXILIARY LOCK AND REMAINDER OF DAM CONTROL HOUSE -- ELEVATIONS. M-L 26 (R) 92/2 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  18. West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  19. Lock 1 View north of wall west of lock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 1 - View north of wall west of lock 1. Note the wood pile and plank foundation (believed to be similar under lock 1 walls) - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  20. The NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) Phase-Locked gyrotron oscillator program for SDIO/IST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, W. M.; Fliflet, A. W.; Gold, S. H.; Burke, J.; Black, W. M.; Barnett, L.

    1988-07-01

    This report is on the phase locked gyrotron oscillator program for SDIO/IST. The introduction summarizes the program as well as possible SDIO applications for high power phase locked microwave and millimeter wave sources. It considers the different possible architectures for a phased array for an SDIO mission. Section 2 summarizes results in theory. The main accomplishment was the development of a slow time scale code which examines phase locking in time varying situations. Section 3 summarizes the experimental design of the low power experiment which will examine phase locking in overmode cavities. Section 4 summarizes the results of the slotted cavity experiments. The axial slots allow for mode control. With a slotted cavity, a gyrotron oscillator has reliably generated 35 MW at 35 GHz in a standing TE Sub 13 mode. Section 5 summarizes results on the VEBA driven free running oscillator. This experiment has succeeded in generating 200 MW at 35 GHz in a TE sub 62 mode. Section 6 discusses experimental design of the VEBA fundamental mode three cavity phase-locked oscillator at 35 GHz. This experiment is expected to produce phase-locked power at the 5 MW level. Section 7 discusses the experimental results up to now on this experiment. Section 8 discusses the experimental design of the strongly coupled phase-locked oscillator experiment.

  1. Protective air lock

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Herbert W.

    1976-03-30

    A device suitable for preventing escape and subsequent circulation of toxic gases comprising an enclosure which is sealed by a surrounding air lock, automatic means for partially evacuating said enclosure and said air lock and for ventilating said enclosure and means for disconnecting said enclosure ventilating means, whereby a relatively undisturbed atmosphere is created in said enclosure.

  2. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

    1981-10-27

    A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  3. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, Joseph E.; Sanderson, Stephen N.

    1984-01-01

    A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  4. Locke on measurement.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2016-12-01

    Like many virtuosi in his day, the English philosopher John Locke maintained an active interest in metrology. Yet for Locke, this was no mere hobby: questions concerning measurement were also implicated in his ongoing philosophical project to develop an account of human understanding. This paper follows Locke's treatment of four problems of measurement from the early Drafts A and B of the Essay concerning Human Understanding to the publication of this famous book and its aftermath. It traces Locke's attempt to develop a natural or universal standard for the measure of length, his attempts to grapple with the measurement of duration, as well as the problems of determining comparative measures for secondary qualities, and the problem of discriminating small differences in the conventional measures of his day. It is argued that the salient context for Locke's treatment of these problems is the new experimental philosophy and its method of experimental natural history.

  5. Dynamics of solid-state lasers pumped by mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Barbara; Spence, David J; Coutts, David W

    2015-02-23

    We analyze the dynamics of mode-locked pumped solid-state lasers focusing on the transition between mode-locked and CW behavior. Where the ratio of the pump and laser cavity lengths is a rational number, 'rational-harmonic mode-locking' is obtained. When the cavity length is detuned away from such resonances, modulated continuous output is generated. The transition from mode-locked to modulated CW operation is explored experimentally for a Ce:LiCAF laser operating at 290 nm and pumped by a 78.75 MHz mode-locked frequency quadrupled Nd:YVO(4) laser. Both CW output and mode-locked output with pulse repetition rates up to 1.1 GHz were achieved. A rate equation model is developed to predict optimum cavity lengths for achieving CW output with minimized modulation.

  6. Phillips SA8016BW 2.5 GHz Synthesizer SEE Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carts, Marty; Ladbury, Ray; Marshall, Paul W.; Mackey, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Single Event Effects (SEE) testing of the Phillips SA8016BW 2.5 GHz Synthesizer that was chose by the GLAST Program for Frequency Generation. Included in this are diagrams of the phased-locked loop (PLL), the synthesizer, and heater.

  7. All-optical signal processing at 10 GHz using a photonic crystal molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Junay, Alexandra; De Rossi, Alfredo; Malaguti, Stefania; Bellanca, Gaetano; Trillo, Stefano; Ménager, Loic; Peter Reithmaier, Johann

    2013-11-04

    We report on 10 GHz operation of an all-optical gate based on an Indium Phosphide Photonic Crystal Molecule. Wavelength conversion and all-optical mixing of microwave signals are demonstrated using the 2 mW output of a mode locked diode laser. The spectral separation of the optical pump and signal is crucial in suppressing optical cross-talk.

  8. 35. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GUARD LOCKS LOCK HOUSE: CLOSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE GUARD LOCKS LOCK HOUSE: CLOSED LOCK GATES AND TWO SETS OF MACHINERY TO ASSIST IN OPERATING THEM. VIEW FROM THE FAST END OF THE BUILDING LOOKING WEST 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Guard Locks, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  9. 5. VIEW NORTHWEST, WITHIN LOCK, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF LOCK TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHWEST, WITHIN LOCK, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF LOCK TO LOCK KEEPER'S HOUSE - West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  10. VIEW EAST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF LOCK TO LOCK KEEPER'S HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF LOCK TO LOCK KEEPER'S HOUSE - West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  11. Foundry fabricated photonic integrated circuit optical phase lock loop.

    PubMed

    Bałakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Graham, Chris S; Wonfor, Adrian; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2017-07-24

    This paper describes the first foundry-based InP photonic integrated circuit (PIC) designed to work within a heterodyne optical phase locked loop (OPLL). The PIC and an external electronic circuit were used to phase-lock a single-line semiconductor laser diode to an incoming reference laser, with tuneable frequency offset from 4 GHz to 12 GHz. The PIC contains 33 active and passive components monolithically integrated on a single chip, fully demonstrating the capability of a generic foundry PIC fabrication model. The electronic part of the OPLL consists of commercially available RF components. This semi-packaged system stabilizes the phase and frequency of the integrated laser so that an absolute frequency, high-purity heterodyne signal can be generated when the OPLL is in operation, with phase noise lower than -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carrier. This is the lowest phase noise level ever demonstrated by monolithically integrated OPLLs.

  12. Electronic door locking mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Williams, G.L.; Kirby, P.G.

    1997-10-21

    The invention is a motorized linkage for engaging a thumb piece in a door mechanism. The device has an exterior lock assembly with a small battery cell and combination lock. Proper entry by a user of a security code allows the battery to operate a small motor within the exterior lock assembly. The small motor manipulates a cam-plunger which moves an actuator pin into a thumb piece. The user applies a force on to the thumb piece. This force is transmitted by the thumb piece to a latch engagement mechanism by the actuator pin. The latch engagement mechanism operates the door latch. 6 figs.

  13. Electronic door locking mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Gary Lin; Kirby, Patrick Gerald

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a motorized linkage for engaging a thumb piece in a door mechanism. The device has an exterior lock assembly with a small battery cell and combination lock. Proper entry by a user of a security code allows the battery to operate a small motor within the exterior lock assembly. The small motor manipulates a cam-plunger which moves an actuator pin into a thumb piece. The user applies a force on to the thumb piece. This force is transmitted by the thumb piece to a latch engagement mechanism by the actuator pin. The latch engagement mechanism operates the door latch.

  14. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  15. Adjustable high-repetition-rate pulse trains in a passively-mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si Fodil, Rachid; Amrani, Foued; Yang, Changxi; Kellou, Abdelhamid; Grelu, Ph.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally investigate multipulse regimes obtained within a passively-mode-locked fiber laser that includes a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer. By adjusting the time delay imbalance of the MZ, ultrashort pulse trains at multi-GHz repetition rates are generated. We compare the observed dynamics with high-harmonic mode locking, and show that the multi-GHz pulse trains display an inherent instability, which has been overlooked. By using a recirculation loop containing the MZ, we demonstrate a significant improvement of the pulse train stability.

  16. Two-gigahertz repetition-rate, diode-pumped, mode-locked Nd:YLF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Weingarten, K.J.; Shannon, D.C.; Wallace, R. ); Keller, U. )

    1990-09-01

    A diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser has been acousto-optically mode locked at a 2-GHz repetition rate, giving pulse widths of 7 psec with an average power of 135 mW at a wavelength of 1.047 {mu}m. The 2-GHz pulse rate corresponds to a free-space cavity length of 7.5 cm, while the laser's actual cavity length is approximately 6.6 cm. The mode locker consists of a sapphire substrate with a lithium niobate transducer, giving 0.5% loss modulation per watt. Stable mode-locked pulses were achieved for loss modulations of 1% or greater.

  17. Double resonance modulation characteristics of optically injection-locked Fabry–Perot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogush, E S; Afonenko, A A

    2015-12-31

    The distributed resonator model is used to show the presence of several resonance responses on the modulation characteristic of optically injection-locked Fabry–Perot lasers. The positions of the resonance peaks on the modulation characteristic are determined by the resonator length and frequency detuning of optical injection. It is shown that an appropriate choice of the resonator length and injection locking conditions allows one to obtain efficient modulation in two ranges near 40 – 60 GHz or to increase the direct modulation bandwidth up to 50 GHz. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  18. An SIS Waveguide heterodyne Reciever for 600 GHz - 635 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salez, Morvan; Febvre, Pascal; McGrath, William R.; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    A waveguide SIS heterodyne receiver using a Nb/A10xNb junction has been built for astronomical observations of molecular tranitions in the frequency range 600GHz - 635GHZ, and has been successfully used at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  19. 180-GHz Interferometric Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Lim, Boon H.; O'Dwyer, Ian J.; Soria, Mary M.; Owen, Heather R.; Gaier, Todd C.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn, H.; Tanner, Alan B.; Ruf, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A 180-GHz interferometric imager uses compact receiver modules, combined high- and low-gain antennas, and ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) correlator technology, enabling continuous, all-weather observations of water vapor with 25-km resolution and 0.3-K noise in 15 minutes of observation for numerical weather forecasting and tropical storm prediction. The GeoSTAR-II prototype instrument is broken down into four major subsystems: the compact, low-noise receivers; sub-array modules; IF signal distribution; and the digitizer/correlator. Instead of the single row of antennas adopted in GeoSTAR, this version has four rows of antennas on a coarser grid. This dramatically improves the sensitivity in the desired field of view. The GeoSTAR-II instrument is a 48-element, synthetic, thinned aperture radiometer operating at 165-183 GHz. The instrument has compact receivers integrated into tiles of 16 elements in a 4x4 arrangement. These tiles become the building block of larger arrays. The tiles contain signal distribution for bias controls, IF signal, and local oscillator signals. The IF signals are digitized and correlated using an ASIC correlator to minimize power consumption. Previous synthetic aperture imagers have used comparatively large multichip modules, whereas this approach uses chip-scale modules mounted on circuit boards, which are in turn mounted on the distribution manifolds. This minimizes the number of connectors and reduces system mass. The use of ASIC technology in the digitizers and correlators leads to a power reduction close to an order of magnitude.

  20. The 2.2 GHz Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) oscillator development Ku-band frequency source development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Two 2.2 GHz SAW oscillators using aluminum nitride on sapphire (AlN/Al2O3) delay lines were fabricated. The oscillators were electronically temperature compensated and characterized. One of the oscillators was used as the frequency reference for the Ku band source; the second oscillator is available for continued evaluation. A 15 GHz frequency source was designed and fabricated. The 15 GHz source consists of a Ku band FET oscillator which is phase locked to the frequency multiplied (X7) output of the 2.2 GHz SAW reference source. The Ku band source was built using microstrip circuit designs, which are hybrid compatible. Two wafer runs of 2.2 GHz TED devices were fabricated and evaluated. The devices were mounted on microstrip test substrates and evaluated as 15 GHz divide by 7 circuits. The device evaluation indicated that in their present form the TED is not a practical circuit element.

  1. Locke and botany.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R; Harris, Stephen A

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that the English philosopher John Locke, who has normally been thought to have had only an amateurish interest in botany, was far more involved in the botanical science of his day than has previously been known. Through the presentation of new evidence deriving from Locke's own herbarium, his manuscript notes, journal and correspondence, it is established that Locke made a modest contribution to early modern botany. It is shown that Locke had close and ongoing relations with the Bobarts, keepers of the Oxford Botanic Garden, and that Locke distributed seeds and plant parts to other botanists, seeds of which the progeny almost certainly ended up in the most important herbaria of the period. Furthermore, it is claimed that the depth of Locke's interest in and practice of botany has a direct bearing on our understanding of his views on the correct method of natural philosophy and on the interpretation of his well known discussion of the nature of species in Book III of his Essay concerning human understanding.

  2. Experimental quantum data locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  3. Self-mode-locked single-section Fabry-Perot semiconductor lasers at 1.56 microm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiguo; Sauer, Nicholas J; Bernasconi, Pietro G; Zhang, Liming

    2007-01-01

    The mode-locking mechanism of a single-section multi-spatial-mode Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser is analyzed by the additive pulse mode-locking (APM) master equation model. Critical parameters of the equivalent saturable absorber as well as the self-phase modulation are estimated. The mode-locking operation regime in terms of pulse chirp and output power is predicted by the APM model and the prediction is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results of a 40 GHz, 6.7 ps pulse width mode-locked operation at 1.56 microm.

  4. Precision and Fast Wavelength Tuning of a Dynamically Phase-Locked Widely-Tunable Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Chen, Jeffrey R.; Wu, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    We report a precision and fast wavelength tuning technique demonstrated for a digital-supermode distributed Bragg reflector laser. The laser was dynamically offset-locked to a frequency-stabilized master laser using an optical phase-locked loop, enabling precision fast tuning to and from any frequencies within a 40-GHz tuning range. The offset frequency noise was suppressed to the statically offset-locked level in less than 40 s upon each frequency switch, allowing the laser to retain the absolute frequency stability of the master laser. This technique satisfies stringent requirements for gas sensing lidars and enables other applications that require such well-controlled precision fast tuning.

  5. Pressure locking test results

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  6. Simple optical frequency comb generation using a passively mode-locked quantum dot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Xiupu; Xu, Tiefeng; Dai, Zhenxiang; Liu, Taijun

    2017-08-01

    A simple and quasi-tunable optical frequency comb (OFC) generator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated using a C-band passively Fabry-Pérot quantum dot mode-locked laser and a dual-driven LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator. A 16-nm bandwidth OFC with 81, 58 and 30 comb lines at frequency interval of 23.3 GHz, 35 GHz and 70 GHz respectively is obtained experimentally. Measured average optical signal to noise ratio of 10-dB bandwidth OFCs is 36.3 dB, 38.5 dB and 40.8 dB at frequency interval of 23.3 GHz, 35 GHz and 70 GHz, respectively. Besides, single-sideband phase noise of the 23.3 GHz and 35 GHz frequency comb is -110 dBc/Hz and -102 dBc/Hz at an offset of 1 kHz, respectively. RF linewidth of the 23.3 GHz and 35 GHz OFC is about from 275 Hz to 289 Hz. This is considered a very simple OFC generator with a broadband and seamless spectrum.

  7. Lock and key colloids.

    PubMed

    Sacanna, S; Irvine, W T M; Chaikin, P M; Pine, D J

    2010-03-25

    New functional materials can in principle be created using colloids that self-assemble into a desired structure by means of a programmable recognition and binding scheme. This idea has been explored by attaching 'programmed' DNA strands to nanometre- and micrometre- sized particles and then using DNA hybridization to direct the placement of the particles in the final assembly. Here we demonstrate an alternative recognition mechanism for directing the assembly of composite structures, based on particles with complementary shapes. Our system, which uses Fischer's lock-and-key principle, employs colloidal spheres as keys and monodisperse colloidal particles with a spherical cavity as locks that bind spontaneously and reversibly via the depletion interaction. The lock-and-key binding is specific because it is controlled by how closely the size of a spherical colloidal key particle matches the radius of the spherical cavity of the lock particle. The strength of the binding can be further tuned by adjusting the solution composition or temperature. The composite assemblies have the unique feature of having flexible bonds, allowing us to produce flexible dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric colloidal molecules as well as more complex colloidal polymers. We expect that this lock-and-key recognition mechanism will find wider use as a means of programming and directing colloidal self-assembly.

  8. Narrow-linewidth short-pulse III-V-on-silicon mode-locked lasers based on a linear and ring cavity geometry.

    PubMed

    Keyvaninia, S; Uvin, S; Tassaert, M; Fu, X; Latkowski, S; Mariën, J; Thomassen, L; Lelarge, F; Duan, G; Verheyen, P; Lepage, G; Van Campenhout, J; Bente, E; Roelkens, G

    2015-02-09

    Picosecond-pulse III-V-on-silicon mode-locked lasers based on linear and ring extended cavity geometries are presented. In passive mode-locked operation a 12 kHz -3dB linewidth of the fundamental RF tone at 4.7 GHz is obtained for the linear cavity geometry and 16 kHz for the ring cavity geometry. Stabilization of the repetition rate of these devices using hybrid mode-locking is also demonstrated.

  9. 49 CFR 236.337 - Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. 236.337... Rules and Instructions § 236.337 Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. Locking faces shall fit... face. ...

  10. 49 CFR 236.337 - Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. 236.337... Rules and Instructions § 236.337 Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. Locking faces shall fit... face. ...

  11. 49 CFR 236.337 - Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. 236.337... Rules and Instructions § 236.337 Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. Locking faces shall fit... face. ...

  12. 49 CFR 236.337 - Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. 236.337... Rules and Instructions § 236.337 Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. Locking faces shall fit... face. ...

  13. 49 CFR 236.337 - Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. 236.337... Rules and Instructions § 236.337 Locking faces of mechanical locking; fit. Locking faces shall fit... face. ...

  14. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  15. Lock 6 (Ogeechee River Lock), Plan, Elevation of North Wall, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 6 (Ogeechee River Lock), Plan, Elevation of North Wall, Cap Stone for Gate Hinge, Brick Patterns - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. Lock 1 View northwest of lock entrance. Notch for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 1 - View northwest of lock entrance. Notch for flash boards can be seen near center, gate pocket at left. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  17. Lock 1 (Savannah River Lock), Elevation of North Wall, Detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 1 (Savannah River Lock), Elevation of North Wall, Detail of Wall Foundation, Detail of Gate Pocket - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. 46. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LIFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LIFT GATE MACHINERY - GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AT EL. 395.0. M-L 26(R) 30/3 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  19. 45. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK LIFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. LOCK AND DAM NO. 26 (REPLACEMENT). LOCK -- LIFT GATE MACHINERY GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AT EL. 414.5. M-L 26(R) 30/2 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  20. 30 GHz Commercial Satellite Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's research and development work in satellite communications for the past 10 years has included a major technology thrust aimed at opening the Ka frequency band to commercial exploitation. This has included the development and testing of advanced system network architectures, on-board switching and processing, multibeam and phased array antennas, and satellite and ground terminal RF and digital hardware. Development work in system hardware has focused on critical components including power amplifiers, satellite IF switch matrices, low noise receivers, baseband processors, and high data rate bandwidth efficient modems. This paper describes NASA's work in developing and testing 30 GHz low noise satellite receivers for commercial space communications uplink applications. Frequencies allotted for fixed service commercial satellite communications in the Ka band are 27.5 - 30.0 GHz for uplink transmission and 17.7 - 20.2 GHz for downlink transmission. The relatively large 2.5 GHz bandwidth lends itself to wideband, high data rate digital transmission applications.

  1. 49 CFR 236.745 - Face, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.745 Face, locking. The locking surface of a locking dog, tappet or cross locking of an interlocking machine. ...

  2. 49 CFR 236.745 - Face, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.745 Face, locking. The locking surface of a locking dog, tappet or cross locking of an interlocking machine. ...

  3. 49 CFR 236.745 - Face, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.745 Face, locking. The locking surface of a locking dog, tappet or cross locking of an interlocking machine. ...

  4. 49 CFR 236.745 - Face, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.745 Face, locking. The locking surface of a locking dog, tappet or cross locking of an interlocking machine. ...

  5. 49 CFR 236.745 - Face, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.745 Face, locking. The locking surface of a locking dog, tappet or cross locking of an interlocking machine. ...

  6. A 311-GHz Fundamental Oscillator Using InP HBT Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Fung, King Man; Samoska, Lorene; Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, W.R.

    2010-01-01

    This oscillator uses a single-emitter 0.3- m InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) device with maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) greater than 500 GHz. Due to high conductor and substrate losses at submillimeterwave frequencies, a primary challenge is to efficiently use the intrinsic device gain. This was done by using a suitable transmission-line media and circuit topology. The passive components of the oscillator are realized in a twometal process with benzocyclobutene (BCB) used as the primary transmission line dielectric. The circuit was designed using microstrip transmission lines. The oscillator is implemented in a common-base topology due to its inherent instability, and the design includes an on-chip resonator, outputmatching circuitry, and an injection-locking port, the port being used to demonstrate the injection-locking prin ciple. A free-running frequency of 311.6 GHz has been measured by down-converting the signal. Ad di tionally, injection locking has been successfully demonstrated with up to 17.8 dB of injection-locking gain. The injection-locking reference signal is generated using a 2 20 GHz frequency synthesizer, followed by a doubler, active tripler, a W-band amplifier, and then a passive tripler. Therefore, the source frequency is multiplied 18 times to obtain a signal above 300 GHz that can be used to injection lock the oscillator. Measurement shows that injection locking has improved the phase noise of the oscillator and can be also used for synchronizing a series of oscillators. A signal conductor is implemented near the BCP -InP interface and the topside of the BCB layer is fully metallized as a signal ground. Because the fields are primarily constrained in the lower permittivity BCB region, this type of transmission line is referred to as an inverted microstrip. In addition, both common-emitter and commonbase circuits were investigated to determine optimum topology for oscillator design. The common -base topology required smaller

  7. Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector.

    PubMed

    Steed, Robert J; Pozzi, Francesca; Fice, Martyn J; Renaud, Cyril C; Rogers, David C; Lealman, Ian F; Moodie, David G; Cannard, Paul J; Lynch, Colm; Johnston, Lilianne; Robertson, Michael J; Cronin, Richard; Pavlovic, Leon; Naglic, Luka; Vidmar, Matjaz; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2011-10-10

    We present results for an heterodyne optical phase-lock loop (OPLL), monolithically integrated on InP with external phase detector and loop filter, which phase locks the integrated laser to an external source, for offset frequencies tuneable between 0.6 GHz and 6.1 GHz. The integrated semiconductor laser emits at 1553 nm with 1.1 MHz linewidth, while the external laser has a linewidth less than 150 kHz. To achieve high quality phase locking with lasers of these linewidths, the loop delay has been made less than 1.8 ns. Monolithic integration reduces the optical path delay between the laser and photodiode to less than 20 ps. The electronic part of the OPLL was implemented using a custom-designed feedback circuit with a propagation delay of ~1 ns and an open-loop bandwidth greater than 1 GHz. The heterodyne signal between the locked slave laser and master laser has phase noise below -90 dBc/Hz for frequency offsets greater than 20 kHz and a phase error variance in 10 GHz bandwidth of 0.04 rad2.

  8. Phase-noise characteristics of a 25-GHz-spaced optical frequency comb based on a phase- and intensity-modulated laser.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Mizutori, Akira; Takara, Hidehiko; Takada, Atsushi; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Koga, Masafumi

    2013-12-02

    We investigated phase-noise characteristics of both a phase/intensity-modulated laser with 25-GHz mode spacing and a mode-locked fiber laser with carrier-envelope-offset (CEO) locking. As the separation from the frequency of the continuous wave (CW) laser diode (LD) for a seed light source increases, the integrated phase noise of each comb mode of both the phase/intensity-modulated laser and supercontinuum light originating from it increases with the same slope as a function of mode number. The dependence of the integrated phase noise on mode number with the phase/intensity-modulated laser is much larger than with the mode-locked fiber laser of the CEO locking. However, the phase noise of the phase/intensity-modulated laser is extremely lower than that of the mode-locked fiber laser with CEO locking in the frequency region around the CW LD. The phase noise of the phase/intensity-modulated laser with 25-GHz mode spacing and that of the mode-locked fiber laser with the CEO locking could be estimated and were found to be almost the same at the wavelengths required in an f-to-2f self-referencing interferometer. Our experimental results indicate the possibility of achieving an offset-frequency-locked frequency comb with the phase/intensity-modulated laser.

  9. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, Milton L.; Harper, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  10. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  11. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  12. Lock for Gantry Trolley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newberg, H. F.

    1982-01-01

    Single operator on ground controls trolley-locking mechanism on portable gantry. Mechanism prevents trolley and load from moving along track when gantry is wheeled from one location to another. A downward pull on chain withdraws brakeshoes from trolley wheels. When operator releases chain, brakeshoes reengage to wheels.

  13. Compression of 200 GHz DWDM channelized TDM pulsed carrier from optically modelocking WRC-FPLD fiber ring at 10 GHz.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chan; Peng, Guo-Hsuan; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2009-03-30

    The compression of 200GHz DWDM channelized optically mode-locking WRC-FPLD fiber ring pulse of at 10 GHz is performed for high-capacity TDM application. To prevent temporal and spectral cross-talk, the duty-cycle of the DWDM channelized WRC-FPLD FL pulse needs to be shortened without broadening its linewidth. With dual-cavity configuration induced DWDM channelization, a shortest single-channel WRC-FPLD FL pulsewidth of 19 ps is generated, which can be linearly compensated to 10 ps and fifth-order soliton compressed to 1.4 ps. Under a maximum pulsewidth compression ratio up to 14 and a +/-100 m tolerance on compressing fiber length, the single-channel pulsewidth remains <2 ps (duty-cycle <2%) with spectral linewidth only broadening from 0.29 nm to 0.8 nm. In comparison, a typical SOAFL without intra-cavity TBF in fiber ring broadens its spectral linewidth from 2.4 to 3.8 nm after compressing its mode-locked pulsewidth from 21 to 2.1 ps. The duty-cycle of the DWDM channelized WRC-FPLD FL pulsed carrier is approaching 1% to satisfy at least 256 optical TDM channels.

  14. Phase Locking of a 2.7 THz Quantum Cascade Laser to a Microwave Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosropanah, P.; Baryshev, A.; Zhang, W.; Jellema, W.; Hovenier, J. N.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Paveliev, D. G.; Williams, B. S.; Hu, Q.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the phase locking of a 2.7 THz metal-metal waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) to an external microwave signal. The reference is the 15th harmonic, generated by a semiconductor superlattice nonlinear device, of a signal at 182 GHz, which itself is generated by a multiplier chain (x 12) from a microwave synthesizer at approx. 15 GHz. Both laser and reference radiations are coupled into a bolometer mixer, resulting in a beat signal, which is fed into a phase-lock loop. The spectral analysis of the beat signal confirms that the QCL is phase locked. This result opens the possibility to extend heterodyne interferometers into the far-infrared range.

  15. Phase Locking of a 2.7 THz Quantum Cascade Laser to a Microwave Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosropanah, P.; Baryshev, A.; Zhang, W.; Jellema, W.; Hovenier, J. N.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Paveliev, D. G.; Williams, B. S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.; Klein, B.; Hesler, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the phase locking of a 2.7 THz metal-metal waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) to an external microwave signal. The reference is the 15th harmonic, generated by a semiconductor superlattice nonlinear device, of a signal at 182 GHz, which itself is generated by a multiplier chain (x 12) from a microwave synthesizer at approx. 15 GHz. Both laser and reference radiations are coupled into a bolometer mixer, resulting in a beat signal, which is fed into a phase-lock loop. The spectral analysis of the beat signal confirms that the QCL is phase locked. This result opens the possibility to extend heterodyne interferometers into the far-infrared range.

  16. Long-term stable microwave signal extraction from mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Ludwig, F; Felber, M; Kärtner, F X

    2007-07-09

    Long-term synchronization between two 10.225 GHz microwave signals at +10 dBm power level, locked to a 44.26 MHz repetition rate passively mode-locked fiber laser, is demonstrated using balanced optical-microwave phase detectors. The out-of-loop measurement result shows 12.8 fs relative timing jitter integrated from 10 Hz to 10 MHz. Long-term timing drift measurement shows 48 fs maximum deviation over one hour, mainly limited by drift of the out-of-loop characterization setup itself. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate long-term (>1 hour) 3 mrad-level phase stability of a 10.225 GHz microwave signal extracted from a mode-locked laser.

  17. Frequency comb generation by CW laser injection into a quantum-dot mode-locked laser.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, T J; Salumbides, E J; Tahvili, M S; Ubachs, W; Bente, E A J M; Eikema, K S E

    2012-09-10

    We report on frequency comb generation at 1.5 μm by injection of a CW laser in a hybridly mode-locked InAs/InP two-section quantum-dot laser (HMLQDL). The generated comb has > 60 modes spaced by ∼ 4.5 GHz and a -20 dBc width of > 100 GHz (23 modes) at > 30 dB signal to background ratio. Comb generation was observed with the CW laser (red) detuned more than 20 nm outside the HMLQDL spectrum, spanning a large part of the gain spectrum of the quantum dot material. It is shown that the generated comb is fully coherent with the injected CW laser and RF frequency used to drive the hybrid mode-locking. This method of comb generation is of interest for the creation of small and robust frequency combs for use in optical frequency metrology, high-frequency (> 100 GHz) RF generation and telecommunication applications.

  18. Mode-locked laser realized by selective area growth for short pulse generation and optical clock recovery in TDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Eugen; Baums, Dieter; Bouayad-Amine, Jamal; Hache, Claudia; Haisch, Hansjorg; Kuhn, Edgar; Satzke, Klaus; Schilling, Michael; Weber, Juergen; Zielinski, Erich

    1996-04-01

    We report on monolithically integrated active/passive coupled cavity mode locked lasers for 1.55 micrometer realized by selective area growth technology of InGaAs(P) quantum wells. Mode locked FP or DBR lasers are fabricated with an integrated cavity comprising up to three different band gaps. The devices emit short light pulses at around 10 GHz repetition rate with pulse width down to 8.7 ps. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 is achieved for mode locked DBR lasers. Active/passive integrated mode locked laser is used for generation of optical 10 GHz clock signal from optical 10 Gb/s PRBS RZ data stream injected into the laser cavity.

  19. CARM and harmonic gyro-amplifier experiments at 17 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Menninger, W.L.; Danly, B.G.; Alberti, S.; Chen, C.; Rullier, J.L.; Temkin, R.J.; Giguet, E. |

    1993-11-01

    Cyclotron resonance maser amplifiers are possible sources for applications such as electron cyclotron resonance heating of fusion plasmas and driving high-gradient rf linear accelerators. For accelerator drivers, amplifiers or phase locked-oscillators are required. A 17 GHz cyclotron autoresonance maser (CARM) amplifier experiment and a 17 GHz third harmonic gyro-amplifier experiment are presently underway at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Using the SRL/MIT SNOMAD II introduction accelerator to provide a 380 kV, 180 A, 30 ns flat top electron beam, the gyro-amplifier experiment has produced 5 MW of rf power with over 50 dB of gain at 17 GHz. The gyro-amplifier operates in the TE{sub 31} mode using a third harmonic interaction. Because of its high power output, the gyro-amplifier will be used as the rf source for a photocathode rf electron gun experiment also taking place at MIT. Preliminary gyro-amplifier results are presented, including measurement of rf power, gain versus interaction length, and the far-field pattern. A CARM experiment designed to operate in the TE{sub 11} mode is also discussed.

  20. Scheme for independently stabilizing the repetition rate and optical frequency of a laser using a regenerative mode-locking technique.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Yoshida, Masato

    2008-05-15

    We have succeeded in achieving independent control of the repetition rate and optical frequency of a pulse laser by employing a regenerative mode-locking technique. By adopting a voltage-controlled microwave phase shifter or an optical delay line in a regenerative feedback loop we can control the repetition rate of the laser without directly disturbing the optical frequencies. We experimentally show how this independent control can be realized by employing a 40 GHz harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser.

  1. Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers, synchronization and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaechele, Walter Irving, IV

    1997-09-01

    As the applications multiply for compact sources of ultrashort pulses, it is necessary to develop a full understanding of the advantages and limitations of the different mode-locking techniques. With the current emphasis on increasing the capacity of the communications infrastructure, picosecond and sub-picosecond pulsed fiber lasers have attracted increasing interest especially in light of the efficiency of erbium fiber amplifiers. With this in mind, a comparative, experimental study of the mode-locking processes of three erbium-doped fiber lasers was conducted. An actively mode-locked fiber ring laser and a passively mode-locked Fabry-Perot fiber laser employing a multiple quantum well saturable absorber were constructed as a precursor to developing a hybrid laser source which would combine the most desirable features of the individual lasers. The actively mode-locked laser produced picosecond pulses at repetition rates ranging from 1.5 MHz to 5.0 GHz and was tunable over the whole erbium gain bandwidth. The passively mode-locked laser utilized the nonlinear transmission of the multiple quantum well saturable absorber to start and sustain mode-locked operation. Additionally, the two lasers were integrated to form a hybrid mode-locked laser. By injecting a portion of the ring laser's output directly into the Fabry-Perot cavity, the output of the two lasers would synchronize at the fundamental cavity frequency.

  2. Laser-diode pumped self-mode-locked praseodymium visible lasers with multi-gigahertz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxia; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Di Lieto, Alberto; Tonelli, Mauro; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate efficient laser-diode pumped multi-gigahertz (GHz) self-mode-locked praseodymium (Pr3+) visible lasers with broadband spectra from green to deep red for the first time to our knowledge. With a Pr3+-doped GdLiF4 crystal, stable self-mode-locked visible pulsed lasers at the wavelengths of 522 nm, 607 nm, 639 nm, and 720 nm have been obtained with the repetition rates of 2.8 GHz, 3.1 GHz, 3.1 GHz, and 3.0 GHz, respectively. The maximum output power was 612 mW with the slope efficiency of 46.9% at 639 nm. The mode-locking mechanism was theoretically analyzed. The stable second-harmonic mode-locking with doubled repetition frequency was also realized based on the Fabry-Perot effect formed in the laser cavity. In addition, we find that the polarization directions were turned with lasing wavelengths. This work may provide a new way for generating efficient ultrafast pulses with high- and changeable-repetition rates in the visible range.

  3. REVIEW ARTICLE: Harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-based lasers as high repetition rate ultralow noise pulse train and optical frequency comb sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, F.; Ozharar, S.; Gee, S.; Delfyett, P. J.

    2009-10-01

    Recent experimental work on semiconductor-based harmonically mode-locked lasers geared toward low noise applications is reviewed. Active, harmonic mode-locking of semiconductor-based lasers has proven to be an excellent way to generate 10 GHz repetition rate pulse trains with pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of only a few femtoseconds without requiring active feedback stabilization. This level of timing jitter is achieved in long fiberized ring cavities and relies upon such factors as low noise rf sources as mode-lockers, high optical power, intracavity dispersion management and intracavity phase modulation. When a high finesse etalon is placed within the optical cavity, semiconductor-based harmonically mode-locked lasers can be used as optical frequency comb sources with 10 GHz mode spacing. When active mode-locking is replaced with regenerative mode-locking, a completely self-contained comb source is created, referenced to the intracavity etalon.

  4. Clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical signal with optical phase-locked loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhon, Young Min; Ki, Ho Jin; Kim, Sun Ho

    2003-05-01

    10 GHz clock recovery from 40 Gbps optical time-division-multiplexed (OTDM) signal pulses is experimentally demonstrated using optical phase lock loop based on a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) with a local-reference-oscillator-free electronic feedback circuit. The clock pulse that was used as the control pulse had energy of 800 fJ and the SNR of the time-extracted 10 GHz RF signal to the side components was larger than 40 dB.

  5. Releasable locking mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  6. Releasable Locking Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Rafiq (Inventor); Wingate, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    In the aerospace field spacecraft components are held together by separation systems until a specific time when they must be separated or deployed. Customarily a threaded joining bolt engages one of the components to be joined, and a threaded nut is placed on that bolt against the other component so they can be drawn together by a releasable locking assembly. The releasable locking assembly herein includes a plunger having one end coupled to one end of a plunger bolt. The other end is flanged to abut and compress a coil spring when the plunger is advanced toward the interface plane between the two components. When the plunger is so advanced toward the interface plane, the end of the plunger bolt can be connected to the joining bolt. Thus during retraction the joining bolt is drawn to one side of the interface plane by the force of the expanding spring.

  7. Code lock with microcircuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobka, A.; May, I.

    1985-01-01

    A code lock with a microcircuit was invented which contains only a very few components. Two DD-triggers control the state of two identical transistors. When both transistors are turned on simultaneously the transistor VS1 is turned on so that the electromagnet YA1 pulls in the bolt and the door opens. This will happen only when a logic 1 appears at the inverted output of the first trigger and at the straight output of the second one. After the door is opened, a button on it resets the contactors to return both triggers to their original state. The electromagnetic is designed to produce the necessary pull force and sufficient power when under rectified 127 V line voltage, with the neutral wire of the lock circuit always connected to the - terminal of the power supply.

  8. An automated 60 GHz open resonator system for precision dielectric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsar, Mohammed N.; Li, Xiaohui; Chi, Hua

    1990-12-01

    An automated open resonator system was designed and constructed for precision measurement of the loss tangent and dielectric permittivity of low absorbing materials at 60 GHz. The use of a high-Q hemispherical Fabry-Perot cavity together with highly stabilized synthesized phase-locked Gunn oscillator sources and a superheterodyne receiver made it possible to measure loss tangent values as low as 10 microrad. Both cavity length variation and frequency variation techniques were utilized to provide precise data.

  9. Q-Band (37-41 GHz) Satellite Beacon Architecture for RF Propagation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a beacon transmitter that will be flown as a hosted payload on a geostationary satellite to enable propagation experiments at Q-band (37-41 GHz) frequencies is presented. The beacon uses a phased locked loop stabilized dielectric resonator oscillator and a solid-state power amplifier to achieve the desired output power. The satellite beacon antenna is configured as an offset-fed cut-paraboloidal reflector.

  10. Q-Band (37 to 41 GHz) Satellite Beacon Architecture for RF Propagation Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a beacon transmitter that will be flown as a hosted payload on a geostationary satellite to enable propagation experiments at Q-band (37 to 41 GHz) frequencies is presented. The beacon uses a phased locked loop stabilized dielectric resonator oscillator and a solid-state power amplifier to achieve the desired output power. The satellite beacon antenna is configured as an offset-fed cutparaboloidal reflector.

  11. Data port security lock

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Joseph D.; Hall, Clarence S.

    2008-06-24

    In a security apparatus for securing an electrical connector, a plug may be fitted for insertion into a connector receptacle compliant with a connector standard. The plug has at least one aperture adapted to engage at least one latch in the connector receptacle. An engagement member is adapted to partially extend through at least one aperture and lock to at least one structure within the connector receptacle.

  12. Locked-in syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sepcić, J; Sepić-Grahovac, D; Strenja-Grubesić, J; Antonelli, L; Andrasević, D

    1992-01-01

    A patient, young fisherman, with a locked-in syndrome is reported, in whom intact consciousness, quadriplegia of spastic type, voluntary eye blinking, (de)sursumvergence and anarthria were observed. Thrombosis of the basilar artery and slightly disturbed bioelectrogenesis of the cerebral cortex were proved by clinical examination. The patient died after 41 days. At the autopsy thrombosis a. basilaris and ventrobasal pontine infarction were confirmed. Differential diagnosis of this and similar syndromes has been discussed.

  13. A 20-GHz IMPATT transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, J. L.; Sun, C.

    1983-01-01

    The engineering development of a solid state transmitter amplifier operating in the 20 GHz frequency band. The development effort involved a variety of disciplines including IMPATT device development, circulator design, simple and multiple diode circuits designs, and amplifier integration and test.

  14. Offset phase locking of noisy diode lasers aided by frequency division.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, E N; Esnault, F-X; Donley, E A

    2011-08-01

    For heterodyne phase locking, frequency division of the beat note between two oscillators can improve the reliability of the phase lock and the quality of the phase synchronization. Frequency division can also reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the instrument by excluding the microwave synthesizer from the control loop when the heterodyne offset frequency is large (5 to 10 GHz). We have experimentally tested the use of a frequency divider in an optical phase-lock loop and compared the achieved level of residual phase fluctuations between two diode lasers with that achieved without the use of a frequency divider. The two methods achieve comparable phase stability provided that sufficient loop gain is maintained after frequency division to preserve the required bandwidth. We have also numerically analyzed the noise properties and internal dynamics of phase-locked loops subjected to a high level of phase fluctuations, and our modeling confirms the expected benefits of having an in-loop frequency divider.

  15. High frequency optoelectronic oscillators based on the optical feedback of semiconductor mode-locked laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Haji, Mohsin; Hou, Lianping; Kelly, Anthony E; Akbar, Jehan; Marsh, John H; Arnold, John M; Ironside, Charles N

    2012-01-30

    Optical self seeding feedback techniques can be used to improve the noise characteristics of passively mode-locked laser diodes. External cavities such as fiber optic cables can increase the memory of the phase and subsequently improve the timing jitter. In this work, an improved optical feedback architecture is proposed using an optical fiber loop delay as a cavity extension of the mode-locked laser. We investigate the effect of the noise reduction as a function of the loop length and feedback power. The well known composite cavity technique is also implemented for suppressing supermode noise artifacts presented due to harmonic mode locking effects. Using this method, we achieve a record low radio frequency linewidth of 192 Hz for any high frequency (>1 GHz) passively mode-locked laser to date (to the best of the authors' knowledge), making it promising for the development of high frequency optoelectronic oscillators.

  16. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect. ...

  17. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect. ...

  18. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect. ...

  19. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect. ...

  20. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect. ...

  1. 4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON RIGHT. 20TH CENTURY ELECTRIC LIFT LOCKS ON LEFT. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  2. Exploring ultrafast negative Kerr effect for mode-locking vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Alexander R; Wang, Yi; Ghasemkhani, Mohammadreza; Seletskiy, Denis V; Cederberg, Jeffrey G; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2013-11-18

    We present analytical considerations of "self-mode-locked" operation in a typical vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) cavity geometry by means of Kerr lens action in the semiconductor gain chip. We predict Kerr-lens mode-locked operation for both soft- and hard-apertures placed at the optimal intra-cavity positions. These predictions are experimentally verified in a Kerr-lens mode-locked VECSEL capable of producing pulse durations of below 500 fs at 1 GHz repetition rate.

  3. Compact and high repetition rate Kerr-lens mode-locked 532 nm Nd:YVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuohan; Peng, Jiying; Yuan, Ruixia; Wang, Tongtong; Yao, Jianquan; Zheng, Yi

    2015-11-01

    A compact and feasible CW Kerr-lens-induced mode-locked 532 nm Nd:YVO4 laser system was experimentally demonstrated for the first time with theoretical analysis. Kerr-lens mode locking with intracavity second harmonic generation provides a promising method to generate a high-repetition-rate picosecond green laser. With an incident pump power of 6 W, the average output power of mode locking was 258 mW at a high repetition rate of 1.1 GHz.

  4. 120 Gbit/s injection-locked homodyne coherent transmission of polarization-multiplexed 64 QAM signals over 150 km.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixin; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2014-12-15

    We describe an injection-locked 64 QAM homodyne coherent transmission, which is the highest QAM multiplicity realized with an injection locking technique. The frequency locking range of the local oscillator (LO) was as wide as 1 GHz. The phase noise was only 0.2 deg, which is 1/3 of that obtained with our previous OVCO-based OPLL (0.6 deg.). As a result, a 120 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed 64 QAM signal was successfully transmitted over 150 km with a simple receiver configuration and low DSP complexity.

  5. Safe-haven locking device

    DOEpatents

    Williams, J.V.

    1984-04-26

    Disclosed is a locking device for eliminating external control of a secured space formed by fixed and movable barriers. The locking device uses externally and internally controlled locksets and a movable strike, operable from the secured side of the movable barrier, to selectively engage either lockset. A disengagement device, for preventing forces from being applied to the lock bolts is also disclosed. In this manner, a secured space can be controlled from the secured side as a safe-haven. 4 figures.

  6. Backlash-Free Locking Hinge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessekski, Clarence J.

    1987-01-01

    Tight joints achieved without precisely machined parts. Hinge for foldable structures locked with minimum force by human operator. Once locked, hinge makes strong, tight joint. Loose fit, or joint slop, common to commercial locking hinges eliminated. Despite tight fit, new hinge concept does not impose close tolerances on manufacture of its parts. Developed for erecting unfoldable structures in space, hinge used on collapsible scaffolds and similar terrestrial structures.

  7. Realizing 60 GHz narrow-linewidth photonic microwaves with very low RF driving power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Weiwei; Lin, Peng; Ke, Shanming; Zeng, Xierong

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, we realize tunable (up to 60 GHz) microwave signal generation with low phase noise (-82.7 dBc Hz-1 with an offset of 10 kHz at 60 GHz) and low RF driving power (⩽2.0 dBm). A monolithically integrated semiconductor dual wavelength laser diode is used, where an enhanced  -3 dB bandwidth of up to 30 GHz is realized with a PP resonance effect. By using an RF signal (ƒmod  =  ƒ/2) to directly modulate the distributed feedback laser section, the dual wavelengths of the laser diode can be locked by the generated sidebands (±2nd order), the beating of which generates a stable microwave signal with high purity.

  8. Dynamic Holographic Lock-In Imaging of Ultrasonic Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Datta, S.K.

    1999-05-01

    A laser imaging approach is presented that utilizes the adaptive property of photorefractive materials to produce a real-time measurement of ultrasonic traveling wave surface displacement and phase in all planar directions simultaneously without scanning. The imaging method performs optical lock-in operation. A single antisymmetric Lamb wave mode image produces direct quantitative determination of the phase velocity in all planar directions showing plate stiffness anisotropy. Excellent agreement was obtained with modeling calculations of the phase velocity in all planar directions for an anisotropic sheet material. The approach functions with diffusely scattering surfaces, subnanometer motions and at frequencies from Hz to GHz.

  9. Design Techniques for Radiation Hardened Phase-Locked Loops

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-23

    Nemmani, M. Vandepas , K. Okk, K. Mayaram, and U. Moon, “Radiation hard PLL design tolerant to noise and process variations,” in CDADIC report, July...2004. [8] M. Vandepas , K. Ok, A. N. Nemmani, M. Brownlee, K. Mayaram, and U.-K. Moon, “Characterization of 1.2GHz phase locked loops and voltage...controlled oscillators in a total dose radiation environment,” in Proceedings of 2005 MAPLD International Conference, Sept. 2005. [9] M. Vandepas , “Design of

  10. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of switch-and-lock...

  11. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of switch-and-lock...

  12. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of switch-and-lock...

  13. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of switch-and-lock...

  14. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of switch-and-lock...

  15. 49 CFR 236.306 - Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. 236... Interlocking Standards § 236.306 Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement shall be provided for mechanically operated switch, movable-point frog, or...

  16. 49 CFR 236.306 - Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. 236... Interlocking Standards § 236.306 Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement shall be provided for mechanically operated switch, movable-point frog, or...

  17. 49 CFR 236.306 - Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. 236... Interlocking Standards § 236.306 Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement shall be provided for mechanically operated switch, movable-point frog, or...

  18. 49 CFR 236.306 - Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. 236... Interlocking Standards § 236.306 Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement shall be provided for mechanically operated switch, movable-point frog, or...

  19. 49 CFR 236.306 - Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. 236... Interlocking Standards § 236.306 Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement. Facing point lock or switch-and-lock movement shall be provided for mechanically operated switch, movable-point frog, or...

  20. Robust Photon Locking

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, T.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Sarpe-Tudoran, C.; Baumert, T.

    2009-01-16

    We experimentally demonstrate a strong-field coherent control mechanism that combines the advantages of photon locking (PL) and rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). Unlike earlier implementations of PL and RAP by pulse sequences or chirped pulses, we use shaped pulses generated by phase modulation of the spectrum of a femtosecond laser pulse with a generalized phase discontinuity. The novel control scenario is characterized by a high degree of robustness achieved via adiabatic preparation of a state of maximum coherence. Subsequent phase control allows for efficient switching among different target states. We investigate both properties by photoelectron spectroscopy on potassium atoms interacting with the intense shaped light field.

  1. Locking differential gear assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, M.; Teraoka, M.

    1989-02-21

    A locking differential gear assembly is described comprising; clutch means for restricting the differential action of the assembly; movable means movable in a linear direction to actuate the clutch means; rotatable pressing means for moving the movable means in the linear direction drive means for rotating the pressing means; and converting means for converting the rotation of the pressing means into linear movement, the converting means including an element fixed in relation to the pressing means, with interengaged threaded portions on the pressing means and the element.

  2. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.765 Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus by...

  3. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.765 Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus by...

  4. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.765 Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus by...

  5. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.765 Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus by...

  6. 49 CFR 236.765 - Locking, mechanical.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.765 Locking, mechanical. An arrangement of locking bars, dogs, tappets, cross locking and other apparatus by...

  7. Indirect subharmonic optical injection locking of a millimeter-wave IMPATT oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczfeld, Peter R.; Daryoush, Afshin S.; Rosen, Arye; Sharma, Arvind K.; Contarino, V. M.

    1986-12-01

    Large aperture phased-array antennas operating at millimeter-wave frequencies are designed for space-based communications and imaging. Array elements are composed of active transmit-receive (T/R) modules that are phase and frequency synchronized to a reference signal at the central processing unit by a fiber-optic (FO) distribution network. The implementation of FO links, synchronizing the millimeter-wave local oscillators (LO's) imposes a great challenge. This paper presents results of indirect optical injection locking of a free-running 38-GHz (Ka-band) IMPATT oscillator over the locking range of 2-132 MHz, depending on the injected power level (amplifier gain). In the experiment, the nonlinearity of both the laser diode and the IMPATT oscillator is exploited to achieve 12th subharmonic injection locking. The overall system FM noise degradation of the reference signal is 16 dB at 500-Hz offset. The FM noise degradation is dominated by the theoretical limit of 20log N, where N is the frequency multiplication factor used in subharmonic injection locking. Methods by which optical injection locking may be extended into 60 and 90 GHz are demonstrated.

  8. Phase-locking and Pulse Generation in Multi-Frequency Brillouin Oscillator via Four Wave Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, Thomas F. S.; Kabakova, Irina V.; Hudson, Darren D.; Pant, Ravi; Poulton, Christopher G.; Judge, Alexander C.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for pulsed all-fibre lasers with gigahertz repetition rates for applications in telecommunications and metrology. The repetition rate of conventional passively mode-locked fibre lasers is fundamentally linked to the laser cavity length and is therefore typically ~10-100 MHz, which is orders of magnitude lower than required. Cascading stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nonlinear resonators, however, enables the formation of Brillouin frequency combs (BFCs) with GHz line spacing, which is determined by the acoustic properties of the medium and is independent of the resonator length. Phase-locking of such combs therefore holds a promise to achieve gigahertz repetition rate lasers. The interplay of SBS and Kerr-nonlinear four-wave mixing (FWM) in nonlinear resonators has been previously investigated, yet the phase relationship of the waves has not been considered. Here, we present for the first time experimental and numerical results that demonstrate phase-locking of BFCs generated in a nonlinear waveguide cavity. Using real-time measurements we demonstrate stable 40 ps pulse trains with 8 GHz repetition rate based on a chalcogenide fibre cavity, without the aid of any additional phase-locking element. Detailed numerical modelling, which is in agreement with the experimental results, highlight the essential role of FWM in phase-locking of the BFC.

  9. Antifungal Lock Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Walraven, Carla J.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of intravascular devices, such as central venous and hemodialysis catheters, in the past 2 decades has paralleled the increasing incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). Candida albicans is the fourth leading cause of hospital-associated BSIs. The propensity of C. albicans to form biofilms on these catheters has made these infections difficult to treat due to multiple factors, including increased resistance to antifungal agents. Thus, curing CR-BSIs caused by Candida species usually requires catheter removal in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Alternatively, antimicrobial lock therapy has received significant interest and shown promise as a strategy to treat CR-BSIs due to Candida species. The existing in vitro, animal, and patient data for treatment of Candida-related CR-BSIs are reviewed. The most promising antifungal lock therapy (AfLT) strategies include use of amphotericin, ethanol, or echinocandins. Clinical trials are needed to further define the safety and efficacy of AfLT. PMID:23070153

  10. Atomically referenced 1-GHz optical parametric oscillator frequency comb.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Richard A; Balskus, Karolis; Zhang, Zhaowei; Reid, Derryck T

    2015-06-15

    The visible to mid-infrared coverage of femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency combs makes them attractive resources for high-resolution spectroscopy and astrophotonic spectrograph calibration. Such applications require absolute traceability and wide comb-tooth spacing, attributes which until now have remained unavailable from any single OPO frequency comb. Here, we report a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire pumped OPO comb whose repetition and offset frequencies are referenced to Rb-stabilised microwave and laser oscillators respectively. This technique simultaneously achieves fully stabilized combs from both the Ti:sapphire laser and the OPO with sub-MHz comb-tooth linewidths, multi-hour locking stability and without the need for super-continuum generation.

  11. 32-GHz Wideband Maser Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shell, J. S.; Neff, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    High-gain, wideband, microwave amplifier based on ruby cooled by liquid helium. Features include low input equivalent noise temperature and 400-MHz bandwidth. Design basically extension of previous reflected-wave masers built for frequency range of 18 to 26 GHz. Maser amplifier includes eight stages connected in reflected-wave configuration. Particularly useful for detection of weak microwave signals in radio astronomy and communications.

  12. 338-GHz Semiconductor Amplifier Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Fung, King Man; Rasisic, Vesna; Deal, William; Leong, Kevin; Mei, Xiao Bing; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, Po-Hsin; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers.

  13. 32-GHz Wideband Maser Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shell, J. S.; Neff, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    High-gain, wideband, microwave amplifier based on ruby cooled by liquid helium. Features include low input equivalent noise temperature and 400-MHz bandwidth. Design basically extension of previous reflected-wave masers built for frequency range of 18 to 26 GHz. Maser amplifier includes eight stages connected in reflected-wave configuration. Particularly useful for detection of weak microwave signals in radio astronomy and communications.

  14. 75 FR 5071 - Lock + TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXI, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications January 22, 2010. On January 8, 2010, Lock...

  15. Sixty GHz IMPATT diode development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. E.; Chen, J.; Benko, E.; Barger, M. J.; Nghiem, H.; Trinh, T. Q.; Kung, J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop 60 GHz GaAs IMPATT Diodes suitable for communications applications. The performance goal of the 60 GHz IMPATT is 1W CW output power with a conversion efficiency of 15 percent and 10 year life time. During the course of the program, double drift (DD) GaAs IMPATT Diodes have been developed resulting in the state of the art performance at V band frequencies. A CW output power of 1.12 W was demonstrated at 51.9 GHz with 9.7 percent efficiency. The best conversion efficiency achieved was 15.3 percent. V band DD GaAs IMPATTs were developed using both small signal and large signal analyses. GaAs wafers of DD flat, DD hybrid, and DD Read profiles using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) were developed with excellent doping profile control. Wafer evaluation was routinely made by the capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurement. Ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis was also used for more detailed profile evaluation.

  16. Analysis of phase noise in a spin torque oscillator stabilized by phase locked loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-05-01

    This study analyses phase noise in a spin torque oscillator (STO) stabilized by phase locked loop (PLL). Time domain measurement showed that phase error of the 6.996 GHz signal generated by a STO, which exhibited a random-walk type fluctuation under free running, was suppressed within a standard deviation of 0.408 rad by the PLL. Power spectrum under phase locked oscillation indicated that the PLL had a loop bandwidth of approximately 16 MHz, thus effectively suppressing phase error below 10 MHz. However, it was also found that power spectrum of the residual phase error was distributed much higher than the loop bandwidth.

  17. Improving the performance of the injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator by using an extra feedback loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Junchao; Jin, Tao; Chi, Hao; Tong, Guochuan; Zhu, Xiang; Lai, Tianhao; Wu, Xidong; Shi, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate a practical method for improving the performance of an injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator (IL OEO). An improved IL theory model, which helps to set the optimal locking range and reduce the phase noise of the OEO, is proposed. The IL OEO with an extra feedback loop exhibits good long-term operating stability and can produce a 10 GHz output signal with 80 dB side-mode suppression ratio and better than ±0.0005 ppm frequency drift within 12 h. The presented results can be used to guide the design of high-quality OEOs.

  18. Optical clock division based on dual-wavelength mode-locked semiconductor fiber ring laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xingliang; Huang, Dexiu

    2008-07-21

    We have reported the optical clock division utilizing an injected mode-locked fiber ring laser incorporating semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and a dispersion compensation fiber (DCF). The clock division is mainly caused by the modulation competition between two wavelength components while both of them satisfy the harmonic mode-locking condition at the newly generated frequency. Stable second, third, and fourth clock divisions are obtained by properly adjusting the polarization controllers inside the ring cavity when a 10-GHz clock signal without any sub-harmonic frequency component is injected into the cavity. The radio-frequency spectra show good qualities of the obtained clock division trains.

  19. Regrowth-free integration of injection locked slotted laser with an electroabsorption modulator.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Niall P; Caro, Ludovic; Dernaika, Mohamad; Peters, Frank H

    2017-02-20

    Optical injection locking was used to red shift an integrated semiconductor laser up to 30 nm away from the main free running lasing mode. This injection locking of the laser beyond its band edge enabled its integration with an electroabsorption modulator to produce a 2.5 Gb/s eye diagram. The electroabsorption modulator was shown to have a 3 dB bandwidth of 5.5 GHz, which was limited by the contact capacitance. This paper demonstrates that such devices could be applied in a regrowth free, monolithic coherent wavelength division multiplexing transmitter.

  20. Figure-eight actively-passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaoying; Yu, Zhenhong; Ge, Chunfeng; Zhang, Ruifeng; Jia, Dongfang; Li, Shichen

    2003-03-01

    The advantages of using nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) to compress pulse with slight amplitude fluctuation and reflected energy loss are analyzed in theory. Experimentally the NOLM is placed in an actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser to form a figure-eight actively and passively modelocked fiber laser. 12 ps mode-locked pulses centered at 1.543 ?m were obtained with the modulation frequency of 2.498748700 GHz. 3.715 mW output power is achieved with 50 mW pump power.

  1. Narrow linewidth high output-coupling dual VBG-locked Yb-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Jelger, Pär; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Laurell, Fredrik

    2010-03-01

    Two equal highly reflective volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) were used to lock an Yb-doped fiber laser. By heating one of the VBGs, its center wavelength was shifted and the laser was locked on the overlap between the main peak of one grating and the side-lobe of the other creating a large outcoupling with high spectral selectivity. With this simple arrangement, unidirectional output is achieved with a narrow linewidth (<2.5 GHz), high efficiency (>70%) and with an output power above 7 W.

  2. First demonstration and performance of an injection locked continuous wave magnetron to phase control a superconducting cavity

    SciTech Connect

    A.C. Dexter, G. Burt, R.G. Carter, I. Tahir, H. Wang, K. Davis, R. Rimmer

    2011-03-01

    The applications of magnetrons to high power proton and cw electron linacs are discussed. An experiment is described where a 2.45 GHz magnetron has been used to drive a single cell superconducting cavity. With the magnetron injection locked, a modest phase control accuracy of 0.95° rms has been demonstrated. Factors limiting performance have been identified.

  3. Double-Acting, Locking Carabiners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chi-Min; LiDelRosso, Dominic

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for carabiners (tether hooks used in mountaineering, rock climbing, and rescue) is intended to make it possible to operate these devices even while wearing thick gloves. According to the proposal, the gate of a carabiner would be capable of swinging either toward or away from the hook body, relative to the closed position. The gate would be spring-biased to return to the closed position. An external locking collar would be pinned to an internal locking rod that would be springloaded to slide the collar longitudinally over the gate to lock the gate in the closed position. The gate would be unlocked by sliding the collar axially against the spring load. To reduce the probability of inadvertent unlocking, the rod-and-collar mechanism would include two locking buttons. Optionally, the rod-and-collar mechanism could be replaced with an external locking mechanism based on a longer collar.

  4. Bidirectional ultradense WDM for metro networks adopting the beat-frequency-locking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Yuep; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seung

    2003-10-01

    We present a technique to increase the spectral efficiencies of metro networks by using channel-interleaved bidirectional ultradense wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) within each customer's optical band. As a demonstration, we transmit 12.5-GHz-spaced 8×10 Gbit/s channels achieving spectral efficiency as high as 0.8 bit/s/Hz with a 25-GHz WDM demultiplexer. The beat-frequency-locking method is used to stabilize the channel frequencies within +/-200 MHz, which is far more accurate than with conventional wavelength lockers.

  5. Single-chip electron spin resonance detectors operating at 50 GHz, 92 GHz, and 146 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheoud, Alessandro V.; Gualco, Gabriele; Jeong, Minki; Zivkovic, Ivica; Brugger, Jürgen; Rønnow, Henrik M.; Anders, Jens; Boero, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    We report on the design and characterization of single-chip electron spin resonance (ESR) detectors operating at 50 GHz, 92 GHz, and 146 GHz. The core of the single-chip ESR detectors is an integrated LC-oscillator, formed by a single turn aluminum planar coil, a metal-oxide-metal capacitor, and two metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors used as negative resistance network. On the same chip, a second, nominally identical, LC-oscillator together with a mixer and an output buffer are also integrated. Thanks to the slightly asymmetric capacitance of the mixer inputs, a signal at a few hundreds of MHz is obtained at the output of the mixer. The mixer is used for frequency down-conversion, with the aim to obtain an output signal at a frequency easily manageable off-chip. The coil diameters are 120 μm, 70 μm, and 45 μm for the U-band, W-band, and the D-band oscillators, respectively. The experimental frequency noises at 100 kHz offset from the carrier are 90 Hz/Hz1/2, 300 Hz/Hz1/2, and 700 Hz/Hz1/2 at 300 K, respectively. The ESR spectra are obtained by measuring the frequency variations of the single-chip oscillators as a function of the applied magnetic field. The experimental spin sensitivities, as measured with a sample of α,γ-bisdiphenylene-β-phenylallyl (BDPA)/benzene complex, are 1 × 108 spins/Hz1/2, 4 × 107 spins/Hz1/2, 2 × 107 spins/Hz1/2 at 300 K, respectively. We also show the possibility to perform experiments up to 360 GHz by means of the higher harmonics in the microwave field produced by the integrated single-chip LC-oscillators.

  6. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. 25.136 Section 25.136..., 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. In addition to the technical requirements specified in § 25.213, earth stations operating in the 1.6/2.4 GHz and 1.5/1.6 GHz Mobile Satellite...

  7. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. 25.136 Section 25.136..., 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile Satellite Services. In addition to the technical requirements specified in § 25.213, earth stations operating in the 1.6/2.4 GHz and 1.5/1.6 GHz Mobile Satellite Services...

  8. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile-Satellite Services. 25.136 Section 25.136..., 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile-Satellite Services. In addition to the technical requirements specified in § 25.213, earth stations operating in the 1.6/2.4 GHz and 1.5/1.6 GHz Mobile-Satellite Services...

  9. Payload Launch Lock Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A payload launch lock mechanism includes a base, a preload clamp, a fastener, and a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator. The preload clamp is configured to releasibly restrain a payload. The fastener extends, along an axis, through the preload clamp and into the base, and supplies a force to the preload clamp sufficient to restrain the payload. The SMA actuator is disposed between the base and the clamp. The SMA actuator is adapted to receive electrical current and is configured, upon receipt of the electrical current, to supply a force that causes the fastener to elongate without fracturing. The preload clamp, in response to the fastener elongation, either rotates or pivots to thereby release the payload.

  10. A magnetorheological fluid locking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavlicoglu, Barkan; Liu, Yanming

    2011-04-01

    A magnetorheological fluid (MRF) device is designed to provide a static locking force caused by the operation of a controllable MRF valve. The intent is to introduce an MRF device which provides the locking force of a fifth wheel coupler while maintaining the "powerless" locking capability when required. A passive magnetic field supplied by a permanent magnet provides a powerless locking resistance force. The passively closed MRF valve provides sufficient reaction force to eliminate axial displacement to a pre-defined force value. Unlocking of the device is provided by means of an electromagnet which re-routes the magnetic field distribution along the MR valve, and minimizes the resistance. Three dimensional electromagnetic finite element analyses are performed to optimize the MRF lock valve performance. The MRF locking valve is fabricated and tested for installation on a truck fifth wheel application. An experimental setup, resembling actual working conditions, is designed and tests are conducted on vehicle interface schemes. The powerless-locking capacity and the unlocking process with minimal resistance are experimentally demonstrated.

  11. Development of compact and ultra-high-resolution spectrograph with multi-GHz optical frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Mamoru; Sukegawa, Takashi; Silva, Alissa; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, a calibration method for an astronomical spectrograph using an optical frequency comb (OFC) with a repetition rate of more than ten GHz has been developed successfully [1-5]. But controlling filtering cavities that are used for thinning out longitudinal modes precludes long term stability. The super-mode noise coming from the fundamental repetition rate is an additional problem. We developed a laser-diode pumped Yb:Y2O3 ceramic oscillator, which enabled the generation of 4-GHz (maximum repetition rate of 6.7 GHz) pulse trains directly with a spectrum width of 7 nm (full-width half-maximum, FWHM), and controlled its optical frequency within a MHz level of accuracy using a beat note between the 4-GHz laser and a 246-MHz Yb-fiber OFC. The optical frequency of the Yb-fiber OFC was phase locked to a Rb clock frequency standard. Furthermore we also built a table-top multi-pass spectrograph with a maximum frequency resolution of 600 MHz and a bandwidth of 1 nm using a large-size high-efficiency transmission grating. The resolution could be changed by selecting the number of passes through the grating. This spectrograph could resolve each longitudinal mode of our 4-GHz OFC clearly, and more than 10% throughput was obtained when the resolution was set to 600 MHz. We believe that small and middle scale astronomical observatories could easily implement such an OFC-calibrated spectrograph.

  12. Frequency chirped light at large detuning with an injection-locked diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, K.; Disla, M.; Dellatto, J.; Limani, A.; Kaufman, B.; Wright, M. J.

    2015-04-15

    We have developed a laser system to generate frequency-chirped light at rapid modulation speeds (∼100 MHz) with a large frequency offset. Light from an external cavity diode laser with its frequency locked to an atomic resonance is passed through a lithium niobate electro-optical phase modulator. The phase modulator is driven by a ∼6 GHz signal whose frequency is itself modulated with a RF MHz signal (<200 MHz). A second injection locked diode laser is used to filter out all of the light except the frequency-chirped ±1 order by more than 30 dB. Using this system, it is possible to generate a 1 GHz frequency chirp in 5 ns.

  13. Highly integrated optical heterodyne phase-locked loop with phase/frequency detection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingzhi; Park, Hyunchul; Bloch, Eli; Sivananthan, Abirami; Bhardwaj, Ashish; Griffith, Zach; Johansson, Leif A; Rodwell, Mark J; Coldren, Larry A

    2012-04-23

    A highly-integrated optical phase-locked loop with a phase/frequency detector and a single-sideband mixer (SSBM) has been proposed and demonstrated for the first time. A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) has been designed, fabricated and tested, together with an electronic IC (EIC). The PIC integrates a widely-tunable sampled-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector laser, an optical 90 degree hybrid and four high-speed photodetectors on the InGaAsP/InP platform. The EIC adds a single-sideband mixer, and a digital phase/frequency detector, to provide single-sideband heterodyne locking from -9 GHz to 7.5 GHz. The loop bandwith is 400 MHz.

  14. Color-flavor locked strangelets.

    PubMed

    Madsen, J

    2001-10-22

    Finite lumps of color-flavor locked strange-quark matter (CFL strangelets) are significantly more stable than strangelets without color-flavor locking for wide ranges of parameters, increasing the likelihood of strangelet metastability, or even absolute stability beyond some minimum baryon number A(min). Whereas bulk CFL strange-quark matter is electrically neutral, CFL strangelets are positively charged, with Z approximately 0.3A(2/3). This is quite different from "ordinary" strangelets and may provide a possible test of color-flavor locking if strangelets are detected in upcoming cosmic-ray space experiments.

  15. Color-Flavor Locked Strangelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Jes

    2001-10-01

    Finite lumps of color-flavor locked strange-quark matter (CFL strangelets) are significantly more stable than strangelets without color-flavor locking for wide ranges of parameters, increasing the likelihood of strangelet metastability, or even absolute stability beyond some minimum baryon number Amin. Whereas bulk CFL strange-quark matter is electrically neutral, CFL strangelets are positively charged, with Z~0.3A2/3. This is quite different from ``ordinary'' strangelets and may provide a possible test of color-flavor locking if strangelets are detected in upcoming cosmic-ray space experiments.

  16. Compendium on Waterway Transportation Reliability: Lock Congestion and Lock Queues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    While a microsimulation model for capturing such delays is available (Dai and Schonfeld 89), a significant amount of computer time is required for...development of an approximation to microsimulation that allows for an evaluation of lock delays that incorporate interdependencies. A simulation experiment was... microsimulation model of waterway traffic and lock operations, 3. statistically estimated functions ("metamodels") to approximate the results of the

  17. 49 CFR 236.379 - Route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Route locking. 236.379 Section 236.379 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.379 Route locking. Route locking or other type of switch locking shall be tested...

  18. 49 CFR 236.379 - Route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Route locking. 236.379 Section 236.379 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.379 Route locking. Route locking or other type of switch locking shall be tested...

  19. Multi-gigahertz repetition-rate-selectable passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Lecaplain, Caroline; Grelu, Philippe

    2013-05-06

    We demonstrate a passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser that operates at selectable harmonics spanning from the 6th to the 928th, which corresponds to repetition rates ranging from 153 MHz to 22.2 GHz. The noteworthy laser output stability is attested by supermode suppression levels as large as 41 dB. The influence of a continuous wave background on harmonics stability is tested.

  20. High brightness photonic band crystal semiconductor lasers in the passive mode locking regime

    SciTech Connect

    Rosales, R.; Kalosha, V. P.; Miah, M. J.; Bimberg, D.; Posilović, K.; Pohl, J.; Weyers, M.

    2014-10-20

    High brightness photonic band crystal lasers in the passive mode locking regime are presented. Optical pulses with peak power of 3 W and peak brightness of about 180 MW cm{sup −2} sr{sup −1} are obtained on a 5 GHz device exhibiting 15 ps pulses and a very low beam divergence in both the vertical and horizontal directions.

  1. Cavity-locked ring down spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Paldus, Barbara A.; Harb, Charles C.; Spence, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Distinct locking and sampling light beams are used in a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system to perform multiple ring-down measurements while the laser and ring-down cavity are continuously locked. The sampling and locking light beams have different frequencies, to ensure that the sampling and locking light are decoupled within the cavity. Preferably, the ring-down cavity is ring-shaped, the sampling light is s-polarized, and the locking light is p-polarized. Transmitted sampling light is used for ring-down measurements, while reflected locking light is used for locking in a Pound-Drever scheme.

  2. Multiwavelength arrays of mode-locked lasers for WDM applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Lawrence J.; Young, Martin G.; Dougherty, David J.; Keo, Sam A.; Muller, Richard E.; Maker, Paul D.; Forouhar, Siamak

    1998-08-01

    The continued need for increased bandwidth is driving the pursuit of both increased speed in TDM and more channels in WDM for fiber optic communication systems. Multiwavelength arrays of monolithic mode-locked DBR lasers are an attractive source for future high bit rate (100 - 800 Gb/s) optical communication systems. Monolithic mode-locked lasers in the colliding-pulse mode-locked configuration have been fabricated, with DBR end mirrors for wavelength selection. A continuous gain region has been employed for ease of fabrication and the elimination of multiple reflections within the cavity. Arrays containing up to 9 wavelengths have been fabricated, with all the wavelengths within the erbium-doped fiber amplifier gain bandwidth. An RF signal is applied to the saturable absorber for synchronization to an external clock and reduction of the phase noise. For a 4.6 mm cavity, short (< 10 ps) optical pulses at high (approximately 18 GHz) repetition rates have been achieved. Low single side-band phase noise values (-107 dBc/Hz 100 kHz offset) have been demonstrated, nearly equal to that of the RF source.

  3. Mechanically actuated downhole locking sub

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, M.

    1986-09-30

    A mechanically actuated locking sub is described for setting and releasing a downhole tool from an oilwell borehole, having landing nipples, without interrupting a production flow therethrough, comprising: an inner tubular member, having a central conduit and a lower end provided with means for attachment to the downhole tool to be set in or released from the oilwell bore; an outer sleeve member circumferentially encompassing at least a part of the inner tubular member, the sleeve having a plurality of apertures therein; locking dog members intermediate the inner tubular member and the outer sleeve member, having an engaging portion extending outwardly through the apertures of the outer sleeve member; slidable sleeve means intermediate the outer sleeve member and the inner tubular member, movable between a first, extended and a second, retracted position with respect to the inner tubular member; and a double acting spring means engaging the locking dogs; adapted to bias the locking dogs towards the inner tubular member.

  4. Gas spectroscopy system with 245 GHz transmitter and receiver in SiGe BiCMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Klaus; Rothbart, Nick; Borngräber, Johannes; Yilmaz, Selahattin Berk; Kissinger, Dietmar; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2017-02-01

    The implementation of an integrated mm-wave transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) in SiGe BiCMOS or CMOS technology offers a path towards a compact and low-cost system for gas spectroscopy. Previously, we have demonstrated TXs and RXs for spectroscopy at 238 -252 GHz and 495 - 497 GHz using external phase-locked loops (PLLs) with signal generators for the reference frequency ramps. Here, we present a more compact system by using two external fractional-N PLLs allowing frequency ramps for the TX and RX, and for TX with superimposed frequency shift keying (FSK) or reference frequency modulation realized by a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) or an arbitrary waveform generator. The 1.9 m folded gas absorption cell, the vacuum pumps, as well as the TX and RX are placed on a portable breadboard with dimensions of 75 cm x 45 cm. The system performance is evaluated by high-resolution absorption spectra of gaseous methanol at 13 Pa for 241 - 242 GHz. The 2f (second harmonic) content of the absorption spectrum of the methanol was obtained by detecting the IF power of RX using a diode power sensor connected to a lock-in amplifier. The reference frequency modulation reveals a higher SNR (signal-noise-ratio) of 98 within 32 s acquisition compared to 66 for FSK. The setup allows for jumping to preselected frequency regions according to the spectral signature thus reducing the acquisition time by up to one order of magnitude.

  5. Locked-in, walked out.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Seamus; McCann, John; Hawkins, Stanley

    2011-09-01

    Locked in syndrome is typically associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a patient who had an unusually good recovery from locked in syndrome due to pontine infarction. The good recovery exhibited by our patient may have resulted from resolution of oedema at the site of infarction and brainstem plasticity being augmented by initial supportive measures in the intensive care unit and early, intensive rehabilitation.

  6. John locke on personal identity.

    PubMed

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  7. Bandwidth of non-contact vital sign detection with a noise suppression phase locked loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zongyang; Zhang, Ying

    2016-04-01

    In a dual-carrier vital sign detection system, we have designed a noise suppression scheme that uses phase locked loop (PLL) to automatically suppress the noise induced by range correlation and transmission paths. The system uses two microwave carriers at 5.6 and 5.68 GHz generated by two phase locked signal generators to extract the noise and vital sign respectively. The feedback microwave signals are mixed with local 5.68-GHz signal to transfer to the vial sign signal and low frequency intermediate frequency (IF) signal. When the IF signal corresponding to 5.68 GHz microwave signal is locked to a highly stable low noise reference, the noises of IF signal and vital sign signal are suppressed as their corresponding microwave signals are highly correlated. In this system, the noise suppression performance is related to the bandwidth of the PLL, which needs to be carefully designed. Through the theoretical analysis, initial bandwidth is chosen to be 200 Hz. Then the charge pump current is changed to adjust the bandwidth and the corresponding noise suppression performance is evaluated using experiments. The results show the system with a charge pump current 0.625 mA, which corresponds to about 50 Hz bandwidth, exhibits a better noise performance. In addition, at different bandwidth, the vital sign detection system is compared with a design scheme with unlocked PLL and demonstrates superior performance at all bandwidths.

  8. Phase-locking of commercial DFB lasers for distributed optical fiber sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Chris D.; Brown, Anthony W.; Wylie, Michael T. V.; Colpitts, Bruce G.

    2011-05-01

    The design of a phase/frequency detector-based optical phase-locked loop (PFD-OPLL) capable of locking two commercial semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers for the purpose of making Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis (BOTDA) measurements is presented. Due to the aperiodic nature of the PFD transfer characteristic, the PFDOPLL offers strong acquisition performance without requiring additional acquisition hardware. Design constraints due to laser linewidths are relaxed by choosing a damping factor of 3.5 instead of 0.707. Loop stability is ensured by reducing the loop propagation delay by as much as possible in hardware, and choosing the loop natural frequency such that the loop bandwidth is below the FM phase reversal frequency of the laser. Results show stable lock performance at 11 GHz with a phase noise of -70dBc/Hz at a 100 Hz offset, a capture range of 2.5 GHz and a tuning range of 3.3 GHz. These specifications exceed the performance requirements of a BOTDA system.

  9. MMIC Amplifiers for 90 to 130 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Pukala, David; Peralta, Alejandro; Bryerton, Eric; Morgan, Matt; Boyd, T.; Hu, Ming; Schmitz, Adele

    2007-01-01

    This brief describes two monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifier chips optimized to function in the frequency range of 90 to 130 GHz, covering nearly all of F-band (90 - 140 GHz). These amplifiers were designed specifically for local-oscillator units in astronomical radio telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). They could also be readily adapted for use in electronic test equipment, automotive radar systems, and communications systems that operate between 90 and 130 GHz.

  10. Microwave signal extraction from femtosecond mode-locked lasers with attosecond relative timing drift.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungwon; Kärtner, Franz X

    2010-06-15

    We present a feedback-control method for suppression of excess phase noise in the optical-to-electronic conversion process involved in the extraction of microwave signals from femtosecond mode-locked lasers. A delay-locked loop based on drift-free phase detection with a differentially biased Sagnac loop is employed to eliminate low-frequency (e.g., <1 kHz) excess phase noise and drift in the regenerated microwave signals. A 10 GHz microwave signal is extracted from a 200 MHz repetition rate mode-locked laser with a relative rms timing jitter of 2.4 fs (integrated from 1 mHz to 1 MHz) and a relative rms timing drift of 0.84 fs (integrated over 8 h with 1 Hz bandwidth) between the optical pulse train and the extracted microwave signal.

  11. Precision and fast wavelength tuning of a dynamically phase-locked widely-tunable laser.

    PubMed

    Numata, Kenji; Chen, Jeffrey R; Wu, Stewart T

    2012-06-18

    We report a precision and fast wavelength tuning technique demonstrated for a digital-supermode distributed Bragg reflector laser. The laser was dynamically offset-locked to a frequency-stabilized master laser using an optical phase-locked loop, enabling precision fast tuning to and from any frequencies within a ~40-GHz tuning range. The offset frequency noise was suppressed to the statically offset-locked level in less than ~40 μs upon each frequency switch, allowing the laser to retain the absolute frequency stability of the master laser. This technique satisfies stringent requirements for gas sensing lidars and enables other applications that require such well-controlled precision fast tuning.

  12. A 12 GHz satellite video receiver: Low noise, low cost prototype model for TV reception from broadcast satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hreha, M. A.; Baprawski, J. G.; Chamaneria, C. N.; Ferry, S. J.; Keithly, G.; Kuklin, H. S.; Lockyear, W. H.; Schifter, L. H.; Swanberg, N. E.; Swift, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    A 12-channel synchronous phase lock video receiver consisting of an outdoor downconverter unit and an indoor demodulator unit was developed to provide both low noise performance and low cost in production quantities of 1000 units. The prototype receiver can be mass produced at a cost under $1540 without sacrificing system performance. The receiver also has the capability of selecting any of the twelve assigned satellite broadcast channels in the frequency range 11.7 to 12.2 GHz.

  13. Ultrashort pulse generation by semiconductor mode-locked lasers at 760 nm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huolei; Kong, Liang; Forrest, Adam; Bajek, David; Haggett, Stephanie E; Wang, Xiaoling; Cui, Bifeng; Pan, Jiaoqing; Ding, Ying; Cataluna, Maria Ana

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate the first semiconductor mode-locked lasers for ultrashort pulse generation at the 760 nm waveband. Multi-section laser diodes based on an AlGaAs multi-quantum-well structure were passively mode-locked, resulting in the generation of pulses at around 766 nm, with pulse durations down to ~4 ps, at pulse repetition rates of 19.4 GHz or 23.2 GHz (with different laser cavity lengths of 1.8 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively). The influence of the bias conditions on the mode-locking characteristics was investigated for these new lasers, revealing trends which can be ascribed to the interplay of dynamical processes in the saturable absorber and gain sections. It was also found that the front facet reflectivity played a key role in the stability of mode-locking and the occurrence of self-pulsations. These lasers hold significant promise as light sources for multi-photon biomedical imaging, as well as in other applications such as frequency conversion into the ultraviolet and radio-over-fibre communications.

  14. Picosecond optical vortex converted from multigigahertz self-mode-locked high-order Hermite-Gaussian Nd:GdVO(4) lasers.

    PubMed

    Liang, H C; Huang, Y J; Lin, Y C; Lu, T H; Chen, Y F; Huang, K F

    2009-12-15

    We report on a gigahertz self-mode-locked high-order Hermite-Gaussian (HG) Nd:GdVO(4) laser. With a pump power of 2.2 W, the average output power for the TEM(0,m) modes from m=9 to m=0 are among 350-780 mW at a repetition rate of 3.5 GHz. The mode-locked pulse width is in the range of 20-25 ps for various HG TEM(0,m) modes. With a simple cylindrical-lens converter, the mode-locked HG beams are converted to generate picosecond optical vortex pulses.

  15. 490 fs pulse generation from a passive C-band AlGaInAs/InP quantum well mode-locked laser.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lianping; Haji, Mohsin; Marsh, John H; Bryce, A Catrina

    2012-03-01

    We report femtosecond pulses from a passive C-band two-section AlGaInAs/InP mode-locked laser with a monolithically integrated passive waveguide made by quantum well intermixing. Without any external pulse compression, Lorentzian pulses are generated at a repetition frequency of ~38 GHz with 490 fs pulse duration, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the shortest pulse from any directly electrically pumped quantum well semiconductor mode-locked laser. The mode-locking range is relatively large and the ultranarrow pulse width is very stable over a broad range of driving conditions. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  16. Generation of stable high order harmonic noise-like pulses in a passively mode-locked double clad fiber ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.; Pottiez, O.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Kuzin, E.; Muñoz-Lopez, A.; Filoteo-Razo, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    We study a passively mode-locked double-clad Erbium-Ytterbium fiber ring laser producing noise-like pulse through nonlinear polarization evolution and polarization selection. Single noise-like pulsing is only observed at moderate pump power. As pump power is increased, and through polarization controllers adjustments, harmonic mode-locking of growing order were successively appearing. For pump powers close to the damage threshold of the setup, we reach harmonic orders beyond 1200 and repetition frequencies in excess of a quarter of a GHz. Finally, these experimental results could be useful in the quest for higher pulse energies and higher repetition rates in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.

  17. Reliability of threaded locking screws.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Karakaşlı, Ahmet; Karcı, Tolga; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    A frequent problem for interlocking nailing that affects the treatment of the fracture is locking screw deformation. The aim of this study is to determine whether bending resistance is different between high, low, and unthreaded locking screws of interlocking femoral nails. Ninety screws were used in this experimental study, with 10 screws used in each of 9 groups. Three-point bending tests were performed on 6 groups of 5 mm screws (titanium, stainless steel, crossed with unthreaded, low threaded, and high threaded) and the same 3 thread types of 5.5 mm stainless steel screws in a 30-mm inner diameter steel tube, imitating the level of the lesser trochanter. An axial compressor was used to determine the yield points for permanent deformation in the locking screws by way of 3-point bending tests. The mean yield point value of the 3-point bending tests of 5-mm low threaded stainless steel locking screws was 2071 N, 53% less than that of unthreaded screws (3169 N). The mean yield point value of 5-mm high threaded stainless steel locking screws was 556 N, 272% less than that of low threaded screws (2071 N). To avoid locking screw deformation, high threaded screws must not be used as locking screws. In cases of unreliable patients, 5-mm low threaded screws should not be used in the nailing of comminuted or oblique femur shaft fractures. All 5-mm unthreaded screws and 5.5-mm low threaded stainless steel screws can be used safely in full weight-bearing conditions of unreliable patients.

  18. Ku-band (14GHz) fiber optic communication links for distributed antennas in the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryoush, A. S.; Glatz, R.; Herczfeld, P. R.; Baccarini, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Fiber optic networks are considered as a viable alternative to the conventional coaxial distribution systems for the Space Station. The multiple access communication subsystem provides 450-750 MHz data signal on offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) format to antenna-mounted electronics. For coherent communication 100 MHz frequency reference signal is transmitted to each module to phase lock a dielectric resonator oscillator at 14.15GHz. Experimental results of phase locked oscillator's spectral purity, synchronized via two commercial fiber-optic links at 1.3 and 0.8 microns are reported. These two fiber-optic links were compared in terms of phase noise degradation. Furthermore, experimental results of fiber-optic link linearity, third-order intermodulation distortion, dynamic range and effect of mixing between data and the frequency reference are reported.

  19. Pulsed, controlled, frequency-chirped laser light at GHz detunings for atomic physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, B.; Paltoo, T.; Grogan, T.; Pena, T.; John, J. P. St.; Wright, M. J.

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a means to control rapidly frequency-chirped laser light at large detuning, by controlling the input modulation frequency of a ˜7 GHz signal into an electro-optical phase modulator in an injection-locked laser system. We show that we can extend the capabilities of the system to effectively pulse the laser on timescales less than 3 ns by turning the injection lock on/off and create arbitrary frequency-chirp shapes on the laser on the tens of nanosecond time scales. We have been able to use this pulsed frequency-chirped laser to control the excitation of a thermal Rb gas via rapid adiabatic passage.

  20. Higher-order modulations of fs laser pulses for GHz frequency domain photon migration system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huang-Yi; Cheng, Nanyu; Tseng, Sheng-Hao; Chan, Ming-Che

    2014-02-24

    Except the fundamental modulation frequency, by higher-order-harmonic modulations of mode-locked laser pulses and a simple frequency demodulation circuit, a novel approach to GHz frequency-domain-photon-migration (FDPM) system was reported. With this novel approach, a wide-band modulation frequency comb is available without any external modulation devices and the only electronics to extract the optical attenuation and phase properties at a selected modulation frequency in FDPM systems are good mixers and lock-in devices. This approach greatly expands the frequency range that could be achieved by conventional FDPM systems and suggests that our system could extract much more information from biological tissues than the conventional FDPM systems. Moreover, this demonstration will be beneficial for discerning the minute change of tissue properties.

  1. Teleportation of a 3-dimensional GHZ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei; Song, He-Shan

    2012-05-01

    The process of teleportation of a completely unknown 3-dimensional GHZ state is considered. Three maximally entangled 3-dimensional Bell states function as quantum channel in the scheme. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional GHZ state.

  2. 60-GHz integrated-circuit high data rate quadriphase shift keying exciter and modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grote, A.; Chang, K.

    1984-01-01

    An integrated-circuit quadriphase shift keying (QPSK) exciter and modulator have demonstrated excellent performance directly modulating a carrier frequency of 60 GHz with an output phase error of less than 3 degrees and maximum amplitude error of 0.5 dB. The circuit consists of a 60-GHz Gunn VCO phase-locked to a low-frequency reference source, a 4th subharmonic mixer, and a QPSK modlator packaged into a small volume of 1.8 x 2.5 x 0.35 in. The use of microstrip has the advantages of small size, light-weight, and low-cost fabrication. The unit has the potential for multigigabit data rate applications.

  3. Medicine in John Locke's philosophy.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, M A

    1990-12-01

    John Locke's philosophy was deeply affected by medicine of his times. It was specially influenced by the medical thought and practice of Thomas Sydenham. Locke was a personal friend of Sydenham, expressed an avid interest in his work and shared his views and methods. The influence of Sydenham's medicine can be seen in the following areas of Locke's philosophy: his "plain historical method"; the emphasis on observation and sensory experience instead of seeking the essence of things; the rejection of hypotheses and principles; the refusal of research into final causes and inner mechanisms; the ideal of irrefutable evidence and skepticism on the possibilities of certainty in science. The science which for Locke held the highest paradigmatic value in his theory of knowledge was precisely medicine. To a great extent, Locke's Essay on Human Understanding can be understood as an attempt to justify, substantiate, and promote Sydenham's medical method. This method, generalized, was then proposed as an instrument for the elaboration of all natural sciences.

  4. The healing philosopher: John Locke's medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Short, Bradford William

    2004-01-01

    This article examines a heretofore unexplored facet of John Locke's philosophy. Locke was a medical doctor and he also wrote about medical issues that are controversial today. Despite this, Locke's medical ethics has yet to be studied. An analysis of Locke's education and his teachers and colleagues in the medical profession, of the 17th century Hippocratic Oath, and of the reaction to the last recorded outbreak of the bubonic plague in London, shines some light on the subject of Locke's medical ethics. The study of Locke's medical ethics confirms that he was a deontologist who opposed all suicide and abortion through much of pregnancy.

  5. Few-cycle near-infrared pulses from a degenerate 1 GHz optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Richard A; Reid, Derryck T

    2015-09-01

    We report the generation of transform-limited 4.3-cycle (23 fs) pulses at 1.6 μm from a degenerate doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a 1 GHz mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. A χ(2) nonlinear envelope equation was used to inform the experimental implementation of intracavity group-delay dispersion compensation, resulting in resonant pulses with a 169 nm full width half-maximum spectral bandwidth, close to the bandwidth predicted by theory.

  6. GHz high power Yb-doped picosecond fiber laser and supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Ge, Tingwu; Li, Wuyi; Kuang, Hongshen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2014-12-20

    We demonstrated a 97 W all-fiber picosecond master oscillator power amplifier seeding by an actively harmonic mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser. The laser seed pulse duration was 7.7 ps at a 1.223 GHz repetition rate with a central wavelength of 1062 nm. In addition, by launching the amplified pulses into a 5 m long photonic crystal fiber, we obtained a 41.8 W supercontinuum covering the wavelength from 600 to 1700 nm with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1040 nm.

  7. Dual-comb coherent Raman spectroscopy with lasers of 1-GHz pulse repetition frequency.

    PubMed

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Bohn, Bernhard J; Yan, Ming; Mélen, Gwénaëlle; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2017-01-15

    We extend the technique of multiplex coherent Raman spectroscopy with two femtosecond mode-locked lasers to oscillators of a pulse repetition frequency of 1 GHz. We demonstrate a spectra of liquids, which span 1100  cm-1 of Raman shifts. At a resolution of 6  cm-1, their measurement time may be as short as 5 μs for a refresh rate of 2 kHz. The waiting period between acquisitions is improved 10-fold compared to previous experiments with two lasers of 100-MHz repetition frequencies.

  8. Design and analysis of a K-band low-phase-noise phase-locked loop with subharmonically injection-locked technique.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yen-Liang; Chang, Hong-Yeh

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present design and analysis of a K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz) low-phase-noise phase-locked loop (PLL) with the subharmonically injection-locked (SIL) technique. The phase noise of the PLL with subharmonic injection is investigated, and a modified phase noise model of the PLL with SIL technique is proposed. The theoretical calculations agree with the experimental results. Moreover, the phase noise of the PLL can be improved with the subharmonic injection. To achieve K-band operation with low dc power consumption, a divide-by-3 injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) is used as a frequency prescaler. The measured phase noise of the PLL without injection is -110 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset at the operation frequency of 23.08 GHz. With the subharmonic injection, the measured phase noises at 1 MHz offset are -127, -127, and -119 dBc/Hz for the subharmonic injection number NINJ = 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Moreover, the performance of the proposed PLL with and without SIL technique can be compared with the reported advanced CMOS PLLs.

  9. Coupled optical resonance laser locking.

    PubMed

    Burd, S C; du Toit, P J W; Uys, H

    2014-10-20

    We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to coupled transitions of ions in the same spectroscopic sample, by detecting only the absorption of the UV laser. Separate signals for locking the different lasers are obtained by modulating each laser at a different frequency and using lock-in detection of a single photodiode signal. Experimentally, we simultaneously lock a 369 nm and a 935 nm laser to the (2)S(1/2) → (2)(P(1/2) and (2)D(3/2) → (3)D([3/2]1/2) transitions, respectively, of Yb(+) ions generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. Stabilized lasers at these frequencies are required for cooling and trapping Yb(+) ions, used in quantum information and in high precision metrology experiments. This technique should be readily applicable to other ion and neutral atom systems requiring multiple stabilized lasers.

  10. Locked-wrap fuel rod

    DOEpatents

    Kaplan, Samuel; Chertock, Alan J.; Punches, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A method for spacing fast reactor fuel rods using a wire wrapper improved by orienting the wire-wrapped fuel rods in a unique manner which introduces desirable performance characteristics not attainable by previous wire-wrapped designs. Use of this method in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor results in: (a) improved mechanical performance, (b) improved rod-to-rod contact, (c) reduced steel volume, and (d) improved thermal-hydraulic performance. The method produces a "locked wrap" design which tends to lock the rods together at each of the wire cluster locations.

  11. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, J. I.; Epps, C. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An orthopedic brace locking mechanism is described which under standing or walking conditions cannot be unlocked, however under sitting conditions the mechanism can be simply unlocked so as to permit bending of the patient's knee. Other features of the device include: (1) the mechanism is rendered operable, and inoperable, dependent upon the relative inclination of the brace with respect to the ground; (2) the mechanism is automatically locked under standing or walking conditions and is manually unlocked under sitting conditions; and (3) the mechanism is light in weight and is relatively small in size.

  12. Circuit breaker lock out assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gordy, W.T.

    1983-05-18

    A lock out assembly for a circuit breaker which consists of a generally step-shaped unitary base with an aperture in the small portion of the step-shaped base and a roughly S shaped retaining pin which loops through the large portion of the step-shaped base. The lock out assembly is adapted to fit over a circuit breaker with the handle switch projecting through the aperture, and the retaining pin projecting into an opening of the handle switch, preventing removal.

  13. Circuit breaker lock out assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gordy, Wade T.

    1984-01-01

    A lock out assembly for a circuit breaker which consists of a generally step-shaped unitary base with an aperture in the small portion of the step-shaped base and a roughly "S" shaped retaining pin which loops through the large portion of the step-shaped base. The lock out assembly is adapted to fit over a circuit breaker with the handle switch projecting through the aperture, and the retaining pin projecting into an opening of the handle switch, preventing removal.

  14. Automatic locking knee brace joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for controlling the pivotal movement of a knee brace comprising a tang-and-clevis joint that has been uniquely modified. Both the tang and the clevis have a set of teeth that, when engaged, can lock the tang and the clevis together. In addition, the tang is biased away from the clevis. Consequently, when there is no axial force (i.e., body weight) on the tang, the tang is free to pivot within the clevis. However, when an axial force is exerted on the tang, the tang is pushed into the clevis, both sets of teeth engage, and the tang and the clevis lock together.

  15. Phase-locked laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botez, Dan (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A phase-locked laser array comprises a body of semiconductor material having means for defining a plurality of substantially parallel lasing zones which are spaced an effective distance apart so that the modes of the adjacent lasing zones are phase-locked to one another. One of the array electrodes comprises a plurality of electrical contacts to the body between the lasing zones. These contacts provide an enhanced current density profile and thus an increase in the gain in the regions between the lasing zones so that zero degree phase-shift operation between adjacent lasing zones is achievable.

  16. Design of a High Voltage Multi-Cavity 35 GHz Phase-Locked Gyrotron Oscillator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box Y mail Stop 3 Building 9201 -2 Oak Ridge , Tennessee 37830 Attn: Dr. A. England 1 copy Office of...permeability, Y , is the rel3tivistic mass ratio of the beam prior to the interaction, r. is the cavity wall 4 radius, E is the peak electric field at the...o z0 >0) U CC I 4 >) 0 C 0 - 0 44~ L<L C/) 2 i 4 x cr. 4 LOp 4 L l 27 4a THRESHOLD E-BEAM POWER FOR BUNCHING CAVITY MODES

  17. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  18. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  19. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  20. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  1. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  2. 49 CFR 236.767 - Locking, route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.767 Locking, route. Electric locking, effective when a train passes a signal displaying an aspect for it...

  3. 72. LOCK ELECTRICAL SYSTEM CONTROL SWITCH CABINET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. LOCK - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - CONTROL SWITCH CABINET - PANEL ARRANGEMENT AND DETAILS (ML-5-29/33-FS), March 1934 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 5, Minneiska, Winona County, MN

  4. 49 CFR 236.769 - Locking, traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.769 Locking, traffic. Electric locking which prevents the manipulation of levers or other devices for...

  5. 49 CFR 236.769 - Locking, traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.769 Locking, traffic. Electric locking which prevents the manipulation of levers or other devices for...

  6. 49 CFR 236.769 - Locking, traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.769 Locking, traffic. Electric locking which prevents the manipulation of levers or other devices for...

  7. 49 CFR 236.769 - Locking, traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.769 Locking, traffic. Electric locking which prevents the manipulation of levers or other devices for...

  8. 49 CFR 236.762 - Locking, indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Locking, indication. Electric locking which prevents manipulation of levers that would result in an unsafe... corresponding to that of its controlling lever, or which directly prevents the operation of a signal, switch, or...

  9. 49 CFR 236.762 - Locking, indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Locking, indication. Electric locking which prevents manipulation of levers that would result in an unsafe... corresponding to that of its controlling lever, or which directly prevents the operation of a signal, switch, or...

  10. 49 CFR 236.762 - Locking, indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Locking, indication. Electric locking which prevents manipulation of levers that would result in an unsafe... corresponding to that of its controlling lever, or which directly prevents the operation of a signal, switch, or...

  11. 49 CFR 236.762 - Locking, indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Locking, indication. Electric locking which prevents manipulation of levers that would result in an unsafe... corresponding to that of its controlling lever, or which directly prevents the operation of a signal, switch, or...

  12. 49 CFR 236.762 - Locking, indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Locking, indication. Electric locking which prevents manipulation of levers that would result in an unsafe... corresponding to that of its controlling lever, or which directly prevents the operation of a signal, switch, or...

  13. Passive mode-locking of fiber ring laser at the 337th harmonic using gigahertz acoustic core resonances.

    PubMed

    Kang, M S; Joly, N Y; Russell, P St J

    2013-02-15

    We report the experimental demonstration of a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber ring laser operating at the 337th harmonic (1.80 GHz) of the cavity. The laser makes use of highly efficient Raman-like optoacoustic interactions between the guided light and gigahertz acoustic resonances trapped in the micron-sized solid glass core of a photonic crystal fiber. At sufficient pump power levels the laser output locks to a repetition rate corresponding to the acoustic frequency. A stable optical pulse train with a side-mode suppression ratio higher than 45 dB was obtained at low pump powers (~60 mW).

  14. 1.34 µm picosecond self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 watt-level laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ming; Peng, Jiying; Li, Zuohan; Cao, Qiuyuan; Yuan, Ruixia

    2017-01-01

    With a simple linear configuration, a diode-pumped, self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1.34 µm is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Based on the aberrationless theory of self-focusing and thermal lensing effect, through designing and optimizing the resonator, a pulse width as short as 9.1 ps is generated at a repetition rate of 2.0 GHz and the average output power is 2.51 W. The optical conversion efficiency and the slope efficiency for the stable mode-locked operation are approximately 16.7% and 19.2%, respectively.

  15. Low repetition rate and broad frequency tuning from a grating-coupled passively mode-locked quantum dot laser

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H. C. Wu, Q. Y.; Pan, C. H.; Lee, C. P.; Lin, G.

    2013-11-18

    Passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers with a grating-coupled external cavity arrangement are investigated. A broad repetition-rate tuning range of fundamental mode-locking from 2 GHz to a record-low frequency of 79.3 MHz is achieved with selecting the wavelength at 1.28 μm. A narrow RF linewidth of ∼25 Hz and an intrinsic linewidth as low as 0.15 Hz are also obtained.

  16. The Future RFI Environment Above 30 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Andrew W.

    1995-12-01

    Encompassing 30 - 300 GHz, the millimeter wave (mmW) band offers relief from spectrum crowding at lower frequencies, large available bandwidth, favorable propagation characteristics for certain applications, and relatively high directivity with small antennas. The FCC has recently proposed regulatory changes to foster commercial development of the mmW band. Impending actions include: Designating the 46.7-46.9 GHz and 76-77 GHz bands for unlicensed vehicular radar systems. Potentially tens of millions of vehicles will be equipped with radars to provide ``intelligent cruise control" capability and driver blind-spot warnings. Unwanted emissions from vehicular radar systems may produce harmful interference to passive systems operating in protected bands. Opening the 59-64 GHz band, in which propagation is limited to short distances due to high atmospheric attenuation, to general unlicensed devices. A likely application for this band is wireless local area computer networks. The neighboring bands of 58.2 - 59 and 64 - 65 GHz are allocated to the passive services. Changes still under consideration include: Opening the 116 - 117 GHz band, co-located with an existing passive allocation, for licensed (116 - 116.5 GHz) and general unlicensed (116.5 - 117 GHz) devices. The opening (for licensed and unlicensed services) of nearly 5 GHz of additional spectrum space which neighbors passive allocations and poses a potential interference problem from out-of-band emissions. The status of the FCC's actions concerning the mmW band will be updated. An attempt will be made to predict the RFI environment in the mmW band assuming the likely applications for each of the reallocated bands. Particular emphasis will be placed on the impact of the FCC's actions on current and planned remote sensing and radio astronomy operations.

  17. Long-term mutual phase locking of picosecond pulse pairs generated by a semiconductor nanowire laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Regler, A.; Sterzl, S.; Stettner, T.; Koblmüller, G.; Kaniber, M.; Lingnau, B.; Lüdge, K.; Finley, J. J.

    2017-05-01

    The ability to generate phase-stabilized trains of ultrafast laser pulses by mode-locking underpins photonics research in fields, such as precision metrology and spectroscopy. However, the complexity of conventional mode-locked laser systems has hindered their realization at the nanoscale. Here we demonstrate that GaAs-AlGaAs nanowire lasers are capable of emitting pairs of phase-locked picosecond laser pulses with a repetition frequency up to 200 GHz when subject to incoherent pulsed optical excitation. By probing the two-pulse interference spectra, we show that pulse pairs remain mutually coherent over timescales extending to 30 ps, much longer than the emitted laser pulse duration (<=3 ps). Simulations performed by solving the optical Bloch equations produce good quantitative agreement with experiments, revealing how the phase information is stored in the gain medium close to transparency. Our results open the way to phase locking of nanowires integrated onto photonic circuits, optical injection locking and applications, such as on-chip Ramsey comb spectroscopy.

  18. Inter-satellite coherent optical communication locked frequency analysis and method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haichao; She, Shang; Xiaojun, Li; Song, Dawei

    2014-10-01

    In free space optical homodyne receiver that analyze Residual carrier COSTAS loop, Inter-satellite LEO-GEO laser communication link frequency analysis, result from Doppler frequency shift 10GHz in the maximum range, LEO-GEO inter-satellite laser links between Doppler rate of change in the 20MHz/s. The optical homodyne COSTAS receiver is the application in inter-satellite optical link coherent communication system. The homodyne receiver is the three processes: Scanning frequency, Locked frequency and Locked phase, before the homodyne coherent communication. The processes are validated in lab., and the paper presents the locked frequency data and chart, LO laser frequency with triangle control scanning and receiving optical frequency is mixed less 100MHz intermediate frequency, locked frequency range between 100MHz and 1MHz basically, discriminator method determines mixing intermediate frequency less 1MHz between the signal laser and the LO laser with the low-pass filter due to frequency loop and phase loop noise. When two loops are running, the boundary frequency of laser tuning is fuzzy, so that we must be decoupling internal PID parameters. In the Locked frequency and phase COSTAS loop homodyne receiver gave the eye-diagram with Bit error rate 10E-7.

  19. 46 CFR 154.345 - Air locks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air locks. 154.345 Section 154.345 Shipping COAST GUARD....345 Air locks. (a) An air lock may be used for access from a gas-dangerous zone on the weather deck to a gas-safe space. (b) Each air lock must: (1) Consist of two steel doors, at least 1.5 m (4.9...

  20. 46 CFR 154.345 - Air locks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air locks. 154.345 Section 154.345 Shipping COAST GUARD....345 Air locks. (a) An air lock may be used for access from a gas-dangerous zone on the weather deck to a gas-safe space. (b) Each air lock must: (1) Consist of two steel doors, at least 1.5 m (4.9...

  1. 46 CFR 154.345 - Air locks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air locks. 154.345 Section 154.345 Shipping COAST GUARD....345 Air locks. (a) An air lock may be used for access from a gas-dangerous zone on the weather deck to a gas-safe space. (b) Each air lock must: (1) Consist of two steel doors, at least 1.5 m (4.9...

  2. 46 CFR 154.345 - Air locks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air locks. 154.345 Section 154.345 Shipping COAST GUARD....345 Air locks. (a) An air lock may be used for access from a gas-dangerous zone on the weather deck to a gas-safe space. (b) Each air lock must: (1) Consist of two steel doors, at least 1.5 m (4.9...

  3. 46 CFR 154.345 - Air locks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air locks. 154.345 Section 154.345 Shipping COAST GUARD....345 Air locks. (a) An air lock may be used for access from a gas-dangerous zone on the weather deck to a gas-safe space. (b) Each air lock must: (1) Consist of two steel doors, at least 1.5 m (4.9...

  4. Distilling perfect GHZ states from two copies of non-GHZ-diagonal mixed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Tang, Shi-Qing; Yuan, Ji-Bing; Zhang, Deng-Yu

    2017-06-01

    It has been shown that a nearly pure Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state could be distilled from a large (even infinite) number of GHZ-diagonal states that can be obtained by depolarizing general multipartite mixed states (non-GHZ-diagonal states) through sequences of (probabilistic) local operations and classical communications. We here demonstrate that perfect GHZ states can be extracted, with certain probabilities, from two copies of non-GHZ-diagonal mixed states when some conditions are satisfied. This result implies that it is not necessary to depolarize these entangled mixed states to the GHZ-diagonal type, and that they are better than GHZ-diagonal states for distillation of pure GHZ states. We find a wide class of multipartite entangled mixed states that fulfill the requirements. Moreover, we display that the obtained result can be applied to practical noisy environments, e.g., amplitude-damping channels. Our findings provide an important complementarity to conventional GHZ-state distillation protocols (designed for GHZ-diagonal states) in theory, as well as having practical applications.

  5. Mode-locked laser with pulse interleavers in a monolithic photonic integrated circuit for millimeter wave and terahertz carrier generation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mu-Chieh; Guzmán, Robinson; Gordón, Carlos; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2017-04-15

    This Letter presents a photonics-based millimeter wave and terahertz frequency synthesizer using a monolithic InP photonic integrated circuit composed of a mode-locked laser (MLL) and two pulse interleaver stages to multiply the repetition rate frequency. The MLL is a multiple colliding pulse MLL producing an 80 GHz repetition rate pulse train. Through two consecutive monolithic pulse interleaver structures, each doubling the repetition rate, we demonstrate the achievement of 160 and 320 GHz. The fabrication was done on a multi-project wafer run of a generic InP photonic technology platform.

  6. Simultaneous low noise radio frequency tone and narrow linewidth optical comb generation from a regeneratively mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdur, Ibrahim; Ozharar, Sarper; Delfyett, Peter J.

    2014-10-01

    A regeneratively mode-locked laser with simultaneous low noise radio frequency (RF) tone and optical comb generation is presented. The laser does not need any external RF signal and emits a pulse train at ˜10 GHz repetition rate with a 1.5-ps optical pulse width after compression. The generated RF tone has a signal-to-noise ratio of 121 dB/Hz and an RF fluctuation of 10-9 over 0.1 s. The optical frequency comb spacing is also at ˜10 GHz and the optical comb tooth has a linewidth of <1 kHz.

  7. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except forced...

  8. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except forced...

  9. 49 CFR 236.761 - Locking, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, electric. 236.761 Section 236.761 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, electric. The combination of one or more electric locks and controlling circuits by means of...

  10. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid or...

  11. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid or...

  12. 49 CFR 236.761 - Locking, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, electric. 236.761 Section 236.761 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, electric. The combination of one or more electric locks and controlling circuits by means of...

  13. Automatically Locking/Unlocking Orthotic Knee Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Proposed orthotic knee joint locks and unlocks automatically, at any position within range of bend angles, without manual intervention by wearer. Includes tang and clevis, locks whenever wearer transfers weight to knee and unlocks when weight removed. Locking occurs at any angle between 45 degrees knee bend and full extension.

  14. 49 CFR 236.761 - Locking, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locking, electric. 236.761 Section 236.761 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, electric. The combination of one or more electric locks and controlling circuits by means...

  15. 49 CFR 236.761 - Locking, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locking, electric. 236.761 Section 236.761 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, electric. The combination of one or more electric locks and controlling circuits by means...

  16. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid...

  17. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid...

  18. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except...

  19. 49 CFR 236.761 - Locking, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locking, electric. 236.761 Section 236.761 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Locking, electric. The combination of one or more electric locks and controlling circuits by means...

  20. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid...

  1. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except...

  2. 49 CFR 236.105 - Electric lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric lock. 236.105 Section 236.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.105 Electric lock. Electric lock, except...

  3. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined time...

  4. 49 CFR 236.378 - Time locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time locking. 236.378 Section 236.378 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.378 Time locking. Time locking shall be tested when placed in service and thereafter...

  5. 49 CFR 236.378 - Time locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time locking. 236.378 Section 236.378 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.378 Time locking. Time locking shall be tested when placed in service and thereafter...

  6. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined time...

  7. 49 CFR 236.378 - Time locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time locking. 236.378 Section 236.378 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.378 Time locking. Time locking shall be tested when placed in service and thereafter...

  8. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined time...

  9. 49 CFR 236.376 - Mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical locking. 236.376 Section 236.376 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.376 Mechanical locking. Mechanical locking in interlocking machine shall be tested...

  10. 49 CFR 236.376 - Mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical locking. 236.376 Section 236.376 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.376 Mechanical locking. Mechanical locking in interlocking machine shall be tested...

  11. 49 CFR 236.376 - Mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical locking. 236.376 Section 236.376 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.376 Mechanical locking. Mechanical locking in interlocking machine shall be tested...

  12. 76 FR 48840 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    .... Hydro Friends' proposed Project Oscar Project No. 14136-000 would consist of: (1) A 109-foot-wide, 40..., incomplete auxiliary lock of the Lock and Dam No. 5; (2) a 109-foot- wide, 40-foot-high lock frame module...

  13. 49 CFR 236.381 - Traffic locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Traffic locking. 236.381 Section 236.381 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.381 Traffic locking. Traffic locking shall be tested when placed in service...

  14. 49 CFR 236.381 - Traffic locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Traffic locking. 236.381 Section 236.381 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.381 Traffic locking. Traffic locking shall be tested when placed in service...

  15. 49 CFR 236.381 - Traffic locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Traffic locking. 236.381 Section 236.381 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.381 Traffic locking. Traffic locking shall be tested when placed in service...

  16. 49 CFR 236.381 - Traffic locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Traffic locking. 236.381 Section 236.381 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.381 Traffic locking. Traffic locking shall be tested when placed in service...

  17. 49 CFR 236.381 - Traffic locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Traffic locking. 236.381 Section 236.381 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.381 Traffic locking. Traffic locking shall be tested when placed in service...

  18. 49 CFR 236.768 - Locking, time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, time. 236.768 Section 236.768... Locking, time. A method of locking, either mechanical or electrical, which, after a signal has been caused to display an aspect to proceed, prevents, until after the expiration of a predetermined...

  19. 49 CFR 236.378 - Time locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time locking. 236.378 Section 236.378 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.378 Time locking. Time locking shall be tested when placed in service and...

  20. 49 CFR 236.378 - Time locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time locking. 236.378 Section 236.378 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.378 Time locking. Time locking shall be tested when placed in service and...

  1. 46 CFR 108.157 - Locked doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locked doors. 108.157 Section 108.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT... may be designed to lock except— (a) A crash door or a door that has a locking device that can...

  2. 46 CFR 108.157 - Locked doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locked doors. 108.157 Section 108.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT... may be designed to lock except— (a) A crash door or a door that has a locking device that can...

  3. 75 FR 2129 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... January 6, 2010. On November 13, 2009, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC filed an application, pursuant...,018 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Wayne F. Krouse, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC, 5090...

  4. 46 CFR 108.157 - Locked doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locked doors. 108.157 Section 108.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT... may be designed to lock except— (a) A crash door or a door that has a locking device that can be...

  5. 49 CFR 236.376 - Mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical locking. 236.376 Section 236.376 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.376 Mechanical locking. Mechanical locking in interlocking machine shall be tested...

  6. 49 CFR 236.376 - Mechanical locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical locking. 236.376 Section 236.376 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.376 Mechanical locking. Mechanical locking in interlocking machine shall be tested...

  7. Locking Lasers to RF in an Ultra Fast FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, R.; Huang, G.; Doolittle, L.; White, W.; Frisch, J.; Coffee, R.

    2010-01-02

    Using a novel, phase-stabilized RF-over-fiber scheme, they transmit 3GHz over 300m with 27fs RMS error in 250kHz bandwidth over 12 hours, and phase lock a laser to enable ultrafast pump-probe experiments. Free-electron lasers (FELs) are capable of producing short-duration (< 10fs), high-energy X-ray pulses for a range of scientific applications. The recently activated Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) FEL facility at SLAC will support experiments which require synchronized light pulses for pump-probe schemes. They developed and operated a fiber optic RF transmission system to synchronize lasers to the emitted X-ray pulses, which was used to enable the first pump-probe experiments at the LCLS.

  8. Mode-locked tunable thulium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wenyan; Park, Eric D.

    2017-02-01

    We report on an all-fiber, actively mode-locked, tunable, Thulium-doped, fiber laser based on a 20-GHz bandwidth electro-optic intensity modulator (EOM) and a voltage driven 2-μm, intra-cavity, fiber-coupled, Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF). The repetition rate of output pulses was 47 MHz and the shortest measured output pulse width was 445 ps. A continuous tuning range of 88 nm has been achieved from 1954 to 2042 nm with a spectral linewidth <=0.14 nm and an optical signal-to-noise ratio <55 dB. The fiber laser offers an amplitude stability of +/-0.2 dB and a wavelength stability of +/-0.02 nm over 2 hours.

  9. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge. ...

  10. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge. ...

  11. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge. ...

  12. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge. ...

  13. 49 CFR 236.766 - Locking, movable bridge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, movable bridge. 236.766 Section 236.766... Locking, movable bridge. The rail locks, bridge locks, bolt locks, circuit controllers, and electric locks used in providing interlocking protection at a movable bridge. ...

  14. DETAIL VIEW OF LOCK WALL RECESS AT THE DOWNSTREAM END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOCK WALL RECESS AT THE DOWNSTREAM END OF LOCK 70. THE RECESS,TYPICAL OF BOTH WALLS IN ALL OF THE LOCKS, PROVIDED SPACE FOR OPEN LOCK GATES TO ALLOW UNIMPEDED PASSAGE OF LOCK TRAFFIC. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  15. 75 FR 5068 - Lock + TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications January 22, 2010. On January 8, 2010,...

  16. Photonic generation of phase-stable and wideband chirped microwave signals based on phase-locked dual optical frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yitian; Zhou, Qian; Han, Daming; Li, Baiyu; Xie, Weilin; Liu, Zhangweiyi; Qin, Jie; Wang, Xiaocheng; Dong, Yi; Hu, Weisheng

    2016-08-15

    A photonics-based scheme is presented for generating wideband and phase-stable chirped microwave signals based on two phase-locked combs with fixed and agile repetition rates. By tuning the difference of the two combs' repetition rates and extracting different order comb tones, a wideband linearly frequency-chirped microwave signal with flexible carrier frequency and chirped range is obtained. Owing to the scheme of dual-heterodyne phase transfer and phase-locked loop, extrinsic phase drift and noise induced by the separated optical paths is detected and suppressed efficiently. Linearly frequency-chirped microwave signals from 5 to 15 GHz and 237 to 247 GHz with 30 ms duration are achieved, respectively, contributing to the time-bandwidth product of 3×108. And less than 1.3×10-5 linearity errors (RMS) are also obtained.

  17. Near infrared standard sources, generated by electro-optic frequency comb, using injection-locked DFB laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Hun; Suh, Ho Suhng

    2014-02-01

    Stable, near-infrared laser sources were generated by an electro-optic modulator with selected comb-mode seeding. The single comb mode was selected from the fiber laser comb using a Fabry-Pèrot cavity (FPC) of 1.25 GHz spacing, and injection locking technique. An electro-optic frequency comb (EOFC) with spacing of 25 GHz was generated as the side mode of the injection-locked comb mode. Using a single mode of the EOFC, we measured the frequency of the acetylene stabilized laser used as the calibration reference frequency light source for optical communication. The absolute frequency and estimated stability of the acetylene stabilized laser were 194 369 569 384.6 kHz and 2.3×10-12 (average time 1 s), respectively.

  18. Cryogenic 160-GHz MMIC Heterodyne Receiver Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Soria, Mary M.; Owen, Heather R.; Dawson, Douglas E.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Gaier, Todd C.; Voll, Patricia; Lau, Judy; Sieth, Matt; Church, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A cryogenic 160-GHz MMIC heterodyne receiver module has demonstrated a system noise temperature of 100 K or less at 166 GHz. This module builds upon work previously described in Development of a 150-GHz MMIC Module Prototype for Large-Scale CMB Radiation (NPO-47664), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 35, No. 8 (August 2011), p. 27. In the original module, the local oscillator signal was saturating the MMIC low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) with power. In order to suppress the local oscillator signal from reaching the MMIC LNAs, the W-band (75 110 GHz) signal had to be filtered out before reaching 140 170 GHz. A bandpass filter was developed to cover 120 170 GHz, using microstrip parallel-coupled lines to achieve the desired filter bandwidth, and ensure that the unwanted W-band local oscillator signal would be sufficiently suppressed. With the new bandpass filter, the entire receiver can work over the 140 180-GHz band, with a minimum system noise temperature of 460 K at 166 GHz. The module was tested cryogenically at 20 K ambient temperature, and it was found that the receiver had a noise temperature of 100 K over an 8-GHz bandwidth. The receiver module now includes a microstrip bandpass filter, which was designed to have a 3-dB bandwidth of approximately 120-170 GHz. The filter was fabricated on a 3-mil-thick alumina substrate. The filter design was based on a W-band filter design made at JPL and used in the QUIET (Q/U Imaging ExperimenT) radiometer modules. The W-band filter was scaled for a new center frequency of 150 GHz, and the microstrip segments were changed accordingly. Also, to decrease the bandwidth of the resulting scaled design, the center gaps between the microstrip lines were increased (by four micrometers in length) compared to the gaps near the edges. The use of the 150-GHz bandpass filter has enabled the receiver module to function well at room temperature. The system noise temperature was measured to be less than 600 K (at room temperature) from 154 to 168 GHz

  19. 1-GHz harmonically pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Balskus, K; Leitch, S M; Zhang, Z; McCracken, R A; Reid, D T

    2015-01-26

    We present the first example of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb harmonically-pumped by a 333-MHz Ti:sapphire laser to achieve a stabilized signal comb at 1-GHz mode spacing in the 1.1-1.6-µm wavelength band. Simultaneous locking of the comb carrier-envelope-offset and repetition frequencies is achieved with uncertainties over 1 s of 0.27 Hz and 5 mHz respectively, which are comparable with those of 0.27 Hz and 1.5 mHz achieved for 333-MHz fundamental pumping. The phase-noise power-spectral density of the CEO frequency integrated from 1 Hz-64 kHz was 2.8 rad for the harmonic comb, 1.0 rad greater than for fundamental pumping. The results show that harmonic operation does not substantially compromise the frequency-stability of the comb, which is shown to be limited only by the Rb atomic frequency reference used.

  20. Deep-red semiconductor monolithic mode-locked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, L.; Bajek, D.; White, S. E.; Forrest, A. F.; Cataluna, M. A.; Wang, H. L.; Pan, J. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Cui, B. F.; Ding, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A deep-red semiconductor monolithic mode-locked laser is demonstrated. Multi-section laser diodes based on an AlGaAs multi-quantum-well structure were passively mode-locked, enabling the generation of picosecond optical pulses at 752 nm, at pulse repetition rates of 19.37 GHz. An investigation of the dependence of the pulse duration as a function of reverse bias revealed a predominantly exponential decay trend of the pulse duration, varying from 10.5 ps down to 3.5 ps, which can be associated with the concomitant reduction of absorption recovery time with increasing applied field. A 30-MHz-tunability of the pulse repetition rate with bias conditions is also reported. The demonstration of such a compact, efficient and versatile ultrafast laser in this spectral region paves the way for its deployment in a wide range of applications such as biomedical microscopy, pulsed terahertz generation as well as microwave and millimeter-wave generation, with further impact on sensing, imaging and optical communications.

  1. Morbus-Locke's early essay on disease.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, J

    2000-01-01

    John Locke engaged in a systematic study of medicine from the late 1650's. In this period he acquainted himself with the three main competing natural philosophical theories of the time -Galenism, Paracelsianism and Mechanism. He was particularly interested in the work of Sennert, Helmont and Doyle. In 1666, just after the publication of Boyle's The Origine of Formes and Qualities, Locke wrote a short paper entitled Morbus. This paper gave Locke's own view of the nature of disease. Locke went out of his way to criticise Boyle's attempts to give mechanical explanations for biological phenomena. He endorsed Helmont's theory that disease was caused by "ferments" and "Archei" and re-introduced Galenic temperaments as factors of susceptibility in seminal diseases. Locke did not endorse a mechanical corpuscularianism at this stage in his career, when his contact with Boyle was most frequent. Consequently, Locke's espousal of the corpuscular philosophy in the Essay cannot be attributed to Locke's association with Boyle at this time.

  2. A 16 element quasi-optical FET oscillator power combining array with external injection locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkeland, Joel; Itoh, Tatsuo

    1992-03-01

    The authors present analysis, design and experimental results of a 16 element planar oscillator array for quasi-optical power combining. Each element in the array consists of a single FET oscillator with an input port for injection of the locking signal, and an output port which is connected to a patch radiator. The array is synchronized using a 16-way power dividing network which distributes the locking signal to the oscillating elements. The array is constructed using a two-sided microstrip configuration, with the oscillators and feed network on one side of a ground plane, and the patch radiators on the opposite side. An effective radiated power (ERP) of 28.2 W CW with an isotropic conversion gain of 9.9 dB was measured at 6 GHz. For an injected power of 10.3 dBm, a locking range of 453 MHz at a center frequency of 6.015 GHz was obtained; a bandwidth of 7.5 percent. Because of the simple nature of the individual oscillator elements, this approach is well suited to MMIC implementation.

  3. Dual-wavelength mode-locking of novel chirped multilayer quantum-dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Chun-Ping; Lin, Gray; Chen, Yu-Chen; Cheng, Hsu-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Monolithic passively mode-locked lasers are investigated based on chirped multilayer InAs/InGaAs QDs. Three chirped wavelengths, with stacking numbers of 2, 3 and 5 layers, are designed with capped InGaAs thickness of 4, 3 and 1 nm, respectively. The ridge-waveguide devices of 5-μm width and 3-mm length are fabricated to have absorber-to-gain length ratio of 1:9. A curve tracer is used to analyze the hysteresis on the light-current curve. Two kinks in the L-I curve are observed at threshold current near 50 mA and at higher current of about 150 mA. The lasing wavelength just above threshold is centered at 1268 nm and the RF spectrum of mode-locking is peaked at 13.32 GHz. At well above threshold of 200 mA, another RF peak at 13.21 GHz occurs that corresponds to shorter lasing wavelength around 1233 nm. The two lasing wavelengths are originated from ground-state transitions of two groups of InAs/InGaAs QDs. Simultaneous dual-wavelength mode-locking is therefore achieved at rather low forward current and low reverse bias by incorporating this novel design of QD structure.

  4. Optical Injection Locking of Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers: Digital and Analog Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Devang

    frequency enhancement was exploited for millimeter-wave radio over fiber communications. Experimental demonstration of 4 Gb/s data transmission over 20 km of fiber and 3 m of wireless transmission at a 60 GHz carrier frequency was achieved. Additionally, optical injection of multi-transverse mode (MM) VCSELs was investigated showing record resonance frequency enhancement of > 54 GHz and 3-dB bandwidth of 38 GHz. Besides these applications, a number of other intriguing applications are also discussed, including an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PON). Finally, the future of optical injection locking and its direction going forward will be discussed.

  5. Environmental stability of actively mode locked fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Calum H.; Lee, Stephen T.; Reid, Derryck T.; Baili, Ghaya; Davies, John

    2016-10-01

    Lasers developed for defence related applications typically encounter issues with reliability and meeting desired specification when taken from the lab to the product line. In particular the harsh environmental conditions a laser has to endure can lead to difficulties. This paper examines a specific class of laser, namely actively mode-locked fibre lasers (AMLFLs), and discusses the impact of environmental perturbations. Theoretical and experimental results have assisted in developing techniques to improve the stability of a mode-locked pulse train for continuous operation. Many of the lessons learned in this research are applicable to a much broader category of lasers. The AMLFL consists of a fibre ring cavity containing a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), an isolator, an output coupler, a circulator, a bandpass filter and a modulator. The laser produces a train of 6-ps pulses at 800 nm with a repetition rate in the GHz regime and a low-noise profile. This performance is realisable in a laboratory environment. However, even small changes in temperature on the order of 0.1 °C can cause a collapse of mode-locked dynamics such that the required stability cannot be achieved without suitable feedback. Investigations into the root causes of this failure were performed by changing the temperature of components that constitute the laser resonator and observing their properties. Several different feedback mechanisms have been investigated to improve laser stability in an environment with dynamic temperature changes. Active cavity length control will be discussed along with DC bias control of the Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM).

  6. Gigahertz pulse source by compression of mode-locked VECSEL pulses coherently broadened in the normal dispersion regime.

    PubMed

    Quarterman, Adrian H; Hooper, Lucy E; Mosley, Peter J; Wilcox, Keith G

    2014-05-19

    We report the coherent spectral broadening of the output of a mode-locked VECSEL emitting 455 fs pulses at 1007 nm in the normal-dispersion regime. Subsequent compression of the fiber outputs using a transmission grating compressor produced 1.56 GHz trains of 150 fs pulses at 270 mW average power or 220 fs pulses at 520 mW average power. The system approaches the performance needed for a pump for coherent supercontinuum generation.

  7. Monolithic strained-InGaAsP multiple-quantum-well lasers with integrated electroabsorption modulators for active mode locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kenji; Wakita, Koichi; Kotaka, Isamu; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Mitsuo; Takada, Atsushi

    1994-07-01

    Active mode locking by monolithic lasers with integrated electroabsorption modulators using strained-InGaAsP multiple quantum wells is described. The electroabsorption modulator acts as a short optical gate when a sinusoidal voltage is driven at a deep bias point. Pulse widths as short as 2 ps have been obtained at a repetition rate of 16.3 GHz for a 2.5-mm-long monolithic laser.

  8. 80Gb/s clock recovery with phase locked loop based on LiNbO3 modulators.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G; Wang, Q; Dong, H; Sun, H; Dutta, N

    2004-07-26

    In this paper, we present a scheme for extracting a 10GHz clock from the 80Gb/s optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) return to zero (RZ) data stream. The proposed clock recovery is based on the offset locking technique. By using the input data composed of a repeating "10100000" pattern, residue jitter free operation for clock recovery is demonstrated. The method utilizes a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder (MZ) intensity modulator for cross-correlation detections.

  9. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz. 15.251 Section 15.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission...

  10. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz. 15.251 Section 15.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission...

  11. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz. 15.251 Section 15.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission...

  12. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz. 15.251 Section 15.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission...

  13. 47 CFR 15.251 - Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26 GHz, 3.267-3.332 GHz, 3.339-3.3458 GHz, and 3.358-3.6 GHz. 15.251 Section 15.251 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission...

  14. Locking mechanism for indexing device

    DOEpatents

    Lindemeyer, Carl W.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a locking mechanism for an indexing spindle. A conventional r gear having outwardly extending teeth is affixed to the spindle. Also included is a rotatably mounted camshaft whose axis is arranged in skewed relationship with the axis of the spindle. A disk-like wedge having opposing camming surfaces is eccentrically mounted on the camshaft. As the camshaft is rotated, the camming surfaces of the disc-like member are interposed between adjacent gear teeth with a wiping action that wedges the disc-like member between the gear teeth. A zero backlash engagement between disc-like member and gear results, with the engagement having a high mechanical advantage so as to effectively lock the spindle against bidirectional rotation.

  15. Locking mechanism for indexing device

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenmeyer, C.W.

    1982-01-25

    Disclosed is a locking mechanism for an indexing spindle. A conventional spur gear having outwardly extending teeth is affixed to the spindle. Also included is a rotatably mounted camshaft whose axis is arranged in skewed relationship with the axis of the spindle. A disk-like wedge having opposing camming surfaces is eccentrically mounted on the camshaft. As the camshaft is rotated, the camming surfaces of the disk are interposed between adjacent gear teeth with a wiping action that wedges the disk between the gear teeth. A zero backlash engagement between disk and gear results, with the engagement having a high mechanical advantage so as to effectively lock the spindle against bi-directional rotation.

  16. Locking mechanism for indexing device

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemeyer, C.W.

    1984-08-14

    Disclosed is a locking mechanism for an indexing spindle. A conventional spur gear having outwardly extending teeth is affixed to the spindle. Also included is a rotatably mounted camshaft whose axis is arranged in skewed relationship with the axis of the spindle. A disk-like wedge having opposing camming surfaces is eccentrically mounted on the camshaft. As the camshaft is rotated, the camming surfaces of the disc-like member are interposed between adjacent gear teeth with a wiping action that wedges the disc-like member between the gear teeth. A zero backlash engagement between disc-like member and gear results, with the engagement having a high mechanical advantage so as to effectively lock the spindle against bidirectional rotation.

  17. Digital phase-lock loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Jr., Jess B. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved digital phase lock loop incorporates several distinctive features that attain better performance at high loop gain and better phase accuracy. These features include: phase feedback to a number-controlled oscillator in addition to phase rate; analytical tracking of phase (both integer and fractional cycles); an amplitude-insensitive phase extractor; a more accurate method for extracting measured phase; a method for changing loop gain during a track without loss of lock; and a method for avoiding loss of sampled data during computation delay, while maintaining excellent tracking performance. The advantages of using phase and phase-rate feedback are demonstrated by comparing performance with that of rate-only feedback. Extraction of phase by the method of modeling provides accurate phase measurements even when the number-controlled oscillator phase is discontinuously updated.

  18. Self-locking threaded fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, Ronald J.; Tierney, John C.; McLean, Leroy L.; Johnson, Lawrence L.

    1996-01-01

    A threaded fastener with a shape memory alloy (SMA) coatings on its threads is disclosed. The fastener has special usefulness in high temperature applications where high reliability is important. The SMA coated fastener is threaded into or onto a mating threaded part at room temperature to produce a fastened object. The SMA coating is distorted during the assembly. At elevated temperatures the coating tries to recover its original shape and thereby exerts locking forces on the threads. When the fastened object is returned to room temperature the locking forces dissipate. Consequently the threaded fasteners can be readily disassembled at room temperature but remains securely fastened at high temperatures. A spray technique is disclosed as a particularly useful method of coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy.

  19. Self-locking threaded fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.

    1996-01-16

    A threaded fastener with a shape memory alloy (SMA) coatings on its threads is disclosed. The fastener has special usefulness in high temperature applications where high reliability is important. The SMA coated fastener is threaded into or onto a mating threaded part at room temperature to produce a fastened object. The SMA coating is distorted during the assembly. At elevated temperatures the coating tries to recover its original shape and thereby exerts locking forces on the threads. When the fastened object is returned to room temperature the locking forces dissipate. Consequently the threaded fasteners can be readily disassembled at room temperature but remains securely fastened at high temperatures. A spray technique is disclosed as a particularly useful method of coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. 13 figs.

  20. Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking.

    PubMed

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Huber, Robert

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate a subharmonically Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser source with a substantially reduced cavity fiber length. In contrast to a standard Fourier domain mode-locked configuration, light is recirculated repetitively in the delay line with the optical bandpass filter used as switch. The laser has a fundamental optical round trip frequency of 285 kHz and can be operated at integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). Sweep ranges up to 95 nm full width centred at 1317 nm are achieved at the 1/5th subharmonic. A maximum sensitivity of 116 dB and an axial resolution of 12 microm in air are measured at an average sweep power of 12 mW. A sensitivity roll-off of 11 dB over 4 mm and 25 dB over 10 mm is observed and optical coherence tomography imaging is demonstrated. Besides the advantage of a reduced fiber length, subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking (shFDML) enables simple scaling of the sweep speed by extracting light from the delay part of the resonator. A sweep rate of 570 kHz is achieved. Characteristic features of shFDML operation, such as power leakage during fly-back and cw breakthrough, are investigated.

  1. Millimeter wave absorption in the nonhuman primate eye at 35 GHz and 94 GHz.

    PubMed

    Chalfin, Steven; D'Andrea, John A; Comeau, Paul D; Belt, Michael E; Hatcher, Donald J

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate anterior segment bioeffects of pulsed 35 GHz and 94 GHz microwave exposure in the nonhuman primate eye. Five juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) underwent baseline anterior segment ocular assessment consisting of slit lamp examination, corneal topography, specular microscopy, and pachymetry. These studies were repeated after exposure of one eye to pulsed 35 GHz or 94 GHz microwaves at varied fluences, with the other eye serving as a control. The mean fluence required to produce a threshold corneal lesion (faint epithelial edema and fluorescein staining) was 7.5 J cm(-2) at 35 GHz and 5 J cm(-2) at 94 GHz. Transient changes in corneal topography and pachymetry were noted at these fluences. Endothelial cell counts remained unchanged. Threshold corneal injury from 35 GHz and 94 GHz microwave exposure is produced at fluences below those previously reported for CO2 laser radiation. These data may help elucidate the mechanism of thermal injury to the cornea, and resolve discrepancies between IEEE C95.1 (1999), NCRP (1986), and ICNIRP (1998) safety standards for exposure to non-ionizing radiation at millimeter wavelengths.

  2. Exploring the self-mode-locked dynamics of cryogenic diode-pumped Nd:YLF lasers: switching of orthogonal polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. L.; Y Cho, C.; Liang, H. C.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2017-08-01

    The self-mode-locked output for cryogenic Nd:YLF laser at the temperature range of 90 K to 290 K is thoroughly investigated. Linearly polarized self-mode-locked lasing at 1047 nm (1053 nm) with a repetition rate up to 1.59 GHz and a pulse width as short as 52 ps can be realized at temperatures above 155 K (below 135 K). Orthogonally polarized self-mode-locked operation can be observed at temperatures near 145 K. During dual-polarization operation, it is found that the polarized component with higher output power is the fundamental transverse mode, whereas the other component with lower output power becomes the high-order transverse mode. The dominant polarized component can be either π- or σ-polarization, depending on the fine adjustment of the cavity.

  3. Sub-picosecond pulse and terahertz optical frequency comb generation by monolithically integrated linear mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Mu-Chieh; Guzmán, Robinson; Ali, Muhsin; Santos, Rui; Augustin, Luc; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    We report on a record broad 3-dB bandwidth of 14 nm ( 1.8 THz around 1532 nm) optical frequency comb generated from a passively mode-locked quantum-well (QW) laser in the form of photonic integrated circuits through an InP generic photonic integration technology platform. This 21.5-GHz colliding-pulse mode-locked laser cavity is defined by two on-chip reflectors incorporating intracavity phase modulators followed by an out-of-cavity SOA as booster. Under certain operating conditions, an ultra-wide spectral bandwidth is achieved along with an autocorrelation trace confirming the mode locking nature exhibiting a pulse width of 0.35 ps. The beat note RF spectrum has a linewidth of sub-MHz and 35-dB SNR.

  4. Contactless Investigations of Yeast Cell Cultivation in the 7 GHz and 240 GHz Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, J.; Schmalz, K.; Gastrock, G.; Cahill, B. P.; Meliani, C.

    2013-04-01

    Using a microfluidic system based on PTFE tubes, experimental results of contactless and label-free characterization techniques of yeast cell cultivation are presented. The PTFE tube has an inner diameter of 0.5 mm resulting in a sample volume of 2 μ1 for 1 cm sample length. Two approaches (at frequencies around 7 GHz and 240 GHz) are presented and compared in terms of sensitivity and applicability. These frequency bands are particularly interesting to gain information on the permittivity of yeast cells in Glucose solution. Measurements from 240 GHz to 300 GHz were conducted with a continuous wave spectrometer from Toptica. At 7 GHz band, measurements have been performed using a rat-race based characterizing system realized on a printed circuit board. The conducted experiments demonstrate that by selecting the phase as characterization parameter, the presented contactless and label-free techniques are suitable for cell cultivation monitoring in a PTFE pipe based microfluidic system.

  5. Use of optical speckle patterns for compressive sensing of RF signals in the GHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, George C.; Sefler, George A.; Shaw, T. Justin

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that speckle patterns at the output of multimode optical waveguides can be used for a compressive sensing (CS) measurement matrix (MM) to measure sparse RF signals in the GHz band (1-100 GHz). In our system mode-locked femtosecond laser pulses are stretched to a width on the order of the interpulse time, modulated by the RF, and injected into a multimode waveguide. The speckle pattern out of the guide is imaged onto an array of photodiodes whose output is digitized by a bank of ADCs. We have measured the CS MM for multimode fibers and used these MMs to demonstrate that sparse RF signals (sparsity K) modulated on a chirped optical carrier can be recovered from M measurements (the number of photodiodes) consistent with the CS relation M ~ K log(N/K) (N is the number of samples needed for Nyquist rate sampling). We demonstrate experimentally that speckle sampling gives comparable results to the photonic WDM sampling system used previously for periodic undersampling (multi-coset sampling) of RF chirp pulses. We have also calculated MMs for both multimode fibers and planar waveguides using their respective mode solutions to determine optimal waveguide parameters for a CS system. Our results suggest a path to a CS system for GHz band RF signals that can be completely constructed using photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology.

  6. Improvements in Speed and Functionality of a 670-GHz Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dengler, Robert J.; Cooper, Ken B.; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter H.; Tarsala, Jan A.; Bryllert, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made in the instrument originally described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article: Improved Speed and Functionality of a 580-GHz Imaging Radar (NPO-45156), Vol. 34, No. 7 (July 2010), p. 51. First, the wideband YIG oscillator has been replaced with a JPL-designed and built phase-locked, low-noise chirp source. Second, further refinements to the data acquisition and signal processing software have been performed by moving critical code sections to C code, and compiling those sections to Windows DLLs, which are then invoked from the main LabVIEW executive. This system is an active, single-pixel scanned imager operating at 670 GHz. The actual chirp signals for the RF and LO chains were generated by a pair of MITEQ 2.5 3.3 GHz chirp sources. Agilent benchtop synthesizers operating at fixed frequencies around 13 GHz were then used to up-convert the chirp sources to 15.5 16.3 GHz. The resulting signals were then multiplied 36 times by a combination of off-the-shelf millimeter- wave components, and JPL-built 200- GHz doublers and 300- and 600-GHz triplers. The power required to drive the submillimeter-wave multipliers was provided by JPL-built W-band amplifiers. The receive and transmit signal paths were combined using a thin, high-resistivity silicon wafer as a beam splitter. While the results at present are encouraging, the system still lacks sufficient speed to be usable for practical applications in a contraband detection. Ideally, an image acquisition speed of ten seconds, or a factor of 30 improvement, is desired. However, the system improvements to date have resulted in a factor of five increase in signal acquisition speed, as well as enhanced signal processing algorithms, permitting clearer imaging of contraband objects hidden underneath clothing. In particular, advances in three distinct areas have enabled these performance enhancements: base source phase noise reduction, chirp rate, and signal processing. Additionally, a second

  7. 140-GHz pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbe, W. F.; Leskovar, B.

    1985-01-01

    A pulsed microwave spectrometer operating in the vicinity of 140 GHz for the detection of rotational transitions in gaseous molecules is described. The spectrometer incorporates a tunable Fabry-Perot cavity and a subharmonically pumped superheterodyne receiver for the detection of the molecular emission signals. A 70-GHz source supplying a high-efficiency frequency doubler which is pulse modulated at 30 MHz produces sidebands of sufficient power at 140 GHz to excite the molecules. The cavity is tuned to one of the modulation sidebands. The operation of the spectrometer is illustrated by the detection of emission signals from the 6(2, 4)-6(1, 5) transition of SO2 gas. The generation of the electric dipole analog of nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) ``spin-echo'' signals by a π/2-π pulse sequence is also described.

  8. A 30 GHz monolithic receive module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondal, J.; Contolatis, T.; Geddes, J.; Bauhahn, P.; Sokolov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The technical achievements and deliveries made during the duration of the program to develop a 30 GHz monolithic receive module for communication feed array applications and to deliver submodules and 30 GHz monolithic receive modules for experimental evaluation are discussed. Key requirements include an overall receive module noise figure of 5 dB, a 30 dB RF-to-RF gain with six levels of intermediate gain control, a five bit phase shifter, and a maximum power consumption of 250 mW. In addition, the monolithic receive module design addresses a cost goal of less than one thousand dollars (1980 dollars) per module in unit buys of 5,000 or more, and a mechanical configuration that is applicable to a spaceborne phase array system. An additional task for the development and delivery of 32 GHz phase shifter integrated circuit (IC) for deep space communication is also described.

  9. Low noise amplifiers above 18 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennan, W.; Chye, P.

    Noise reduction in ground stations operating above 18 GHz are explored in terms of current limitations in device, measurement and circuit technology and progress on a low noise amplifier. GaAs FETs have, as of 1982, reached a level of 1.55 dB noise and 12.3 dB gain. The devices include a 75 micron gate width and sub-quarter micron gate length. The noise figures are thus far determined in the 20-22 GHz range. A balanced microstrip circuit 0.65 x 0.51 cm in size featuring Lange couplers, input and output matching circuits, quarter wavelength bias chokes and TaN resistor bias networks has been developed for VSWR and cascading stages applications. The amplifier, in a two-stage configuration, has furnished a bandwidth of 12-22 GHz.

  10. A 12 GHz broadband latching circulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Y.; Konishi, H.; Sakamoto, K.

    The two kinds of latching circulators, external return path and internal return path, are defined, noting the advantages (faster switching speed, lower switching energy, less complicated fabrication) offered by the internal configuration. It is noted, however, that this kind of circulator is difficult to make broadband because the return paths do not seem to act as part of the ferrite junction. The development of a 12-GHz broadband, internal return path circulator with impedance matching transformer and in-phase adjustment screws designed using eigenvalue measurement is described. In describing the operating characteristics, it is noted that more than 25 dB isolation over 11 GHz to 13.5 GHz and 0.25 dB insertion loss is obtained.

  11. Is one hair lock really representative?

    PubMed

    Dussy, Franz; Carson, Nicholas; Hangartner, Sarah; Briellmann, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    When investigating someone's hair a single lock is cut, washed, extracted and analysed. The forensic institutes in Switzerland agreed to retain a second lock for a possible reassessment. We were interested in the reproducibility of the concentrations of analytes in hair locks taken from different areas of the head of the same person covering the same time period. Therefore we analysed ethyl glucuronide and caffeine as model substances in 10 hair locks from three individuals categorised as social drinkers. The individual coefficients of variation varied between 14% and 28% for ethyl glucuronide and between 13% and 62% for caffeine corresponding to factors of 1.6 to 4.2 for the highest to the lowest concentrations between the hair locks. This finding has a significant importance both when the second hair lock has to be analysed in a forensic case and if the interpretation of the result is depending on a cut-off value.

  12. Subpicosecond pulse generation from a 1.56 μm mode-locked VECSEL.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuang; Bouchoule, Sophie; Song, Jinyan; Galopin, Elisabeth; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Decobert, Jean; Aubin, Guy; Oudar, Jean-Louis

    2011-11-15

    Near-transform-limited subpicosecond pulses at 1.56 μm were generated from an optically pumped InP-based vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) passively mode-locked at 2 GHz repetition rate with a fast InGaAsNSb/GaAs semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The SESAM microcavity resonance was adjusted via a selective etching of phase layers specifically designed to control the magnitude of both the modulation depth and the intracavity group delay dispersion of the SESAM. Using the same VECSEL chip, we observed that the mode-locked pulse duration could be reduced from several picoseconds to less than 1 ps with a detuned resonant SESAM.

  13. Hybrid mode-locked fiber ring laser using graphene and charcoal nanoparticles as saturable absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2016-05-01

    A fiber ring laser which implements hybrid mode locking technique has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to generate pulse train at 20 GHz repetition rate with ultrashort pulse width. Graphene and charcoal nano-particles acting as passive mode lockers are inserted into a rational harmonic mode-locked fiber laser to improve the performance. With graphene saturable absorbers, the pulse duration is shortened from 5.3 ps to 2.8 ps, and with charcoal nano-particles, it is shortened to 3.2 ps. The RF spectra show that supermode noise can be removed in the presence of the saturable absorbers. Numerical simulation of the pulse transmission has also been carried out, which shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Dichroic atomic vapor laser lock with multi-gigahertz stabilization range

    SciTech Connect

    Pustelny, S.; Schultze, V.; Scholtes, T.; Budker, D.

    2016-06-15

    A dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) system exploiting buffer-gas-filled millimeter-scale vapor cells is presented. This system offers similar stability as achievable with conventional DAVLL system using bulk vapor cells, but has several important advantages. In addition to its compactness, it may provide continuous stabilization in a multi-gigahertz range around the optical transition. This range may be controlled either by changing the temperature of the vapor or by application of a buffer gas under an appropriate pressure. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate the ability of the system to lock the laser frequency between two hyperfine components of the {sup 85}Rb ground state or as far as 16 GHz away from the closest optical transition.

  15. Actively mode-locked fiber ring laser by intermodal acousto-optic modulation.

    PubMed

    Bello-Jiménez, M; Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Sáez-Rodríguez, D; Diez, A; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V

    2010-11-15

    We report an actively mode-locked fiber ring laser. A simple and low-insertion-loss acousto-optic modulator driven by standing flexural waves, which couples core-to-cladding modes in a standard single-mode optical fiber, is used as an active mechanism for mode locking. Among the remarkable features of the modulator, we mention its high modulation depth (72%), broad bandwidth (187 GHz), easy tunability in the optical wavelength, and low insertion losses (0.7 dB). The narrowest optical pulses obtained were of 95 ps time width, 21 mW peak power, repetition rate of 4.758 MHz, and 110 mW of pump power.

  16. Two-photon dichroic atomic vapor laser lock using electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Becerra, F. E.; Willis, R. T.; Rolston, S. L.; Orozco, L. A.

    2009-07-15

    We demonstrate a technique to lock the frequency of a laser to a transition between two excited states in Rb vapor using a two-photon process in the presence of a weak magnetic field. We use a ladder configuration from specific hyperfine sublevels of the 5S{sub 1/2}, 5P{sub 3/2}, and 5D{sub 5/2} levels. This atomic configuration can show electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption processes. The error signal comes from the difference in the transparency or absorption felt by the two orthogonal polarizations of the probe beam. A simplified model is in good quantitative agreement with the observed signals for the experimental parameters. We have used this technique to lock the frequency of the laser up to 1.5 GHz off atomic resonance.

  17. Extremely Coherent Microwave Emission from Spin Torque Oscillator Stabilized by Phase Locked Loop

    PubMed Central

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Yuasa, Shinji; Fukushima, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Spin torque oscillator (STO) has been attracting a great deal of attention as a candidate for the next generation microwave signal sources for various modern electronics systems since its advent. However, the phase noise of STOs under free running oscillation is still too large to be used in practical microwave applications, thus an industrially viable means to stabilize its oscillation has been strongly sought. Here we demonstrate implementation of a phase locked loop using a STO as a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) that generates a 7.344 GHz microwave signal stabilized by a 153 MHz reference signal. Spectrum measurement showed successful phase locking of the microwave signal to the reference signal, characterized by an extremely narrow oscillation peak with a linewidth of less than the measurement limit of 1 Hz. This demonstration should be a major breakthrough toward various practical applications of STOs. PMID:26658880

  18. Highly stable RF signal from a mode-locked laser stabilized to multiple saturated absorption lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Anton V.; Uskov, Alexander V.; Polyakov, Vadim M.

    2017-02-01

    We control the optical comb in Nd:YVO4 mode-locked lasers with intracavity frequency doubling based on KTP crystals via changing the cavity length and its dispersion properties and achieve high-purity radiofrequency (RF) signals. The laser output wavelength (532 nm) is in the range of the molecular iodine absorption spectrum with narrow (1.5 kHz) homogeneously broadened lines. We propose to stabilize the two longitudinal modes on two narrow iodine absorption lines. The third derivative of the absorption line could be obtained by heterodyning the absorption signal with the third harmonic of the modulation signal. The resulting RF error signal could be used to stabilize two locked longitudinal modes separated by 1.37 GHz which results in stabilized beat note signal.

  19. Extremely Coherent Microwave Emission from Spin Torque Oscillator Stabilized by Phase Locked Loop.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Yuasa, Shinji; Fukushima, Akio

    2015-12-11

    Spin torque oscillator (STO) has been attracting a great deal of attention as a candidate for the next generation microwave signal sources for various modern electronics systems since its advent. However, the phase noise of STOs under free running oscillation is still too large to be used in practical microwave applications, thus an industrially viable means to stabilize its oscillation has been strongly sought. Here we demonstrate implementation of a phase locked loop using a STO as a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) that generates a 7.344 GHz microwave signal stabilized by a 153 MHz reference signal. Spectrum measurement showed successful phase locking of the microwave signal to the reference signal, characterized by an extremely narrow oscillation peak with a linewidth of less than the measurement limit of 1 Hz. This demonstration should be a major breakthrough toward various practical applications of STOs.

  20. Extremely Coherent Microwave Emission from Spin Torque Oscillator Stabilized by Phase Locked Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Yuasa, Shinji; Fukushima, Akio

    2015-12-01

    Spin torque oscillator (STO) has been attracting a great deal of attention as a candidate for the next generation microwave signal sources for various modern electronics systems since its advent. However, the phase noise of STOs under free running oscillation is still too large to be used in practical microwave applications, thus an industrially viable means to stabilize its oscillation has been strongly sought. Here we demonstrate implementation of a phase locked loop using a STO as a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) that generates a 7.344 GHz microwave signal stabilized by a 153 MHz reference signal. Spectrum measurement showed successful phase locking of the microwave signal to the reference signal, characterized by an extremely narrow oscillation peak with a linewidth of less than the measurement limit of 1 Hz. This demonstration should be a major breakthrough toward various practical applications of STOs.

  1. Ultrafast pulse generation in a mode-locked Erbium chip waveguide laser.

    PubMed

    Khurmi, Champak; Hébert, Nicolas Bourbeau; Zhang, Wen Qi; Afshar V, Shahraam; Chen, George; Genest, Jérôme; Monro, Tanya M; Lancaster, David G

    2016-11-28

    We report mode-locked ~1550 nm output of transform-limited ~180 fs pulses from a large mode-area (diameter ~50 μm) guided-wave erbium fluorozirconate glass laser. The passively mode-locked oscillator generates pulses with 25 nm bandwidth at 156 MHz repetition rate and peak-power of 260 W. Scalability to higher repetition rate is demonstrated by transform-limited 410 fs pulse output at 1.3 GHz. To understand the origins of the broad spectral output, the laser cavity is simulated by using a numerical solution to the Ginzburg-Landau equation. This paper reports the widest bandwidth and shortest pulses achieved from an ultra-fast laser inscribed waveguide laser.

  2. Harmonically mode-locked Ti:Er:LiNbO{sub 3} waveguide laser

    SciTech Connect

    Suche, H.; Wessel, R.; Westenhoefer, S.; Sohler, W.; Bosso, S.; Carmannini, C.; Corsini, R.

    1995-03-15

    Active mode locking of an Er-diffusion-doped Ti:LiNbO{sub 3} waveguide laser by intracavity phase modulation to as high as the fourth harmonic (5.12 GHz) of the axial-mode frequency spacing is reported. The diode-pumped, pigtailed, and fully packaged laser with a monolithically integrated intracavity phase modulator has a threshold of 9 mW (incident pump power {ital E}{sub {ital p}}{vert_bar}{vert_bar}{ital c}) and emits transform-limited pulses of {ge}3.8-ps width and {le}5.6-pJ pulse energy (gain-switched mode locking) at 1602-nm wavelength ({ital E}{sub {ital s}}{vert_bar}{vert_bar}{ital c}). The relative change of the mode-locking frequency with the temperature is 3.65{times}10{sup {minus}5}/{degree}C. The mode-locking acceptance bandwidth is {plus_minus}75 kHz near the axial-mode frequency spacing at approximately five times the threshold pump power.

  3. An Auto-Lock Laser System for Long Term Frequency Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthiaume, Robert; Vorozcovs, Andrew; Kumarakrishnan, A.

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a compact, digitally controlled system to automatically stabilize the frequency of an external cavity diode laser to an atomic resonance. The key component of the system is a low-cost single-board computer with A/D and D/A capability that acts as a specialized lock-in amplifier. The system performs pattern matching between Doppler-free peaks obtained by scanning the laser frequency and reference peaks stored in the processor's memory. The incoming spectral signals are compared with the reference waveforms using a sliding correlation algorithm, which determines the control voltage required for adjusting the laser frequency to the desired lock point. The system has a scan amplitude of less than 1MHz when locked and it can re-lock for frequency drifts up to 10 GHz without human intervention. The dependence of laser frequency stability on ambient temperature, humidity, and pressure has been investigated. The performance of the system is suitable for experiments in atom trapping and atom interferometry that require long-term laser frequency stabilization.

  4. Phase-locking and coherent power combining of broadband linearly chirped optical waves.

    PubMed

    Satyan, Naresh; Vasilyev, Arseny; Rakuljic, George; White, Jeffrey O; Yariv, Amnon

    2012-11-05

    We propose, analyze and demonstrate the optoelectronic phase-locking of optical waves whose frequencies are chirped continuously and rapidly with time. The optical waves are derived from a common optoelectronic swept-frequency laser based on a semiconductor laser in a negative feedback loop, with a precisely linear frequency chirp of 400 GHz in 2 ms. In contrast to monochromatic waves, a differential delay between two linearly chirped optical waves results in a mutual frequency difference, and an acoustooptic frequency shifter is therefore used to phase-lock the two waves. We demonstrate and characterize homodyne and heterodyne optical phase-locked loops with rapidly chirped waves, and show the ability to precisely control the phase of the chirped optical waveform using a digital electronic oscillator. A loop bandwidth of ~ 60 kHz, and a residual phase error variance of < 0.01 rad(2) between the chirped waves is obtained. Further, we demonstrate the simultaneous phase-locking of two optical paths to a common master waveform, and the ability to electronically control the resultant two-element optical phased array. The results of this work enable coherent power combining of high-power fiber amplifiers-where a rapidly chirping seed laser reduces stimulated Brillouin scattering-and electronic beam steering of chirped optical waves.

  5. Effect of master oscillator stability over pulse repetition frequency on hybrid semiconductor mode-locked laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Alves, D.; Abreu, Manuel; Cabral, Alexandre; Rebordão, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Semiconductor mode-locked lasers are a very attractive laser pulse source for high accuracy length metrology. However, for some applications, this kind of device does not have the required frequency stability. Operating the laser in hybrid mode will increase the laser pulse repetition frequency (PRF) stability. In this study it is showed that the laser PRF is not only locked to the master oscillator but also maintains the same level of stability of the master oscillator. The device used in this work is a 10 mm long mode-locked asymmetrical cladding single section InAs/InP quantum dash diode laser emitting at 1580 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of ≈4.37 GHz. The laser nominal stability in passive mode (no external oscillator) shows direct dependence with the gain current and the stability range goes from 10-4 to 10-7. Several oscillators with different stabilities were used for the hybrid-mode operation (with external oscillator) and the resulting mode-locked laser stability compared. For low cost oscillators with low stability, the laser PRF stability achieves a value of 10-7 and for higher stable oscillation source (such as oven controlled quartz oscillators (OXCO)) the stability can reach values up to 10-12 (τ =1 s).

  6. Towards chip-scale optical frequency synthesis based on optical heterodyne phase-locked loop.

    PubMed

    Arafin, Shamsul; Simsek, Arda; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Dwivedi, Sarvagya; Liang, Wei; Eliyahu, Danny; Klamkin, Jonathan; Matsko, Andrey; Johansson, Leif; Maleki, Lute; Rodwell, Mark; Coldren, Larry

    2017-01-23

    An integrated heterodyne optical phase-locked loop was designed and demonstrated with an indium phosphide based photonic integrated circuit and commercial off-the-shelf electronic components. As an input reference, a stable microresonator-based optical frequency comb with a 50-dB span of 25 nm (~3 THz) around 1550 nm, having a spacing of ~26 GHz, was used. A widely-tunable on-chip sampled-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector laser is offset locked across multiple comb lines. An arbitrary frequency synthesis between the comb lines is demonstrated by tuning the RF offset source, and better than 100Hz tuning resolution with ± 5 Hz accuracy is obtained. Frequency switching of the on-chip laser to a point more than two dozen comb lines away (~5.6 nm) and simultaneous locking to the corresponding nearest comb line is also achieved in a time ~200 ns. A low residual phase noise of the optical phase-locking system is successfully achieved, as experimentally verified by the value of -80 dBc/Hz at an offset of as low as 200 Hz.

  7. Characterization of Power MESFETs at 21 GHz.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-15

    constructed for use between 12 and 24 GHz based on a microwave- diplexer filter. The bias-tee is constructed using air and teflon- loaded coaxial transmission...FREQUENCY 21 GHz GAIN (dB) VDe 6.5 V 8 I = 139 mnA AT RF MAX 7 28- D 6 z171 mnA no RF 5 4 -186 mnA AT 22.9 24 -dBmn OUTImI 2020 ~16- 14 12 12 88 4 4

  8. 17 GHz High Gradient Accelerator Research

    SciTech Connect

    Temkin, Richard J.; Shapiro, Michael A.

    2013-07-10

    This is a report on the MIT High Gradient Accelerator Research program which has included: Operation of the 17 GHz, 25 MeV MIT/Haimson Research Corp. electron accelerator at MIT, the highest frequency, stand-alone accelerator in the world; collaboration with members of the US High Gradient Collaboration, including the design and test of novel structures at SLAC at 11.4 GHz; the design, construction and testing of photonic bandgap structures, including metallic and dielectric structures; the investigation of the wakefields in novel structures; and the training of the next generation of graduate students and postdoctoral associates in accelerator physics.

  9. The 60 GHz solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclymonds, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new amplifier architecture was developed during this contract that is superior to any other solid state approach. The amplifier produced 6 watts with 4 percent efficiency over a 2 GHz band at 61.5 GHz. The unit was 7 x 9 x 3 inches in size, 5.5 pounds in weight, and the conduction cooling through the baseplate is suitable for use in space. The amplifier used high efficiency GaAs IMPATT diodes which were mounted in 1-diode circuits, called modules. Eighteen modules were used in the design, and power combining was accomplished with a proprietary passive component called a combiner plate.

  10. 95 GHz gyrotron with ferroelectric cathode.

    PubMed

    Einat, M; Pilossof, M; Ben-Moshe, R; Hirshbein, H; Borodin, D

    2012-11-02

    Ferroelectric cathodes were reported as a feasible electron source for microwave tubes. However, due to the surface plasma emission characterizing this cathode, operation of millimeter wave tubes based on it remains questionable. Nevertheless, the interest in compact high power sources of millimeter waves and specifically 95 GHz is continually growing. In this experiment, a ferroelectric cathode is used as an electron source for a gyrotron with the output frequency extended up to 95 GHz. Power above a 5 kW peak and ~0.5 μs pulses are reported; a duty cycle of 10% is estimated to be achievable.

  11. VIEW LOOKING WEST THROUGH LOCK 70. NOTE THE EXTANT HARDWARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST THROUGH LOCK 70. NOTE THE EXTANT HARDWARE EMBEDED IN THE TOP OF THE LOCK WALLS, THE RECESSES IN THE LOCK WALLS, AND THE LATER-ERA CONCRETE WEIR APPROXIMATELY WHERE THE LOCK GATE SHOULD BE. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  12. Phase-lock loop frequency control and the dropout problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attwood, S.; Kline, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    Technique automatically sets the frequency of narrow band phase-lock loops within automatic lock-in-range. It presets a phase-lock loop to a desired center frequency with a closed loop electronic frequency discriminator and holds the phase-lock loop to that center frequency until lock is achieved.

  13. 1. LOCK CHAMBER, LOOKING NORTH. WITH A DEPTH OF 16 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOCK CHAMBER, LOOKING NORTH. WITH A DEPTH OF 16 FEET, LOCK #28 WAS THE DEEPEST LOCK IN THAT PORTION OF THE OHIO AND ERIE CANAL BETWEEN AKRON AND CLEVELAND, HENCE ITS POPULAR NAME,'DEEP LOCK'. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Lock No. 28, East of Junction of Major & Riverview Roads, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  14. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, LOCK 35 IS ON THE RIGHT. CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, LOCK 35 IS ON THE RIGHT. CANAL WORKERS ARE CLEANING TRASH GRATES TO LOCK 35 WATER INLET. ENTRANCE TO OLD LOCK 71 ON LEFT. NOTE THE SEDIMENT BUILD UP IN THE ENTRANCE CHANNEL TO OLD LOCK 71. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  15. 47 CFR 25.136 - Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz, 1.5/1.6 GHz, and 2 GHz Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.136 Licensing provisions for user transceivers in the 1.6/2.4 GHz... specified in § 25.213, earth stations operating in the 1.6/2.4 GHz and 1.5/1.6 GHz Mobile Satellite Services... aircraft unless the earth station has a direct physical connection to the aircraft cabin or...

  16. Bandwidth controller for phase-locked-loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, Milton H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A phase locked loop utilizing digital techniques to control the closed loop bandwidth of the RF carrier phase locked loop in a receiver provides high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range for signal reception. After analog to digital conversion, a digital phase locked loop bandwidth controller provides phase error detection with automatic RF carrier closed loop tracking bandwidth control to accommodate several modes of transmission.

  17. Spring-Loaded-Bolt Locking Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calco, Frank S.

    1990-01-01

    Locking device designed to clamp small objects temporarily onto object or vehicle that accelerates. Intended to be used in place of toggle clamp, which can snap out of lock during excessive shock or vibration or because of accidental contact of person or object with toggle locking handle. Device looks and operates somewhat like spring-loaded door bolt. Moderate vibrations do not cause accidental unlocking.

  18. Hydraulic Design of Lock Culvert Valves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Engineering and Design HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF LOCK CULVERT VALVES Distribution Restriction Statement Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Report Documentation Page Report Date 10 Jul 1989 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Hydraulic Design of Lock...from experience and research that may be useful to Corps of Engineers hydraulic designers concerned with the design of control valves for navigation lock

  19. A multiple-pass ring oscillator based dual-loop phase-locked loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danfeng, Chen; Junyan, Ren; Jingjing, Deng; Wei, Li; Ning, Li

    2009-10-01

    A dual-loop phase-locked loop (PLL) for wideband operation is proposed. The dual-loop architecture combines a coarse-tuning loop with a fine-tuning one, enabling a wide tuning range and low voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) gain without poisoning phase noise and reference spur suppression performance. An analysis of the phase noise and reference spur of the dual-loop PLL is emphasized. A novel multiple-pass ring VCO is designed for the dual-loop application. It utilizes both voltage-control and current-control simultaneously in the delay cell. The PLL is fabricated in Jazz 0.18-μm RF CMOS technology. The measured tuning range is from 4.2 to 5.9 GHz. It achieves a low phase noise of -99 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz offset from a 5.5 GHz carrier.

  20. Biomechanical comparison of volar locked plate constructs using smooth and threaded locking pegs.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jeffrey; Park, Min Jung; Patel, Chirag S

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether there is any biomechanical difference in terms of construct strength with axial loading between volar fixed-angle locking plates with threaded locking vs smooth locking pegs. The control group comprised 7 cadaveric specimens with threaded locking pegs, and the test group comprised 7 cadaveric specimens from the same donor with smooth locking pegs. The DVR plate (Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) was applied to the volar surface. A 15-mm dorsal wedge osteotomy was created near the level of Lister's tubercle. The radii were potted in polymethylmethacrylate for biomechanical testing. The loading protocol consisted of 3 parts: ramp loading, cyclic loading, and failure loading. The outcome measures of stiffness and failure were used to test the plates fixed with threaded and smooth locking pegs. When comparing each cycle, the difference in mean stiffness between threaded and smooth locking pegs was as follows: 122 N/mm, -9.09 N/mm, -14.7 N/mm, 49.4 N/mm, 57.4 N/mm, 71.9 N/mm, 52.3 N/mm, 35.8 N/mm. The difference in mean failure load between the threaded and smooth locking pegs was -11.3 N. There was no difference in stiffness throughout all cycles. Failure analysis showed no significant difference between the smooth (962 N) and threaded (951 N) locking pegs. The difference in stiffness between the 2 constructs (smooth minus threaded locking pegs) in ramp loading ranged from -122 to 15 N/mm. The results of this study showed no significant differences in stiffness and failure load between constructs consisting of threaded locking pegs or smooth locking pegs in the distal rows of the DVR distal radius volar locking plate. Based on the results of this study, there may be no benefit to using threaded locking pegs vs smooth locking pegs when treating distal radius fractures with a volar locking plate.

  1. Field Experience with Lock Culvert Valves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    interesting accounts regarding their lock culvert valves. ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY Eisenhower and Snell Locks. The valves on the Eisenhower and Snell Locks...Tainter Valve Design Lift, ft Eisenhower St. Lawrence Seaway 80 x 860 12 x 14 21.0 DSP 43 Snell St. Lawrence Seaway 80 x 860 12 x 14 21.0 3 DSP, 1 VF 49...vertical-frame valves were furnished to the SLSDC in January 2011, and one was installed in the south filling-valve location at Snell Lock. An option

  2. Microcontroller-based locking in optics experiments.

    PubMed

    Huang, K; Le Jeannic, H; Ruaudel, J; Morin, O; Laurat, J

    2014-12-01

    Optics experiments critically require the stable and accurate locking of relative phases between light beams or the stabilization of Fabry-Perot cavity lengths. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive technique based on a stand-alone microcontroller unit to perform such tasks. Easily programmed in C language, this reconfigurable digital locking system also enables automatic relocking and sequential functioning. Different algorithms are detailed and applied to fringe locking and to low- and high-finesse optical cavity stabilization, without the need of external modulations or error signals. This technique can readily replace a number of analog locking systems advantageously in a variety of optical experiments.

  3. Microcontroller-based locking in optics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.; Le Jeannic, H.; Ruaudel, J.; Morin, O.; Laurat, J.

    2014-12-15

    Optics experiments critically require the stable and accurate locking of relative phases between light beams or the stabilization of Fabry-Perot cavity lengths. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive technique based on a stand-alone microcontroller unit to perform such tasks. Easily programmed in C language, this reconfigurable digital locking system also enables automatic relocking and sequential functioning. Different algorithms are detailed and applied to fringe locking and to low- and high-finesse optical cavity stabilization, without the need of external modulations or error signals. This technique can readily replace a number of analog locking systems advantageously in a variety of optical experiments.

  4. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  5. Peer-to-Peer Magnetron Locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Edward Jeffrey

    The viability of coherent power combination of multiple high-efficiency, moderate power magnetrons requires a thorough understanding of frequency and phase control. Injection locking of conventional magnetrons, and other types of oscillators, employing a master-to-slave configuration has been studied theoretically and experimentally. This dissertation focuses on the peer-to-peer locking, where each oscillator acts as a master of and slave to all others, between two conventional magnetrons, where the general condition for locking was recently derived. The experiments performed on peer-to-peer locking of two 1-kW magnetrons verify the recently developed theory on the condition under which the two nonlinear oscillators may be locked to a common frequency and relative phase. This condition reduces to Adler's classical locking condition (master-slave) if the coupling is one way. Dependent on the degree of coupling, the frequency of oscillation when locking occurs was found to not necessarily lie between the two magnetrons' free running frequencies. Likewise, when the locking condition was violated, the beat of the spectrum was not necessarily found to be equal to the difference between the free running frequencies. The frequency of oscillation and relative phase between the two magnetrons when locking did occur were found to correspond to one of two solution modes given by the recent theory. The accessibility of the two possible modes is yet to be determined. This work was supported by ONR, AFRL, AFOSR, L-3 Communications Electron Devices Division and Northrop-Grumman Corporation.

  6. Robust quantum data locking from phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo, Cosmo; Wilde, Mark M.; Lloyd, Seth

    2014-08-01

    Quantum data locking is a uniquely quantum phenomenon that allows a relatively short key of constant size to (un)lock an arbitrarily long message encoded in a quantum state, in such a way that an eavesdropper who measures the state but does not know the key has essentially no information about the message. The application of quantum data locking in cryptography would allow one to overcome the limitations of the one-time pad encryption, which requires the key to have the same length as the message. However, it is known that the strength of quantum data locking is also its Achilles heel, as the leakage of a few bits of the key or the message may in principle allow the eavesdropper to unlock a disproportionate amount of information. In this paper we show that there exist quantum data locking schemes that can be made robust against information leakage by increasing the length of the key by a proportionate amount. This implies that a constant size key can still lock an arbitrarily long message as long as a fraction of it remains secret to the eavesdropper. Moreover, we greatly simplify the structure of the protocol by proving that phase modulation suffices to generate strong locking schemes, paving the way to optical experimental realizations. Also, we show that successful data locking protocols can be constructed using random code words, which very well could be helpful in discovering random codes for data locking over noisy quantum channels.

  7. Simulation Study Using an Injection Phase-locked Magnetron as an Alternative Source for SRF Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haipeng; Plawski, Tomasz E.; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    As a drop-in replacement for the CEBAF CW klystron system, a 1497 MHz, CW-type high-efficiency magnetron using injection phase lock and amplitude variation is attractive. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using analytical models and MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron has not been built yet, previously measured characteristics of a 2.45GHz cooker magnetron are used as reference. The results of linear responses to the amplitude and phase control of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity, and the expected overall benefit for the current CEBAF and future MEIC RF systems are presented in this paper.

  8. Phase drift cancellation of remote radio frequency transfer using an optoelectronic delay-locked loop.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lumin; Chang, Le; Dong, Yi; Xie, Weilin; He, Hao; Hu, Weisheng

    2011-03-15

    In this Letter, we propose a phase drift cancellation method for remote radio frequency transfer. Phase fluctuation along the transmission fiber, which is induced by temperature and pressure changes, is measured and compensated by a heterodyne optoelectronic delay-locked loop. The control loop consists of a heterodyne optoelectronic phase detector, a microwave delay module, and the loop filter. We demonstrate the concept by transmitting a 10 GHz microwave frequency over 50 km single-mode fiber, with subpicosecond jitters measured at the remote end.

  9. Wide-range tunability, thermal locking, and mode-crossing effects in Kerr optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoping; Saleh, Khaldoun; Henriet, Rémi; Diallo, Souleymane; Martinenghi, Romain; Coillet, Aurélien; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-12-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate some effects related to the Kerr optical frequency comb generation, using a millimeter-size magnesium fluoride ultrahigh quality disk resonator. We show that the Kerr comb tunability can be extremely wide in the Turing pattern (or primary comb) regime, with an intermodal frequency that can be tuned from 4 to 229 multiple free spectral ranges (corresponding to a frequency spacing ranging from 24 GHz to 1.35 THz). We also discuss the role played by thermal locking while pumping the resonator, as well as the effect of modal crossing when broadband combs are generated.

  10. Locking mechanism for orthopedic braces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    I-Lechao, J.; Epps, C. H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A locking mechanism for orthopedic braces is described which automatically prevents or permits the relative pivotable movement between a lower brace member and an upper brace member. The upper and lower brace members are provided with drilled bores within which a slidable pin is disposed, and depending upon the inclination of the brace members with respect to a vertical plane, the slidable pin will be interposed between both brace members. The secondary or auxiliary latching device includes a spring biased, manually operable lever bar arrangement which is manually unlatched and automatically latched under the influence of the spring.

  11. Digital phase-locked loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An digital phase-locked loop is provided for deriving a loop output signal from an accumulator output terminal. A phase detecting exclusive OR gate is fed by the loop digital input and output signals. The output of the phase detector is a bi-level digital signal having a duty cycle indicative of the relative phase of the input and output signals. The accumulator is incremented at a first rate in response to a first output level of the phase detector and at a second rate in response to a second output level of the phase detector.

  12. A 20 GHz Active Receive Slot Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulintseff, A. N.; Lee, K.; Sukamto, L.; Chew, W.

    1994-01-01

    A 20 GHz active receive slot array has been developed for operation in the downlink frequency band of NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) for the ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. The AMT is to demonstrate voice and data communication between a mobile terminal in Los Angeles, California, and a fixed terminal in Cleveland, Ohio, via the ACTS satellite.

  13. Propagation handbook, frequencies above 10 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Louis J.

    1988-01-01

    The progress and accomplishments in the developmet of the Fourth Edition of the NASA Propagation Effects Handbook for Satellite Systems Design, for frequencies 10 to 100 GHz, NASA Reference Publication 1082(04), dated May 1988, prepared by Westighouse Electric Corporation for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are discussed.

  14. A 20 GHz Active Receive Slot Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulintseff, A. N.; Lee, K.; Sukamto, L.; Chew, W.

    1994-01-01

    A 20 GHz active receive slot array has been developed for operation in the downlink frequency band of NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) for the ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) project. The AMT is to demonstrate voice and data communication between a mobile terminal in Los Angeles, California, and a fixed terminal in Cleveland, Ohio, via the ACTS satellite.

  15. 60 GHz Tapered Transmission Line Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-15

    DARPA TEAM program (contract no. DAAB07-02-1- L428 ), Motorola, and the UC-Micro program. 60 GHz Tapered Transmission Line Resonators by...0403427, wafer fabrication donation by STMicroelectronics, DARPA TEAM program (con- tract no. DAAB07-02-1- L428 ), Motorola, and the UC-Micro program. 1

  16. 44/20 GHz Ground Terminal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    contract was awarded to Andrew Antenna Co., Whitby , Ontario to design and construct the (44/20) GHz feed system. The design (Fig. 1) also included the...Receive 1.5 max. Power Rating (10 - 100) watts Axial ratios VSWR, and primary patterns (Appendix A) were measured at the Whitby Plant and supplied

  17. DOWNSTREAM LOCK GATE DETAIL VIEW WITH DOG HOUSE. NOTE CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOWNSTREAM LOCK GATE DETAIL VIEW WITH DOG HOUSE. NOTE CONTROL ARM AND GEAR FOR GATE. LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Illinois Waterway, Dresden Island Lock and Dam , 7521 North Lock Road, Channahon, Will County, IL

  18. UPSTREAM LOCK GATE DETAIL AND DOG HOUSE. NOTE ARM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UPSTREAM LOCK GATE DETAIL AND DOG HOUSE. NOTE ARM AND GEARING FOR CONTROLLING LOCK GATE. LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST. - Illinois Waterway, Brandon Road Lock and Dam , 1100 Brandon Road, Joliet, Will County, IL

  19. 170. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED LOCK SHOWING DOORS PARTIALLY OPEN. IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. VIEW OF UNIDENTIFIED LOCK SHOWING DOORS PARTIALLY OPEN. IRON RODS STICKING UP FROM GATES OPERATE PADDLES THAT ALLOWS WATER IN LOCK TO EQUALIZE WITH WATER IN CANAL DURING THE LOCKING PROCEDURE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  20. 89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. LOCK 13 EAST. WOODEN TIMBERS (FOREGROUND LEFT AND RIGHT OF LOCK ENTRANCE) ARE BEING USED AS BUMPERS TO HELP GUIDE SHIP INTO LOCK WHILE AVOIDING CONTACT WITH WALLS. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  1. 10. Detail of bridge underside showing gears for locking mechanism ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of bridge underside showing gears for locking mechanism at south end of bridge. View to east. - Locke Avenue Bridge, Locke Avenue (County Route 671) Spanning Raccoon Creek, Swedesboro, Gloucester County, NJ

  2. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever. ...

  3. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever. ...

  4. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever. ...

  5. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever. ...

  6. 49 CFR 236.764 - Locking, lever operated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locking, lever operated. 236.764 Section 236.764... Locking, lever operated. The mechanical locking of an interlocking machine which is actuated by means of the lever. ...

  7. Bidirectional 60-GHz radio-over-fiber systems with downstream OFDMA and wavelength reuse upstream SC-FDMA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Duan, Jun; Li, Juhao; Hu, Weiwei; Li, Hongbin; Wu, Hequan; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2010-08-30

    We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a 60-GHz bidirectional radio-over-fiber system with downstream orthogonal frequency division multiplexing address (OFDMA) and wavelength reuse upstream single-carrier frequency division multiple address (SC-FDMA). In the downstream, a 3-dB optical coupler is used for two-carrier injection-locking a distributed feedback (DFB) laser in order to realize the single-sideband modulation. In the upstream, the weakly modulated one of the two downstream carriers is filtered out for wavelength reuse. Transmission of 9.65-Gb/s 16-QAM downstream OFDMA on 60-GHz carrier and 5-Gb/s QPSK upstream SC-FDMA (2.5 Gb/s for each user) are both successfully demonstrated over 53-km standard single mode fiber without chromatic dispersion compensation. The crosstalk between the downstream OFDMA and the upstream SC-FDMA can be neglected.

  8. Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungwon; Park, Matthew J; Perrott, Michael H; Kärtner, Franz X

    2008-10-13

    Conversion of analog signals into digital signals is one of the most important functionalities in modern signal processing systems. As the signal frequency increases beyond 10 GHz, the timing jitter from electronic clocks, currently limited at approximately 100 fs, compromises the achievable resolution of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Owing to their ultralow timing jitter, the use of optical pulse trains from passively mode-locked lasers has been considered to be a promising way for sampling electronic signals. In this paper, based on sub-10 fs jitter optical sampling pulse trains, we demonstrate a photonic subsampling ADC that downconverts and digitizes a narrowband microwave signal at 40 GHz carrier frequency with higher than 7 effective-number-of-bit (ENOB) resolution.

  9. 1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler.

    PubMed

    Mary, Rose; Brown, Graeme; Beecher, Stephen J; Torrisi, Felice; Milana, Silvia; Popa, Daniel; Hasan, Tawfique; Sun, Zhipei; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Ohara, Seiki; Ferrari, Andrea C; Kar, Ajoy K

    2013-04-08

    We fabricate a saturable absorber mirror by coating a graphene- film on an output coupler mirror. This is then used to obtain Q-switched mode-locking from a diode-pumped linear cavity channel waveguide laser inscribed in Ytterbium-doped Bismuthate Glass. The laser produces 1.06 ps pulses at ~1039 nm, with a 1.5 GHz repetition rate, 48% slope efficiency and 202 mW average output power. This performance is due to the combination of the graphene saturable absorber and the high quality optical waveguides in the laser glass.

  10. Beat note stabilization of a 10-60 GHz dual-polarization microlaser through optical down conversion.

    PubMed

    Rolland, A; Brunel, M; Loas, G; Frein, L; Vallet, M; Alouini, M

    2011-02-28

    Down-conversion of a high-frequency beat note to an intermediate frequency is realized by a Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator. Optically-carried microwave signals in the 10-60 GHz range are synthesized by using a two-frequency solid-state microchip laser as a voltage-controlled oscillator inside a digital phase-locked loop. We report an in-loop relative frequency stability better than 2.5×10⁻¹¹. The principle is applicable to beat notes in the millimeter-wave range.

  11. A Wide Spaced Femtosecond Ti:Sapphire Frequency Comb at 15 GHz by a Fabry—Pérot Filter Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Han, Hai-Nian; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Li, De-Hua; Wei, Zhi-Yi

    2013-10-01

    We realize a wide spaced frequency comb by using an external low-fineness Fabry—Pérot (F-P) cavity to filter few-cycle laser pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser at the fundamental repetition rate of 350MHz. Mode spacing as wide as 15 GHz with spectrum covered from 690 nm to 710 nm is demonstrated, corresponding to a filter multiple of about 43. The scanning transmission peaks after the F-P cavity with cavity lengths are also simulated numerically, and the results are in agreement with the experiment.

  12. Critical behavior of a passively mode-locked laser: rational harmonic mode locking.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Li; Gu, Zhaochang; Zhang, Jianwen; Xia, Yuxing

    2007-08-15

    The critical behavior of passive mode locking has been demonstrated in a figure-eight fiber laser that performs rational harmonic mode locking (RHML). On both the repetition rate and the pulse amplitude distribution, the observed pulse trains near the threshold exhibit the same regulations as the rational harmonic mode-locked ones. The theory also shows that there should be a middle status of RHML before achieving normal mode locking. It is important to note that the results provide what we believe to be the first confirmed attempt to address a fundamental question: how does a laser become mode locking with an increase of pump power?

  13. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE PINE STREET BRIDGE. THE LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE PINE STREET BRIDGE. THE LOCK ACCESS ROAD (FORMER TOW PATH) IS AT THE EXTREME LEFT, AND LOCKS 69 THROUGH 67 ARE IN THE CENTER LEFT, THE LOCK MACHINE SHOP IS IN THE MID-GROUND CENTER, AND THE ERIE CANAL MUSEUM (FORMER LOCK POWER PLANT) IN THE BACKGROUND CENTER. THE BARGE CANAL LOCK 34 IS AT THE EXTREME RIGHT. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  14. 49 CFR 236.769 - Locking, traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.769 Locking, traffic. Electric locking which prevents the manipulation of levers or other devices for changing the direction of traffic on a section of track while that section is occupied or while a...

  15. 49 CFR 236.760 - Locking, approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.760 Locking, approach. Electric locking effective while a train is approaching, within a specified distance, a signal displaying an aspect to proceed, and which prevents, until after the expiration of a...

  16. 49 CFR 236.329 - Bolt lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 236.329 Bolt lock. Bolt lock shall be so maintained that signal governing movements over switch or... while derail is in derailing position, or when switch point is open one-half inch or more....

  17. 49 CFR 236.329 - Bolt lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 236.329 Bolt lock. Bolt lock shall be so maintained that signal governing movements over switch or... while derail is in derailing position, or when switch point is open one-half inch or more....

  18. Self-Injection Locking Of Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.

    1991-01-01

    Simple optical coupling scheme locks array of gain-guided diode lasers into oscillation in single mode and with single-lobed output beam. Selective feedback from thin etalon self-injection-locks array into desired mode. One application of new scheme for pumping of neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet lasers with diode-laser arrays.

  19. Self-Injection Locking Of Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.

    1991-01-01

    Simple optical coupling scheme locks array of gain-guided diode lasers into oscillation in single mode and with single-lobed output beam. Selective feedback from thin etalon self-injection-locks array into desired mode. One application of new scheme for pumping of neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet lasers with diode-laser arrays.

  20. Wideband Phase-Locked Angle Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Lim

    1991-01-01

    Modified configuration for phase-locked angle modulator circuit makes possible to design filters in modulating portion of circuit independently of filter in phase-locked-loop portion. Bandwidth of phase- or frequency-modulated output not limited by low-pass nature of loop filter.

  1. 49 CFR 236.307 - Indication locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for all approach signals except light signals, all aspects of which are controlled by polar or coded..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.307 Indication locking. Indication locking shall be provided for operative approach signals of the...

  2. 49 CFR 236.307 - Indication locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for all approach signals except light signals, all aspects of which are controlled by polar or coded..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.307 Indication locking. Indication locking shall be provided for operative approach signals of the...

  3. 49 CFR 236.307 - Indication locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for all approach signals except light signals, all aspects of which are controlled by polar or coded..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.307 Indication locking. Indication locking shall be provided for operative approach signals of the...

  4. 49 CFR 236.307 - Indication locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for all approach signals except light signals, all aspects of which are controlled by polar or coded..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.307 Indication locking. Indication locking shall be provided for operative approach signals of the...

  5. 49 CFR 236.307 - Indication locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for all approach signals except light signals, all aspects of which are controlled by polar or coded..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.307 Indication locking. Indication locking shall be provided for operative approach signals of the...

  6. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  7. An automatic mode-locked system for passively mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sha; Xu, Jun; Chen, Guoliang; Mei, Li; Yi, Bo

    2013-12-01

    This paper designs and implements one kind of automatic mode-locked system. It can adjust a passively mode-locked fiber laser to keep steady mode-locked states automatically. So the unsteadiness of traditional passively mode-locked fiber laser can be avoided. The system transforms optical signals into electrical pulse signals and sends them into MCU after processing. MCU calculates the frequency of the signals and judges the state of the output based on a quick judgment algorithm. A high-speed comparator is used to check the signals and the comparison voltage can be adjusted to improve the measuring accuracy. Then by controlling two polarization controllers at an angle of 45degrees to each other, MCU extrudes the optical fibers to change the polarization until it gets proper mode-locked output. So the system can continuously monitor the output signal and get it back to mode-locked states quickly and automatically. States of the system can be displayed on the LCD and PC. The parameters of the steady mode-locked states can be stored into an EEPROM so that the system will get into mode-locked states immediately next time. Actual experiments showed that, for a 6.238MHz passively mode-locked fiber lasers, the system can get into steady mode-locked states automatically in less than 90s after starting the system. The expected lock time can be reduced to less than 20s after follow up improvements.

  8. New high-performance complementary bipolar technology featuring 45-GHz NPN and 20-GHz PNP devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Martin C.; Osborne, Peter H.; Thomas, Simon; Cook, Trevor

    1999-09-01

    A new high performance silicon complementary bipolar technology is introduced. In addition a novel process 'enhancement' technique based on a local oxidation is described and demonstrated and NPN devices with cut-off frequencies up to 45GHz and PNP devices of 20GHz have been fabricate. We propose that the technique we have used will allow specific transistors within a circuit to be optimized, as required.

  9. A 10 GHz bandwidth, single transient, digitized oscilloscope with 20 GHz capability

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.L.; Kocimski, S.M.; Spector, J.; Thomas, J.B.; Woodstra, R.R.

    1993-12-31

    EG&G/EM has developed an oscilloscope with a {minus}3 dB bandwidth greater than 10 GHz. Its rolloff characteristics are such that single-transient data greater than 20 GHz may be captured. A demountable CCD camera records the oscilloscope trace and is provided with PC-compatible capture and data processing software. The capabilities of the oscilloscope, camera, and its processing software are described and examples of the system`s performance is shown.

  10. A widely tunable 10-μm quantum cascade laser phase-locked to a state-of-the-art mid-infrared reference for precision molecular spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sow, P. L. T.; Mejri, S.; Tokunaga, S. K.; Lopez, O.; Argence, B.; Chardonnet, C.; Darquié, B.; Goncharov, A.; Amy-Klein, A.; Daussy, C.

    2014-06-30

    We report the coherent phase-locking of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) at 10-μm to the secondary frequency standard of this spectral region, a CO{sub 2} laser stabilized on a saturated absorption line of OsO{sub 4}. The stability and accuracy of the standard are transferred to the QCL resulting in a line width of the order of 10 Hz, and leading to the narrowest QCL to date. The locked QCL is then used to perform absorption spectroscopy spanning 6 GHz of NH{sub 3} and methyltrioxorhenium, two species of interest for applications in precision measurements.

  11. Locking support for nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ledin, Eric

    1980-01-01

    A locking device for supporting and locking a nuclear fuel assembly within a cylindrical bore formed by a support plate, the locking device including a support and locking sleeve having upwardly extending fingers forming wedge shaped contact portions arranged for interaction between an annular tapered surface on the fuel assembly and the support plate bore as well as downwardly extending fingers having wedge shaped contact portions arranged for interaction between an annularly tapered surface on the support plate bore and the fuel assembly whereby the sleeve tends to support and lock the fuel assembly in place within the bore by its own weight while facilitating removal and/or replacement of the fuel assembly.

  12. Commonwealth Edison Company pressure locking test report

    SciTech Connect

    Bunte, B.D.; Kelly, J.F.

    1996-12-01

    Pressure Locking is a phenomena which can cause the unseating thrust for a gate valve to increase dramatically from its typical static unseating thrust. This can result in the valve actuator having insufficient capability to open the valve. In addition, this can result in valve damage in cases where the actuator capability exceeds the valve structural limits. For these reasons, a proper understanding of the conditions which may cause pressure locking and thermal binding, as well as a methodology for predicting the unseating thrust for a pressure locked or thermally bound valve, are necessary. This report discusses the primary mechanisms which cause pressure locking. These include sudden depressurization of piping adjacent to the valve and pressurization of fluid trapped in the valve bonnet due to heat transfer. This report provides a methodology for calculating the unseating thrust for a valve which is pressure locked. This report provides test data which demonstrates the accuracy of the calculation methodology.

  13. Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Min-Chi; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Li, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-06-30

    By up-shifting the relaxation oscillation peak and suppressing its relative intensity noise in a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) under intense injection-locking, the directly modulated transmission of optical 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data-stream is demonstrated. The total bit rate of up to 20 Gbit/s within 5-GHz bandwidth is achieved by using the OFDM subcarrier pre-leveling technique. With increasing the injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm, the effective reduction on threshold current of the WRC-FPLD significantly shifts its relaxation oscillation frequency from 5 to 7.5 GHz. This concurrently induces an up-shift of the peak relative intensity noise (RIN) of the WRC-FPLD, and effectively suppresses the background RIN level to -104 dBc/Hz within the OFDM band between 3 and 6 GHz. The enhanced signal-to-noise ratio from 16 to 20 dB leads to a significant reduction of bit-error-rate (BER) of the back-to-back transmitted 16-QAM-OFDM data from 1.3 × 10(-3) to 5 × 10(-5), which slightly degrades to 1.1 × 10(-4) after 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. However, the enlarged injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm inevitably declines the modulation throughput and increases its negative throughput slope from -0.8 to -1.9 dBm/GHz. After pre-leveling the peak amplitude of the OFDM subcarriers to compensate the throughput degradation of the directly modulated WRC-FPLD, the BER under 25-km SMF transmission can be further improved to 3 × 10(-5) under a receiving power of -3 dBm.

  14. Selective lock for anchoring well tools

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, W.F.; Hopmann, M.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for effecting the locking of a well tool in any selected one of a plurality of identical nipples provided in spaced relationship along a well tubing string. Each nipple is provided with an annular recess to receive expandable locking dogs carried by the locking mechanism and an upwardly facing no-go shoulder which is of no lesser diameter than the bore of the tubular string. The locking mechanism is shearably mounted on a running tool and incorporates an expansible C-ring which has a downwardly facing shoulder engagable, when expanded, with the no-go shoulder of the selected locking nipple. The expansible C-ring is held in a retracted position by a collet having spring arms which pass freely downwardly through any or all of the nipples but, when moved upwardly through a selected nipple, engage a surface on the nipple and pull the collet out of its retaining position with respect to the expansible C-ring. The C-ring expands into engagement with the upwardly facing no-go shoulder, thus permitting the application of a downward force to the locking mechanism which effects the shearing of shear pins holding a camming mandrel in an inoperative position with respect to the locking dogs. The camming mandrel is then moved downwardly by the running tool to expand the locking dogs into engagement with the locking recess, following which, the running tool may be removed from the locking mechanism by an upward pull which shears a second shear pin.

  15. 164-GHz MMIC HEMT Frequency Doubler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Radisic, Vesna; Micovic, Miro; Hu, Ming; Janke, Paul; Ngo, Catherine; Nguyen, Loi; Morgan, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    A monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) that includes a high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) has been developed as a prototype of improved frequency doublers for generating signals at frequencies greater than 100 GHz. Signal sources that operate in this frequency range are needed for a variety of applications, notably including general radiometry and, more specifically, radiometric remote sensing of the atmosphere. Heretofore, it has been common practice to use passive (diode-based) frequency multipliers to obtain frequencies greater than 100 GHz. Unfortunately, diode-based frequency multipliers are plagued by high DC power consumption and low conversion efficiency. Moreover, multiplier diodes are not easily integrated with such other multiplier-circuit components as amplifiers and oscillators. The goals of developing the present MMIC HEMT frequency doubler were (1) to utilize the HEMT as an amplifier to increase conversion efficiency (more precisely, to reduce conversion loss), thereby increasing the output power for a given DC power consumption or, equivalently, reducing the DC power consumption for a given output power; and (2) to provide for the integration of amplifier and oscillator components on the same chip. The MMIC frequency doubler (see Figure 1) contains an AlInAs/GaInAs/InP HEMT biased at pinch-off to make it function as a class-B amplifier (meaning that it conducts in half-cycle pulses). Grounded coplanar waveguides (GCPWs) are used as impedance-matching transmission lines. Air bridges are placed at discontinuities to suppress undesired slot electromagnetic modes. Another combination of GCPWs also serves both as a low-pass filter to suppress undesired oscillations at frequencies below 60 GHz and as a DC blocker. Large decoupling capacitors and epitaxial resistors are added in the drain and gate lines to suppress bias oscillations. At the output terminal, the fundamental frequency is suppressed by a quarter-wave open stub, which presents

  16. Traveling-Wave Maser for 32 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shell, James; Clauss, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The figure depicts a traveling-wave ruby maser that has been designed (though not yet implemented in hardware) to serve as a low-noise amplifier for reception of weak radio signals in the frequency band of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The design offers significant improvements over previous designs of 32-GHz traveling-wave masers. In addition, relative to prior designs of 32-GHz amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors, this design affords higher immunity to radio-frequency interference and lower equivalent input noise temperature. In addition to the basic frequency-band and low-noise requirements, the initial design problem included a requirement for capability of operation in a closed-cycle helium refrigerator at a temperature .4 K and a requirement that the design be mechanically simplified, relative to prior designs, in order to minimize the cost of fabrication and assembly. Previous attempts to build 32- GHz traveling-wave masers involved the use of metallic slow-wave structures comprising coupled transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-mode resonators that were subject to very tight tolerances and, hence, were expensive to fabricate and assemble. Impedance matching for coupling signals into and out of these earlier masers was very difficult. A key feature of the design is a slow-wave structure, the metallic portions of which would be mechanically relatively simple in that, unlike in prior slow-wave structures, there would be no internal metal steps, irises, or posts. The metallic portions of the slow-wave structure would consist only of two rectangular metal waveguide arms. The arms would contain sections filled with the active material (ruby) alternating with evanescent-wave sections. This structure would be transparent in both the signal-frequency band (the aforementioned range of 31.8 to 32.3 GHz) and the pump-frequency band (65.75 to 66.75 GHz), and would impose large slowing factors in both frequency bands. Resonant ferrite isolators would be placed in the

  17. 47 CFR 101.525 - 24 GHz system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 24 GHz system operations. 101.525 Section 101.525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.525 24 GHz...

  18. 47 CFR 101.525 - 24 GHz system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 24 GHz system operations. 101.525 Section 101.525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.525 24 GHz...

  19. 47 CFR 101.525 - 24 GHz system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 24 GHz system operations. 101.525 Section 101.525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.525 24 GHz...

  20. 47 CFR 101.525 - 24 GHz system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 24 GHz system operations. 101.525 Section 101.525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.525 24 GHz...

  1. 47 CFR 101.525 - 24 GHz system operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 24 GHz system operations. 101.525 Section 101.525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.525 24 GHz...

  2. Bandwidth enhancement in an injection-locked quantum dot laser operating at 1.31-μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, N. A.; Pochet, M.; Kovanis, V.; Lester, L. F.

    2010-02-01

    The high-speed modulation characteristics of an injection-locked quantum dot Fabry-Perot (FP) semiconductor laser operating at 1310-nm under strong injection are investigated experimentally with a focus on the enhancement of the modulation bandwidth. The coupled system consists of a directly-modulated Quantum Dot (QD) slave injected-locked by a distributed feedback (DFB) laser as the master. At particular injection strengths and zero detuning cases, a unique modulation response is observed that differs from the typical modulation response observed in injection-locked systems. This unique response is characterized by a rapid low-frequency rise along with a slow high-frequency roll-off that enhances the 3-dB bandwidth of the injection-locked system at the expense of losing modulation efficiency of about 20 dB at frequencies below 1 GHz. Such behavior has been previously observed both experimentally and theoretically in the high-frequency response characteristic of an injection-locked system using an externally-modulated master; however, the results shown here differ in that the slave laser is directly-modulated. The benefit of the observed response is that it takes advantage of the enhancement of the resonance frequency achieved through injection-locking without experiencing the low frequency dip that significantly limits the useful bandwidth in the conventional injection-locked response. The second benefit of this unique response is the improvement in the high frequency roll-off that extends the bandwidth. Finally a 3-dB bandwidth improvement of greater than 8 times compared to the free-running slave laser has been achieved.

  3. Loss of catheter locking solution caused by fluid density.

    PubMed

    Polaschegg, Hans-Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    The avoidance of clotting in catheter lumina between treatments usually entails locking with an anticoagulant solution such as heparin. In a previous work, it was shown that approximately 20% of locking solution flows from the catheter during instillation of the lock equal in volume to the lumen volume. Furthermore, the locking solution may spill into the blood stream under the influence of gravity. This work investigates the influence of density and viscosity of the locking solution on the volume and speed of locking solution loss from the catheter lumen. A large fraction of the catheter locking solution spills under the influence of gravity if the locking solution's density is higher than the fluid it spills to (blood). Locking solution lost is replaced by blood. Viscosity delays this process, but at 90 minutes after injection, the loss is completed even when highly viscous lock solutions are used. Slow administration of the lock has negligible influence upon the dynamics of the loss.

  4. 802GHz integrated horn antennas imaging array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Dave, Hemant; Chin, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    Pattern measurements at 802GHz of a single element in 256-element integrated horn imaging array are presented. The integrated-horn antenna consists of a dipole-antenna suspended on a 1-micron dielectric membrane inside a pyramidal cavity etched in silicon. The theoretical far-field patterns, calculated using reciprocity and Floquet-modes representation of the free-space field, agree well with the measured far-field patterns at 802GHz. The associated directivity for a 1.40 lambda horn aperture, calculated from the measured E and H-plane patterns is 12.3dB + or - 0.2dB. This work demonstrates that high-efficiency integrated-horn antennas are easily scalable to terahertz frequencies and could be used for radio-astronomical and plasma-diagnostic applications.

  5. Integrated 222-GHz corner-reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gearhart, Steven S.; Ling, Curtis C.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    A high-gain monolithic millimeter-wave antenna has been designed, fabricated, and tested at 222 GHz. The structure consists of a traveling-wave antenna integrated on a 1.2-micron dielectric membrane and suspended in a longitudinal cavity etched in a silicon wafer. A new traveling-wave antenna design yields a wideband input impedance and a low cross-polarization component in the E- and quasi-H-plane patterns. A directivity of 17.7 dB and a main-beam efficiency of 88.5 percent are calculated from the 222-GHz pattern measurements. The integrated corner-reflector antenna is well suited for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave imaging applications in large f-number systems.

  6. SEVENTH HARMONIC 20 GHz CO-GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2014-04-08

    To satisfy the need for multi-MW rf sources in frequency ranges where commercial sources do not exist, a study was undertaken on a class of devices based on gyro-harmonic frequency multiplication. This mechanism relies upon adding energy in gyrating motion to a linear electron beam that traverses a rotating-mode TE111-mode drive cavity in a dc magnetic field. The beam then drifts along the magnetic field into a second cavity, operating in the TEn11-mode tuned to the nth harmonic of the drive cavity. Studies of this configuration have been carried out for 2 < n < 7. Results are given for multi-MW, efficient operation of a 7th harmonic device operating at 20 GHz, and a 2nd harmonic device operating at 22.4 GHz.

  7. Tree attenuation at 20 GHz: Foliage effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius

    1993-08-01

    Static tree attenuation measurements at 20 GHz (K-Band) on a 30 deg slant path through a mature Pecan tree with and without leaves showed median fades exceeding approximately 23 dB and 7 dB, respectively. The corresponding 1% probability fades were 43 dB and 25 dB. Previous 1.6 GHz (L-Band) measurements for the bare tree case showed fades larger than those at K-Band by 3.4 dB for the median and smaller by approximately 7 dB at the 1% probability. While the presence of foliage had only a small effect on fading at L-Band (approximately 1 dB additional for the median to 1% probability range), the attenuation increase was significant at K-Band, where it increased by about 17 dB over the same probability range.

  8. Olympus 20/30 GHz communications payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartini, Lamberto; Sassorossi, Tiziano

    The 20/30 GHz communications payload, the first system of its type scheduled to operate in the Ka band, is designed to provide for communications systems test at 20/30 GHz over an area as large as Europe. To this end, two directive antennas with steerable beams, about one meter in diameter and connected to a transparent transponder, capable of supporting two narrow band channels (40 MHz) and one wideband channel (700 MHz), have been installed onboard the Olympus satellite. Experiments carried by the payload are described, including both point-to-point and multipoint teleconference services, a tele-education experiment, a transcommunications experiment with wideband signals, and a connection by digital transmission at 2048 Mbit/sec between small stations in Western Europe. Operating modes for the payload are outlined and the main results of the acceptance tests obtained on the first flight model are provided. A block diagram is included.

  9. Multiple teleportation via partially entangled GHZ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Pei-Ying; Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhan, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2016-08-01

    Quantum teleportation is important for quantum communication. We propose a protocol that uses a partially entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for single hop teleportation. Quantum teleportation will succeed if the sender makes a Bell state measurement, and the receiver performs the Hadamard gate operation, applies appropriate Pauli operators, introduces an auxiliary particle, and applies the corresponding unitary matrix to recover the transmitted state.We also present a protocol to realize multiple teleportation of partially entangled GHZ state without an auxiliary particle. We show that the success probability of the teleportation is always 0 when the number of teleportations is odd. In order to improve the success probability of a multihop, we introduce the method used in our single hop teleportation, thus proposing a multiple teleportation protocol using auxiliary particles and a unitary matrix. The final success probability is shown to be improved significantly for the method without auxiliary particles for both an odd or even number of teleportations.

  10. Tree attenuation at 20 GHz: Foliage effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius

    1993-01-01

    Static tree attenuation measurements at 20 GHz (K-Band) on a 30 deg slant path through a mature Pecan tree with and without leaves showed median fades exceeding approximately 23 dB and 7 dB, respectively. The corresponding 1% probability fades were 43 dB and 25 dB. Previous 1.6 GHz (L-Band) measurements for the bare tree case showed fades larger than those at K-Band by 3.4 dB for the median and smaller by approximately 7 dB at the 1% probability. While the presence of foliage had only a small effect on fading at L-Band (approximately 1 dB additional for the median to 1% probability range), the attenuation increase was significant at K-Band, where it increased by about 17 dB over the same probability range.

  11. Delay locked loop integrated circuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

  12. Locking apparatus for gate valves

    DOEpatents

    Fabyan, J.; Williams, C.W.

    A locking apparatus for fluid operated valves having a piston connected to the valve actuator which moves in response to applied pressure within a cylinder housing having a cylinder head, a catch block is secured to the piston, and the cylinder head incorporates a catch pin. Pressure applied to the cylinder to open the valve moves the piston adjacent to the cylinder head where the catch pin automatically engages the catch block preventing further movement of the piston or premature closure of the valve. Application of pressure to the cylinder to close the valve, retracts the catch pin, allowing the valve to close. Included are one or more selector valves, for selecting pressure application to other apparatus depending on the gate valve position, open or closed, protecting such apparatus from damage due to premature closing caused by pressure loss or operational error.

  13. Locking apparatus for gate valves

    DOEpatents

    Fabyan, Joseph; Williams, Carl W.

    1988-01-01

    A locking apparatus for fluid operated valves having a piston connected to the valve actuator which moves in response to applied pressure within a cylinder housing having a cylinder head, a catch block is secured to the piston, and the cylinder head incorporates a catch pin. Pressure applied to the cylinder to open the valve moves the piston adjacent to the cylinder head where the catch pin automatically engages the catch block preventing futher movement of the piston or premature closure of the valve. Application of pressure to the cylinder to close the valve, retracts the catch pin, allowing the valve to close. Included are one or more selector valves, for selecting pressure application to other apparatus depending on the gate valve position, open or closed, protecting such apparatus from damage due to premature closing caused by pressure loss or operational error.

  14. VLBI survey at 2. 29 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Morabito, D.D.; Williams, J.G.; Faulkner, J.; Jauncey, D.L.

    1985-09-01

    VLBI observations at 2.29 GHz with fringe spacings of about 3 milliarcsec have been performed on 1398 radio sources spread over the entire sky. 917 sources were detected, including 93 percent of the identified BL Lacertae objects, 86 percent of the quasars, and 36 percent of the galaxies. The resulting catalog of compact radio sources is useful for various astrophysical studies and in the formation of VLBI celestial reference frames. 252 references.

  15. Australia 31-GHz brightness temperature exceedance statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor radiometer measurements were made at DSS 43 during an 18 month period. Brightness temperatures at 31 GHz were subjected to a statistical analysis which included correction for the effects of occasional water on the radiometer radome. An exceedance plot was constructed, and the 1 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 120 K. The 5 percent exceedance statistics occurs at 70 K, compared with 75 K in Spain. These values are valid for all of the three month groupings that were studied.

  16. Novel 140 GHz gyro-TWT amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.; Kreischer, K.E.; Shapiro, M.; Temkin, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The authors have designed and are currently building a novel gyro-TWT amplifier at powers up to 100 kW at a frequency of 140 GHz. The electron beam will be provided by an existing MIG electron gun which has been previously used in gyrotron oscillator research at the 100 kW power level at 140 GHz. The gun operates at 65 kV and up to 8A with {nu}{sub {perpendicular}}/{nu}{sub {parallel}} equal to 1.5. The novel wave circuit consists of two facing mirrors with confocal profiles in the transverse direction and flat profiles in the longitudinal direction. The mode is Gaussian-like in the transverse direction. This cavity design effectively reduces the mode competition problem in conventional amplifiers from two dimensions to one dimension. Another advantage of this circuit is the relatively large circuit size, which improves power capacity. Preliminary calculations indicate that the linear gain is about 2.7 dB/cm with an efficiency exceeding 20%. The driver of the Gyro-TWT amplifier is a 95 GHz Varian EIO generator with 100 W peak output power. The amplifier also employs a confocal mode converter which launches a gaussian beam along the axis. The slot size of the cavity is optimized to have minimal operating mode loss while maximizing losses of competing modes. A preliminary experiment using an oscillator configuration has also been designed. The device could easily be scaled to 95 GHz to meet D.O.D. needs at that frequency.

  17. Phase locked backward wave oscillator pulsed beam spectrometer in the submillimeter wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewen, F.; Gendriesch, R.; Pak, I.; Paveliev, D. G.; Hepp, M.; Schieder, R.; Winnewisser, G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a new submillimeter wave pulsed molecular beam spectrometer with phase stabilized backward wave oscillators (BWOs). In the frequency ranges of 260-380 and 440-630 GHz, the BWOs output power varies between 3 and 60 mW. Part of the radiation was coupled to a novel designed harmonic mixer for submillimeter wavelength operation, which consists of an advanced whiskerless Schottky diode driven by a harmonic of the reference synthesizer and the BWO radiation. The resulting intermediate frequency of 350 MHz passed a low noise high electron mobility transistor amplifier, feeding the phase lock loop (PLL) circuit. The loop parameters of the PLL have been carefully adjusted for low phase noise. The half power bandwidth of the BWO radiation at 330 GHz was determined to be as small as 80 MHz, impressively demonstrating the low phase noise operation of a phase locked BWO. A double modulation technique was employed by combining an 80 Hz pulsed jet modulation and a 10-20 kHz source modulation of the BWO and reaching a minimum detectable fractional absorption of 2×10-7. For the first time, a number of pure rotational (Ka=3←2, Ka=4←3) and rovibrational transitions in the van der Waals bending and stretching bands of the Ar-CO complex were recorded.

  18. The 30-GHz monolithic receive module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolov, V.; Geddes, J.; Bauhahn, P.

    1983-01-01

    Key requirements for a 30 GHz GaAs monolithic receive module for spaceborne communication antenna feed array applications include an overall receive module noise figure of 5 dB, a 30 dB RF to IF gain with six levels of intermediate gain control, a five-bit phase shifter, and a maximum power consumption of 250 mW. The RF designs for each of the four submodules (low noise amplifier, some gain control, phase shifter, and RF to IF sub-module) are presented. Except for the phase shifter, high frequency, low noise FETs with sub-half micron gate lengths are employed in the submodules. For the gain control, a two stage dual gate FET amplifier is used. The phase shifter is of the passive switched line type and consists of 5-bits. It uses relatively large gate width FETs (with zero drain to source bias) as the switching elements. A 20 GHz local oscillator buffer amplifier, a FET compatible balanced mixer, and a 5-8 GHz IF amplifier constitute the RF/IF sub-module. Phase shifter fabrication using ion implantation and a self-aligned gate technique is described. Preliminary RF results obtained on such phase shifters are included.

  19. The 60 GHz IMPATT diode development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dat, Rovindra; Ayyagari, Murthy; Hoag, David; Sloat, David; Anand, Yogi; Whitely, Stan

    1986-01-01

    The objective is to develop 60 GHz IMPATT diodes suitable for communications applications. The performance goals of the 60 GHz IMPATT is 1W CW output power with a conversion efficiency of 15 percent and 10-year lifetime. The final design of the 60 GHz IMPATT structure evolved from computer simulations performed at the University of Michigan. The initial doping profile, involving a hybrid double-drift (HDD) design, was derived from a drift-diffusion model that used the static velocity-field characteristics for GaAs. Unfortunately, the model did not consider the effects of velocity undershoot and delay of the avalanche process due to energy relaxation. Consequently, the initial devices were oscillating at a much lower frequency than anticipated. With a revised simulation program that included the two effects given above, a second HDD profile was generated and was used as a basis for fabrication efforts. In the area of device fabrication, significant progress was made in epitaxial growth and characterization, wafer processing, and die assembly. The organo-metallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) was used. Starting with a baseline X-Band IMPATT technology, appropriate processing steps were modified to satisfy the device requirements at V-Band. In terms of efficiency and reliability, the device requirements dictate a reduction in its series resistance and thermal resistance values. Qualitatively, researchers were able to reduce the diodes' series resistance by reducing the thickness of the N+ GaAs substrate used in its fabrication.

  20. Novel 140 GHz Gyro-TWT Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Kreischer, K. E.; Shapiro, M.; Temkin, R. J.

    1996-11-01

    We have designed and are currently building a novel gyro-twt amplifier to operate at 100 kW and a frequency of 95 GHz. However, due to equipment availability in our laboratory, the amplifier will actually be operated a frequency of 140 GHz. The electron beam will be provided by an existing MIG electron gun which has been previously used in gyrotron oscillator research at the 100 kW power level at 140 GHz. The gun operates at 65 kV and up to 8A with equal to 1.5. The novel wave circuit consists of two facing mirrors with confocal profiles in the transverse direction and flat profiles in the longitudinal direction. The mode is Gaussian-like in the transverse direction. This design effectively reduces the mode competition problem in conventional amplifiers from two dimensional to one dimensional. Another advantage of this circuit is the relatively large cavity size, which improves power capacity. Preliminary calculations indicate that the linear gain is about 2.7dB/cm with an efficiency exceeding 20preliminary experiment using an oscillator configuration has also been designed.

  1. 16 channel GHz low noise SWIR photoreceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiaogang; Yuan, Ping; McDonald, Paul; Boisvert, Joseph; Chang, James; Woo, Robyn; Labios, Eduaro; Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Krainak, Michael; Yang, Guangning; Sun, Xiaoli; Lu, Wei; McIntosh, Dion; Zhou, Qiugui; Campbell, Joe

    2012-06-01

    Future NASA light detection and ranging (LIDAR) mapping systems require multi-channel receivers with high sensitivity and bandwidth operating at 1-1.5 μm wavelengths. One of the ways to improve the system performance is to improve the sensitivity of photoreceiver. InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) sensor technology is considered for this wavelength region because of high reliability. However, commercially available InGaAs APDs have low sensitivity due to the high excess-noise of InP material. Spectrolab has been developing low excess noise InGaAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with impact ionization engineering (I2E) structures and recently, APDs with excess noise factor of 0.15 have been demonstrated using an I2E design. Single channel photoreceivers built using low noise I2E APDs show a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 150 fW/rt(Hz) over a bandwidth of 1 GHz, a record for InGaAs based APDs. A 16 channel GHz SWIR photoreceiver was designed and built at Spectrolab. The photoreceiver was designed to work with a custom fiber bundle which couples the light from telescope to detectors. The photoreceiver shows a system level NEP less than 300 fW/rt(Hz) with 1 GHz bandwidth.

  2. Eruptive Solar Prominence at 37 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallunki, J.; Tornikoski, M.

    2017-07-01

    On 27 June 2012, an eruptive solar prominence was observed in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and radio wavebands. At the Aalto University Metsähovi Radio Observatory (MRO) it was observed at 37 GHz. It was the first time that the MRO followed a radio prominence with dense sampling in the millimetre wavelengths. This prompted us to study the connection of the 37 GHz event with other wavelength domains. At 37 GHz, the prominence was tracked to a height of around 1.6 R_{⊙}, at which the loop structure collapsed. The average velocity of the radio prominence was 55 ± 6 km s^{-1}. The brightness temperature of the prominence varied between 800 ± 100 K and 3200 ± 100 K. We compared our data with the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO)/ Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument's 304 Å EUV data, and found that the prominence behaves very similarly in both wavelengths. The EUV data also reveal flaring activity nearby the prominence. We present a scenario in which this flare works as a trigger that causes the prominence to move from a stable stage to an acceleration stage.

  3. No Snowball on Habitable Tidally Locked Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checlair, Jade; Menou, Kristen; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2017-08-01

    The TRAPPIST-1, Proxima Centauri, and LHS 1140 systems are the most exciting prospects for future follow-up observations of potentially inhabited planets. All of the planets orbit nearby M-stars and are likely tidally locked in 1:1 spin-orbit states, which motivates the consideration of the effects that tidal locking might have on planetary habitability. On Earth, periods of global glaciation (snowballs) may have been essential for habitability and remote signs of life (biosignatures) because they are correlated with increases in the complexity of life and in the atmospheric oxygen concentration. In this paper, we investigate the snowball bifurcation (sudden onset of global glaciation) on tidally locked planets using both an energy balance model and an intermediate-complexity global climate model. We show that tidally locked planets are unlikely to exhibit a snowball bifurcation as a direct result of the spatial pattern of insolation they receive. Instead, they will smoothly transition from partial to complete ice coverage and back. A major implication of this work is that tidally locked planets with an active carbon cycle should not be found in a snowball state. Moreover, this work implies that tidally locked planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone with low CO2 outgassing fluxes will equilibrate with a small unglaciated substellar region rather than cycling between warm and snowball states. More work is needed to determine how the lack of a snowball bifurcation might affect the development of life on a tidally locked planet.

  4. Opto-mechanical door locking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Saurabh S.; Rodrigues, Vanessa M.; Patil, Ajeetkumar; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-09-01

    We present an Opto-mechanical Door Locking System which is an optical system that combines a simple combination of a coherent light source (Laser) and a photodiode based sensor with focus toward security applications. The basic construct of the KEY comprises a Laser source in a cylindrical enclosure that slides perfectly into the LOCK. The Laser is pulsed at a fixed encrypted frequency unique to that locking system. Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) circuitry is used to achieve encryption. The casing of the key is designed in such a way that it will power the pulsing laser only when the key is inserted in the slot provided for it. The Lock includes a photo-sensor that will convert the detected light intensity to a corresponding electrical signal by decrypting the frequency. The lock also consists of a circuit with a feedback system that will carry the digital information regarding the encryption frequency code. The information received from the sensor is matched with the stored code; if found a perfect match, a signal will be sent to the servo to unlock the mechanical lock or to carry out any other operation. This technique can be incorporated in security systems for residences and safe houses, and can easily replace all conventional locks which formerly used fixed patterns to unlock. The major advantage of this proposed optomechanical system over conventional ones is that it no longer relies on a solid/imprinted pattern to perform its task and hence makes it almost impossible to tamper with.

  5. Phase-locked loops and their application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C. (Editor); Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A collection of papers is presented on the characteristics and capabilities of phase-locked loops (PLLs), along with some applications of interest. The discussion covers basic theory (linear and nonlinear); acquisition; threshold; stability; frequency demodulation and detection; tracking; cycle slipping and loss of lock; phase-locked oscillators; operation and performance in the presence of noise; AGC, AFC, and APC circuits and systems; digital PLL; and applications and miscellaneous. With the rapid development of IC technology, PLLs are expected to be used widely in consumer electronics.

  6. Binary phase locked loops for Omega receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, K.

    1974-01-01

    An all-digital phase lock loop (PLL) is considered because of a number of problems inherent in an employment of analog PLL. The digital PLL design presented solves these problems. A single loop measures all eight Omega time slots. Memory-aiding leads to the name of this design, the memory-aided phase lock loop (MAPLL). Basic operating principles are discussed and the superiority of MAPLL over the conventional digital phase lock loop with regard to the operational efficiency for Omega applications is demonstrated.

  7. Collet lock joint for space station truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A lock joint for a Space Station has a series of struts joined together in a predetermined configuration by node point fittings. The fittings have removeable inserts. The lock joint has an elongated housing connected at one end to a strut. A split-fingered collet is mounted within the housing to insure reciprocal movement. A handle on the housing is connected to the collet for moving the collet into the insert where the fingers of the collet expand to lock the joint to the fitting.

  8. Phase-locked loops and their application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C. (Editor); Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    A collection of papers is presented on the characteristics and capabilities of phase-locked loops (PLLs), along with some applications of interest. The discussion covers basic theory (linear and nonlinear); acquisition; threshold; stability; frequency demodulation and detection; tracking; cycle slipping and loss of lock; phase-locked oscillators; operation and performance in the presence of noise; AGC, AFC, and APC circuits and systems; digital PLL; and applications and miscellaneous. With the rapid development of IC technology, PLLs are expected to be used widely in consumer electronics.

  9. Parallel Digital Phase-Locked Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Shah, Biren N.; Hinedi, Sami M.

    1995-01-01

    Wide-band microwave receivers of proposed type include digital phase-locked loops in which band-pass filtering and down-conversion of input signals implemented by banks of multirate digital filters operating in parallel. Called "parallel digital phase-locked loops" to distinguish them from other digital phase-locked loops. Systems conceived as cost-effective solution to problem of filtering signals at high sampling rates needed to accommodate wide input frequency bands. Each of M filters process 1/M of spectrum of signal.

  10. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH EAST INTO THE LOCK, SHOWING THE GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTH EAST INTO THE LOCK, SHOWING THE GATES TO THE LOCK, NOTE THE SCALE OF THE BOAT RELATIVE TO THE SCALE OF THE LOCK. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Navigation Lock, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is mechanically...

  12. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is mechanically...

  13. 49 CFR 236.759 - Lock, facing point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Lock, facing point. A mechanical lock for a switch, derail, or movable-point frog, comprising a plunger stand and a plunger which engages a lock rod attached to the switch point to lock the operated unit....

  14. 49 CFR 236.759 - Lock, facing point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Lock, facing point. A mechanical lock for a switch, derail, or movable-point frog, comprising a plunger stand and a plunger which engages a lock rod attached to the switch point to lock the operated unit....

  15. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is...

  16. 49 CFR 236.758 - Lock, electric, forced drop.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lock, electric, forced drop. 236.758 Section 236.758 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.758 Lock, electric, forced drop. An electric lock in which the locking member is...

  17. 27 CFR 19.282 - Breaking Government locks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breaking Government locks... Breaking Government locks. Where affixed, Government locks shall not be removed without the authorization... obtain authorization from an appropriate TTB officer, Government locks may be removed, by the...

  18. 1. VIEW SOUTH ACROSS SUSQUEHANNA RIVER, LOCK SETTING (Opening of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTH ACROSS SUSQUEHANNA RIVER, LOCK SETTING (Opening of lock on bank by shrubs, near center of photograph) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  19. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO LOCK 71. NOTE THE SEDIMENT BUILD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO LOCK 71. NOTE THE SEDIMENT BUILD UP. THIS IS BY DESIGN, NOT ONLY ARE THE OLDER LOCKS USED AS AN OVERFLOW SPILLWAY FOR THE CURRENT LOCKS, THEY ARE ALSO USED FOR SEDIMENT AND DEBRIS CONTROL. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  20. 1.61 μm high-order passive harmonic mode locking in a fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yichang; Niang, Alioune; Guesmi, Khmaies; Salhi, Mohamed; Sanchez, Francois

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a passive mode-locked Er:Yb doped double-clad ring fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber. By adjusting the polarization controller and minimizing the cavity loss, the laser can operate at hundreds of harmonics of the fundamental repetition frequency of the resonator with the central wavelength of 1.61 μm. Up to 683rd harmonic (which corresponds to 5.882 GHz) of the fundamental repetition frequency was achieved.