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Sample records for loeys-dietz syndrome type

  1. Phenotypic variability and diffuse arterial lesions in a family with Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 4.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, J-M; Frank, M; Collignon, P; Langeois, M; Legrand, A; Jeunemaitre, X; Albuisson, J

    2017-03-01

    Syndromic thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) can suggest Marfan, vascular Ehlers-Danlos or Loeys-Dietz (LDS) syndromes. Several of the TGFβ-pathway-related genes predispose to different types of LDS. Heterozygous loss-of-function variations in TGFβ2 have been shown to be responsible for a novel form of syndromic TAAD associated with an impairment of the mitral valve and cerebrovascular disease called Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 4 (LDS4). We report the clinical characterization of a LDS4 French family with sudden deaths and diffuse vascular lesions, caused by a frameshift mutation in TGFβ2 gene: c.[995del]; p.(Leu332TrpfsTer27). Clinical characteristics include aneurysm of aortic sinus, skeletal and cutaneous features compatible with a syndromic form of TAAD (joint hypermobility, scoliosis, and easy bruises), intracranial aneurysms and rare mitral valve involvement. Iliac aneurysms, systemic medium caliber arteries dissections, and mild developmental delay were present in the family, and have not been described in LDS4. Phenotypic variability was also an important finding, including absence of clinical vascular events at advanced age in one case. Our data expand the phenotype of LDS4: we confirm that TGFβ2 mutations are responsible for true LDS syndrome with non-specific features of connective tissue disorders and diffuse vascular lesions. Adapted vascular follow up and prevention has to be proposed for these patients.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Loeys-Dietz syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Names for This Condition LDS Loeys-Dietz aortic aneurysm syndrome Related Information How are genetic conditions and ... Aortic Dissection Encyclopedia: Aortic Dissection (image) Health Topic: Aortic Aneurysm Health Topic: Connective Tissue Disorders Health Topic: Osteoarthritis ...

  3. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome is a genetic disorder of the body’s connective tissue. It has some features in common with Marfan ... a mutation, growth and development of the body’s connective tissue and other body systems is disrupted, leading to ...

  4. Loeys-Dietz syndrome type I and type II: clinical findings and novel mutations in two Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Drera, Bruno; Ritelli, Marco; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Wischmeijer, Anita; Gnoli, Maria; Fattori, Rossella; Calzavara-Pinton, Pier Giacomo; Barlati, Sergio; Colombi, Marina

    2009-11-02

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder showing the involvement of cutaneous, cardiovascular, craniofacial, and skeletal systems. In particular, LDS patients show arterial tortuosity with widespread vascular aneurysm and dissection, and have a high risk of aortic dissection or rupture at an early age and at aortic diameters that ordinarily are not predictive of these events. Recently, LDS has been subdivided in LDS type I (LDSI) and type II (LDSII) on the basis of the presence or the absence of cranio-facial involvement, respectively. Furthermore, LDSII patients display at least two of the major signs of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. LDS is caused by mutations in the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-receptor I (TGFBR1) and II (TGFBR2) genes. The aim of this study was the clinical and molecular characterization of two LDS patients. The exons and intronic flanking regions of TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 genes were amplified and sequence analysis was performed. Patient 1 was a boy showing dysmorphic signs, blue sclerae, high-arched palate, bifid uvula; skeletal system involvement, joint hypermobility, velvety and translucent skin, aortic root dilatation, tortuosity and elongation of the carotid arteries. These signs are consistent with an LDSI phenotype. The sequencing analysis disclosed the novel TGFBR1 p.Asp351Gly de novo mutation falling in the kinase domain of the receptor. Patient 2 was an adult woman showing ascending aorta aneurysm, with vascular complications following surgery intervention. Velvety and translucent skin, venous varicosities and wrist dislocation were present. These signs are consistent with an LDSII phenotype. In this patient and in her daughter, TGFBR2 genotyping disclosed in the kinase domain of the protein the novel p.Ile510Ser missense mutation. We report two novel mutations in the TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 genes in two patients affected with LDS and showing marked phenotypic variability. Due to the difficulties in the

  5. Loeys-Dietz syndrome: life threatening aortic dissection diagnosed on routine family screening

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Claire A; Clowes, Virginia E; Cooper, John P

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was found to have a severely dilated aortic root and a Stanford type A dissection on familial screening echocardiography, following diagnosis of a dilated aorta in his son. The dissection required urgent surgical repair. Clinical examination suggested features of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type II, and subsequent demonstration of a mutation in the TGFBR1 gene in the patient and his son confirmed the diagnosis. This article highlights the high prevalence of inherited conditions in dilated aortic root presentations and the importance of family screening and surveillance to allow early surgical intervention. PMID:24495977

  6. High Prevalence of Cervical Deformity and Instability Requires Surveillance in Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrhop, Sara K.; McElroy, Mark J.; Dietz, Harry C.; MacCarrick, Gretchen L.; Sponseller, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a connective tissue disorder characterized by vascular, craniofacial, and musculoskeletal malformation. Our goal was to report the manifestations, surgical treatment, and complications in the cervical spine in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Methods: We reviewed the clinical and cervical spine imaging data of eighty patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome who were seen at our institution from January 2005 through January 2014. Their mean age at presentation was 17.3 years (range, three months to seventy-five years). We tested associations with use of the Fisher exact test (type of TGF-βR [transforming growth factor-beta receptor] mutation and cervical abnormalities) and the Student t test (age at presentation and type of TGF-βR mutation) (significance, p = 0.05). Results: Vertebral anomalies and cervical instability were common; we found no significant association of TGF-βR-type with cervical abnormalities or age at presentation. Twenty-eight patients had atlas defects (anterior and/or posterior arch defects or hypoplasia), fifty-three had axis malformations (elongation, apex-anterior dens angulation, or spondylolysis), and twelve had focal kyphosis. Ten patients had hypoplastic subaxial vertebrae, leading to focal kyphosis (eight) and subaxial instability (nine). Eight patients had atlantoaxial instability. Of the thirteen patients with cervical instability, nine were treated surgically: fusion (eight patients) and halo application (one) (mean age, four years; range, three months to twelve years). Postoperative complications (seven patients) were pseudarthrosis, failure of fixation, junctional kyphosis or instability, and development of occipital-cervical instability. Conclusions: Cervical midline defects (most often C1-C3) are common in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Patients have a high prevalence of cervical instability, particularly a pattern of instability at C2-C3 associated with C3 vertebral body hypoplasia and C2-C3 focal

  7. Systemic vascular phenotypes of Loeys-Dietz syndrome in a child carrying a de novo R381P mutation in TGFBR2: a case report.

    PubMed

    Uike, Kiyoshi; Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Togao, Osamu; Nagao, Michinobu; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Nagata, Hazumu; Yamamura, Kenichiro; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-11-12

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome, also known as Marfan syndrome type II, is a rare connective tissue disorder caused by dominant mutations in transforming growth factor-beta receptors (TGFBR1 and 2). We report a 7-year-old Japanese boy with Loeys-Dietz syndrome who carried a novel, de novo missense mutation in TGFBR2 (c.1142g > c, R381P). He showed dysmorphic faces and skeletal malformations that were typical in previous cases with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. The cardiac studies disclosed the presence of markedly dilated aortic root and patent ductus aorteriosus. The cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography (MRA) detected the tortuous appearances of the bilateral middle cerebral and carotid arteries. This study depicts the systemic vascular phenotypes of a child with Loeys-Dietz syndrome that were caused by a novel heterozygous mutation of TGFR2. A large cohort with serial imaging studies for vascular phenotypes will be useful for delineating the genotype-phenotype correlations of Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

  8. Further delineation of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type 4 in a family with mild vascular involvement and a TGFB2 splicing mutation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection and widespread systemic connective tissue involvement. LDS type 1 to 4 are caused by mutations in genes of the TGF-β signaling pathway: TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 encoding the TGF-β receptor (LDS1 and LDS2), SMAD3 encoding the TGF-β receptor cytoplasmic effector (LDS3), and TGFB2 encoding the TGF-β2 ligand (LDS4). LDS4 represents the mildest end of the LDS spectrum, since aneurysms are usually observed in fourth decade and the progression of the disease is slower than in the other forms. Case presentation We report the clinical and molecular findings of an LDS4 Italian family. Genetic testing included TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD3, and TGFB2 analysis by Sanger sequencing. In order to verify the effect of the identified splice mutation, RT-PCR analysis was performed. The proband, a 57-year-old woman, showed high palate, hypoplasic uvula, easy bruising, joint hypermobility, chronic pain, scoliosis, multiple relapsing hernias, dural ectasia, and mitral valve prolapse. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed tortuosity and ectasia of carotid, vertebral, cerebral, and segmental pulmonary arteries. Arterial aneurysm and dissection never occurred. Her 39- and 34-year-old daughters presented with a variable degree of musculoskeletal involvement. Molecular analysis disclosed the novel c.839-1G>A splice site mutation in the TGFB2 gene. This mutation activates a cryptic splice acceptor site in exon 6 leading to frameshift, premature termination codon and haploinsufficiency (p.Gly280Aspfs*41). Conclusions Our data confirm that loss-of-function mutations in TGFB2 gene do not always lead to aggressive vascular phenotypes and that articular and skeletal signs are prevalent, therefore suggesting that LDS4 must be considered in patients with sparse signs of LDS and related disorders also in the absence of vascular events. PMID:25163805

  9. Aortic and Pulmonary Root Aneurysms in a Child With Loeys-Dietz Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Stefania; Stellin, Giovanni; Milanesi, Ornella; Padalino, Massimo; Vricella, Luca A; Thiene, Gaetano; Cameron, Duke E; Basso, Cristina; Vida, Vladimiro L

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy with Loeys-Dietz syndrome, with both aortic and pulmonary aneurysms requiring cardiac operation because of progressive valve incompetence resulting from loss of coaptation of the cusps. Arterial medial changes, consisting of disarray of elastic fibers and increased collagen deposition, were observed in surgical specimens from both the aorta and the pulmonary artery of our patient, and the strong pSmad2 nuclear staining of smooth muscle cells of both aortic and pulmonary tunica media are the best evidence of transforming growth factor-β pathway activation in Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

  10. Arterial tortuosity and aneurysm in a case of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type IB with a mutation p.R537P in the TGFBR2 gene.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Esra; Alanay, Yasemin; Utine, Eda; Ozgen-Mocan, Burçe; Robinson, Peter N; Boduroğlu, Koray

    2012-01-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) caused by a known transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2) gene mutation, who developed aortic root dilatation and saccular aneurysm of the internal carotid artery. LDS is a rare, autosomal dominant aortic aneurysm syndrome with multisystem involvement. The disease is typically characterized by the triad of arterial tortuosity and aneurysms, hypertelorism, and bifid uvula/cleft palate. The characteristic LDS symptoms observed in the reported case included craniofacial dysmorphism (hypertelorism, cleft palate, blue sclerae, malar hypoplasia, retrognathia), skeletal deformities (scoliosis, talipes equinovarus, pectus deformity, arachnodactyly), congenital heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, PDA), and arterial tortuosity and aneurysms. Molecular genetic testing revealed a heterozygous mutation (c.1610 G>C, p.R528C) in the serine-threonine kinase domain of the TGFBR2 gene. Magnetic resonance (MR) angiography showed aortic dilatation, tortuosity of bilateral supraaortic arteries, and saccular aneurysm on the right cervical internal carotid artery. LDS resembles Marfan-related disorders (Marfan, Shprintzen-Goldberg and vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome), but arterial tortuosity and aneurysms are characteristic for LDS, so a timely diagnosis of LDS is important for early diagnosis and intervention of aneurysms to prevent vascular events. Here, we describe a LDS patient who presented with arterial tortuosity and saccular aneurysm.

  11. Increased fracture risk and low bone mineral density in patients with loeys-dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eric W; Offoha, Roosevelt U; Oswald, Gretchen L; Skolasky, Richard L; Dewan, Ashvin K; Zhen, Gehua; Shapiro, Jay R; Dietz, Harry C; Cao, Xu; Sponseller, Paul D

    2013-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome is a recently recognized connective tissue disorder with widespread systemic involvement. Little is known about its skeletal phenotype. Our goal was to investigate the risk of fracture and incidence of low bone mineral density in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive, survey-based study with subsequent chart review from July 2011 to April 2012. Fifty-seven patients (26 men, 31 women) with Loeys-Dietz syndrome confirmed by genetic testing completed the survey (average age, 25.3 years; range, 0.9-79.6 years). There were a total of 51 fractures (33 patients): 35 fractures in the upper extremities, 14 in the lower extremities, and two in the spine. Fourteen patients (24.6%) reported two or more fractures. There was a 50% risk of fracture by age 14 years. The incidence of any fracture in this cohort was 3.86 per 100 person-years. Seventeen patients had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans available for review, 11 (64.7%) of whom had at least one fracture. Thirteen included lumbar spine absorptiometry reports; eight (61.5%) indicated low or very low bone mineral density. In the left hip, ten of 14 participants (71.4%) had low or very low bone mineral density. In the left femoral neck, nine of 13 participants (69.2%) had low or very low bone mineral density. The lowest Z- and T-scores were not associated with an increased number of fractures. Patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome have a high risk of fracture and a high incidence of low bone mineral density.

  12. Prevalence of dural ectasia in 63 gene-mutation-positive patients with features of Marfan syndrome type 1 and Loeys-Dietz syndrome and report of 22 novel FBN1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Söylen, B; Singh, K K; Abuzainin, A; Rommel, K; Becker, H; Arslan-Kirchner, M; Schmidtke, J

    2009-03-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder involving different organ systems. Marfan syndrome type 1 (MFS1) is caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene. Heterozygosity for mutations in the TGFBR1 or TGFBR2 genes cause Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) types 2A and 2B that overlap with MFS1 in their clinical features. The phenotype of MFS1 is defined by the Ghent nosology, which classifies the clinical manifestations in major and minor criteria. Dural ectasia is one of the major criteria for Marfan syndrome but it is rarely tested for. We here report 22 novel and 9 recurrent mutations in the FBN1 gene in 36 patients with clinical features of Marfan syndrome. Sixty patients with identified mutations in the FBN1 gene and three patients with mutations in the TGFBR1 or TGFBR2 genes were examined for dural ectasia. Forty-seven of the 60 patients (78%) with MFS1 showed the dural ectasia criterion and 13 (22%) did not. Thirty-three (55%) patients were suspected of having Marfan syndrome and 24 (73%) of them had dural ectasia. Two of the three patients with LDS had dural ectasia.

  13. Pathophysiology and Management of Cardiovascular Manifestations in Marfan and Loeys-Dietz Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Norifumi; Yagi, Hiroki; Hara, Hironori; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Fujita, Daishi; Nawata, Kan; Inuzuka, Ryo; Taniguchi, Yuki; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2016-05-25

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant heritable disorder of connective tissue that affects the cardiovascular, skeletal, ocular, pulmonary, and nervous systems and is usually caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene, which encodes fibrillin-1. MFS is traditionally considered to result from the structural weakness of connective tissue. However, recent investigations on molecular mechanisms indicate that increased transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MFS and related disorders, such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), which is caused by mutation in TGF-β signaling-related genes. In addition, recent studies show that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling enhances cardiovascular pathologies in MFS, and the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan has the potential to inhibit aortic aneurysm formation. However, the relationship between TGF-β and AT1R signaling pathways remains poorly characterized. In this review, we discuss the recent studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular manifestations of MFS and LDS and the ensuing strategies for management.

  14. Angiotensin II–dependent TGF-β signaling contributes to Loeys-Dietz syndrome vascular pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Elena M.; Loch, David C.; Habashi, Jennifer P.; Calderon, Juan F.; Chen, Yichun; Bedja, Djahida; van Erp, Christel; Gerber, Elizabeth E.; Parker, Sarah J.; Sauls, Kimberly; Judge, Daniel P.; Cooke, Sara K.; Lindsay, Mark E.; Rouf, Rosanne; Myers, Loretha; ap Rhys, Colette M.; Kent, Kathleen C.; Norris, Russell A.; Huso, David L.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2013-01-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder that is characterized by a high risk for aneurysm and dissection throughout the arterial tree and phenotypically resembles Marfan syndrome. LDS is caused by heterozygous missense mutations in either TGF-β receptor gene (TGFBR1 or TGFBR2), which are predicted to result in diminished TGF-β signaling; however, aortic surgical samples from patients show evidence of paradoxically increased TGF-β signaling. We generated 2 knockin mouse strains with LDS mutations in either Tgfbr1 or Tgfbr2 and a transgenic mouse overexpressing mutant Tgfbr2. Knockin and transgenic mice, but not haploinsufficient animals, recapitulated the LDS phenotype. While heterozygous mutant cells had diminished signaling in response to exogenous TGF-β in vitro, they maintained normal levels of Smad2 phosphorylation under steady-state culture conditions, suggesting a chronic compensation. Analysis of TGF-β signaling in the aortic wall in vivo revealed progressive upregulation of Smad2 phosphorylation and TGF-β target gene output, which paralleled worsening of aneurysm pathology and coincided with upregulation of TGF-β1 ligand expression. Importantly, suppression of Smad2 phosphorylation and TGF-β1 expression correlated with the therapeutic efficacy of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. Together, these data suggest that increased TGF-β signaling contributes to postnatal aneurysm progression in LDS. PMID:24355923

  15. Dilated cardiomyopathy associated with elephant trunk in Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamana, Koji; Sakurai, Hajime; Nonaka, Toshimichi; Sakurai, Takahisa

    2017-04-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented to our institution with a diagnosis of acute type A dissection. He was diagnosed with Loeys-Dietz syndrome and underwent aortic valve sparing repair at the age of 9 years. Emergency total arch repair with elephant trunk (ET) was performed successfully; echocardiogram before discharge showed normal left ventricular function and size. However, he was readmitted 1 month after discharge with significant left ventricular dysfunction and dilatation. The small folded ET caused a pressure gradient between the upper and lower body, which might deteriorate left ventricular function. Urgent balloon arterioplasty was performed to unfold the ET graft, resulting in no improvement of left ventricular function. ET removal and descending aorta replacement with an 18-mm graft was performed eventually. Left ventricular function and brain natriuretic peptide gradually improved after approximately 2 years of follow-up. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Loeys-Dietz syndrome: a possible solution for Akhenaten's and his family's mystery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eshraghian, Ahad; Loeys, Bart

    2012-06-14

    The presence of a familial disease among royal members of 18th dynasty of the new kingdom who ruled in Egypt from the mid-16th to the early 11th centuries BC has been established, largely prompted by the bizarre body shape of Akhenaten (the iconoclastic pharaoh of this dynasty) and his family, as demonstrated in statues and artwork. It had been thought previously that this was an expression of a revolutionised artistic style that followed radical reforms by Akhenaten of Egyptian society, but recent studies on mummies confirmed the presence of a constellation of corresponding pathologies. Several illnesses have been suggested to solve this enigma; we propose Loeys-Dietz syndrome as a probable diagnosis for this genetic affliction within the royal family.

  17. Dexamethasone normalizes aberrant elastic fiber production and collagen 1 secretion by Loeys-Dietz syndrome fibroblasts: a possible treatment?

    PubMed

    Barnett, Christopher P; Chitayat, David; Bradley, Timothy J; Wang, Yanting; Hinek, Aleksander

    2011-06-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, cleft palate, dilation of the aortic arch, blood vessel tortuosity and a high risk of aortic dissection. It is caused by mutations in the transforming growth factor β-receptor 1 and 2 (TGFβ-R1 and TGFβ-R2) genes. Fibroblasts derived from 12 Loeys-Dietz syndrome patients, six with TGFB-R1 mutations and six with TGFB-R2 mutations, were analyzed using RT-PCR, biochemical assays, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy for production of elastin, fibrillin 1, fibulin 1 and fibulin 4 and deposition of collagen type I. All LDS fibroblasts with TGFβ-R1 mutations demonstrated decreased expression of elastin and fibulin 1 genes and impaired deposition of elastic fibers. In contrast, fibroblasts with TGFβ-R2 mutations consistently demonstrated intracellular accumulation of collagen type I in the presence of otherwise normal elastic fiber production. Treatment of the cell cultures with dexamethasone induced remarkable upregulation in the expression of tropoelastin, fibulin 1- and fibulin 4-encoding mRNAs, leading to normalization of elastic fiber production in fibroblasts with TGFβ-R1 mutations. Treatment with dexamethasone also corrected the abnormal secretion of collagen type I from fibroblasts with TGFβ-R2 gene mutations. As the organogenesis-relevant elastic fiber production occurs exclusively in late fetal and early neonatal life, these findings may have implications for treatment in early life. Further studies are required to determine if dexamethasone treatment of fetuses prenatally diagnosed with LDS would prevent or alleviate the connective tissue and vascular defects seen in this syndrome.

  18. Arthrogryposis as neonatal presentation of Loeys-Dietz syndrome due to a novel TGFBR2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Irene; Fernández-Alvarez, Paula; Munell, Francina; Sanchez-Montanez, Angel; Giralt, Gemma; Vendrell, Teresa; Tizzano, Eduardo F

    2017-06-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder characterized mainly by cardiovascular, craniofacial and skeletal features. We report on a patient with LDS, whose prenatal examination was compatible with the diagnosis of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Neonatal assessment showed craniofacial and cardiovascular findings suggestive of LDS whose diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of a novel mutation (HGVN: NM_003242.5 (TGFBR2): c.1381T > C (p.(Cys461Arg))) in the TGFBR2 gene. Few prenatal and neonatal cases of LDS have been reported in the literature. We reviewed all cases reported to date with perinatal onset to delineate the clinical manifestations that allow us to prompt diagnosis of this syndrome at an early stage to prevent fatal cardiovascular complications. Furthermore we discuss the multidisciplinary follow up required in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Hand and fibrillin-1 deposition abnormalities in Loeys-Dietz syndrome--expanding the clinical spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chung, Brian H Y; Bradley, Tim; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Blaser, Susan; Dirks, Peter; Hinek, Aleksander; Chitayat, David

    2014-02-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder characterized by hypertelorism, bifid uvula, cleft palate and arterial tortuosity. We report on a patient with LDS, bearing mutation in the TGFβR2 gene, whose prenatal examination demonstrated clenched fists and club feet, suggesting arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Postnatal assessment showed digital abnormalities, including brachydactyly, camptodactyly, partial syndactyly and absent distal phalanges. With the lack of fibrillin-1 microfibril deposition as well as impaired and inadequate elastic fiber assembly in our patient's fibroblasts, we speculate that the skeletal abnormalities seen in this patient with LDS are the result of lack of these components in embryonal perichondrium and in blood vessels. We suggest that LDS should be included in the differential diagnosis of joint contractures seen pre and postnatally. Prenatal diagnosis of LDS would be important in parental counseling and early post natal diagnosis could prompt treatment before the development of detrimental vascular complications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A patient with Loeys-Dietz syndrome treated with chemoradiotherapy for an oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chan, Andrew K; Teoh, Daren; Matthews, Paul; Fresco, Lydia

    2013-09-17

    We present the first published case of a patient with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) who was treated with radical chemoradiotherapy for an oropharyngeal carcinoma. In view of this newly recognised connective tissue disease, the uncertainty of severe toxicity from chemoradiotherapy to treat a potentially curative cancer posed a management challenge. The patient was treated with chemoradiotherapy and remains well with no evidence of recurrence at 3 years. Furthermore, we have observed minimal late effects secondary to chemoradiotherapy at 3 years following the completion of treatment suggesting that the underlying pathogenesis of LDS may provide an interesting human model to further elucidate the complex interactions of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and tissue fibrosis secondary to chemoradiotherapy. A review of LDS as well as the association of TGF-β1 expression and tissue fibrosis is presented.

  1. Valve-sparing replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic arch in a child with Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozker, Emre; Vuran, Can; Saritas, Bülent; Türköz, Riza

    2012-05-01

    We describe a successful surgical treatment in a 2.5-year old boy with Loeys-Dietz syndrome, in whom we performed aortic arch and ascending aorta replacement with a valve-sparing operation (VSO) of the aortic root because of significant aortic insufficiency and dilation of the aortic root. We believe that VSO is ideal for treating young patients with aortic root aneurysm with normal or minimally diseased aortic cusps to avoid the disadvantages of prosthetic valve replacements.

  2. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a boy with Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Yohei; Inaba, Yuji; Hachiya, Akira; Motoki, Noriko; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Minatoya, Kenji; Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Kosho, Tomoki; Koike, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder, caused by heterozygous mutations in TGFBR1 or TGFBR2 and characterized by vascular complications (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections) and skeletal manifestations. We here report the first patient with LDS presenting with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS), a clinico-radiological condition characterized by recurrent thunderclap headaches, with or without neurological symptoms, and reversible vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries. The patient was a 9-year-old boy with a heterozygous TGFBR2 mutation, manifesting camptodactyly, talipes equinovarus, and lamboid craniosynostosis. He complained of severe recurrent headaches 2 months after total aortic replacement for aortic root dilatation and a massive Stanford type B aortic dissection. A thoracic CT scan revealed a left subclavian artery dissection. Brain MRI and MRA detected bilateral internal carotid artery constriction along with a cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage without intracranial aneurysms. Subsequently, he developed visual disturbance and a generalized seizure associated with multiple legions of cortical and subcortical increased signals including the left posterior lobe, consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), a condition characterized by headaches, visual disorders, seizures, altered mentation, consciousness disturbances, focal neurological signs, and vasogenic edema predominantly in the white matter of the posterior lobe. Vasoconstriction of the internal carotid artery was undetectable 2 months later, and he was diagnosed as having RCVS. Endothelial dysfunction, associated with impaired TGF-β signaling, might have been attributable to the development of RCVS and PRES. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prevalence of dural ectasia in Loeys-Dietz syndrome: comparison with Marfan syndrome and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kono, Atsushi K; Higashi, Masahiro; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Naito, Hiroaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Dural ectasia is well recognized in Marfan syndrome (MFS) as one of the major diagnostic criteria, but the exact prevalence of dural ectasia is still unknown in Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), which is a recently discovered connective tissue disease. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of dural ectasia in LDS according by using qualitative and quantitative methods and compared our findings with those for with MFS and normal controls. We retrospectively studied 10 LDS (6 males, 4 females, mean age 36.3 years) and 20 MFS cases (12 males, 8 females, mean age 37.1 years) and 20 controls (12 males, 8 females, mean age 36.1 years) both qualitatively and quantitatively using axial CT images and sagittal multi-planar reconstruction images of the lumbosacral region. For quantitative examination, we adopted two methods: method-1 (anteroposterior dural diameter of S1> L4) and method-2 (ratio of anteroposterior dural diameter/vertebral body diameter>cutoff values). The prevalence of dural ectasia among groups was compared by using Fisher's exact test and the Tukey-Kramer test. In LDS patients, the qualitative method showed 40% of dural ectasia, the quantitative method-1 50%, and the method-2 70%. In MFS patients, the corresponding prevalences were 50%, 75%, and 85%, and in controls, 0%, 0%, and 5%. Both LDS and MFS had a significantly wider dura than controls. While the prevalence of dural ectasia varied depending on differences in qualitative and quantitative methods, LDS as well as MFS, showed, regardless of method, a higher prevalence of dural ectasia than controls. This finding should help the differentiation of LDS from controls.

  4. Overexpression of Gremlin-1 in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome: implications on pathophysiology and early disease detection.

    PubMed

    Wellbrock, Jasmin; Sheikhzadeh, Sara; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Stamm, Hauke; Hillebrand, Mathias; Keyser, Britta; Klokow, Marianne; Vohwinkel, Gabi; Bonk, Veronika; Otto, Benjamin; Streichert, Thomas; Balabanov, Stefan; Hagel, Christian; Rybczynski, Meike; Bentzien, Frank; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Fiedler, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptors TGFBR1 or TGFBR2. Most patients with LDS develop severe aortic aneurysms resulting in early need of surgical intervention. In order to gain further insight into the pathophysiology of the disorder, we investigated circulating outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) from the peripheral blood of LDS patients from a cohort of 23 patients including 6 patients with novel TGF-β receptor mutations. We performed gene expression profiling of OECs using microarray analysis followed by quantitative PCR for verification of gene expression. Compared to OECs of age- and sex-matched healthy controls, OECs isolated from three LDS patients displayed altered expression of several genes belonging to the TGF-β pathway, especially those affecting bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signalling including BMP2, BMP4 and BMPR1A. Gene expression of BMP antagonist Gremlin-1 (GREM1) showed the most prominent up-regulation. This increase was confirmed at the protein level by immunoblotting of LDS-OECs. In immunohistochemistry, abundant Gremlin-1 protein expression could be verified in endothelial cells as well as smooth muscle cells within the arterial media. Furthermore, Gremlin-1 plasma levels of LDS patients were significantly elevated compared to healthy control subjects. These findings open new avenues in the understanding of the pathogenesis of Loeys-Dietz syndrome and the development of new diagnostic serological methods for early disease detection.

  5. Dysregulated TGF-β signaling alters bone microstructure in a mouse model of Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Ashvin K; Tomlinson, Ryan E; Mitchell, Stuart; Goh, Brian C; Yung, Rachel M; Kumar, Sarvesh; Tan, Eric W; Faugere, Marie-Claude; Dietz, Harry C; Clemens, Thomas L; Sponseller, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by vascular and skeletal abnormalities resembling Marfan syndrome, including a predisposition for pathologic fracture. LDS is caused by heterozygous mutations in the genes encoding transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type 1 and type 2 receptors. In this study, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of mice carrying a mutation in the TGF-β type 2 receptor associated with severe LDS in humans. Cortical bone in LDS mice showed significantly reduced tissue area, bone area, and cortical thickness with increased eccentricity. However, no significant differences in trabecular bone volume were observed. Dynamic histomorphometry performed in calcein-labeled mice showed decreased mineral apposition rates in cortical and trabecular bone with normal numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Mechanical testing of femurs by three-point bending revealed reduced femoral strength and fracture resistance. In vitro, osteoblasts from LDS mice demonstrated increased mineralization with enhanced expression of osteoblast differentiation markers compared with control cells. These changes were associated with impaired TGF-β1-induced Smad2 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and upregulated TGF-β1 ligand mRNA expression, compatible with G357W as a loss-of-function mutation in the TGF-β type 2 receptor. Paradoxically, phosphorylated Smad2/3 in cortical osteocytes measured by immunohistochemistry was increased relative to controls, possibly suggesting the cross-activation of TGF-β-related receptors. The skeletal phenotype observed in the LDS mouse closely resembles the principal structural features of bone in humans with LDS and establishes this mouse as a valid in vivo model for further investigation of TGF-β receptor signaling in bone. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Detection of 15 novel mutations in 52 children from 40 families with the Marfan or Loeys-Dietz syndrome and phenotype-genotype correlations.

    PubMed

    Pees, C; Michel-Behnke, I; Hagl, M; Laccone, F

    2014-12-01

    We report about 52 pediatric patients of 40 different families with confirmed Marfan syndrome (MFS) in 49 patients and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) in 3 patients. We found 39 different mutations, 15 of them being novel. Phenotype-genotype correlation in the 49 MFS patients showed that the majority of patients carrying mutations in exons 1-21 had ectopic lens (80%). Patients having mutations in exons 23-32 had a higher probability of aortic root dilation, in 50% even above a z score of 3. We found three children with neonatal MFS form, two of them with novel mutations. Of the three LDS patients, only one presented with the typical phenotype of LDS type 1. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Novel Pathogenic Variant in TGFBR2 Confirmed by Molecular Modeling Is a Rare Cause of Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Michael T.; Urrutia, Raul A.; Blackburn, Patrick R.; Cousin, Margot A.; Boczek, Nicole J.; Klee, Eric W.; Macmurdo, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by vascular findings of aneurysm and/or dissection of cerebral, thoracic, or abdominal arteries and skeletal findings. We report a case of a novel pathogenic variant in TGFBR2 and phenotype consistent with classic LDS. The proband was a 10-year-old presenting to the genetics clinic with an enlarged aortic root (Z-scores 5-6), pectus excavatum, and congenital contractures of the right 2nd and 3rd digit. Molecular testing of TGFBR2 was sent to a commercial laboratory and demonstrated a novel, likely pathogenic, variant in exon 4, c.1061T>C, p.(L354P). Molecular modeling reveals alteration of local protein structure as a result of this pathogenic variant. This pathogenic variant has not been previously reported in LDS and thus expands the pathogenic variant spectrum of this condition. PMID:28163941

  8. Overexpression of Gremlin-1 in Patients with Loeys-Dietz Syndrome: Implications on Pathophysiology and Early Disease Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wellbrock, Jasmin; Sheikhzadeh, Sara; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Stamm, Hauke; Hillebrand, Mathias; Keyser, Britta; Klokow, Marianne; Vohwinkel, Gabi; Bonk, Veronika; Otto, Benjamin; Streichert, Thomas; Balabanov, Stefan; Hagel, Christian; Rybczynski, Meike; Bentzien, Frank; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Fiedler, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds The Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptors TGFBR1 or TGFBR2. Most patients with LDS develop severe aortic aneurysms resulting in early need of surgical intervention. In order to gain further insight into the pathophysiology of the disorder, we investigated circulating outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) from the peripheral blood of LDS patients from a cohort of 23 patients including 6 patients with novel TGF-β receptor mutations. Methods and Results We performed gene expression profiling of OECs using microarray analysis followed by quantitative PCR for verification of gene expression. Compared to OECs of age- and sex-matched healthy controls, OECs isolated from three LDS patients displayed altered expression of several genes belonging to the TGF-β pathway, especially those affecting bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signalling including BMP2, BMP4 and BMPR1A. Gene expression of BMP antagonist Gremlin-1 (GREM1) showed the most prominent up-regulation. This increase was confirmed at the protein level by immunoblotting of LDS-OECs. In immunohistochemistry, abundant Gremlin-1 protein expression could be verified in endothelial cells as well as smooth muscle cells within the arterial media. Furthermore, Gremlin-1 plasma levels of LDS patients were significantly elevated compared to healthy control subjects. Conclusions These findings open new avenues in the understanding of the pathogenesis of Loeys-Dietz syndrome and the development of new diagnostic serological methods for early disease detection. PMID:25116393

  9. Early Diagnosis and Repair of Double Saccular Aneurysms of the Aortic Arch Associated With Aortic Coarctation in an Infant With Loeys-Dietz Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ilyin, Vladimir N; Kornoukhov, O Ju; Khovrin, Valery V; Kryukov, Vladislav A; Valitova, Asia A; Ilina, Maria V

    2016-03-01

    Multiple saccular aneurysms of the thoracic aorta in neonates and infants are exceedingly rare. An association of these aneurysms with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) in older age-groups is well known. This case report describes the diagnosis and subsequent successful repair of aortic coarctation associated with double saccular aneurysms of the thoracic aorta in patient with LDS during the first year of life.

  10. Outcome of aortic surgery in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome primarily treated as having Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schoenhoff, Florian S; Mueller, Christoph; Czerny, Martin; Matyas, Gabor; Kadner, Alexander; Schmidli, Juerg; Carrel, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by acute aortic dissection (AAD) at aortic diameters below thresholds for intervention in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). The aim was to evaluate the outcome of LDS patients primarily treated as having MFS. We analysed 68 consecutive patients who underwent surgery between 1995 and 2007 under the assumption of having MFS before retrospectively being screened for LDS when genetic testing became available. These patients were followed up until 2013, and underwent a total of 115 aortic surgeries. Genetic testing was performed in 76% of the patients. Sixty per cent of these patients were positive for FBN1 mutations associated with MFS, 20% had no FBN1 mutation and 17% harboured TGFBR1/2 mutations associated with LDS. Mean follow-up was 12.7 ± 7 years. All-cause 30-day, 6-month and 1-year mortality rates were 2.9, 4.4 and 7.3%, respectively. Interestingly, initial presentation with AAD did not differ between LDS and MFS (33 vs 37%, P = 0.48) nor did long-term mortality compared with MFS patients (11 vs 16%, P = 1.0) or within MFS subgroups (FBN1 positive 13%, P = 1.0; FBN1 negative 10%, P = 1.0; not tested 25%, P = 0.62). There was no difference in the need for secondary total arch replacement between LDS and MFS patients (11 vs 14%, P = 1.0), nor within MFS subgroups (FBN1 positive 16%, P = 1.0; FBN1 negative 10%, P = 1.0; not tested 13%, P = 1.0). Total aortic replacement became necessary in 22% of LDS compared with 12% of MFS patients (P = 0.6) and did not differ significantly between MFS subgroups. Although early surgical intervention in LDS is warranted to avoid AAD, the current data suggest that once the diseased segment is repaired, there seems to be no additional burden in terms of mortality or reoperation rate compared with that in MFS patients, with or without confirmed FBN1 mutation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All

  11. A mutation in TGFB3 associated with a syndrome of low muscle mass, growth retardation, distal arthrogryposis and clinical features overlapping with Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rienhoff, Hugh Young; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Morissette, Rachel; Khrebtukova, Irina; Melnick, Jonathan; Luo, Shujun; Leng, Nan; Kim, Yeon-Jin; Schroth, Gary; Westwick, John; Vogel, Hannes; McDonnell, Nazli; Hall, Judith G; Whitman, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of growth factors are key regulators of mammalian development and their dysregulation is implicated in human disease, notably, heritable vasculopathies including Marfan (MFS, OMIM #154700) and Loeys-Dietz syndromes (LDS, OMIM #609192). We described a syndrome presenting at birth with distal arthrogryposis, hypotonia, bifid uvula, a failure of normal post-natal muscle development but no evidence of vascular disease; some of these features overlap with MFS and LDS. A de novo mutation in TGFB3 was identified by exome sequencing. Several lines of evidence indicate the mutation is hypomorphic suggesting that decreased TGF-β signaling from a loss of TGFB3 activity is likely responsible for the clinical phenotype. This is the first example of a mutation in the coding portion of TGFB3 implicated in a clinical syndrome suggesting TGFB3 is essential for both human palatogenesis and normal muscle growth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Functional validation reveals the novel missense V419L variant in TGFBR2 associated with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) impairs canonical TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Margot A; Zimmermann, Michael T; Mathison, Angela J; Blackburn, Patrick R; Boczek, Nicole J; Oliver, Gavin R; Lomberk, Gwen A; Urrutia, Raul A; Deyle, David R; Klee, Eric W

    2017-07-01

    TGF-β-related heritable connective tissue disorders are characterized by a similar pattern of cardiovascular defects, including aortic root dilatation, mitral valve prolapse, vascular aneurysms, and vascular dissections and exhibit incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Because of the phenotypic overlap of these disorders, panel-based genetic testing is frequently used to confirm the clinical findings. Unfortunately in many cases, variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) obscure the genetic diagnosis until more information becomes available. Here, we describe and characterize the functional impact of a novel VUS in the TGFBR2 kinase domain (c.1255G>T; p.Val419Leu), in a patient with the clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome spectrum. We assessed the structural and functional consequence of this VUS using molecular modeling, molecular dynamic simulations, and in vitro cell-based assays. A high-quality homology-based model of TGFBR2 was generated and computational mutagenesis followed by refinement and molecular dynamics simulations were used to assess structural and dynamic changes. Relative to wild type, the V419L induced conformational and dynamic changes that may affect ATP binding, increasing the likelihood of adopting an inactive state, and, we hypothesize, alter canonical signaling. Experimentally, we tested this by measuring the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway activation at two points; V419L significantly delayed SMAD2 phosphorylation by western blot and significantly decreased TGF-β-induced gene transcription by reporter assays consistent with known pathogenic variants in this gene. Thus, our results establish that the V419L variant leads to aberrant TGF-β signaling and confirm the diagnosis of Loeys-Dietz syndrome in this patient. © 2017 Cousin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Prevalence of Dural Ectasia in Loeys-Dietz Syndrome: Comparison with Marfan Syndrome and Normal Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Higashi, Masahiro; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Naito, Hiroaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dural ectasia is well recognized in Marfan syndrome (MFS) as one of the major diagnostic criteria, but the exact prevalence of dural ectasia is still unknown in Loeys−Dietz syndrome (LDS), which is a recently discovered connective tissue disease. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of dural ectasia in LDS according by using qualitative and quantitative methods and compared our findings with those for with MFS and normal controls. Material and Methods We retrospectively studied 10 LDS (6 males, 4 females, mean age 36.3 years) and 20 MFS cases (12 males, 8 females, mean age 37.1 years) and 20 controls (12 males, 8 females, mean age 36.1 years) both qualitatively and quantitatively using axial CT images and sagittal multi-planar reconstruction images of the lumbosacral region. For quantitative examination, we adopted two methods: method-1 (anteroposterior dural diameter of S1> L4) and method-2 (ratio of anteroposterior dural diameter/vertebral body diameter>cutoff values). The prevalence of dural ectasia among groups was compared by using Fisher’s exact test and the Tukey−Kramer test. Results In LDS patients, the qualitative method showed 40% of dural ectasia, the quantitative method-1 50%, and the method-2 70%. In MFS patients, the corresponding prevalences were 50%, 75%, and 85%, and in controls, 0%, 0%, and 5%. Both LDS and MFS had a significantly wider dura than controls. Conclusions While the prevalence of dural ectasia varied depending on differences in qualitative and quantitative methods, LDS as well as MFS, showed, regardless of method, a higher prevalence of dural ectasia than controls. This finding should help the differentiation of LDS from controls. PMID:24086486

  14. Low bone mass and high material bone density in two patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome caused by transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 mutations.

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, I Mouna; Edouard, Thomas; Glorieux, Francis H; Chabot, Gilles; Tischkowitz, Marc; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Rauch, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a rare autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the genes encoding transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 or 2 (TGFBR1 or TGFBR2). Although an association between LDS and osteoporosis has been reported, the skeletal phenotype regarding bone mass is not well characterized. Here, we report on two LDS patients with mutations in TGFBR2. Patient 1 was a 24-year-old man who had a total of three fractures involving the left radius, the left metacarpal, and the right femur. At the age of 14 years, lumbar spine areal bone mineral density Z-score was -4.0 and iliac bone histomorphometry showed elevated bone turnover (bone formation rate per bone surface: 91 µm³/µm²/year; age-matched control values 37 [10], mean [SD]) and mildly low trabecular bone volume per tissue volume (17.2%; age-matched control values 25.7 [5.3]). Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in trabecular bone was increased (Ca(Peak) 22.70 wt% Ca; age-matched control values 21.66 [0.52]). Patient 2, a 17-year-old girl, suffered from diffuse bone pain but had not sustained fractures. At 14 years of age, her lumbar spine areal bone mineral density Z-score was -3.4. Iliac bone histomorphometry at that age confirmed low bone mass (bone volume to tissue volume 10.1%, same control values as above) and high bone turnover (bone formation rate per bone surface 70 µm³/µm²/year). BMDD in trabecular bone was significantly shifted toward increased mineralization (Ca(Peak) 22.36 wt% Ca). Thus, it appears that LDS can be associated with low bone mass and high bone turnover but increased matrix mineralization of trabecular bone. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

  15. The spectrum of FBN1, TGFβR1, TGFβR2 and ACTA2 variants in 594 individuals with suspected Marfan Syndrome, Loeys-Dietz Syndrome or Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections (TAAD).

    PubMed

    Lerner-Ellis, Jordan P; Aldubayan, Saud H; Hernandez, Amy Lovelette; Kelly, Melissa Allard; Stuenkel, Aaron J; Walsh, Jennifer; Joshi, Victoria A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, patients suspected of having a clinical diagnosis of Marfan Syndrome (MFS), Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS) and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections (TAAD) were referred for genetic testing and examined for mutations in the FBN1, TGFβR1, TGFβR2 and ACTA2 genes. We examined 594 samples from unrelated individuals and different combinations of genes were sequenced, including one or more of the following: FBN1, TGFβR1, TGFβR2, ACTA2, and, in some cases, FBN1 was analyzed by MLPA to detect large deletions. A total of 112 patients had a positive result. Of those, 61 had a clinical diagnosis of MFS, eight had LDS, three had TAAD and 40 patients had clinical features with no specific diagnosis provided. A total of 44 patients had an inconclusive result; of these, 12 patients were referred with a clinical diagnosis of MFS, 4 with LDS and 9 with TAAD and 19 had no clinical diagnosis. A total of 89 mutations were novel. This study reveals the rate of detection of variants in several genes associated with MFS, LDS and TAAD. The evaluation of patients by individuals with expertise in the field may decrease the likelihood of ordering unnecessary molecular testing. Nevertheless, genetic testing supports the diagnosis of MFS, LDS and TAAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A new sporadic case of early-onset Loeys-Dietz syndrome due to the recurrent mutation p.R528C in the TGFBR2 gene substantiates interindividual clinical variability.

    PubMed

    Jamsheer, A; Henggeler, C; Wierzba, J; Loeys, B; De Paepe, A; Stheneur, Ch; Badziag, N; Matuszewska, K; Matyas, G; Latos-Bielenska, A

    2009-01-01

    We report on a 2-year-old Polish girl with typical manifestations of Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), a rare genetic condition belonging to the group of Marfan-related disorders. The characteristic LDS symptoms observed in the girl included craniofacial dysmorphism (craniosynostosis, cleft palate, hypertelorism), arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, scoliosis, joint laxity, talipes equinovarus, translucent and hyperelastic skin, and umbilical hernia. Mild dilatation of the ascending aorta and tortuous course of the left internal carotid artery were recognized during her second year of life. Molecular genetic testing revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.1582C>T, p.R528C) in the transforming growth factor beta receptor II gene (TGFBR2). This mutation has been previously associated with LDS in 5 unrelated cases, and was never reported in patients with other Marfan-related disorders. Comparison of the phenotypes of our patient and these 5 individuals with c.1582C>T showed that only the hallmark triad of the syndrome - consisting of hypertelorism, aortic root dilatation/aneurysm, and cleft palate or bifid uvula - was present in all 6 cases. Interestingly, none of the 5 individuals who underwent psychological evaluation showed developmental delay. The pattern of all other LDS features showed interindividual variability. Our data support the recently reported observation that symptoms of LDS can develop at a very young age, making early diagnosis and management essential for these patients. This is the first report on a Polish infant with typical LDS symptoms caused by a TGFBR2 mutation.

  17. Marfan syndrome type II: there is more to Marfan syndrome than fibrillin 1.

    PubMed

    Zangwill, Steven D; Brown, Matthew D; Bryke, Christine R; Cava, Joseph R; Segura, Annette D

    2006-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a well-described autosomal dominant syndrome with widely variable clinical manifestations. Cardiovascular complications include mitral valve prolapse with or without associated mitral valve insufficiency, aortic root dilatation, and most importantly the occasional development of aortic aneurysms or rupture. Given the inconsistent phenotype along with the potentially life-threatening implications, clinicians are increasingly turning to genetic testing for definitive diagnostic confirmation. It has been well established that mutations in the FBN1 gene encoding the structural protein Fibrillin 1 is the molecular etiology of Marfan syndrome. However, there are numerous patients who meet the Ghent clinical diagnostic criteria for Marfan syndrome who do not have identifiable FBN1 mutations. Recently, mutations in TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 (transforming growth factor beta receptors 1 and 2, respectively) have been shown to result in Loeys-Dietz syndrome, a connective tissue disorder with significant phenotypic overlap with Marfan syndrome. Individuals with this Marfanoid disorder lack the ocular findings of Marfan syndrome and often have dysmorphic features such as unusual facies, cleft palate, and contractures. In addition, Loeys-Dietz syndrome patients often present in childhood with significant cardiovascular problems. This article serves to report an illustrative case of Loeys-Dietz syndrome and reviews the phenotypic consequences of FBN1 and TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 gene mutations.

  18. Differential diagnosis and diagnostic flow chart of joint hypermobility syndrome/ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type compared to other heritable connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Marina; Dordoni, Chiara; Chiarelli, Nicola; Ritelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is an evolving and protean disorder mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility and without a defined molecular basis. JHS/EDS-HT also presents with other connective tissue features affecting a variety of structures and organs, such as skin, eye, bone, and internal organs. However, most of these signs are present in variable combinations and severity in many other heritable connective tissue disorders. Accordingly, JHS/EDS-HT is an "exclusion" diagnosis which needs the absence of any consistent feature indicative of other partially overlapping connective tissue disorders. While both Villefranche and Brighton criteria include such an exclusion as a mandatory item, a systematic approach for reaching a stringent clinical diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT is still lacking. The absence of a consensus on the diagnostic approach to JHS/EDS-HT concerning its clinical boundaries with similar conditions contribute to limit our actual understanding of the pathologic and molecular bases of this disorder. In this review, we revise the differential diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT with those heritable connective tissue disorders which show a significant overlap with the former and mostly include EDS classic, vascular and kyphoscoliotic types, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, and lateral meningocele syndrome. A diagnostic flow chart is also offered with the attempt to support the less experienced clinician in stringently recognizing JHS/EDS-HT and stimulate the debate in the scientific community for both management and research purposes.

  19. Genotype-phenotype analysis of F-helix mutations at the kinase domain of TGFBR2, including a type 2 Marfan syndrome familial study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Gao, Ling-Gen; Zhang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2) gene mutations are associated with Marfan syndrome; however, the relationship between the mutations and clinical phenotypes are not clear. Methods Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of a Chinese proband with Marfan syndrome, five of the proband’s relatives, and 100 unrelated Chinese control subjects were isolated and screened for fibrillin-1 (FBN1) and TGFBR2 gene mutations by direct sequencing, and a genotype-phenotype study was performed following a review of the literature on TGFBR2 mutations in the search area. Also, the structure of TGFBR2 protein before and after gene mutation was analyzed. Results The results identified a novel missense TGFBR2 mutation p.V453E (c.1358T>A) in the proband and two relatives that was located in the F-helix in the kinase domain of TGFBR2. No such genetic change was observed in the unrelated controls. No FBN1 mutation was detected in any of the subjects. Genotype-phenotype analyses indicated that F-helix mutations are related to type 2 Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and these mutations can lead to severe cardiovascular (93.8%) and skeletal (81.3%) lesions and minor ocular lesions (25%). Losartan treatment can slow-down the progression of aortic lesions. Conclusions The findings extend the mutation spectrum of Marfan syndrome, and that mutations at the F-helix in the kinase domain of TGFBR2 may be associated with the development of severe cardiovascular and skeletal lesions and minor ocular lesions. These findings have implications for genetic testing, diagnosis, and treatment in individuals with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling-related disorders. PMID:22259224

  20. Genotype-phenotype analysis of F-helix mutations at the kinase domain of TGFBR2, including a type 2 Marfan syndrome familial study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Gao, Ling-Gen; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Xian-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2) gene mutations are associated with Marfan syndrome; however, the relationship between the mutations and clinical phenotypes are not clear. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of a Chinese proband with Marfan syndrome, five of the proband's relatives, and 100 unrelated Chinese control subjects were isolated and screened for fibrillin-1 (FBN1) and TGFBR2 gene mutations by direct sequencing, and a genotype-phenotype study was performed following a review of the literature on TGFBR2 mutations in the search area. Also, the structure of TGFBR2 protein before and after gene mutation was analyzed. The results identified a novel missense TGFBR2 mutation p.V453E (c.1358T>A) in the proband and two relatives that was located in the F-helix in the kinase domain of TGFBR2. No such genetic change was observed in the unrelated controls. No FBN1 mutation was detected in any of the subjects. Genotype-phenotype analyses indicated that F-helix mutations are related to type 2 Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and these mutations can lead to severe cardiovascular (93.8%) and skeletal (81.3%) lesions and minor ocular lesions (25%). Losartan treatment can slow-down the progression of aortic lesions. The findings extend the mutation spectrum of Marfan syndrome, and that mutations at the F-helix in the kinase domain of TGFBR2 may be associated with the development of severe cardiovascular and skeletal lesions and minor ocular lesions. These findings have implications for genetic testing, diagnosis, and treatment in individuals with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling-related disorders.

  1. De novo exon 1 missense mutations of SKI and Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome: two new cases and a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Au, P Y Billie; Racher, Hilary E; Graham, John M; Kramer, Nancy; Lowry, R Brian; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Innes, A Micheil

    2014-03-01

    Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (OMIM #182212) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, marfanoid body habitus, aortic dilatation, and intellectual disability. Mutations in exon 1 of SKI have recently been identified as being responsible for approximately 90% of reported individuals diagnosed clinically with Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome. SKI is a known regulator of TGFβ signaling. Therefore, like Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome is likely caused by deregulated TGFβ signals, explaining the considerable phenotypic overlap between these three disorders. We describe two additional patients with exon 1 SKI mutations and review the clinical features and literature of Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome.

  2. Analysis of TGFBR1*6A variant in individuals evaluated for Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Somers, Allyson E; Hinton, Robert B; Pilipenko, Valentina; Miller, Erin; Ware, Stephanie M

    2016-07-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) are genetic disorders that affect connective tissue as a result of dysregulated TGF-β signaling. MFS is most frequently caused by mutations in FBN1 whereas Loeys-Dietz syndrome results from mutations in TGFBR1 or TGFBR2. There is substantial inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability among these disorders, suggesting the presence of genetic modifiers. Previously, a polymorphism in the TGFβR1 protein termed the TFGBR1*6A allele was found to be overrepresented in patients with MFS and was identified as a low penetrance allele with suggestion as a possible modifier. To further investigate the importance of this variant, a retrospective review of genetic and phenotypic findings was conducted for 335 patients evaluated for suspicion of MFS or related disorders. In patients with a diagnosis of MFS, the presence of the TFGBR1*6A allele was not associated with phenotypic differences. Similarly, careful phenotyping of patients who carried the TFGBR1*6A allele but did not have MFS did not identify an altered frequency of specific connective tissue features. In this small cohort, the results did not reach significance to identify the TFGBR1*6A allele as a major modifier for aortic dilation, ectopia lentis, or systemic features associated with MFS or other connective tissue disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Identification and in silico analyses of novel TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 mutations in Marfan syndrome-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Mátyás, Gábor; Arnold, Eliane; Carrel, Thierry; Baumgartner, Daniela; Boileau, Catherine; Berger, Wolfgang; Steinmann, Beat

    2006-08-01

    Very recently, heterozygous mutations in the genes encoding transforming growth factor beta receptors I (TGFBR1) and II (TGFBR2) have been reported in Loeys-Dietz aortic aneurysm syndrome (LDS). In addition, dominant TGFBR2 mutations have been identified in Marfan syndrome type 2 (MFS2) and familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD). In the past, mutations of these genes were associated with atherosclerosis and several human cancers. Here, we report a total of nine novel and one known heterozygous sequence variants in the TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 genes in nine of 70 unrelated individuals with MFS-like phenotypes who previously tested negative for mutations in the gene encoding the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin-1 (FBN1). To assess the pathogenic impact of these sequence variants, in silico analyses were performed by the PolyPhen, SIFT, and Fold-X algorithms and by means of a 3D homology model of the TGFBR2 kinase domain. Our results showed that in all but one of the patients the pathogenic effect of at least one sequence variant is highly probable (c.722C > T, c.799A > C, and c.1460G > A in TGFBR1 and c.773T > G, c.1106G > T, c.1159G > A, c.1181G > A, and c.1561T > C in TGFBR2). These deleterious alleles occurred de novo or segregated with the disease in the families, indicating a causative association between the sequence variants and clinical phenotypes. Since TGFBR2 mutations found in patients with MFS-related disorders cannot be distinguished from heterozygous TGFBR2 mutations reported in tumor samples, we emphasize the importance of segregation analysis in affected families. In order to be able to find the mutation that is indeed responsible for a MFS-related phenotype, we also propose that genetic testing for sequence alterations in TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 should be complemented by mutation screening of the FBN1 gene.

  4. Aortic Disease in the Young: Genetic Aneurysm Syndromes, Connective Tissue Disorders, and Familial Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Marcelo; Zeidan, Fernanda; Lobato, Armando C.

    2013-01-01

    There are many genetic syndromes associated with the aortic aneurysmal disease which include Marfan syndrome (MFS), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD), bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV), and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In the absence of familial history and other clinical findings, the proportion of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms and dissections resulting from a genetic predisposition is still unknown. In this study, we propose the review of the current genetic knowledge in the aortic disease, observing, in the results that the causative genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm disease remain undiscovered and continue to be an area of intensive research. PMID:23401778

  5. Genetic Dissection of Marfan Syndrome and Related Connective Tissue Disorders: An Update 2012

    PubMed Central

    Hoffjan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the connective tissue characterized by early development of thoracic aortic aneurysms/dissections together with symptoms of the ocular and skeletal systems. While most patients/families with a classic phenotypic expression of MFS harbour mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), genetic studies of the recent years revealed that the clinical features, as well as the mutated genes, show a high degree of overlap between MFS and other connective tissue diseases (e.g. Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, familial thoracic aneurysms and dissections and others). We summarize herein the current knowledge about the wide spectrum of differential diagnoses and their genetic background as well as novel therapeutic approaches in order to provide appropriate counselling and clinical follow-up for the patients. PMID:23326250

  6. What Are Related Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dietz syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection. Disorders related to Marfan syndrome can ... Loeys-Dietz Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection MASS Phenotype Ectopia Lentis Syndrome Beals ...

  7. [Genetics and prevention of genetic aortic syndromes (GAS) and of the Marfan syndrome].

    PubMed

    von Kodolitsch, Y; Blankart, C R; Vogler, M; Kallenbach, K; Robinson, P N

    2015-02-01

    Genetic aortic syndromes are autosomal-dominantly heritable aneurysms of the thoracic aorta, which carry a high risk of aortic rupture or acute thoracic aortic dissection at young age. We introduce the reader to the principles of genetic diagnostics and the medical and surgical prevention of thoracic aortic dissection in patients with genetic aortic syndromes. A cardiologist, a health economist, a patient representative, a heart surgeon, and a molecular geneticist teamed up to elucidate their perspective on major aspects of genetics and prevention of genetic aortic syndromes. Genetic aortic syndromes reflect a broad spectrum of diverse disease entities comprising the Marfan syndrome, the Loeys-Dietz syndrome or the vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The diagnosis of each respective disease entity requires combined assessment of phenotype and genotype information. A medical prevention of aortic complications such as dissection is mandatory although a curative therapy currently appears unlikely in humans. The single most important measure against acute aortic dissection is the preventive replacement of the aortic root, where valve preserving techniques appear preferable. Comprehensive prophylaxis including molecular diagnostics seem reasonable also from an economic point of view. Optimal prevention requires individualization of concepts, which entail a detailed diagnostic characterization of each specific genetic aortic syndrome including characterization of the genotype.

  8. Development of a Novel Treatment for Food Allergy Using a New Genetically Defined Mouse Model of the Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Loeys Dietz Syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the...development of these disorders , frustrating efforts to develop mechanism-based therapies. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS), a recently described autosomal...dominant disorder caused by mutations in either of the two genes encoding subunits of the TGFbeta receptor (TGFBR1 or TGFBR2), is the first

  9. Cardiovascular manifestations in Marfan syndrome and related diseases; multiple genes causing similar phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Cook, J R; Carta, L; Galatioto, J; Ramirez, F

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Marfan syndrome (MFS) and a few clinically related diseases that share, with MFS, the pathogenic contribution of dysregulated transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. They include Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome, aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome and syndromic thoracic aortic aneurysms. Unlike the causal association of MFS with mutations in an extracellular matrix protein (ECM), the aforementioned conditions are due to defects in components of the TGFβ pathway. While TGFβ antagonism is being considered as a potential new therapy for these heritable syndromes, several points still need to be clarified in relevant animal models before this strategy could be safely applied to patients. Among others, unresolved issues include whether elevated TGFβ signaling is responsible for all MFS manifestations and is the common trigger of disease in MFS and related conditions. The scope of our review is to highlight the clinical and experimental findings that have forged our understanding of the natural history and molecular pathogenesis of cardiovascular manifestations in this group of syndromic conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [The Marfan syndrome and related connective tissue disorders].

    PubMed

    Siepe, Matthias; Löffelbein, Florian

    2009-06-01

    The Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder of the connective tissue which is mainly caused by a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The defect in the connective tissue protein can lead to several organ dysfunctions. For the life expectancy, the cardiovascular aspect is of paramount importance. Patients with Marfan syndrome may develop aortic aneurysms and valvular heart defects. The risk of aortic aneurysms consists in the development of aortic dissection or rupture with their fatal consequences. Besides the cardiovascular manifestation, the skeletal and ocular system can also be affected. The skeletal manifestation is often characterised by long limbs, arachnodactyly, and abnormal joint flexibility along with other signs. Patients may also have dislocated lenses, ectasia of the dural sac, stretch marks, spontaneous pneumothorax, recurrent hernia, or a family history suspicious for Marfan. During the past years, other related connective tissue disorders with analogous organ manifestation have been described (e.g., Loeys-Dietz syndrome). In this article we present the basic knowledge about these connective tissue disorders, and we mention new insights in the recently explored pathophysiology of the disorder which is a possible target for future medical treatment options. Furthermore, recent new concepts for the prophylactic treatment of the aortic manifestation are explained.

  11. Mutations in the TGF-β repressor SKI cause Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome with aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Alexander J; Doyle, Jefferson J; Bessling, Seneca L; Maragh, Samantha; Lindsay, Mark E; Schepers, Dorien; Gillis, Elisabeth; Mortier, Geert; Homfray, Tessa; Sauls, Kimberly; Norris, Russell A; Huso, Nicholas D; Leahy, Dan; Mohr, David W; Caulfield, Mark J; Scott, Alan F; Destrée, Anne; Hennekam, Raoul C; Arn, Pamela H; Curry, Cynthia J; Van Laer, Lut; McCallion, Andrew S; Loeys, Bart L; Dietz, Harry C

    2012-11-01

    Elevated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). However, the location and character of many of the causal mutations in LDS intuitively imply diminished TGF-β signaling. Taken together, these data have engendered controversy regarding the specific role of TGF-β in disease pathogenesis. Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) has considerable phenotypic overlap with MFS and LDS, including aortic aneurysm. We identified causative variation in ten individuals with SGS in the proto-oncogene SKI, a known repressor of TGF-β activity. Cultured dermal fibroblasts from affected individuals showed enhanced activation of TGF-β signaling cascades and higher expression of TGF-β-responsive genes relative to control cells. Morpholino-induced silencing of SKI paralogs in zebrafish recapitulated abnormalities seen in humans with SGS. These data support the conclusions that increased TGF-β signaling is the mechanism underlying SGS and that high signaling contributes to multiple syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysm.

  12. Mutations in the TGF-β Repressor SKI Cause Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome with Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Alexander J.; Doyle, Jefferson J.; Bessling, Seneca L.; Maragh, Samantha; Lindsay, Mark E.; Schepers, Dorien; Gillis, Elisabeth; Mortier, Geert; Homfray, Tessa; Sauls, Kimberly; Norris, Russell A.; Huso, Nicholas D.; Leahy, Dan; Mohr, David W.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Scott, Alan F.; Destrée, Anne; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Arn, Pamela H.; Curry, Cynthia J.; Van Laer, Lut; McCallion, Andrew S.; Loeys, Bart L.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2012-01-01

    Increased transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS)1-4. However, the location and character of many of the causal mutations in LDS would intuitively infer diminished TGF-β signaling5. Taken together, these data have engendered controversy regarding the specific role of TGF-β in disease pathogenesis. Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) has considerable phenotypic overlap with MFS and LDS, including aortic aneurysm6-8. We identified causative variation in 10 patients with SGS in the proto-oncogene SKI, a known repressor of TGF-β activity9,10. Cultured patient dermal fibroblasts showed enhanced activation of TGF-β signaling cascades and increased expression of TGF-β responsive genes. Morpholino-induced silencing of SKI paralogs in zebrafish recapitulated abnormalities seen in SGS patients. These data support the conclusion that increased TGF-β signaling is the mechanism underlying SGS and contributes to multiple syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysm. PMID:23023332

  13. The SMAD-binding domain of SKI: a hotspot for de novo mutations causing Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Dorien; Doyle, Alexander J; Oswald, Gretchen; Sparks, Elizabeth; Myers, Loretha; Willems, Patrick J; Mansour, Sahar; Simpson, Michael A; Frysira, Helena; Maat-Kievit, Anneke; Van Minkelen, Rick; Hoogeboom, Jeanette M; Mortier, Geert R; Titheradge, Hannah; Brueton, Louise; Starr, Lois; Stark, Zornitza; Ockeloen, Charlotte; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Blair, Ed; Hobson, Emma; Hurst, Jane; Maystadt, Isabelle; Destrée, Anne; Girisha, Katta M; Miller, Michelle; Dietz, Harry C; Loeys, Bart; Van Laer, Lut

    2015-02-01

    Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is a rare, systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by craniofacial, skeletal, and cardiovascular manifestations that show a significant overlap with the features observed in the Marfan (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS). A distinguishing observation in SGS patients is the presence of intellectual disability, although not all patients in this series present this finding. Recently, SGS was shown to be due to mutations in the SKI gene, encoding the oncoprotein SKI, a repressor of TGFβ activity. Here, we report eight recurrent and three novel SKI mutations in eleven SGS patients. All were heterozygous missense mutations located in the R-SMAD binding domain, except for one novel in-frame deletion affecting the DHD domain. Adding our new findings to the existing data clearly reveals a mutational hotspot, with 73% (24 out of 33) of the hitherto described unrelated patients having mutations in a stretch of five SKI residues (from p.(Ser31) to p.(Pro35)). This implicates that the initial molecular testing could be focused on mutation analysis of the first half of exon 1 of SKI. As the majority of the known mutations are located in the R-SMAD binding domain of SKI, our study further emphasizes the importance of TGFβ signaling in the pathogenesis of SGS.

  14. Differential Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders Associated with Moderate to Severe Refractory Eczema and Elevated Immunoglobulin E.

    PubMed

    Arjona Aguilera, C; Albarrán Planelles, C; Tercedor Sánchez, J

    2016-03-01

    The association of moderate to severe eczema and elevated plasma levels of immunoglobulin E is a characteristic not only of atopic dermatitis but also of various genodermatoses: hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes, Omenn syndrome, Netherton syndrome, peeling skin syndrome type B, severe dermatitis, multiple allergies, and metabolic wasting syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, prolidase deficiency, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, IPEX syndrome, STAT5B deficiency, and pentasomy X. The clinical presentation of these genodermatoses -typically in children- is consistent with severe atopic dermatitis. Immunoglobulin E is elevated from birth and response to conventional treatments is poor. Diagnosis is further complicated by the fact that these genodermatoses often share other clinical manifestations and laboratory findings. We present practical guidelines for differentiating among these various entities, with the aim of helping physicians decide what type of genetic test should be carried out -and when- in order to establish a definitive diagnosis.

  15. Clinical and genetic characterization of adult patients presenting with non-syndromic vascular aneurysms and dissections.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Ryan S; Slavov, Dobromir; Graw, Sharon; Jirikowic, Jean; Todd, Emily; Rogers, Robert K; Taylor, Matthew R

    2017-10-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the arterial tree in the form of aneurysms and dissections are highly morbid conditions that strike younger persons leading to bleeding, infarction, or even death. Although clinically recognizable syndromes, notably Marfan, Ehlers Danlos, and Loeys-Dietz syndromes encompass the principal diagnosable phenotypes along the genetic vascular disorder spectrum, a substantial subset of patients cannot be adequately classified under a known diagnosis through clinical or molecular diagnostic methods. Here we describe patients presenting with multiple-aneurysms and/or pseudoaneurysm syndromes (MAPS), and clinically characterize this novel phenotype, present data on natural history and prognosis, and propose management guidelines. Thirty-two patients with MAPS were identified from February 2006 to October 2015 through the University of Colorado Adult Medical Genetics Clinic. A subset of patients underwent clinical genetic testing utilizing the Marfan/TAAD/Related disorders panel, and another subset was enrolled for research-based exome-sequencing. Thirty-two patients (10 men, 22 women) were classified as MAPS patients with an average age of diagnosis at 39.5 (±13.3) and 35.4 (±12.8) years, respectively. Symptom presentation and progression are presented based on vascular territory, notably of the heart, head, and neck, which could manifest with fatal complications. Secondary arterial events occurred at an average of 6.7±6.0 years after the initial MAPS episode. Genetic analysis revealed 9 gene variants that are likely pathogenic and implicated in MAPS. These data more broadly illuminate a phenotype of aneurysms, dissections, and/or pseudoaneurysms that do not classify under a recognizable genetic vascular diagnosis. Our data should provide useful clinical information for providers managing patients with MAPS.

  16. Genes Predisposing to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections: Associated Phenotypes, Gene-Specific Management, and Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Milewicz, Dianna M.; Carlson, Alicia A.; Regalado, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to type A dissections (TAAD) are the major diseases affecting the aorta. A genetic predisposition for TAAD can occur as part of a genetic syndrome, as is the case for Marfan syndrome, due to mutations in FBN1, and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, which results from mutations in either TGFBR1 or TGFBR2. A predisposition to TAAD in the absence of syndromic features can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with decreased penetrance and variable expression, termed familial TAAD. Familial TAAD exhibits clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Genetic heterogeneity for familial TAAD has been demonstrated by the identification of four genes leading to TAAD, including TGFBR2 and TGFBR1, MYH11, and ACTA2. The phenotype and management of patients harboring mutations in these genes, along with genetic testing, will be addressed in this review. PMID:20452526

  17. Griscelli syndrome type-3

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Bela J.; Jagati, Ashish K.; Katrodiya, Nilesh K.; Patel, Sonal M.

    2016-01-01

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder of pigmentary dilution of skin, silver gray hair, variable immunodeficiency, neurological impairment, and abnormal accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. GS type 3 is characterized by hypomelanosis with no immunological and neurological manifestation. Prognosis is very good in type 3 GS and usually require no active intervention, as opposed to type 1 and 2 where early diagnosis and treatment plays a crucial role in patient's survival. The characteristic phenotypic appearance, especially the pigment dilution of the patient's hair, is emphasized here. PMID:27990386

  18. Modified pediatric Bentall procedure: A novel technique in a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Salve, Gananjay G; Javali, Satish R; Dalvi, Bharat V; Krishnanaik, Shivaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of ascending aorta are rarely seen in pediatric age group. Only few cases with Marfans syndrome have been reported in the literature. Preferred treatment for these children has been the standard Bentall procedure (aortic root replacement with composite graft prosthesis). We report a 4-year-old male child with huge aneurysm of ascending aorta and aortic root dilation with severe aortic regurgitation, having phenotypic features of Loeys-Dietz syndrome type I. He underwent Bentall procedure with a novel modification (medial trap-door technique for coronary reimplantation). Short-term result of this procedure is encouraging and he is asymptomatic for the last 14 months of follow-up. PMID:27625523

  19. Pathophysiology of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA): is it not one uniform aorta? Role of embryologic origin.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, Jean Marie; Jones, Jeffery A; Ikonomidis, John S

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a clinically silent and potentially fatal disease whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. Application of data derived from animal models and human tissue analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms may prove misleading given current evidence of structural and biochemical aortic heterogeneity above and below the diaphragm. Genetic predisposition is more common in TAA and includes multi-faceted syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and type IV Ehlers-Danlos as well as autosomal-dominant familial patterns of inheritance. Investigation into the consequences of these known mutations has provided insight into the cell signaling cascades leading to degenerative remodeling of the aortic medial extracellular matrix (ECM) with TGF-β playing a major role. Targeted research into modifying the upstream regulation or downstream effects of the TGF-β1 pathway may provide opportunities for intervention to attenuate TAA progression.

  20. Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro da Silva, Ana Luísa; Vaz da Silva, Manuel Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference proposed a classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), aiming for a better delineation of each subtype. Although the exact pathophysiology of type 4 CRS is not completely understood, the mechanisms involved are probably multifactorial. There is growing evidence that oxidative stress is a major connector in the development and progression of type 4 CRS. Giving its complexity, poor prognosis and increasing incidence, type 4 CRS is becoming a significant public health problem. Patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly predisposed to cardiac dysfunction, due to the high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population, but the contribution of risk factors specific to chronic kidney disease should also be taken into account. Much remains to be elucidated about type 4 CRS: despite progress over the last decade, there are still significant questions regarding its pathophysiology and there is as yet no specific therapy. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved may provide potential targets for intervention. The present review will provide a brief description of the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, biomarkers and management strategies of type 4 CRS, and the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors presumably involved in its development will be particularly highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-19

    Marfan Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, ACTA2 or MYH11 Genetic Mutation; Bicuspid Aortic Valve Without Known Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Family History; Bicuspid Aortic Valve With Coarctation; Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissections; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Other Aneur/Diss of Thoracic Aorta Not Due to Trauma, <50yo; Other Congenital Heart Disease

  2. Types of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bone marrow have at least one certain chromosome abnormality that is only seen in MDS or leukemia. The number of blasts in the bone marrow is less than 5%. Because this type ... this type of MDS, the chromosomes of the bone marrow cells are normal except ...

  3. Genetic Risk for Aortic Aneurysm in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Haller, Gabe; Alvarado, David M; Willing, Marcia C; Braverman, Alan C; Bridwell, Keith H; Kelly, Michael; Lenke, Lawrence G; Luhmann, Scott J; Gurnett, Christina A; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2015-09-02

    Scoliosis is a feature of several genetic disorders that are also associated with aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and type-IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Life-threatening complications of aortic aneurysm can be decreased through early diagnosis. Genetic screening for mutations in populations at risk, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, may improve recognition of these disorders. The coding regions of five clinically actionable genes associated with scoliosis (COL3A1, FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and SMAD3) and aortic aneurysm were sequenced in 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Gene variants that had minor allele frequencies of <0.0001 or were present in human disease mutation databases were identified. Variants were classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of unknown significance. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations were identified in 0.9% (three) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Two patients had pathogenic SMAD3 nonsense mutations consistent with type-III Loeys-Dietz syndrome and one patient had a pathogenic FBN1 mutation with subsequent confirmation of Marfan syndrome. Variants of unknown significance in COL3A1 and FBN1 were identified in 5.0% (seventeen) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Six FBN1 variants were previously reported in patients with Marfan syndrome, yet were considered variants of unknown significance based on the level of evidence. Variants of unknown significance occurred most frequently in FBN1 and were associated with greater curve severity, systemic features of Marfan syndrome, and joint hypermobility. Clinically actionable pathogenic mutations in genes associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and aortic aneurysm are rare in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who are not suspected of having these disorders, although variants of unknown significance are relatively common. Routine genetic screening of all patients with adolescent

  4. Genetic Risk for Aortic Aneurysm in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Gabe; Alvarado, David M.; Willing, Marcia C.; Braverman, Alan C.; Bridwell, Keith H.; Kelly, Michael; Lenke, Lawrence G.; Luhmann, Scott J.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Dobbs, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis is a feature of several genetic disorders that are also associated with aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and type-IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Life-threatening complications of aortic aneurysm can be decreased through early diagnosis. Genetic screening for mutations in populations at risk, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, may improve recognition of these disorders. Methods: The coding regions of five clinically actionable genes associated with scoliosis (COL3A1, FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and SMAD3) and aortic aneurysm were sequenced in 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Gene variants that had minor allele frequencies of <0.0001 or were present in human disease mutation databases were identified. Variants were classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of unknown significance. Results: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations were identified in 0.9% (three) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Two patients had pathogenic SMAD3 nonsense mutations consistent with type-III Loeys-Dietz syndrome and one patient had a pathogenic FBN1 mutation with subsequent confirmation of Marfan syndrome. Variants of unknown significance in COL3A1 and FBN1 were identified in 5.0% (seventeen) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Six FBN1 variants were previously reported in patients with Marfan syndrome, yet were considered variants of unknown significance based on the level of evidence. Variants of unknown significance occurred most frequently in FBN1 and were associated with greater curve severity, systemic features of Marfan syndrome, and joint hypermobility. Conclusions: Clinically actionable pathogenic mutations in genes associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and aortic aneurysm are rare in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who are not suspected of having these disorders, although variants of unknown significance are relatively common. Clinical

  5. ADPKD: Prototype of Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 4

    PubMed Central

    Virzì, Grazia Maria; Corradi, Valentina; Panagiotou, Anthi; Gastaldon, Fiorella; Cruz, Dinna N.; de Cal, Massimo; Clementi, Maurizio; Ronco, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome) is characterized by a condition of primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) that leads to an impairment of the cardiac function, ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Clinically, it is very difficult to distinguish between CRS type 2 (Chronic Cardiorenal Syndrome) and CRS type 4 (Chronic Renocardiac Syndrome) because often it is not clear whether the primary cause of the syndrome depends on the heart or the kidney. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a genetic disease that causes CKD, could be viewed as an ideal prototype of CRS type 4 because it is certain that the primary cause of cardiorenal syndrome is the kidney disease. In this paper, we will briefly review the epidemiology of ADPKD, conventional and novel biomarkers which may be useful in following the disease process, and prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21234092

  6. Neurofibromatosis type II: a rare neurocutaneous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu; Khan, Ashfa Ameer; Malik, Muhammad Akbar; Nadeem, Malik Muhammad; Rahman, Mahfooz-Ur-; Khan, Malik Muhammad Nazir

    2007-06-01

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are heterogeneous group of disorders with abnormalities of central as well as peripheral nervous system. Neurofibromatosis type II (NF-II) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome rarely diagnosed in pediatric population. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and radioimaging. We present a 14 years old boy with headache and decreased hearing, who turned to be a case of neurofibromatosis type II.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: type A insulin resistance syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions type A insulin resistance syndrome type A insulin resistance syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... PDF Open All Close All Description Type A insulin resistance syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a group of related conditions called otopalatodigital spectrum disorders, which also includes otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 , ... 1 is usually the mildest of the otopalatodigital spectrum disorders. People with this condition usually have characteristic ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a group of related conditions called otopalatodigital spectrum disorders, which also includes otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 , ... Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) GeneReview: Otopalatodigital Spectrum Disorders General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic ...

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of type 2 Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, P S; Gross, S J; Cohen, D J; Tiller, G R; Shanske, A L; Bombard, A T; Marion, R W

    1996-12-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder consisting of craniosynostosis, a flattened midface with a beaked nose and ocular proptosis, and broad and medially deviated thumbs and great toes. Recently, based on clinical findings, the disorder has been divided into three subtypes: type 1, characterized by mild expression; type 2, in which clover leaf skull deformity and multiple congenital anomalies are present at birth; and type 3, which is similar to type 2, but lacks the presence of the clover leaf skull at birth. We describe a fetus in whom sonographic findings of clover leaf skull deformity, ocular hypertelorism, and varus deformity of the great toe led to the prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome type 2. We believe this is the second prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome, and the first time type 2 has been definitely identified in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  11. Genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II.

    PubMed Central

    Pieke Dahl, S; Kimberling, W J; Gorin, M B; Weston, M D; Furman, J M; Pikus, A; Möller, C

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been localised to chromosome 1q32-q41. DNA from a family with four of seven sibs affected with clinical characteristics of Usher syndrome type II was genotyped using markers spanning the 1q32-1q41 region. These included D1S70 and D1S81, which are believed to flank USH2. Genotypic results and subsequent linkage analysis indicated non-linkage of this family to these markers. The A test analysis for heterogeneity with this family and 32 other Usher type II families was statistically significant at p < 0.05. Further clinical evaluation of this family was done in light of the linkage results to determine if any phenotypic characteristics would allow for clinical identification of the unlinked type. No clear phenotypic differences were observed; however, this unlinked family may represent a previously unreported subtype of Usher type II characterised by a milder form of retinitis pigmentosa and mild vestibular abnormalities. Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II complicates efforts to isolate and clone Usher syndrome genes using linkage analysis and limits the use of DNA markers in early detection of Usher type II. Images PMID:7901420

  12. A new locus-specific database (LSDB) for mutations in the TGFBR2 gene: UMD-TGFBR2.

    PubMed

    Frederic, Melissa Yana; Hamroun, Dalil; Faivre, Laurence; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Claustres, Mireille; Béroud, Christophe; Collod-Béroud, Gwenaëlle

    2008-01-01

    The implication of mutations in the TGFBR2 gene, known to be involved in cancers, in Marfan syndrome (MFS) and later in Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) and Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections (TAAD2) gives a new example of the complexity of one gene involved in multiple diseases. To date, known TGFBR2 mutations are not disease-specific and many mutations have to be accumulated before genotype-phenotype relationships emerge. To facilitate mutational analysis of the TGFBR2 gene, a locus-specific database has been set up with the Universal Mutation Database (UMD) software. The version of the computerized database contains 85 entries. A total of 12 mutations are reported to be involved in MFS, six in incomplete MFS, 30 in LDS type I, 10 in LDS type II, seven in TAAD2, and 20 in various cancers. The database is accessible online at http://www.umd.be (last accessed: 3 July 2007). (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The Genetics of Aortopathies in Clinical Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Amit; Keramati, Ali R; Czarny, Matthew J; Resar, Jon R; Mani, Arya

    2017-01-01

    Aortopathies pose a significant healthcare burden due to excess early mortality, increasing incidence, and underdiagnosis. Understanding the underlying genetic causes, early diagnosis, timely surveillance, prophylactic repair, and family screening are keys to addressing these diseases. Next-generation sequencing continues to expand our understanding of the genetic causes of heritable aortopathies, rapidly clarifying their underlying molecular pathophysiology and suggesting new potential therapeutic targets. This review will summarize the pathogenetic mechanisms and management of heritable genetic aortopathies with attention to specific forms of both syndromic and nonsyndromic disorders, including Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. PMID:28607545

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Blaumeiser, Bettina; Loquet, Philip; Wuyts, Wim; Nöthen, Markus M

    2004-08-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by coronal craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great toes. On the basis of clinical findings, three subtypes have been delineated. The clinical variability of Pfeiffer syndrome as well as other causes of craniosynostosis can make a prenatal diagnosis based on sonography alone difficult. We describe a fetus in whom sonographic findings (including 3D ultrasound) suggested a Pfeiffer syndrome type II and in which subsequent molecular analysis verified the diagnosis by identifying a de novo mutation in the FGFR2 gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a prenatal molecular diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome in a patient without family history.

  15. Fluconazole-Induced Type 1 Kounis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh Mahal, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    The administration of fluconazole is commonly used in both inpatient and outpatient settings for the management of candidiasis infection. Although it is associated with a relatively safe side effect profile, some patients experience adverse effects associated with increased morbidity. We describe 1 such patient, a 42-year-old woman with a history of severe eczema who developed fluconazole-induced type 1 Kounis syndrome. Review of literature indicates that this as the first case reported of fluconazole-induced type 1 Kounis syndrome.

  16. Moyamoya syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most prevalent autosomal dominant genetic disorder among humans. NF1 vasculopathy is a significant but underrecognized complication of the disease, affecting both arterial and venous blood vessels of all sizes. Moyamoya syndrome is a cerebral vasculopathy that is only rarely observed in association with NF1, particularly in the pediatric age range. Herein, we report of a 5-year-old female with NF1 and moyamoya syndrome and we briefly review the existing literature. PMID:24952383

  17. Absence of Cardiovascular Manifestations in a Haploinsufficient Tgfbr1 Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Marjolijn; Trachet, Bram; Casteleyn, Christophe; Campens, Laurence; Cornillie, Pieter; Callewaert, Bert; Deleye, Steven; Vandeghinste, Bert; van Heijningen, Paula M.; Dietz, Harry; De Vos, Filip; Essers, Jeroen; Staelens, Steven; Segers, Patrick; Loeys, Bart; Coucke, Paul; De Paepe, Anne; De Backer, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant arterial aneurysm disease belonging to the spectrum of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-associated vasculopathies. In its most typical form it is characterized by the presence of hypertelorism, bifid uvula/cleft palate and aortic aneurysm and/or arterial tortuosity. LDS is caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in the genes encoding TGFβ receptor 1 and 2 (TGFBR1 and −2), which lead to a paradoxical increase in TGFβ signaling. To address this apparent paradox and to gain more insight into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal disease, we characterized a new Tgfbr1 mouse model carrying a p.Y378* nonsense mutation. Study of the natural history in this model showed that homozygous mutant mice die during embryonic development due to defective vascularization. Heterozygous mutant mice aged 6 and 12 months were morphologically and (immuno)histochemically indistinguishable from wild-type mice. We show that the mutant allele is degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay, expected to result in haploinsufficiency of the mutant allele. Since this haploinsufficiency model does not result in cardiovascular malformations, it does not allow further study of the process of aneurysm formation. In addition to providing a comprehensive method for cardiovascular phenotyping in mice, the results of this study confirm that haploinsuffciency is not the underlying genetic mechanism in human LDS. PMID:24587008

  18. [Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Márcia S

    2008-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (AIT), celiac disease (CD), Addison's disease (AD), and other autoimmune diseases. These diseases can occur simultaneously in defined syndromes with distinct pathophysiology and characteristics: autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs) and the immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome (IPEX). APSs were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. APS-1 is characterized by the evidence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, AD and T1D could be present as part of this syndrome. The combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency with AIT and/or type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus defines APS-2. AIT associated to other autoimmune diseases (excluding AD and/or hypoparathyroidism) are the main characteristics of APS-3. Different clinical combinations of autoimmune diseases which were not included in the previous groups are the characteristics of APS-4. IPEX is a recessive disorder characterized by the neonatal onset of T1D, infections, enteropathy, thrombocytopenia and anemia, as well as endocrinopathy, eczema and cachexia. These disorders are not common, but their consequences can be life threatening when the diagnosis is overlooked, and the treatment is the same prescribed for isolated disease presentation.

  19. Bartter's syndrome with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    See, Ting-Ting; Lee, Siu-Pak

    2009-02-01

    We report a rare case of Bartter's syndrome in a 35-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with leg weakness, fatigue, polyuria and polydipsia. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and high renin and aldosterone concentrations were present, but the patient was normotensive. Gitelman's syndrome was excluded because of the presence of hypercalciuria, secondary hyperparathyroidism and bilateral nephrocalcinosis. The patients condition improved upon administration of a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor (acemetacin), oral potassium chloride and potassium-sparing diuretics. Five months later, the patient discontinued acemetacin because of epigastric discomfort; at the same time, severe hypokalemia and hyperglycemia developed. Glucagon stimulation and water deprivation tests were performed. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was diagnosed. To avoid further gastrointestinal complications, the patient was treated with celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor. This case serves as a reminder that Bartter's syndrome is associated with various metabolic derangements including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, nephrocalcinosis and diabetes mellitus. When treating Bartter's syndrome, it is also prudent to remember that the long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and potassium-sparing diuretics may result in serious adverse reactions.

  20. Waardenburg Syndrome type 1: A case report.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Gulsen Tukenmez; Atıs, Guldehan; Altunay, Ilknur Kıvanc

    2011-11-15

    Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is a rare hereditary disorder that is characterized by the clinical manifestations of oculocutaneous anomalies of pigmentation, congenital deafness, dystopia canthorum, and broad nasal root. It demonstrates both genetically and clinically heterogenous characteristics. In this article, we report an 11-month-old boy with WS1, one of four clinicat types of WS. He exhibited white forelock, hypopigmented macules and patches, heterochromia irides, and dystopia canthorum.

  1. [Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2)].

    PubMed

    Vialettes, Bernard; Dubois-Leonardon, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2) are the most frequent disorders associating several organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Their high prevalence is due to the fact that the main manifestations of APS-2, such as thyroidal autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune gastric atrophy and vitiligo, are common diseases. APS-2 represents a clinical model that can serve to help unravel the mechanisms underlying autoimmunity. Diagnosis of APS-2 is a challenge for the clinician, especially in poorly symptomatic forms, and may require systematic screening based on measurement of autoantibodies and functional markers.

  2. Cardiorenal syndrome type 4: a review.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Anna; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Goh, Ching Yan; Cruz, Dinna N; Granata, Antonio; Vescovo, Girogio; Ronco, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    There is a bidirectional and complex relationship between the heart and kidneys. This interaction is physical, chemical as well as biological and is also reflected in a strong connection between renal and cardiovascular diseases. Cardiorenal syndrome type 4 (CRS type 4) is characterized by primary chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to an impairment of cardiac function, with ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. The incidence of CKD is increasing, and CRS type 4 is becoming a major public health problem associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we briefly review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CRS type 4, the role of biomarkers in its early identification, and its management.

  3. Type 3 Pfeiffer syndrome with normal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, N C; Wilroy, R S; Kaufman, R A

    1996-12-11

    We report on a male infant with extremely shallow orbits, spontaneous luxation of the eyes out of the eyelids, hypoplastic midface, broad, medially rotated great toes, and respiratory distress due to severe bilateral posterior choanal stenosis. At 4 days he had open cranial sutures (both by palpation and radiological examination). Subsequent radiologic studies demonstrated: thickening of the skull base, vertebral anomalies, flattening of the olecranon fossae with dislocated radii, and triangular shape of the proximal phalanx of the first toes. Our patient had manifestations of type 3 Pfeiffer syndrome (PS). However, the finding of normal thumbs has not been reported in type 3 PS. Point mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) have been reported in familial and sporadic cases of PS, but were not found in this patient. Recognizing type 3 PS, despite variability in expression, is important for genetic counseling, prognosis, and decision-making regarding craniofacial surgery.

  4. Current Understanding of Usher Syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Le; Song, Hongman; Sokolov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    Usher syndrome is the most common deafness-blindness caused by genetic mutations. To date, three genes have been identified underlying the most prevalent form of Usher syndrome, the type II form (USH2). The proteins encoded by these genes are demonstrated to form a complex in vivo. This complex is localized mainly at the periciliary membrane complex in photoreceptors and the ankle-link of the stereocilia in hair cells. Many proteins have been found to interact with USH2 proteins in vitro, suggesting that they are potential additional components of this USH2 complex and that the genes encoding these proteins may be the candidate USH2 genes. However, further investigations are critical to establish their existence in the USH2 complex in vivo. Based on the predicted functional domains in USH2 proteins, their cellular localizations in photoreceptors and hair cells, the observed phenotypes in USH2 mutant mice, and the known knowledge about diseases similar to USH2, putative biological functions of the USH2 complex have been proposed. Finally, therapeutic approaches for this group of diseases are now being actively explored. PMID:22201796

  5. Preliminary research on syndrome types of Chinese medicine in children with primary nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Yu, Jian; Zeng, Gu-Lan; Zhang, Bing-Feng

    2017-08-17

    To provide an objective reference for the syndrome types of Chinese medicine (CM) associated with pediatric primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS). A cross-sectional study was performed. Data on clinical symptoms, CM syndrome types, biochemical indices, and medications used were collected from 98 children with PNS. Then, the correlation between CM syndromes and biochemical indices, as well as medications used, was analyzed. The four most common symptoms in children with PNS were brown urine, red tongue, excessive sweating, and swelling of the face and limbs. The syndromes of qi deficiency of Fei (Lung) and Shen (Kidney) (FSQD) and yin deficiency of Gan (Liver) and Shen (GSYD) were the most common main CM syndrome types. FSQD syndrome score correlated significantly with the total cholesterol level, urine protein/creatinine ratio, and urine IgG and albumin levels (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The use of maintenance glucocorticoids combined with immunosuppressive agents correlated with FSQD syndrome, and the use of maintenance glucocorticoids alone correlated with GSYD syndrome (P<0.05). Two of the most common CM syndrome types were FSQD and GSYD syndromes. FSQD syndrome may be caused by some factors related to lipid levels, protein loss, and the use of immunosuppressive agents. The use of maintenance glucocorticoids may cause GSYD syndrome.

  6. Neurofibromatosis type 1 with overlap Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Kurtoglu, Selim; Kendirci, Mustafa; Keskin, Mehmet; Per, Hüseyin

    2010-02-01

    Turner's syndrome is a sex chromosome disorder. Klinefelter's syndrome is one of the most severe genetic diseases. Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cafe-au-lait spots and fibromatous tumors of the skin. In this article, we report the overlap of neurofibromatosis-1 with Turner and Klinefelter syndromes. Thus, these disorders might overlap within the same patient. Due to these cases, we suggest that each patient with Turner-like symptoms or Klinefelter's-like syndrome, be carefully examined for café au lait macules before the initiation of hormone replacement treatment.

  7. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 3 with Anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Kahara, Toshio; Wakakuri, Hitomi; Takatsuji, Juri; Motoo, Iori; Shima, Kosuke R.; Ishikura, Kazuhide; Usuda, Rika; Noda, Yatsugi

    2012-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with diabetes mellitus visited our hospital with complaints of anorexia and weight loss (12 kg/3 months). He had megaloblastic anemia, cobalamin level was low, and autoantibody to intrinsic factor was positive. He was treated with intramuscular cyanocobalamin, and he was able to consume meals. GAD autoantibody and ICA were positive, and he was diagnosed with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM). Thyroid autoantibodies were positive. According to these findings, he was diagnosed with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 with SPIDDM, pernicious anemia, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Extended periods of cobalamin deficiency can cause serious complications such as ataxia and dementia, and these complications may not be reversible if replacement therapy with cobalamin is delayed. Although type 1 diabetes mellitus with coexisting pernicious anemia is very rare in Japan, physicians should consider the possibility of pernicious anemia when patients with diabetes mellitus have cryptogenic anorexia with the finding of significant macrocytosis (MCV > 100 fL). PMID:23304573

  8. What Are the Types and Phases of Rett Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the types? What are common symptoms? How many people are affected/at risk? ... are the types & phases of Rett syndrome? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content There are two ...

  9. Waardenburg syndrome type 2: an orthodontic perspective.

    PubMed

    Şuhani, Raluca Diana; Şuhani, Mihai Flaviu; Muntean, Alexandrina; Mesaroş, Michaela Florica; Badea, Mîndra Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a rare form of neurocristopathy. It is a disorder in the development of neural crest cells, caused by an altered cellular migration during the embryonic phase. That alteration causes an association of different abnormalities such as pigmentary disturbances of the hair, iris, skin, stria vascularis of the cochlea, dystopia canthorum and sensorineural hearing loss. We report a case of a 14-year-old Romanian male, with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome (mother) and Usher syndrome (father - congenitally sensorineural hearing loss and retinal degeneration). The case particularities are: the correlation between malocclusion and Waardenburg syndrome due to hypoplastic alae nasi and also factors that produced hearing loss, which could be Waardenburg syndrome, Usher syndrome or the presence of the connexin 26 (W24X) gene mutation.

  10. A patient with ascending aortic dilatation, similar to phenotypes of connective tissue disorders.

    PubMed

    Onrat, S T; Emmiler, M; Sivaci, Y; Söylemez, Z; Ozgöz, A; Imirzalioğlu, N

    2009-04-14

    We report on the clinical and molecular findings of a patient who presented alopecia, epicanthus, micrognathia, retrognathia, high arched palate, hypertelorism, Chiari type I malformation, mixed-type hearing loss but with normal heartbeat Q-T interval, malformed earlobes, down-slanted palpebral fissures, downturned corners of the mouth, syndactyly, atopic eczema, and seizures. The patient was a male adult, 23 years old, with short stature (153 cm) and low weight (50.5 kg), due to severe aortic insufficiency and dilatation of the ascending aorta. Conventional cytogenetic screening did not show any chromosomal gains or losses. Molecular genetic screening was conducted for gene mutations involved in various syndromes; the mutations found included [beta-fibrinogen -455 G>A wt/wt (wt/mut), PAI-1 4G/5G (4G/4G), HPA1 a/b (a/a), MTHFR C677T wt/wt (wt/mut), ACE I/D (I/I), and Apo E E3/E4]. Many clinical and molecular genetics findings overlapped with other conditions associated with arterial tortuosity and arterial aneurysms, including the Marfan, Ehler-Danlos, Shprintzen-Goldberg, and Loeys-Dietz syndromes. Although a diagnosis of Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome was based on clinical findings and radiographic findings indicate other syndromes, aortic root dilatation seems to be a new symptom, similar to phenotypes of connective tissue disorders. The unique grouping of clinical manifestations in this patient and the molecular genetics findings lead us to suggest that this case could be an example of a previously unrecognized syndrome.

  11. Meretoja's Syndrome: Lattice Corneal Dystrophy, Gelsolin Type

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, C.; Neves, M.; Oliveira, L.; Beirão, M.

    2017-01-01

    Lattice corneal dystrophy gelsolin type was first described in 1969 by Jouko Meretoja, a Finnish ophthalmologist. It is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in gelsolin gene resulting in unstable protein fragments and amyloid deposition in various organs. The age of onset is usually after the third decade of life and typical diagnostic triad includes progressive bilateral facial paralysis, loose skin, and lattice corneal dystrophy. We report a case of a 53-year-old female patient referred to our Department of Ophthalmology by severe dry eye and incomplete eyelid closure. She had severe bilateral facial paresis, significant orbicularis, and perioral sagging as well as hypoesthesia of extremities and was diagnosed with Meretoja's syndrome at the age of 50, confirmed by the presence of gelsolin mutation. At our observation she had bilateral diminished tear film break-up time and Schirmer test, diffuse keratitis, corneal opacification, and neovascularization in the left eye. She was treated with preservative-free lubricants and topical cyclosporine, associated with nocturnal complete occlusion of both eyes, and underwent placement of lacrimal punctal plugs. Ocular symptoms are the first to appear and our role as ophthalmologists is essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of ocular alterations in these patients. PMID:28250773

  12. Neurofibromatosis type 1 associated with moyamoya syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Duat-Rodríguez, Anna; Carceller Lechón, Fernando; López Pino, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez Fernández, Cristina; González-Gutiérrez-Solana, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities in neurofibromatosis type 1 may arise anywhere in the cardiovascular system, and cerebrovascular involvement is the predominant feature of moyamoya syndrome. Because neurofibromatosis type 1 is a neurocutaneous disorder and routine follow-up with cranial MRI is not standard practice in asymptomatic children, accurate epidemiologic data are lacking. On follow-up, clinical and radiologic progression is often found in patients with moyamoya syndrome. We performed a retrospective analysis on children with neurofibromatosis type 1 who had been diagnosed with moyamoya syndrome on cranial MRI. Of the 197 children diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1, 168 had undergone a cranial MRI, and four (2.3%) of them had moyamoya syndrome. At diagnosis, one child had headache and vomiting related to a right frontal hematoma and the other three children were asymptomatic, including one child with a previous history of renal arteriopathy. In two children moyamoya syndrome was unilateral. The association between moyamoya syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 is rare, but it poses a potential risk of clinicoradiologic progression. Targeted monitoring of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 ensures an early diagnosis of moyamoya syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oro-facial-digital syndrome type II with otolaryngological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Havle, A; Shedge, S; Malashetti, S; Jain, V

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr's syndrome) which is characterized by malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. The facial and oral features include tongue nodules, cleft or high-arched palate, missing teeth, broad nose; cleft lip. The digital features include clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, brachydactyly and duplication of the hallux.

  14. Cholesterol and Alzheimer Type Dementia among Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a summary of research by Warren Zigman and colleagues investigating the link between cholesterol levels and Alzheimer type dementia among adults with Down syndrome. Warren Zigman and colleagues followed 123 adults with Down syndrome between May 1998 and April 2006. The participants were aged between 41 and 78 years at the…

  15. Cholesterol and Alzheimer Type Dementia among Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a summary of research by Warren Zigman and colleagues investigating the link between cholesterol levels and Alzheimer type dementia among adults with Down syndrome. Warren Zigman and colleagues followed 123 adults with Down syndrome between May 1998 and April 2006. The participants were aged between 41 and 78 years at the…

  16. Intestinal malrotation in a patient with Pfeiffer syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Yuri A; Putnam, Philip E; Saal, Howard M

    2010-11-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder characterized by multiple suture craniosynostosis, broad and medially deviated thumbs and great toes, and variable cutaneous syndactyly. We present the case of a 16-month-old boy with Pfeiffer syndrome type 2 who presented with intestinal malrotation for which the diagnosis was delayed. This is a rare complication of Pfeiffer syndrome, with few reported cases in the literature. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing gastrointestinal malrotation as a possible cause of feeding intolerance and persistent vomiting in patients with the severe forms of Pfeiffer syndrome.

  17. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: An unusual association with Down's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Tripathy, Prabhas Ranjan; Kota, Siva Krishna; Jammula, Sruti

    2013-01-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is known to be associated with autoimmune disease including type 1 diabetes. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of DS with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the literature. We hereby report two cases of DS with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24339554

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: An unusual association with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Tripathy, Prabhas Ranjan; Kota, Siva Krishna; Jammula, Sruti

    2013-07-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) is known to be associated with autoimmune disease including type 1 diabetes. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of DS with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the literature. We hereby report two cases of DS with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Gait Strategy in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Camerota, Filippo; Celletti, Claudia; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    People suffering from Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) hypermobility type present a severe ligament laxity that results in difficulties in muscle force transmission. The same condition is present in people suffering from Down syndrome (DS) even if their clumsy movements are due to cerebral and cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to…

  20. Sturge-Weber syndrome in association with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and phakomatosis pigmentovascularis type IIb.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Koley, Sankha; Roy, Asit Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a rare combination of pigmentary and vascular components with or without systemic involvement. We report here a rare association of Sturge-Weber syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and PPV type IIb in a 15-year-old boy who had right upper limb monoparesis along with a history of recurrent convulsions.

  1. Gait Strategy in Patients with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigoldi, Chiara; Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Camerota, Filippo; Celletti, Claudia; Tenore, Nunzio; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    People suffering from Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) hypermobility type present a severe ligament laxity that results in difficulties in muscle force transmission. The same condition is present in people suffering from Down syndrome (DS) even if their clumsy movements are due to cerebral and cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to…

  2. The risk for type B aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    den Hartog, Alexander W; Franken, Romy; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J; van den Berg, Maarten P; de Waard, Vivian; Pals, Gerard; Mulder, Barbara J M; Groenink, Maarten

    2015-01-27

    Aortic dissections involving the descending aorta are a major clinical problem in patients with Marfan syndrome. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters associated with type B aortic dissection and to develop a risk model to predict type B aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome. Patients with the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic imaging of the aorta were followed for a median of 6 years for the occurrence of type B dissection or the combined end point of type B aortic dissection, distal aortic surgery, and death. A model using various clinical parameters as well as genotyping was developed to predict the risk for type B dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome. Between 1998 and 2013, 54 type B aortic dissections occurred in 600 patients with Marfan syndrome (mean age 36 ± 14 years, 52% male). Independent variables associated with type B aortic dissection were prior prophylactic aortic surgery (hazard ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 3.8; p = 0.010) and a proximal descending aorta diameter ≥27 mm (hazard ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 4.3; p = 0.020). In the risk model, the 10-year occurrence of type B aortic dissection in low-, moderate-, and high-risk patients was 6%, 19%, and 34%, respectively. Angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy was associated with fewer type B aortic dissections (hazard ratio: 0.3; 95% confidence interval: 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.030). Patients with Marfan syndrome with prior prophylactic aortic surgery are at substantial risk for type B aortic dissection, even when the descending aorta is only slightly dilated. Angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy may be protective in the prevention of type B aortic dissections. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Type I interferons in Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yihong; Liu, Zheng; Jallal, Bahija; Shen, Nan; Rönnblom, Lars

    2013-03-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary and lachrymal glands resulting in dry eyes and mouth. Genetic predisposition, pathogenic infections and hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Studies in the last several years have revealed marked over-expression of the type I interferon (IFN)-inducible genes in the peripheral blood and salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome. The expression of the type I IFN-inducible genes in Sjögren's syndrome also positively correlates to titers of anti-Ro and anti-La autoantibodies, which are typical for this disease. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are the major source of type I IFN production and activated pDC are detected in minor salivary gland biopsies from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. In addition, polymorphisms in genes important both for the production and response to type I IFN are associated to increased risk for Sjögren's syndrome. Because type I IFN bears a variety of biological functions, such as defense against viral infections and activation of the immune system, these results suggest that the type I IFN system has an important role in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome. A variety of mechanisms causing an activation of the type I IFN system are discussed in this review. Given the pivotal role of type I IFN in the disease process, therapeutic interventions targeting the type I IFN signaling pathway have the potential to benefit the patients with elevated type I IFN status and such hypothesis needs to be carefully evaluated in clinical development.

  4. Outlet type of interventricular septal defect in SanFilippo type-B syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kourouklis, S; Chatzis, D; Skafida, M; Liagkas, K; Paradellis, G; Kyriakides, Z

    2007-11-15

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a heterogeneous group of lysosomal storage disorders, due to deficiency of glycosaminoglycans breakdown enzymes. MPS type III is also known as SanFilippo syndrome, which is further subdivided into four distinct forms--A, B, C and D--caused by different enzyme deficiencies, but with similar clinical characteristics. Cardiac involvement in SanFilippo syndrome is less common compared with the other MPS types. In our case report, outlet type of interventricular septal defect was echocardiographically diagnosed in a fifteen year-old boy with known history of SanFilippo type-B syndrome, which, to our knowledge, has not yet been reported.

  5. [Types of dislipidemia in children with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hromnats'ka, N M

    2014-01-01

    To study dyslipidemia types in children with metabolic syndrome. From 1520 children of total population 155 children aged from 9 to 18 years were selected, who formed 2 groups: 1 group--85 children with metabolic syndrome, 2 group--54 children with normal body mass. Anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, estimation of total cholesterol, low density cholesterol, very low density cholesterol, high density cholesterol, tryglicerides in blood were done. The total cholesterol level was 1,1 times higher (p = 0.001), low density cholesterol 1,4 times higher (p = 0.001), very low density cholesterol 1,1 times higher (p= 0.015), tryglicerides 1,1 times higher (p = 0.020) in children with metabolic syndrome than in children of control group. In children with metabolic syndrome sensitively more often IIa, IV dislipidemia types and isolated hypercholesterolemia and less often IIb, III dislipidemia types and high density cholesterol isolated decrease were diagnosed. So children with metabolic syndrome were characterized by atherogenic types of dislipidemias which determine early atherosclerosis development. Children with metabolic syndrome must be examined on the lipid metabolism violation with the aim of its prevention and correction.

  6. Natal molars in Pfeiffer syndrome type 3: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M P; Crespi, P V; Shanske, A L

    1993-01-01

    The following report is the first documented case of natal teeth associated with a recently described new entity, Pfeiffer syndrome type 3. The clinical manifestations consistent with the spectrum of this rare disorder are described with an emphasis on the concomitant natal teeth. Pfeiffer syndrome type 3 is one of the craniosynostosis syndromes and has been described in only two patients to date. Both mandibular incisors and maxillary molar natal teeth were found. Natal teeth are teeth, which are present in the oral cavity at birth. They are often associated with developmental abnormalities and recognized syndromes. Their incidence ranges from 1 in 2,000 to 3,500 births. The natal teeth found in this infant included both the mandibular primary incisors and maxillary primary first molars bilaterally. The clinical and histological considerations of natal teeth and their management are discussed. The presence of multiple natal teeth is extremely rare.

  7. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later.

  8. Eosinophilia associated with disorders of immune deficiency or immune dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kelli W.; Milner, Joshua D.; Freeman, Alexandra F.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Elevated serum eosinophil levels have been associated with multiple disorders of immune deficiency or immune dysregulation. Although primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are rare, it is important to consider these in the differential diagnosis of patients with eosinophilia. This review discusses the clinical features, laboratory findings, diagnosis, and genetic basis of disease of several disorders of immune deficiency or dysregulation – all which have documented eosinophilia as part of the syndrome. The article includes autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome, DOCK8 deficiency, PGM3 deficiency, ADA-SCID, Omenn syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome, Comel-Netherton syndrome, and severe dermatitis, multiple allergies, and metabolic wasting syndrome (SAM). PMID:26209898

  9. [Coexistence of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 with diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterized by the combination of two or more organ-specific disorders. The underestimation oftheir real frequency probable results from physicians' inadequate knowledge of these clinical entities and sometimes their atypical clinical presentation. Because they comprise a wide spectrum of autoimmune disorders, autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are divided into four types, among which type-3 is the most common one. In this article, we report the case of a young female, initially diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who several years later developed full-blown autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 consisting of autoimmune thyroid disorder and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.The discussed case suggests that in selected patients diabetes insipidus may coexist with autoimmune endocrinopathies and nonendocrine autoimmunopathies, as well as that in some patients idiopathic diabetes insipidus may be secondary to lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and/or the supraoptic-hypophyseal tract

  10. Type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Chiaratti, Francielle Chiavelli; Daxbacher, Egon Luiz Rodrigues; Neumann, Antonielle Borges Faria; Jeunon, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease characterized by manifestations in the peripheral nerves and skin. The course of the disease may be interrupted by acute phenomena called reactions. This article reports a peculiar case of type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome-like features as the first clinical manifestation of leprosy, resulting in a delay in the diagnosis due to unusual clinical presentation. The patient had clinical and histopathological features reminiscent of Sweet's syndrome associated with clusters of vacuolated histiocytes containing acid-fast bacilli isolated or forming globi. Herein, it is discussed how to recognize type 2 leprosy reaction with Sweet's syndrome features, the differential diagnosis with type 1 leprosy reaction and the treatment options. When this kind of reaction is the first clinical presentation of leprosy, the correct diagnosis might be not suspected clinically, and established only with histopathologic evaluation. PMID:27438203

  11. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1: A case report with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Candamourty, Ramesh; Venkatachalam, Suresh; Karthikeyan, B.; Babu, M. R. Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome is a very rare genetic disorder, where damage and mutation to the number 8 chromosome affects sufferers in numerous ways. The syndrome has three types, all characterized by abnormally short stature, sparse hair, short deformed fingers with cone-shaped epiphyses visible in radiographs. Type I is the most common. Type II is characterized by the development of multiple bony exostoses and frequently, mental disability. Type III is a more severe form of type I and is associated with short stature. This report presents a 28-year-old man who had the characteristic features of type I with the presence of multiple erupted supernumerary teeth with normal mentation and karyotyping with high resolution G banding displayed normal chromosomal complements. PMID:23225991

  12. Perry Syndrome: A Distinctive Type of TDP-43 Proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Takayasu; Koga, Shunsuke; Lin, Wen-Lang; Kasanuki, Koji; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Oh, Shin J; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Dickson, Dennis W

    2017-08-01

    Perry syndrome is a rare atypical parkinsonism with depression, apathy, weight loss, and central hypoventilation caused by mutations in dynactin p150glued (DCTN1). A rare distal hereditary motor neuropathy, HMN7B, also has mutations in DCTN1. Perry syndrome has TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) inclusions as a defining feature. Other TDP-43 proteinopathies include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with and without motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND). TDP-43 forms aggregates in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), neuronal intranuclear inclusions, dystrophic neurites (DNs), as well as axonal spheroids, oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions, and perivascular astrocytic inclusions (PVIs). We performed semiquantitative assessment of these lesions and presence of dynactin subunit p50 lesions in 3 cases of Perry syndrome and one of HMN7B. We compared them with 3 cases of FTLD-MND, 3 of ALS, and 3 of hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl). Perry syndrome had NCIs, DNs, and frequent PVIs and spheroids. Perry syndrome cases were similar, but different from ALS, FTLD-MND, and HpScl. TDP-43 pathology was not detected in HMN7B. Dynactin p50 inclusions were observed in both Perry syndrome and HMN7B, but not in the other conditions. These results suggest that Perry syndrome may be distinctive type of TDP-43 proteinopathy. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Acute coronary syndrome after hornet bite, type II Kounis syndrome - a case report].

    PubMed

    Alihodzić, Hajriz; Ilić, Boris; Mladina, Nada; Mrsić, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is an accidental occurrence of acute coronary syndrome associated with anaphylaxis, where acute inflammatory mediators cause the spasm of coronary arteries with the erosion and rupture of atheromatous plaque. We present a 53-year-old male who during the treatment of anaphylaxis after a hornet bite developed acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. The diagnosis of type II Kounis syndrome was proven by electrocardiographic abnormalities and biochemical markers with clinical manifestation of acute coronary syndrome, and was associated with anaphylaxis which demanded prehospital treatment of the patient after the hornet bite. Anaphylaxis after a hornet bite requires consideration of acute coronary syndrome if patients have chest pain and hemodynamic impairment, as these conditions occur infrequently but demand additional diagnostics and adequate treatment.

  14. Clinical and morphological features of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, P B; Parsons, M A; Weatherhead, R G; Karcioglu, Z A

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of 4-month-old girl who presented with congenital cataracts revealed heterochromia iridis, fundus hypopigmentation, residual white forelock and sensory neural hearing loss--findings consistent with Waardenburg syndrome type II. Bilateral peripheral iridectomies performed at lensectomy provided tissue for evaluation. Light microscopy revealed fewer melanocytes in the blue iris than in the brown. Electron microscopic examination showed a significant (p = 0.0001) reduction in melanosome size in the blue iris, and the nerve endings contained fewer vesicles. A defect in neural crest cell migration and melanin synthesis may be responsible for the heterochromia iridis seen in Waardenburg syndrome type II.

  15. The genetics and genomics of thoracic aortic disease

    PubMed Central

    Pomianowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies over the past several decades have helped to better elucidate the genomics and inheritance of thoracic aortic diseases. Seminal work from various researchers have identified several genetic factors and mutations that predispose to aortic aneurysms, which will aid in better screening and early intervention, resulting in better clinical outcomes. Syndromic aneurysms have been associated with Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, aneurysm osteoarthritis syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, and TGFβ mutation. Mutations in MYH11, TGFβR1, TGFβR2, MYLK, and ACTA2 genes have been linked to familial non-syndromic cases, although linkage analysis is limited by incomplete penetrance and/or locus heterogeneity. This overview presents a summary of key genetic and genomic factors that are associated with thoracic aortic diseases. PMID:23977594

  16. Treatment of Frey's syndrome with botulinum toxin type B.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, Giovanna; Berlusconi, Alessandra; Mele, Vincenzo; Cogiamanian, Filippo; Barbieri, Sergio

    2010-08-01

    Frey's syndrome is a frequent sequela of parotidectomy, causing facial sweating and flushing because of gustatory stimuli. Although botulinum toxin type A has become first-line therapy for Frey's syndrome, some patients become resistant. In this study, we investigated whether another serotype, botulinum toxin type B, might be an effective alternative. Case series with planned data collection. Otolaryngology department in a university hospital. Seven patients aged 30 to 68 years, with severe Frey's syndrome, underwent the Minor test and had 80 U of botulinum toxin type B per cm(2) (mean total dose, 2354 U) injected intracutaneously in the mapped area of gustatory sweating. All patients were followed up for 12 months. One month after treatment, six of the seven patients reported that gustatory sweating and flushing had resolved, and, in the remaining patient, these symptoms had decreased. The Minor test confirmed a significant improvement. The subjective benefits remained stable for six months in four patients and for nine months in the remaining three patients; 12 months after treatment, all patients still reported some improvement. Botulinum toxin type B afforded symptomatic relief in a small sample of patients with Frey's syndrome and might be considered a potential alternative to botulinum toxin type A. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiovascular profile in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jem L; Au, Jason S; Guzman, Juan C; Morillo, Carlos A; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2016-12-22

    The cardiovascular profile of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome + Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (POTS + EDSIII) has not been described, despite suggestions that it plays a role in orthostatic intolerance. We studied nine individuals diagnosed with POTS + EDSIII and found that the arterial stiffness and cardiac profiles of patients with POTS + EDSIII were comparable to those of age- and sex-matched controls, suggesting an alternate explanation for orthostatic intolerance.

  18. Neurologic consequences of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joseph R; Weaver, Allison; Greenlee, John; Wahlen, George E

    2008-06-03

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that is chiefly characterized by polyendocrinopathy, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophy. The neurologic complications of this disorder have not been well characterized. The authors report a patient with a previously undescribed autoimmune cerebellar degeneration occurring in association with APS-1 and review the literature regarding the neurologic complications of this disorder. This 24-year-old woman with APS-1 presented with gait ataxia associated with band-like hyperintense signal abnormalities of both cerebellar hemispheres and a unique antibody to cerebellar Purkinje cells and brainstem neurons. At age 9, she had C. Miller Fisher syndrome, from which she had fully recovered. Autoimmune neurologic disease may develop with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1. Neurologic disease may also result from the associated endocrinopathies (hypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus), vitamin deficiency (vitamins B12 and E), and celiac sprue.

  19. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain. PMID:27252946

  20. Nocturnal hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes with sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fendri, Salha; Rose, Dominique; Myambu, Sonia; Jeanne, Sandrine; Lalau, Jean-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We assessed glycaemic status in 26 overweight or obese people with type 2 diabetes suspected of having sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS). In people with SAS (n=13), nocturnal glycaemia was 38% higher, independent of body mass index (particularly during rapid eye movement sleep) compared with non-SAS subjects (p<0.008).

  1. The Expanding Clinical Spectrum of Extracardiovascular and Cardiovascular Manifestations of Heritable Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Timothy J; Bowdin, Sarah C; Morel, Chantal F J; Pyeritz, Reed E

    2016-01-01

    More than 30 heritable conditions are associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). Heritable syndromic conditions, such as Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, have somewhat overlapping systemic features, but careful clinical assessment usually enables a diagnosis that can be validated with genetic testing. Nonsyndromic FTAAD can also occur and in 20%-25% of these probands mutations exist in genes that encode elements of the extracellular matrix, signalling pathways (especially involving transforming growth factor-β), and vascular smooth muscle cytoskeletal and contractile processes. Affected individuals with either a syndromic presentation or isolated TAAD can have mutations in the same gene. In this review we focus on the genes currently known to have causal mutations for syndromic and isolated FTAAD and outline the range of associated extracardiovascular and cardiovascular manifestations with each. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Familial partial lipodystrophy type 1. A rare or underdiagnosed syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Soutelo, Jimena; Grüneisen, Mariana; Fritz, Clara; Sordo, Laura; Powazniak, Yanina; Lutfi, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL) type 1 is a syndrome characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat in arms and legs and an excess of body fat in face, neck, and torso. This rare syndrome is usually diagnosed when patients present cardiovascular complications or pancreatitis due to the severe metabolic abnormalities. Here we present the case of a 45 year old diabetic female without any pathological family history, a poor glycemic control (HbA1c 11.7%), hypertriglideridemia (3000 mg/dl), a body mass index (BMI) of 38, thin limbs, subcutaneous fat loss in gluteal area and ledge of fat above them, prominent veins in lower extremities, moon face, and acanthosis nigricans; as well as hypertension (150/100 mmHg) and subcutaneous folds measuring less than average were observed. Hypercortisolism was discarded and leptin levels were measured (16.8 mg/ml, VR: BMI > 30: 50 mg/ml). Due to these clinical and biochemical manifestations, and low leptin levels (16.8 mg/ml), Kobberling syndrome was suspected; however, LMNA mutation analysis was negative. Changes in lifestyle and treatment with fenofibrate, biphasic insulin 50/50, and enalapril were initiated showing a a significant metabolic improvement: HbA1c (7.8%) and TG (243 mg/dl). FPL type 1 is a familial disease, although there are spontaneous cases. No specific mutation is responsible for this syndrome. Due to its clinical manifestations, Cushing syndrome must be discarded.

  3. [Clinical literature based statistical analysis of common Chinese medical syndrome types].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yu, Ya-Nan; Liu, Jun; Shen, Chun-Ti; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-08-01

    According to the principle of evidence-based medicine (EBM), Chinese medical literatures based descriptive statistical analysis of common Chinese medical syndrome types were performed. By data extraction, standardization, and frequency calculation of disease names and syndrome types from 286 literatures in line with the inclusion criteria, the frequencies of diseases and syndromes were obtained to analyze common syndrome types in clinical practice, to analyze the distribution features of disease related syndromes and syndrome related diseases, to analyze the distribution of basic Chinese medical syndrome types in clinical common diseases as a whole, thus providing reference for clinical and basic researches.

  4. Congenital Chylous Ascites and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type VI

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, John; Esty, Brittany; Sempler, Jessica K.; Carey, John C.; O’Gorman, Molly A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first observation of a patient with contgenital chylous ascites (CCA) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI due to primary lymphatic defect with additional vascular anomaly. CCA is a rare condition, and there is limited understanding of its pathophysiology and treatment options. We also review the patient’s treatment course mitigated with octreotide and total parenteral nutritional support, as there are no current established guidelines for CCA. Early recognition of possible association with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is important for quick intervention and successful management of pediatric patients. PMID:28119937

  5. Terson Syndrome Associated With Acute Macular Neuropathy Type 2.

    PubMed

    Vujosevic, Stela; Testi, Ilaria; Nacci, Elisabetta; Midena, Edoardo

    2017-09-01

    Terson syndrome is defined as the incidence of intraocular hemorrhage in patients following a subarachnoid or intracranial bleed. A 38-year-old female with both intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhages secondary to Terson syndrome underwent repair of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. One month following resolution of the macular hemorrhages, a paracentral scotoma persisted. Multimodal imaging (morphological and functional) confirmed the presence of acute macular neuroretinopathy Type 2 associated with deep retinal capillary ischemia. Optical coherence tomography angiography illustrated the selective involvement of the deep retinal capillary plexus. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:764-767.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Mauriac syndrome: growth failure and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mimi S; Quintos, J B

    2008-08-01

    Growth failure in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) can occur for several reasons. Mauriac syndrome is a rare cause of severe growth failure in T1DM. There may be different forms and etiologies involved in Mauriac syndrome. However, there are common features noted in these patients. We have compiled a review of cases reported in English in the last 30 years. With adequate insulin treatment there is reversal of growth failure and hepatomegaly if present. However, overly aggressive insulin delivery could result in rapid deterioration of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Close monitoring of growth and pubertal maturation in children with T1DM is essential.

  7. Adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type IV with erythrocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Tótoli, Cláudia; Calado, Joaquim Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bartter syndrome comprises a group of rare autosomal-recessive salt-losing disorders with distinct phenotypes, but one unifying pathophysiology consisting of severe reductions of sodium reabsorption caused by mutations in five genes expressed in the thick ascending limb of Henle, coupled with increased urinary excretion of potassium and hydrogen, which leads to hypokalemic alkalosis. Bartter syndrome type IV, caused by loss-of-function mutations in barttin, a subunit of chloride channel CLC-Kb expressed in the kidney and inner ear, usually occurs in the antenatal-neonatal period. We report an unusual case of late onset presentation of Bartter syndrome IV and mild phenotype in a 20 years-old man who had hypokalemia, deafness, secondary hyperparathyroidism and erythrocytosis. PMID:26537508

  8. Genetics of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1/Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Samuel M; Cote, Gilbert J; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes types 1 and 2 represent well-characterized yet clinically heterogeneous hereditary conditions for which diagnostic and management recommendations exist; genetic testing for these inherited endocrinopathies is included in these guidelines and is an important part of identifying affected patients and their family members. Understanding of these mature syndromes is challenged as more individuals undergo genetic testing and genetic data are amassed, with the potential to create clinical conundrums that may have an impact on individualized approaches to management and counseling. Clinicians who diagnose and treat patients with MEN syndromes should be aware of these possibilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classical type.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Jessica M; Sobey, Glenda J; Burrows, Nigel P; Colombi, Marina; Lavallee, Mark E; Malfait, Fransiska; Francomano, Clair A

    2017-02-13

    Classical EDS is a heritable disorder of connective tissue. Patients are affected with joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibilty, and skin fragility leading to atrophic scarring and significant bruising. These clinical features suggest consideration of the diagnosis which then needs to be confirmed, preferably by genetic testing. The most recent criteria for the diagnosis of EDS were devised in Villefranche in 1997. [Beighton et al. (1998); Am J Med Genet 77:31-37]. The aims set out in the Villefranche Criteria were: to enable diagnostic uniformity for clinical and research purposes, to understand the natural history of each subtype of EDS, to inform management and genetic counselling, and to identify potential areas of research. The authors recognized that the criteria would need updating, but viewed the Villefranche nosology as a good starting point. Since 1997, there have been major advances in the molecular understanding of classical EDS. Previous question marks over genetic heterogeneity have been largely surpassed by evidence that abnormalities in type V collagen are the cause. Advances in molecular testing have made it possible to identify the causative mutation in the majority of patients. This has aided the further clarification of this diagnosis. The aim of this literature review is to summarize the current knowledge and highlight areas for future research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Connective Tissue Disorders and Cardiovascular Complications: The indomitable role of Transforming Growth Factor-beta signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jason B.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Marfan Syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS) represent heritable connective tissue disorders that cosegregate with a similar pattern of cardiovascular defects (thoracic aortic aneurysm, mitral valve prolapse/regurgitation, and aortic dilatation with regurgitation). This pattern of cardiovascular defects appears to be expressed along a spectrum of severity in many heritable connective tissue disorders and raises suspicion of a relationship between the normal development of connective tissues and the cardiovascular system. Given the evidence of increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling in MFS and LDS, this signaling pathway may represent the common link in this relationship. To further explore this hypothetical link, this chapter will review the TGF-β signaling pathway, heritable connective tissue syndromes related to TGF-β receptor (TGFBR) mutations, and discuss the pathogenic contribution of TGF-β to these syndromes with a primary focus on the cardiovascular system. PMID:24443024

  11. Waardenburg syndrome type II: phenotypic findings and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Z; Newton, V E; Read, A P

    1995-01-02

    The Waardenburg syndrome (WS) consists of at least two distinct autosomal dominant hereditary disorders. WS Type I has been mapped to the distal part of chromosome 2q and the gene identified as PAX3. Other gene(s) are responsible for WS Type II. Mapping WS Type II requires accurate diagnosis within affected families. To establish diagnostic criteria for WS Type II, 81 individuals from 21 families with Type II WS were personally studied, and compared with 60 personally studied patients from 8 families with Type I and 253 cases of WS (Type I or II) from the literature. Sensorineural hearing loss (77%) and heterochromia iridum (47%) were the two most important diagnostic indicators for WS Type II. Both were more common in Type II than in Type I. Other clinical manifestations, such as white forelock and skin patches, were more frequent in Type I. We estimate the frequency of phenotypic traits and propose diagnostic criteria for WS Type II. In practice, a diagnosis of WS Type II can be made with confidence given a family history of congenital hearing loss and pigmentary disorders, where individuals have been accurately measured for ocular distances to exclude dystopia canthorum.

  12. Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Via, Michael A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2016-11-01

    For individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus or the metabolic syndrome, adherence to an idealized dietary pattern can drastically alter the risk and course of these chronic conditions. Target levels of carbohydrate intake should approximate 30% of consumed calories. Healthy food choices should include copious fruits, vegetables, and nuts while minimizing foods with high glycemic indices, especially processed foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (a.k.a. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Type III and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type): Clinical description and natural history.

    PubMed

    Tinkle, Brad; Castori, Marco; Berglund, Britta; Cohen, Helen; Grahame, Rodney; Kazkaz, Hanadi; Levy, Howard

    2017-03-01

    The hypermobile type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) is likely the most common hereditary disorder of connective tissue. It has been described largely in those with musculoskeletal complaints including joint hypermobility, joint subluxations/dislocations, as well as skin and soft tissue manifestations. Many patients report activity-related pain and some go on to have daily pain. Two undifferentiated syndromes have been used to describe these manifestations-joint hypermobility syndrome and hEDS. Both are clinical diagnoses in the absence of other causation. Current medical literature further complicates differentiation and describes multiple associated symptoms and disorders. The current EDS nosology combines these two entities into the hypermobile type of EDS. Herein, we review and summarize the literature as a better clinical description of this type of connective tissue disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of Bartter Syndrome Type 3.

    PubMed

    Seys, Elsa; Andrini, Olga; Keck, Mathilde; Mansour-Hendili, Lamisse; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Simian, Christophe; Deschenes, Georges; Kwon, Theresa; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Bobrie, Guillaume; Borde, Jean Sébastien; Bourdat-Michel, Guylhène; Decramer, Stéphane; Cailliez, Mathilde; Krug, Pauline; Cozette, Paul; Delbet, Jean Daniel; Dubourg, Laurence; Chaveau, Dominique; Fila, Marc; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Lavocat, Marie-Pierre; Lemoine, Sandrine; Djeddi, Djamal; Llanas, Brigitte; Louillet, Ferielle; Merieau, Elodie; Mileva, Maria; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Mousson, Christiane; Nobili, François; Novo, Robert; Roussey-Kesler, Gwenaëlle; Vrillon, Isabelle; Walsh, Stephen B; Teulon, Jacques; Blanchard, Anne; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Bartter syndrome type 3 is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutations of the chloride voltage-gated channel Kb gene (CLCNKB), which encodes the ClC-Kb chloride channel involved in NaCl reabsorption in the renal tubule. To study phenotype/genotype correlations, we performed genetic analyses by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and retrospectively analyzed medical charts for 115 patients with CLCNKB mutations. Functional analyses were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes for eight missense and two nonsense mutations. We detected 60 mutations, including 27 previously unreported mutations. Among patients, 29.5% had a phenotype of ante/neonatal Bartter syndrome (polyhydramnios or diagnosis in the first month of life), 44.5% had classic Bartter syndrome (diagnosis during childhood, hypercalciuria, and/or polyuria), and 26.0% had Gitelman-like syndrome (fortuitous discovery of hypokalemia with hypomagnesemia and/or hypocalciuria in childhood or adulthood). Nine of the ten mutations expressed in vitro decreased or abolished chloride conductance. Severe (large deletions, frameshift, nonsense, and essential splicing) and missense mutations resulting in poor residual conductance were associated with younger age at diagnosis. Electrolyte supplements and indomethacin were used frequently to induce catch-up growth, with few adverse effects. After a median follow-up of 8 (range, 1-41) years in 77 patients, chronic renal failure was detected in 19 patients (25%): one required hemodialysis and four underwent renal transplant. In summary, we report a genotype/phenotype correlation for Bartter syndrome type 3: complete loss-of-function mutations associated with younger age at diagnosis, and CKD was observed in all phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2: a rare condition in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kırmızıbekmez, Heves; Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Rahime Gül; Demirkıran Urgancı, Nafiye; Öner, Ayşe

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 is defined as the occurrence of Addison's disease concomitantly with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. An 11-year-old boy with Hashimoto's disease, Addison's disease, celiac disease and Langerhans islet cell autoimmunity is described in this case report. Treatment of an endocrine disease may also trigger the onset of another endocrine disease. This case report underlines the importance of early recognition and treatment of critical endocrine diseases as well as the necessity to investigate pediatric patients with autoimmune diseases for coexisting conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychological stress as an inducer of autoimmunity was also discussed.

  16. Surgery for congenital diseases of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Duke

    2015-02-01

    Congenital diseases of the aorta tend to be obstructive when they present early in life, and aneurysmal when they present later in life. The latter group also tends to be associated with connective tissue disorders and with repaired conotruncal lesions. The indications for intervention in the aneurysm group are still in evolution but are clearly age- and lesion-dependant. Disorders such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Turner syndrome may deserve aggressive prophylactic surgery, as well as Marfan syndrome to a lesser extent. The natural history of the dilated aorta after repair of congenital heart lesions is probably more benign than de novo aneurysms and therefore should be treated conservatively. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DRESS syndrome associated with type 2 diabetes in a child

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Bag, Ozlem; Karkiner, Canan Sule Unsal; Korkmaz, Huseyin Anil; Can, Demet

    2016-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an uncommon, life-threatening drug reaction. The basic findings are skin rash, multiorgan involvement, and eosinophilia. Most of the aromatic anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital and carbamazepine can induce DRESS. Herein we report a 14-year-old patient with DRESS syndrome related to carbamazepine use. The patient presented with signs of involvement of the skin, lungs, liver, and microscopic hematuria. Carbamazepine treatment was discontinued; antihistamines and steroids were started. Hyperglycemia, commencing on the first dose of the steroid given, persisted even after the discontinuation of steroids and improvement of other signs. There were no signs of pancreatitis or type 1 diabetes clinically in laboratory tests. Her blood glucose levels were regulated at first with insulin and later with metformin. Within 1 year of follow-up, still regulated with oral antidiabetics, she has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Formerly, long-term sequelae related to “drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome” such as hepatic and renal failure, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Grave's disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and lupus have also been reported. However, up to date, no cases with type 2 diabetes have been reported as long-term sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature presenting with type 2 diabetes as long-term sequelae. PMID:26862317

  18. [Syndrome of blue sclerae and keratoglobus (ocular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Behrens-Baumann, W; Gebauer, H J; Langenbeck, U

    1977-12-31

    Two children born on Crete of consanguinous parents presented the following manifestations of the ocular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS): blue sclerae, keratoglobus and rupture of cornea following minor trauma. In cultivated fibroblasts of one of the patients there was no evidence of defective lysine hydroxylation. The possible relation of our case to a recent similar report by Judisch et al. (1976) is discussed. The ocular type of EDS may be genetically heterogenous. Provisionally, we propose for cases with normal lysyl hydroxylation in vitro the term 'type VIII of EDS'.

  19. [Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I. A case report].

    PubMed

    Leonardi, R; Gallone, M; Sorge, G; Greco, F

    2004-04-01

    Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFDI) is a congenital X-linked dominant disorder characterized by anomalies of the oral cavity, face and digits sometimes associated to cerebral malformations and polycystic kidney disease. The gene, responsible for this syndrome, is ofd1. Clinically it is seen only in females. Lesions of the mouth include median pseudoclefting of the upper lip, clefts of the palate and tongue, and dental anomalies (missing or supernumerary teeth, enamel hypoplasia, and teeth malpositions). Dysmorphic features affecting the head include hypertelorism, frontal bossing, micrognathia, facial asymmetry and broadened nasal ridge. The digital abnormalities are syndactyly, clinodactyly, brachydactyly and, rarely, pre or post-axial polydactyly. Less frequently ex-pressed phenotypic anomalies include skin milia, alopecia, deafness and trembling. Sometimes the diagnosis of OFDI can be difficult because there is an overlap with other types of oral-facial-digital syndromes. A sporadic case of OFDI, with 7 lower incisors, both in the primary and permanent dentition, is reported. This dental anomaly is very unusual because in literature only supernumerary cuspids are reported. In the light of this case, the authors discuss the oral phenotypic expression of ofd1 gene and its role in human odontogenesis.

  20. Ectopic Cushing syndrome secondary to metastatic medullary thyroid cancer in a child with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B: clues to early diagnosis of the paraneoplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Singer, Kanakadurga; Heiniger, Nicholas; Thomas, Inas; Worden, Francis P; Menon, Ram K; Chen, Ming

    2014-09-01

    We describe a 13-year-old male with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B with medullary thyroid carcinoma who was diagnosed with ectopic adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing syndrome. This report highlights the importance of monitoring for paraneoplastic syndrome in MEN and clues to the diagnosis of this complication provided by growth patterns.

  1. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:24453931

  2. Current evidence and insights about genetics in thoracic aorta disease.

    PubMed

    Bisleri, Gianluigi; Bagozzi, Lorenzo; Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve.

  3. Clinical presentations of Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, F M; Narcisi, P; Nicholls, A C; Liberman, M; Oorthuys, J W

    1988-01-01

    Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV is an often lethal disease caused by various mutations of type III collagen genes. It presents in infancy and childhood in several ways, and the symptoms and signs include low birth weight, prematurity, congenital dislocation of the hips, easy inappropriate bruising (sometimes suspected as child battering), and a diagnostic facial phenotype. These features predict a lethal adult disease often complicated by fatal arterial rupture in early or middle adult life. Most affected patients can be diagnosed from radiolabelled collagen protein profiles by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Prenatal diagnosis by specific type III collagen restriction fragment length polymorphisms is possible in some families, and will become increasingly important. Prenatal diagnosis and prevention of the disease in selected families is already possible and will be widely available in the future. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 PMID:3178263

  4. Type I lepra reaction presenting as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kharkar, Vidya; Bhor, Urmila H; Mahajan, Sunanda; Khopkar, Uday

    2007-01-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an unusual inflammatory reaction due to infectious and non-infectious causes occurring in human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. IRIS occurs after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. There are no reports of type I lepra reaction due to IRIS in published literature from India. We report two cases of HIV-infected males who presented with borderline tuberculoid leprosy in type 1 reaction after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Case 1 presented with multiple, tender, erythematous and hypoesthetic plaques on the trunk and extremities after 3 months of antiretroviral therapy. In case 2, type I lepra reaction was observed 2 months after the initiation of HAART.

  5. Advances in the pathogenesis of cardiorenal syndrome type 3.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Anna; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Pastori, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Granata, Antonio; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 3 is a subclassification of the CRS whereby an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) leads to the development of acute cardiac injury or dysfunction. In general, there is limited understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in CRS type 3. An episode of AKI may have effects that depend on the severity and duration of AKI and that both directly and indirectly predispose to an acute cardiac event. Experimental data suggest that cardiac dysfunction may be related to immune system activation, inflammatory mediators release, oxidative stress, and cellular apoptosis which are well documented in the setting of AKI. Moreover, significant derangements, such as fluid and electrolyte imbalance, metabolic acidosis, and uremia, which are typical features of acute kidney injury, may impair cardiac function. In this review, we will focus on multiple factors possibly involved in the pathogenesis issues regarding CRS type 3.

  6. Type 1 diabetes and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Martin P; Matheis, Nina; Kahaly, George J

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder caused by inflammatory destruction of the pancreatic tissue. The etiopathogenesis and characteristics of the pathologic process of pancreatic destruction are well described. In addition, the putative susceptibility genes for T1D as a monoglandular disease and the relation to polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) have also been well explored. The incidence of T1D has steadily increased in most parts of the world, especially in industrialized nations. T1D is frequently associated with autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine diseases and patients with T1D are at a higher risk for developing several glandular autoimmune diseases. Familial clustering is observed, which suggests that there is a genetic predisposition. Various hypotheses pertaining to viral- and bacterial-induced pancreatic autoimmunity have been proposed, however a definitive delineation of the autoimmune pathomechanism is still lacking. In patients with PAS, pancreatic and endocrine autoantigens either colocalize on one antigen-presenting cell or are expressed on two/various target cells sharing a common amino acid, which facilitates binding to and activation of T cells. The most prevalent PAS phenotype is the adult type 3 variant or PAS type III, which encompasses T1D and autoimmune thyroid disease. This review discusses the findings of recent studies showing noticeable differences in the genetic background and clinical phenotype of T1D either as an isolated autoimmune endocrinopathy or within the scope of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. PMID:25685279

  7. Clinical findings in obligate carriers of type I Usher syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenaar, M.; Rahe, B. ter; Aarem, A. van; Huygen, P.; Admiraal, R.

    1995-11-20

    Seventeen obligate carriers from nine families with autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type I underwent otological, audiological, vestibular, and ophthalmological examination in order to identify possible manifestations of heterozygosity. Linkage studies were performed and six families showed linkage to chromosome region 11q13.5 while 3 families have so far failed to show linkage to the candidate regions. Eight obligate carriers had an abnormal puretone audiogram. Two different audiometric patterns could be distinguished when hearing loss was corrected for age and sex. Four carriers (24%) had significant sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) which increased at higher frequencies. The other 13 carriers had SNHL of about 10 dB at 0.25 and 0.5 kHz, but less at higher frequencies. Vestibular findings were generally normal. Electrooculography demonstrated a significant lower mean light peak/dark trough ratio in Usher type I carriers compared to normal control individuals. The methods used in this study were found not to be specific enough to clinically identify carriers of Usher type I syndrome. Nevertheless it is remarkable that a number of obligate carriers showed significant audiological and ophthalmological abnormalities. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Corneal abnormalities in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J A

    1993-01-01

    Eleven patients with blue sclera, limbus-to-limbus corneal thinning, hypermobile joints, and consanguineous parents were examined between January 1983 and September 1991. The clinical diagnosis was consistent with the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI phenotype in all patients. A "halo" sign at the limbus was present in all patients. Corneal rupture occurred in seven patients (nine eyes) either spontaneously or following minimal trauma. Acute hydrops occurred in three patients. Bilateral microcornea was present in one patient and two patients had a unilateral increased corneal diameter as a result of secondary glaucoma after trauma. Peripheral sclerocornea was present bilaterally in five patients. Curvature abnormalities included cornea plana, keratoconus, and keratoglobus.

  9. Griscelli syndrome type 2: A rare and fatal syndrome in a South Indian boy.

    PubMed

    Rajyalakshmi, R; Chakrapani, R N B

    2016-01-01

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the MYO5A (GS1), RAB27A (GS2), and MLPH (GS3) genes, characterized by a common feature, partial albinism. The common variant of three, GS type 2, in addition, shows primary immunodeficiency which leads to recurrent infections and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We, herewith, describe a case of GS type 2, in a 4-year-old male child who presented with chronic and recurrent fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and secondary neurological deterioration; highlighting the cytological and histopathological features of lymph nodes. Hair shaft examination of the child confirmed the diagnosis.

  10. [Research on the correlation between Chinese medical syndrome types and objective indices of Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong-qiang; Ma, Xin-feng; Wang, Wei; Sun, Quan; Zhou, Zhi-hua; Han, Yong-zhu

    2013-11-01

    To explore the correlation between Chinese medical syndrome types of Wilson's disease (WD) and clinical materials as well as physical and chemical indices. Totally 116 WD patients were typed by Chinese medical syndrome. The correlation between Chinese medical syndrome types and clinical materials as well as physical and chemical indices were analyzed using binary stepwise Logistic regression by SPSS 19.0 Software, taking the common Chinese medical syndrome types as the dependent variable and clinical materials as well as physical and chemical indices as the independent variables. Gan-Galibladder dampness-heat syndrome (GGDHS, 35.3%). Gan-stagnation and Pi-deficiency syndrome (GSPDS, 13.8%), Gan-Shen yin deficiency syndrome (GSYDS, 13.8%), and phlegm-dampness retention syndrome (PDRS, 12.1%) were most often seen. GGDHS was positively correlated with grade of K-F ring, total bilirubin (TBIL), alanine transaminase (ALT), laminin (LN) (P < 0.01). GSYDS was positively correlated with TBIL (P < 0.01). PDRS was positively correlated with clinical types, ceruloplasmin (CP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total protein (TP) (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Qi blood deficiency syndrome was positively correlated with disease course, blood ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and LN (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Chinese medical syndrome types were correlated with clinical materials, physical and chemical indices in WD patients, which could provide experimental reference for Chinese medical syndrome typing. GGDHS, GSPDS, GSYDS, and PDRS were most often seen.

  11. Anisometropic amblyopia in a case of type 2 Waardenburg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Akal, Ali; Göncü, Tugba; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yılmaz, Ömer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a case of an 8-year-old boy with iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia who was diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2. An ophthalmic examination revealed iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia in our patient. In the systemic examination, a white forelock and vitiligo on the arms and body were observed and neurosensory hearing loss was revealed, for which the patient used hearing aids. Identification and typing of patients with WS is crucial to address neurosensory hearing loss, glaucoma and fundus changes. While it might be challenging to communicate with a patient with speech and hearing problems, visual acuity should be examined carefully and probable amblyopia should be identified. Anterior segment changes and signs of glaucoma should also be evaluated in detail. PMID:24351514

  12. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 2: A Rare Condition in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kırmızıbekmez, Heves; Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Rahime Gül; Demirkıran Urgancı, Nafiye; Öner, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 is defined as the occurrence of Addison’s disease concomitantly with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. An 11-year-old boy with Hashimoto’s disease, Addison’s disease, celiac disease and Langerhans islet cell autoimmunity is described in this case report. Treatment of an endocrine disease may also trigger the onset of another endocrine disease. This case report underlines the importance of early recognition and treatment of critical endocrine diseases as well as the necessity to investigate pediatric patients with autoimmune diseases for coexisting conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychological stress as an inducer of autoimmunity was also discussed. PMID:25800482

  13. Anisometropic amblyopia in a case of type 2 Waardenburg syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akal, Ali; Göncü, Tugba; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yılmaz, Ömer Faruk

    2013-12-18

    This study presents a case of an 8-year-old boy with iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia who was diagnosed with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2. An ophthalmic examination revealed iris heterochromia and anisometropic amblyopia in our patient. In the systemic examination, a white forelock and vitiligo on the arms and body were observed and neurosensory hearing loss was revealed, for which the patient used hearing aids. Identification and typing of patients with WS is crucial to address neurosensory hearing loss, glaucoma and fundus changes. While it might be challenging to communicate with a patient with speech and hearing problems, visual acuity should be examined carefully and probable amblyopia should be identified. Anterior segment changes and signs of glaucoma should also be evaluated in detail.

  14. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Soo-Hoo, Sarah; Porten, Brandon R; Engstrom, Bjorn I; Skeik, Nedaa

    2016-04-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) encompasses a group of rare genetic connective tissue disorders. The vascular type (type IV) poses the most serious risk to patients. Diagnosis is usually difficult, especially if patients lack a family history. Life-threatening vascular emergency such as dissection or rupture can be the first presenting symptom. Management of the disease can pose a clinical challenge due to the emergency of presentation, tissue friability, and lack of clear management recommendations. We report a unique case of a 40-year-old man who presented with a ruptured celiac artery and a strong family history of EDS. This case highlights the difficulties and complications associated with treating this uncommon and serious disease.

  15. Mutations in PIEZO2 Cause Gordon Syndrome, Marden-Walker Syndrome, and Distal Arthrogryposis Type 5

    PubMed Central

    McMillin, Margaret J.; Beck, Anita E.; Chong, Jessica X.; Shively, Kathryn M.; Buckingham, Kati J.; Gildersleeve, Heidi I.S.; Aracena, Mariana I.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Bitoun, Pierre; Carey, John C.; Clericuzio, Carol L.; Crow, Yanick J.; Curry, Cynthia J.; Devriendt, Koenraad; Everman, David B.; Fryer, Alan; Gibson, Kate; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Graham, John M.; Hall, Judith G.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Heidenreich, Randall A.; Hurst, Jane A.; Irani, Sarosh; Krapels, Ingrid P.C.; Leroy, Jules G.; Mowat, David; Plant, Gordon T.; Robertson, Stephen P.; Schorry, Elizabeth K.; Scott, Richard H.; Seaver, Laurie H.; Sherr, Elliott; Splitt, Miranda; Stewart, Helen; Stumpel, Constance; Temel, Sehime G.; Weaver, David D.; Whiteford, Margo; Williams, Marc S.; Tabor, Holly K.; Smith, Joshua D.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Gordon syndrome (GS), or distal arthrogryposis type 3, is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cleft palate and congenital contractures of the hands and feet. Exome sequencing of five GS-affected families identified mutations in piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (PIEZO2) in each family. Sanger sequencing revealed PIEZO2 mutations in five of seven additional families studied (for a total of 10/12 [83%] individuals), and nine families had an identical c.8057G>A (p.Arg2686His) mutation. The phenotype of GS overlaps with distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWS). Using molecular inversion probes for targeted sequencing to screen PIEZO2, we found mutations in 24/29 (82%) DA5-affected families and one of two MWS-affected families. The presence of cleft palate was significantly associated with c.8057G>A (Fisher’s exact test, adjusted p value < 0.0001). Collectively, although GS, DA5, and MWS have traditionally been considered separate disorders, our findings indicate that they are etiologically related and perhaps represent variable expressivity of the same condition. PMID:24726473

  16. Mutations in PIEZO2 cause Gordon syndrome, Marden-Walker syndrome, and distal arthrogryposis type 5.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Margaret J; Beck, Anita E; Chong, Jessica X; Shively, Kathryn M; Buckingham, Kati J; Gildersleeve, Heidi I S; Aracena, Mariana I; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bitoun, Pierre; Carey, John C; Clericuzio, Carol L; Crow, Yanick J; Curry, Cynthia J; Devriendt, Koenraad; Everman, David B; Fryer, Alan; Gibson, Kate; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Graham, John M; Hall, Judith G; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Heidenreich, Randall A; Hurst, Jane A; Irani, Sarosh; Krapels, Ingrid P C; Leroy, Jules G; Mowat, David; Plant, Gordon T; Robertson, Stephen P; Schorry, Elizabeth K; Scott, Richard H; Seaver, Laurie H; Sherr, Elliott; Splitt, Miranda; Stewart, Helen; Stumpel, Constance; Temel, Sehime G; Weaver, David D; Whiteford, Margo; Williams, Marc S; Tabor, Holly K; Smith, Joshua D; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Gordon syndrome (GS), or distal arthrogryposis type 3, is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cleft palate and congenital contractures of the hands and feet. Exome sequencing of five GS-affected families identified mutations in piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (PIEZO2) in each family. Sanger sequencing revealed PIEZO2 mutations in five of seven additional families studied (for a total of 10/12 [83%] individuals), and nine families had an identical c.8057G>A (p.Arg2686His) mutation. The phenotype of GS overlaps with distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWS). Using molecular inversion probes for targeted sequencing to screen PIEZO2, we found mutations in 24/29 (82%) DA5-affected families and one of two MWS-affected families. The presence of cleft palate was significantly associated with c.8057G>A (Fisher's exact test, adjusted p value < 0.0001). Collectively, although GS, DA5, and MWS have traditionally been considered separate disorders, our findings indicate that they are etiologically related and perhaps represent variable expressivity of the same condition. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge

    PubMed Central

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul HH

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers–Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3). PMID:26316810

  18. Chronic pain in hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (hypermobility type): it is a challenge.

    PubMed

    Scheper, Mark C; de Vries, Janneke E; Verbunt, Jeanine; Engelbert, Raoul Hh

    2015-01-01

    Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) is highly prevalent among patients diagnosed with chronic pain. When GJH is accompanied by pain in ≥4 joints over a period ≥3 months in the absence of other conditions that cause chronic pain, the hypermobility syndrome (HMS) may be diagnosed. In addition, GJH is also a clinical sign that is frequently present in hereditary diseases of the connective tissue, such as the Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, within the Ehlers-Danlos spectrum, a similar subcategory of patients having similar clinical features as HMS but lacking a specific genetic profile was identified: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT). Researchers and clinicians have struggled for decades with the highly diverse clinical presentation within the HMS and EDS-HT phenotypes (Challenge 1) and the lack of understanding of the pathological mechanisms that underlie the development of pain and its persistence (Challenge 2). In addition, within the HMS/EDS-HT phenotype, there is a high prevalence of psychosocial factors, which again presents a difficult issue that needs to be addressed (Challenge 3). Despite recent scientific advances, many obstacles for clinical care and research still remain. To gain further insight into the phenotype of HMS/EDS-HT and its mechanisms, clearer descriptions of these populations should be made available. Future research and clinical care should revise and create consensus on the diagnostic criteria for HMS/EDS-HT (Solution 1), account for clinical heterogeneity by the classification of subtypes within the HMS/EDS-HT spectrum (Solution 2), and create a clinical core set (Solution 3).

  19. Expanding the allelic disorders linked to TCTN1 to include Varadi syndrome (Orofaciodigital syndrome type VI).

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Shaheen, Ranad; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-09-01

    Varadi syndrome is a subtype of orofaciodigital syndrome (OFDS) that combines the typical features of OFDS and the posterior fossa features of Joubert syndrome. The only gene known to be mutated in Varadi syndrome is C5ORF42. In this report, we describe the phenotype of a patient with Varadi syndrome who is homozygous for a previously reported mutation in TCTN1 (NM_001082538.2:c.342-2A>G, p.Gly115Lysfs*8) and suggest that allelic disorders linked to TCTN1 include Varadi syndrome, in addition to Joubert syndrome and Meckel-Gruber syndrome. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Clinical practice guideline 'Complex regional pain syndrome type I'].

    PubMed

    Perez, R S G M; Zollinger, P E; Dijkstra, P U; Thomassen-Hilgersom, I L; Zuurmond, W W A; Rosenbrand, C J G M; Geertzen, J H B

    2007-07-28

    The development and treatment ofthe complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) are a subject of much discussion. Using the method for the development ofevidence-based guidelines, a multidisciplinary guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome has been drawn up. The diagnosis of CRPS-I is based on the clinical observation of signs and symptoms. For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised up to step z. In case of pain ofa neuropathic nature, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For the treatment ofinflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. In order to enhance peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used for a cold extremity ifvasodilatory medication produces insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, the use of vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operation time and limited use of bloodlessness are advised for the secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Use of regional anaesthetic techniques can also be considered in this connection.

  1. Targeted Exon Sequencing in Usher Syndrome Type I

    PubMed Central

    Bujakowska, Kinga M.; Consugar, Mark; Place, Emily; Harper, Shyana; Lena, Jaclyn; Taub, Daniel G.; White, Joseph; Navarro-Gomez, Daniel; Weigel DiFranco, Carol; Farkas, Michael H.; Gai, Xiaowu; Berson, Eliot L.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Patients with Usher syndrome type I (USH1) have retinitis pigmentosa, profound congenital hearing loss, and vestibular ataxia. This syndrome is currently thought to be associated with at least six genes, which are encoded by over 180 exons. Here, we present the use of state-of-the-art techniques in the molecular diagnosis of a cohort of 47 USH1 probands. Methods. The cohort was studied with selective exon capture and next-generation sequencing of currently known inherited retinal degeneration genes, comparative genomic hybridization, and Sanger sequencing of new USH1 exons identified by human retinal transcriptome analysis. Results. With this approach, we were able to genetically solve 14 of the 47 probands by confirming the biallelic inheritance of mutations. We detected two likely pathogenic variants in an additional 19 patients, for whom family members were not available for cosegregation analysis to confirm biallelic inheritance. Ten patients, in addition to primary disease–causing mutations, carried rare likely pathogenic USH1 alleles or variants in other genes associated with deaf-blindness, which may influence disease phenotype. Twenty-one of the identified mutations were novel among the 33 definite or likely solved patients. Here, we also present a clinical description of the studied cohort at their initial visits. Conclusions. We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied USH1 cohort with multiplicity of mutations, of which many were novel. No obvious influence of genotype on phenotype was found, possibly due to small sample sizes of the genotypes under study. PMID:25468891

  2. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type VIIC: A Mexican Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Sánchez, Ana Rosa; Arce, Irma Elia; Tostado-Rabago, Enrique Alejandro; Vargas, Alberto; Padilla-Gómez, Luis Alfredo; Bolaños, Alejandro; Barrios-Guyot, Selenne; Anguiano-Alvarez, Víctor Manuel; Ledezma-Rodríguez, Víctor Chistian; Islas-Carbajal, María Cristina; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Dávalos, Nory Omayra

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders whose primary clinical features include soft and extensible skin, articular hypermobility and tissue fragility. EDS type VIIC or ‘human dermatosparaxis’ is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by severe skin fragility and sagging redundant skin (major criteria) with a soft, doughy texture, easy bruising, premature rupture of fetal membranes and large hernias (minor criteria). Dermatosparaxis (meaning ‘tearing of skin’), which has been described in several non-human species, is a disorder of the connective tissue resulting from a deficiency of the enzyme that cleaves the registration peptide off the N-terminal end of collagen after it has been secreted from fibroblasts. We describe a Mexican case from consanguineous parents with all the phenotypical characteristics previously described, plus skeletal abnormalities. PMID:22787447

  3. Type III mixed cryoglobulinemia and antiphospholipid syndrome in a patient with partial DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alice D; Tachdjian, Raffi; Gallagher, Kerry; McCurdy, Deborah K; Lassman, Charles; Stiehm, E Richard; Yadin, Ora

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT). Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated beta(2)-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF), and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection.

  4. Type III Mixed Cryoglobulinemia and Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Patient With Partial DiGeorge Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alice D.; Tachdjian, Raffi; Gallagher, Kerry; McCurdy, Deborah K.; Lassman, Charles; Stiehm, E. Richard; Yadin, Ora

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT). Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated β2-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF), and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection. PMID:17162366

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Nsiah, Kwabena; Shang, V Owusua; Boateng, K Agyenim; Mensah, F O

    2015-01-01

    The diabetic condition is influenced by several factors, some of which can accelerate the disease's progression to various complications that aggravate the morbidity. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components and the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS in type 2 diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study involved 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and was conducted at the Diabetes Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, the Ashanti Region of Ghana, from February, 2013 to April, 2013. The study involved the use of a questionnaire to obtain some information on the diabetics, undertaking anthropometric measurements, as well as collecting blood samples for the measurement of some biochemical parameters; fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of MetS was 58% in the studied Ghanaian population. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor (60%), followed by central obesity (48.67%) and dyslipidemia (37%). Female type 2 diabetics had a higher prevalence of MetS, and carried more components than their male counterparts. Regression analysis showed three factors; femininity, high body mass index and low educational status were the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS, according to this study. With hypertension being the commonest component, future cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should focus attention on its management and prevention, through education.

  6. Type III Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndromes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ben-Skowronek, Iwona; Michalczyk, Aneta; Piekarski, Robert; Wysocka-Łukasik, Beata; Banecka, Bożena

    2013-01-01

    Type III Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome (PAS III) is composed of autoimmune thyroid diseases associated with endocrinopathy other than adrenal insufficiency. This syndrome is associated with organ-specific and organ-nonspecific or systemic autoimmune diseases. The frequency of PAS syndromes in diabetic children is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of PAS III in children with diabetes mellitus type 1. The study consisted of 461 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1(T1DM), who were 1-19 years of age. TSH, free thyroxin, TPO autoantibodies, and thyroglobulin autoantibodies were determined annually. Autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in children with positive tests for TPO Ab and Tg Ab and thyroid parenchymal hypogenicity in the ultrasound investigation. Elevated TSI antibodies were used to diagnose Graves' disease. Additionally, Anti-Endomysial Antibodies IgA class were determined every year as screening for celiac disease. During clinical control, other autoimmune diseases were diagnosed. Adrenal function was examined by the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. PAS III was diagnosed in 14.5% children: PAS IIIA (T1DM and autoimmune thyroiditis) was recognized in 11.1 % and PAS III C (T1DM and other autoimmune disorders: celiac disease, and JIA, psoriasis and vitiligo) in 3.5% children. PAS IIIA was more prevalent in girls than in boys - 78.4% versus 21.6% (p<0.05). PAS III was observed between 1-5 years of life in 66.6% children; the frequency decreased in consecutive years and successively increased in the adolescence period to 22.7%. PAS III occurs in 14.5% of children with DM type1 and the incidence is positively correlated with patients' age and female gender. Children with PAS III should be carefully monitored as a group at risk for the development of other autoimmune diseases.

  7. Endovascular repair of multiple infrageniculate aneurysms in a patient with vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

    PubMed

    Domenick, Natalie; Cho, Jae S; Abu Hamad, Ghassan; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2011-09-01

    Patients with vascular type Ehler-Danlos syndrome can develop aneurysms in unusual locations. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman with vascular type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who developed metachronous tibial artery aneurysms that were sequentially treated with endovascular means.

  8. Gastrointestinal and nutritional issues in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Pascolini, Giulia; Blundo, Carlo; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Gastrointestinal involvement is a well known complication of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDSs), mainly in form of abdominal emergencies due to intestinal/abdominal vessels rupture in vascular EDS. In the last decade, a growing number of works investigated the relationship between a wide spectrum of chronic gastrointestinal complaints and various EDS forms, among which the hypermobility type (a.k.a. joint hypermobility syndrome; JHS/EDS-HT) was the most studied. The emerging findings depict a major role for gastrointestinal involvement in the health status and, consequently, management of JHS/EDS-HT patients. Nevertheless, fragmentation of knowledge limits its impact on practice within the boundaries of highly specialized clinics. In this paper, literature review on gastrointestinal manifestations in JHS/EDS-HT was carried out and identified papers categorized as (i) case-control/cohort studies associating (apparently non-syndromic) joint hypermobility and gastrointestinal involvement, (ii) case-control/cohort studies associating JHS/EDS-HT and gastrointestinal involvement, (iii) case reports/series on various gastrointestinal complications in (presumed) JHS/EDS-HT, and (iv) studies reporting gastrointestinal features in heterogeneous EDS patients' cohorts. Gastrointestinal manifestations of JHS/EDS-HT were organized and discussed in two categories, including structural anomalies (i.e., abdominal/diaphragmatic hernias, internal organ/pelvic prolapses, intestinal intussusceptions) and functional features (i.e., dysphagia, gastro-esophageal reflux, dyspepsia, recurrent abdominal pain, constipation/diarrhea), with emphasis on practice and future implications. In the second part of this paper, a summary of possible nutritional interventions in JHS/EDS-HT was presented. Supplementation strategies were borrowed from data available for general population with minor modifications in the light of recent discoveries in the pathogenesis of selected JHS/EDS-HT features.

  9. Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Van den Driessche, A; Eenkhoorn, V; Van Gaal, L; De Block, C

    2009-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells and is characterised by the presence of insulitis and &and beta-cell autoantibodies. Up to one third of patients develop an autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Fifteen to 30% of T1DM subjects have autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto's or Graves' disease), 5 to 10% are diagnosed with autoimmune gastritis and/or pernicious anaemia (AIG /PA), 4 to 9% present with coeliac disease (CD), 0.5% have Addison's disease (AD), and 2 to 10% show vitiligo. These diseases are characterised by the presence of autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (for Hashimoto's thyroiditis), TSH receptor (for Graves' disease), parietal cell or intrinsic factor (for AIG /PA), tissue transglutaminase (for CD), and 21-hydroxylase (for AD). Early detection of antibodies and latent organ-specific dysfunction is advocated to alert physicians to take appropriate action in order to prevent full-blown disease. Hashimoto's hypothyroidism may cause weight gain, hyperlipidaemia, goitre, and may affect diabetes control, menses, and pregnancy outcome. In contrast, Graves' hyperthyroidism may induce weight loss, atrial fibrillation, heat intolerance, and ophthalmopathy. Autoimmune gastritis may manifest via iron deficiency or vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia with fatigue and painful neuropathy. Clinical features of coeliac disease include abdominal discomfort, growth abnormalities, infertility, low bone mineralisation, and iron deficiency anaemia. Adrenal insufficiency may cause vomiting, anorexia, hypoglycaemia, malaise, fatigue, muscular weakness, hyperkalaemia, hypotension, and generalised hyperpigmentation. Here we will review prevalence, pathogenetic factors, clinical features, and suggestions for screening, follow-up and treatment of patients with T1DM and/or autoimmune polyglandular syndrome.

  10. A mouse model for Meckel syndrome type 3.

    PubMed

    Cook, Susan A; Collin, Gayle B; Bronson, Roderick T; Naggert, Jürgen K; Liu, Dong P; Akeson, Ellen C; Davisson, Muriel T

    2009-04-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome type 3 (MKS3; OMIM 607361) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bilateral polycystic kidney disease. Other malformations associated with MKS3 include cystic changes in the liver, polydactyly, and brain abnormalities (occipital encephalocele, hydrocephalus, and Dandy Walker-type cerebellar anomalies). The disorder is hypothesized to be caused by defects in primary cilia. In humans, the underlying mutated gene, TMEM67, encodes transmembrane protein 67, also called meckelin (OMIM 609884), which is an integral protein of the renal epithelial cell and membrane of the primary cilium. Here, we describe a spontaneous deletion of the mouse ortholog, Tmem67, which results in polycystic kidney disease and death by 3 wk after birth. Hydrocephalus also occurs in some mutants. We verified the mutated gene by transgenic rescue and characterized the phenotype with microcomputed tomography, histology, scanning electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. This mutant provides a mouse model for MKS3 and adds to the growing set of mammalian models essential for studying the role of the primary cilium in kidney function.

  11. Fabry's disease: an example of cardiorenal syndrome type 5.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aashish; Sartori, Marco; Zaragoza, Jose J; Villa, Gianluca; Lu, Renhua; Faggiana, Elena; Brocca, Alessandra; Di Lullo, Luca; Feriozzi, Sandro; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5) includes conditions where there is a simultaneous involvement of the heart and kidney from a systemic disorder. This is a bilateral organ cross talk. Fabry's disease (FD) is a devastating progressive inborn error of metabolism with lysosomal glycosphingolipid deposition in variety of cell types, capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac and nerve cells. Basic effect is absent or deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase a-galactosidase A. Renal involvement consists of proteinuria, isosthenuria, altered tubular function, presenting in second or third decade leading to azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third to fifth decade mainly due to irreversible changes to glomerular, tubular and vascular structures, especially highlighted by podocytes foot process effacement. Cardiac involvement consists of left ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias (sinus node and conduction system impairment), diastolic dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, infarction, transmural replacement fibrosis, congestive heart failure and cardiac death. Management of FD is based on enzymatic replacement therapy and control of renal (with anti-proteinuric agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers), brain (coated aspirin, clopidogrel and statin to prevent strokes) and heart complications (calcium channel blockers for ischemic cardiomyopathy, warfarin and amiodarone or cardioverter device for arrhythmias).

  12. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, G.D.; Broderius, S.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed.

  13. Neurodevelopmental attributes of joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: Update and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ghibellini, Giulia; Brancati, Francesco; Castori, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade, increasing attention has been devoted to the extra-articular and extra-cutaneous manifestations of joint hypermobility syndrome, also termed Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (i.e., JHS/EDS-HT). Despite the fact that the current diagnostic criteria for both disorders remain focused on joint hypermobility, musculoskeletal pain and skin changes, medical practice and research have started investigating a wide spectrum of visceral, neurological and developmental complications, which represent major burdens for affected individuals. In particular, children with generalized joint hypermobility often present with various neurodevelopmental issues and can be referred for neurological consultation. It is common that investigations in these patients yield negative or inconsistent results, eventually leading to the exclusion of any structural neurological or muscle disorder. In the context of specialized clinics for connective tissue disorders, a clear relationship between generalized joint hypermobility and a characteristic neurodevelopmental profile affecting coordination is emerging. The clinical features of these patients tend to overlap with those of developmental coordination disorder and can be associated with learning and other disabilities. Physical and psychological consequences of these additional difficulties add to the chief manifestations of the pre-existing connective tissue disorder, affecting the well-being and development of children and their families. In this review, particular attention is devoted to the nature of the link between joint hypermobility, coordination difficulties and neurodevelopmental issues in children. Presumed pathogenesis and management issues are explored in order to attract more attention on this association and nurture future clinical research.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity of usher syndrome type 1 in French families

    SciTech Connect

    Larget-Piet, D.; Gerber, S.; Rozet, J.M. ); Bonneau, D. ); Marc, S.; Weissenbach, J. ); Ghazi, I.; Dufier, J.L. ); David, A. ); Bitoun, P. )

    1994-05-01

    Usher syndrome type 1 (US1) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by profound congenital hearing impairment with unintelligible speech, early retinitis pigmentosa, and constant vestibular dysfunction. Three localizations have been described in US1: USH1A, 14q32; USH1B, 11q13.5; and USH1C, 11p15. Studying a series of 33 affected individuals belonging to 20 US1 pedigrees of French ancestry, the authors found that none of the three localizations accounted for all US1 families in the series. However, when the sample was split into two groups according to the geographic origin of the probands' grandparents, they were able to confirm the presence of a gene for US1 on chromosome 14q32 (USH1A) in 9 families originating from the Poitou region in Western France. Moreover, they refined the genetic mapping of USH1A by showing that the disease gene maps to the D14S13 locus, within the genetic interval defined by loci D14S78 and D14S250 (location score in log base 10 = 4.90). Consistent with this, nonsignificant lod score values for linkage to either USH1B or USH1C were found in this group. With regard to US1 families of other geographic origin (Normandy and Northern France, 11 families), nonsignificant lod scores for linkage to chromosome 11q13.5 were observed. However, the HOMOG test suggested that USH1B might account for the disease in 9/11 families in the series (families 10-19), the latter two families possibly being accounted for by USH1C (maximum likelihood for heterogeneity = 7.91 in lnL; heterogeneity versus homogeneity, P = 0.01; heterogeneity versus nonlinkage, P < 0.01). The present study supports the view that Usher syndrome type 1 is a genetically heterogeneous condition that is caused by at least three genes and possibly many more. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Interrupted aortic arch type B in A patient with cat eye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Belangero, Sintia Iole Nogueira; Bellucco, Fernanda Teixeira da Silva; Cernach, Mirlene C S P; Hacker, April M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2009-05-01

    We report a patient with cat eye syndrome and interrupted aortic arch type B, a typical finding in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Chromosomal analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a supernumerary bisatellited isodicentric marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22. The segment from 22pter to 22q11.2 in the supernumerary chromosome found in our patient does not overlap with the region deleted in patients with the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. However, the finding of an interrupted aortic arch type B is unusual in CES, although it is a frequent heart defect in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  16. Brain imaging in cerebellar ataxia associated with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Manto, Mario; Jissendi, P

    2012-07-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 2 (Schmidt syndrome) is a disorder characterized by a combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency, autoimmune thyroid disease, and type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus. We describe the first case of subacute cerebellar syndrome associated with APS type 2. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed atrophy of the cerebellum and the vermis, as well as of the anterior pituitary gland. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed decreased N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the cerebellum and in the pons. Our findings expand the spectrum of neurological deficits in APS type 2 and underlines that cerebellar pathways may be a main target of the disorder. © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  17. Midodrine in the prevention of hepatorenal syndrome type 2 recurrence: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Alessandria, C; Debernardi-Venon, W; Carello, M; Ceretto, S; Rizzetto, M; Marzano, A

    2009-04-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome is a severe complication of cirrhosis. Treatment with terlipressin has currently the best efficacy pedigree, inducing hepatorenal syndrome reversal in a high proportion of patients. However, hepatorenal syndrome recurrence after terlipressin withdrawal is very common, especially in type 2 hepatorenal syndrome. Midodrine, an oral adrenergic vasoconstrictor, has been suggested to be an effective therapy in hepatorenal syndrome. To analyse the impact of treatment with midodrine after hepatorenal syndrome type 2 reversal induced by terlipressin on the prevention of hepatorenal syndrome recurrence. A case-control design was used. The outcome of 10 patients with hepatorenal syndrome type 2 treated successfully with terlipressin and then with midodrine (7.5-12.5mg/tid) was compared with that of an historical control group of hepatorenal syndrome type 2 patients responders to treatment with terlipressin. Patients and controls were matched by age, plasma renin activity (PRA) levels and severity of renal and liver failure. Cases and controls were similar with respect to pre-treatment with terlipressin. The hepatorenal syndrome recurrence probability was the same in the two groups (cases and control: 9/10, 90%, p=ns). No significant differences were found between cases and controls with respect to serum creatinine (1.9+/-0.1mg/dl vs. 2+/-0.2mg/dl), blood creatinine clearance (28+/-5ml/min vs. 24+/-5ml/min), urinary sodium excretion (12+/-6mequiv./d vs. 19+/-4mequiv./d) and PRA levels (17+/-3ng/ml/h) vs. 20+/-3ng/ml/h) after terlipressin withdrawal (p=ns). These results show that in patients responders to terlipressin hepatorenal syndrome recurrence is not different between patients treated with midodrine and subjects who did not receive vasoconstrictor treatment after terlipressin withdrawal. These data suggest that midodrine is not effective in preventing hepatorenal syndrome type 2 recurrence.

  18. Anti-Interferon Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Meager, Anthony; Visvalingam, Kumuthini; Peterson, Pärt; Möll, Kaidi; Murumägi, Astrid; Krohn, Kai; Eskelin, Petra; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Husebye, Eystein; Kadota, Yoshihisa; Willcox, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Background The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene influences thymic self-tolerance induction. In autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1; OMIM 240300), recessive AIRE mutations lead to autoimmunity targetting endocrine and other epithelial tissues, although chronic candidiasis usually appears first. Autoimmunity and chronic candidiasis can associate with thymomas as well. Patients with these tumours frequently also have high titre immunoglobulin G autoantibodies neutralising type I interferon (IFN)–α and IFN-ω, which are secreted signalling proteins of the cytokine superfamily involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Methods and Findings We tested for serum autoantibodies to type I IFNs and other immunoregulatory cytokines using specific binding and neutralisation assays. Unexpectedly, in 60/60 Finnish and 16/16 Norwegian APS1 patients with both AIRE alleles mutated, we found high titre neutralising immunoglobulin G autoantibodies to most IFN-α subtypes and especially IFN-ω (60% homologous to IFN-α)—mostly in the earliest samples. We found lower titres against IFN-β (30% homologous to IFN-α) in 23% of patients; two-thirds of these (from Finland only) also had low titres against the distantly related “type III IFN” (IFN-λ1; alias interleukin-29). However, autoantibodies to the unrelated type II IFN, IFN-γ, and other immunoregulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 and interleukin-12, were much rarer and did not neutralise. Neutralising titres against type I IFNs averaged even higher in patients with APS1 than in patients with thymomas. Anti–type I IFN autoantibodies preceded overt candidiasis (and several of the autoimmune disorders) in the informative patients, and persisted for decades thereafter. They were undetectable in unaffected heterozygous relatives of APS1 probands (except for low titres against IFN-λ1), in APS2 patients, and in isolated cases of the endocrine diseases most typical of APS1, so they appear to be APS1

  19. Molecular defects in Sanfilippo syndrome type B (mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB).

    PubMed

    Beesley, C E; Jackson, M; Young, E P; Vellodi, A; Winchester, B G

    2005-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B (mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB) is an autosomal recessive disease that is caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU). NAGLU is involved in the degradation of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparan sulphate, and a deficiency results in the accumulation of partially degraded GAGs inside lysosomes. Early clinical symptoms include hyperactivity, aggressiveness and delayed development, followed by progressive mental deterioration, although there are a small number of late-onset attenuated cases. The gene for NAGLU has been fully characterized and we report the molecular analysis of 18 Sanfilippo B families. In total, 34 of the 36 mutant alleles were characterized in this study and 20 different mutations were identified including 8 novel changes (R38W, V77G, 407-410del4, 703delT, A246P, Y335C, 1487delT, E639X). The four novel missense mutations were transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and all were shown to decrease the NAGLU activity markedly, although A246P did produce 12.7% residual enzyme activity.

  20. [Oral diseases in auto-immune polyendocrine syndrome type 1].

    PubMed

    Proust-Lemoine, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Sylvie

    2017-07-03

    Auto-immune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) also called Auto-immune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy (APECED) is a rare monogenic childhood-onset auto-immune disease. This autosomal recessive disorder is caused by mutations in the auto-immune regulator (AIRE) gene, and leads to autoimmunity targeting peripheral tissues. There is a wide variability in clinical phenotypes in patients with APSI, with auto-immune endocrine and non-endocrine disorders, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. These patients suffer from oral diseases such as dental enamel hypoplasia and candidiasis. Both are frequently described, and in recent series, enamel hypoplasia and candidiasis are even the most frequent components of APS1 together with hypoparathyroidism. Both often occur during childhood (before 5 years old for canrdidiasis, and before 15 years old for enamel hypoplasia). Oral candidiasis is recurrent all life long, could become resistant to azole antifungal after years of treatment, and be carcinogenic, leading to severe oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral components of APS1 should be diagnosed and rigorously treated. Dental enamel hypoplasia and/or recurrent oral candidiasis in association with auto-immune diseases in a young child should prompt APS1 diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Fabry's disease: an example of cardiorenal syndrome type 5].

    PubMed

    Villa, Gianluca; Romagnoli, Stefano; Sharma, Aashish; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    Fabry's disease (FD) is a severe congenital metabolic disorder characterized by the deficient activity of lysosomal exoglycohydrolase alpha-galactosidase, characterized by glycosphingolipid deposition in several cells, such as capillary endothelial cells, renal, cardiac, and nerve cells. As a systemic disease leading to a contemporaneous myocardial and renal dysfunction, FD might be an example of cardiorenal syndrome type 5 (CRS-5). Kidney damage is commonly characterized by proteinuria, isosthenuria and altered tubular function when occurs at the second-third decade, azotemia and end-stage renal disease in third-fifth decade. Beyond the irreversible glomerular, tubular and vascular damages, the podocytes foot process effacement is the major cause of kidney dysfunction. Myocardial damage is usually observed with right and left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias (due to sinus node and conduction system impairment), diastolic dysfunction, congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia, fibrosis and cardiac death. The enzymatic replacement therapy is essential for the management of FD, as well as the control of renal (with anti-proteinuric agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors- and/or angiotensin II receptor blockers), brain (coated aspirin, clopidogrel and statins to prevent strokes) and heart complications (calcium channel blockers for ischemic cardiomyopathy, warfarin and amiodarone or cardioverter device for arrhythmias). Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  2. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382

  3. Cognitive development in patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (Sanfilippo syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in the degradation of heparan sulfate. MPS III is characterized by progressive mental deterioration resulting in severe dementia. A number of potentially disease-modifying therapies are studied. As preservation of cognitive function is the ultimate goal of treatment, assessment of cognitive development will be essential in order to evaluate treatment efficacy. However, no large scale studies on cognitive levels in MPS III patients, using formal psychometric tests, have been reported. Methods We aimed to assess cognitive development in all 73 living patients with MPS III in the Netherlands. Results Cognitive development could be assessed in 69 patients. In 39 of them developmental level was estimated > 3 months and formal psychometric testing was attempted. A remarkable variation in the intellectual disability was detected. Conclusions Despite special challenges encountered, testing failed in only three patients. The observed broad variation in intellectual disability, should be taken into account when designing therapeutic trials. PMID:21689409

  4. Long QT syndrome with craniofacial, digital, and neurologic features: Is it useful to distinguish between Timothy syndrome types 1 and 2?

    PubMed

    Diep, Vinson; Seaver, Laurie H

    2015-11-01

    Timothy syndrome (TS) is a rare genetic condition that associates long QT syndrome, structural heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, syndactyly, seizures, developmental delay, and autism. Timothy syndrome type 1 is caused by a recurrent de novo mutation (p.Gly406Arg) in exon 8A of the L-type calcium channel gene CACNA1C. Timothy syndrome type 2 was originally reported to be associated with a more severe cardiac phenotype but without syndactyly. Timothy syndrome type 2 is caused by mutation in an alternatively spliced exon 8 of the CACNA1C gene. Other mutations in CACNA1C are also reported with long QT syndrome with and without syndromic features overlapping that described in Timothy syndrome. The purpose of this report is to describe the presentation, physical features and natural history of a 4-year-old girl with Timothy syndrome type 2 due to the recurrent p.Gly406Arg mutation in exon 8 of CACNA1C. She has similar facial features to Timothy syndrome type 1 without syndactyly. She is developmentally delayed without autism. She recently had her first episode of torsade de pointes associated with febrile illness and hypoglycemia. The findings in this case provide further information about the phenotype and natural history of CACNA1C exon 8 mutation and together with previously reported cases of Timothy syndrome question whether the clinical and molecular distinction between Timothy syndromes types 1 and 2 remains clinically useful.

  5. Understanding vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and avoiding vascular complications

    PubMed Central

    Fenves, Andrew Z.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective tissue disorder caused by a mutation in type III procollagen. It has the highest mortality rate among the six types of EDS. Patients with this syndrome often have typical medical histories and a characteristic physical examination. We present two patients with this rare disorder and highlight the diagnostic and treatment challenges. PMID:28127132

  6. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory.

  7. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II presenting with short stature in a child.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Filiz; Korkmaz, Hüseyin A; Yararbaş, Kanay; Wuyts, Wim; Tükün, Ajlan

    2016-12-01

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II (TRPSII) (synonym: Langer-Giedon syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant contiguous gene syndrome, resulting from a microdeletion encompassing the EXT1 and the TRPS1 gene at 8q24 (MIM#150230). This syndrome combines the clinical features of two autosomal dominant disorders, trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I (MIM#190350) and hereditary multiple osteochondromas type I (MIM # 133700). TRPSII is characterized by sparse scalp hair, a long nose with a bulbous tip, long flat philtrum, cone-shaped epiphyses of the phalanges, retarded bone age in infancy and multiple cartilaginous osteochondromas. We report a Turkish patient who had the clinical features and skeletal signs of TRPSII in whom a 13.8Mb deletion in 8q23.1- 8q24.13 was detected.

  8. Type 1 Kounis Syndrome in Patient with Idiopathic Anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Makuc, Jana; Sekavčnik, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Kounis syndrome represents the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes or anginal pain with allergic, hypersensitivity, and anaphylactic reactions. It can be associated with normal coronary angiogram or preexistent coronary pathology. Idiopathic anaphylaxis is defined as anaphylaxis without any identifiable precipitating agent or event. We present a case of male who experienced attacks of dyspnoea, hypoxemia, hypotension, purple-red skin, and chest pain over several years. He was diagnosed with idiopathic anaphylaxis. Based on the pattern of chest pain of ischemic origin during the attacks he was retrospectively diagnosed with Kounis syndrome. PMID:28255467

  9. Chiari type 1 malformation in an infant with type 2 Pfeiffer syndrome: further evidence of acquired pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Adrianna; Al-Hayek, Ali; Matic, Damir

    2010-03-01

    There seems to be an association between type 1 Chiari malformation (CM) and some congenital craniosynostosis syndromes. Type 2 Pfeiffer syndrome is a condition associated with premature fusion of multiple cranial sutures, cloverleaf skull (kleeblatschädel deformity), prominent ptosis, thumb and first toe abnormalities, variable syndactyly, and mutated genes for type 1 or 2 fibroblast growth factor receptor. These children generally do poorly because of significant often severe neurologic and cognitive defects, and many die very young. Roughly half of all patients with Pfeiffer syndrome, and virtually all with type 2 disease, also have type 1 CM. Chiari malformation may not be congenital but acquired as a consequence of the skull deformities and other associated intracranial factors in patients with craniosynostosis. We report a term male infant with type 2 Pfeiffer syndrome, who was not noted to have any CM on initial brain imaging done at 2 months but in whom repeated imaging demonstrated clear evidence of CM by 4 months, despite reconstructive craniotomies and unilateral ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. Posterior fossa decompression yielded a good result. This patient provides further evidence to support the concept of acquired tonsillar herniation in patients with craniosynostosis syndromes. The etiology seems multifactorial and related to (1) the disproportionately slow growth of the skull relative to the brain, particularly in the posterior fossa, secondary to early fusion of skull sutures, in turn secondary to congenital deficiencies in fibroblast growth factor receptors; (2) impaired venous sinus drainage; (3) hydrocephalus; and (4) resultant elevations in intracranial pressure.

  10. [Ehler-Danlos syndrome (type V) with urethra bifida and polydactyly: an unusual combination].

    PubMed

    Manna, R; Modugno, I; Pala, M A; Caputo, S; Caradonna, E; Greco, A V

    1981-06-30

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is currently regarded as a connective tissue dysplasia. Its genetic, biochemical, histological and clinical features are described, together with a personal case in a patient who presented the fundamental symptoms, plus polydactyly and bifid urethra. This association had not been hitherto reported in the literature. The case itself is classed as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type V.

  11. Screening of three Usher syndrome type II candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemker, B.K.; Swaroop, A.; Kimberling, W.J.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type II (US2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa and congenital hearing loss. The disease affects approximately 1 in 20,000 individuals in the general population and is responsible for over 50% of all cases of deafness with blindness. The underlying US2 defect is unknown. The US2 gene has been localized to the 1q41 region of chromosome 1 by linkage studies. Three genes previously localized to 1q were analyzed to assess their candidacy as the US2 gene. These were evaluated by PCR assays using DNA from a YAC contig spanning the US2 region on chromosome 1. The first gene evaluated was the human choroideremia-like gene (hCHML), which had been mapped to chromosome 1q. The sequence on 1q is a homologue of the human choroideremia gene on chromosome X. Choroideremia is a degenerative disorder causing ocular pathology similar to that observed in US2 patients. Therefore, hCHML is a candidate for the US2 gene. Two cDNAs (A and B) from an enriched human retinal pigment epithelium library have been mapped to 1q41 by in situ hybridization. Both cDNAs are considered good candidates. The hCHML and cDNA A were ruled out as candidates for the US2 gene based on negative results from PCR assays performed on YACs spanning the US2 region. cDNA B could not be ruled out as a candidate for the US2 gene by these assays. Answers to many clinical questions regarding US2 will only be resolved after the gene is identified and characterized. Eventually, understanding the function and expression of the US2 gene will provide a basis for the development of therapy.

  12. Glucose transporter type I deficiency syndrome: epilepsy phenotypes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pong, Amanda W; Geary, Brianna R; Engelstad, Kris M; Natarajan, Ashwini; Yang, Hong; De Vivo, Darryl C

    2012-09-01

    Glut 1 deficiency syndrome (DS) is defined by hypoglycorrhachia with normoglycemia, acquired microcephaly, episodic movements, and epilepsy refractory to standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Gold standard treatment is the ketogenic diet (KD), which provides ketones to treat neuroglycopenia. Our purpose is (1) to describe epilepsy phenotypes in a large Glut 1 DS cohort, to facilitate diagnosis; and (2) to describe cases in which non-KD agents achieved seizure freedom (SF), highlighting potential adjunctive treatments. Retrospective review of 87 patients with Glut 1 DS (45% female, age range 3 months-35 years, average diagnosis 6.5 years) at Columbia University, from 1989 to 2010. Seventy-eight (90%) of 87 patients had epilepsy, with average onset at 8 months. Seizures were mixed in 68% (53/78): generalized tonic-clonic (53%), absence (49%), complex partial (37%), myoclonic (27%), drop (26%), tonic (12%), simple partial (3%), and spasms (3%). We describe the first two cases of spasms in Glut 1 DS. Electrophysiologic abnormalities were highly variable over time; only 13 (17%) of 75 had exclusively normal findings. KD was used in 82% (64/78); 67% (41/61) were seizure-free and 68% of seizure-free patients (28/41) resolved in <1 week and 76% (31/41) in <1 month. Seven patients achieved SF with broad agents only. Glut 1 DS is a genetic metabolic encephalopathy with variable focal and multifocal seizure types and electroencephalographic findings. Infants with seizures, spasms, or paroxysmal events should be tested for Glut 1 DS. Evidence is insufficient to recommend specific AEDs as alternatives to KD. Early diagnosis and initiation of KD and prevention of unnecessary AED trials in Glut 1 DS are important goals for the treatment of children with epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in long QT syndrome type 5

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Stephen C.; Wilson, Andrew J.; Aldridge, Robert

    2010-01-01

    KCNE1 associates with the pore-forming α-subunit KCNQ1 to generate the slow (IKs) current in cardiac myocytes. Mutations in either KCNQ1 or KCNE1 can alter the biophysical properties of IKs and mutations in KCNE1 underlie cases of long QT syndrome type 5 (LQT5). We previously investigated a mutation in KCNE1, T58P/L59P, which causes severe attenuation of IKs. However, how T58P/L59P acts to disrupt IKs has not been determined. In this study, we investigate and compare the effects of T58P/L59P with three other LQT5 mutations (G52R, S74L, and R98W) on the biophysical properties of the current, trafficking of KCNQ1, and assembly of the IKs channel. G52R and T58P/L59P produce currents that lack the kinetic behavior of IKs. In contrast, S74L and R98W both produce IKs-like currents but with rightward shifted voltage dependence of activation. All of the LQT5 mutants express protein robustly, and T58P/L59P and R98W cause modest, but significant, defects in the trafficking of KCNQ1. Despite defects in trafficking, in the presence of KCNQ1, T58P/L59P and the other LQT5 mutants are present at the plasma membrane. Interestingly, in comparison to KCNE1 and the other LQT5 mutants, T58P/L59P associates only weakly with KCNQ1. In conclusion, we identify the disease mechanisms for each mutation and reveal that T58P/L59P causes disease through a novel mechanism that involves defective IKs complex assembly. PMID:19907016

  14. Mechanisms of disease pathogenesis in long QT syndrome type 5.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Stephen C; Wilson, Andrew J; Aldridge, Robert; Tinker, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    KCNE1 associates with the pore-forming alpha-subunit KCNQ1 to generate the slow (I(Ks)) current in cardiac myocytes. Mutations in either KCNQ1 or KCNE1 can alter the biophysical properties of I(Ks) and mutations in KCNE1 underlie cases of long QT syndrome type 5 (LQT5). We previously investigated a mutation in KCNE1, T58P/L59P, which causes severe attenuation of I(Ks). However, how T58P/L59P acts to disrupt I(Ks) has not been determined. In this study, we investigate and compare the effects of T58P/L59P with three other LQT5 mutations (G52R, S74L, and R98W) on the biophysical properties of the current, trafficking of KCNQ1, and assembly of the I(Ks) channel. G52R and T58P/L59P produce currents that lack the kinetic behavior of I(Ks). In contrast, S74L and R98W both produce I(Ks)-like currents but with rightward shifted voltage dependence of activation. All of the LQT5 mutants express protein robustly, and T58P/L59P and R98W cause modest, but significant, defects in the trafficking of KCNQ1. Despite defects in trafficking, in the presence of KCNQ1, T58P/L59P and the other LQT5 mutants are present at the plasma membrane. Interestingly, in comparison to KCNE1 and the other LQT5 mutants, T58P/L59P associates only weakly with KCNQ1. In conclusion, we identify the disease mechanisms for each mutation and reveal that T58P/L59P causes disease through a novel mechanism that involves defective I(Ks) complex assembly.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Ohdo syndrome, Maat-Kievit-Brunner type

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children's Craniofacial Association The Arc: for People with Intellectual and Developmental ... syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1993 Nov 1;47(6):901-6. Review. Citation on PubMed Verloes A, Bremond-Gignac D, ...

  16. Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I in a Turkish newborn caused by a novel mutation and Gilbert type genetic defect.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, D; Alan, S; Kilic, A; Yaman, A; Erdeve, O; Kuloglu, Z; Atasay, B; Arsan, S

    2013-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS), caused by deficiency of bilirubin uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, is a rare and autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by severe unconjugated nonhemolytic hyperbilirubinemia since birth. We present a girl with CNS type I caused by a novel mutation and Gilbert type genetic defect. Gilbert's Syndrome (GS) and CNS type I both involve abnormalities in bilirubin conjugation secondary to deficiency of bilirubin UGT. The combined defects even in benign genetic forms were shown to cause more serious clinical disease. The patient has been treated with daily home-based phototherapy for more than nine months and considered as a candidate for liver transplantation.

  17. Stickler Syndrome Type 1 with Short Stature and Atypical Ocular Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Seema; Ikegawa, Shiro; Nishimura, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Stickler syndrome or hereditary progressive arthroophthalmopathy is a heterogeneous group of collagen tissue disorders, characterized by orofacial features, ophthalmological features (high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, and presenile cataracts), hearing impairment, mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and/or early onset arthritis. Stickler syndrome type I (ocular form) is caused by mutation in the COL2A1 gene. Ptosis and uveitis are relatively rare ophthalmological manifestations of this syndrome. We report an Indian boy having 2710C>T mutation in COL2A1 gene demonstrating short stature, ptosis, and uveitis with Stickler syndrome. PMID:28018693

  18. [Complete human Klüver-Bucy syndrome after encephalitis caused by herpes simplex type 2].

    PubMed

    Bakchine, S; Chain, F; Lhermitte, F

    1986-01-01

    A case of complete Klüver-Bucy syndrome is reported. A 42 year-old man developed Herpes Simplex type II (H.S.V.II) encephalitis. Good sparing of language functions allowed thorough neuropsychological testing. The troubles usually described in Klüver-Bucy syndrome as psychic blindness, colour agnosia, prosopagnosia, auditive and tactile agnosia were present. The authors theorize that these symptoms are mainly correlated with the amnestic syndrome, which is constantly reported in human Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Unfortunately, after 8 weeks, the encephalitis recurred and the patient was left demented and untestable.

  19. Metabolic syndrome, adiponectin and proinflammatory status in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Timar, Romulus; Timar, Bogdan; Degeratu, Diana; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Oancea, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and evaluate proinflammatory status in patients with type 1 diabetes, and to analyse the relationship between inflammation, metabolic control and insulin resistance in these patients. Patients with type 1 diabetes were stratified according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome. Serum adiponectin, leptin, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were quantified. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 28.6% (22/77). Patients with metabolic syndrome had lower adiponectin concentrations and higher leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and hsCRP concentrations compared with patients without metabolic syndrome. In addition, metabolic syndrome was associated with higher glycosylated haemoglobin and insulin dose, and increased insulin resistance. The proinflammatory state associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with type 1 diabetes leads to deterioration of glycaemic control and an increase in the required daily dose of insulin. Early and proactive diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in these patients will allow medication and lifestyle optimization, in order to prevent the occurrence of diabetes complications and improve health-related quality-of-life. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Sirenomelia: a new type, showing VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Lhuaire, Martin; Jestin, Agnès; Boulagnon, Camille; Loock, Mélanie; Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Gaillard, Dominique; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Avisse, Claude; Labrousse, Marc

    2013-03-01

    Sirenomelia or "mermaid syndrome" is a rare congenital anomaly known since antiquity. This congenital anomaly is defined as a polymalformative syndrome that associates major muscle and skeleton abnormalities (unique lower limbs) with visceral abnormalities (unilateral or bilateral renal agenesis, anomalies of the abdominal vascularisation). This phenotype, typical of sirenomelia syndrome, may be more or less severe. The pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome are still debated and its etiology remains unknown. We report here a new type of sirenomelia that we observed in a fetus belonging to the collection of the Department of Anatomy of Reims, which led us to perform a comprehensive review of the literature on the subject: this type has never been reported and cannot be classified according to the Stocker and Heifetz classification. Moreover, this case also presents a VACTERL association with Thomas syndrome.

  1. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of familial Holt-Oram syndrome associated with type B interrupted aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Law, K M; Tse, K T

    2008-08-01

    We present a rare case of familial Holt-Oram syndrome diagnosed sonographically at 18 weeks of gestation. The foetus had serious bilateral upper limb malformations, a ventricular septal defect and a type B interrupted aortic arch, while the mother had bilateral upper limb malformations only. The pregnancy was terminated. A pathological and radiological examination of the foetus confirmed the prenatal sonographic findings. Although genetic investigation of TBX5 mutations was not available in our locality at the time of diagnosis, the geneticists made a clinical diagnosis of familial Holt-Oram syndrome. The clinical features of our case completely fulfilled the strict diagnostic criteria for the syndrome. The cardiac malformations most commonly associated with Holt-Oram syndrome are atrial or ventricular septal defects. To the best of our knowledge, a prenatal diagnosis of Holt-Oram syndrome in association with a type B interrupted aortic arch has not been reported in the English literature before.

  2. Neuroimaging strategies for three types of Horner syndrome with emphasis on anatomic location.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Deok Hee; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Suh, Dae Chul

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to review the anatomy of the oculosympathetic pathway, to describe the clinical characteristics of the three types of Horner syndrome, and to illustrate underlying pathologic features with an emphasis on neuroimaging strategies based on three symptom complexes. Horner syndrome results from interruption of the oculosympathetic pathway and is usually associated with unique clinical features classified into central, preganglionic, and postganglionic types according to the anatomic location of the underlying pathologic process.

  3. Two Japanese cases with microcephalic primordial dwarfism: classical Seckel syndrome and osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II.

    PubMed

    Sugio, Y; Tsukahara, M; Kajii, T

    1993-06-01

    A male infant with "classical" Seckel syndrome and a girl with osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II are described. The boy with classical Seckel syndrome had severe brain dysplasia, a finding hitherto unreported in patients with this syndrome. The patient with osteodysplastic dwarfism type II had skeletal abnormalities including lumbar scoliosis, a small and high pelvis, metaphyseal flaring of the distal radii and ulnae, V-shaped metaphyseal flaring of the distal femorae, and short metacarpals and phalanges. The mother of this girl was short, microcephalic, and had disproportionately short forearms and legs. In view of this, dominant inheritance of the disease was suggested.

  4. The pathogenesis of the clinical features of oral-facial-digital syndrome type I

    PubMed Central

    AlKattan, Wael M.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.; Bafaqeeh, Sameer A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFDI) is an X-linked syndrome, which has several craniofacial and limb features; and hence, patients frequently present to craniofacial and plastic surgeons. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I is caused by mutations in the CXORF5 gene. The gene product is one of the basal body proteins of a slim microtubule-based organelle called the “primary cilium”. Most of the clinical features of OFDI patients are related to dysfunctions of the primary cilium leading to abnormal Hedgehog signal transduction, depressed planar cell polarity pathway, and errors in cell cycle control. PMID:26593159

  5. Importance of genetic factors in the occurrence of epilepsy syndrome type: A twin study

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Linda A.; Pellock, John M.; Kjeldsen, Marianne J.; Nakken, Karl Otto

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although there is strong evidence that genetic factors contribute to risk for epilepsy, their role in the determination of syndrome type is less clear. This study was undertaken to address this question. Information related to epilepsy was obtained from twins included in 455 monozygotic and 868 dizygotic pairs ascertained from population-based twin registries in Denmark, Norway and the United States. Syndrome type was determined based on medical record information and detailed clinical interviews and classified using the International Classification Systems for the Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes. Concordance rates were significantly increased in monozygotic versus dizygotic pairs for all major syndrome groups except localization-related cryptogenic epilepsy. Among generalized epilepsies, genetic factors were found to play an important role in the determination of childhood absence, juvenile absence, juvenile myoclonic, and idiopathic generalized epilepsy; and to a lesser degree for epilepsies with grand mal seizures on awakening. Among localization-related epilepsies, genetic factors contributed to risk for localization-related idiopathic and symptomatic syndromes overall, but did not appear to play an important role in determining risk for frontal, occipital or temporal lobe epilepsy. These results suggest that, while genetic factors contribute to risk for major syndrome types, determined when possible, their contribution to risk for localization-related syndrome sub-types, as defined by specific focality, may be modest. PMID:21885256

  6. Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A Surgical Emergency? A Case of Massive Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chun, Stephen G; Pedro, Patrick; Yu, Mihae; Takanishi, Danny M

    2011-01-01

    Retroperitoneal hemorrhagic bleeding is a known manifestation of Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome that is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the pro-alpha-1 chains of type III pro-collagen (COL3A1) resulting in vascular fragility. A number of previous reports describe futile surgical intervention for retroperitoneal bleeding in Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome with high post-operative mortality, although the rarity of retroperitoneal bleeding associated with Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome precludes an evidence-based approach to clinical management. We report a 23-year-old male with history of Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome who presented with severe abdominal pain and tachycardia following an episode of vomiting. Further work-up of his abdominal pain revealed massive retroperitoneal bleeding by CT-scan of the abdomen. Given numerous cases of catastrophic injury caused by surgical intervention in Type-IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, the patient was treated non-operatively, and the patient made a full recovery. This case suggests that even in cases of large retroperitoneal hemorrhages associated with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, it may not truly represent a surgical emergency.

  7. [The Chinese medicine syndrome typing mode at the same level is the key point to explore the syndrome laws of disease. An inspiration from studying Chinese medicine syndrome laws of polycystic ovarian syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-juan

    2012-10-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome typing methods not only provides information on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, but also embodies the whole process of their occurrence, development, and prognosis. Standard syndrome typing methods can provide a testing platform for clinical efficacy assessment and scientific research work. By my 16 years' clinical experience, inter-group comparison of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients of different CM syndrome types at the same level (reproductive endocrinology and metabolism) was conducted. They were also compared with the healthy subjects. Results showed that homogeneity and heterogeneity exist in PCOS patients of different CM syndromes in the reproductive endocrine and metabolic characteristics, which is important to understand the laws between the pathological changes and syndrome types of PCOS. It is also a good inspiration to understand and clarify the correlation between the asthenia of Zang-Fu organs in CM theories and PCOS. Therefore, I believe that it is necessary to explore the laws of each CM syndrome type at the same level of syndrome typing, thus finding out the pathogenesis of PCOS. Only in this way could the clinical efficacy and the research level of integrative medicine be effectively improved.

  8. [Distribution laws of Chinese medical syndrome types and analyses of risk factors in senile hypertension patients: a clinical study].

    PubMed

    Hou, Pi-Hua; Chen, Gai-Ling; Gu, Wan-Li; Wang, Da-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Tao; Shi, Zai-xiang

    2014-05-01

    To explore the distribution laws of TCM syndrome types and to analyze the distribution of dynamic blood pressure curve, atherosclerosis, and age in senile hypertension patients. Totally 1 131 senile hypertension patients were recruited from 7 provinces and municipal cities. Features of TCM syndromes, classification and distribution curves, and syndrome distribution laws were observed. The distribution curves of dynamic blood pressure, carotid atherosclerosis, and age were compared in each TCM syndrome types. There were four main syndrome types in 736 cases (56.15%), i.e., excessive accumulation of phlegm-dampness syndrome (210 cases, 16.02%), yin deficiency and hyperactivity of yang syndrome (177 cases, 13.50%), Gan-Shen yin deficiency syndrome (79 cases, 6.03%), and deficiency of qi and yin syndrome (252 cases, 19.22%). Besides, there were two more sub-types, i.e., collateral obstruction by blood stasis syndrome and collateral obstruction by phlegm and stasis. Circadian blood pressure monitor was completed in 211 cases. Of them, abnormal circadian blood pressure occurred in 152 cases (accounting for 72. 38%); yin deficiency and hyperactivity of yang syndrome, excessive accumulation of phlegm-dampness syndrome, deficiency of qi and yin syndrome plus collateral obstruction by blood stasis syndrome were most often seen. Color ultrasound of carotid artery was performed in 660 patients of main syndromes. The incidence was quite higher in those of excessive accumulation of phlegm-dampness syndrome (182 cases, 27. 58%), deficiency of qi and yin syndrome plus collateral obstruction by blood stasis syndrome or collateral obstruction by phlegm and stasis (322 cases, 48.79%). Yin deficiency and hyperactivity of yang syndrome was dominant in patients 60 -79 years old, while deficiency of qi and yin syndrome and Gan-Shen yin deficiency syndrome were dominant in patients older than 80 years. Excessive accumulation of phlegm-dampness syndrome, yin deficiency and hyperactivity of

  9. Family Therapy of the Moderate Type of Parental Alienation Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    Modification of traditional family therapy approaches are warranted if there is to be any chance of success in the treatment of Parental Alienation Syndrome families. Especially important is the full support of the court. Describes the special family therapeutic techniques warranted in the treatment of families in which the Parental Alienation…

  10. A Critical Evaluation of the Down Syndrome Diagnosis for LB1, Type Specimen of Homo floresiensis

    PubMed Central

    Baab, Karen L.; Brown, Peter; Falk, Dean; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William

    2016-01-01

    The Liang Bua hominins from Flores, Indonesia, have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate since their initial description and classification in 2004. These remains have been assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis, with the partial skeleton LB1 as the type specimen. The Liang Bua hominins are notable for their short stature, small endocranial volume, and many features that appear phylogenetically primitive relative to modern humans, despite their late Pleistocene age. Recently, some workers suggested that the remains represent members of a small-bodied island population of modern Austro-Melanesian humans, with LB1 exhibiting clinical signs of Down syndrome. Many classic Down syndrome signs are soft tissue features that could not be assessed in skeletal remains. Moreover, a definitive diagnosis of Down syndrome can only be made by genetic analysis as the phenotypes associated with Down syndrome are variable. Most features that contribute to the Down syndrome phenotype are not restricted to Down syndrome but are seen in other chromosomal disorders and in the general population. Nevertheless, we re-evaluated the presence of those phenotypic features used to support this classification by comparing LB1 to samples of modern humans diagnosed with Down syndrome and euploid modern humans using comparative morphometric analyses. We present new data regarding neurocranial, brain, and symphyseal shape in Down syndrome, additional estimates of stature for LB1, and analyses of inter- and intralimb proportions. The presence of cranial sinuses is addressed using CT images of LB1. We found minimal congruence between the LB1 phenotype and clinical descriptions of Down syndrome. We present important differences between the phenotypes of LB1 and individuals with Down syndrome, and quantitative data that characterize LB1 as an outlier compared with Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups. Homo floresiensis remains a phenotypically unique, valid species with its roots

  11. A Critical Evaluation of the Down Syndrome Diagnosis for LB1, Type Specimen of Homo floresiensis.

    PubMed

    Baab, Karen L; Brown, Peter; Falk, Dean; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Hildebolt, Charles F; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William

    2016-01-01

    The Liang Bua hominins from Flores, Indonesia, have been the subject of intense scrutiny and debate since their initial description and classification in 2004. These remains have been assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis, with the partial skeleton LB1 as the type specimen. The Liang Bua hominins are notable for their short stature, small endocranial volume, and many features that appear phylogenetically primitive relative to modern humans, despite their late Pleistocene age. Recently, some workers suggested that the remains represent members of a small-bodied island population of modern Austro-Melanesian humans, with LB1 exhibiting clinical signs of Down syndrome. Many classic Down syndrome signs are soft tissue features that could not be assessed in skeletal remains. Moreover, a definitive diagnosis of Down syndrome can only be made by genetic analysis as the phenotypes associated with Down syndrome are variable. Most features that contribute to the Down syndrome phenotype are not restricted to Down syndrome but are seen in other chromosomal disorders and in the general population. Nevertheless, we re-evaluated the presence of those phenotypic features used to support this classification by comparing LB1 to samples of modern humans diagnosed with Down syndrome and euploid modern humans using comparative morphometric analyses. We present new data regarding neurocranial, brain, and symphyseal shape in Down syndrome, additional estimates of stature for LB1, and analyses of inter- and intralimb proportions. The presence of cranial sinuses is addressed using CT images of LB1. We found minimal congruence between the LB1 phenotype and clinical descriptions of Down syndrome. We present important differences between the phenotypes of LB1 and individuals with Down syndrome, and quantitative data that characterize LB1 as an outlier compared with Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome groups. Homo floresiensis remains a phenotypically unique, valid species with its roots

  12. A girl with 1p36 deletion syndrome and congenital fiber type disproportion myopathy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Toribe, Yasuhisa; Nakajima, Tohru; Okinaga, Takeshi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Nonaka, Ikuya; Shimokawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Noamichi

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome is characterized by hypotonia, moderate to severe developmental and growth retardation, and characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. Muscle hypotonia and delayed motor development are almost constant features of the syndrome. We report a 4-year-old Japanese girl with 1p36 deletion syndrome whose muscle pathology showed congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) myopathy. This is the first case report of 1p36 deletion associated with CFTD. This association may indicate that one of the CFTD loci is located at 1p36. Ski proto-oncogene -/- mice have phenotypes that resemble some of the features observed in patients with 1p36 deletion syndrome. Because fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the human SKI gene is deleted in our patient, some genes in 1p36, including SKI proto-oncogene, may be involved in muscle hypotonia and delayed motor development in this syndrome.

  13. Albuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Contribution of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Wiechers, Ana Cecilia; Janka-Zires, Marcela; Almeda-Valdés, Paloma; López-Gutiérrez, Joel; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The development of metabolic syndrome has been described in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus as the disease progresses over time. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between metabolic syndrome, albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate, as well as to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, in a group of Mexican patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional study that included patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who were diagnosed over 10 years ago and who are seen at the Diabetes Intensive Control Clinic of the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City. The presence of metabolic syndrome was determined by using the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. A total of 81 individuals were studied. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 18.5% (n = 15). A higher albuminuria was found in subjects with metabolic syndrome (34.9 mg/24 hours; 8.3-169.3) than in those without metabolic syndrome (9.0 mg/24 hours; 5.0-27.0; p = 0.02). Glomerular filtration rate was lower in patients with metabolic syndrome (95.3 ml/minute; [64.9-107.2] vs. 110.2 ml/minute [88.1-120.3]; p = 0.04). After classifying the population according to the number of metabolic syndrome criteria, a progressive increase in albuminuria and a progressive decrease in glomerular filtration rate were found with each additional metabolic syndrome criterion (p = 0.008 and p = 0.032, respectively). After adjusting for age, time from diagnosis, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, we found that age, time from diagnosis, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol were independent factors associated with glomerular filtration rate (R2 = 0.286; p < 0.001). Metabolic syndrome was associated with a higher albuminuria and a reduction in glomerular filtration rate in

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome induced by two types of calcium deposition.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, H; Hashizume, H; Inoue, H

    1997-12-01

    Two rare cases of carpal tunnel syndrome caused by calcification in the carpal tunnel are reported. One case involved a tumorous calcification consisting of basic calcium phosphate, and the other involved a diffuse calcification consisting of a mixture of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and basic calcium phosphate. These cases suggest that the shape of carpal tunnel calcifications is influenced by the nature of calcifying substance itself, i.e., whether it is heterogenous or homogenous.

  15. Influence of coffee brew in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Sheila Andrade; Pereira, Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga; de Sousa, Raimundo Vicente; Lima, Adriene Ribeiro; Crema, Gabriela Previatti; Barros, Bianca Sacramento

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of coffee drinking on clinical markers of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in Zucker rats. Diabetic Zucker rats with metabolic syndrome and control Zucker rats were used for in vivo tests. The animals received daily doses of coffee drink by gavage for 30 days. After the treatment, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions, creatinine, uric acid, activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were evaluated. Urea and creatinine levels were also analyzed in urine. By collaborating in the modulation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2, coffee drink helped in reducing serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. The results demonstrate that treatment with roasted coffee drink, because of its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect, is efficient in the protection of animals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2.

  16. Do you know this syndrome? Type 2 benign symmetric lipomatosis (Launois-Bensaude)*

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Ana Cláudia Cavalcante; Munhoz, Tania; Abbade, Luciana Patrícia Fernandes; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old female showed bulky, loose tumors, which progressively spread to her arms, anterior chest, and back. She reported dysphagia and dyspnea after mild exertion. She denied alcohol consumption. CT scan of her chest showed no internal lesions. Benign symmetric lipomatosis is a rare syndrome, clinically described as multiple nonencapsulated lipomas of various sizes and symmetrical distribution. This syndrome has three known phenotypes; in type 2 (Launois-Bensaude syndrome), lesions occur primarily on the shoulders, upper arms, and chest, and is unrelated to alcoholism. It causes aesthetic deformities and might block the upper airways. Mediastinal invasion might occur as well. PMID:28099616

  17. Dilated perivascular spaces: an informative radiologic finding in Sanfilippo syndrome type A.

    PubMed

    Kara, Simay; Sherr, Elliott H; Barkovich, A James

    2008-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA, or Sanfilippo syndrome type A, is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of heparan N-sulfamidase, resulting in defective degradation and subsequent storage of heparan sulfate. It is characterized by progressive nervous system involvement. Cribriform changes in the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, and white matter, diffuse high-intensity signal in the white matter, and cerebral atrophy have been described in patients with this disorder. This case report describes a child with Sanfilippo syndrome type A who exhibited fairly mild clinical findings but an unusual magnetic resonance imaging pattern that included multiple moderate-sized cysts (probably enlarged perivascular spaces) within the corpus callosum and an abnormal appearance of the clivus and cervical vertebrae. This case calls attention to the variety of appearances possible with magnetic resonance imaging in Sanfilippo syndrome type A.

  18. Metachronous multifocal desmoid-type fibromatoses along the neuraxis with adenomatous polyposis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chung, K H Carlos; Charlton, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Chaseling, Raymond; Owler, Brian K

    2010-10-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis, aggressive fibromatosis, or desmoid tumor is an uncommon benign but locally aggressive fibroblastic lesion. Although intraabdominal desmoid-type fibromatoses are well described in association with adenomatous polyposis syndrome, their occurrence along the neuraxis is extremely rare. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old boy with metachronous intracranial and spinal desmoid-type fibromatoses with preceding medulloblastoma. He was ultimately diagnosed with adenomatous polyposis syndrome. This is the first reported case of spinal desmoid-type fibromatosis in association with adenomatous polyposis syndrome. The identification of an underlying genetic instability allows for screening to detect lesions and institute measures to avoid preventable mortality from nonneurological tumors.

  19. Clinical and genetic aspects of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classic type.

    PubMed

    Malfait, Fransiska; Wenstrup, Richard J; De Paepe, Anne

    2010-10-01

    Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heritable connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, fragile and soft skin, delayed wound healing with formation of atrophic scars, easy bruising, and generalized joint hypermobility. It comprises Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type I and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II, but it is now apparent that these form a continuum of clinical findings and differ only in phenotypic severity. It is currently estimated that approximately 50% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome harbor mutations in the COL5A1 and the COL5A2 gene, encoding the α1 and the α2-chain of type V collagen, respectively. However, because no prospective molecular studies of COL5A1 and COL5A2 have been performed in a clinically well-defined patient group, this number may underestimate the real proportion of patients with classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome harboring a mutation in one of these genes. In the majority of patients with molecularly characterized classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, the disease is caused by a mutation leading to a nonfunctional COL5A1 allele and resulting in haploinsufficiency of type V collagen. A smaller proportion of patients harbor a structural mutation in COL5A1 or COL5A2, causing the production of a functionally defective type V collagen protein. Most mutations identified so far result in a reduced amount of type V collagen in the connective tissues available for collagen fibrillogenesis. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability is observed, but no genotype-phenotype correlations have been observed. No treatment for the underlying defect is presently available for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, a series of preventive guidelines are applicable.

  20. Four systems involved with congenital abnormalities: a new type of syndromic hearing loss - ADOC Wang's syndrome?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuju; Zhao, Fei-Fan; Shi, Yong-Bing

    2011-10-01

    Syndromic hearing impairment encompasses hundreds of phenotypes. We identified a young female patient affected by the unique combination of dysplasia of the auricular system, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), choroideremia, and enamel hypoplasia. The patient was treated with PDA ligature and left exploratory tympanotomy. Impairment in all four systems suggests a correlation with the neural crest. It is presumed that all of the features result from the same origin, probably through autosomal recessive inheritance or a novel mutation during the embryonic period. When audio-dento-oculo-cardio systems are involved, we suggest that this new syndrome can be named 'ADOC Wang's syndrome', summarizing the disorders of the four systems and indicative of the founding person (Dr Wang, the first and corresponding author of the paper).

  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) in the pre-Columbian culture of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pachajoa, Harry; Rodriguez, Carlos Armando

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI or Maroteaux Lamy syndrome is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase B, the clinical features include short stature, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, stiff joints, corneal clouding, cardiac abnormalities, and facial dysmorphism, with intelligence usually normal. We present evidence of the possible existence of Maroteaux Lamy syndrome in pre-Columbian pottery 2000 years ago, in the Colombo-Ecuadorian Pacific coast of the Tumaco-Tolita culture.

  2. Waardenburg syndrome type I with heterochromia iridis and circumscribed hypopigmentation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Eigelshoven, Sibylle; Kameda, Gitta; Kortüm, Anne-Katrin; Hübsch, Simone; Angerstein, Wolfgang; Singh, Preeti; Vöhringer, Renate; Goecke, Timm; Mayatepek, Ertan; Ruzicka, Thomas; Wildhardt, Gabriele; Meissner, Thomas; Kruse, Roland

    2009-01-01

    We report a 3-year-old girl with autosomal dominant inherited Waardenburg syndrome type I showing circumscribed hypopigmentation of the skin, heterochromia iridis, sensorineural deafness, and dental aberrations. Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of an underlying missense mutation (C811T) in the PAX3 gene. Early diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome among children with pigment anomalies enables a successful interdisciplinary medical care.

  3. Induction of type I interferons by a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) inhibits synthesis of type I interferons (IFNs) in infected pigs and in cultured cells. Here we report that one PRRSV mutant A2MC2 induces type I IFNs in cultured cells and has no effect on IFN downstream signaling. The mutant isolate was p...

  4. X-linked albinism-deafness syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome type II: A hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zlotogora, J.

    1995-11-20

    Margolis reported on a large pedigree with a {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} X-linked syndrome of profound deafness and albinism (MIM 300700, albinism-deafness syndrome). The affected males presented with profound deafness and severe pigmentary abnormalities of the skin. At birth the skin appeared as almost albinotic except for areas of light pigmentation over the gluteal and scrotal areas, and thereafter pigmentation gradually increased over the body. Skin changes ultimately included areas of hypopigmentation and spots of hyperpigmentation. Some of the affected males also had blue irides, heterochromia, or segmental color iris changes. In carrier females, variable hearing impairment was documented without any pigmentary changes. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome prevalence in type 2 diabetes patients in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Veissi, Masoud; Anari, Razieh; Amani, Reza; Shahbazian, Hajieh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome as a cardiovascular disease predictor, is proposed to be reduced by following a Mediterranean diet. This study was aimed to explore the relationships between metabolic syndrome and Mediterranean diet in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A cross-sectional study was performed on 158 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients 28-75 years old (mean age: 54.3±9.6 yrs). Fasting glucose and lipid profile were measured. Blood pressure and anthropometric characteristics of each participant were recorded. Food frequency questionnaires were evaluated using an 11-item score to determine the adherence to Mediterranean diet. Totally, 55.4% of participants had a good adherence to Mediterranean diet. The risk of metabolic syndrome in women was significantly higher than in men (OR=8.65, CI 95%=2.88-25.99; p<0.001). Nuts, legumes and seeds consumption were associated with a significant lower risk of metabolic syndrome (OR=0.42, CI 95%=0.188-0.917; p<0.05). No considerable association was observed between metabolic syndrome and adherence to Mediterranean diet (p=0.167). Results demonstrated no association between Mediterranean diet adherence and metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. However, nuts, legumes and seeds might have greater benefits for diabetics. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between Fatigue and Gait Abnormality in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celletti, Claudia; Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Castori, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterised by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It has recently been shown that muscle weakness occurs frequently in EDS, and that fatigue is a common and clinically important symptom. The…

  7. Relationship between Fatigue and Gait Abnormality in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celletti, Claudia; Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Castori, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterised by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It has recently been shown that muscle weakness occurs frequently in EDS, and that fatigue is a common and clinically important symptom. The…

  8. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Vasanti S.; Popkin, Barry M.; Bray, George A.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, and energy and vitamin water drinks has risen across the globe. Regular consumption of SSBs has been associated with weight gain and risk of overweight and obesity, but the role of SSBs in the development of related chronic metabolic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, has not been quantitatively reviewed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched the MEDLINE database up to May 2010 for prospective cohort studies of SSB intake and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. We identified 11 studies (three for metabolic syndrome and eight for type 2 diabetes) for inclusion in a random-effects meta-analysis comparing SSB intake in the highest to lowest quantiles in relation to risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Based on data from these studies, including 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes, individuals in the highest quantile of SSB intake (most often 1–2 servings/day) had a 26% greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those in the lowest quantile (none or <1 serving/month) (relative risk [RR] 1.26 [95% CI 1.12–1.41]). Among studies evaluating metabolic syndrome, including 19,431 participants and 5,803 cases, the pooled RR was 1.20 [1.02–1.42]. CONCLUSIONS In addition to weight gain, higher consumption of SSBs is associated with development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. These data provide empirical evidence that intake of SSBs should be limited to reduce obesity-related risk of chronic metabolic diseases. PMID:20693348

  9. Comparison of Two Commercial Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Modified Live Vaccines against Heterologous Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSV Challenge in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Su-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two commercial type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccines against heterologous type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Vaccination with a type 1 PRRSV vaccine reduced the level of viremia after type 1 PRRSV challenge but did not reduce the level of viremia after the type 2 PRRSV challenge in pigs. Increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) stimulated by type 2 PRRSV coincided with the low numbers of type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon gamma-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) in vaccinated pigs after type 2 PRRSV challenge, whereas low levels of IL-10 stimulated by type 1 PRRSV coincided with high numbers of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC in vaccinated pigs after type 1 PRRSV challenge. Additionally, vaccination with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine effectively reduced the lung lesions and type 1 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 1 PRRSV-challenged pigs but did not reduce lung lesions and type 2 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 2 PRRSV-challenged pigs. There were no significant differences between two commercial type 1 PRRSV vaccines against type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge based on virological results, immunological responses, and pathological outcomes. This study demonstrates that vaccinating pigs with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine provides partial protection against respiratory disease with heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge but no protection with heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge. PMID:25855554

  10. Comparison of Two Commercial Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Modified Live Vaccines against Heterologous Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSV Challenge in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyeon; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two commercial type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccines against heterologous type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Vaccination with a type 1 PRRSV vaccine reduced the level of viremia after type 1 PRRSV challenge but did not reduce the level of viremia after the type 2 PRRSV challenge in pigs. Increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) stimulated by type 2 PRRSV coincided with the low numbers of type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon gamma-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) in vaccinated pigs after type 2 PRRSV challenge, whereas low levels of IL-10 stimulated by type 1 PRRSV coincided with high numbers of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC in vaccinated pigs after type 1 PRRSV challenge. Additionally, vaccination with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine effectively reduced the lung lesions and type 1 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 1 PRRSV-challenged pigs but did not reduce lung lesions and type 2 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 2 PRRSV-challenged pigs. There were no significant differences between two commercial type 1 PRRSV vaccines against type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge based on virological results, immunological responses, and pathological outcomes. This study demonstrates that vaccinating pigs with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine provides partial protection against respiratory disease with heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge but no protection with heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge.

  11. Mucopolysaccharidosis type-IS presenting with onset of carpal tunnel syndrome at adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bahadir, Cengiz; Kurtulus, Duygu; Cihandide, Ercan

    2009-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) results from deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-L iduronidase. Three subtypes, based on severity of clinical findings, have been described, of which MPS type IS (also called Scheie syndrome) is the mildest form. A woman (age, 30 years) and her little brother (age, 21 years) presented to our clinic complaining of atrophy of the thenar muscles, numbness in both hands, and contractures in the finger joints. Electrophysiologic examination showed severe carpal tunnel syndrome for both patients. Findings of cardiac and ocular involvements and decreased level of alpha-L iduronidase confirmed the diagnosis of Scheie syndrome. Enzyme replacement therapy was initiated for the further prevention of musculoskeletal and other organ complications. Delayed diagnosis of MPS type-IS and the musculoskeletal findings are discussed in these 2 familial patients.

  12. A data-driven method for syndrome type identification and classification in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nevin Lianwen; Fu, Chen; Liu, Teng Fei; Chen, Bao-Xin; Poon, Kin Man; Chen, Pei Xian; Zhang, Yun-Ling

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments for Western medicine (WM) diseases relies heavily on the proper classification of patients into TCM syndrome types. The authors developed a data-driven method for solving the classification problem, where syndrome types were identified and quantified based on statistical patterns detected in unlabeled symptom survey data. The new method is a generalization of latent class analysis (LCA), which has been widely applied in WM research to solve a similar problem, i.e., to identify subtypes of a patient population in the absence of a gold standard. A well-known weakness of LCA is that it makes an unrealistically strong independence assumption. The authors relaxed the assumption by first detecting symptom co-occurrence patterns from survey data and used those statistical patterns instead of the symptoms as features for LCA. This new method consists of six steps: data collection, symptom co-occurrence pattern discovery, statistical pattern interpretation, syndrome identification, syndrome type identification and syndrome type classification. A software package called Lantern has been developed to support the application of the method. The method was illustrated using a data set on vascular mild cognitive impairment.

  13. Prevalence of "syndrome X" features in parents of type 1 diabetic patients with or without nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Verhage, B; Vervoort, G; Wolkotte, C; Elving, L D; Wetzels, J F; Willems, H; Smits, P; Verbeek, A L; Berden, J H

    1999-07-01

    To compare the prevalence of "syndrome X"-related parameters in parents of type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy (DNP) to those in parents of diabetic patients without DNP. In this cross-sectional study, we included 50 parents of type 1 diabetic patients with DNP and 50 parents of diabetic patients without DNP. All parents were investigated in a fasting state for serum lipids including nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glucose, HbA1c, plasma uric acid, fasting insulin levels, and albuminuria. Blood pressure was recorded in the supine position using an automatic device; ankle/brachial index was measured with Doppler ultrasound. Presence of cardiovascular disease was determined by a standardized questionnaire and electrocardiogram registration. Subjects without known diabetes underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Anthropometric parameters such as BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and percentage of body fat were measured. In addition to univariate analysis, a syndrome X score (SXS) was formulated, comprising a number of syndrome X-related biochemical, physiological, and/or anthropometric parameters. Univariate analysis revealed no significant differences in syndrome X parameters between parents of type 1 diabetic patients with or without DNP. Also, the composite SXS was similar in both groups. In this study, no differences were found in the prevalence of syndrome X features between parents of type 1 diabetic patients with DNP and parents of patients without DNP.

  14. Demographic and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in Native African type-2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Isezuo, S. A.; Ezunu, E.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the metabolic syndrome and its demographic and clinical correlates in native African type-2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 254 type-2 diabetic indigenous Nigerians consecutively recruited in a teaching hospital. The main outcome measure was metabolic syndrome. Variables of interest included family history/duration of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, gender, socioeconomic class, occupation and place of domicile (urban or rural). Intergroup comparisons were made with Chi-squared tests or t-tests. RESULTS: Patients were aged 35-80 years (mean: 52.0 +/- 11.7 years) and made of 154 (60.6%) males and 100 (39.4%) females. Full-blown metabolic syndrome was noted in 52 patients (20.5%). Metabolic syndrome, as defined by the WHO, was noted in 150 patients (59.1%). About 72.4% of patients were dyslipidemic, 54.3% were hypertensive, 42.5% were obese, 44.9% were microalbuminuric and 32.3% were hyperuricemic. Ischemic heart disease (myocardial infarction) occurred in only 2.4% of patients. Concurrent hypertension and dyslipidemia; obesity and dyslipidemia; and hypertension and obesity occurred in 44.4%, 42.5% and 33.1% of type-2 diabetics, respectively. Compared to the diabetics without metabolic syndrome, those with the syndrome had a significantly higher proportion of patients with a family history of hypertension and diabetes (44% versus 25%; p = 0.003); among the upper/middle socioeconomic class: 52.0% versus 30.8% (p = 0.001); and among the urban dwelling: 68.0% versus 49.0% (p = 0.004). Metabolic syndrome was inversely proportional to the physical activity of an individual (chi2 = 21.69, df = 5, p = 0.001). Blood pressure was significantly higher among patients with metabolic syndrome than those without it (140.6 +/- 22.9/85.2 +/- 12.9 mmHg versus 126.9 +/- 15.4 mmHg; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The development of metabolic syndrome in African type-2 diabetic patients is influenced by demographic and clinical factors

  15. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Bipul Kumar; Saiki, Uma Kaimal; Sarm, Dipti; Choudhury, Bikash Narayan; Choudhury, Sarojini Dutta; Saharia, Dhiren; Saikia, Mihir

    2011-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) comprise a wide clinical spectrum of autoimmune disorders. APS is divided into Type I, Type II, Type I and Type IV depending upon the pattern of disease combination. Ghronic diarrhoea is one of the many manifestations of APS and many aetiological factors have been suggested for it. Apart from the established aetiological factors, intestinal lymphangiectasia may be responsible for chronic diarrhea in some cases.Intestinal lymphangiectasia has been reported in Type I APS. We report a case of Type III APS with hypocalcaemia and hypothyroidism who had chronic diarrhea of long duration and was finally diagnosed to have intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and periodontitis in Gullah African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sora, Nicoleta D; Marlow, Nicole M; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Leite, Renata S; Slate, Elizabeth H; Fernandes, Jyotika K

    2013-06-01

    To assess associations of metabolic syndrome, and its individual components, with extent of severe periodontitis among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We performed a secondary data analysis (N = 283) using a cross-sectional study population of Gullah African Americans with T2DM. Extent of severe periodontitis was assessed as total diseased tooth-sites/person [evaluated as separate outcomes: 6+mm clinical attachment level (CAL), 5+mm periodontal probing depth (PPD)] using negative binomial regression techniques. Primary independent variables assessed in separate models included metabolic syndrome (yes/no), each metabolic syndrome component (low HDL, hypertension, high triglycerides, large waist circumference) and glycemic control (poor/good). Multivariable CAL-model results showed a significant association for metabolic syndrome status with extent of severe periodontitis (RR = 2.77, p = 0.03). The separate multivariable CAL-model including each metabolic syndrome component showed marginally increased rates among those with large waist circumference (RR = 2.33, p = 0.09) and those with HbA1c ≥ 7% (RR = 1.73, p = 0.06). Multivariable PPD-models showed marginally increased rates among those with metabolic syndrome (RR = 2.18, p = 0.06). Metabolic syndrome is associated with the extent of severe periodontitis in this Gullah population with T2DM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontitis in Gullah African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sora, Nicoleta D.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Leite, Renata S.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To assess associations of metabolic syndrome, and its individual components, with extent of severe periodontitis among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods We performed a secondary data analysis (N=283) using a cross-sectional study population of Gullah African Americans with T2DM. Extent of severe periodontitis was assessed as total diseased tooth-sites/person (evaluated as separate outcomes: 6+mm clinical attachment level [CAL], 5+mm periodontal probing depth [PPD]) using negative binomial regression techniques. Primary independent variables assessed in separate models included metabolic syndrome (yes/no), each metabolic syndrome component (low HDL, hypertension, high triglycerides, large waist circumference) and glycemic control (poor/good). Results Multivariable CAL-model results showed a significant association for metabolic syndrome status with extent of severe periodontitis (RR=2.77, p=0.03). The separate multivariable CAL-model including each metabolic syndrome component showed marginally increased rates among those with large waist circumference (RR=2.33, p=0.09) and those with HbA1c ≥ 7% (RR=1.73, p=0.06). Multivariable PPD-models showed marginally increased rates among those with metabolic syndrome (RR=2.18, p=0.06). Conclusion Metabolic syndrome is associated with the extent of severe periodontitis in this Gullah population with T2DM. PMID:23557538

  18. Electrocardiogram in Andersen-Tawil syndrome. New electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosis of type-1 Andersen-Tawil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kukla, Piotr; Biernacka, Elzbieta K; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzebski, Marek; Jagodzinska, Michalina

    2014-08-01

    Andersen - Tawil syndrome (ATS) is an autosomal - dominant or sporadic disorder characterized by ventricular arrhythmias, periodic paralysis, and distinctive facial and skeletal dysmorphism. Mutations in KCNJ2, which encodes the α-subunit of the potassium channel Kir2.1, were identified in patients with ATS. This genotype has been designated as type-1 ATS (ATS1). KCNJ2 mutations are detectable in up to 60 % of patients with ATS. Cardiac manifestations of ATS include frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVC), Q-U interval prolongation, prominent U-waves, and a special type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) called bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (BiVT). The presence of frequent PVCs at rest are helpful in distinguishing ATS from typical catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). In typical CPVT, rapid PMVT and BiVT usually manifest during or after exercising. Additionally, CPVT or torsade de pointes in LQTS are faster, very symptomatic causing syncope or often deteriorate into VF resulting in sudden cardiac death. PVCs at rest are quite frequent in ATS1 patients, however, in LQTS patients, PVCs and asymptomatic VT are uncommon which also contributes to differentiating them. The article describes the new electrocardiographic criteria proposed for diagnosis of type-1 Andersen-Tawil syndrome. A differential diagnosis between Andersen-Tawil syndrome, the catecholamine polymorphic ventiruclar tachycardia and long QT syndrome is depicted. Special attention is paid on the repolarization abnormalities, QT interval and the pathologic U wave. In this article, we aim to provide five new electrocardiographic clues for the diagnosis of ATS1.

  19. Electrocardiogram in Andersen-Tawil Syndrome. New Electrocardiographic Criteria for Diagnosis of Type-1 Andersen-Tawil Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kukla, Piotr; Biernacka, Elżbieta K; Baranchuk, Adrian; Jastrzębski, Marek; Jagodzińska, Michalina

    2014-01-01

    Andersen - Tawil syndrome (ATS) is an autosomal - dominant or sporadic disorder characterized by ventricular arrhythmias, periodic paralysis, and distinctive facial and skeletal dysmorphism. Mutations in KCNJ2, which encodes the α-subunit of the potassium channel Kir2.1, were identified in patients with ATS. This genotype has been designated as type-1 ATS (ATS1). KCNJ2 mutations are detectable in up to 60 % of patients with ATS. Cardiac manifestations of ATS include frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVC), Q-U interval prolongation, prominent U-waves, and a special type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PMVT) called bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (BiVT). The presence of frequent PVCs at rest are helpful in distinguishing ATS from typical catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). In typical CPVT, rapid PMVT and BiVT usually manifest during or after exercising. Additionally, CPVT or torsade de pointes in LQTS are faster, very symptomatic causing syncope or often deteriorate into VF resulting in sudden cardiac death. PVCs at rest are quite frequent in ATS1 patients, however, in LQTS patients, PVCs and asymptomatic VT are uncommon which also contributes to differentiating them. The article describes the new electrocardiographic criteria proposed for diagnosis of type-1 Andersen-Tawil syndrome. A differential diagnosis between Andersen-Tawil syndrome, the catecholamine polymorphic ventiruclar tachycardia and long QT syndrome is depicted. Special attention is paid on the repolarization abnormalities, QT interval and the pathologic U wave. In this article, we aim to provide five new electrocardiographic clues for the diagnosis of ATS1. PMID:24827800

  20. The role of testosterone in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in men.

    PubMed

    Saad, Farid

    2009-11-01

    Over the last three decades, it has become apparent that testosterone plays a significant role in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors predisposing to diabetes mellitus type 2, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main components of the syndrome are visceral obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, raised blood pressure and dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and a pro-inflammatory and thrombogenic state. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies have reported a direct correlation between plasma testosterone and insulin sensitivity, and low testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, dramatically illustrated by androgen deprivation in men with prostate carcinoma. Lower total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) predict a higher incidence of the metabolic syndrome. There is evidence that hypotestosteronemia should be an element in the definition of the metabolic syndrome since low levels of testosterone are associated with or predict the development of the metabolic syndrome and of diabetes mellitus. Administration of testosterone to hypogonadal men reverses part of the unfavorable risk profile for the development of diabetes and atherosclerosis. So far, studies on the effects of normalization of testosterone in hypogonadal men on glucose homeostasis are limited, but convincing, and if diabetes mellitus is viewed in the context of the metabolic syndrome, the present results of testosterone treatment are very encouraging.

  1. Digenic mutations involving both the BSND and GJB2 genes detected in Bartter syndrome type IV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Han; Feng, Yong; Li, Hai-Bo; Wu, Hong; Mei, Ling-Yun; Wang, Xing-Wei; Jiang, Lu; He, Chu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Bartter syndrome type IV, characterized by salt-losing nephropathies and sensorineural deafness, is caused by mutations of BSND or simultaneous mutations of both CLCNKA and CLCNKB. GJB2 is the primary causative gene for non-syndromic sensorineural deafness and associated with several syndromic sensorineural deafness. Owing to the rarity of Bartter syndrome, only a few mutations have been reported in the abovementioned causative genes. To investigate the underlying mutations in a Chinese patient with Bartter syndrome type IV, genetic analysis of BSND, CLCNKA, CLCNKB and GJB2 were performed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Finally, double homozygous mutations c.22C > T (p.Arg8Trp) and c.127G > A (Val43Ile) were detected in exon 1 of BSND. Intriguingly, compound heterozygous mutations c.235delC (p.Leu79CysfsX3) and c.109G > A (p.Val37Ile) were also revealed in exon 2 of GJB2 in the same patient. No pathogenic mutations were found in CLCNKA and CLCNKB. Our results indicated that the homozygous mutation c.22C > T was the key genetic reason for the proband, and a digenic effect of BSND and GJB2 might contributed to sensorineural deafness. To our knowledge, it was the first report showing that the GJB2 gene mutations were detected in Bartter syndrome.

  2. Genetic influences on type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related quantitative traits in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Jeremy B; Diego, Vincent P; Kotea, Navaratnam; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Chitson, Pierrot; Dyer, Thomas D; Zimmet, Paul; Blangero, John

    2009-02-01

    Epidemiological studies report a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the island nation of Mauritius. The Mauritius Family Study was initiated to examine heritable factors that contribute to these high rates of prevalence and consists of 400 individuals in 24 large extended multigenerational pedigrees. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements relating to the metabolic syndrome were undertaken in addition to family and lifestyle based information for each individual. Variance components methods were used to determine the heritability of the type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related quantitative traits. The cohort was made up of 218 females (55%) and 182 males with 22% diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and a further 30% having impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. Notably BMI was not significantly increased in those with type 2 diabetes (P= .12), however a significant increase in waist circumference was observed in these groups (P= .02). The heritable proportion of trait variance was substantial and greater than values previously published for hip circumference, LDL and total cholesterol, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and serum creatinine. Height, weight and BMI heritabilities were all in the upper range of those previously reported. The phenotypic characteristics of the Mauritius family cohort are similar to those previously reported in the Mauritian population with a high observed prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes. A high heritability for key type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related phenotypes (range 0.23 to 0.68), suggest the cohort will have utility in identifying genes that influence these quantitative traits.

  3. Chiari Type I malformation yielded to the diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Canpolat, Aydin; Akçakaya, Mehmet Osman; Altunrende, Emre; Ozlü, Harun Mehmet; Duman, Hakan; Ton, Tuğrul; Akdemir, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) related to syndromic craniosynostosis in pediatric patients has been well-studied. The surgical management consists of cranial vault remodeling with or without posterior fossa decompression. There were also cases, in whom CM-I was diagnosed prior to the craniosynostosis in early childhood. We present a 16-year-old boy who admitted with symptoms related to CM-I. With careful examination and further genetic investigations, a diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome was made, of which the patient and his family was unaware before. The patient underwent surgery for posterior fossa decompression and followed-up for Crouzon's syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the only case report indicating a late adolescent diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome through clinical symptoms of an associated CM-I.

  4. [Chronic type A aortic dissection associated with Turner syndrome; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hideyuki; Kozaki, Tomofumi; Kume, Masazumi; Miyamoto, Shinji

    2014-12-01

    Aortic dissection is a critical but rare complication of Turner syndrome. This report describes a case of chronic aortic dissection in a patient with Turner syndrome. A 54-year-old woman, suffering from mild back pain for 1 month, was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of Stanford type A chronic aortic dissection and a bicuspid aortic valve with moderate regurgitation. Computed tomography revealed aortic dissection, involving all arch branches, extending from the ascending to the abdominal aorta. The true lumen of the brachial artery was nearly obstructed by the thrombosed false lumen. Elective aortic arch repair and aortic valve replacement were successfully performed. The patient was diagnosed with 45, XO Turner syndrome after surgery. Taking aortopathy of Turner syndrome into consideration, surveillance of the residual aorta was performed. No rapidly progressive dilatation of the residual aorta was detected during the 6 years' follow-up.

  5. Massively parallel DNA sequencing facilitates diagnosis of patients with Usher syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hidekane; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Shin-Ya; Kumakawa, Kozo; Tono, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Yumiko; Sato, Hiroaki; Nagai, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Kotaro; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Naito, Yasushi; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Oshikawa, Chie; Kimitsuki, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder manifesting hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and vestibular dysfunction, and having three clinical subtypes. Usher syndrome type 1 is the most severe subtype due to its profound hearing loss, lack of vestibular responses, and retinitis pigmentosa that appears in prepuberty. Six of the corresponding genes have been identified, making early diagnosis through DNA testing possible, with many immediate and several long-term advantages for patients and their families. However, the conventional genetic techniques, such as direct sequence analysis, are both time-consuming and expensive. Targeted exon sequencing of selected genes using the massively parallel DNA sequencing technology will potentially enable us to systematically tackle previously intractable monogenic disorders and improve molecular diagnosis. Using this technique combined with direct sequence analysis, we screened 17 unrelated Usher syndrome type 1 patients and detected probable pathogenic variants in the 16 of them (94.1%) who carried at least one mutation. Seven patients had the MYO7A mutation (41.2%), which is the most common type in Japanese. Most of the mutations were detected by only the massively parallel DNA sequencing. We report here four patients, who had probable pathogenic mutations in two different Usher syndrome type 1 genes, and one case of MYO7A/PCDH15 digenic inheritance. This is the first report of Usher syndrome mutation analysis using massively parallel DNA sequencing and the frequency of Usher syndrome type 1 genes in Japanese. Mutation screening using this technique has the power to quickly identify mutations of many causative genes while maintaining cost-benefit performance. In addition, the simultaneous mutation analysis of large numbers of genes is useful for detecting mutations in different genes that are possibly disease modifiers or of digenic inheritance.

  6. [Discussion of some problems in studying relationship between sphygmo-diagram and syndrome types or diseases].

    PubMed

    Tai, Jia-Bin; Shen, Xu-Bo; Li, Lin; Liu, Wen-Qi; Zhu, De-Zeng; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2005-01-01

    In contemporary studies of pulse and of the relationship between sphygmo-diagram and syndrome types or diseases, pulse instrument is usually applied to trace the sphygmo-diagram. A comparatively systemic theory about pulse diagnosis has been formed, and it promotes the pulse researching process. But the mechanism of pulse is complicated and the expressive information of pulse is diversity. So it is difficult to record the complicated information of pulse by applying the instrument. In addition, the simplicity in methods of tracing and analyzing sphygmo-diagram and the lack of criterion for syndrome differentiation make it difficult to study the relationship between the sphygmo-diagram and the syndrome types. It's important to lay stress on clinical applying, to promote communication among researchers, to unify the standards of pulse instrument and syndrome differentiation, and to reinforce the research on the relationship between sphygmo-diagram and the syndrome types. The government's support is also needed to promote multi-science cooperation at the same time.

  7. ClC-K chloride channels: emerging pathophysiology of Bartter syndrome type 3.

    PubMed

    Andrini, Olga; Keck, Mathilde; Briones, Rodolfo; Lourdel, Stéphane; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Teulon, Jacques

    2015-06-15

    The mutations in the CLCNKB gene encoding the ClC-Kb chloride channel are responsible for Bartter syndrome type 3, one of the four variants of Bartter syndrome in the genetically based nomenclature. All forms of Bartter syndrome are characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and secondary hyperaldosteronism, but Bartter syndrome type 3 has the most heterogeneous presentation, extending from severe to very mild. A relatively large number of CLCNKB mutations have been reported, including gene deletions and nonsense or missense mutations. However, only 20 CLCNKB mutations have been functionally analyzed, due to technical difficulties regarding ClC-Kb functional expression in heterologous systems. This review provides an overview of recent progress in the functional consequences of CLCNKB mutations on ClC-Kb chloride channel activity. It has been observed that 1) all ClC-Kb mutants have an impaired expression at the membrane; and 2) a minority of the mutants combines reduced membrane expression with altered pH-dependent channel gating. Although further investigation is needed to fully characterize disease pathogenesis, Bartter syndrome type 3 probably belongs to the large family of conformational diseases, in which the mutations destabilize channel structure, inducing ClC-Kb retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and accelerated channel degradation.

  8. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,P<0.05). In addition, depression (79.9%) and HIV/AIDS-related symptoms such as fatigue (42.3%), back aches (40.7%), lack of appetite (33.9%), night sweats (31.7%) were more common among abnormal savda syndrome patients (P<0.05). Abnormal savda syndrome is the dominant syndrome among HIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  9. Type 2 congenital pulmonary airway malformation and congenital nephrotic syndrome: report of a new association.

    PubMed

    Millington, Karmaine A; Mani, Haresh

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) has been reported in association with many other congenital anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, however, an association of type 2 CPAM with congenital nephrotic syndrome has not been heretofore reported. We present the 1st report of such an association in a boy who had a prenatal diagnosis of cystic lung malformation and was found to have congenital nephrotic syndrome (diffuse mesangial sclerosis) at 1 month of age. A prenatal ultrasonogram had also shown oligohydramnios, and additionally the child had cleft lip and palate. There was no family history of childhood renal or pulmonary disease, and genetic testing for genes mutated in congenital nephrotic syndrome was negative.

  10. [Case of Sanfilippo syndrome type B and Wilson disease born to unrelated parents].

    PubMed

    Takaura, Natsuko; Tanaka, Akemi; Yoshida, Toshiko; Takeshita, Yukiko; Shimizu, Norikazu; Aoki, Tsugutoshi; Tamai, Hiroshi; Yamano, Tsunekazu

    2006-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy visited a hospital because of macrocephalus, mental retardation and hepatic dysfunction, and was suspected to have Wilson's disease since his father had this disease. The serum level of ceruloplasmin was low, but urinary copper excretion was not increased markedly. He was treated with D-penicillamine. He was then reffered to our hospital because of his facial features suggesting mucopolysaccharidosis. Based on mucopolysacchariduria and the deficiency of N-acetylglucosaminidase, the diagnosis of Sanfilippo syndrome type B was made. Molecular analyses identified him as a compound heterozygote for both the ATP7B (A844V/2659delG) and alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (V241M/R482W) genes, responsible for Wilson's disease and Sanfilippo syndrome type B, respectively. Although born to non-consanguineous parents, he had two rare autosomal recessive diseases. In this case, liver dysfunction was attributed to Wilson's disease, and mental retardation to Sanfilippo syndrome.

  11. Incidence, Mortality and Positive Predictive Value of Type 1 Cardiorenal Syndrome in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pimienta González, Raquel; Couto Comba, Patricia; Rodríguez Esteban, Marcos; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Hernández Afonso, Julio; Rodríguez Pérez, María del Cristo; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Elosua, Roberto; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with cardiorenal syndrome subtype 1 (CRS1) in patients who were hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was greater than the expected risk based on the sum of its components, to estimate the predictive value of CRS1, and to determine whether the severity of CRS1 worsens the prognosis. Methods Follow-up study of 1912 incident cases of ACS for 1 year after discharge. Cox regression models were estimated with time to event (in-hospital death, and readmission or death during the first year after discharge) as the dependent variable. Results The incidence of CRS1 was 9.2/1000 person-days of hospitalization (95% CI = 8.1–10.5), but these patients accounted for 56.6% (95% CI = 47.4–65.) of all mortality. The positive predictive value of CRS1 was 29.6% (95% CI = 23.9–36.0) for in-hospital death, and 51.4% (95% CI = 44.8–58.0) for readmission or death after discharge. The risk of in-hospital death from CRS1 (RR = 18.3; 95% CI = 6.3–53.2) was greater than the sum of risks associated with either acute heart failure (RR = 7.6; 95% CI = 1.8–31.8) or acute kidney injury (RR = 2.8; 95% CI = 0.9–8.8). The risk of events associated with CRS1 also increased with syndrome severity, reaching a RR of 10.6 (95% CI = 6.2–18.1) for in-hospital death at the highest severity level. Conclusions The effect of CRS1 on in-hospital mortality is greater than the sum of the effects associated with each of its components, and it increases with the severity of the syndrome. CRS1 accounted for more than half of all mortality, and its positive predictive value approached 30% in-hospital and 50% after discharge. PMID:27907067

  12. A case of Feingold type 2 syndrome associated with keratoconus refines keratoconus type 7 locus on chromosome 13q.

    PubMed

    Sirchia, Fabio; Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Restagno, Gabriella; Grosso, Enrico; Pappi, Patrizia; Talarico, Flavia; Savin, Elisa; Cavalieri, Simona; Giorgio, Elisa; Mancini, Cecilia; Pasini, Barbara; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Brusco, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    We report on a 58-year old woman with microcephaly, mild dysmorphic features, bilateral keratoconus, digital abnormalities, short stature and mild cognitive delay. Except for keratoconus, the phenotype was suggestive for Feingold syndrome type 2 (FGLDS2, MIM 614326), a rare autosomal dominant disorder described in six patients worldwide, due to the haploinsufficiency of MIR17HG, a micro RNA encoding gene. Karyotype showed a de novo deletion on chromosome 13q, further defined by array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH) to a 17.2-Mb region. The deletion included MIR17HG, as expected by the FGLDS2 phenotype, and twelve genes from the keratoconus type 7 locus. Because our patient presented with keratoconus, we propose she further refines disease genes at this locus. Among previously suggested candidates, we exclude DOCK9 and STK24, and propose as best candidates IPO5, DNAJC3, MBNL2 and RAP2A. In conclusion, we report a novel phenotypic association of Feingold syndrome type 2 and keratoconus, a likely contiguous gene syndrome due to a large genomic deletion on 13q spanning MIR17HG and a still to be identified gene for keratoconus.

  13. The association between macronutrient intake and the metabolic syndrome and its components in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Aila J; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M; Freese, Riitta; Forsblom, Carol; Mäkimattila, Sari; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2017-02-20

    Diet is a major modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect the components of the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association between relative proportions of macronutrients and the components of the metabolic syndrome in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes. In all, 791 individuals without nephropathy, with plausible energy intake and known metabolic syndrome status, taking part in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study were included in the analyses. Dietary data were collected with a diet record. The association between the relative macronutrient intake and the outcome variables were analysed using multivariable nutrient density substitution models. The relative proportions of dietary macronutrients or fatty acids were not associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome. In men, however, favouring carbohydrates over fats was associated with lower odds of the waist component, whereas favouring either carbohydrates or fats over proteins was associated with lower odds of the blood pressure component of the metabolic syndrome. In women, substituting carbohydrates for fats was associated with lower HDL-cholesterol concentration. Substituting carbohydrates or fats for alcohol or protein was, in men, associated with lower systolic blood pressure. To conclude, the relative distribution of macronutrients may have some relevance for the metabolic syndrome.

  14. Endocrine tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis and related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are two familial syndromes known as phakomatoses that may be associated with endocrine tumours. These hereditary cutaneous conditions affect the central nervous system and are characterised by the development of hamartomas. Over the past 20 years, there have been major advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of these diseases. Both NF-1 and TSC are disorders of unregulated progression through the cell cycle, in which causative genes behave as tumour suppressor genes. The pathogenesis of these familial syndromes is linked by the shared regulation of a common pathway, the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Additional related disorders that also converge on the mTOR pathway include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and Cowden syndrome. All of these inherited cancer syndromes are associated with characteristic skin findings that offer a clue to their recognition and treatment. The discovery of mTOR inhibitors has led to a possible new therapeutic modality for patients with endocrine tumours as part of these familial syndromes.

  15. Travel-related Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome caused by emm type 78 Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Tappe, Dennis; Schulze, Marco H; van der Linden, Mark; Ziegler, Uwe; Müller, Andreas; Stich, August

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is a serious health problem in developed and developing countries. We here report a case of severe protracted disease after a minor skin infection in a young traveler returning from West Malaysia which was caused by an unusual emm-type strain harboring speG and smeZ superantigen genes.

  16. Extended phenotypes in a boy and his mother with oto-palato-digital-syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Ali Al; Kraschl, Raimund; Kaulfersch, Wilhelm; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf

    2015-09-01

    We describe additional phenotypic features in a boy and his mother. Both manifested the phenotypic/genotypic correlation of oto-palato-digital syndrome type II. The mother's radiographs showed wormian bones of the skull, and paranasal bossing, her feet showed bilateral fusion of the cuboid with the lateral cuneiform bone with subsequent development of metatarsus varus associated with dysplastic distal phalanges.

  17. Psychosocial Implications of Usher Syndrome, Type I, throughout the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, I. D.

    1995-01-01

    Usher syndrome, Type I, requires multiple adaptations throughout the life cycle because each stage of life has tasks and losses associated with deafness and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. This article examines the issues raised at each stage, using clinical vignettes from persons who have this condition and their families. (Author/DB)

  18. Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome with Carbohydrate-Responsive Symptoms but without Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koy, Anne; Assmann, Birgit; Klepper, Joerg; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is caused by a defect in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. The main symptoms are epilepsy, developmental delay, movement disorders, and deceleration of head circumference. A ketogenic diet has been shown to be effective in controlling epilepsy in GLUT1-DS. We report a female…

  19. Phenotype of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 Ser351Cys mutation: Pfeiffer syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Gripp, K W; Stolle, C A; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Markowitz, R I; Bartlett, S P; Katowitz, J A; Muenke, M; Zackai, E H

    1998-07-24

    We present a patient with pansynostosis, hydrocephalus, seizures, extreme proptosis with luxation of the eyes out of the lids, apnea and airway obstruction, intestinal non-rotation, and severe developmental delay. His skeletal abnormalities include bilateral elbow ankylosis, radial head dislocation, and unilateral broad and deviated first toe. The phenotype of this patient is consistent with that previously reported in Pfeiffer syndrome type III, but is unusual for the lack of broad thumbs. Our patient most closely resembles the case described by Kerr et al. [1996: Am J Med Genet 66:138-143] as Pfeiffer syndrome type III with normal thumbs. Mutations in the genes for fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 2 have previously been seen in patients with Pfeiffer syndrome type I. The mutation identified in our patient, Ser351Cys in FGFR2, represents the first reported cause of Pfeiffer syndrome type III. An identical mutation was described once previously by Pulleyn et al., in a patient whose brief clinical description included cloverleaf skull, significant developmental delay, and normal hands and feet [Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 4: 283-291, 1996]. In our patient, previously performed single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis failed to detect a band shift; the mutation was identified only after independent sequence analysis.

  20. Psychosocial Implications of Usher Syndrome, Type I, throughout the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, I. D.

    1995-01-01

    Usher syndrome, Type I, requires multiple adaptations throughout the life cycle because each stage of life has tasks and losses associated with deafness and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. This article examines the issues raised at each stage, using clinical vignettes from persons who have this condition and their families. (Author/DB)

  1. Metachronous Bilateral Posterior Tibial Artery Aneurysms in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type IV

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Bonatti, Hugo; Sabri, Saher; Arslan, Bulent; Harthun, Nancy L.

    2011-04-15

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is a life-threatening genetic connective tissue disorder. We report a 24-year-old woman with EDS-IV who presented with metachronous bilateral aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial arteries 15 months apart. Both were treated successfully with transarterial coil embolization from a distal posterior tibial approach.

  2. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  3. Cinnamon: Potential Role in the Prevention of Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bolin; Panickar, Kiran S.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve all of these variables in in vitro, animal, and/or human studies. In addition, cinnamon has been shown to alleviate factors associated with Alzheimer's disease by blocking and reversing tau formation in vitro and in ischemic stroke by blocking cell swelling. In vitro studies also show that components of cinnamon control angiogenesis associated with the proliferation of cancer cells. Human studies involving control subjects and subjects with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome all show beneficial effects of whole cinnamon and/or aqueous extracts of cinnamon on glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity, lipids, antioxidant status, blood pressure, lean body mass, and gastric emptying. However, not all studies have shown positive effects of cinnamon, and type and amount of cinnamon, as well as the type of subjects and drugs subjects are taking, are likely to affect the response to cinnamon. In summary, components of cinnamon may be important in the alleviation and prevention of the signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and related diseases. PMID:20513336

  4. Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Alzheimer-Type Dementia in Institutionalized Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, F. E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Institutionalized patients with Down syndrome (N=307) were monitored for 5 to 10 years to determine prevalence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Prevalence increased from 11% between ages 40 and 49 to 77% between 60 and 69. All patients 70 and over had dementia. Mean age of onset of dementia was 56 years. Neuropathological findings were consistent with…

  5. Genomic sequence and virulence comparison of four type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a ubiquitous and costly virus that exhibits substantial sequence and virulence disparity among diverse isolates. In this study, we compared the whole genomic sequence and virulence of 4 North American Type 2 PRRSV isolates. Among the 4 i...

  6. Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency Syndrome with Carbohydrate-Responsive Symptoms but without Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koy, Anne; Assmann, Birgit; Klepper, Joerg; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2011-01-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is caused by a defect in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. The main symptoms are epilepsy, developmental delay, movement disorders, and deceleration of head circumference. A ketogenic diet has been shown to be effective in controlling epilepsy in GLUT1-DS. We report a female…

  7. Fibroblast growth factor 21 predicts the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Thomas; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Möhlig, Matthias; Mai, Knut; Spranger, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising worldwide. Liver-derived fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 affects glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive value of FGF-21 on the incidence of T2DM and the metabolic syndrome. The Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam (MeSyBePo) recall study includes 440 individuals. Glucose metabolism was analyzed using an oral glucose tolerance test, including insulin measurements. FGF-21 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary study outcome was diabetes and the metabolic syndrome incidence and change of glucose subtraits. During a mean follow-up of 5.30 ± 0.1 years, 54 individuals developed the metabolic syndrome, 35 developed T2DM, and 69 with normal glucose tolerance at baseline progressed to impaired glucose metabolism, defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or T2DM. FGF-21 predicted incident metabolic syndrome (lnFGF-21 odds ratio [OR] 2.6 [95% CI 1.5 - 4.5]; P = 0.001), T2DM (2.4 [1.2-4.7]; P = 0.01), and progression to impaired glucose metabolism (2.2 [1.3 - 3.6]; P = 0.002) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and follow-up time. Additional adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose did not substantially modify the predictive value of FGF-21. FGF-21 is an independent predictor of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM in apparently healthy Caucasians. These results may indicate FGF-21 resistance precedes the onset of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM.

  8. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Predicts the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Bobbert, Thomas; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.H.; Möhlig, Matthias; Mai, Knut; Spranger, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The incidence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rising worldwide. Liver-derived fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 affects glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive value of FGF-21 on the incidence of T2DM and the metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam (MeSyBePo) recall study includes 440 individuals. Glucose metabolism was analyzed using an oral glucose tolerance test, including insulin measurements. FGF-21 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary study outcome was diabetes and the metabolic syndrome incidence and change of glucose subtraits. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 5.30 ± 0.1 years, 54 individuals developed the metabolic syndrome, 35 developed T2DM, and 69 with normal glucose tolerance at baseline progressed to impaired glucose metabolism, defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or T2DM. FGF-21 predicted incident metabolic syndrome (lnFGF-21 odds ratio [OR] 2.6 [95% CI 1.5 – 4.5]; P = 0.001), T2DM (2.4 [1.2–4.7]; P = 0.01), and progression to impaired glucose metabolism (2.2 [1.3 – 3.6]; P = 0.002) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and follow-up time. Additional adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose did not substantially modify the predictive value of FGF-21. CONCLUSIONS FGF-21 is an independent predictor of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM in apparently healthy Caucasians. These results may indicate FGF-21 resistance precedes the onset of the metabolic syndrome and T2DM. PMID:22933429

  9. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis.

  10. A founder mutation in the CLCNKB gene causes Bartter syndrome type III in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Soriano, Juan; Vallo, Alfredo; Pérez de Nanclares, Gustavo; Bilbao, José Ramón; Castaño, Luis

    2005-07-01

    The term "Bartter syndrome" encompasses a group of closely related inherited tubulopathies characterized by markedly reduced NaCl transport by the distal nephron. At present, five different genetic variants have been demonstrated. The majority of patients with so-called classic Bartter syndrome carry inactivating mutations of the CLCNKB gene encoding the basolateral ClC-Kb chloride channel (Bartter syndrome type III). The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mutation in cases of classic Bartter syndrome followed at our center. Ten patients, including two sisters, with clinical and biochemical features of classic Bartter syndrome were included in the mutational analysis. They originated from different regions of Spain with either Basque or Spanish ancestry. There was no history of consanguineous marriage in any of the kindreds. The parents and siblings of each patient, as well as a population of 300 healthy control adult subjects, were also analyzed. All ten patients were found to be homozygous for an identical missense mutation in the CLCNKB gene, substituting a threonine for an alanine at codon 204 (A204T) in the putative fifth transmembrane domain of the protein. None of the 300 control subjects were homozygous for the A204T allele. Overall, the A204T mutation was detected on 2/600 control chromosomes. Despite sharing a common mutation, the clinical manifestations of the syndrome in the patients varied from lack of symptoms to severe growth retardation. Demonstration of a point mutation within the CLCNKB gene as the apparently unique cause of Bartter syndrome type III in Spain is highly suggestive of a founder effect. Our results also support the lack of correlation between genotype and phenotype in this disease.

  11. Male criminals with organic brain syndrome: two distinct types based on age at first arrest.

    PubMed

    Grekin, E R; Brennan, P A; Hodgins, S; Mednick, S A

    2001-07-01

    This study examined whether criminals with organic brain syndrome could be divided into two distinct types. The authors proposed that early starters (onset of criminal activity by age 18) would display a persistent, long-lasting pattern of deviance that was largely independent of their brain disorder, whereas late starters (onset at age 19 or after) would exhibit deviant behaviors that began late in life and were more directly related to their brain disorder. Subjects were 1,130 male criminal offenders drawn from a birth cohort of all individuals born between January 1, 1944, and December 31, 1947, in Denmark. The main study group included all men with both a history of criminal arrest and a hospitalization for organic brain syndrome (N=565). In addition, for a subset of analyses, the authors examined a randomly selected, same-size comparison group of men with a history of criminal arrest who were not hospitalized for organic brain syndrome. Data were available on all arrests and all psychiatric hospitalizations for individuals in this cohort through the age of 44. Among those with organic brain syndrome, early starters were significantly more likely than late starters to 1) be arrested before the onset of organic brain syndrome, 2) show a higher rate of offending before but not after the onset of organic brain syndrome, 3) be both recidivists and violent recidivists, and 4) have a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. Male criminals with organic brain syndrome can be meaningfully divided into two distinct types on the basis of age at first arrest. Early starters show a more global, persistent, and stable pattern of offending than late starters. These results have implications for treatment and risk assessment.

  12. Pfeiffer syndrome type 2: further delineation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Plomp, A S; Hamel, B C; Cobben, J M; Verloes, A; Offermans, J P; Lajeunie, E; Fryns, J P; de Die-Smulders, C E

    1998-01-23

    We present 5 unrelated patients, 3 boys and 2 girls, with Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) type 2. They all had cloverleaf skull, severe proptosis, ankylosis of the elbows, broad thumbs and/or broad halluces and variable accompanying anomalies. We review the literature on all subtypes of PS. Most patients with PS type 2 died shortly after birth. Causes of death include pulmonary problems, brain abnormalities, prematurity and post-operative complications. DNA studies were performed in 3 of the 5 patients. Two of them showed a 1036T --> C mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene, that was earlier reported in PS and in Crouzon syndrome. Probably most, if not all, PS type 2 cases are caused by a de novo mutation in the FGFR2 gene or in another, yet unidentified gene. To date all type 2 cases have been non-familial. A low recurrence risk for parents can be advised.

  13. [Simultaneous onset of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and type 1 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Rego Filho, Eduardo A; Mello, Solange F R; Omuro, André M; Loli, José O C

    2003-01-01

    We describe the case of a boy with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome coexisting with type-1 diabetes mellitus. Nephrotic syndrome was diagnosed in a boy (age 3 years and 11 months) with generalized edema. Marked weight loss (23 to 16 kg), polyuria, polydipsia and weakness were observed after three weeks of treatment with prednisone 2 mg/kg/day. Diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed by laboratory tests: hyperglycemia (glucose 657 mg/dl), glycosuria without proteinuria, acidosis and ketonuria. Therapy with insulin and prednisone was started. He was then maintained on a daily dose of NPH insulin. At age 4 years and 1 month a new episode of ketoacidosis without proteinuria occurred in association with a viral infection of the upper airways. At age 4 years and 4 months nephrotic syndrome relapsed, but the child responded well to steroid therapy. There was another relapse three months later, when prednisone treatment was interrupted. This led to the introduction of cyclophosphamide, with good results. Since then, the patient (now 5 years and 6 months old) has been taking insulin daily and nephrotic syndrome has not relapsed. Plasma levels of C3 and C4 and renal function are normal. Hematuria is occasionally present. Anti-GAD antibodies (glutamic decarboxilase) are normal and anti-islet cell antibodies are positive. HLA antigens: A2; B44; B52; DR4; DR8; DR53. The simultaneous occurrence of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and type-1 diabetes mellitus is rare.

  14. Immunohistologic studies of type IV collagen in anterior lens capsules of patients with Alport syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cheong, H I; Kashtan, C E; Kim, Y; Kleppel, M M; Michael, A F

    1994-04-01

    Alport syndrome is an inherited disorder affecting the kidney, eye and ear arising from mutations in the gene COL4A5, which encodes the alpha 5 chain of type IV collagen. Structural defects of glomerular basement membranes in Alport syndrome are associated in most instances with failure to detect the alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5 chains of type IV collagen as well as the Alport antigen that is identified in normal tissues by a genetically discriminating alloantibody and monoclonal antibody. Anterior lenticonus is an ocular abnormality pathognomic of Alport syndrome that is associated with marked thinning of the anterior lens capsule (ALC). The reactivity of Alport ALC with type IV collagen antibodies has not previously been reported. ALCs were obtained at the time of cataract extraction from two unrelated males with Alport syndrome and anterior lenticonus, and stained with antibodies against the alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3 and alpha 4 chains of type IV collagen, as well as an antibody against the alpha 5 (IV) chain. Controls consisted of ALCs from a normal individual and from a patient with diabetes mellitus. Normal and diabetic ALCs reacted with antibodies against the alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, and alpha 4 chains of type IV collagen and the alpha 5 (IV) chain. In one of the Alport patients, ALC showed no reactivity with antibodies against the alpha 5 (IV) chain and the alpha 3 and alpha 4 chains of type IV collagen. In the second patient, ALC reactivity with these antibodies was preserved. Epidermal basement membranes from this second patient also showed reactivity with antibody against the alpha 5 (IV) chain, unlike most males with Alport syndrome. In both Alport patients, ALCs reacted with antibodies against the alpha 1 (IV) and alpha 2 (IV) chains. These findings suggest that anterior lenticonus in patients with Alport syndrome may be associated with absence of the alpha 3 and alpha 4 chains of type IV collagen, as well as the alpha 5 (IV) chain, from anterior

  15. A rare combination of type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) or multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS-3).

    PubMed

    Betterle, Corrado; Garelli, Silvia; Coco, Graziella; Burra, Patrizia

    2014-06-01

    Type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS-3) is defined by the presence of an autoimmune thyroid disease and another autoimmune illness, excluding Addison's disease; this is a frequent combination. We report the case of a 55 years old female patient with APS-3, with seven clinical or latent autoimmune manifestations. At 49 years of age she was admitted at the General Hospital for leukopenia, weight loss, tremors, anxiety and diarrhea. The personal history revealed ulcerative colitis and, during the last year, episodes of fever with migrant arthralgia and cutaneous lesions. The patient was evaluated for thyroid function and imaging, mielobiopsy, glycaemic control, gastrointestinal and rheumatologic disorders with specific biochemical tests, imaging and endoscopic procedures. We concluded that the patient was affected by APS-3, characterized by the association of Graves' disease, autoimmune leukopenia, latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA), autoimmune gastritis, ulcerative colitis, Sjögren's and anti-phospholipid syndromes. The patient started low doses of corticosteroid drugs for leukopenia, underwent (131)I therapy for hyperthyroidism and later started substitutive thyroid therapy with l-thyroxine, insulin therapy for LADA, mesalazine for ulcerative colitis and artificial tears for Sjögren's syndrome. In this article we report a complex case of APS-3, characterized by the association of seven different autoimmune diseases, which required a complex therapeutic strategy.

  16. Canagliflozin improves risk factors of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael J; Merton, Katherine W; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Balis, Dainius A; Desai, Mehul

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome refers to a collection of risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and blood pressure (BP) in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin on the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome. This analysis was based on data from 2 head-to-head studies of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM on background metformin versus glimepiride (study 1) and background metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin 100 mg (study 2). Changes from baseline in glycemic efficacy, anthropometric measures, BP, and lipids were evaluated with canagliflozin versus glimepiride and sitagliptin at week 52 in patients who met ≥2 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome (in addition to T2DM): triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) <1.0 mmol/L (men) or <1.3 mmol/L (women); waist circumference ≥102 cm (non-Asian men), ≥88 cm (non-Asian women), >90 cm (Asian men), or >80 cm (Asian women); diagnosis of hypertension or meeting BP-related criteria (systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg). Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports. In study 1, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided similar and greater HbA1c reductions versus glimepiride, respectively. In study 2, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater HbA1c lowering versus sitagliptin 100 mg. Canagliflozin also reduced fasting plasma glucose, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, BP, and triglycerides, and increased HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus glimepiride and sitagliptin. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated in each study. Canagliflozin was associated with improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome, whereas

  17. Canagliflozin improves risk factors of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael J; Merton, Katherine W; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Balis, Dainius A; Desai, Mehul

    2017-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome refers to a collection of risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and blood pressure (BP) in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin on the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome. Methods This analysis was based on data from 2 head-to-head studies of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM on background metformin versus glimepiride (study 1) and background metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin 100 mg (study 2). Changes from baseline in glycemic efficacy, anthropometric measures, BP, and lipids were evaluated with canagliflozin versus glimepiride and sitagliptin at week 52 in patients who met ≥2 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome (in addition to T2DM): triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) <1.0 mmol/L (men) or <1.3 mmol/L (women); waist circumference ≥102 cm (non-Asian men), ≥88 cm (non-Asian women), >90 cm (Asian men), or >80 cm (Asian women); diagnosis of hypertension or meeting BP-related criteria (systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg). Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports. Results In study 1, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided similar and greater HbA1c reductions versus glimepiride, respectively. In study 2, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater HbA1c lowering versus sitagliptin 100 mg. Canagliflozin also reduced fasting plasma glucose, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, BP, and triglycerides, and increased HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus glimepiride and sitagliptin. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated in each study. Conclusion Canagliflozin was associated with improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jay, Mollie A; Ren, Jun

    2007-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a global epidemic, is largely attributed to metabolic syndrome and its clustering of cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia. The two primary approaches to optimally control risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome are lifestyle changes and medications. Although many pharmacological targets have been identified, clinical management of cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is still dismal. Recent evidence suggests premises of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligands in the combat against type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome including obesity and insulin resistance. Three subtypes of the PPAR nuclear fatty acid receptors have been identified: alpha, beta/delta and gamma. PPARalpha is believed to participate in fatty acid uptake (beta- and omega-oxidation) mainly in the liver and heart. PPARbeta/delta is involved in fatty acid oxidation in muscle. PPARgamma is highly expressed in fat to facilitate glucose and lipid uptake, stimulate glucose oxidation, decrease free fatty acid level and ameliorate insulin resistance. Synthetic ligands for PPARalpha and gamma such as fibric acid and thiazolidinediones have been used in patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic insulin resistance with significantly improved HbA(1c) and glucose levels. In addition, nonhypoglycemic effects may be elicited by PPAR agonists or dual agonists including improved lipid metabolism, blood pressure control and endothelial function, as well as suppressed atherosclerotic plaque formation and coagulation. However, issues of safety and clinical indication remain undetermined for use of PPAR agonists for the incidence of heart disease in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Exploration of Differences in Types of Sleep Disturbance and Severity of Sleep Problems between Individuals with Cri du Chat Syndrome, Down's Syndrome, and Jacobsen Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) seems to vary between genetic syndromes associated with ID. Different types of sleep disturbances may indicate underlying causes of sleep problems and these types of sleep disturbances may vary between different genetic syndromes. We examined and compared five types…

  20. Exploration of Differences in Types of Sleep Disturbance and Severity of Sleep Problems between Individuals with Cri du Chat Syndrome, Down's Syndrome, and Jacobsen Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Anneke P. H. M.; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) seems to vary between genetic syndromes associated with ID. Different types of sleep disturbances may indicate underlying causes of sleep problems and these types of sleep disturbances may vary between different genetic syndromes. We examined and compared five types…

  1. Type 1 diabetes mellitus in a 3 1/2 year-old girl with Turner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonc, E Nazli; Ozon, Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Kandemir, Nurgun

    2002-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is associated with autoimmune disorders. Autoimmune endocrinopathy in Turner's syndrome seems to be limited to autoimmune thyroiditis. A small number of patients with Turner's syndrome has also been associated with celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Type 1 diabetes mellitus in Turner's syndrome has been rarely reported. We present here the youngest patient with Turner's syndrome who developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. At the age of 3.5 years she was hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis. Anti-islet cell and anti-insulin antibodies were positive and C-peptide level was low. When she was investigated for recurrent urinary tract infections, horseshoe kidney was detected by ultrasonography. Karyotype analysis revealed 45,XO. She has been followed for 2 years with an insulin dose of 0.9 U/kg per day. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus associated with Turner's syndrome is still unknown.

  2. [The hemodynamic characteristics of septic shock and relationship with syndrome types of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    He, Jianzhuo; Wang, Lei; Yin, Xin; Guo, Liheng; Zhang, Minzhou

    2016-02-01

    To observe hemodynamic characteristics and the correlation with syndrome types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with septic shock, so as to direct the treatment based on syndrome differentiation. A prospective observation was conducted. Sixty-eight patients with septic shock admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Dade Road General Hospital of Guangdong Hospital of TCM from January 2013 to July 2015 were enrolled. Pulse indicating continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) was used to monitor the hemodynamic changes, including heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac index (CI), global end diastolic volume index (GEDVI), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), maximum rate of the increase in pressure (dPmax) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), for assessment of hemodynamics. According to the CI, the patients were divided into two groups , i.e. high CI group (CI ≥ 50.0 mL×s(-1)×m(-2), n = 34) and low CI group (CI < 50.0 mL×s(-1)×m(-2), n = 34), and the clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of two groups were investigated. The TCM differentiation was conducted with "four syndromes and four methods", and the hemodynamic characteristics of different syndrome types were investigated, the correlation between the TCM syndrome factors and hemodynamic parameters was analyzed. The patients were divided into survival group and death group, and clinical parameters and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between two groups. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHEII) score and blood glucose of low CI group were higher than those of high CI group [APACHEII score: 24.4±7.2 vs. 19.8±7.4, t = -2.279, P = 0.023; blood glucose (mmol/L): 9.7 (7.7, 14.6) vs. 6.7 (5.6, 10.0), Z = -2.257, P = 0.024], CI and GEDVI were lowered [CI (mL×s(-1)×m(-2)): 36.7±8.3 vs. 68.4±16.7, t = 10.285, P = 0.000; GEDVI (mL/m(2)): 689.0 (566.0, 883.8) vs. 838.5 (692.8, 1?247.3), Z = -2

  3. Chronic type B aortic dissection in association with Hemolyticuremic syndrome in a child

    PubMed Central

    Gera, D. N.; Ghuge, P. P.; Gandhi, S.; Vanikar, A. V.; Shrimali, J. D.; Kute, V. B.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency usually encountered in the elderly. Here, we report a 9-year-old child who was incidentally detected to have asymptomatic chronic type B dissecting aneurysm of aorta when he presented with relapse of Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) without any genetic abnormalities like Marfan or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of AD associated with HUS in a child without any known associated genetic or inherited risk factors. PMID:24339527

  4. Chronic type B aortic dissection in association with Hemolyticuremic syndrome in a child.

    PubMed

    Gera, D N; Ghuge, P P; Gandhi, S; Vanikar, A V; Shrimali, J D; Kute, V B; Trivedi, H L

    2013-11-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency usually encountered in the elderly. Here, we report a 9-year-old child who was incidentally detected to have asymptomatic chronic type B dissecting aneurysm of aorta when he presented with relapse of Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) without any genetic abnormalities like Marfan or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of AD associated with HUS in a child without any known associated genetic or inherited risk factors.

  5. Type III Klippel-Feil syndrome: case report and review of associated craniofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Sattur, Atul P; Kirty, R N; Thakur, Arpita Rai

    2011-07-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a complex syndrome of osseous and visceral anomalies that include the classical clinical triad of short neck, limitation of head and neck movements and low posterior hairline. It may also be associated with anomalies of the genitourinary, musculoskeletal, neurologic and cardiac systems. We report a case of type III KFS with associated rib anomalies such as cervical rib, fusion and bifid ribs, scoliosis and fused crossed renal ectopia. The aim of this paper was to summarize all craniofacial anomalies that occur in association with KFS, so that clinicians would be aware of them during diagnosis and treatment planning.

  6. Unusual manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome type I in two Yemeni siblings.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Alshami

    2015-01-15

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a group of genodermatoses characterized by malformations of tissues derived from the ectoderm, including the skin, its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands), teeth, and the breasts. Ectodermal dysplasia syndactyly syndrome (EDSS) is a rare, newly described type of ED involving syndactyly. We report 2 Yemeni siblings with typical EDSS manifestations, including bilateral, partial cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers and toes; sparse, coarse, brittle scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes; and conical, widely spaced teeth with enamel notches. In addition, the siblings presented with other features hitherto not described for this syndrome, such as adermatoglyphia, onychogryphosis, hypoplastic widely spaced nipples, hypoplastic thumbs, and red scalp hair.

  7. Coffee intake and risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-04-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages. We tested the hypothesis that genetically high coffee intake is associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof. We included 93,179 individuals from two large general population cohorts in a Mendelian randomization study. We tested first whether high coffee intake is associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof, in observational analyses; second, whether five genetic variants near the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and AHR genes are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variants are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and with related components thereof. Finally, we tested the genetic association with type 2 diabetes in a meta-analysis including up to 78,021 additional individuals from the DIAGRAM consortium. Observationally, high coffee intake was associated with low risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Further, high coffee intake was associated with high body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and total cholesterol and with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with glucose levels. In genetic analyses, 9-10 vs 0-3 coffee-intake alleles were associated with 29% higher coffee intake. However, genetically derived high coffee intake was not associated convincingly with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, weight, height, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or glucose levels. Per-allele meta-analysed odds ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.01 (0.98-1.04) for AHR rs4410790, 0.98 (0.95-1.01) for AHR rs6968865, 1.01 (0.99-1.03) for CYP1A1/2 rs2470893, 1.01 (0.98-1.03) for CYP1A1/2 rs2472297 and 0.98 (0.95-1.01) for CYP1A1 rs2472299. High coffee

  8. Mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B: relation of phenotypic features to background strain.

    PubMed

    Gografe, Sylvia I; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Willing, Alison E; Haas, Ken; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Sanberg, Paul R

    2003-12-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B or mucopolysaccharidosis type III B (MPS IIIB) is a lysosomal storage disorder that is inherited in autosomal recessive manner. It is characterized by systemic heparan sulfate accumulation in lysosomes due to deficiency of the enzyme alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu). Devastating clinical abnormalities with severe central nervous system involvement and somatic disease lead to premature death. A mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B was created by targeted disruption of the gene encoding Naglu, providing a powerful tool for understanding pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic strategies. However, the JAX GEMM Strain B6.129S6-Naglutm1Efn mouse, although showing biochemical similarities to humans with Sanfilippo syndrome, exhibits aging and behavioral differences. We observed idiosyncrasies, such as skeletal dysmorphism, hydrocephalus, ocular abnormalities, organomegaly, growth retardation, and anomalies of the integument, in our breeding colony of Naglu mutant mice and determined that several of them were at least partially related to the background strain C57BL/6. These background strain abnormalities, therefore, potentially mimic or overlap signs of the induced syndrome in our mice. Our observations may prove useful in studies of Naglu mutant mice. The necessity for distinguishing background anomalies from signs of the modeled disease is apparent.

  9. Radiographic and Tomographic Analysis in Patients with Stickler Syndrome Type I

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Chehida, Farid Ben; Ganger, Rudolf; Kenis, Vladimir; Zandieh, Shahin; Hofstaetter, Jochen G; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To further investigate the underlying pathology of axial and appendicular skeletal abnormalities such as painful spine stiffness, gait abnormalities, early onset osteoarthritis and patellar instability in patients with Stickler syndrome type I. Radiographic and tomographic analyses were organized. Methods: From a series of Stickler syndrome patients followed from early life to late childhood. Ten patients (6 boys and four girls of different ethnic origins were consistent with the diagnosis of Stickler syndrome type I ). Phenotypic characterization was the baseline tool applied for all patients and genotypic correlation was performed on four families Results: A constellation of axial abnormalities namely; anterolateral ossification of the anterior longitudinal spinal ligament with subsequent fusion of two cervical vertebrae, early onset Forestier disease (progressive spinal hyperostosis with subsequent vertebral fusion on top of bridging osteophytes and “Bamboo-like spine” resembling ankylosing spondylitis) and severe premature spine degeneration were evident. Appendicular abnormalities in connection with generalized epiphyseal dysplasia were the underlying aetiology in patients with Intoeing gait and femoral anteversion, early onset severe osteoarthritis of the weight bearing joint. Remarkable trochleo-patellar dysplasia secondary to severe osteoarthritis causing effectively the development of patellar instability was additional pathology. Mutation of COL2A1 has been confirmed as the causative gene for Stickler syndrome type I Conclusion: We concluded that conventional radiographs and the molecular determination of a COL2A1 in patients with (Stickler syndrome type I) are insufficient tools to explain the reasons behind the tremendous magnitude of axial and appendicular skeletal abnormalities. We were able to modify the criteria of the clinical phenotype as designated by Rose et al in accordance with the novel axial and appendicular criteria as

  10. Autoimmune hepatitis type 2 arising in PFAPA syndrome: coincidences or possible correlations?

    PubMed

    Della Corte, Claudia; Ranucci, Giusy; Tufano, Maria; Alessio, Maria; Iorio, Raffaele

    2010-03-01

    PFAPA syndrome is a chronic disease classified in the group of autoinflammatory syndromes characterized by periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis in young children. The etiology of this disorder is still unknown, but a primary dysfunction of the innate immune system seems to be involved. According to Marshall criteria, it is not possible to diagnose PFAPA in the presence of autoimmune diseases. We present here the case report of an 8-month girl with PFAPA who developed autoimmune hepatitis type 2 at the age of 18 months. We suppose that the dysregulation in innate immunity that is typical of patients with PFAPA could trigger autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hepatitis in susceptible subjects. The possible relationships between immune-system dysfunction peculiar to this syndrome and autoimmune hepatitis are discussed.

  11. Type and frequency of cardiac defects in embryofetal alcohol syndrome. Report of 16 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Löser, H; Majewski, F

    1977-01-01

    Within a period of 3 years, 56 infants and children with embryofetal alcohol syndrome have been detected and examined for heart defects. All children were from mothers who had been addicted to alcohol even during pregnancy and they showed a typical pattern of malformations, as described by Lemoine et al. (1968) and Jones et al. (1973). In 16 cases cardiovascular malformations were confirmed by heart catheterisation or pathological examination. The overall incidence of heart defects in this syndrome was 29 per cent. The incidence rises to nearly 50 per cent in the more severe types of this syndrome. Atrial septal defects were found to be the most common heart defect (10 out of 16 cases); ventricular septal defects and other variable malformations occurred less frequently. The high incidence of heart defects indicates that alcoholism during pregnancy has to be considered as a serious and preventable cause of congenital heart disease. Images PMID:603740

  12. Fenofibrate treatment in two adults with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Serif; Dursun, Mehmet; Canoruç, Fikri; Kidir, Veysel; Beştaş, Remzi

    2006-03-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II is a rare familial disorder of bilirubin conjugation with consecutive life-long unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. In the presence of severe hyperbilirubinemia, a fetus or an adult is at risk for neurological defects in this syndrome. This paper is the first report emphasizing details about this disorder in two patients from Turkey. The diagnosis was made on the basis of history and laboratory findings excluding other causes of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Phenobarbital loading test and C bile analysis also supported the diagnosis. There was a study in the literature in which treatment with chlofibrate had been recommended in this syndrome. Based on the results of that study, we administered fenofibrate treatment to our patients for one month and analyzed serum bilirubin levels before and after this procedure. No improvement in bilirubin levels was observed in either case.

  13. SHOX duplications found in some cases with type I Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gervasini, Cristina; Grati, Francesca Romana; Lalatta, Faustina; Tabano, Silvia; Gentilin, Barbara; Colapietro, Patrizia; De Toffol, Simona; Frontino, Giada; Motta, Francesca; Maitz, Silvia; Bernardini, Laura; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Fedele, Luigi; Larizza, Lidia; Miozzo, Monica

    2010-10-01

    The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is defined as congenital aplasia of müllerian ducts derived structures in females with a normal female chromosomal and gonadal sex. Most cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome are sporadic, although familial cases have been reported. The genetic basis of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is largely unknown and seems heterogeneous, and a small number of cases were found to have mutations in the WNT4 gene. The aim of this study was to identify possible recurrent submicroscopic imbalances in a cohort of familial and sporadic cases with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to screen the subtelomeric sequences of all chromosomes in 30 patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (sporadic, n = 27 and familial, n = 3). Segregation analysis and pyrosequencing were applied to validate the MLPA results in the informative family. Partial duplication of the Xpter pseudoautosomal region 1 containing the short stature homeobox (SHOX) gene was detected in five patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (familial, n = 3 and sporadic, n = 2) and not in 53 healthy controls. The duplications were not overlapping, and SHOX was never entirely duplicated. Haplotyping in the informative family revealed that SHOX gene duplication was inherited from the unaffected father and was absent in two healthy sisters. Partial duplication of SHOX gene is found in some cases with both familial and sporadic Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser type I syndrome.

  14. Genetic influences on type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related quantitative traits in Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Jowett, Jeremy B.; Diego, Vincent P.; Kotea, Navaratnam; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Chitson, Pierrot; Dyer, Thomas D.; Zimmet, Paul; Blangero, John

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies report a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the island nation of Mauritius. The Mauritius Family Study was initiated to examine heritable factors that contribute to these high rates of prevalence and consists of 400 individuals in 24 large extended multigenerational pedigrees. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements relating to the metabolic syndrome were undertaken in addition to family and lifestyle based information for each individual. Variance components methods were used to determine the heritability of the type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related quantitative traits. The cohort was made up of 218 females (55%) and 182 males with 22% diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and a further 30% having impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose. Notably BMI was not significantly increased in those with type 2 diabetes (P=0.119), however a significant increase in waist circumference was observed in these groups (P=0.02). The heritable proportion of trait variance was substantial and greater than values previously published for hip circumference, LDL and total cholesterol, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and serum creatinine. Height, weight and BMI heritabilities were all in the upper range of those previously reported. The phenotypic characteristics of the Mauritius Family cohort are similar to those previously reported in the Mauritian population with a high observed prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes. A high heritability for key type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome related phenotypes (range 0.23 to 0.68), suggest the cohort will have utility in identifying genes that influence these quantitative traits. PMID:19210179

  15. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes submitted to banded gastric bypass: greater incidence of dumping syndrome.

    PubMed

    Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Galvão Neto, Manoel; Moretto, Myriam; Barancelli, Fabiano; Schroer, Caroline Eckerdt; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2009-11-01

    Dumping syndrome is one of ten most common complications in morbidly obese patients operated. Recent studies in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in patients submitted to gastric bypass led us to examine the different outcomes in this group of patients. Our objective was to determine the difference in the prevalence of dumping syndrome in patients with DM2 submitted to gastric bypass. In this retrospective study, 49 diabetic and 54 non-diabetic morbidly obese patients were submitted to gastric bypass and followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The occurrence of dumping was determined by the patient's medical chart, where it was considered positive if recorded in at least one of three evaluations. The 103 patients evaluated had a mean BMI of 49.5 +/- 9.3 kg/m(2) and mean age of 38 +/- 9.7 years, with 75.7% being women. The prevalence of dumping syndrome in this population was 24.3%. The prevalence of dumping was greater in patients with DM2 (44.9%) when compared to the control group (5.6%; p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated the diagnosis of DM2 as the only variable associated with dumping syndrome. Dumping syndrome is a common postoperative complication in gastric bypass. Patients with DM2 show a greater postoperative prevalence of dumping.

  16. C5orf42 is the major gene responsible for OFD syndrome type VI.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Estelle; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Reversade, Bruno; Khartoufi, Nadia El; Devisme, Louise; Holder, Muriel; Ansart-Franquet, Hélène; Avila, Magali; Lacombe, Didier; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Kaori, Irahara; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi; Le Merrer, Martine; Martinovic, Jelena; Noël, Catherine; Shboul, Mohammad; Ho, Lena; Güven, Yeliz; Razavi, Ferechté; Burglen, Lydie; Gigot, Nadège; Darmency-Stamboul, Véronique; Thevenon, Julien; Aral, Bernard; Kayserili, Hülya; Huet, Frédéric; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Le Caignec, Cédric; Franco, Brunella; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Faivre, Laurence; Attié-Bitach, Tania

    2014-03-01

    Oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (OFD VI) is a recessive ciliopathy defined by two diagnostic criteria: molar tooth sign (MTS) and one or more of the following: (1) tongue hamartoma (s) and/or additional frenula and/or upper lip notch; (2) mesoaxial polydactyly of one or more hands or feet; (3) hypothalamic hamartoma. Because of the MTS, OFD VI belongs to the "Joubert syndrome related disorders". Its genetic aetiology remains largely unknown although mutations in the TMEM216 gene, responsible for Joubert (JBS2) and Meckel-Gruber (MKS2) syndromes, have been reported in two OFD VI patients. To explore the molecular cause(s) of OFD VI syndrome, we used an exome sequencing strategy in six unrelated families followed by Sanger sequencing. We identified a total of 14 novel mutations in the C5orf42 gene in 9/11 families with positive OFD VI diagnostic criteria including a severe fetal case with microphthalmia, cerebellar hypoplasia, corpus callosum agenesis, polydactyly and skeletal dysplasia. C5orf42 mutations have already been reported in Joubert syndrome confirming that OFD VI and JBS are allelic disorders, thus enhancing our knowledge of the complex, highly heterogeneous nature of ciliopathies.

  17. Combination treatment with octreotide, midodrine, and albumin improves survival in patients with type 1 and type 2 hepatorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skagen, Catherine; Einstein, Michael; Lucey, Michael R; Said, Adnan

    2009-08-01

    Few therapeutic modalities exist for the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). The combination of octreotide, midodrine, and albumin has shown possible benefit in small preliminary studies in improving renal function and short-term survival. We examined the effect of octreotide, midodrine, and albumin on survival (censored for liver transplantation) and renal function in patients with HRS type 1 and type 2, compared with a historical cohort that did not receive this therapy (control group). Seventy-five patients with HRS received octreotide, midodrine, and albumin and 87 did not constitute the control group. HRS type 1 was present in 102 individuals and HRS type 2 in 60. Transplantation was performed in 45% of patients in the treatment group as compared with 26% of patients in the control group although a significant difference in transplantation rate was seen in only HRS type 2. In the treatment arm, transplant-free survival was higher compared with the control arm (median survival 101 d vs. 18 d, P<0.0001). Survival was significantly better in the treatment arm in both HRS type 1 (P=0.0003) and HRS type 2 (P=0.009). In multivariable analysis, treatment with octreotide, midodrine, and albumin (P=0.0001) and HRS type 2 (P=0.05) were independently associated with improved survival. Renal function was significantly improved at 1 month (glomerular filtration rate 48 mL/min) in the treatment group compared with the control group (34 mL/min), P=0.03. The therapeutic regimen of octreotide, midodrine, and albumin significantly improved short-term survival and renal function in both HRS type 1 and type 2. This may provide a significant benefit as a bridge to liver transplantation in HRS type 1 and may prevent progression of HRS type 2 to HRS type 1.

  18. Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome in children with type 2 diabetes*.

    PubMed

    Fourtner, Shannon H; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Levitt Katz, Lorraine E

    2005-09-01

    Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic (HHNK) syndrome is thought to be a rare entity in the pediatric population, associated with significant mortality based on case reports in the literature. As obesity and type 2 diabetes in childhood grow in prevalence, such related complications may also increase. This study will serve to provide updated information regarding typical clinical course and sequelae of HHNK syndrome in childhood. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) over a period of 5 yr were screened retrospectively for any laboratory evidence of previous episodes of HHNK syndrome. The standard diagnostic criteria of blood glucose >600 mg/dL and serum osmolality >330 mOsm/L with only mild acidosis (serum bicarbonate >15 mmol/L and small ketonuria 15 mg/dL or less) were utilized. The records of all patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosed over a 5-yr period were reviewed (n=190). Seven patients were found to have one episode of HHNK syndrome by diagnostic criteria (five males, mean age at presentation 13.3 yr, age range 10.1--16.9 yr), yielding a frequency of 3.7%. All were African-American. HHNK syndrome was the clinical presentation at diagnosis of new onset diabetes for all seven children. Three of seven children had a previously diagnosed developmental delay. The average Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at presentation was 13 (range 9--15). Mean body mass index (BMI) at presentation was 32.7 kg/m(2) (n=6). Mean serum osmolality was 393 mOsm/L (n=7), and mean blood glucose was 1604 mg/dL (n = 7). The average time until mental status returned to baseline among survivors was 3 d (range 1--7 d). The average number of hospital days for survivors was 10 (range 5--24 d). Four of seven patients had an uncomplicated course. One patient developed multisystem organ failure and died on hospital day 4. The case fatality rate was 14.3% (one of seven). Survivors had no appreciable neurodevelopmental sequelae. This

  19. Identification of the Gene for Oral-Facial-Digital Type I Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Maria I.; Giorgio, Giovanna; Feather, Sally A.; Bulfone, Alessandro; Wright, Victoria; Ghiani, Michela; Selicorni, Angelo; Gammaro, Linda; Scolari, Francesco; Woolf, Adrian S.; Sylvie, Odent; Bernard, Le Marec; Malcolm, Sue; Winter, Robin; Ballabio, Andrea; Franco, Brunella

    2001-01-01

    Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1 [MIM 311200]) is transmitted as an X-linked dominant condition with lethality in males and is characterized by malformations of the face, oral cavity, and digits, and by a highly variable expressivity even within the same family. Malformation of the brain and polycystic kidneys are commonly associated with this disorder. The locus for OFD1 was mapped by linkage analysis to a 12-Mb interval, flanked by markers DXS85 and DXS7105 in the Xp22 region. To identify the gene responsible for this syndrome, we analyzed several transcripts mapping to the region and found mutations in OFD1 (formerly named “Cxorf5/71-7a”), encoding a protein containing coiled-coil α-helical domains. Seven patients with OFD1, including three with familial and four with sporadic cases, were analyzed. Analysis of the familial cases revealed a missense mutation, a 19-bp deletion, and a single base-pair deletion leading to a frameshift. In the sporadic cases, we found a missense (de novo), a nonsense, a splice, and a frameshift mutation. RNA in situ studies on mouse embryo tissue sections show that Ofd1 is developmentally regulated and is expressed in all tissues affected in OFD1 syndrome. The involvement of OFD1 in oral-facial-digital type I syndrome demonstrates an important role of this gene in human development. PMID:11179005

  20. Inflammatory Cytokine Profile Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Molina-Ayala, Mario; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Vargas, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Baldomero; Isibasi, Armando; Archundia-Riveros, Irma; Mendoza, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the serum concentration of IL-6, IL-10, TNF, IL-8, resistin, and adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with and without metabolic syndrome and to determine the cut-off point of the estimated glucose disposal rate that accurately differentiated these groups. Design. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of all patients in our type 1 diabetes clinic from January 2012 to January 2013. Patients were considered to have metabolic syndrome when they fulfilled the joint statement criteria and were evaluated for clinical, biochemical, and immunological features. Methods. We determined serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF with flow cytometry and adiponectin and resistin concentrations with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with and without metabolic syndrome. We also compared estimated glucose disposal rate between groups. Results. We tested 140 patients. Forty-four percent fulfilled the metabolic syndrome criteria (n = 61), 54% had central obesity, 30% had hypertriglyceridemia, 29% had hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and 19% had hypertension. We observed that resistin concentrations were higher in patients with MS. Conclusion. We found a high prevalence of MS in Mexican patients with T1D. The increased level of resistin may be related to the increased fat mass and could be involved in the development of insulin resistance. PMID:26273680

  1. [Experimental study on relationship between TCM syndrome type and gastric mucosa cell proliferation in rat model of chronic atrophic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shan; Wang, Chang-song; Zhou, Jia-he

    2007-11-01

    To explore the relationship between TCM syndrome type and gastric mucosa cell proliferation related controlling gene protein in chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). Expressions of cell proliferation related controlling gene protein, including proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-myc, from gastric mucosa of CAG model rats with different syndrome types were measured by immunohistochemistry and the changes of them before and after TCM intervention were also analyzed by image analysis. Protein expressions of PCNA, EGFR and c-myc in gastric mucosa of CAG model rats with different syndrome types (Pi-deficiency type, Gan-stagnation type and dampness-heat type) were different to some extent, and all of them reduced significantly after TCM intervention in the model rats of all syndrome types. Expressions of cell proliferation related controlling gene protein in gastric mucosa of CAG model rats of different syndrome types were different to some extent, which provides a certain experimental evidence for revealing the essence of TCM syndrome type of CAG and judging the prognosis of various types.

  2. Burnout Syndrome Among Health Care Students: The Role of Type D Personality.

    PubMed

    Skodova, Zuzana; Lajciakova, Petra; Banovcinova, Lubica

    2016-07-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Type D personality, along with other personality traits (resilience and sense of coherence), on burnout syndrome and its counterpart, engagement, among students of nursing, midwifery, and psychology. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 97 university students (91.9% females; M age = 20.2 ± 1.49 years). A Type D personality subscale, School Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, and Baruth Protective Factor Inventory were used. Linear regression models, Student's t test, and Pearson's correlation analysis were employed. Negative affectivity, a dimension of Type D personality, was a significant personality predictor for burnout syndrome (β = .54; 95% CI = [0.33, 1.01]). The only significant personality predictor of engagement was a sense of coherence. Students who were identified as having Type D personality characteristics scored significantly higher on the burnout syndrome questionnaire (t = -2.58, p < .01). In health care professions, personality predictors should be addressed to prevent burnout.

  3. The ciliary gene RPGRIP1L is mutated in cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome (Joubert syndrome type B) and Meckel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Delous, Marion; Baala, Lekbir; Salomon, Rémi; Laclef, Christine; Vierkotten, Jeanette; Tory, Kàlmàn; Golzio, Christelle; Lacoste, Tiphanie; Besse, Laurianne; Ozilou, Catherine; Moutkine, Imane; Hellman, Nathan E; Anselme, Isabelle; Silbermann, Flora; Vesque, Christine; Gerhardt, Christoph; Rattenberry, Eleanor; Wolf, Matthias T F; Gubler, Marie Claire; Martinovic, Jéléna; Encha-Razavi, Féréchté; Boddaert, Nathalie; Gonzales, Marie; Macher, Marie Alice; Nivet, Hubert; Champion, Gérard; Berthélémé, Jean Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; McDonald, Fiona; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Johnson, Colin A; Vekemans, Michel; Antignac, Corinne; Rüther, Ulrich; Schneider-Maunoury, Sylvie; Attié-Bitach, Tania; Saunier, Sophie

    2007-07-01

    Cerebello-oculo-renal syndrome (CORS), also called Joubert syndrome type B, and Meckel (MKS) syndrome belong to the group of developmental autosomal recessive disorders that are associated with primary cilium dysfunction. Using SNP mapping, we identified missense and truncating mutations in RPGRIP1L (KIAA1005) in both CORS and MKS, and we show that inactivation of the mouse ortholog Rpgrip1l (Ftm) recapitulates the cerebral, renal and hepatic defects of CORS and MKS. In addition, we show that RPGRIP1L colocalizes at the basal body and centrosomes with the protein products of both NPHP6 and NPHP4, known genes associated with MKS, CORS and nephronophthisis (a related renal disorder and ciliopathy). In addition, the RPGRIP1L missense mutations found in CORS individuals diminishes the interaction between RPGRIP1L and nephrocystin-4. Our findings show that mutations in RPGRIP1L can cause the multiorgan phenotypic abnormalities found in CORS or MKS, which therefore represent a continuum of the same underlying disorder.

  4. Knowledge, assessment, and management of adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type among Flemish physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Rombaut, Lies; Deane, Janet; Simmonds, Jane; De Wandele, Inge; De Paepe, Anne; Malfait, Fransiska; Calders, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Physiotherapy plays a fundamental role in managing adults with the joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT). However, it is a challenge for both the patient and the physiotherapist as the condition is poorly understood and treatment for JHS/EDS-HT is currently undefined. Insight into current practice is, therefore, necessary in order to establish baseline knowledge in this area and in the long term to improve the standard of patient care. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate current physiotherapists' knowledge of JHS/EDS-HT and to gain insight into current physiotherapy practice with emphasis on assessment, management, and treatment efficacy. Three hundred twenty-five Flemish physiotherapists participated in the study by filling out electronically a modified version of the "Hypermobility and Hypermobility Syndrome Questionnaire" (HHQ), which covered theoretical constructs such as general knowledge, assessment, management, and learning in relation to generalized joint hypermobility and JHS/EDS-HT. The results show that physiotherapists report a low level of confidence with regard to assessment and management of JHS/EDS-HT. Knowledge of hypermobility and JHS/EDS-HT is weak, especially regarding the features associated with JHS/EDS-HT. Many treatment approaches are used by physiotherapists with the majority showing preference for education, reassurance, muscle strengthening, proprioceptive and core stability training. Almost all approaches were perceived as being clinically effective by the physiotherapists, highlighting a lack of consensus. In conclusion, this study in Flemish physiotherapists confirms that JHS/EDS-HT is under-recognized, not well known and deemed difficult to treat. Further education is required and sought by the physiotherapists surveyed, and future research is needed.

  5. Type III Guyon Syndrome in 'B Boy' Break-Dancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Soo-Young; Choi, Jin-Gyu; Son, Byung-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Although the musculoskeletal injuries associated with break-dancing which is gaining more popularity among adolescent and young people has been reported, the report regarding a peripheral nerve injury associated with breakdance is scarce. We report a rare case of a young amateur break-dancer, 'b-boy' who suffered from a painful paresthesia in his left hand, later diagnosed as type III Guyon's canal syndrome. A 23-year-old, right handed college man presented with a tenderness over the left hypothenar eminence and painful paresthesia over the ring and little fingers of 3 months duration. He trained himself as an amateur 'b boy' break-dancer for the last 10 months. Conservative management under the diagnosis of wrist sprain before presentation did not improve his hand pain. An magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed that painful paresthesia was caused by type III Guyon's canal syndrome, and 4 weeks of corticosteroid treatment was given with resolution of pain and paresthesia.

  6. [Preliminary study on syndrome differentiation types and acupuncture for whiplash injuries].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ye-meng; Li, Hui; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Qun-ce; Wang, Tian-fang

    2011-04-01

    Whiplash injury is a relatively common injury of clinical acupuncture and moxibustion in the United States. The mechanism and clinical manifestation of whiplash injuries as well as its pathogenesis described in TCM were analyzed in this present article. The authors introduced the TCM syndrome differentiation of whiplash injuries and claimed that both the location and the stage of disease should be considered. For the different injury locations, the meridian musculature differentiation was applied to classify the whiplash injuries as Taiyang, Yangming, Shaoyang and Shaoyin Meridian syndromes. Considering the duration of the injury, qi stagnation and blood stasis types were classified in the acute stage and phlegm accumulation, insufficiency of the liver and kidney and qi and blood deficiencies types were classified during the chronic stage. An acupuncture protocol for whiplash injuries and typical cases were also introduced.

  7. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome type 3 with polymicrogyria: a clinical presentation of Baraitser-Winter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eker, Hatice Koçak; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Ünal, Sevim; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Drunat, Séverine; Verloes, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a rare condition affecting the development of the brain and the face. The most common characteristics are unusual facial appearance including hypertelorism and ptosis, ocular colobomas, hearing loss, impaired neuronal migration and intellectual disability. BRWS is caused by mutations in the ACTB and ACTG1 genes. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome (CFFS) is a clinically heterogeneous condition with distinct facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities. Three subtypes are identified. We report a female infant with striking facial features and brain anomalies (included polymicrogyria) that fit into the spectrum of the CFFS type 3 (CFFS3). She also had minor anomalies on her hands and feet, heart and kidney malformations, and recurrent infections. DNA investigations revealed c.586C>T mutation (p.Arg196Cys) in ACTB. This mutation places this patient in the spectrum of BRWS. The same mutation has been detected in a polymicrogyric patient reported previously in literature. We expand the malformation spectrum of BRWS/CFFS3, and present preliminary findings for phenotype-genotype correlation in this spectrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of narrative medicine in the management of joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Knight, Isobel

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is a hereditary connective tissue disorder affecting every bodily system. It is largely underdiagnosed by many practitioners, with the result of a considerable delay in diagnosis and, consequently, in the onset of adequate management schedule and treatment. Patients may also experience to be misbelieved, erroneously considered affected by a psychiatric or psychosomatic disorders, and rejected by the medical profession, which can lead to feelings of anger and resentment. Patient journeys are often long and complicated, but if doctors allowed the patient time to tell the full story, and were more prepared to think holistically, there may be a far more positive outcome. Here, the patients' perspective is presented with a narrative medicine approach, illustrating the tri-dimensional experience of a JHS/EDS-HT patient, who is also a Bowen Practitioner and a medical writer/educator. Narrative medicine would be invaluable in working with JHS/EDS-HT so that the patient can tell the story, and offer the practitioner a whole picture of her/his suffering and, often, the key for understanding the cause(s). Once this has been achieved, it might be possible to build upon a more positive and therapeutic dialogue which would result in better treatment and more effective management. It is also important for doctors to communicate with JHS/EDS-HT experts who will ultimately improve the patient journey and treatment outcomes of such a complex connective tissue disorder.

  9. [Target Molecule for a Demyelinating Type of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is classified into demyelinating type, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and axonal form, acute axonal motor neuropathy (AMAN). It has been clearly established that the target molecule for the former is a ganglioside. In contrast, despite years of effort, the target molecule for the latter has not been identified. Recently, molecules around the nodes of Ranvier have entered the spotlight, and "moesin" was reported to be a target molecule for cytomegalovirus associated-AIDP.

  10. Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 2: Novel UGT1A1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Karippoth Mohandas; Lohse, Peter; Nampoothiri, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 2 is a rare cause for persistent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Even though it is compatible with normal life span, in the absence of prompt suspicion and intensive management it can prove fatal not only in the neonatal period but also during adult life. Here, we describe a case with a novel homozygous UGT1A1 p.Pro176Leu mutation. PMID:23162302

  11. Lethal familial fetal akinesia sequence (FAS) with distinct neuropathological pattern: type III lissencephaly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Encha Razavi, F; Larroche, J C; Roume, J; Gonzales, M; Kondo, H C; Mulliez, N

    1996-03-01

    We report on a distinct pattern of primary central nervous system (CNS) degeneration affecting neuronal survival in the brain and spinal cord in 5 fetuses with fetal akinesia sequence (FAS). This neuropathological pattern is characteristic of a lethal entity that we propose calling type III lissencephaly syndrome. Parental consanguinity and the recurrence in sibs support a genetic cause. The mechanism of neuronal death is not yet understood; abnormal apoptosis and/or deficiency in neurotropic factors may be considered possible causes.

  12. A novel PAX3 mutation in a Japanese boy with Waardenburg syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yu; Doi, Rieko; Adachi, Kaori; Nanba, Eiji; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hair hypopigmentation, abnormal iris pigmentation, and congenital hearing loss. WS1 is caused by mutations in paired box gene 3 (PAX3). We identified a novel PAX3 mutation (c.1107 C>G, p.Ser369Arg) in a Japanese WS1 patient showing abnormal right iris pigmentation, right-sided congenital hearing loss, synophrys, incomplete left cleft lip, and cryptorchidism. PMID:27081571

  13. Different impacts of metabolic syndrome components on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chung-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the different impacts of MS components on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Methods. A number of subjects (144) who met the criteria of (1) age between 30 and 75 years, (2) had type 2 diabetes for more than one year, and (3) taking gliclazide and metformin for more than 6 months were enrolled. All subjects were assigned to one of the four HOMA index categories. The HOMA index quartile 4 denotes the highest insulin resistance. The main outcome evaluated is the odds ratios (ORs) of different MS components on HOMA index quartile 4. The characteristics in HOMA index quartiles and groups of nonmetabolic syndrome (NMS; number of components < 2), metabolic syndrome A (MSA; number of components = 2), and metabolic syndrome B (MSB; number of components > 2) were also evaluated. Results. The results showed that both MSA and MSB groups had higher ORs (5.9 and 13.8 times, resp.) than the NMS group; and that subjects with large waist circumference (LWC) and high triglyceride (HTG) level have higher ORs (6.1 and 2.6 times, resp.) in developing higher insulin resistance than normal control subjects. Conclusion. Type 2 diabetic patients with greater number of MS components have higher ORs in developing increased insulin resistance.

  14. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells benefits an animal model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

    PubMed

    Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Willing, Alison E; Desjarlais, Tammy; Davis Sanberg, Cyndy; Sanberg, Paul R

    2005-08-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B is caused by alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu) enzyme deficiency leading to an accumulation of undegraded heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Cell therapy is a promising new treatment and human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cell transplantation may be preferred for delivery of the missing enzyme. We investigated the ability of mononuclear hUCB cells administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle to ameliorate/prevent histopathological changes in mice modeling Sanfilippo syndrome type B. These are the first results supporting enzyme replacement by administered hUCB cells. In vivo, transplanted hUCB cells survived long-term (7 months), migrated into the parenchyma of the brain and peripheral organs, expressed neural antigens, and exhibited neuron and astrocyte-like morphology. Transplant benefits were also demonstrated by stable cytoarchitecture in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and by reduced GAGs in the livers of treated mutant mice. A hUCB cell transplant may be an effective therapeutic strategy for enzyme delivery in Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

  15. Clinical and molecular characterization of two patients with palmoplantar keratoderma-congenital alopecia syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Castori, M; Morlino, S; Sana, M E; Paradisi, M; Tadini, G; Angioni, A; Malacarne, M; Grammatico, P; Iascone, M; Forzano, F

    2016-08-01

    Palmoplantar keratoderma-congenital alopecia (PPKCA) syndrome is a rare genodermatosis, with two clinically recognizable forms: dominant (Type 1) and recessive (Type 2). Reports of only 18 patients have been published to date, and the molecular basis of the condition is unknown. We describe two cases with PPKCA Type 2 (PPKCA2), comprising a novel patient, originally reported as an example of autosomal ichthyosis follicularis-atrichia-photophobia syndrome, and the 6-year follow-up of a previously published case. Extensive molecular studies of both patients excluded mutations in all the known genes associated with PPK and partially overlapping syndromes. The striking similarities between these two patients confirm PPKCA2 as a discrete genodermatosis, of which the main features are congenital and universal alopecia, diffuse keratosis pilaris, facial erythema, and a specific PPK with predominant involvement of the fingertips and borders of the hands and feet, with evolution of sclerodactyly, contractures and constrictions. Clinical follow-up of these patients has demonstrated progressive worsening of the hand involvement and attenuation of facial erythema.

  16. Sasang constitutional types for the risk prediction of metabolic syndrome: a 14-year longitudinal prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Jong Yeol; Cho, Namhan; Shin, Chol

    2017-09-02

    To examine whether the use of Sasang constitutional (SC) types, such as Tae-yang (TY), Tae-eum (TE), So-yang (SY), and So-eum (SE) types, increases the accuracy of risk prediction for metabolic syndrome. From 2001 to 2014, 3529 individuals aged 40 to 69 years participated in a longitudinal prospective cohort. The Cox proportional hazard model was utilized to predict the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. During the 14 year follow-up, 1591 incident events of metabolic syndrome were observed. Individuals with TE type had higher body mass indexes and waist circumferences than individuals with SY and SE types. The risk of developing metabolic syndrome was the highest among individuals with the TE type, followed by the SY type and the SE type. When the prediction risk models for incident metabolic syndrome were compared, the area under the curve for the model using SC types was significantly increased to 0.8173. Significant predictors for incident metabolic syndrome were different according to the SC types. For individuals with the TE type, the significant predictors were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose level, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. For Individuals with the SE type, the predictors were sex, smoking, fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level, while the predictors in individuals with the SY type were age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, total cholesterol level, fasting glucose level, HDL cholesterol level, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride level. In this prospective cohort study among 3529 individuals, we observed that utilizing the SC types significantly increased the accuracy of the risk prediction for the development of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Aerobic and Strength Training in Concomitant Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Conrad P.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Swift, Damon L.; Gillison, Fiona B.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Lucia, Alejandro; Kramer, Kimberly; Lavie, Carl J.; Church, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Concomitant type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome exacerbates mortality risk; yet, few studies have examined the effect of combining (AER+RES) aerobic (AER) and resistance (RES) training for individuals with T2D and metabolic syndrome. Methods We examined AER, RES, and AER+RES training (9-months) commensurate with physical activity guidelines in individuals with T2D (N=262, 63% female, 44% black). Primary outcomes were change in, and prevalence of, metabolic syndrome score at follow-up (mean, 95%CI). Secondary outcomes included maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak and estimated METs from time-to-exhaustion (TTE), and exercise efficiency calculated as the slope of the line between ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation, and maximal fitness. General linear models and bootstrapped Spearman correlations were used to examine changes in metabolic syndrome associated with training primary and secondary outcome variables. Results We observed a significant decrease in metabolic syndrome scores (P-for-trend, 0.003) for AER (−0.59, 95%CI, −1.00, −0.21) and AER+RES (−0.79, 95%CI, −1.40, −0.35), both being significant (P < 0.02) vs. Control (0.26, 95%CI, −0.58, 0.40) and RES (−0.13, 95%CI, −1.00, 0.24). This lead to a reduction in metabolic syndrome prevalence for the AER (56% vs. 43%) and AER+RES (55% vs. 46%) groups between baseline and follow-up. The observed decrease in metabolic syndrome was mediated by significant improvements in exercise efficiency for the AER and AER+RES training groups (P<0.05), which was more strongly related to TTE (25–30%; r= −0.38; 95% CI: −0.55, −0.19) than VO2peak (5–6%; r= −0.24; 95% CI: −0.45, −0.01). Conclusion Aerobic and AER+RES training significantly improves metabolic syndrome scores and prevalence in patients with T2D. These improvements appear to be associated with improved exercise efficiency and are more strongly related to improved TTE versus VO2peak. PMID:24389523

  18. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  19. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  20. Combined tarsal and carpal tunnel syndrome in mucolipidosis type III. A case study and review.

    PubMed

    Smuts, Izelle; Potgieter, Denise; van der Westhuizen, Francois Hendrikus

    2009-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type III (MLIII) (MIM# 252600) is an uncommon autosomal recessive disorder that results from uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine: lysosomal hydrolase N-acetyl-1-phosphotransferase or UDP-GlcNAc 1-phosphotransferase deficiency. Clinical manifestations include developmental delay, short stature and other structural abnormalities. Less common clinical features, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, claw hand deformities, trigger fingers, and claw toes have previously been reported, but no specific association with tarsal tunnel syndrome has been reported in the literature. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by entrapment of the posterior tibialis nerve in the tunnel formed by the medial malleolus of the ankle and the flexor retinaculum. It causes pain in the heel and sole of the foot as well as abnormal sensation in the distribution area of nervus tibialis posterior. In adults, the most common cause described is a ganglion. The phenomenon is rare in children and the published series are small. This case report portrays the presentation of a young girl with breath-holding spells secondary to painful bilateral tarsal tunnel syndrome and trigger fingers subsequently diagnosed with MLIII.

  1. Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody type 1 (anti-Yo) autoimmunity in a child with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Philipps, Guillermo; Alisanski, Susan B; Pranzatelli, Michael; Clardy, Stacey L; Lennon, Vanda A; McKeon, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody type 1 (PCA-1)-IgG (or anti-Yo) is characteristically detected in women with gynecological or breast adenocarcinoma. We describe 2 unique scenarios occurring in 1 patient: PCA-1 paraneoplastic autoimmunity in a child, and a paraneoplastic neurological disorder in the context of Down syndrome. A child with Down syndrome and a history of adrenocortical carcinoma resected at age 1 year presented at age 7 years with cerebellar ataxia of subacute onset. Paraneoplastic serological and cerebrospinal fluid evaluations revealed PCA-1. Serological and biochemical studies also supported a diagnosis of subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. Extensive serum, urine, and radiological testing did not reveal a new or recurrent neoplasm. Neurological improvements after standard immunotherapy were lacking. Solid organ neoplasms are uncommon among patients with Down syndrome, but organ-specific autoimmune diseases are common. In our patient, Down syndrome-related impaired T regulatory lymphocyte function (previously reported) may have resulted in both enhanced immunity against an undetected solid neoplasm and paraneoplastic neurological (PCA-1) autoimmunity.

  2. Hybrid procedure for Poland syndrome associated with a Gerbode-type defect.

    PubMed

    Gan, Changping; Hu, Jia; Luo, Shuhua; An, Qi; Lin, Ke

    2014-11-01

    Poland syndrome and Gerbode-type defect are both very rare congenital malformations. A combination of them is extremely uncommon and no literature has reported this before. We herein present a case of this combination in a 9-year-old boy. Besides the reconstruction of the chest wall, a device closure of the Gerbode-type defect was also planned due to the risk of infective endocarditis. In order to minimize the injury, an innovative hybrid therapeutic strategy was chosen to treat two anomalies simultaneously in one incision. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  3. A Case of Carbonic Anhydrase Type 2 Deficiency Syndrome with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    KILIÇ, Birim Günay; UĞUR, Çağatay; SADAY DUMAN, Nagihan; AKÇAKIN, Melda

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic Anhydrase Type II Deficiency Syndrome (CADS) is a disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance that mainly includes characteristics of osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis and cerebral calcification. Pathological fractures, poor vision due to cranial nerve pressure, wide forehead, disproportionate mouth and jaw, physical and mental developmental delay are other features. In this paper, we present the case of a patient who was referred to our department with a diagnosis of CADS and diagnosed with autistic disorder after a psychiatric evaluation. We performed a detailed literature search, however, we did not find any report of co-existence of CADS (osteopetrosis intermediate type) and autistic disorder.

  4. Successful management of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 using single injection interscalene brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Summayah M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 of the upper limb is a painful and debilitating condition. Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) in conjugation with other modalities was shown to be a feasible therapy with variable success. We reported a case of CRPS type 1 as diagnosed by International Association for the Study of Pain criteria in which pharmacological approaches failed to achieve adequate pain relief and even were associated with progressive dysfunction of the upper extremity. Single injection ISB, in combination with physical therapy and botulinum toxin injection, was successful to alleviate pain with functional restoration. PMID:25422619

  5. Addison's disease in a patient with hypothyroidism: autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Bain, Anna; Stewart, Munro; Mwamure, Peter; Nirmalaraj, Kingsley

    2015-08-03

    A 57-year-old Caucasian woman with known autoimmune hypothyroidism diagnosed in 2006 presented to hospital with flu-like symptoms and circulatory collapse. She reported weight loss and gradual increase in her skin pigmentation over a 1-year period. Aggressive fluid resuscitation was instituted. Hormonal tests showed primary adrenal insufficiency. Appropriate steroid replacement was started with rapid clinical response. Subsequent antibody tests confirmed the diagnosis of autoimmune polyglandular type 2 (Schmidt's) syndrome. The adrenal crisis had been precipitated by influenza virus type B infection. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Type A aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome: extent of initial surgery determines long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Rylski, Bartosz; Bavaria, Joseph E; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Branchetti, Emanuela; Desai, Nimesh D; Milewski, Rita K; Szeto, Wilson Y; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth; Siepe, Matthias; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-04-01

    Data on outcomes after Stanford type A aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome are limited. We investigated the primary surgery and long-term results in patients with Marfan syndrome who suffered aortic dissection. Among 1324 consecutive patients with aortic dissection type A, 74 with Marfan syndrome (58% men; median age, 37 years [first and third quartiles, 29 and 48 years]) underwent surgical repair (85% acute dissections; 68% DeBakey I; 55% composite valved graft, 30% supracoronary ascending replacement, 15% valve-sparing aortic root replacement; 12% total arch replacement; 3% in-hospital mortality) at 2 tertiary centers in the United States and Europe over the past 25 years. The rate of aortic reintervention with resternotomy was 24% (18 of 74) and of descending aorta (thoracic+abdominal) intervention was 30% (22 of 74) at a median follow-up of 8.4 years (first and third quartiles, 2.2 and 12.7 years). Freedom from need for aortic root reoperation in patients who underwent primarily a composite valved graft or valve-sparing aortic root replacement procedure was 95±3%, 88±5%, and 79±5% and in patients who underwent supracoronary ascending replacement was 83±9%, 60±13%, 20±16% at 5, 10, and 20 years. Secondary aortic arch surgery was necessary only in patients with initial hemi-arch replacement. Emergency surgery for type A dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome is associated with low in-hospital mortality. Failure to extend the primary surgery to aortic root or arch repair leads to a highly complex clinical course. Aortic root replacement or repair is highly recommended because supracoronary ascending replacement is associated with a high need (>40%) for root reintervention.

  7. Math Learning Disability and Math LD Subtypes: Evidence from Studies of Turner Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether indicators of math learning disability were observed in 35 5- and 6-year-olds with either neurofibromatosis, Turner Syndrome, or fragile X syndrome and compared to controls. Findings indicate that girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome but not neurofibromatosis are significantly more likely to have specific math…

  8. Math Learning Disability and Math LD Subtypes: Evidence from Studies of Turner Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether indicators of math learning disability were observed in 35 5- and 6-year-olds with either neurofibromatosis, Turner Syndrome, or fragile X syndrome and compared to controls. Findings indicate that girls with fragile X or Turner syndrome but not neurofibromatosis are significantly more likely to have specific math…

  9. Joint position sense and vibratory perception sense in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III (hypermobility type).

    PubMed

    Rombaut, Lies; De Paepe, Anne; Malfait, Fransiska; Cools, Ann; Calders, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    Neurophysiological deficits could make patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type III (hypermobility type) more vulnerable to musculoskeletal problems, particularly to joint instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether joint position sense (JPS) and vibratory perception sense (VPS) in EDS type III patients in the knee and shoulder joints are impaired. Thirty-two female EDS type III patients as defined by the Villefranche criteria and 32 individually gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects were included in the study. Range of motion was determined using a goniometer, passive and active JPS were assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer system, and the VPS was measured by a biothesiometer. Daily physical activity was evaluated by the Baecke questionnaire. The EDS type III group showed significantly larger ranges of movement (P < 0.05) and lower levels of sport physical activity (SPA) compared to the control group (P = 0.023). Considering SPA as covariate, the EDS type III group demonstrated a significant impairment in knee joint reposition compared to the control group (P = 0.018). No significant differences were found for shoulder JPS. The VPS was not significantly different in the EDS type III group compared to the control group. In addition, no significant correlation was found between JPS and VPS, neither at the knee nor at the shoulder joint. This is the first study examining proprioception deficits in EDS type III patients as defined by the Villefranche criteria. Further research on the neurophysiological dysfunctions and mechanisms in this pathologic entity is needed.

  10. Wild-type microglia arrest pathology in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Derecki, Noël C; Cronk, James C; Lu, Zhenjie; Xu, Eric; Abbott, Stephen B G; Guyenet, Patrice G; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2012-03-18

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked autism spectrum disorder. The disease is characterized in most cases by mutation of the MECP2 gene, which encodes a methyl-CpG-binding protein. Although MECP2 is expressed in many tissues, the disease is generally attributed to a primary neuronal dysfunction. However, as shown recently, glia, specifically astrocytes, also contribute to Rett pathophysiology. Here we examine the role of another form of glia, microglia, in a murine model of Rett syndrome. Transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into irradiation-conditioned Mecp2-null hosts resulted in engraftment of brain parenchyma by bone-marrow-derived myeloid cells of microglial phenotype, and arrest of disease development. However, when cranial irradiation was blocked by lead shield, and microglial engraftment was prevented, disease was not arrested. Similarly, targeted expression of MECP2 in myeloid cells, driven by Lysm(cre) on an Mecp2-null background, markedly attenuated disease symptoms. Thus, through multiple approaches, wild-type Mecp2-expressing microglia within the context of an Mecp2-null male mouse arrested numerous facets of disease pathology: lifespan was increased, breathing patterns were normalized, apnoeas were reduced, body weight was increased to near that of wild type, and locomotor activity was improved. Mecp2(+/-) females also showed significant improvements as a result of wild-type microglial engraftment. These benefits mediated by wild-type microglia, however, were diminished when phagocytic activity was inhibited pharmacologically by using annexin V to block phosphatydilserine residues on apoptotic targets, thus preventing recognition and engulfment by tissue-resident phagocytes. These results suggest the importance of microglial phagocytic activity in Rett syndrome. Our data implicate microglia as major players in the pathophysiology of this devastating disorder, and suggest that bone marrow transplantation might offer a feasible therapeutic approach for it.

  11. Natural course of visual field loss in patients with Type 2 Usher syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Gerald A; Bozbeyoglu, Simge; Massof, Robert W; Kimberling, William

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the natural course of visual field loss in patients with Type 2 Usher syndrome and different patterns of visual field loss. Fifty-eight patients with Type 2 Usher syndrome who had at least three visual field measurements during a period of at least 3 years were studied. Kinetic visual fields measured on a standard calibrated Goldmann perimeter with II4e and V4e targets were analyzed. The visual field areas in both eyes were determined by planimetry with the use of a digitalizing tablet and computer software and expressed in square inches. The data for each visual field area measurement were transformed to a natural log unit. Using a mixed model regression analysis, values for the half-life of field loss (time during which half of the remaining field area is lost) were estimated. Three different patterns of visual field loss were identified, and the half-life time for each pattern of loss was calculated. Of the 58 patients, 11 were classified as having pattern type I, 12 with pattern type II, and 14 with pattern type III. Of 21 patients whose visual field loss was so advanced that they could not be classified, 15 showed only a small residual central field (Group A) and 6 showed a residual central field with a peripheral island (Group B). The average half-life times varied between 3.85 and 7.37 for the II4e test target and 4.59 to 6.42 for the V4e target. There was no statistically significant difference in the half-life times between the various patterns of field loss or for the test targets. The average half-life times for visual field loss in patients with Usher syndrome Type 2 were statistically similar among those patients with different patterns of visual field loss. These findings will be useful for counseling patients with Type 2 Usher syndrome as to their prognosis for anticipated visual field loss.

  12. Discovery of a Genetic Metabolic Cause for Mauriac Syndrome in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Michael J; Hasan, Noaman M; Ansari, Israr-Ul H; Longacre, Melissa J; Kendrick, Mindy A; Stoker, Scott W

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic cause for Mauriac syndrome, a syndrome of growth failure and delayed puberty associated with massive liver enlargement from glycogen deposition in children with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes, is unknown. We discovered a mutation in the catalytic subunit of liver glycogen phosphorylase kinase in a patient with Mauriac syndrome whose liver extended into his pelvis. Glycogen phosphorylase kinase activates glycogen phosphorylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in glycogen breakdown. We show that the mutant subunit acts in a dominant manner to completely inhibit glycogen phosphorylase kinase enzyme activity and that this interferes with glycogenolysis causing increased levels of glycogen in human liver cells. It is known that even normal blood glucose levels physiologically inhibit glycogen phosphorylase to diminish glucose release from the liver when glycogenolysis is not needed. The patient's mother possessed the same mutant glycogen phosphorylase kinase subunit, but did not have diabetes or hepatomegaly. His father had childhood type 1 diabetes in poor glycemic control, but lacked the mutation and had neither hepatomegaly nor growth failure. This case proves that the effect of a mutant enzyme of glycogen metabolism can combine with hyperglycemia to directly hyperinhibit glycogen phosphorylase, in turn blocking glycogenolysis causing the massive liver in Mauriac disease. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: similar behavior to sporadic type?

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Adriana; Correnti, Maria; Avila, Maira; Andea, Aleodor; DeVilliers, Patricia; Rivera, Helen

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of proliferative markers and p53 in keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) sporadic type and KCOT associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). We performed a cross-sectional study. A total of 19 patients with KCOT were selected from the Oral Pathology Laboratory archives, Central University of Venezuela, from 1995 to 2005. Twelve cases corresponded to sporadic KCOT, and seven cases were associated with NBCCS. Immunohistochemical analysis for p53, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Ki-67 was performed in all 19 cases. Of the seven cases associated with NBCCS, six (86%) were positive for PCNA. From the 12 sporadic cases, nine (75%) were positive for PCNA. Only one case of sporadic KCOT showed Ki-67 positivity. Five of 12 (42%) cases of sporadic KCOT were positive for p53, and only one (14%) case associated with NBCCS was positive for p53. On the basis of the analysis of the expression of PCNA, Ki-67, and p53, there appears to be no evidence to indicate higher aggressiveness in growth and infiltrative behavior in syndromic KCOT compared with the sporadic type. Therefore, surgical treatment may be approached in the same manner in KCOT sporadic and syndromic with the goal of minimizing recurrence. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Localization of two genes for Usher syndrome type I to chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.H.; Daiger, S.P. ); Jay, M.; Bird, A. ); Reardon, W. ); Guest, M. ); Kimberling, W.J.; Pelias, M.Z.; Keats, B.J.B.

    1992-12-01

    The Usher syndromes (USH) are autosomal recessive diseases characterized by congenital sensorineural hearing loss and progressive pigmentary retinopathy. While relatively rare in the general population, collectively they account for approximately 6% of the congenitally deaf population. Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been mapped to chromosome 1q, and one form of Usher syndrome type I (USH1) has been mapped to chromosome 14q. These loci have been excluded as regions of USH genes in this data set, which is composed of 8 French-Acadian USH1 families and 11 British USH1 families. Both of these sets of families show linkage to loci on chromosome 11. Linkage analysis demonstrates locus heterogeneity between these sets of families, with the French-Acadian families showing linkage to D11S419 (Z = 4.20, [theta] = 0) and the British families showing linkage to D11S527 (Z = 6.03, [theta] = 0). Genetic heterogeneity of the data set was confirmed using HOMOG and the M test (log likelihood ratio > 10[sup 5]). These results confirm the presence of two distinct USH1 loci on chromosome 11. 41 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. A Case of Acute Aortic Dissection Type B Associated with Cushing's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Petramala, Luigi; Cotesta, Dario; Sapienza, Paolo; Zinnamosca, Laura; Moroni, Enrico; di Marzio, Luca; De Toma, Giorgio; Letizia, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of a 63-year-old man, with a previous history of hypertension and glucose intolerance associated troncular obesity that was emergently admitted to our Institution for evaluation of a severe, constant posterior chest pain which radiated anteriorly and dyspnoea with a suspected diagnosis of acute aortic dissection. A CT scan of thorax and abdomen demonstrated a dissection starting just below left succlavian artery and extending downward to the left renal artery, involving the celiac tripod and superior mesenteric artery. The dissection was classified as Stanford B, De Bakey III. Moreover, CT scan of abdomen revealed incidentally a left adrenal tumor of 25 mm of diameter. An emergent prosthetic graft was placed just below the origin of the left succlavian artery up-to the diaphragmatic hiatus. Furthermore, a diagnostic evaluation of the mass revealed an increase of cortisol production, and a diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome was done and the patient underwent an adrenalectomy via laparotomic approach. We report an association of acute aortic dissection of acute aortic dissection type B associated to Cushing's syndrome. Keywords Cushing's syndrome; Adrenocortical adenoma; Aortic dissection type B PMID:22505966

  16. Sudden death in type 1 diabetes: the mystery of the 'dead in bed' syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tu, Emily; Twigg, Stephen M; Semsarian, Christopher

    2010-01-07

    Sudden cardiac death is an unpredictable and devastating event, particularly in the young. A significant proportion of sudden deaths in the young are unexplained-no cause is identified either during life or at post-mortem. This is seen in a subgroup of young patients with type 1 diabetes who have dead in bed syndrome, where these victims are in good health, retire to bed, only to be found dead the following morning in a bed which is undisturbed, suggesting no terminal struggle or seizure. The underlying cause of dead in bed syndrome remains unknown, but is likely to be due to a terminal malignant arrhythmia. A plausible hypothesis is that it may be secondary to QT interval prolongation (followed by a degenerate ventricular tachycardia), caused by a number of factors including acute hypoglycaemia, on a background of cardiac autonomic neuropathy, and possible genetic influences. It is envisaged that understanding the causes and triggers of dead in bed syndrome will allow appropriate therapeutic interventions to be initiated in high-risk patients with type 1 diabetes, with the ultimate goal to prevent sudden death.

  17. Changing epidemiology of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Chinese youth.

    PubMed

    Fu, JunFen; Prasad, Heranmaye C

    2014-01-01

    China is gradually taking its place as one of the world's economic giants and concurrently learning to understand how to bear the burdens of diseases that are more common in the fully developed world, such as pediatric obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this review is to consolidate the available information regarding these and draw the focus toward their sequential progression and increasing prevalence in Chinese children. Studies were collected in both English and Chinese, and the data were reviewed on the basis of disease prevalence and risk factors that are known from scientific literature that has been published to date. The majority of studies with appropriate content for inclusion here have been conducted within the last 15 years and up to date information from recent local and international research has also been included. Several factors have been implicated for the rise in obesity, most notably, the progressing economic expansion and exposure of local Chinese populations to Western influences. With this, metabolic syndrome has become a growing concern, as it is a precursor to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, leading to the alarmingly rapid development of deleterious consequences in children. The International Diabetes Federation proposed a definition for metabolic syndrome in 2007 (MS-IDF2007) worldwide, but whether it is also suitable for the Chinese population remains uncertain, so we have created the Chinese definition of metabolic syndrome upon the IDF framework. This MS-CHN2012 definition is based on multicenter studies to simplify and standardize primary care screening methods and is the first of its kind in China. Juvenile type 2 diabetes is the most worrisome result of obesity and metabolic syndrome, and studies have shown that the prevalence has doubled within 5 years-surpassing the prevalence of juvenile type 1 diabetes. Because of the extremely low number of studies currently published on these

  18. The Role of Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 in Nephrotic Syndrome-Associated Hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Haas, Mary E; Levenson, Amy E; Sun, Xiaowei; Liao, Wan-Hui; Rutkowski, Joseph M; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Schumacher, Valerie A; Scherer, Philipp E; Salant, David J; Biddinger, Sudha B

    2016-07-05

    In nephrotic syndrome, damage to the podocytes of the kidney produces severe hypercholesterolemia for which novel treatments are urgently needed. PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) has emerged as an important regulator of plasma cholesterol levels and therapeutic target. Here, we tested the role of PCSK9 in mediating the hypercholesterolemia of nephrotic syndrome. PCSK9 and plasma lipids were studied in nephrotic syndrome patients before and after remission of disease, mice with genetic ablation of the podocyte (Podocyte Apoptosis Through Targeted Activation of Caspase-8, Pod-ATTAC mice) and mice treated with nephrotoxic serum (NTS), which triggers immune-mediated podocyte damage. In addition, mice with hepatic deletion of Pcsk9 were treated with NTS to determine the contribution of PCSK9 to the dyslipidemia of nephrotic syndrome. Patients with nephrotic syndrome showed a decrease in plasma cholesterol and plasma PCSK9 on remission of their disease (P<0.05, n=47-50). Conversely, Pod-ATTAC mice and NTS-treated mice showed hypercholesterolemia and a 7- to 24-fold induction in plasma PCSK9. The induction of plasma PCSK9 appeared to be attributable to increased secretion of PCSK9 from the hepatocyte coupled with decreased clearance. Interestingly, knockout of Pcsk9ameliorated the effects of NTS on plasma lipids. Thus, in the presence of NTS, mice lacking hepatic Pcsk9 showed a 40% to 50% decrease in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Moreover, the ability of NTS treatment to increase the percentage of low-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol (from 9% in vehicle-treated Flox mice to 47% after NTS treatment), was lost in mice with hepatic deletion of Pcsk9 (5% in both the presence and absence of NTS). Podocyte damage triggers marked inductions in plasma PCSK9, and knockout of Pcsk9 ameliorates dyslipidemia in a mouse model of nephrotic syndrome. These data suggest that PCSK9 inhibitors may be beneficial in patients with nephrotic syndrome

  19. Hypocretin Deficiency Associated with Narcolepsy Type 1 and Central Hypoventilation Syndrome in Neurosarcoidosis of the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Mary Catherine; Deng, Jane C.; Albores, Jeffrey; Zeidler, Michelle; Harper, Ronald M.; Avidan, Alon Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 53-year-old man presenting with depressed alertness and severe excessive sleepiness in the setting of neurosarcoidosis. Neuroimaging demonstrated hypothalamic destruction due to sarcoidosis with a CSF hypocretin level of 0 pg/mL. The patient also experienced respiratory depression that presumably resulted from hypocretin-mediated hypothalamic dysfunction as a result of extensive diencephalic injury. This is a novel case, demonstrating both hypocretin deficiency syndrome, as well as respiratory dysfunction from destruction of hypocretin neurons and extensive destruction of key diencephalic structures secondary to the underlying neurosarcoidosis. Citation: May MC, Deng JC, Albores J, Zeidler M, Harper RM, Avidan AY. Hypocretin deficiency associated with narcolepsy type 1 and central hypoventilation syndrome in neurosarcoidosis of the hypothalamus. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(9):1063–1065. PMID:25979096

  20. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Type VIII: A Rare Cause of Leg Ulcers in Young Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Antoine; Piérard, Gérald E.; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; De Paepe, Anne; Dupuy, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIII (EDS-VIII) is a very rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by early-onset periodontitis associated with features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. We report a 32-year-old man whose chronic leg ulcer led to the diagnosis of EDS-VIII. He had severe periodontitis with complete loss of permanent teeth and skin fragility with thin skin, atrophic scars, and brownish atrophic pretibial plaques. Leg ulcer is not a prominent feature of EDS-VIII. We suggest adding EDS-VIII to the list of rare diseases accounting for chronic leg ulcers, if this case report prompts others to report leg ulcers associated with EDS-VIII. PMID:24198978

  1. [Familial case of oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD 1)].

    PubMed

    Miklaszewska, Monika; Zachwieja, Katarzyna; Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Drozdz, Dorota; Fijak-Moskal, Jolanta; Gergont, Aleksandra; Kowalska-Duplaga, Kinga; Cieszkowska, Marta; Pacia-Medrek, Bernadetta; Pietrzyk, Jacek A

    2014-01-01

    Ciliopathies are phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that share ciliary dysfunction as a common pathological mechanism. Ciliary dysfunction results in a broad range of malformations including renal, hepatic and pancreatic cysts, visceral abnormalities, retinal degeneration, anosmia, cerebellar or other brain anomalies, polydactyly, bronchiectasis and infertility. The paper presents a familial case of oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 in 14 year old girl suspected to polycystic kidney disease. Molecular testing in daughters of known OFD1 mutation carriers and mothers of affected daughters seems to be reasonable. Not each case of policystic kidney disease which looks like autosomal dominant policystic kiedney disease is actually the above disease. The insight into the pathogenesis of ciliopathies is mandatory for understanding these combined congenital anomaly syndromes of seemingly unrelated symptoms of hepatorenal and pancreatic fibrocystic disease. Close interdisciplinary approach is mandatory in terms of efficient and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in patients presenting with ciliopathies.

  2. The subtle signs of Wolfram (DIDMOAD) syndrome: not all juvenile diabetes is type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, Claudia; Brosig, Burkhard; Zimmer, Klaus P; Wudy, Stefan A

    2011-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (also known as DIDMOAD = diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the association of childhood non-immune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM) with progressive bilateral optic atrophy. Additional symptoms including signs of severe neurodegeneration and psychiatric illness are likely to evolve over time resulting in premature death. We report on two siblings of Turkish origin from our diabetes clinic who were diagnosed with Wolfram syndrome after 6 years and 2 years duration of DM, respectively. Subtle symptoms such as attitude changes, growing reading difficulties in the history of children or adolescents with antibody negative and ketone negative DM should alert the treating physician and lead to re-evaluation of the diagnosis, keeping in mind that not all juvenile DM is type 1 DM.

  3. Anesthetic management of a parturient with type III Klippel-Feil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hsu, G; Manabat, E; Huffnagle, S; Huffnagle, H J

    2011-01-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome is believed to occur from failure of normal segmentation of cervical somites during gestation. We present the case of a 38-year-old primiparous woman with type III Klippel-Feil syndrome for elective cesarean delivery. Our patient had a short webbed neck, short stature, limited neck flexion and extension, and thoraco-lumbar abnormalities. A multidisciplinary approach, involving obstetrics, medical subspecialties, anesthesiology, otolaryngology, and radiology, were utilized to evaluate and manage this patient. Pulmonary function testing revealed a restrictive defect, but transthoracic echocardiography was normal without pulmonary hypertension. We planned a combined spinal-epidural technique; however, only the epidural technique was obtained. Cesarean delivery was commenced with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Post-operative pain management was provided with intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia.

  4. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Anthony; Bernstein, Richard K; Dahlqvist, Annika; Draznin, Boris; Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J; Gleed, Amy; Jacobs, David B; Larson, Gabriel; Lustig, Robert H; Manninen, Anssi H; McFarlane, Samy I; Morrison, Katharine; Nielsen, Jørgen Vesti; Ravnskov, Uffe; Roth, Karl S; Silvestre, Ricardo; Sowers, James R; Sundberg, Ralf; Volek, Jeff S; Westman, Eric C; Wood, Richard J; Wortman, Jay; Vernon, Mary C

    2008-01-01

    Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome. PMID:18397522

  5. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient with hepatitis B induced type 1 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayanan, Vishwanath; Razak, Abdul; Narayan, Girish; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Ramachandran, Balasubramanian; Ranjini, Kudva; Vidya, Monappa; Joshi, Kusum

    2010-12-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome and corticosteroid therapy. Here, we discuss an 18 year old man with type 1 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) secondary to hepatitis B infection who developed posterior leukoencephalopathy while on therapy with lamivudine and prednisone. He developed seizures and vision loss. He also had hypertension, but no sudden elevation was recorded at any time. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed patchy areas of altered signal intensity involving cortical gray and subcortical white matter in the bilateral frontoparietal regions, occipital cortices, temporal cortices and cerebellar hemispheres, and hyperintensity on T2W and FLAIR sequences. Tapering of prednisone and controlling hypertension resulted in clinical improvement within a few days, and in a month MRI was normal. Diagnosing PRES requires a high index of suspicion when treating similarly susceptible patients. PRES as a complication during the treatment of MPGN secondary to hepatitis B has, to our knowledge, never been reported previously in the literature.

  6. Three cases of type-1 complex regional pain syndrome after elective total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Gerardo; Slullitel, Pablo Ariel; Comba, Fernando Martín; Buttaro, Martín Alejandro; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) constitutes an atypical cause of pain after orthopaedic procedures. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of literature reporting this syndrome after total hip arthroplasty (THR), since only two case reports have been published. We thenceforth describe the clinical outcome of three cases of type-1 CRPS developed after elective THR, two of them initially diagnosed with secondary osteoarthritis whereas the remaining one presented a sequel of a failed osteosynthesis that required conversion to THR. Remission of disease was found at an average seven months (range: 4–9). Medical treatment involved a combined therapy of pain management, bisphosphonates and intense physical therapy. One patient was additionally treated with a corticosteroid blockade of his right sympathetic lumbar ganglia. None of the patients required surgical treatment. At final follow-up, physical examinations and imaging were negative for disease. PMID:28862131

  7. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI: is C5orf42 really the major gene?

    PubMed

    Romani, Marta; Mancini, Francesca; Micalizzi, Alessia; Poretti, Andrea; Miccinilli, Elide; Accorsi, Patrizia; Avola, Emanuela; Bertini, Enrico; Borgatti, Renato; Romaniello, Romina; Ceylaner, Serdar; Coppola, Giangennaro; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Giordano, Lucio; Janecke, Andreas R; Lituania, Mario; Ludwig, Kathrin; Martorell, Loreto; Mazza, Tommaso; Odent, Sylvie; Pinelli, Lorenzo; Poo, Pilar; Santucci, Margherita; Signorini, Sabrina; Simonati, Alessandro; Spiegel, Ronen; Stanzial, Franco; Steinlin, Maja; Tabarki, Brahim; Wolf, Nicole I; Zibordi, Federica; Boltshauser, Eugen; Valente, Enza Maria

    2015-01-01

    Oral-facial-digital type VI syndrome (OFDVI) is a rare phenotype of Joubert syndrome (JS). Recently, C5orf42 was suggested as the major OFDVI gene, being mutated in 9 of 11 families (82 %). We sequenced C5orf42 in 313 JS probands and identified mutations in 28 (8.9 %), most with a phenotype of pure JS. Only 2 out of 17 OFDVI patients (11.7 %) were mutated. A comparison of mutated vs. non-mutated OFDVI patients showed that preaxial and mesoaxial polydactyly, hypothalamic hamartoma and other congenital defects may predict C5orf42 mutations, while tongue hamartomas are more common in negative patients.

  8. [Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 in the intensive coronary care unit of the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza].

    PubMed

    Preza, Paul M; Hurtado, Abdías; Armas, Victoria; Cárcamo, César P

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the incidence of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) type 1 in a coronary care unit and its association with hospital mortality within 30 days of admission, as well as other epidemiological characteristics. The medical records of all the patients who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute heart failure in a 4-year period were reviewed. CRS type 1 was characterized by the presence of acute heart failure and an elevation of serum creatinine ≥0.3mg/dL in comparison to the baseline creatinine calculated by the MDRD75 equation and/or the elevation of ≥50% of the admission serum creatinine within a 48 h period. The incidence of CRS type 1 was 27.87%, 95% CI: 20.13-36.71 (34 of 122). There was a higher frequency of CRS type 1 in those patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of cardiogenic shock (adjusted RR 2.02, 95% CI: 1.20-3.93, p=0.0378) and in those with higher hemoglobin levels (p=0.0412). The CRS type 1 was associated with an increase of 30-day mortality (HR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.20-14.09, p=0.0244). The incidence of CRS type 1 in the coronary care unit found in our study is similar to those found in foreign studies. The history of stroke and the higher values of hemoglobin were associated with a higher incidence of cardiorenal syndrome type 1. Patients with CRS type 1 had a higher hospital mortality within 30 days of admission. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Effector mechanisms of the autoimmune syndrome in the murine model of Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type

    PubMed Central

    DeVoss, Jason J.; Shum, Anthony K.; Johannes, Kellsey P.A.; Lu, Wen; Krawisz, Anna K.; Wang, Peter; Yang, Ting; LeClair, Norbert P.; Austin, Cecilia; Strauss, Erich C.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the Autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene result in a clinical phenomenon known as Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type I (APS1), which classically manifests as a triad of adrenal insufficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and chronic mucocutaneous infections. In addition to this triad, a number of other autoimmune diseases have been observed in APS1 patients including Sjögren's syndrome, vitiligo, alopecia, uveitis, and others. Aire-deficient mice, the animal model for APS1, have highlighted the role of the thymus in the disease process and demonstrated a failure in central tolerance in aire-deficient mice. However, autoantibodies have been observed against multiple organs in both mice and humans, making it unclear what the specific role of B and T cells are in the pathogenesis of disease. Utilizing the aire-deficient mouse as a preclinical model for APS1, we have investigated the relative contribution of specific lymphocyte populations, with the goal of identifying the cell populations which may be targeted for rational therapeutic design. Here we show that T cells are indispensable to the breakdown of self-tolerance, in contrast to B cells which play a more limited role in autoimmunity. Th1 polarized CD4+ T cells, in particular, are major contributors to the autoimmune response. With this knowledge, we go on to utilize therapies targeted at T cells to investigate their ability to modulate disease in vivo. Depletion of CD4+ T cells using a neutralizing antibody ameliorated the disease process. Thus, therapies targeted specifically at the CD4+ T cell subset may help control autoimmune disease in patients with APS1. PMID:18768863

  10. Refining patterns of joint hypermobility, habitus, and orthopedic traits in joint hypermobility syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Morlino, Silvia; Dordoni, Chiara; Sperduti, Isabella; Venturini, Marina; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Colombi, Marina; Castori, Marco

    2017-03-07

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) are two overlapping heritable disorders (JHS/EDS-HT) recognized by separated sets of diagnostic criteria and still lack a confirmatory test. This descriptive research was aimed at better characterizing the clinical phenotype of JHS/EDS-HT with focus on available diagnostic criteria, and in order to propose novel features and assessment strategies. One hundred and eighty-nine (163 females, 26 males; age: 2-73 years) patients from two Italian reference centers were investigated for Beighton score, range of motion in 21 additional joints, rate and sites of dislocations and sprains, recurrent soft-tissue injuries, tendon and muscle ruptures, body mass index, arm span/height ratio, wrist and thumb signs, and 12 additional orthopedic features. Rough rates were compared by age, sex, and handedness with a series of parametric and non-parametric tools. Multiple correspondence analysis was carried out for possible co-segregations of features. Beighton score and hypermobility at other joints were influenced by age at diagnosis. Rate and sites of joint instability complications did not vary according to age at diagnosis except for soft-tissue injuries. No major difference was registered by sex and dominant versus non-dominant body side. At multiple correspondence analysis, selected features tend to co-segregate in a dichotomous distribution. Dolichostenomelia and arachnodactyly segregated independently. This study pointed out a more protean musculoskeletal phenotype than previously considered according to available diagnostic criteria for JHS/EDS-HT. Our findings corroborated the need for a re-thinking of JHS/EDS-HT on clinical grounds in order to find better therapeutic and research strategies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Unexpected association between joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Massimo; Celletti, Claudia; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Mastroeni, Simona; Castori, Marco; Biondi, Massimo; Camerota, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) is a largely unrecognized, heritable connective tissue disorder, mainly characterized by joint instability complications, widespread musculoskeletal pain, and minor skin features. In a case-control study, 47 consecutive JHS/EDS-HT patients were investigated for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and compared to 45 healthy controls in a single center. The psychiatric evaluation consisted of structured clinical interview for DSM-IV criteria by using the SCID-I and the SCID-II. Symptom severity was assessed using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). The Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) was used to assess the overall severity of psychological, social, and occupational functions. JHS/EDS-HT patients had significantly higher mean scores for all questionnaires: HAM-A (6.7 vs. 3.8), HAM-D (6.4 vs. 2.7), GAF (75.0 vs. 86.1), and BPRS (27.5 vs. 25.6). The JHS/EDS-HT group had a 4.3 higher risk of being affected by any psychiatric disorder, and in particular, a 5.8 higher risk of having a personality disorder. In particular, 5 JHS/EDS-HT suffered from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder with an observed prevalence rate of 10.6 % (3.6-23.1). Psychiatric assessment of JHS/EDS-HT patients showed an extremely high prevalence of personality disorders (21 %), and of Axis-I disorders (38 %), mostly depressive. This study did not confirm the previously reported increased rate of panic disorders in JHS/EDS-HT.

  12. Transcriptome-Wide Expression Profiling in Skin Fibroblasts of Patients with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Nicola; Carini, Giulia; Zoppi, Nicoletta; Dordoni, Chiara; Ritelli, Marco; Venturini, Marina; Castori, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers–Danlos syndrome hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is likely the most common systemic heritable connective tissue disorder, and is mostly recognized by generalized joint hypermobility, joint instability complications, minor skin changes and a wide range of satellite features. JHS/EDS-HT is considered an autosomal dominant trait but is still without a defined molecular basis. The absence of (a) causative gene(s) for JHS/EDS-HT is likely attributable to marked genetic heterogeneity and/or interaction of multiple loci. In order to help in deciphering such a complex molecular background, we carried out a comprehensive immunofluorescence analysis and gene expression profiling in cultured skin fibroblasts from five women affected with JHS/EDS-HT. Protein study revealed disarray of several matrix structural components such as fibrillins, tenascins, elastin, collagens, fibronectin, and their integrin receptors. Transcriptome analysis indicated perturbation of different signaling cascades that are required for homeostatic regulation either during development or in adult tissues as well as altered expression of several genes involved in maintenance of extracellular matrix architecture and homeostasis (e.g., SPON2, TGM2, MMP16, GPC4, SULF1), cell-cell adhesion (e.g., CDH2, CHD10, PCDH9, CLDN11, FLG, DSP), immune/inflammatory/pain responses (e.g., CFD, AQP9, COLEC12, KCNQ5, PRLR), and essential for redox balance (e.g., ADH1C, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, MAOB, GSTM5). Our findings provide a picture of the gene expression profile and dysregulated pathways in JHS/EDS-HT skin fibroblasts that correlate well with the systemic phenotype of the patients. PMID:27518164

  13. Spectrum of mucocutaneous manifestations in 277 patients with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Dordoni, Chiara; Morlino, Silvia; Sperduti, Isabella; Ritelli, Marco; Valiante, Michele; Chiarelli, Nicola; Zanca, Arianna; Celletti, Claudia; Venturini, Marina; Camerota, Filippo; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Grammatico, Paola; Colombi, Marina

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous manifestations are a diagnostic criterion of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (EDS-HT) and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS). These two conditions, originally considered different disorders, are now accepted as clinically indistinguishable and often segregate as a single-familial trait. EDS-HT and JHS are still exclusion diagnoses not supported by any specific laboratory test. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis is, therefore, crucial for appropriate patients' classification and management, but it is actually hampered by the low consistency of many applied criteria including the cutaneous one. We report on mucocutaneous findings in 277 patients with JHS/EDS-HT with both sexes and various ages. Sixteen objective and five anamnestic items were selected and ascertained in two specialized outpatient clinics. Feature rates were compared by sex and age by a series of statistical tools. Data were also used for a multivariate correspondence analysis with the attempt to identify non-causal associations of features depicting recognizable phenotypic clusters. Our findings identified a few differences between sexes and thus indicated an attenuated sexual dimorphism for mucocutaneous features in JHS/EDS-HT. Ten features showed significantly distinct rates at different ages and this evidence corroborated the concept of an evolving phenotype in JHS/EDS-HT also affecting the skin. Multivariate correspondence analysis identified three relatively discrete phenotypic profiles, which may represent the cutaneous counterparts of the three disease phases previously proposed for JHS/EDS-HT. These findings could be used for revising the cutaneous criterion in a future consensus for the clinical diagnosis of JHS/EDS-HT.

  14. Dural ectasia in individuals with Marfan-like features but exclusion of mutations in the genes FBN1, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2.

    PubMed

    Sheikhzadeh, S; Rybczynski, M; Habermann, C R; Bernhardt, A M J; Arslan-Kirchner, M; Keyser, B; Kaemmerer, H; Mir, T S; Staebler, A; Oezdal, N; Robinson, P N; Berger, J; Meinertz, T; von Kodolitsch, Y

    2011-06-01

    Mutations in the genes FBN1, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2 can result in heritable connective tissue disorders comprising the Marfan syndrome and the Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Dural ectasia is a characteristic manifestation of both syndromes. However, dural ectasia has not yet been investigated in connective tissue disorders that are unrelated to mutations in the FBN1, TGFBR1 or TGFBR2 genes. Here, we assessed dural ectasia in 33 individuals both with typical manifestations of heritable connective tissue disease and in whom mutations in all three genes had been excluded. We identified 19 individuals with dural ectasia (58%), who exhibited major skeletal manifestations of the Marfan syndrome more frequently than the remaining 14 persons without dural ectasia (p = 0.06). Moreover, only persons with dural ectasia fulfilled clinical criteria of the Marfan syndrome (p = 0.01). Conversely, aortic aneurysm (12 patients; p = 0.8), aortic dissection (five patients; p = 0.1), spontaneous dissection of the carotid arteries (five patients; p = 1), and mitral valve prolapse (13 patients; p = 0.4) were similarly frequent irrespective of dural ectasia. We conclude that dural ectasia is a marker for connective tissue disease which coincides with skeletal rather than with cardiovascular manifestations, and which may involve currently uncharacterized pathogenetic mechanisms and syndromes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Mutation screening of the PCDH15 gene in Spanish patients with Usher syndrome type I

    PubMed Central

    Jaijo, Teresa; Oshima, Aki; Aller, Elena; Carney, Carol; Usami, Shin-ichi; Kimberling, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose PCDH15 codes for protocadherin-15, a cell-cell adhesion protein essential in the morphogenesis and cohesion of stereocilia bundles and in the function or preservation of photoreceptor cells. Mutations in the PCDH15 gene are responsible for Usher syndrome type I (USH1F) and non-syndromic hearing loss (DFNB23). The purpose of this work was to perform PCDH15 mutation screening to identify the genetic cause of the disease in a cohort of Spanish patients with Usher syndrome type I and establish phenotype-genotype correlation. Methods Mutation analysis of PCDH15 included additional exons recently identified and was performed by direct sequencing. The screening was performed in 19 probands with USH already screened for mutations in the most prevalent USH1 genes, myosin VIIA (MYO7A) and cadherin-23 (CDH23), and for copy number variants in PCDH15. Results Seven different point mutations, five novel, were detected. Including the large PCDH15 rearrangements previously reported in our cohort of patients, a total of seven of 19 patients (36.8%) were carriers of at least one pathogenic allele. Thirteen out of the 38 screened alleles carried pathogenic PCDH15 variants (34.2%). Conclusions Five out of the seven point mutations reported in the present study are novel, supporting the idea that most PCDH15 mutations are private. Furthermore, no mutational hotspots have been identified. In most patients, detected mutations led to a truncated protein, reinforcing the hypothesis that severe mutations cause the Usher I phenotype and that missense variants are mainly responsible for non-syndromic hearing impairment. PMID:22815625

  16. Human USP18 deficiency underlies type 1 interferonopathy leading to severe pseudo-TORCH syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oudesluijs, Grétel; Li, Zhi; Heijsman, Daphne; Hermann, Mark; Willemsen, Rob; Brouwer, Rutger W.W.; Bertoli Avella, Aida; Prinz, Marco; Crow, Yanick J.; Verheijen, Frans W.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudo-TORCH syndrome (PTS) is characterized by microcephaly, enlarged ventricles, cerebral calcification, and, occasionally, by systemic features at birth resembling the sequelae of congenital infection but in the absence of an infectious agent. Genetic defects resulting in activation of type 1 interferon (IFN) responses have been documented to cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, which is a cause of PTS. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (USP18) is a key negative regulator of type I IFN signaling. In this study, we identified loss-of-function recessive mutations of USP18 in five PTS patients from two unrelated families. Ex vivo brain autopsy material demonstrated innate immune inflammation with calcification and polymicrogyria. In vitro, patient fibroblasts displayed severely enhanced IFN-induced inflammation, which was completely rescued by lentiviral transduction of USP18. These findings add USP18 deficiency to the list of genetic disorders collectively termed type I interferonopathies. Moreover, USP18 deficiency represents the first genetic disorder of PTS caused by dysregulation of the response to type I IFNs. Therapeutically, this places USP18 as a promising target not only for genetic but also acquired IFN-mediated CNS disorders. PMID:27325888

  17. Orthostatic Intolerance and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: Neurovegetative Dysregulation or Autonomic Failure?

    PubMed

    Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Censi, Federica; Gioffrè, Laura; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Strano, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background. Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a hereditary connective tissue disorder mainly characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, skin texture abnormalities, and visceral and vascular dysfunctions, also comprising symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. This study aims to further evaluate cardiovascular autonomic involvement in JHS/EDS-HT by a battery of functional tests. Methods. The response to cardiovascular reflex tests comprising deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, 30/15 ratio, handgrip test, and head-up tilt test was studied in 35 JHS/EDS-HT adults. Heart rate and blood pressure variability was also investigated by spectral analysis in comparison to age and sex healthy matched group. Results. Valsalva ratio was normal in all patients, but 37.2% of them were not able to finish the test. At tilt, 48.6% patients showed postural orthostatic tachycardia, 31.4% orthostatic intolerance, 20% normal results. Only one patient had orthostatic hypotension. Spectral analysis showed significant higher baroreflex sensitivity values at rest compared to controls. Conclusions. This study confirms the abnormal cardiovascular autonomic profile in adults with JHS/EDS-HT and found the higher baroreflex sensitivity as a potential disease marker and clue for future research.

  18. Orthostatic Intolerance and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: Neurovegetative Dysregulation or Autonomic Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Castori, Marco; Censi, Federica; Gioffrè, Laura; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Strano, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background. Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a hereditary connective tissue disorder mainly characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, skin texture abnormalities, and visceral and vascular dysfunctions, also comprising symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. This study aims to further evaluate cardiovascular autonomic involvement in JHS/EDS-HT by a battery of functional tests. Methods. The response to cardiovascular reflex tests comprising deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, 30/15 ratio, handgrip test, and head-up tilt test was studied in 35 JHS/EDS-HT adults. Heart rate and blood pressure variability was also investigated by spectral analysis in comparison to age and sex healthy matched group. Results. Valsalva ratio was normal in all patients, but 37.2% of them were not able to finish the test. At tilt, 48.6% patients showed postural orthostatic tachycardia, 31.4% orthostatic intolerance, 20% normal results. Only one patient had orthostatic hypotension. Spectral analysis showed significant higher baroreflex sensitivity values at rest compared to controls. Conclusions. This study confirms the abnormal cardiovascular autonomic profile in adults with JHS/EDS-HT and found the higher baroreflex sensitivity as a potential disease marker and clue for future research. PMID:28286774

  19. Candidate regions for Waardenburg syndrome type II: Search for a second WS locus

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, W.E.; Pandya, A.; Blanton, S.H.

    1994-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by deafness and pigmentary abnormalities such as heterochromia of irides, hypopigmented skin patches, white forlock and premature graying. Clinically the syndrome has been classified into three types. Type II differs from type I in that dystopia canthorum is generally absent, and type III has associated limb anomalies. Recently linkage analysis localized the gene for WSI to chromosome 2q. PAX-3, which is a human analogue of the murine pax-3 locus, maps to this region and mutations in this gene have been found to segregate with WSI. However genetic heterogeneity clearly exists: most if not all WSII families are unlinked to PAX-3 while most if not all WSI cases are linked. We ascertained a four-year-old female child with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 13 who had features of WS including bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss, pale blue irides and pinched nostrils as well as hypertelorism microcephaly, bilateral eyelid ptosis, digitalization of thumbs and fifth finger clinodactyly. High resolution chromosomal analysis revealed a de novo interstitial deletion of 13q22-33.2. There was no family history of WS or retardation. A similar deletion in the region of 13q21-32 has been described in a 13-year-old boy with features of WSII. These two cases strongly suggested that this chromosomal region may include a second locus for WS. We have identified eight families with clinical features of WS type I which have been excluded from linkage to the PAX-3 locus. We have typed these families for microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 13. Linkage between WSII and the chromosome 13 markers was excluded in these families. Hirschsprung disease has been associated with WS and it has recently been mapped to chromosome 10q11.2-q21.1. We are currently typing the 8 families for microsatellites in this region.

  20. Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence following an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Gerard J; Randall, Gemma; Wikman, Anna; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship among Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in patients with coronary heart disease. The study design was prospective and observational. Type D personality, self-efficacy for illness management behaviors, and medication adherence were measured 3 weeks after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome in 165 patients (mean [standard deviation] age = 61.62 [10.61] years, 16% women). Self-reported medication adherence was measured 6 months later in 118 of these patients. Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses were used to address the study research questions. Using the original categorical classification, 30% of patients with acute coronary syndrome were classified as having Type D personality. Categorically defined patients with Type D personality had significantly poorer medication adherence at 6 months (r = -0.29, p < .01). Negative affectivity (NA; r = -0.25, p = .01) and social inhibition (r = -0.19, p = .04), the components of Type D personality, were associated with medication adherence 6 months after discharge in bivariate analyses. There was no evidence for the interaction of NA and social inhibition, that is, Type D personality, in the prediction of medication adherence 6 months after discharge in multivariate analysis. The observed association between NA and medication adherence 6 months after discharge could be partly explained by indirect effects through self-efficacy in mediation analysis (coefficient = -0.012; 95% bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval = -0.036 to -0.001). The present data suggest the primacy of NA over the Type D personality construct in predicting medication adherence. Lower levels of self-efficacy may be a mediator between higher levels of NA and poor adherence to medication in patients with coronary heart disease.

  1. Metabolic syndrome as a predictor of type 2 diabetes, and its clinical interpretations and usefulness.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lim, Sun-Young; Ha, Hee-Sung; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Lee, Won-Chul; Kang, Moo-Il; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Son, Ho-Young

    2013-07-08

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity with insulin resistance as the source of pathogenesis. Although several different combinations of criteria have been used to define metabolic syndrome, a recently published consensus recommends the use of ethnic-specific criteria, including waist circumference as an indicator of central obesity, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as indicators of dyslipidemia, and blood pressure greater than 130/85 mmHg. The definition of dysglycemia, and whether central obesity and insulin resistance are essential components remain controversial. Regardless of the definition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in Western and Asian countries, particularly in developing areas undergoing rapid socioenvironmental changes. Numerous clinical trials have shown that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus and all-cause mortality. Therefore, metabolic syndrome might be useful as a practical tool to predict these two major metabolic disorders. Comprehensive management of risk factors is very important to the improvement of personal and public health. However, recent studies have focused on the role metabolic syndrome plays as a risk factor for CVD; its importance in the prediction of incident diabetes is frequently overlooked. In the present review, we summarize the known evidence supporting metabolic syndrome as a predictor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD. Additionally, we suggest how metabolic syndrome might be useful in clinical practice, especially for the prediction of diabetes.

  2. [Developmental characteristics of various types of hand bones of Poland's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wu, F S; Tian, W; Zhao, J H; Ma, W; Guo, Y; Yin, Y B

    2016-07-01

    To explore development status in different types of the hand bone and its developmental characteristics with Poland syndrome. There were 32 cases with Poland's syndrome who accepted bilateral hand X-ray examination in Department of Hand Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from February 2013 to August 2014.There were 24 male and 8 female patients aged from 1.0 to 15.0 years with median age of 2.4 years. Right hand deformity was 23 cases and left hand deformity was 9 cases. According to Tanner-Whitehouse skeletal age scoring system, 20 bones (radius and ulna, 7 carpal bones, 11 metacarpal and phalangeal bones) selected from the affected and contralateral limb respectively, were evaluated. Besides, hand deformity of the cases was classified into 5 types based on relevant literature. Each bone was given an individual age using the references of Greulich-Pyle chart. The average of all individual ages was taken as gross bone age, the average of individual ages of radius and ulna was taken as bone age of long bones, the average of individual ages of carpal bone was taken as bone age of carpal bones, and the average of individual age of metacarpal and phalangeal bones was taken as bone age of short bones.The delay of bone age was evaluated by correlation test, while the curve of cubic equation was used for analyzing the variance of skeletal development with age. The delay of long bone age of patients with Poland's syndrome in this study were 0-1.9 years ((0.5±0.5) years), 0-2.2 years ((0.7±0.5)years) for carpal bone, 0.5-2.0 years((0.6±0.4) years)for short bone and 0.1-1.7 years((0.6±0.4)years) for gross bone.Twelve cases in type Ⅱ hand deformity, 15 cases in type Ⅲ and 5 cases in type Ⅳ. The delay of bone ages, including long bone age, carpal bone age, short bone age and gross bone age, was not related with gender and side(all P>0.05), but related with degree of deformity(F=3.663-12.971, P=0.000-0.038). Compared with normal upper limb, the bone age in the

  3. Correlation Between the Type of Acute Coronary Syndrome With the Needs of Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Polikandrioti, Maria; Goudevenos, John; Michalis, Lampros K.; Koutelekos, Ioannis; Georgiadi, Elpida; Karakostas, Kostas; Elisaf, Moses

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) comprise life-threatening health problems that demand emergency care and immediate intervention. As patients are abruptly transitioning from healthy state into suffering, they consequently experience several needs, mainly attributed to the type of the syndrome including the therapeutic regimen. Objectives: To access the correlation between the type of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the needs of hospitalized patients. Methods: A sample of 454 hospitalized patients with ACS, recruited from 4 hospitals in Greece, was enrolled in the study. Data were collected by the completion of questionnaire which apart from socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, it also included the questionnaire “Needs of hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease” which is consisted 6 subscales: a) need for support and guidance, b) need for information from the medical-nursing staff, c) need for being in contact with other patient groups and ensuring communication with relatives, d) need for individualized treatment and for the patient’s personal participation to his/her treatment e) need to meet the emotional and physical needs f) need to trust the medical-nursing staff. Statistical methods used were Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, chi2 test of independence, Kruskal wallis-test and multiple regression. Results: The type of ACS was statistically significant correlated with the place of residence (p=0.002), management of disease (p<0.001) and prior experience of hospitalization (p=0.003). All six needs were statistically significantly correlated with the type of ACS, (p<0.001 for the need for support and guidance, p<0.001 for the need to be informed from the medical and nursing staff, p<0.001 for the need for being in contact with other patient groups, and ensuring communication with relatives, p<0.001 for the need for individualized treatment and for the patient’s personal participation to his/her treatment, p<0.001 for the need

  4. An unfortunate challenge: Ketogenic diet for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in tyrosinemia type 1.

    PubMed

    De Lucia, Silvana; Pichard, Samia; Ilea, Adina; Greneche, Marie-Odile; François, Laurent; Delanoë, Catherine; Schiff, Manuel; Auvin, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    The ketogenic diet is an evidence-based treatment for resistant epilepsy including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. This diet is based on low carbohydrate-high fat intakes. Dietary treatment is also therapeutic for inborn errors of metabolism such as aminoacdiopathies. We report a child with both Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and tyrosinemia type 1. This epilepsy syndrome resulted form a porencephalic cyst secondary to brain abscesses that occurred during the management of malnutrition due to untreated tyrosinemia type 1. We used a ketogenic diet as treatment for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome taking into account dietary requirements for tyrosinemia type 1. The patient was transiently responder during a 6-month period. This report illustrates that ketogenic diet remains a therapeutic option even when additional dietary requirements are needed.

  5. The association of Chiari type III malformation and Klippel-Feil syndrome with mirror movement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Erol, Fatih Serhat; Ucler, Necati; Yakar, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    Basically Chiari type III malformation is a combination of encephalocele with of brain stem and cerebellar abnormality. Although Klippel-Feil syndrome may be associated with other congenital anomalies, this syndrome is mainly associated with varying degrees of cervical vertebral fusion anomalies. In this study, we reported the association of Chiari type III malformation and Klippel-Feil syndrome with the mirror movement by imaging studies. The main involvement in Chiari type III malformation and Klippel-Feil syndrome is in the craniocervical junction. In such a small area, the emergence of these complex pathologies in our case was remarkable. Our patient had reconstruction surgery of the posterior fossa and his encephalocele was excised successfully. Hydrocephaly and/or deterioration in the functions of other posterior fossa structures have not been seen in the patient's follow-up.

  6. Type 1/type 2 cytokine serum levels and role of interleukin-18 in children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Sherein A; Al-Edressi, Howaida M; El-Tarhouny, Shereen A; Fath El-Bab, Mohamed; Zolaly, Mohamed A

    2013-05-01

    In view of the conflicting evidence of helper T cell type 1 (Th1) or type 2 (Th2) pattern of cytokine synthesis in steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), this study aimed to assess type-1/type-2 cytokines level in different stages of SSNS and to evaluate the role of IL-18. We prospectively studied thirty children with SSNS, aged 2-12 years. The children were evaluated in the active stage before treatment initiation and re-evaluated again during remission while still on steroid treatment. A subgroup of children (21/30) was also evaluated during remission after steroid withdrawal. The control group included 30 healthy age- and sex-matched siblings. Serum levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, ΙL-4, IL-13 and IL-18 were measured by ELISA. IL-2 levels were not significantly different between children in different stages of SSNS and controls (p>0.05). Levels of IL-4, IL-13 and IL-18 were significantly higher during the active stage of SSNS compared to remission and controls (p<0.05). Serum IFN-γ was significantly lower in children with active disease compared to remission stages and controls (p<0.05). In children with SSNS, serum levels of IL-18 correlated significantly with both IL-4 and IL-13 during all stages (r=0.72 and p<0.0001, r=0.82 and p<0.0001, respectively). Children with active SSNS seem to have a shift to type-2 cytokine production, and IL-18 expression is significantly correlated with this type-2 immune response.

  7. Griscelli syndrome types 1 and 3: analysis of four new cases and long-term evaluation of previously diagnosed patients.

    PubMed

    Cağdaş, Deniz; Ozgür, Tuba Turul; Asal, Gülten Türkkanı; Tezcan, Ilhan; Metin, Ayşe; Lambert, Nathalie; de Saint Basile, Geneiveve; Sanal, Ozden

    2012-10-01

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by partial albinism. Three different types are caused by defects in three different genes. Patients with GS type 1 have primary central nervous system dysfunction, type 2 patients commonly develop hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and type 3 patients have only partial albinism. While hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is life saving in type 2, no specific therapy is required for types 1 and 3. Patients with GS types 1 and 3 are very rare. To date, only 2 patients with type 3 and about 20 GS type 1 patients, including the patients described as Elejalde syndrome, have been reported. The neurological deficits in Elejalde syndrome were reported as severe neurodevelopmental delay, seizures, hypotonia, and ophthalmological problems including nystagmus, diplopia, and retinal problems. However, none of these patients' clinical progresses were reported. We described here our two new type 1 and two type 3 patients along with the progresses of our previously diagnosed patients with GS types 1 and 3. Our previous patient with GS type I is alive at age 21 without any other problems except severe mental and motor retardation, patients with type 3 are healthy at ages 21 and 24 years having only pigmentary dilution; silvery gray hair, eye brows, and eyelashes. Since prognosis, treatment options, and genetic counseling markedly differ among different types, molecular characterization has utmost importance in GS.

  8. Laparoscopic Treatment of Type III Mirizzi Syndrome by T-Tube Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yetışır, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, H. Zafer; Polat, Yılmaz; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Aygar, Muhittin; Ciftciler, A. Erdinc; Parlak, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann's pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct. We would like to report laparoscopic treatment of type III MS. A 75-year-old man was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain and jaundice. The patient was accepted as MS type III according to radiological imaging and intraoperative view. Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy, extraction of impacted stone by opening anterior surface of dilated cystic duct and choledochus, and repair of this opening by using the remaining part of gallbladder over the T-tube drainage were performed in a patient with type III MS. Application of reinforcement suture over stump was done in light of the checking with oliclinomel N4 injection trough the T-tube. At the 18-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests. PMID:27293947

  9. Wolfram Syndrome: a rare optic neuropathy in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bucca, Brian C; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Bennett, Jeffrey L

    2011-11-01

    Wolfram Syndrome (WS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder that causes non-autoimmune type 1 diabetes. The etiology involves a single gene mutation of the wolframin protein inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in selected cell types with resultant diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and sensory-neural deafness. Symptoms are initially absent and signs within the posterior segment of the eye are usually the earliest indicator of WS.These cases characterize unusual and poorly described findings of pigmentary maculopathy in WS and illustrate the importance of collaboration between diabetes and eye care providers; especially in cases of non-autoimmune type 1 diabetes exhibiting atypical human leukocyte-associated antigen haplotypes.

  10. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-02-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure.

  11. Spontaneous Carotid-Cavernous Fistula in the Type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Gyun; Cho, Won-Sang; Kim, Jeong Eun

    2014-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective disease. Among several subgroups, type IV EDS is frequently associated with spontaneous catastrophic bleeding from a vascular fragility. We report on a case of carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) in a patient with type IV EDS. A 46-year-old female presented with an ophthalmoplegia and chemosis in the right eye. Subsequently, seizure and cerebral infarction with micro-bleeds occurred. CCF was completely occluded with transvenous coil embolization without complications. Thereafter, the patient was completely recovered. Transvenous coil embolization can be a good treatment of choice for spontaneous CCF with type IV EDS. However, every caution should be kept during invasive procedure. PMID:24653803

  12. Induced pluripotent stem cells as a model for telomeric abnormalities in ICF type I syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sagie, Shira; Ellran, Erika; Katzir, Hagar; Shaked, Rony; Yehezkel, Shiran; Laevsky, Ilana; Ghanayim, Alaa; Geiger, Dan; Tzukerman, Maty; Selig, Sara

    2014-07-15

    Human telomeric regions are packaged as constitutive heterochromatin, characterized by extensive subtelomeric DNA methylation and specific histone modifications. ICF (immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, facial anomalies) type I patients carry mutations in DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) that methylates de novo repetitive sequences during early embryonic development. ICF type I patient fibroblasts display hypomethylated subtelomeres, abnormally short telomeres and premature senescence. In order to study the molecular mechanism by which the failure to de novo methylate subtelomeres results in accelerated telomere shortening, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from 3 ICF type I patients. Telomeres were elongated in ICF-iPSCs during reprogramming, and the senescence phenotype was abolished despite sustained subtelomeric hypomethylation and high TERRA levels. Fibroblast-like cells (FLs) isolated from differentiated ICF-iPSCs maintained abnormally high TERRA levels, and telomeres in these cells shortened at an accelerated rate, leading to early senescence, thus recapitulating the telomeric phenotype of the parental fibroblasts. These findings demonstrate that the abnormal telomere phenotype associated with subtelomeric hypomethylation is overridden in cells expressing telomerase, therefore excluding telomerase inhibition by TERRA as a central mechanism responsible for telomere shortening in ICF syndrome. The data in the current study lend support to the use of ICF-iPSCs for modeling of phenotypic and molecular defects in ICF syndrome and for unraveling the mechanism whereby subtelomeric hypomethylation is linked to accelerated telomeric loss in this syndrome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome by coronal Z-type lengthening of the transverse carpal ligament.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Huang, Fei; Hou, Chunlin

    2011-11-01

    To compare the effects of coronal Z-type lengthening of transverse carpal ligament with conventional open approach for carpal tunnel syndrome. A double-blinded study was conducted from January 2005 to August 2008 on 68 patients with a mean age of 41 years (range 27-55 years) diagnosed as severe carpal tunnel syndrome. They were randomized into two groups(A and B). Patients in group A underwent coronal Z-type lengthening of transverse carpal ligament; and patients in group B had conventional open approach surgery. Postoperative evaluation was scheduled at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the surgery and incidence rate of bowstring of the flexor tendons, improvement of grip strength and ADL activities of daily living) score were recorded. Fifty-eight patients had been followed up successfully, 30 and 28 for group A and B respectively. The Scar Tissue Formation of the flexor tendons in group B was observed more than that in group A at 6 and 12 month after operation. Improvement of grip strength were observed in two groups, which was statistically different between 6 and 12 months after operation and no significant difference was seen between 1 and 3 months after operation. According to ADL, the satisfaction rates documented on form for patients were statistically different in the two groups at 6 and 12 months after operation and no difference was noted at 1 and 3 months after operation. Excellent improvement of function and satisfaction were achieved by Coronal Z-type reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum for severe carpal tunnel syndrome. Our method offers a more effective alternative method for conventional carpal tunnel open decompression surgery.

  14. Prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in women with type 2 diabetes in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Nahid

    2008-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic anovulation and hypergonadism that affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Patients with this syndrome are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in future. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of PCOS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. One hundred consecutive women under 45 years of age with type 2 diabetes treated with diet or hypoglycemic drugs, referring to Kerman Diabetic Center, Kerman, Iran, in 2005 were identified. Patients with galactorrhea or history of thyroid dysfunction were excluded from the study. Data were collected through questionnaire-based interviews and were then analyzed. Ninety two women, of which 18 (19.5%) had clinical symptoms of PCOS, enrolled in the study. The mean age of subjects was 38.8 +/- 5.9 years. We found no significant relation between PCOS and familial type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.19 +/- 4.44 kg/m(2) in patients with PCOS and 26.06 +/- 3.83 kg/m(2) in non-PCOS patients (p = 0.043). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher among PCOS patients than non-PCOS patients (38.9% vs. 14.8%, p = 0.011). In our study, abdominal obesity was more among type 2 diabetic women with PCOS. Therefore, central or abdominal obesity might be considered as an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes in women with PCOS.

  15. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Chong; Yu, Lu-Gang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Rong

    2015-05-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the serious public health problems worldwide. Moreover, it is estimated that MetS patients have about five-fold greater risk of the T2DM development compared with people without the syndrome. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors which play an important role in the pathogenesis of MetS and T2DM. All three members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear receptor subfamily, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ are critical in regulating insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. Recently, more and more studies indicated that the gene polymorphism of PPARs, such as Leu(162)Val and Val(227)Ala of PPARα, +294T > C of PPARβ/δ, Pro(12)Ala and C1431T of PPARγ, are significantly associated with the onset and progressing of MetS and T2DM in different population worldwide. Furthermore, a large body of evidence demonstrated that the glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were influenced by gene-gene interaction among PPARs genes. However, given the complexity pathogenesis of metabolic disease, it is unlikely that genetic variation of a single locus would provide an adequate explanation of inter-individual differences which results in diverse clinical syndromes. Thus, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions associated with T2DM and MetS need future comprehensive studies.

  16. Scintigraphic portrayal of the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Yobbagy, J.J.; Levatter, R.; Sisson, J.C.; Shulkin, B.L.; Polley, T.

    1988-06-01

    The scintigraphic appearance of the neoplasms in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN-2B) and the interpretations of the image patterns are described. An 18-year-old male patient with the MEN-2B syndrome underwent TI-201 imaging that showed concentrations of TI-201 in the primary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) tumor and in cervical lymph node metastases. After total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, the TI-201 image was normal. Catecholamine levels in the blood and urine were only borderline elevated. Yet, greater than normal concentrations of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) were present in both adrenal glands. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed normal adrenal glands. These results were consistent with the diagnosis of adrenal medullary hyperplasia, a precursor of pheochromocytoma. No operation was indicated to remove the adrenal glands. Imaging with TI-201 appears to be useful in identifying sites of MTC in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome. I-131 MIBG imaging, in conjunction with computed tomography of the adrenal glands and appropriate catecholamine measurements, should be performed in patients with the MEN-2B syndrome to determine the status of the adrenal medullae, which then may be classified as normal, hyperplastic, or tumorous with pheochromocytoma.

  17. A multiparametric computational algorithm for comprehensive assessment of genetic mutations in mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (Sanfilippo syndrome).

    PubMed

    Ugrinov, Krastyu G; Freed, Stefan D; Thomas, Clayton L; Lee, Shaun W

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS-IIIA, Sanfilippo syndrome) is a Lysosomal Storage Disease caused by cellular deficiency of N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase (SGSH). Given the large heterogeneity of genetic mutations responsible for the disease, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms by which these mutations affect enzyme function is needed to guide effective therapies. We developed a multiparametric computational algorithm to assess how patient genetic mutations in SGSH affect overall enzyme biogenesis, stability, and function. 107 patient mutations for the SGSH gene were obtained from the Human Gene Mutation Database representing all of the clinical mutations documented for Sanfilippo syndrome. We assessed each mutation individually using ten distinct parameters to give a comprehensive predictive score of the stability and misfolding capacity of the SGSH enzyme resulting from each of these mutations. The predictive score generated by our multiparametric algorithm yielded a standardized quantitative assessment of the severity of a given SGSH genetic mutation toward overall enzyme activity. Application of our algorithm has identified SGSH mutations in which enzymatic malfunction of the gene product is specifically due to impairments in protein folding. These scores provide an assessment of the degree to which a particular mutation could be treated using approaches such as chaperone therapies. Our multiparametric protein biogenesis algorithm advances a key understanding in the overall biochemical mechanism underlying Sanfilippo syndrome. Importantly, the design of our multiparametric algorithm can be tailored to many other diseases of genetic heterogeneity for which protein misfolding phenotypes may constitute a major component of disease manifestation.

  18. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) with multiple vascular complications misdiagnosed as Dubowitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dieks, Jana-Katharina; Baumer, Alessandra; Wilichowski, Ekkehard; Rauch, Anita; Sigler, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    To date, the genetic basis of Dubowitz syndrome (short stature, microcephaly, facial abnormalities, eczema) is unknown and vascular complications are not known to be associated with this syndrome. In microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II; disproportionate short statue, microcephaly, facial abnormalities), however, cerebral aneurysms and other vascular abnormalities are frequent complications. MOPD II is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene (21q22). We report on a patient who came to our attention as a 22-year-old with subarachnoid bleeding due to a ruptured cranial aneurysm. Until then, the patient was thought and published to have Dubowitz syndrome; previously, he was treated with coronary bypass surgery for extensive coronary angiopathy. Consecutive genetic testing revealed MOPD II. After clinical stabilization, the patient was discharged to a specialized rehabilitation center where he died due to re-rupture of a cranial aneurysm. In patients with short stature-especially when clinical features are accompanied by vascular complications-MOPD II should be considered as a differential diagnosis leading to consecutive genetic testing. After detection of mutations in the PCNT gene, a full vascular status including cerebral imaging and cardiac evaluation needs to be determined in order to analyze vascular abnormalities and initiate prophylactic treatment.

  19. Clinical expression in Pfeiffer syndrome type 2 and 3: surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hiroshi; Suga, Naohiro; Nakamoto, Takato; Tanaka, Koichi; Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-10-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is a classic type of craniosynostosis syndrome. Severe cases usually require emergency care at birth. However, early diagnosis is often precluded by the rarity and consequent low awareness of this disease. This study aimed to clarify phenotypic expressions useful for the diagnosis of PS. We reviewed all cases of PS type 2 or 3 according to Cohen's classification that were reported between 1980 and 2011 in Japan. Clinical and genetic information were extracted from the patients' medical records. A total of 23 patients with PS type 2 or 3 were identified. All 23 patients presented with craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, proptosis, broad thumbs, and wide great toes. FGFR2 mutations were confirmed in all 8 patients in whom genetic analyses were performed. In addition to classic symptoms, elbow ankylosis and sacrococcygeal defects were present in 70% and 30% of the patients, respectively. During an average follow-up of 22 months, 22% of patients died before 1 year of age. Elbow ankylosis and sacrococcygeal defects were the phenotypic features recognizable at a glance. These defects strongly suggest the presence of PS in newborns with craniosynostosis.

  20. Clinical variability of type 1 neurofibromatosis: is there a neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Stern, H J; Saal, H M; Lee, J S; Fain, P R; Goldgar, D E; Rosenbaum, K N; Barker, D F

    1992-01-01

    Detailed clinical, ophthalmological, and molecular studies were performed on a multigeneration family in which there were many subjects with type 1 neurofibromatosis, a common autosomal dominant disorder. Affected family members displayed a wide range of clinical findings including, in two subjects, features seen in Noonan syndrome (triangular facies, downward slanting palpebral fissures, micrognathia, short stature, and learning disability). Subjects have been described previously whose features have overlapped with neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome, and it has been suggested that these persons might represent a separate condition. DNA haplotype analysis showed linkage of the neurofibromatosis phenotype seen in this family to the proximal long arm of chromosome 17 in the region where the type 1 neurofibromatosis gene has been mapped. These results imply that the Noonan phenotype seen in some patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis might be the result of variable or variant expression of the neurofibromatosis gene on chromosome 17. The possible role of non-specific factors, such as fetal hypotonia, in producing the neurofibromatosis-Noonan phenotype needs further investigation. The availability of closely linked and intragenic molecular markers for neurofibromatosis could potentially be useful in the diagnosis and characterisation of patients and families with atypical forms of neurofibromatosis. Images PMID:1348094

  1. [Vascular and/or cardiac manifestations of type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. 9 cases].

    PubMed

    de Wazières, B; Coppere, B; Durieu, I; Fest, T; Ninet, J; Levrat, R; Vuitton, D A; Dupond, J L

    1995-10-14

    Type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, a rare disease caused by abnormal synthesis of type III collagen, often leads to vascular fragility. We report 9 cases (6 men and 3 women, mean age 35 years). For 7 of the patients, the inaugural signs were arterial complications including haemoperitoneum in 2 patients with multiple aneurysmal dystrophy of the abdominal arteries, one case of ruptured subclavian artery, two dissections of the renal artery, one case with rupture of a cerebral aneurysm, one rupture of the mesenteric artery and a haematoma after arterial puncture. Other vascular manifestations were acrosyndrome (n = 4), varicose veins (n = 3), and prolapsus of the mitral valve (n = 2). In addition, 8 of the 9 patients presented extravascular signs. There was a history of familial disease in 5 cases. Pregnancy was completed to term in three patients: a cesarean section was required in one case and intra-uterine growth retardation was seen in 2. Morbidity was important with hemiparesia, blindness and paraparesis sequellae. One patient died from haemorrhage. This series of patients with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome illustrates the severity of this disease whose prevalence is often underestimated. The disease is transmitted by autosomal dominant inheritance, underscoring the importance of familial testing for early diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware of the vascular manifestations and avoid invasive punctures or operations except in exceptional indications.

  2. Fenofibrate for cardiovascular disease prevention in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Steiner, George

    2008-12-22

    Clinical guidelines highlight the importance of managing atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia to reduce the risk of premature cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. The lipid-modifying activity of fenofibrate, as demonstrated in clinical studies, indicates its effectiveness in treating dyslipidemia characteristic of these conditions. Fenofibrate also has a favorable impact on a number of nonlipid residual risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. In patients with type 2 diabetes, fenofibrate is effective in reducing the progression of coronary artery disease, as demonstrated by the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study (DAIS). In the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study, the primary end point (major coronary events) was not significantly reduced by fenofibrate treatment. However, other findings from this study suggest that fenofibrate reduces cardiovascular risk. Both DAIS and the FIELD study also indicate that fenofibrate may offer additional vascular benefits, specifically affecting the progression of diabetes-related microvascular disease.

  3. The alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen induces autoimmune Goodpasture syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, R; Gattone, V H; Noelken, M E; Hudson, B G

    1994-01-01

    Human Goodpasture syndrome is a lethal form of autoimmune disease that is characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. The tissue injury is mediated by autoantibodies that bind to glomerular and alveolar basement membrane. The target autoantigen is alpha 3(IV) collagen, one of six genetically distinct chains that comprise type IV collagen, and the epitope is sublocalized to the noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the alpha 3 chain. The present study reports the unique capacity of alpha 3(IV)NC1 dimer from bovine kidney to aberrantly engage the immune system of rabbits to respond to self, mimicking the organ-specific form of the human disease, whereas the other chains of type IV collagen are nonpathogenic. However, alpha 3(IV)NC1 hexamer was nonpathogenic, suggesting the exposure of a pathogenic epitope upon dissociation of hexamer into dimers. Exposure of the pathogenic epitope by infection or organic solvents, events which are thought to precede Goodpasture syndrome, may be the principal factor in the etiology of the disease. The pathogenicity of alpha 3(IV) collagen brings full circle a decade of research that has identified four novel chains (alpha 3-alpha 6) of type IV collagen. Images PMID:8016138

  4. The alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen induces autoimmune Goodpasture syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, R; Gattone, V H; Noelken, M E; Hudson, B G

    1994-06-21

    Human Goodpasture syndrome is a lethal form of autoimmune disease that is characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. The tissue injury is mediated by autoantibodies that bind to glomerular and alveolar basement membrane. The target autoantigen is alpha 3(IV) collagen, one of six genetically distinct chains that comprise type IV collagen, and the epitope is sublocalized to the noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the alpha 3 chain. The present study reports the unique capacity of alpha 3(IV)NC1 dimer from bovine kidney to aberrantly engage the immune system of rabbits to respond to self, mimicking the organ-specific form of the human disease, whereas the other chains of type IV collagen are nonpathogenic. However, alpha 3(IV)NC1 hexamer was nonpathogenic, suggesting the exposure of a pathogenic epitope upon dissociation of hexamer into dimers. Exposure of the pathogenic epitope by infection or organic solvents, events which are thought to precede Goodpasture syndrome, may be the principal factor in the etiology of the disease. The pathogenicity of alpha 3(IV) collagen brings full circle a decade of research that has identified four novel chains (alpha 3-alpha 6) of type IV collagen.

  5. Associations of vitamin D with insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2016-09-20

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of vitamin D with diabetes, insulin resistance obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Intra cellular vitamin D receptors and the 1-α hydroxylase enzyme are distributed ubiquitously in all tissues suggesting a multitude of functions of vitamin D. It plays an indirect but an important role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as reflected by its association with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, insulin secretion, insulin resistance, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and obesity. Peer-reviewed papers, related to the topic were extracted using key words, from PubMed, Medline, and other research databases. Correlations of vitamin D with diabetes, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome were examined for this evidence-based review. In addition to the well-studied musculoskeletal effects, vitamin D decreases the insulin resistance, severity of T2D, prediabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Vitamin D exerts autocrine and paracrine effects such as direct intra-cellular effects via its receptors and the local production of 1,25(OH)2D3, especially in muscle and pancreatic β-cells. It also regulates calcium homeostasis and calcium flux through cell membranes, and activation of a cascade of key enzymes and cofactors associated with metabolic pathways. Cross-sectional, observational, and ecological studies reported inverse correlations between vitamin D status with hyperglycemia and glycemic control in patients with T2D, decrease the rate of conversion of prediabetes to diabetes, and obesity. However, no firm conclusions can be drawn from current studies, because (A) studies were underpowered; (B) few were designed for glycemic outcomes, (C) the minimum (or median) serum 25(OH) D levels achieved are not measured or reported; (D) most did not report the use of diabetes medications; (E) some trials used too little (F) others used too large, unphysiological and infrequent doses of vitamin D; and (G

  6. Surgical treatment of scoliosis in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome type 2: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bounakis, Nikolaos; Karampalis, Christos; Sharp, Hilary; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2015-01-18

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting in congenital craniofacial deformities, and divided into types 1 and 2. Scoliosis has not been reported as one of the extra-cranial manifestations of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome type 2. We present a 14-year-old British Caucasian girl with Rubinstein-Taybi type 2 syndrome who developed a severe double thoracic scoliosis measuring 39° and 68° respectively. Her scoliosis was associated with thoracic hypokyphosis, causing a marked reduction in the anteroposterior diameter of her chest and consequent severe restrictive lung disease. The deformity was noted by her local pediatrician as part of a chest infection assessment when she was aged 13 years, and gradually progressed as the result of spinal growth. Our patient underwent a posterior spinal arthrodesis using a single concave pedicle hook and screw rod construct and locally harvested autologous graft supplemented by allograft bone. This spinal fixation technique was selected because of our patient's low body weight to avoid prominence of the instrumentation causing skin healing problems and pain. Her scoliosis was corrected to 18° and 30° and we achieved a balanced spine in the coronal and sagittal planes. An underarm spinal jacket was provided for six months after surgery. During her latest follow-up at skeletal maturity, our patient had an excellent cosmetic outcome with no loss of deformity correction or detected pseudoarthrosis and a normal level of activities. Scoliosis can develop in young children with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome type 2, with the deformity deteriorating around the pubertal growth spurt. Surgical treatment can correct the deformity, balance the spine and prevent mechanical back pain. It can also stabilize the chest area and avoid respiratory complications developing as the scoliosis progresses, which can result in severe restrictive pulmonary disease. The use of single concave instrumentation is indicated in very slim

  7. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome type II: A rare case.

    PubMed

    Pai, Anand; Shakir, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) is a malformation complex comprising absent vagina and absent or rudimentary uterus. MRKH syndrome may be attributed to an initial affection of the intermediate mesoderm consequently leading (by the end of the 4(th) week of fetal life) to an alteration of the blastema of the cervicothoracicsomites and the pronephricducts. These latter subsequently induce the differentiation of the mesonephric and then the Wolffian and Mullerian ducts. There are very sparse such cases reported. We present a case of type II MRKH or Mullerian renal cervical somite association (i.e., Mullerian duct aplasia, renal dysplasia, and cervical somite anomalies).

  8. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome type II: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Anand; Shakir, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) is a malformation complex comprising absent vagina and absent or rudimentary uterus. MRKH syndrome may be attributed to an initial affection of the intermediate mesoderm consequently leading (by the end of the 4th week of fetal life) to an alteration of the blastema of the cervicothoracicsomites and the pronephricducts. These latter subsequently induce the differentiation of the mesonephric and then the Wolffian and Mullerian ducts. There are very sparse such cases reported. We present a case of type II MRKH or Mullerian renal cervical somite association (i.e., Mullerian duct aplasia, renal dysplasia, and cervical somite anomalies). PMID:23901207

  9. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Is a Type I Interferon Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Daniela; Zillinger, Thomas; Muth, Doreen; Zielecki, Florian; Horvath, Gabor; Suliman, Tasnim; Barchet, Winfried; Weber, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory infection with as yet unclear epidemiology. We previously showed that MERS-CoV counteracts parts of the innate immune response in human bronchiolar cells. Here we analyzed accessory proteins 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 for their abilities to inhibit the type I interferon response. Accessory protein 4a was found to block interferon induction at the level of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) activation presumably by direct interaction with double-stranded RNA. PMID:24027320

  10. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 complicated by mineralocorticoid-responsive hyponatremia of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Okamoto, Seiko; Kunimatsu, Junwa

    2010-09-15

    We experienced the first case with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive hypothyroidism and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-positive diabetes) complicated by mineralocorticoid-responsive hyponatremia of the elderly. This case is also a rare slowly progressive insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM) case, for which the patient has been treated for many years with sulfonylurea or glinide. Our observation also demonstrated that glucose metabolism in autoimmune diabetes such as SPIDDM is influenced by appetite, thyroid function and glucocorticoid effect.

  11. Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome effectively treated with modified Atkins diet.

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Edda; Karall, Daniela; Jud, Veronika; Baumgartner, Sara Sigl; Zotter, Sibylle; Rostasy, Kevin; Baumann, Matthias; Scholl-Buergi, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    This is a report on the successful treatment of a 6-year-old girl with genetically proven glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) with modified Atkins diet (MAD). GLUT1-DS is an inborn disorder of glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier, which leads to energy deficiency of the brain with a broad spectrum of neurological symptoms including therapy-resistant epilepsy. Usually classical ketogenic diet (KD) is the standard treatment for patients with GLUT1-DS. Treatment with MAD, a variant of KD, for an observation period of 17 months resulted in improvement of seizures, alertness, cognitive abilities, and electroencephalography in this patient.

  12. [Sjögren syndrome associated with renal tubular acidosis type I].

    PubMed

    Górriz, L; Molino, R; Arjona, D; Estripeaut, D

    2000-01-01

    Primary Sjögren's Syndrome complicated with a renal tubular acidosis type 1 and hypocalcemic paralysis, as the principal clinical manifestation, is uncommon. Although the initial manifestations of the nephropathy are not well understood, it is believed that the invasion of mononuclear cells and the high level of circulating antibodies, play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. We present a patient with hypocalcemic paralysis as an initial manifestation of a latent Sjögren's disease. The glandular biopsy was normal, suggesting a mayor participation of an immunological humoral factor in the renal lesion.

  13. A gene for Usher syndrome type I (USH1A) maps to chromosome 14q

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.; Gerber, S.; Rozet, J.M.; Delrieu, O.; Briard, M.L.; Dollfus, H.; Frezal, J.; Munnich, A. ); Bonneau, D. ); Ghazi, I. )

    1992-12-01

    Usher syndrome (US) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by congenital hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. It is the most frequent cause of deaf-blindness in adults and accounts for 3 to 6% of deaf children. Here, the authors report the genetic mapping of a gene for US type I (USH1A), the most severe form of the disease, to the long arm of chromosome 14, by linkage to probe MLJ14 at the D14S13 locus in 10 families of Western France ancestry ([cflx Z] = 4.13 at [cflx [theta

  14. Intimal redox stress: Accelerated atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atheroscleropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Melvin R; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2002-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with an accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy). This quartet is also associated with multiple metabolic toxicities resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species. The redox stress associated with these reactive oxygen species contribute to the development, progression, and the final fate of the arterial vessel wall in prediabetic and diabetic atheroscleropathy. The prevention of morbidity and mortality of these intersecting metabolic diseases can be approached through comprehensive global risk reduction. PMID:12392600

  15. Oxidative Stress: Dual Pathway Induction in Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1 Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Virzì, Grazia Maria; Clementi, Anna; de Cal, Massimo; Brocca, Alessandra; Day, Sonya; Pastori, Silvia; Bolin, Chiara; Vescovo, Giorgio; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1 (Type 1) is a specific condition which is characterized by a rapid worsening of cardiac function leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). Even though its pathophysiology is complex and not still completely understood, oxidative stress seems to play a pivotal role. In this study, we examined the putative role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of CRS Type 1. Twenty-three patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were included in the study. Subsequently, 11 patients who developed AKI due to AHF were classified as CRS Type 1. Quantitative determinations for IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), and endogenous peroxidase activity (EPA) were performed. CRS Type 1 patients displayed significant augmentation in circulating ROS and RNS, as well as expression of IL-6. Quantitative analysis of all oxidative stress markers showed significantly lower oxidative stress levels in controls and AHF compared to CRS Type 1 patients (P < 0.05). This pilot study demonstrates the significantly heightened presence of dual oxidative stress pathway induction in CRS Type 1 compared to AHF patients. Our findings indicate that oxidative stress is a potential therapeutic target, as it promotes inflammation by ROS/RNS-linked pathogenesis. PMID:25821554

  16. Favorable prognosis for children with Pfeiffer syndrome types 2 and 3: implications for classification.

    PubMed

    Robin, N H; Scott, J A; Arnold, J E; Goldstein, J A; Shilling, B B; Marion, R W; Cohen, M M

    1998-01-23

    Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is an autosomal dominant condition comprising bilateral coronal craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia with a beaked nasal tip, and broad and medially deviated thumbs and great toes. It is a clinically variable disorder and has been divided into three subtypes [Cohen, 1993: Am J Med Genet 45:300-307]. Type 1 represents the less severe cases, while types 2 and 3 are the more severe cases. These latter types tend to have a higher risk for neurodevelopmental problems and a reduced life expectancy. Here we review the clinical course of seven children with PS type 3. All of these children had severe manifestations of PS; however, development was essentially normal in three, mild delay was noted in two, and moderate delay in one. Favorable outcomes in children with types 2 and 3 PS were also documented by Moore et al. [1995: Cleft Pal-Craniofac J 32:62-70]. These cases illustrate that while children with PS types 2 and 3 have an increased risk for neurodevelopmental difficulties, a favorable outcome can be achieved in some cases with aggressive medical and surgical management. Finally, although such management should be the rule for PS types 2 and 3, it needs to be remembered that normal outcome is not the rule. The prognosis for favorable neurodevelopmental outcome and/or life expectancy remains guarded in most cases.

  17. A case of Pfeiffer syndrome type 1 with an A344P mutation in the FGFR2 gene.

    PubMed

    Shotelersuk, V; Srivuthana, S; Ittiwut, C; Theamboonlers, A; Mahatumarat, C; Poovorawan, Y

    2001-06-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder, consists of craniosynostosis, broadening of the thumbs and great toes, and partial soft tissue syndactyly of the hands and feet. Three clinical subtypes have been classified mainly for the purpose of genetic counseling. Mutations in FGFR1 and FGFR2 are known to be associated with the syndrome. However, the correlation between genotype and phenotype is not well defined. Only one patient with Pfeiffer syndrome with no other clinical information has been reported to have had an A344P mutation of the FGFR2. Here we report a Thai male patient with sporadic Pfeiffer syndrome type 1 with impaired intelligence (IQ = 77). Mutation analysis revealed A344P in FGFR2. Identification of the clinical features and molecular defects in more patients is required to better correlate the genotype and phenotype of this complex syndrome.

  18. FISH approach to determine cat eye syndrome chromosome breakpoints of a patient with cat eye syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Gentile, M; De Sanctis, S; Cariola, F; Spezzi, T; Di Carlo, A; Tontoli, F; Lista, F; Buonadonna, A L

    2005-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old man with craniofacial dysmorphic features, anorectal malformations, eye colobomas, orthopaedic anomalies, and mild neurodevelopmental delay. Cat eye syndrome (CES) was suspected, and confirmed by cytogenetic analysis which showed the presence of a supernumerary bisatellited chromosome, identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as invdup(22). The marker was further analyzed with six BAC clones located at the 22q11.1 and 22q11.2 regions; this analysis allowed correct assignment at low copy repeat 4 on chromosome 22 (LCR22-4) of the two breakpoints, confirming the presence of a CES chromosome type II. The patient's phenotype is considered in the light of the cytogenetic, and FISH investigations results and other patients reported in literature. Molecular definition of the breakpoints at the LCR22-4 copy confirms the role of different chromosome 22-specific LCRs in CES chromosomes generation, as well as in other chromosome 22 germ line rearrangements. Our report confirms that, unlike other conditions, i.e. the invdup(15) bisatellited dicentric marker, the CES phenotype does not appear to correlate with the size of the marker chromosome. Additional cases are necessary to be able to draw more specific genotype-phenotype correlations and to determine the outcome of patients with CES, especially when this rare condition is diagnosed in prenatal age.

  19. The genetic message of a sudden, unexpected death due to thoracic aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, Tim; Tröger, Hans Dieter; Schmidtke, Jörg

    2009-05-30

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms are associated with sudden, unexpected death due to dissection and/or rupture. In such cases, the latent, preceding state of aortic dilatation has often gone undiagnosed. As a consequence of the sudden unresolved death, medico-legal autopsy requested by a public prosecutor will be the consequence to establish the cause and manner of death. Usually, autopsy records do not include relevant information for differential diagnosis of heritable syndromic and non-syndromic diseases associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms/dissections (TAAD), including e.g. Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and isolated thoracic aortic aneurysms/dissection. However, for at-risk relatives of the deceased, it could be of great benefit to be alerted to the potential heritable aetiology, because early diagnosis of the latent stage of the disease would allow preventive management. Such attempts, including recommendations to seek genetic counselling, are nevertheless rarely made in the context of medico-legal autopsies, in which primarily the legal aspects are considered. We report here on three cases to underline the practical relevance of (i) documentation of relevant information for differential diagnosis of TAAD-associated disorders, (ii) storage of unfixed tissue samples for subsequent molecular genetic testing, and most importantly (iii) the information of relatives at risk. In view of the general ethical principal of nonmaleficience, direct or indirect contact with family members of victims of possible heritable forms of TAAD should be established as a standard of care, also in the medico-legal setting.

  20. EDNRB mutations cause Waardenburg syndrome type II in the heterozygous state.

    PubMed

    Issa, Sarah; Bondurand, Nadege; Faubert, Emmanuelle; Poisson, Sylvain; Lecerf, Laure; Nitschke, Patrick; Deggouj, Naima; Loundon, Natalie; Jonard, Laurence; David, Albert; Sznajer, Yves; Blanchet, Patricia; Marlin, Sandrine; Pingault, Veronique

    2017-02-24

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation anomalies. The clinical definition of four WS types is based on additional features due to defects in structures mostly arising from the neural crest, with type I and type II being the most frequent. While type I is tightly associated to PAX3 mutations, WS type II (WS2) remains partly enigmatic with mutations in known genes (MITF, SOX10) accounting for only 30% of the cases. We performed exome sequencing in a WS2 index case and identified a heterozygous missense variation in EDNRB. Interestingly, homozygous (and very rare heterozygous) EDNRB mutations are already described in type IV WS (that is, in association with Hirschsprung disease) and heterozygous mutations in isolated Hirschsprung disease. Screening of a WS2 cohort led to the identification of an overall of 6 heterozygous EDNRB variations. Clinical phenotypes, pedigrees and molecular segregation investigations unraveled a dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. In parallel, cellular and functional studies showed that each of the mutations impairs the subcellular localization of the receptor or induces a defective downstream signaling pathway. Based on our results, we now estimate EDNRB mutations to be responsible for 5-6% of WS2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous initiation of premature ventricular complexes and arrhythmias in type 2 long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaodong; Kim, Tae Yun; Koren, Gideon; Choi, Bum-Rak; Qu, Zhilin

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and increased dispersion of repolarization are two known factors for arrhythmogenesis in long QT syndrome. However, increased dispersion of repolarization tends to suppress EADs due to the source-sink effect, and thus how the two competing factors cause initiation of arrhythmias remains incompletely understood. Here we used optical mapping and computer simulation to investigate the mechanisms underlying spontaneous initiation of arrhythmias in type 2 long QT (LQT2) syndrome. In optical mapping experiments of transgenic LQT2 rabbit hearts under isoproterenol, premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were observed to originate from the steep spatial repolarization gradient (RG) regions and propagated unidirectionally. The same PVC behaviors were demonstrated in computer simulations of tissue models of rabbits. Depending on the heterogeneities, these PVCs could lead to either repetitive focal excitations or reentry without requiring an additional vulnerable substrate. Systematic simulations showed that cellular phase 2 EADs were either suppressed or confined to the long action potential region due to the source-sink effect. Tissue-scale phase 3 EADs and PVCs occurred due to tissue-scale dynamical instabilities caused by RG and enhanced L-type calcium current (ICa,L), occurring under both large and small RG. Presence of cellular EADs was not required but potentiated PVCs when RG was small. We also investigated how other factors affect the dynamical instabilities causing PVCs. Our main conclusion is that tissue-scale dynamical instabilities caused by RG and enhanced ICa,L give rise to both the trigger and the vulnerable substrate simultaneously for spontaneous initiation of arrhythmias in LQT2 syndrome.

  2. Parkinsonian syndromes presenting with circadian rhythm sleep disorder- advanced sleep-phase type.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Garima; Kaul, Bhavna; Gupta, Anupama; Goyal, Vinay; Behari, Madhuri

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorder-advanced sleep-phase type is a relatively uncommon disorder, mostly seen among the elderly population. Impaired circadian rhythms have been reported in neurodegenerative conditions; however, there are no reports of any circadian rhythm sleep disorder among patients with Parkinsonian syndromes. We report two patients who presented with this circadian rhythm disorder, and were then diagnosed with a Parkinsonian syndrome. The cases. A 65-year-old retired man presented with history of abrupt change in sleep schedules, sleeping around 6.30-7 p.m. and waking up around 3-4 a.m. for the last 2 months. On detailed examination, the patient was observed to have symmetrical bradykinesia and cogwheel rigidity of limbs. A diagnosis of multiple system atrophy was made, supported by MRI findings and evidence of autonomic dysfunction. Symptoms of change in sleep-wake cycles resolved over the next 1 year, while the patient was treated with dopaminergic therapy. A 47-year-old man, who was being evaluated for presurgical investigation for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, presented with complaints suggestive of dysarthria, bradykinesia of limbs and frequent falls for 5 months. Simultaneously, he began to sleep around 7 p.m. and wake up at about 2-3 a.m. Examination revealed severe axial rigidity, restricted vertical gaze and bradykinesia of limbs. A diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy was made. This is the first report of Parkinson's plus syndromes presenting with a circadian rhythm sleep disorder-advanced sleep-phase type. More prospective assessment for circadian sleep disorders may introduce useful insights into similar associations. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  3. [Waardenburg syndrome type I--autosomal dominant hereditary combination of multiple facial anomalies with cochlear deafness (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Meinecke, P

    1982-03-01

    Waardenburg syndrome Type I is described on the basis of an observation of a family. The characteristic signs including lateral displacement of medial canthi ("telecanthus"), wide bridge of the nose, white forelock and severe cochlear deafness are found in one female patient only; however, her eyes are not of different colour. Five further bearers of characteristic signs in four generations are not so severely affected and show the facial anomalies only. To differentiate this syndrome against Waardenburg syndrome Type II which is complicated by deafness twice as often but occurs without the lateral displacement of the medial canthi, accurate measurement of the distance between the canthi is helpful. Waardenburg syndromes are hereditary according to the autosomal dominant principle with high penetration; intrafamiliarly, too, expressivity can vary greatly. To date treatment has been directed at the signs and symptoms; prognosis is usually favourable. Prevention appears possible through genetic family counseling.

  4. Exploration of differences in types of sleep disturbance and severity of sleep problems between individuals with Cri du Chat syndrome, Down's syndrome, and Jacobsen syndrome: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Maas, Anneke P H M; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) seems to vary between genetic syndromes associated with ID. Different types of sleep disturbances may indicate underlying causes of sleep problems and these types of sleep disturbances may vary between different genetic syndromes. We examined and compared five types of sleep disturbance as well as severity of sleep problems in individuals with Cri du Chat syndrome (CDC), Down's syndrome (DS), Jacobsen syndrome (JS), and individuals with non-specific ID (NS). We used Simonds and Parraga's Sleep Questionnaire (1982) to assess prevalence of types of sleep disturbance and to explore differences in types of sleep disturbance and severity of sleep problems between the four diagnostic groups. In each group, mean scores for Snoring were significantly higher than those for Sleep apnea and Snoring was the most prevalent type of sleep disturbance in CDC, DS, and JS. The mean score on Complaints related to sleep was remarkably high in the JS group. There were no differences in severity of sleep problems between groups. These findings suggest that snoring is an important underlying cause of sleep problems in individuals with CDS, DS, and JS.

  5. Importance of Laparoscopic Assessment of the Uterine Adnexa in a Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome Type II Case

    PubMed Central

    DRAGUSIN, ROXANA; TUDORACHE, ȘTEFANIA; SURLIN, V.; LICHIARDOPOL, CORINA; ILIESCU, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the case reported, diagnosed with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, the presence of normal ovaries proved to be challenging to confirm due to unusual high positioned (ectopic) ovaries. MRKH syndrome is a rare pathological condition characterized by a spectrum of the Mullerian duct abnormalities resulting in congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper part (2/3) of the vagina, developed during embryogenesis. At the same time, the mullerian development is interdependent with the Wolffian (mesonephric) duct and this explains the associated renal abnormalities (MRKH type II). Laparoscopic assessment was of great importance in defining the exact anatomic characteristics of MRKH syndrome. PMID:25729598

  6. Importance of Laparoscopic Assessment of the Uterine Adnexa in a Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome Type II Case.

    PubMed

    Dragusin, Roxana; Tudorache, Ștefania; Surlin, V; Lichiardopol, Corina; Iliescu, D G

    2014-01-01

    In the case reported, diagnosed with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, the presence of normal ovaries proved to be challenging to confirm due to unusual high positioned (ectopic) ovaries. MRKH syndrome is a rare pathological condition characterized by a spectrum of the Mullerian duct abnormalities resulting in congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper part (2/3) of the vagina, developed during embryogenesis. At the same time, the mullerian development is interdependent with the Wolffian (mesonephric) duct and this explains the associated renal abnormalities (MRKH type II). Laparoscopic assessment was of great importance in defining the exact anatomic characteristics of MRKH syndrome.

  7. Molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of Chinese Han deaf patients with type I and type II Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lianhua; Li, Xiaohua; Shi, Jun; Pang, Xiuhong; Hu, Yechen; Wang, Xiaowen; Wu, Hao; Yang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities is genetically heterogeneous and phenotypically variable. This study investigated the molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of WS in 36 Chinese Han deaf probands and 16 additional family members that were clinically diagnosed with WS type I (WS1, n = 8) and type II (WS2, n = 42). Mutation screening of six WS-associated genes detected PAX3 mutations in 6 (86%) of the 7 WS1 probands. Among the 29 WS2 probands, 13 (45%) and 10 (34%) were identified with SOX10 and MITF mutations, respectively. Nineteen of the 26 detected mutations were novel. In WS2 probands whose parental DNA samples were available, de novo mutations were frequently seen for SOX10 mutations (7/8) but not for MITF mutations (0/5, P = 0.005). Excessive freckle, a common feature of WS2 in Chinese Hans, was frequent in WS2 probands with MITF mutations (7/10) but not in those with SOX10 mutations (0/13, P = 4.9 × 10−4). Our results showed that mutations in SOX10 and MITF are two major causes for deafness associated with WS2. These two subtypes of WS2 can be distinguished by the high de novo rate of the SOX10 mutations and the excessive freckle phenotype exclusively associated with the MITF mutations. PMID:27759048

  8. Type III Guyon Syndrome in 'B Boy' Break-Dancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Soo-young; Choi, Jin-gyu

    2015-01-01

    Although the musculoskeletal injuries associated with break-dancing which is gaining more popularity among adolescent and young people has been reported, the report regarding a peripheral nerve injury associated with breakdance is scarce. We report a rare case of a young amateur break-dancer, 'b-boy' who suffered from a painful paresthesia in his left hand, later diagnosed as type III Guyon's canal syndrome. A 23-year-old, right handed college man presented with a tenderness over the left hypothenar eminence and painful paresthesia over the ring and little fingers of 3 months duration. He trained himself as an amateur 'b boy' break-dancer for the last 10 months. Conservative management under the diagnosis of wrist sprain before presentation did not improve his hand pain. An magnetic resonance imaging and electrodiagnostic study revealed that painful paresthesia was caused by type III Guyon's canal syndrome, and 4 weeks of corticosteroid treatment was given with resolution of pain and paresthesia. PMID:27169091

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome type i. An analysis of 7 cases in children.

    PubMed

    Pedemonte Stalla, V; Medici Olaso, C; Kanopa Almada, V; Gonzalez Rabelino, G

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterised by the presence of pain accompanied by sensory, autonomic and motor symptoms, usually preceded by a lesion or immobilisation. The clinical course is disproportionate to the initial injury in intensity and in duration. Its distribution is regional, predominantly in limbs. It is classified as type I and type II according to the absence or presence of nerve injury. We present the cases of seven children, 6 girls and 1 boy, aged 7 to 15 years. Three had a history of previous trauma. In 5 cases, the symptoms were located in the lower limbs. Time to diagnosis was between 4 and 90 days. Three patients had clinical features of anxiety and depression. Imaging and immunological studies were performed to rule out differential diagnoses in all the children. Interdisciplinary treatment was performed with physiotherapy, psychotherapy, and gabapentin or pregabalin. All patients had a good clinical outcome, with no relapses in the follow-up period (between 4 and 30 months). CRPS is frequently unrecognised in children, leading to family anxiety and unnecessary para-clinical costs. Paediatricians and paediatric neurologists should be aware of this syndrome in order to avoid delay in diagnosis, unnecessary studies, and multiple visits to specialists, with a view to providing effective treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Delayed diagnosis with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 causing acute adrenal crisis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ping, Fan; Qi, Cuijuan; Xiao, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2), also known as Schmidt's syndrome, is an uncommon disorder characterized by the coexistence of Addison's disease with thyroid autoimmune disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Addison's disease as the obligatory component is potentially life-threatening. Unfortunately, the delayed diagnosis of Addison's disease is common owing to its rarity and the nonspecific clinical manifestation. Methods: Here we reported a case of 38-year-old female patient who presented with 2 years’ history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and received levothyroxine replacement. One year later, skin hyperpigmentation, fatigue, loss of appetite, and muscle soreness occurred. She was advised to increase the dose of levothyroxine, but the symptoms were not relieved. After 4 months, the patient accompanied with dizziness, nausea, nonbloody vomiting, and fever. However, she was diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis and fell into shock and ventricular fibrillation subsequently. Further evaluation in our hospital revealed elevated adrenocorticotrophic hormone and low morning serum cortisol, associated with hyponatremia and atrophic adrenal gland. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis were also demonstrated. Results: After the supplementation with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone was initiated, the physical discomforts were alleviated and plasma electrolytes were back to normal. Conclusion: The uncommon case involving 3 endocrine organs reinforced the significance of a timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment of APS-2, and physicians needed to sharpen their awareness of the potentially life-threatening disease. PMID:27759634

  11. Atypical neurofibromatosis type 1 with unilateral limb hypertrophy mimicking overgrowth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tripolszki, K; Farkas, K; Sulák, A; Szolnoky, G; Duga, B; Melegh, B; Knox, R G; Parker, V E R; Semple, R K; Kemény, L; Széll, M; Nagy, N

    2017-10-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; OMIM 162200), a dominantly inherited multitumor syndrome, results from mutations in the Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene. We present the case of a Hungarian woman with the clinical phenotype of NF1 over her whole body and the clinical features of unilateral overgrowth involving her entire left leg. This unusual phenotype suggested either the atypical form of NF1 or the coexistence of NF1 and overgrowth syndrome. Direct sequencing of the genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood revealed a novel frameshift mutation (c.5727insT, p.V1909fsX1912) in the NF1 gene. Next-generation sequencing of 50 oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, performed on the genomic DNAs isolated from tissue samples and peripheral blood, detected only wild-type sequences. Based on these results, we concluded that the patient is affected by an unusual phenotype of NF1, and that the observed unilateral overgrowth of the left leg might be a rare consequence of the identified c.5727insT mutation. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Clinical and genetic investigation of families with type II Waardenburg syndrome

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YONG; YANG, FUWEI; ZHENG, HEXIN; ZHOU, JIANDA; ZHU, GANGHUA; HU, PENG; WU, WEIJING

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the molecular pathology of Waardenburg syndrome type II in three families, in order to provide genetic diagnosis and hereditary counseling for family members. Relevant clinical examinations were conducted on the probands of the three pedigrees. Peripheral blood samples of the probands and related family members were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. The coding sequences of paired box 3 (PAX3), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), sex-determining region Y-box 10 (SOX10) and snail family zinc finger 2 (SNAI2) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The heterozygous mutation, c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene was detected in the proband and all patients of pedigree 1; however, no pathological mutation of the relevant genes (MITF, SNAI2, SOX10 or PAX3) was detected in pedigrees 2 and 3. The heterozygous mutation c.649_651delAGA in exon 7 of the MITF gene is therefore considered the disease-causing mutation in pedigree 1. However, there are novel disease-causing genes in Waardenburg syndrome type II, which require further research. PMID:26781036

  13. Association of Parental Age and the Type of Down Syndrome on the Territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Sotonica, Mia; Mackic-Djurovic, Mirela; Hasic, Sabaheta; Kiseljakovic, Emina; Jadric, Radivoj; Ibrulj, Slavka

    2016-04-01

    Advanced paternal and/or maternal age is a classic risk factor for Down syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of Down syndrome types in children and its association with maternal and paternal age in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The cross sectional, observational study included 127 children, 49 girls and 78 boys, aged 1-180 months suspected to have Down syndrome, admitted to the Centre for Genetics, Faculty of Medicine University of Sarajevo, for cytogenetic analysis and differential diagnosis of Down syndrome during the period from January 2010 to May 2015. Standard method of 72 hours cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been applied. The accepted level of statistical significance was p<0.05. The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy (86.6%), comparing to translocation and mosaicism (7.1%; 6.3%, respectively). The highest frequency of Down syndrome cases was in mother and father's group from 30-39 years old (57; 57 children, respectively) compared to mother and father's groups with younger than 30 (44; 29, respectively) and 40 and older (26; 41, respectively). The significant difference was found in maternal age between translocation and mosaicism groups (p=0.036). Difference between parental years and type of Down syndrome was significant when Standard trisomy 21 and translocation (p=0.045), as well as mosaicism and translocation (p=0.036), were compared. The most common type of Down syndrome was standard trisomy 21, with highest occurrence in parents from 30 to 39 years old. Parents were the youngest in translocation group. Obtained results suggest that multidisciplinary approach to identifying the trigger for trisomy appearance and the influence of maternal age is required.

  14. Ultrasonography-guided pulsed radiofrequency of sciatic nerve for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yi Hwa; Chang, Dong Jin; Hwang, Woon Suk; Chung, Jin Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Although the major mechanism of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) involves dysfunctional central or sympathetic nervous system activation, the peripheral nervous system also contributes significantly to its clinical manifestations. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a recently developed treatment option for neuropathic pain syndromes. Here, we report a case of CRPS Type II after a femur fracture and sciatic nerve injury, in which the pain was treated successfully with ultrasonography-guided selective sciatic nerve PRF application. PMID:28217060

  15. Post-mortem pathologic and genetic studies in "dead in bed syndrome" cases in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tu, Emily; Bagnall, Richard D; Duflou, Johan; Lynch, Matthew; Twigg, Stephen M; Semsarian, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Dead in bed syndrome is a poorly understood cause of sudden death in young people with type 1 diabetes. The underlying cause remains unknown. One possible explanation may involve prolongation of the QT interval followed by a terminal malignant arrhythmia. Risk factors associated with QT interval prolongation include hypoglycemia and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. We sought to identify myocardial cellular changes and genetic influences that may contribute to the pathogenesis of dead in bed syndrome. Post-mortem reports between 1994 and 2006 from the 2 largest Departments of Forensic Medicine in Australia were reviewed for dead in bed syndrome cases. Post-mortem heart sections were immunohistochemically stained for collagen types I and III and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Genomic DNA was prepared from post-mortem samples, and genetic analysis was performed in the SCN5A, G6PC, PHOX2B, and CTGF genes. Twenty-two dead in bed syndrome cases were identified and staining of heart sections for collagen I and III, and CTGF showed no differences between dead in bed syndrome cases and controls. Genetic screening of SCN5A revealed 3 silent polymorphisms A29A, E1061E, and D1819D and 1 protein-changing variant H558R. No genetic variants were found in G6PC, PHOX2B, and CTGF, and dead in bed syndrome cases were not associated with the G-945C CTGF promoter polymorphism. In conclusion, this study is the first to investigate potential pathogenic mechanisms underlying the dead in bed syndrome in type 1 diabetes with the results substantially adding to knowledge of this condition. Understanding the causes and triggers of dead in bed syndrome will be critical in facilitating the identification of patients with type 1 diabetes at highest risk of developing sudden death. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Delusional disorder, somatic type: olfactory reference syndrome in a patient with delusional trimethylaminuria.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Wystrach, Carter; Bolton, Michael; Shaywitz, Jonathan; IsHak, Waguih William

    2013-06-01

    Delusions of foul body odors (often referred to as olfactory reference syndrome [ORS]) currently fall under the category of delusional disorder, somatic type (DDST), in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). We present the case of a 51-year-old man with no previous psychiatric history who presented with perceived foul odors that he delusionally attributed to trimethylaminuria (TMAU). TMAU is a rare metabolic disorder associated with foul body odors. The patient also experienced severe concurrent mood symptoms because of social isolation resulting from his delusion about his body odors. After considerable discussion of differential diagnoses, a diagnosis of DDST was ultimately made, given the patient's unrelenting nonbizarre delusions and lack of insight pertaining to his body odors. However, this case proved to be very useful in exploring the diagnostic challenges in this type of disorder and recent discussions of ORS and its proposed inclusion in the DSM-5.

  17. Oral-facial-digital syndrome with retinal abnormalities: OFDS type IX. A further case report.

    PubMed

    Nevin, N C; Silvestri, J; Kernohan, D C; Hutchinson, W M

    1994-07-01

    The oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) are a heterogeneous group. Recently, Gurrieri et al. [1992: Am J Med Genet 42:789-792] described a new OFDS characterised by typical oral, facial and digital abnormalities but distinguishable from previously reported OFDS by the presence of retinochoroidal lacunae of an apparently colobomatous origin. Toriello [1993: Clin Dysmorph 2:95-105] designated this possible new OFDS as Type IX. We describe a young woman presenting with oral, facial and digital anomalies and with the specific retinal abnormality reported by Gurrieri et al. [1992], thus confirming the existence of OFDS Type IX. As the patients of Gurrieri et al. [1992] were two affected brothers, they were unable to distinguish between autosomal and X-linked recessive inheritance. As our patient is an affected female, an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance is more likely.

  18. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type II Secondary to Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hamilton; Tafazoli, Sharwin

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder characterized by severe pain and vasomotor and pseudomotor changes. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms is a recent advance in vascular surgery that has allowed repair of AAA while offering reduced intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay, reduced blood loss, fewer major complications, and more rapid recovery. Pseudoaneurysms are a rare complication of an EVAR procedure that may result in a wide range of complications. The present report examines CRPS type II as a novel consequence of pseudoaneurysm formation from brachial artery access in the EVAR procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CRPS type II presentation as sequelae of an EVAR procedure. PMID:25650247

  19. Type of vegetable oils used in cooking and risk of metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Praseena, Kallingal; Vijayalakshmi, Parthasarathy; Geetha, Gunasekaran; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-03-01

    There is little data on the type of vegetable oil used and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian Indians. Food frequency questionnaire was used to document the type of cooking oil in 1875 adults in Chennai city. MS was assessed by new harmonizing criteria. The prevalence of MS was higher among sunflower oil users (30.7%) than palmolein (23.2%) and traditional oil (17.1%, p < 0.001) users. The higher prevalence of MS in sunflower oil group persisted even when stratified according to body mass index, except in obese groups. The risk of MS was further compounded by quantity of refined cereals consumed. Higher LA%E and linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio in sunflower oil probably contributes to increased risk of MS.

  20. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5 in Sepsis: Role of Endotoxin in Cell Death Pathways and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Virzì, Grazia Maria; Clementi, Anna; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Marcante, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5 (CRS Type 5) is characterized by concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction in the setting of different systemic disorders, such as sepsis. In this study, we investigated the possible relationship between endotoxin levels, renal cell death and inflammation in septic patients with CRS Type 5. We enrolled 11 patients with CRS Type 5. CRS Type 5 was defined according to the current classification system. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Acute cardiac dysfunction was documented by echocardiography as acute left and/or right ventricular dysfunction leading to decreased ejection fraction. Endotoxin activity was measured by the Endotoxin Activity Assay (EAA). Plasma from CRS Type 5 patients was incubated with renal tubular cells (RTCs) and cell death levels were evaluated. Plasma cytokines levels were measured as well. Accordingly to EAA levels, patients were divided into two groups: 45.4% of patients had low endotoxin activity level (negative EAA), while 54.5% of patients showed high endotoxin activity (positive EAA). RTCs incubated with plasma from EAA positive patients showed significantly higher apoptosis levels and higher caspase-3 activation compared to cells incubated with plasma from EAA negative patients, and a significant positive correlation was observed between EAA levels and RTC apoptosis levels. Furthermore, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in CRS Type 5 patients with positive EAA. Our data suggest a possible relationship between endotoxin levels and renal cell death in septic patients with CRS Type 5. Furthermore, this study highlights the presence of renal apoptosis, the immune deregulation and the strong inflammation in CRS Type 5 patients, especially in those with high endotoxin activity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Alogliptin after acute coronary syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    White, William B; Cannon, Christopher P; Heller, Simon R; Nissen, Steven E; Bergenstal, Richard M; Bakris, George L; Perez, Alfonso T; Fleck, Penny R; Mehta, Cyrus R; Kupfer, Stuart; Wilson, Craig; Cushman, William C; Zannad, Faiez

    2013-10-03

    To assess potentially elevated cardiovascular risk related to new antihyperglycemic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes, regulatory agencies require a comprehensive evaluation of the cardiovascular safety profile of new antidiabetic therapies. We assessed cardiovascular outcomes with alogliptin, a new inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a recent acute coronary syndrome. We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and either an acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina requiring hospitalization within the previous 15 to 90 days to receive alogliptin or placebo in addition to existing antihyperglycemic and cardiovascular drug therapy. The study design was a double-blind, noninferiority trial with a prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.3 for the hazard ratio for the primary end point of a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. A total of 5380 patients underwent randomization and were followed for up to 40 months (median, 18 months). A primary end-point event occurred in 305 patients assigned to alogliptin (11.3%) and in 316 patients assigned to placebo (11.8%) (hazard ratio, 0.96; upper boundary of the one-sided repeated confidence interval, 1.16; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly lower with alogliptin than with placebo (mean difference, -0.36 percentage points; P<0.001). Incidences of hypoglycemia, cancer, pancreatitis, and initiation of dialysis were similar with alogliptin and placebo. Among patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a recent acute coronary syndrome, the rates of major adverse cardiovascular events were not increased with the DPP-4 inhibitor alogliptin as compared with placebo. (Funded by Takeda Development Center Americas; EXAMINE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00968708.).

  2. [Research on the distribution difference of MRI signals in osteonecrosis of the femoral head patients of different TCM syndrome types].

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong; Xie, Li-Min; Wu, Biao; Li, Yu-Bin; Liu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-12-01

    To observe the distribution difference of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) patients of different TCM syndrome types. Recruited 29 ONFH patients were assigned to the tendon and vessel stagnation group (14 cases) and the Gan-Shen deficiency group (15 cases) according to TCM syndrome typing. The distribution difference of their MRI signals of MRIT1WI, T2WI + fs, T1 and T2 combined signal were compared. There was statistical difference in T1W1 signal distribution between the two TCM syndrome types (P = 0.04). There was no statistical difference in T2WI + fs or T1 and T2 combined signal between the two TCM syndrome types (P = 0.42, P = 0.15). MRI signals in the tendon and vessel stagnation group were mainly manifested as fat-like signals,while they were mainly manifested as mixed signals in the Gan-Shen deficiency group. Distribution difference of MRI signals exists between ONFH patients of different TCM syndrome types.

  3. Marked, transient, emotion-triggered QT accentuation in an adolescent female with type 1 long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Heather N; Medford, Beth A; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Type 1 long QT syndrome is the most common long QT syndrome genetic subtype. Exercise and emotional stress can precipitate sudden cardiac events in patients with type 1 long QT syndrome; however, the precise mechanism remains elusive. We report the case of a teenage girl with type 1 long QT syndrome secondary to a rare frameshift mutation (p. L191fs+90X) in the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel. During emotional distress, her continuous QTc recordings precipitously increased, peaking within minutes to 669 ms and then returning to baseline (520 ms) as she calmed without concomitant increase in heart rate. This is the first described case documenting transient, marked accentuation of the QTc interval in a long QT syndrome patient during emotional distress. Such events may be triggered by transient accentuation of the intrinsic perturbation in cardiac repolarisation and increase the risk of degeneration to a ventricular arrhythmia. This case illustrates the need improved understanding of the complex interaction between emotion and cardiac stability in patients with long QT syndrome.

  4. Epidemiological evidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Isao

    2012-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies in the US and Europe have confirmed that type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, evidence is limited in Japan. Earlier studies in Japan showed that hypertension has a major effect on atherosclerosis in relatively lean subjects, with type 2 DM contributing more to CVD events, because of a decline in blood pressure levels in both sexes and an increase in body mass index in men. Recent cohort studies in Japan using baseline assessments carried out during the 1990s have confirmed that type 2 DM is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and all types of stroke, except hemorrhagic stroke. In addition, the metabolic syndrome, a constellation of metabolic risk factors, was shown to predict CVD events in Japanese people, independent of the presence or absence of obesity. The strong association of type 2 DM with CHD (hazard ratio: 1.5-4) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio: 2-4) events was confirmed in Japanese adults. Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose were also shown to have an increased risk of a CHD event, but not a stroke.

  5. Evolutionary diversification of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Brar, Manreetpal Singh; Shi, Mang; Murtaugh, Michael P; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching

    2015-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the leading swine pathogens causing tremendous economic loss to the global swine industry due to its virulence, pathogenesis, infectivity and transmissibility. Although formally recognized only two and half decades ago, molecular dating estimation indicates a more ancient evolutionary history, which involved divergence into two genotypes (type 1 and type 2) prior to the 'initial' outbreaks of the late 1980s. Type 2 PRRSV circulates primarily in North America and Asia. The relatively greater availability of sequence data for this genotype from widespread geographical territories has enabled a better understanding of the evolving genotype. However, there are a number of challenges in terms of the vastness of data available and what this indicates in the context of viral diversity. Accordingly, here we revisit the mechanisms by which PRRSV generates variability, describe a means of organizing type 2 diversity captured in voluminous ORF5 sequences in a phylogenetic framework and provide a holistic view of known global type 2 diversity in the same setting. The consequences of the expanding diversity for control measures such as vaccination are discussed, as well as the contribution of modified live vaccines to the circulation of field isolates. We end by highlighting some limitations of current molecular epidemiology studies in relation to inferring PRRSV diversity, and what steps can be taken to overcome these and additionally enable PRRSV sequence data to be informative about viral phenotypic traits such as virulence.

  6. Pathological and biochemical studies of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (Sanfilippo syndrome type B) in juvenile emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Giger, U; Wang, P; Pizarro, M; Shivaprasad, H L

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IIIB was diagnosed in 14 juvenile emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae), ages 3 weeks to 6 months, based on pathological and biochemical analyses. The animals had a history of neurological signs or sudden death; one of the birds with neurological signs and 3 others experienced acute hemoabdomen. Histopathologically, neuronal swelling and vacuolation in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord (80%-92%); retina (100%); autonomic ganglia of the intestine (71%); gizzard (50%); adrenal gland (27%); and ear (50%) were noted in affected but not healthy emus. Cytoplasmic vacuoles were also observed in the pancreas, liver, intestine, adrenal glands, and kidneys. The intracytoplasmic inclusions were periodic acid-Schiff and Luxol Fast Blue positive, consistent with a storage disease. Foamy macrophages infiltrated the liver, intestine, tunica media of the aorta, and spleen. By transmission electron microscopy, typical lamellated cytoplasmic bodies were detected in neurons of the brain and retina, while electron-dense bodies consistent with glycosaminoglycan inclusions were observed in hepatocytes and/or hepatic macrophages. The livers of the 2 affected emus studied contained large amounts of heparan sulfate, which is suggestive of MPS type III. Compared with normal controls, hepatic and serum α-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity was very low (<8% of control), while other enzyme activities were normal to increased in the 2 affected emus studied. Moreover, affected emus were homozygous for a 2-bp deletion in the NAGLU gene. This study characterizes the pathology of MPS type IIIB in emus, which is one of the rare inborn errors in birds, showing the homology of this condition to Sanfilippo syndrome in humans.

  7. Pre- and Postoperative Imaging of the Aortic Root

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Frandics P.; Mitchell, R. Scott; Miller, D. Craig; Fleischmann, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional datasets acquired using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are ideally suited for characterization of the aortic root. These modalities offer different advantages and limitations, which must be weighed according to the clinical context. This article provides an overview of current aortic root imaging, highlighting normal anatomy, pathologic conditions, imaging techniques, measurement thresholds, relevant surgical procedures, postoperative complications and potential imaging pitfalls. Patients with a range of clinical conditions are predisposed to aortic root disease, including Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Various surgical techniques may be used to repair the aortic root, including placement of a composite valve graft, such as the Bentall and Cabrol procedures; placement of an aortic root graft with preservation of the native valve, such as the Yacoub and David techniques; and implantation of a biologic graft, such as a homograft, autograft, or xenograft. Potential imaging pitfalls in the postoperative period include mimickers of pathologic processes such as felt pledgets, graft folds, and nonabsorbable hemostatic agents. Postoperative complications that may be encountered include pseudoaneurysms, infection, and dehiscence. Radiologists should be familiar with normal aortic root anatomy, surgical procedures, and postoperative complications, to accurately interpret pre- and postoperative imaging performed for evaluation of the aortic root. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26761529

  8. A novel SMAD3 mutation caused multiple aneurysms in a patient without osteoarthritis symptoms.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Audrey; Coppieters, Wouter; Bours, Vincent; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Colige, Alain; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2017-04-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the SMAD3 gene were recently described as the cause of a form of non-syndromic familial aortic thoracic aneurysm and dissection (FTAAD) transmitted as an autosomal dominant disorder and often associated with early-onset osteoarthritis. This new clinical entity, called aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS) or Loeys-Dietz syndrome 3 (LDS3), is characterized by aggressive arterial damages such as aneurysms, dissections and tortuosity throughout the arterial tree. We report, here, the case of a 45 year-old man presenting multiple visceral arteries and abdominal aortic aneurysms but without dissection of the thoracic aorta and without any sign of osteoarthritis. Exome-sequencing revealed a new frameshift heterozygous c.455delC (p.Pro152Hisfs*34) mutation in the SMAD3 gene. This deletion is located in the exon 3 coding for the linker region of the protein and causes a premature stop codon at positions 556-558 in the exon 4. The same mutation was found in the proband's mother and sister who had open surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm and in one of his children who was 5 year-old and did not present aneurysm yet.

  9. Twins with progressive thoracic aortic aneurysm, recurrent dissection and ACTA2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Ware, Stephanie M; Shikany, Amy; Landis, Benjamin J; James, Jeanne F; Hinton, Robert B

    2014-10-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a genetically mediated disease with variable age of onset. In the pediatric age range, nonsyndromic TAA frequently has a milder course than syndromic forms of TAA, such as Marfan syndrome or Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Herein, we describe 17-year-old identical twin brothers with severe progressive TAA due to a novel de novo ACTA2 mutation. Interestingly, both boys were diagnosed at age 11 with congenital mydriasis, a recently recognized manifestation of some ACTA2 mutations due to smooth muscle dysfunction. One of the brothers presented with acute-onset lower back pain that was identified as dissection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Imaging of the chest at this time showed severe fusiform TAA. Cardiac imaging in his twin showed similar TAA, but no abdominal aortic aneurysm. Both brothers underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement, but have had progressive aortic disease with recurrent dissection requiring multiple surgeries. This case emphasizes the importance of identifying physical stigmata of smooth muscle dysfunction, such as mydriasis, as potential markers for associated aortopathy and vascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) syndrome previously diagnosed as Seckel syndrome: report of a novel mutation of the PCNT gene.

    PubMed

    Piane, Maria; Della Monica, Matteo; Piatelli, Gianluca; Lulli, Patrizia; Lonardo, Fortunato; Chessa, Luciana; Scarano, Gioacchino

    2009-11-01

    We report on a 3-year-old boy with prenatal onset of proportionate dwarfism, postnatal severe microcephaly, high forehead with receded hairline, sparse scalp hair, beaked nose, mild retrognathia and hypotonia diagnosed at birth as Seckel syndrome. At age 3 years, he became paralyzed due to a cerebrovascular malformation. Based on the clinical and radiological features showing evidence of skeletal dysplasia, the diagnosis was revised to Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) syndrome. Western blot analysis of the patient's lymphoblastoid cell line lysate showed the absence of the protein pericentrin. Subsequent molecular analysis identified a novel homozygous single base insertion (c.1527_1528insA) in exon 10 of the PCNT gene, which leads to a frameshift (Treo510fs) and to premature protein truncation. PCNT mutations must be considered diagnostic of MOPD II syndrome. A possible role of pericentrin in the development of cerebral vessels is suggested.

  11. [Pena-Shokeir syndrome type I--combination of polyhydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia in fetal akinesia].

    PubMed

    Deli, Tamás; Kovács, Tamás

    2010-06-13

    We present the case of an 18-year-old woman with her second pregnancy, whose first pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. At week 30, the dysmorph fetus died in utero and was delivered via cesarean section due to placental abruption, but the exact diagnosis was not recognized at that time. During the patient's second pregnancy, increasing polyhydramnios was detected from the 19th gestational week. Ultrasound signs of fetal malformation also appeared later: abnormal position of limbs, narrow chest, oedema around the skull, and absence of stomach content. At week 34, decompression amniocentesis became necessary. Chromosome analysis was also carried out and a normal karyotype was obtained. At 39th gestational week, amnioscopy proved meconium staining of the amniotic fluid, thus labour was induced. Following amniotomy, sustained fetal bradycardia commenced and an emergency caesarean section was performed. Despite complex resuscitation, the 3000 gram male newborn died 2.5 hours after delivery, due to respiratory failure. Autopsy and histopathologic examination revealed a large, oedematous head, micrognathia, macroglossia, laryngeal oedema, narrow chest with pulmonary hypoplasia, gracile limbs with muscle atrophy, gracile and bent fingers, and a short umbilical cord. Based on the medical history, the course of the disease and the phenotype of the newborn, Pena-Shokeir syndrome type I was diagnosed. In the second part of the article, we review the etiology, pathogenesis, prenatal diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this syndrome, as well as some aspects of genetic counseling in such cases. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Pena-Shokeir syndrome in Hungary.

  12. Genetic analysis of Tunisian families with Usher syndrome type 1: toward improving early molecular diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Rebeh, Imen; Bonnet, Crystel; Bouassida, Walid; Hadjamor, Imen; Ayadi, Hammadi; Ghorbel, Abdelmonem; Petit, Christine; Masmoudi, Saber

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Usher syndrome accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deaf-blindness cases. The most severe form of this syndrome, Usher syndrome type I (USH1), is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. Six USH1 genes have been identified, MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, SANS, and CIB2, encoding myosin VIIA, cadherin-23, protocadherin-15, harmonin, scaffold protein containing ankyrin repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, and calcium- and integrin-binding member 2, respectively. Methods In the present study, we recruited four Tunisian families with a diagnosis of USH1, together with healthy unrelated controls. Affected members underwent detailed audiologic and ocular examinations. We used the North African Deafness (NADf) chip to search for known North African mutations associated with USH. Then, we selected microsatellite markers covering USH1 known loci to genotype the DNA samples. Finally, we performed DNA sequencing of three known USH1 genes: MYO7A, PCDH15, and USH1C. Results Four biallelic mutations, all single base changes, were found in the MYO7A, USH1C, and PCDH15 genes. These mutations consist of a previously reported splicing defect c.470+1G>A in MYO7A, three novel variants, including two nonsense (p.Arg3X and p.Arg134X) in USH1C and PCDH15, respectively, and one frameshift (p.Lys615Asnfs*6) in MYO7A. Conclusions We found a remarkable genetic heterogeneity in the studied families with USH1 with a variety of mutations, among which three were novel. These novel mutations will be included in the NADf mutation screening chip that will allow a higher diagnosis efficiency of this extremely genetically heterogeneous disease. Ultimately, efficient molecular diagnosis of USH in a patient’s early childhood is of utmost importance, allowing better educational and therapeutic management. PMID:27440999

  13. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome mutations in type III collagen differently stall the triple helical folding.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kazunori; Boudko, Sergei; Engel, Jürgen; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2013-06-28

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is the most severe form of EDS. In many cases the disease is caused by a point mutation of Gly in type III collagen. A slower folding of the collagen helix is a potential cause for over-modifications. However, little is known about the rate of folding of type III collagen in patients with EDS. To understand the molecular mechanism of the effect of mutations, a system was developed for bacterial production of homotrimeric model polypeptides. The C-terminal quarter, 252 residues, of the natural human type III collagen was attached to (GPP)7 with the type XIX collagen trimerization domain (NC2). The natural collagen domain forms a triple helical structure without 4-hydroxylation of proline at a low temperature. At 33 °C, the natural collagenous part is denatured, but the C-terminal (GPP)7-NC2 remains intact. Switching to a low temperature triggers the folding of the type III collagen domain in a zipper-like fashion that resembles the natural process. We used this system for the two known EDS mutations (Gly-to-Val) in the middle at Gly-910 and at the C terminus at Gly-1018. In addition, wild-type and Gly-to-Ala mutants were made. The mutations significantly slow down the overall rate of triple helix formation. The effect of the Gly-to-Val mutation is much more severe compared with Gly-to-Ala. This is the first report on the folding of collagen with EDS mutations, which demonstrates local delays in the triple helix propagation around the mutated residue.

  14. Type II diabetes of early onset: a distinct clinical and genetic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    O'Rahilly, S; Spivey, R S; Holman, R R; Nugent, Z; Clark, A; Turner, R C

    1987-01-01

    The inheritance of non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes was studied by a continuous infusion of glucose test in all available first degree relatives of 48 diabetic probands of various ages and with differing severity of disease. In an initial study of 38 type II diabetic subjects and their first degree relatives six islet cell antibody negative patients with early onset disease (aged 25-40 at diagnosis) were found to have a particularly high familial prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance. Nine of 10 parents available for study either had type II diabetes or were glucose intolerant. A high prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance was also found in their siblings (11/16;69%). In a second study of the families of a further 10 young diabetic probands (presenting age 25-40) whose islet cell antibody state was unknown a similar high prevalence of diabetes or glucose intolerance was found among parents of the five islet cell antibody negative probands (8/9; 89%) but not among parents of the five islet cell antibody positive probands (3/8;38%). Islet cell antibody negative diabetics with early onset type II disease may have inherited a diabetogenic gene or genes from both parents. They commonly need insulin to maintain adequate glycaemic control and may develop severe diabetic complications. Early onset type II diabetes may represent a syndrome in which characteristic pedigrees, clinical severity, and absence of islet autoimmunity make it distinct from either type I diabetes, maturity onset diabetes of the young, or late onset type II diabetes. PMID:3107658

  15. Impaired Empathic Abilities among Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Type I)

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Hong-Suk; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Noh, Eun Chung; Choi, Soo-Hee; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate differences in empathic abilities between patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Type I and healthy control subjects (HCs) and to assess correlations between empathic abilities and multidimensional aspects of pain. Methods Empathic ability was measured in 32 patients with CRPS Type I and in 36 HCs using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). A comprehensive assessment of pain was conducted in the patient group using the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI). Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI and BAI), and quality of life was evaluated using the WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Results Patients with CRPS showed impaired cognitive and emotional empathic abilities compared with HCs. Significantly lower levels of perspective taking and empathic concern and higher levels of personal distress on the IRI were exhibited by the patient group. Perspective taking and personal distress were associated with affective distress and poor quality of life in social contexts (BDI, BAI, and WHOQOL). However, empathic concern was positively correlated with pain severity and social support from others (WHYMPI). Conclusion A tendency toward self-oriented distress in social cognition was exhibited among patients with CRPS Type I. Impaired empathic ability was shown to have potentially negative effects on subjective emotional outcomes and social performance in the lives of patients. Interventions to improve emotional awareness and theory of mind would be beneficial for enhancing social functioning in patients with CRPS Type I. PMID:26766944

  16. Analysis of locus heterogeneity in Waardenburg syndrome types 1 and 2 using highly informative microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, J E; Arnos, K S; Landa, B; Stevens, C A; Salbert, B A; Wright, L; Duke, B; Hunt, W; Marazita, M L; Ploughman, L

    1995-01-01

    We performed linkage and locus heterogeneity analyses of Waardenburg syndrome (WS) types 1 and 2 using 9 DNA markers from 2q35-q37, including two highly polymorphic microsatellites very closely linked to the PAX3 candidate gene. None of 5 WS type 2 (WS2) families showed linkage to the PAX3 candidate region. We localized the marker D2S102 to less than 1 cM from PAX3 (lod = 33.7, theta = 0), but a complete absence of crossovers prevented determining whether it maps distal or proximal to PAX3. Study of 14 WS type 1 (WS1) families yielded a maximum lod score of 27.81 at PAX3, theta f = 0.010, theta = 0.007 assuming homogeneity. However, we found significant evidence of locus heterogeneity, with one family initially classified as WS1 unlinked to the PAX3 region. Reevaluation of the clinical features of this family revealed atypical morphology of inner canthi. This produced the appearance of dystopia canthorum and high W-index scores. While our one unlinked WS1 family exhibits atypical canthal morphology, our type 1 families with classic dystopia appear to be homogeneously linked to PAX3. These and other findings identify precautions that need to be addressed before using PAX3-linked markers for diagnostic purposes.

  17. Predicting the age of the mutation for Usher syndrome type I in the Acadian population

    SciTech Connect

    Nouri, N.; Risch, N.J.; Pelias, M.Z.

    1994-09-01

    The locus for Usher syndrome type I (USH1C) in the Acadian population is in the p15.1-p14 region of chromosome 11. This recessive disease is characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment, vestibular dysfunction, and pigmentary retinopathy. Three separate loci have been localized for Usher syndrome type I. All Acadian, but no non-Acadian, families show linkage to the 11p locus, suggesting a founder effect in the Acadian population. Linkage and haplotype analyses of eight markers spanning 10 centiMorgans demonstrate that USH1C lies between D11S1397 and D11S1310. Based on analyses of Usher and CEPH families the most likely linkage map for the eight markers is: D11S569-(.02)-D11S861-(.01)-D11S419-(.01)-D11S1397-(.004)-D11S921-(.007)-D11S1310-(.01)-D11S899-(.04)-D11S928. Evidence of linkage disequilibrium with USH1C was found for all markers, indicating a recent origin of a unique mutation. Parental haplotypes were separated into those with the disease allele and those with the normal allele at the USH1C locus. Of the 54 chromosomes with the disease allele, 17 had an identical haplotype for the eight markers. All but one of the haplotypes on the remaining 37 chromosomes could be explained by a few recombination events, suggesting that a single mutation is responsible for nearly all cases of Usher syndrome type I in the Acadian population. The same alleles were found at D11S921 and D11S1310 on 50 of the 54 chromosomes with the disease allele and on only 5 of the 50 chromosomes with the normal allele. Analysis of recombination and linkage disequilibrium between USH1C and each of the markers suggests that the age of the mutation is approximately 15 generations, which corresponds with the time that the Acadians arrived in the Canadian territory of Acadia. The analysis indicates that this mutation was already established in the Acadians who made their way to Louisiana after 1755.

  18. Alport syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS) -- This is the rarest type. Males and females have equally severe disease. Symptoms KIDNEYS With all types of Alport syndrome the kidneys are affected. The tiny blood vessels in the glomeruli of the kidneys are ...

  19. Turcot Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of brain tumors in Turcot syndrome are: Glioblastoma . This type of brain tumor is a very ... to generation in a family. In families with glioblastoma and other features of Lynch syndrome, mutations (alterations) ...

  20. Multimodal image analysis of the retina in Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II): Case report.

    PubMed

    Salvucci, Isadora Darriba Macedo; Finzi, Simone; Oyamada, Maria Kiyoko; Kim, Chong Ae; Pimentel, Sérgio Luis Gianotti

    2017-08-18

    We report a case of retinal and posterior ocular findings in a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Hunter syndrome (Mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a multimodal imaging way. Our patient was complaining of blurred night vision for the past 3 years. He had not received any systemic treatment for Hunter syndrome. Vision acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and corneas were clear. Fundus examination revealed bilateral crowded and hyperemic optic nerve heads (elevated in the ocular ultrasound) and areas of subretinal hypopigmentation. There was hyperautofluorescence at the central fovea and perifovea, and a diffuse bilateral choroidal fluorescence in angiography. Macular SD-OCT showed a thinning of the external retina at the perifovea in both eyes. Visual field testing showed a bilateral ring scotoma. The full field ERG was subnormal, with a negative response in the scotopic phase. Visual Evoked Potencial test and cranial MRI were normal. Our multimodal analysis reported here attempted to contribute to the knowledge of the natural history of GAG deposition in the eye, focusing on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Defining this natural history is essential for a proper comparison with Hunter patients receiving systemic treatment, thus determining if it can or cannot improve retinal function in humans with this disorder.

  1. [Mutation screening of MITF gene in patients with Waardenburg syndrome type 2].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Shu-Zhi; Liu, Jun; Han, Bing; Wang, Guo-Jian; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Dong-Yang; Dai, Pu; Young, Wie-Yen; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Warrgenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is the most common autosomal dominantly-inherited syndrome with hearing loss. MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor)is a basic-helix-loop-helix-luecine zipper (bHLHZip) factor which regulates expression of tyrosinase, and is involved in melanocyte differentiation. Mutations in MITF associated with WS2 have been identified in some but not all affected families. Here, we report a three-generation Chinese family with a point mutation in the MITF gene causing WS2. The proband exhibits congenital severe sensorineural hearing loss, heterochromia iridis and facial freckles. One of family members manifests sensorineural deafness, and the other patients show premature greying or/and freckles. This mutation, heterozygous deletion c.639delA, creates a stop codon in exon 7 and is predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking normal interaction with its target DNA motif. This mutation is a novel mutation and the third case identified in exon 7 of MITF in WS2. Though there is only one base pair distance between this novel mutation and the other two documented cases and similar amino acids change, significant difference is seen in clinical phenotype, which suggests genetic background may play an important role.

  2. In-hospital acute myocardial infarction: A case of type II Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marinheiro, Rita; Amador, Pedro; Semedo, Filipa; Sá, Catarina; Duarte, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Sara; Seixo, Filipe; Caria, Rui

    2017-05-01

    Kounis syndrome (KS) is the coincidental occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and anaphylactic or allergic insult. It results from mast cell degranulation with subsequent release of numerous inflammatory mediators, leading to coronary vasospasm or atheromatous plaque rupture. Diagnosis is clinical and based on the temporal relationship between the two events. Despite the growing number of reported cases, especially in southern Europe, the lack of awareness of this association may lead to under-reporting in Portugal. Recognition of KS, even if retrospective, has clinical implications since individual atopy must be investigated and desensitization measures should be employed, if possible, to prevent future events. We report the case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted to hospital because of generalized exanthema and itching and onset of chest pain while under observation. Coronary angiography confirmed coronary artery disease and ACS and he was diagnosed as having type II KS. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The Metabolic Syndrome and Microvascular Complications in a Murine Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Junguk; Dauch, Jacqueline R.; Hinder, Lucy M.; Hayes, John M.; Backus, Carey; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kretzler, Matthias; Brosius, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    To define the components of the metabolic syndrome that contribute to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we treated the BKS db/db mouse, an established murine model of T2DM and the metabolic syndrome, with the thiazolidinedione class drug pioglitazone. Pioglitazone treatment of BKS db/db mice produced a significant weight gain, restored glycemic control, and normalized measures of serum oxidative stress and triglycerides but had no effect on LDLs or total cholesterol. Moreover, although pioglitazone treatment normalized renal function, it had no effect on measures of large myelinated nerve fibers, specifically sural or sciatic nerve conduction velocities, but significantly improved measures of small unmyelinated nerve fiber architecture and function. Analyses of gene expression arrays of large myelinated sciatic nerves from pioglitazone-treated animals revealed an unanticipated increase in genes related to adipogenesis, adipokine signaling, and lipoprotein signaling, which likely contributed to the blunted therapeutic response. Similar analyses of dorsal root ganglion neurons revealed a salutary effect of pioglitazone on pathways related to defense and cytokine production. These data suggest differential susceptibility of small and large nerve fibers to specific metabolic impairments associated with T2DM and provide the basis for discussion of new treatment paradigms for individuals with T2DM and DPN. PMID:25979075

  4. [Brain abscess caused by Haemophilus influenzae type E in a pediatric patient suffering from Apert syndrome].

    PubMed

    Isasmendi, Adela M; Pinheiro, José L; Escudé, Natalia García; Efrón, Adriana M; Moscoloni, María A; Hernández, Claudia M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a brain abscess caused by Haemophilus influenzae type e in a 12 year-old patient suffering from Apert syndrome. Apert syndrome is characterized by the premature closure of cranial sutures. In 2010 the patient suffered head trauma in the frontal area with cranial fracture and a cerebrospinal fluid fistula. In February 2013 he was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and generalized tonic-clonic seizure with deteriorating mental status/progressive sensory impairment. The computerized axial tomographic scan showed a right frontal lesion, perilesional edema, mild ventricular dilatation and pansinusitis. A brain abscess was diagnosed and drained. The clinical sample was then cultured. A gram negative coccobacillus was isolated and identified as Haemophilus influenzae serotype e. Empirical treatment was started with meropenem (120 mg/kg/day) and vancomycin (60 mg/kg/day), which was later switched to ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day) and metronidazole (500 mg/8 h) after culture results arrived. The patient was discharged in good clinical condition.

  5. The Metabolic Syndrome and Microvascular Complications in a Murine Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hur, Junguk; Dauch, Jacqueline R; Hinder, Lucy M; Hayes, John M; Backus, Carey; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kretzler, Matthias; Brosius, Frank C; Feldman, Eva L

    2015-09-01

    To define the components of the metabolic syndrome that contribute to diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we treated the BKS db/db mouse, an established murine model of T2DM and the metabolic syndrome, with the thiazolidinedione class drug pioglitazone. Pioglitazone treatment of BKS db/db mice produced a significant weight gain, restored glycemic control, and normalized measures of serum oxidative stress and triglycerides but had no effect on LDLs or total cholesterol. Moreover, although pioglitazone treatment normalized renal function, it had no effect on measures of large myelinated nerve fibers, specifically sural or sciatic nerve conduction velocities, but significantly improved measures of small unmyelinated nerve fiber architecture and function. Analyses of gene expression arrays of large myelinated sciatic nerves from pioglitazone-treated animals revealed an unanticipated increase in genes related to adipogenesis, adipokine signaling, and lipoprotein signaling, which likely contributed to the blunted therapeutic response. Similar analyses of dorsal root ganglion neurons revealed a salutary effect of pioglitazone on pathways related to defense and cytokine production. These data suggest differential susceptibility of small and large nerve fibers to specific metabolic impairments associated with T2DM and provide the basis for discussion of new treatment paradigms for individuals with T2DM and DPN.

  6. Waardenburg syndrome type I: Dental phenotypes and genetic analysis of an extended family

    PubMed Central

    de Aquino, Sibele-Nascimento; Paranaíba, Lívia-Maris-R.; Gomes, Andreia; dos-Santos-Neto, Pedro; Coletta, Ricardo-D.; Cardoso, Aline-Francoise; Frota, Ana-Cláudia; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of inheritance and the clinical features in a large family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1), detailing the dental abnormalities and screening for PAX3 mutations. Material and Methods To characterize the pattern of inheritance and clinical features, 29 family members were evaluated by dermatologic, ophthalmologic, otorhinolaryngologic and orofacial examination. Molecular analysis of the PAX3 gene was performed. Results The pedigree of the family,including the last four generations, was constructed and revealed non-consanguineous marriages. Out of 29 descendants, 16 family members showed features of WS1, with 9 members showing two major criteria indicative of WS1. Five patients showed white forelock and iris hypopigmentation, and four showed dystopia canthorum and iris hypopigmentation. Two patients had hearing loss. Dental abnormalities were identified in three family members, including dental agenesis, conical teeth and taurodontism. Sequencing analysis failed to identify mutations in the PAX3 gene. Conclusions These results confirm that WS1 was transmitted in this family in an autosomal dominant pattern with variable expressivity and high penetrance. The presence of dental manifestations, especially tooth agenesis and conical teeth which resulted in considerable aesthetic impact on affected individuals was a major clinical feature. Clinical relevance: This article reveals the presence of well-defined dental changes associated with WS1 and tries to establish a possible association between these two entities showing a new spectrum of WS1. Key words:Waardenburg syndrome, hearing loss, oral manifestations, mutation. PMID:27031059

  7. [Type 1 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome associated with C322fsx372 mutation].

    PubMed

    Roncalés-Samanes, P; de Arriba Muñoz, A; Lou Francés, G M; Ferrer Lozano, M; Justa Roldán, M L; Labarta Aizpun, J I

    2015-01-01

    Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes are rare diseases based on autoimmune mechanisms in which endocrine and non-endocrine disorders coexist. In type 1 the characteristic manifestations are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. A case is presented of a patient with typical clinical sequence, along with other changes, and in whom a mutation in homozygosis, C322fsX372, was detected after performing a molecular analysis of autoimmunity regulator gene (AIRE). Inheritance is autosomal recessive, associated with mutations in the AIRE gene, which encodes a protein involved in autoimmunity and immunodeficiency. For diagnosis, At least two of the three major clinical manifestations are required for a diagnosis. However, only one of them is necessary in the study of relatives of affected patients. These syndromes must be diagnosed early, given their high morbidity and mortality. Every manifestation needs to be treated, in order to maintain the quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Similarities in serum acylcarnitine patterns in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus and in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bene, Judit; Márton, Magdolna; Mohás, Márton; Bagosi, Zoltán; Bujtor, Zoltán; Oroszlán, Tamás; Gasztonyi, Beáta; Wittmann, Istvan; Melegh, Bela

    2013-01-01

    In type 1 diabetes (T1D), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), the associated complex metabolomic changes in the involvement of carnitine metabolism in total carnitine ester level has already been documented; here we extended the investigations to the individual acylcarnitines. The fasting serum acylcarnitine concentrations were determined in 49 T1D, 38 T2D and 38 MetS patients and 40 controls by isotope dilution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The acylcarnitine profiles of the 3patient groups shared elements with the controls. Considerably higher levels of almost all short-chain acylcarnitines (p < 0.05) and lower levels of some long-chain acylcarnitines were detected in T2D and MetS patients. The amounts of C3 and C4 carnitine were higher and most of the medium-chain and long-chain acylcarnitine levels were lower (p < 0.05) in T1D and MetS patients than in the controls. In T1D and T2D, the levels of C3 and C4 acylcarnitines were markedly elevated and some long-chain acylcarnitines were lower than the controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, significantly lower concentrations of free- and total carnitine were observed in T1D patients (p < 0.05). Profound alterations were detected in acylcarnitine profiles in the 3 patient groups. Similarities in the patterns suggest different degrees of involvement of the same metabolic systems in a systems biology approach. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Waardenburg syndrome type I in a child with de novo inversion (2)(q35q37.3).

    PubMed

    Ishikiriyama, S; Tonoki, H; Shibuya, Y; Chin, S; Harada, N; Abe, K; Niikawa, N

    1989-08-01

    We report on a child with Waardenburg syndrome type I and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 2. This 20 month-old boy has dystopia canthorum, sensorineural deafness, heterochromia iridis, partially albinotic ocular fundi, and partial leukodermia. He does not have mental retardation or any skeletal abnormalities. Family history was unremarkable. Cytogenetic studies demonstrated that the patient has a paracentric inversion (2)(q35q37.3); his parents have normal chromosomes. These findings suggest that the locus of the gene for Waardenburg syndrome type I may be at 2q35 or 2q37.3.

  10. Anti glutamate-decarboxylase antibodies: a liaison between localisation related epilepsy, stiff-person syndrome and type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Anna; Barcs, Gábor; Winkler, Gábor; Soós, Zsuzsanna; Folyovich, András; Kelemen, Anna; Várallyay, Péter; Kamondi, Anita

    2014-07-30

    We present two patients with partial epilepsy, type-1 diabetes and stiff person syndrome associated with high serum auto-antibody levels to glutamate-decarboxylase (anti-GAD). Both patients were or have suffered from additional autoimmune conditions. The presence of stiff person syndrome and elevated anti-GAD levels have to make clinicians look for additional autoimmune conditions including type-1 diabetes. On the other hand, the co-morbidity of partial epilepsy with autoimmune conditions in patients with elevated serum anti-GAD suggests an autoimmune mechanism of partial epilepsy in these cases.

  11. The use of cone beam computed tomography for the assessment of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneima, Ahmed; Sachdeva, Kanwar; Hartsfield, James; Weaver, David; Kula, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cone-shaped epiphysis, sparse fine hair, pear-shaped nose and variable growth retardation. The typical craniofacial features include thin upper lip, elongated philtrum, large outstanding ears, shortened posterior facial height associated with short mandibular ramus and reduced and superiorly deflected posterior cranial base. This report describes a 17-year-old male patient with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I and a detailed description of the craniofacial radiographic findings, including the use of cone beam computed tomography images for determination of the airway and temporomandibular joint discrepancies. PMID:23524547

  12. [Study on relationship between estrogen receptor gene polymorphism and syndrome differentiation typing of female postmenopausal osteoporosis in Traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    An, S; Li, E; Tong, X

    2000-12-01

    To study the relationship between estrogen gene polymorphism and TCM Syndrome Differentiation of female postmenopausal osteoporosis in China. Two hundred and forty-six Chinese postmenopausal women, age 44-80 years, mean 65.8 years, using molecular biological method to analyze the endonuclease Pvu II, Xba I restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), with dual X-ray bone mineral density absorption meter to determine the bone mineral densities of lumbar vertebra (L1-4) and femur (intertrochanter, femur neck, Ward's region) separately. The subjects were divided into Kidney Yin deficiency type, Kidney Yang deficiency type and both Kidney Yin-Yang deficiency type, to observe the relationship between TCM and bone density as well as estrogen receptor gene polymorphism, Pp(Pvu II) and Xx(Xba I) were used to express RFLPs, the capital P and X to express the deficit of restricting sites. Bone mineral density of PPxx gene type (n = 21) was obviously lower than that of other gene types (n = 225), lumbar (-0.71 +/- 0.46) g/cm2, intertrochanter (-0.31 +/- 0.58) g/cm2, femur neck (-0.84 +/- 0.66) g/cm2, Ward's region (-0.96 +/- 0.85) g/cm2, the TCM Syndrome Differentiation typing of this gene type belonged to both Kidney Yin-Yang deficiency type. Estrogen receptor gene RFLPs is related to TCM Syndrome Differentiation typing.

  13. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: relevance of its modulation in the pathophysiology of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C D; Azevedo, I; Monteiro, R; Martins, M J

    2012-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly argues for a pathogenic role of glucocorticoids and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that includes insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidaemia, hypertension and visceral obesity. This has been partially prompted not only by the striking clinical resemblances between the metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome (a state characterized by hypercortisolism that associates with metabolic syndrome components) but also from monogenic rodent models for the metabolic syndrome (e.g. the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse or the leptin-resistant Zucker rat) that display overall increased secretion of glucocorticoids. However, systemic circulating glucocorticoids are not elevated in obese patients and/or patients with metabolic syndrome. The study of the role of 11β-HSD system shed light on this conundrum, showing that local glucocorticoids are finely regulated in a tissue-specific manner at the pre-receptor level. The system comprises two microsomal enzymes that either activate cortisone to cortisol (11β-HSD1) or inactivate cortisol to cortisone (11β-HSD2). Transgenic rodent models, knockout (KO) for HSD11B1 or with HSD11B1 or HSD11B2 overexpression, specifically targeted to the liver or adipose tissue, have been developed and helped unravel the currently undisputable role of the enzymes in metabolic syndrome pathophysiology, in each of its isolated components and in their prevention. In the transgenic HSD11B1 overexpressing models, different features of the metabolic syndrome and obesity are replicated. HSD11B1 gene deficiency or HSD11B2 gene overexpression associates with improvements in the metabolic profile. In face of these demonstrations, research efforts are now being turned both into the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 as a possible pharmacological target and into the role of dietary habits on the

  14. Concurrent vaccination of pigs with type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protects against type 1 PRRSV but not against type 2 PRRSV on dually challenged pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae-; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent vaccination of pigs with both type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine against heterologous dual challenge of both genotypes and compare with single vaccination of pigs against heterologous single challenge of both genotypes. Pigs were administered both type 1 and type 2 PRRSV vaccine concurrently into separate anatomical sites at 28 days of age and inoculated intranasally with both genotypes at 63 days of age. Neutralizing antibodies (NA) were not detected in any pigs in any group (NA titer <2 log2) throughout the experiment. In addition, concurrent vaccination of pigs with two PRRSV genotypes had significantly lower numbers of type 1 and type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to vaccination of pigs with type 1 or type 2 PRRSV only. Despite the decreased induction of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC, concurrent vaccination is still able to reduce type 1 PRRSV viremia whereas the decreased induction of type 2 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC by concurrent vaccination correlates with lack of reduction of type 2 PRRSV viremia after dual challenge. The results of this study demonstrated that concurrent vaccination of pigs with two PRRSV genotypes is able to reduce the levels of type 1 PRRSV viremia and lung lesions but not able to reduce the levels of type 2 PRRSV viremia and lung lesions.

  15. Initial observations of human dermatosparaxis: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC.

    PubMed

    Wertelecki, W; Smith, L T; Byers, P

    1992-10-01

    We describe initial observations of an infant with dermatosparaxis (another form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, designated as type VIIC), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skin fragility and described in several species of domesticated animals. Electron microscopic examination of the skin shows collagen sheets rather than fibrils, and characteristic distortions resembling hieroglyphs. In addition to skin fragility, the disorder is characterized by redundant skin folds and edema, healing with minimal scar formation, large fontanels and wide sagittal and metopic sutures, blue sclerae, micrognathia, and umbilical hernia; after the neonatal period there are joint laxity, growth failure, short limbs, and normal mineralization of the skeleton except for the cranial vault. This disorder may also be a cause of premature rupture of placental membranes and myopia.

  16. Epilepsy Mechanisms in Neurocutaneous Disorders: Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Neurofibromatosis Type 1, and Sturge–Weber Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stafstrom, Carl E.; Staedtke, Verena; Comi, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Neurocutaneous disorders are multisystem diseases affecting skin, brain, and other organs. Epilepsy is very common in the neurocutaneous disorders, affecting up to 90% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS), for example. The mechanisms underlying the increased predisposition to brain hyperexcitability differ between disorders, yet some molecular pathways overlap. For instance, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade plays a central role in seizures and epileptogenesis in numerous acquired and genetic disorders, including several neurocutaneous disorders. Potential routes for target-specific treatments are emerging as the genetic and molecular pathways involved in neurocutaneous disorders become increasingly understood. This review explores the clinical features and mechanisms of epilepsy in three common neurocutaneous disorders—TSC, neurofibromatosis type 1, and SWS. PMID:28367137

  17. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 1: Renal Dysfunction in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Kurt W.; Thenappan, Thenappan; Markowitz, Jeremy S.; Pritzker, Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To present a review of cardiorenal syndrome type 1 (CRS1). Methods Review of the literature. Results Acute kidney injury occurs in approximately one-third of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and the resultant condition was named CRS1. A growing body of literature shows CRS1 patients are at high risk for poor outcomes, and thus there is an urgent need to understand the pathophysiology and subsequently develop effective treatments. In this review we discuss prevalence, proposed pathophysiology including hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic factors, prognosticating variables, data for different treatment strategies, and ongoing clinical trials and highlight questions and problems physicians will face moving forward with this common and challenging condition. Conclusion Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiology of this complex clinical entity and to develop effective treatments. PMID:27158218

  18. Molecular analysis of patients of Sardinian descent with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I.

    PubMed Central

    Rosatelli, M C; Meloni, A; Faa, V; Saba, L; Crisponi, G; Clemente, M G; Meloni, G; Piga, M T; Cao, A

    1997-01-01

    This study reports the molecular characterisation of the bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase gene (UGT1) in a group of patients of Sardinian descent with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I and their relatives. Sequence analysis of both UGT1A exon 1 and common exons 2-5 was performed in all patients, leading to the detection of AF170 and a novel mutation (470insT), both residing in UGT1A exon 1. All but two heterozygotes for the AF170 mutation showed normal serum bilirubin levels. These two subjects were also heterozygous for the sequence variation A(TA)7TAA in the promoter region of the UGT1A gene. Images PMID:9039987

  19. Prevention of simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome with a formalin-inactivated type D retrovirus vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Marx, P A; Pedersen, N C; Lerche, N W; Osborn, K G; Lowenstine, L J; Lackner, A A; Maul, D H; Kwang, H S; Kluge, J D; Zaiss, C P

    1986-01-01

    Experimental induction of simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) by inoculation of juvenile rhesus monkeys with a type D retrovirus was prevented by immunization with Formalin-killed whole SAIDS retrovirus serotype 1 containing the adjuvant threonyl muramyl-dipeptide. All six immunized animals developed neutralizing antibody after three injections, while six age-matched cagemates receiving adjuvant alone were antibody free. All 12 monkeys were challenged intravenously with a potentially lethal dose of SAIDS retrovirus serotype 1. The six immunized animals failed to develop persistent viremia and remained clinically normal 8 months postchallenge. In contrast, five of six nonvaccinates developed persistent viremia, four of six developed clinical SAIDS, and two of six died with SAIDS at 10 weeks and 8 months postchallenge, respectively. These results show that prevention of a common spontaneous retrovirus-induced immunosuppressive disease in macaques is now possible by vaccination. PMID:3021978

  20. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I – a novel AIRE mutation in a North American patient

    PubMed Central

    Huibregtse, Kelly Egan; Wolfgram, Peter; Winer, Karen K.; Connor, Ellen L.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), also referred to as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare autoimmune disease that results from autosomal recessive mutations of the human autoimmune regulatory (AIRE) gene. We present the case of a 17-year-old North American girl of primarily Norwegian descent with a novel AIRE gene mutation causing APS-1. In addition to the classic triad of chronic candidiasis, hypoparathyoidism and autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency, she also has vitiligo, intestinal malabsorption, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune hypothyroidism, myositis, myalgias, chronic fatigue, and failure to thrive. Genetic testing revealed heterozygosity for c.20_115de196 and c.967_979del13 mutations in the AIRE gene. The AIRE gene c.20_115de196 mutation has not been previously reported. PMID:24945421

  1. Natural History of Sanfilippo Syndrome Type C in Boyacá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Harvy Mauricio; Sanchez, Yasmin; Martin, Angela Milena; Umaña, Luis A

    2017-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III, or Sanfilippo syndrome, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impairment in the degradation of Heparan sulfate. Here the authors describe the natural history of 5 related individuals; all associated through a large pedigree which reports a total of 11 affected members, originally from the Boyacá region in Colombia, diagnosed with MPS IIIC who all harbor a novel mutation in HGSNAT. The authors report an unusually high incidence of the disease in this population. The clinical features are similar to previously described patients, although some differences in the degree of severity and end-stage of the disease are seen in this specific group. The authors consider that the high degree of endogamy in this specific population could underlie modifying factors for the severity of presentation in these patients. Future studies might provide more information on the functional effect of this novel mutation, which could define this group as a genetic isolate.

  2. Glomerular Glucocorticoid Receptors Expression and Clinicopathological Types of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gamal, Yasser; Badawy, Ahlam; Swelam, Salwa; Tawfeek, Mostafa S K; Gad, Eman Fathalla

    2017-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are primary therapy of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, not all children respond to steroid therapy. We assessed glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression in fifty-one children with INS and its relation to response to steroid therapy and to histopathological type. Clinical, laboratory and glomerular expression of glucocorticoid receptors were compared between groups with different steroid response. Glomerular glucocorticoid expression was slightly higher in controls than in minimal change early responders, which in turn was significantly higher than in minimal change late responders. There was significantly lower glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression in steroid-resistance compared to early responders, late responders and controls. Glomerular glucocorticoid expression was significantly higher in all minimal change disease (MCD) compared to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In INS, response to glucocorticoid is dependent on glomerular expression of receptors and peripheral expression. Evaluation of glomerular glucocorticoid receptor expression at time of diagnosis of NS can predict response to steroid therapy.

  3. Evidence for genetic heterogeneity in the carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type I (CDG1)

    SciTech Connect

    Matthijs, G.; Legius, E.; Schollen, E.

    1996-08-01

    We have analyzed a series of polymorphic markers on chromosome 16p13 in 17 families with carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type I (CDG1). First, linkage to the region between D15S406 and D16S500 is confirmed. The telomeric border of the candidate region is now definitively placed proximal to D16S406 by crossovers observed in 2 families. Second, in 1 family with affected siblings, the disease is not linked to chromosome 16p. Genetic heterogeneity has not been previously reported for CDG1, and this observation has implications for prenatal diagnosis. Third, allelic associations suggest that the disease locus is localized close to D16S414/D16S497. This places the region of interest centromeric of its published localization. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Genetics of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome: what's new and what's old.

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Despite its identification in 1997, the functions of the MEN1 gene-the main gene underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome-are not yet fully understood. In addition, unlike the RET-MEN2 causative gene-no hot-spot mutational areas or genotype-phenotype correlations have been identified. More than 1,300 MEN1 gene mutations have been reported and are mostly "private" (family specific). Even when mutations are shared at an intra- or inter-familial level, the spectrum of clinical presentation is highly variable, even in identical twins. Despite these inherent limitations for genetic counseling, identifying MEN1 mutations in individual carriers offers them the opportunity to have lifelong clinical surveillance schemes aimed at revealing MEN1-associated tumors and lesions, dictates the timing and scope of surgical procedures, and facilitates specific mutation analysis of relatives to define presymptomatic carriers.

  5. High Incidence of BSCL2 Intragenic Recombinational Mutation in Peruvian Type 2 Berardinelli–Seip Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Purizaca-Rosillo, Nelson; Mori, Takayasu; Benites-Cóndor, Yamali; Hisama, Fuki M.; Martin, George M.; Oshima, Junko

    2017-01-01

    Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the absence of functional adipose tissue. We identified two pedigrees with CGL in the community of the Mestizo tribe in the northern region of Peru. Five cases, ranging from 15 months to 7 years of age, presented with generalized lipodystrophy, muscular prominence, mild intellectual disability, and a striking aged appearance. Sequencing of the BSCL2 gene, known to be mutated in type 2 CGL (CGL2; Berardinelli–Seip syndrome), revealed a homozygous deletion of exon 3 in all five patients examined, suggesting the presence of a founder mutation. This intragenic deletion appeared to be mediated by recombination between Alu sequences in introns 2 and 3. CGL2 in this population is likely underdiagnosed and undertreated because of its geographical, socio-economic, and cultural isolation. PMID:27868354

  6. Biochemical characterization of variants of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI.

    PubMed

    Ihme, A; Risteli, L; Krieg, T; Risteli, J; Feldmann, U; Kruse, K; Müller, P K

    1983-08-01

    Three variants of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI are described: a severe form with skeletal, dermal and ocular manifestations associated with a lack of hydroxylysine in skin and little lysyl hydroxylase activity in cultured fibroblasts; a similarly affected form with a nearly normal hydroxylsine content in skin, but with only little enzyme activity in cultured fibroblasts; and a predominantly ocular form with no biochemical abnormality in skin or cultured skin fibroblasts. The activities of prolyl 4-hydroxylase and the two hydroxylysyl glycosyltransferases were normal in all cases, and the failure to find lysyl hydroxylase activity was not due to altered solubility characteristics of the enzyme or to the presence of an enzyme inhibitor. The collagen produced in cell culture, however, was hydroxylated to a markedly higher extent than that found in skin. In both the mutant and control cells hydroxylation of lysyl residues was less sensitive to ascorbate deficiency than that of prolyl residues.

  7. Aortopulmonary window parathyroid gland causing primary hyperparathyroidism in men type 1 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Francesco; Biagini, Carlo; Giudici, Francesco; Cioppi, Federica; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is the most common endocrinopathy in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Supernumerary and/or ectopic parathyroid glands, potentially causes of persistent or recurrent HPT after surgery, have been previously described. However, this is the first ever described case of ectopic parathyroid gland localized in the aortopulmunary window causing HPT in MEN1. After a consistent concordant pre-operative imaging assessment the patient, a 16 years old male affected by a severe hypercalcemia, underwent surgery. The parathyroid was found very deeply near the tracheal bifurcation, hidden by the aortic arch itself and for this reason not visible at the beginning of the dissection but only after being identified by palpation for its typical consistence. The intraoperative PTH decreased at normal level 10 min after removal of the ectopic gland. The patient remained with normal value of calcemia and PTH during the 10 months of follow-up.

  8. Cardiac arrest secondary to type 2 Kounis syndrome resulting from urticaria and angioedema.

    PubMed

    Connor, Suzy; Child, Nick; Burdon-Jones, David; Connor, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    A 43-year-old man with no cardiac history presented with chest pain followed by cardiac arrest. He was successfully defibrillated and underwent primary percutaneous coronary angioplasty to a culprit coronary artery lesion. He later re-presented with a diffuse urticarial rash and lip swelling, reporting that these symptoms had been present for 4 weeks before his cardiac arrest and voicing concern that a further cardiac arrest may be imminent. A diagnosis of post-viral or idiopathic autoimmune urticaria and angioedema was made. Given the absence of cardiac symptoms before the development of the rash, it was hypothesised that coronary artery spasm precipitated by histamine release due to his dermatological condition contributed to his myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. The final diagnosis was therefore cardiac arrest secondary to type II Kounis syndrome, resulting from idiopathic autoimmune or post-viral urticaria and angioedema.

  9. Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 2 as the cause of Crigler-Najjar type I syndrome.

    PubMed

    Petit, François M; Gajdos, Vincent; Parisot, Frédéric; Capel, Liliane; Aboura, Azzedine; Lachaux, Alain; Tachdjian, Gérard; Poüs, Christian; Labrune, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN-I) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive metabolic disease due to a total deficiency of bilirubin uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase located on chromosome 2. We report on a child with CN-I due to a phenylalanine residue deletion inherited only from the father carrying this deletion at the heterozygous state. Cytogenetic analyses showed no deletion of the chromosomal 2q37 region. Microsatellite analysis of the child and his parents was consistent with paternal isodisomy for chromosome 2 in the child. This report demonstrates that uniparental disomy may be at the origin of very rare diseases transmitted as autosomal recessive traits and emphasizes the need for parental DNA analysis in such cases.

  10. Concise Review: Methods and Cell Types Used to Generate Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hibaoui, Youssef; Feki, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21), is the most common viable chromosomal disorder, with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births. Its phenotypic characteristics include intellectual impairment and several other developmental abnormalities, for the majority of which the pathogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Several models have been used to investigate the mechanisms by which the extra copy of chromosome 21 leads to the DS phenotype. In the last five years, several laboratories have been successful in reprogramming patient cells carrying the trisomy 21 anomaly into induced pluripotent stem cells, i.e., T21-iPSCs. In this review, we summarize the different T21-iPSCs that have been generated with a particular interest in the technical procedures and the somatic cell types used for the reprogramming. PMID:26239351

  11. Sanfilippo syndrome type B, a lysosomal storage disease, is also a tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Ohmi, Kazuhiro; Kudo, Lili C; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Zhao, Hui-Zhi; Karsten, Stanislav L; Neufeld, Elizabeth F

    2009-05-19

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B (mucopolysaccharidosis III B, MPS III B) is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disease of children, characterized by profound mental retardation and dementia. The primary cause is mutation in the NAGLU gene, resulting in deficiency of alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase and lysosomal accumulation of heparan sulfate. In the mouse model of MPS III B, neurons and microglia display the characteristic vacuolation of lysosomal storage of undegraded substrate, but neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) display accumulation of several additional substances. We used whole genome microarray analysis to examine differential gene expression in MEC neurons isolated by laser capture microdissection from Naglu(-/-) and Naglu(+/-) mice. Neurons from the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were used as tissue controls. The highest increase in gene expression (6- to 7-fold between mutant and control) in MEC and LEC neurons was that of Lyzs, which encodes lysozyme, but accumulation of lysozyme protein was seen in MEC neurons only. Because of a report that lysozyme induced the formation of hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau) in cultured neurons, we searched for P-tau by immunohistochemistry. P-tau was found in MEC of Naglu(-/-) mice, in the same neurons as lysozyme. In older mutant mice, it was also seen in the dentate gyrus, an area important for memory. Electron microscopy of dentate gyrus neurons showed cytoplasmic inclusions of paired helical filaments, P-tau aggregates characteristic of tauopathies-a group of age-related dementias that include Alzheimer disease. Our findings indicate that the Sanfilippo syndrome type B should also be considered a tauopathy.

  12. Type 1 Diabetes in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Syndrome (APECED): A "Rare" Manifestation in a "Rare" Disease.

    PubMed

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2016-07-12

    Type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE); the encoded Aire protein plays an important role in the establishment of the immunological tolerance acting as a transcriptional regulator of the expression of organ-specific antigens within the thymus in perinatal age. While a high prevalence for this rare syndrome is reported in Finland and Scandinavia (Norway), autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy syndrome (APECED) cohorts of patients are also detected in continental Italy and Sardinia, among Iranian Jews, as well as in other countries. The syndrome is diagnosed when patients present at least two out of the three fundamental disorders including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Among the associated conditions insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes) has been rarely reported in different series of patients and occurring more frequently in Finnish APECED patients. In this review, we analyze the incidence of Type 1 diabetes as a clinical manifestation of APECED in different populations highlighting the peculiar genetic and immunological features of the disease when occurring in the context of this syndrome.

  13. Tietz/Waardenburg type 2A syndrome associated with posterior microphthalmos in two unrelated patients with novel MITF gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Cortés-González, Vianney; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Guzmán-Sánchez, Martín; Giordano-Herrera, Verónica; Guadarrama-Vallejo, Dalia; Ruíz-Quintero, Narlly; Villanueva-Mendoza, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Tietz syndrome and Waardenburg syndrome type 2A are allelic conditions caused by MITF mutations. Tietz syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by congenital deafness and generalized skin, hair, and eye hypopigmentation, while Waardenburg syndrome type 2A typically includes variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss and patches of de-pigmented skin, hair, and irides. In this paper, we report two unrelated families with MITF mutations. The first family showed an autosomal dominant pattern and variable expressivity. The second patient was isolated. MITF gene analysis in the first family demonstrated a c.648A>C heterozygous mutation in exon 8 c.648A>C; p. (R216S), while in the isolated patient, an apparently de novo heterozygous c.1183_1184insG truncating mutation was demonstrated in exon 10. All patients except one had bilateral reduced ocular anteroposterior axial length and a high hyperopic refractive error corresponding to posterior microphthalmos, features that have not been described as part of the disease. Our results suggest that posterior microphthalmos might be part of the clinical characteristics of Tietz/Waardenburg syndrome type 2A and expand both the clinical and molecular spectrum of the disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. ACTA2 mutation with childhood cardiovascular, autonomic and brain anomalies and severe outcome.

    PubMed

    Meuwissen, Marije E C; Lequin, Maarten H; Bindels-de Heus, Karen; Bruggenwirth, Hennie T; Knapen, Maarten F C M; Dalinghaus, Michiel; de Coo, René; van Bever, Yolande; Winkelman, Beerend H J; Mancini, Grazia M S

    2013-06-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) are associated with connective tissue disorders like Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1, the TGFβ-receptor 1- and -2 genes, the SMAD3 and TGFβ2 genes, but have also been ascribed to ACTA2 gene mutations in adults, spread throughout the gene. We report on a novel de novo c.535C>T in exon 6 leading to p.R179C aminoacid substitution in ACTA2 in a toddler girl with primary pulmonary hypertension, persistent ductus arteriosus, extensive cerebral white matter lesions, fixed dilated pupils, intestinal malrotation, and hypotonic bladder. Recently, de novo ACTA2 R179H substitutions have been associated with a similar phenotype and additional cerebral developmental defects including underdeveloped corpus callosum and vermis hypoplasia in a single patient. The patient here shows previously undescribed abnormal lobulation of the frontal lobes and position of the gyrus cinguli and rostral dysplasis of the corpus callosum; she died at the age of 3 years during surgery due to vascular fragility and rupture of the ductus arteriosus. Altogether these observations support a role of ACTA2 in brain development, especially related to the arginine at position 179. Although all previously reported patients with R179H substitution successfully underwent the same surgery at younger ages, the severe outcome of our patient warns against the devastating effects of the R179C substitution on vasculature. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Impact of metabolic syndrome criteria on cardiovascular disease risk in people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guzder, R N; Gatling, W; Mullee, M A; Byrne, C D

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic implication of metabolic syndrome according to modified National Cholesterol Education Program criteria and the implication of individual features of metabolic syndrome on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CHD in a 5-year community-based study of people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. We entered 562 participants, aged 30-74 years, into a cross-sectional analysis and 428 participants (comprising those who were CVD-free at study entry) into a prospective analysis. In both analyses, the association of metabolic syndrome features with CVD/CHD was studied. Binary logistic regression, a Cox regression model and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. At diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome was independently associated with CVD (odds ratio [OR] 2.54; p=0.006) and CHD (OR 4.06; p=0.002). In the 5-year follow-up, metabolic syndrome at baseline was an independent predictor of incident CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 2.05; p=0.019). An increase in the number of individual features of the metabolic syndrome present at the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was associated with a linear increase in incident CVD risk (trend p=0.044) with an almost five-fold increase when all five features were present, compared with hyperglycaemia alone (HR 4.76; p=0.042). Increasing age (HR 1.07; p<0.001), female sex (HR 0.62; p=0.032), total cholesterol (HR 1.43; p=0.01) and lipid-lowering therapy (HR 0.32; p<0.001) were also independent predictors of risk. Metabolic syndrome at baseline is associated with an increased risk of incident CVD in the 5 years following diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. CVD-free survival rates declined incrementally as the presence of metabolic syndrome features increased. Thus, identifying the features of metabolic syndrome at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is potentially a useful prognostic tool for identifying individuals at increased risk of CVD.

  16. Delineation and diagnostic criteria of Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome type VI.

    PubMed

    Poretti, Andrea; Vitiello, Giuseppina; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Arrigoni, Filippo; Bertini, Enrico; Borgatti, Renato; Brancati, Francesco; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Faravelli, Francesca; Giordano, Lucio; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Iannicelli, Miriam; Kluger, Gerhard; Kyllerman, Marten; Landgren, Magnus; Lees, Melissa M; Pinelli, Lorenzo; Romaniello, Romina; Scheer, Ianina; Schwarz, Christoph E; Spiegel, Ronen; Tibussek, Daniel; Valente, Enza Maria; Boltshauser, Eugen

    2012-01-11

    Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome type VI (OFD VI) represents a rare phenotypic subtype of Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD). In the original report polydactyly, oral findings, intellectual disability, and absence of the cerebellar vermis at post-mortem characterized the syndrome. Subsequently, the molar tooth sign (MTS) has been found in patients with OFD VI, prompting the inclusion of OFD VI in JSRD. We studied the clinical, neurodevelopmental, neuroimaging, and genetic findings in a cohort of 16 patients with OFD VI. We derived the following inclusion criteria from the literature: 1) MTS and one oral finding and polydactyly, or 2) MTS and more than one typical oral finding. The OFD VI neuroimaging pattern was found to be more severe than in other JSRD subgroups and includes severe hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, hypoplastic and dysplastic cerebellar hemispheres, marked enlargement of the posterior fossa, increased retrocerebellar collection of cerebrospinal fluid, abnormal brainstem, and frequently supratentorial abnormalities that occasionally include characteristic hypothalamic hamartomas. Additionally, two new JSRD neuroimaging findings (ascending superior cerebellar peduncles and fused thalami) have been identified. Tongue hamartomas, additional frenula, upper lip notch, and mesoaxial polydactyly are specific findings in OFD VI, while cleft lip/palate and other types of polydactyly of hands and feet are not specific. Involvement of other organs may include ocular findings, particularly colobomas. The majority of the patients have absent motor development and profound cognitive impairment. In OFD VI, normal cognitive functions are possible, but exceptional. Sequencing of known JSRD genes in most patients failed to detect pathogenetic mutations, therefore the genetic basis of OFD VI remains unknown. Compared with other JSRD subgroups, the neurological findings and impairment of motor development and cognitive functions in OFD VI are significantly

  17. Metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes in youth: from diagnosis to treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in youth is a worldwide public health problem. Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescents have a substantial effect upon many systems, resulting in clinical conditions such as metabolic syndrome, early atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity and the type of body fat distribution are still the core aspects of insulin resistance and seem to be the physiopathologic links common to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and T2D. The earlier the appearance of the clustering of risk factors and the higher the time of exposure, the greater will be the chance of developing coronary disease with a more severe endpoint. The age when the event may occur seems to be related to the presence and aggregation of risk factors throughout life. The treatment in this age-group is non pharmacological and aims at promoting changes in lifestyle. However, pharmacological treatments are indicated in special situations. The major goals in dietary treatments are not only limited to weight loss, but also to an improvement in the quality of life. Modification of risk factors associated to comorbidities, personal satisfaction of the child or adolescent and trying to establish healthy life habits from an early age are also important. There is a continuous debate on the best possible exercise to do, for children or adolescents, in order to lose weight. The prescription of physical activity to children and adolescents requires extensive integrated work among multidisciplinary teams, patients and their families, in order to reach therapeutic success. The most important conclusion drawn from this symposium was that if the growing prevalence of overweight and obesity continues at this pace, the result will be a population of children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome. This would lead to high mortality rates in young adults, changing the current increasing trend of worldwide longevity. Government actions and a better

  18. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Patients with Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sastalla, Inka; Williams, Kelli W.; Anderson, Erik D.; Myles, Ian A.; Reckhow, Jensen D.; Espinoza-Moraga, Marlene; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Datta, Sandip K.

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). This immune disorder is clinically characterized by increased susceptibility to cutaneous and sinopulmonary infections, in particular with Candida and Staphylococcus aureus. It has recently been recognized that the skin microbiome of patients with AD-HIES is altered with an overrepresentation of certain Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive staphylococci. However, these alterations have not been characterized at the species- and strain-level. Since S. aureus infections are influenced by strain-specific expression of virulence factors, information on colonizing strain characteristics may provide insights into host-pathogen interactions and help guide management strategies for treatment and prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the immunodeficiency of AD-HIES selects for unique strains of colonizing S. aureus. Using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), protein A (spa) typing, and PCR-based detection of toxin genes, we performed a detailed analysis of the S. aureus isolates (n = 13) found on the skin of twenty-one patients with AD-HIES. We found a low diversity of sequence types, and an abundance of strains that expressed methicillin resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), and staphylococcal enterotoxins K and Q (SEK, SEQ). Our results indicate that patients with AD-HIES may often carry antibiotic-resistant strains that harbor key virulence factors. PMID:28587312

  19. Dual compression is not an uncommon type of iliac vein compression syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wan-Yin; Gu, Jian-Ping; Liu, Chang-Jian; Lou, Wen-Sheng; He, Xu

    2017-03-13

    Typical iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) is characterized by compression of left common iliac vein (LCIV) by the overlying right common iliac artery (RCIA). We described an underestimated type of IVCS with dual compression by right and left common iliac arteries (LCIA) simultaneously. Thirty-one patients with IVCS were retrospectively included. All patients received trans-catheter venography and computed tomography (CT) examinations for diagnosing and evaluating IVCS. Late venography and reconstructed CT were used for evaluating the anatomical relationship among LCIV, RCIA and LCIA. Imaging manifestations as well as demographic data were collected and evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Sole and dual compression were found in 32.3% (n = 10) and 67.7% (n = 21) of 31 patients respectively. No statistical differences existed between them in terms of age, gender, LCIV diameter at the maximum compression point, pressure gradient across stenosis, and the percentage of compression level. On CT and venography, sole compression was commonly presented with a longitudinal compression at the orifice of LCIV while dual compression was usually presented as two types: one had a lengthy stenosis along the upper side of LCIV and the other was manifested by a longitudinal compression near to the orifice of external iliac vein. The presence of dual compression seemed significantly correlated with the tortuous LCIA (p = 0.006). Left common iliac vein can be presented by dual compression. This type of compression has typical manifestations on late venography and CT.

  20. Lynch syndrome--related endometrial carcinomas show a high frequency of nonendometrioid types and of high FIGO grade endometrioid types.

    PubMed

    Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Radice, Paolo; Casalini, Patrizia; Bertario, Lucio; Merola, Marina; Sala, Paolo

    2010-02-01

    Although endometrial cancer (EC) represents the second most common cancer after colonic cancer in patients with Lynch syndrome (LS), the pathologic features and behavior of LS-related EC are not well recognized. ECs from 23 patients (mean age 46.2 years) with MSH2 (16), MLH1 (6), and MLH1/MSH2 (1) constitutional mutations were evaluated for histologic type, FIGO grade, FIGO stage, association with tumors in other sites, and survival. For every LS-associated tumor, 2 same-age cases from patients with no family history of LS-associated cancer were evaluated (sporadic group). In LS-associated EC there were 13 (56.5%) endometrioid (eec) and 10 (43.5%) nonendometrioid carcinomas (neec), and among the sporadic tumors there were 44 (95.7%) eec and 2 (4.3%) neec (P = .001). The eec in women with germline LS mutation had a significantly higher FIGO grade (P = .0378) and more frequent vascular invasion than the controls. The mean survival of the entire group of 23 patients with LS-related EC was 17.326 (14.066 to 20.585). Mean survival according to FIGO stage was significant (P = .010). Difference in mean survival according to age of the patient at the time of the diagnosis (patients >46 years vs <46 years) was not significant. The mean survival of the mutated patients with eec was 20.462 (17.564 to 23.359) and was not significantly different from that of the mutated patients with neec, which was 14.240 (9.119 to 19.361). Log-rank analysis showed that histology did not affect the survival. However, the hazard ratio of neec patients, although not significant, resulted higher. Mean survival of patients with a neec tumor combined with an endometrioid component (14.375 [8.084 to 20.666]) was not different from that of patients with pure neec cancers (14.250 [7.885 to 20.615]). When compared with the control population, LS-related ECs show a wider variety of histologic types; a higher frequency of neec types despite the younger age of the patients, and a higher frequency of high

  1. Novel mutation in the FGFR2 gene at the same codon as the Crouzon syndrome mutations in a severe Pfeiffer syndrome type 2 case.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, F; Anderson, C; Can, B; Say, B

    1998-01-23

    We have studied an infant with cloverleaf skull, proptosis, radioulnar synostosis and broad thumbs and great toes diagnosed as Pfeiffer syndrome type 2. However, there were many overlapping findings with Antley-Bixler syndrome. The patient was found to have a G to T mutation in codon 290 exon 7 of the FGFR2 gene leading to a substitution of a cys for the normal trp at this locus. This is the third mutation characterized at this codon; therefore, this locus appears to be a mutational hotspot in the gene. However, the other known mutations lead to a milder, Crouzon-like phenotype. The introduction of an additional cys into a region characterized by immunoglobulin-type loops maintained by cys S-S crosslinking may provide an explanation for the severity of the clinical findings of this child.

  2. Majewski syndrome (short-rib polydactyly syndrome type II): Prenatal diagnosis and histological features of chondral growth plate, liver and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Palmisano, Marcella; Ventura, Alessandro; Grisolia, Gianpaolo; Baffico, Ave Maria; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; De Felice, Claudio

    2014-11-01

    The Majewski syndrome or short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS) type II is a lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) and dysmorphic face, polydactyly, relatively proportionate head size at birth with later progression to microcephaly. A case of second trimester ultrasound diagnosis of SRPS type II is reported with review of the medical record of previous observed cases. Postmortem examination and radiogram confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Histological examination of the femoral epypheseal chondral plate showed an expanded and irregular hypertrophic zone. Moreover, characteristic cortico-medullary cysts of both kidneys and portal fibrosis were also demonstrated; findings consistent with the broad phenotypic spectrum of this rare skeletal disease. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  3. Terlipressin and albumin for type-1 hepatorenal syndrome associated with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ezequiel; Elia, Chiara; Solà, Elsa; Barreto, Rogelio; Graupera, Isabel; Andrealli, Alida; Pereira, Gustavo; Poca, Maria; Sánchez, Jordi; Guevara, Mónica; Soriano, Germán; Alessandria, Carlo; Fernández, Javier; Arroyo, Vicente; Ginès, Pere

    2014-05-01

    Terlipressin and albumin is the standard of care for classical type-1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) not associated with active infections. However, there is no information on efficacy and safety of this treatment in patients with type-1 HRS associated with sepsis. Study aim was to investigate the effects of early treatment with terlipressin and albumin on circulatory and kidney function in patients with type-1 HRS and sepsis and assess factors predictive of response to therapy. Prospective study in 18 consecutive patients with type-1 HRS associated with sepsis. Treatment was associated with marked improvement in arterial pressure and suppression of the high levels of plasma renin activity and norepinephrine. Response to therapy (serum creatinine <1.5mg/dl) was achieved in 12/18 patients (67%) and was associated with improved 3-month survival compared to patients without response. Non-responders had significantly lower baseline heart rate, poor liver function tests, slightly higher serum creatinine, and higher Child-Pugh and MELD scores compared to responders. Interestingly, non-responders had higher values of CLIF-SOFA score compared to responders (14±3 vs. 8±1, respectively p<0.001), indicating greater severity of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). A CLIF-SOFA score ⩾11 had 92% sensitivity and 100% specificity in predicting no response to therapy. No significant differences were observed between responders and non-responders in baseline urinary kidney biomarkers. Treatment was safe and no patient required withdrawal of terlipressin. Early treatment with terlipressin and albumin in patients with type-1 HRS associated with sepsis is effective and safe. Patients with associated severe ACLF are unlikely to respond to treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Linkage of Usher syndrome type I gene (USH1B) to the long arm of chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberling, W.; Kenyon, J.B.; Grunkemeyers, J.A. ); Moeller, C.G. ); Davenport, S. ); Priluck, I.A. ); Beighton, H.; Greenberg, J. ); Reardon, W. ); Weston, M.D.

    1992-12-01

    Usher syndrome is the most commonly recognized cause of combined visual and hearing loss in technologically developed countries. There are several different types and all are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. There may be as many as five different genes responsible for at least two closely related phenotypes. The nature of the gene defects is unknown, and positional cloning strategies are being employed to identify the genes. This is a report of the localization of one gene for Usher syndrome type I to chromosome 11q, probably distal to marker D11S527. Another USH1 gene had been previously localized to chromosome 14q, and this second localization established the existence of a new and independent locus for Usher syndrome. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Associations of total amount and patterns of sedentary behaviour with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: The Maastricht Study.

    PubMed

    van der Berg, Julianne D; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Bosma, Hans; van der Velde, Jeroen H P M; Willems, Paul J B; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Schram, Miranda T; Sep, Simone J S; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Henry, Ronald M A; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Koster, Annemarie

    2016-04-01

    The study investigated cross-sectional associations of total amount and patterns of sedentary behaviour with glucose metabolism status and the metabolic syndrome. We included 2,497 participants (mean age 60.0 ± 8.1 years, 52% men) from The Maastricht Study who were asked to wear an activPAL accelerometer 24 h/day for 8 consecutive days. We calculated the daily amount of sedentary time, daily number of sedentary breaks and prolonged sedentary bouts (≥30 min), and the average duration of the sedentary bouts. To determine glucose metabolism status, participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Associations of sedentary behaviour variables with glucose metabolism status and the metabolic syndrome were examined using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Overall, 1,395 (55.9%) participants had normal glucose metabolism, 388 (15.5%) had impaired glucose metabolism and 714 (28.6%) had type 2 diabetes. The odds ratio per additional hour of sedentary time was 1.22 (95% CI 1.13, 1.32) for type 2 diabetes and 1.39 (1.27, 1.53) for the metabolic syndrome. No significant or only weak associations were seen for the number of sedentary breaks, number of prolonged sedentary bouts or average bout duration with either glucose metabolism status or the metabolic syndrome. An extra hour of sedentary time was associated with a 22% increased odds for type 2 diabetes and a 39% increased odds for the metabolic syndrome. The pattern in which sedentary time was accumulated was weakly associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that sedentary behaviour may play a significant role in the development and prevention of type 2 diabetes, although longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  6. A case of autoimmune urticaria accompanying autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III associated with Hashimoto's disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Kasznicki, Jacek; Drzewoski, Józef

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type III (APS III) associated with Hashimoto's disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, vitiligo and autoimmune urticaria. This rare genetic disorder occurs with unknown frequency in the Polish population. It is characterised by endocrine tissue destruction resulting in the malfunction of multiple organs.Several cases of APS III associated with organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as coeliac disease, hypogonadism and myasthenia gravis, as well as organ-nonspecific or systemic autoimmune diseases such as sarcoidosis, Sjögren syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis have been described. To the best of our knowledge, we here describe the first case of APS III associated with autoimmune thyroiditis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, vitiligo and autoimmune urticaria in an adult patient.

  7. HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome types II and III.

    PubMed

    Flesch, B K; Matheis, N; Alt, T; Weinstock, C; Bux, J; Kahaly, G J

    2014-01-01

    Genetics of the adult autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the genetics of the adult APS types. SITE: The study was conducted at a university referral center. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were determined in a large cohort of patients with APS, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and type 1 diabetes and in healthy controls by the consistent application of high-resolution typing at a four-digit level. Comparison of the allele and haplotype frequencies significantly discriminated patients with APS vs AITD and controls. The HLA class II alleles DRB1*03:01 *04:01, DQA1*03:01, *05:01, DQB1*02:01, and *03:02 were observed more frequently (P<.001) in APS than in AITD and controls, whereas the alleles DRB1*15:01, DQB1*03:01, and *06:02 were underrepresented in APS vs AITD (Pc<.001) and controls (Pc<.01), respectively. The DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (DR3-DQ2) and DRB1*04:01-DQA1*03:01:DQB1*03:02 (DRB1*04:01-DQ8) haplotypes were overrepresented in APS (Pc<.001). Combination of both haplotypes to a genotype was highly prevalent in APS vs AITD and controls (Pc<.001). Dividing the APS collective into those with Addison's disease (APS type II) and those without Addison's disease but including type 1 diabetes and AITD (APS type III) demonstrated DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:01-DQ8 as a susceptibility genotype in APS III (Pc<.001), whereas the DR3-DQ2/DRB1*04:04-DQ8 genotype correlated with APS II (Pc<.001). The haplotypes DRB1*11:01-DQA1*05:05-DQB1*03:01 and DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 are protective in APS III but not in type II (Pc<.01). HLA class II haplotypes differentiate between the adult APS types II and III. Susceptible haplotypes favor the development of polyglandular autoimmunity in patients with AITD.

  8. A Review of College-Level Health Textbooks for Coverage of Type 2 Diabetes, Prediabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethan, Danna; Rennis, Lesley; Samuel, Lalitha; Seidel, Erica J.; Basch, Corey H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and metabolic syndrome are increasingly relevant health problems for United States (US) college-aged students and their family members. This study's aim was to determine the extent to which these chronic conditions were covered in leading college-level personal health textbooks and to what degree the…

  9. Pathogenicity of three type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus strains in experimentally inoculated pregnant gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mechanisms of reproductive failure resulting from infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) are still poorly understood. The present study, a side-by-side evaluation of the pathogenicity of three type 2 PRRSv strains in a reproductive model, was used as a pilot study...

  10. A Review of College-Level Health Textbooks for Coverage of Type 2 Diabetes, Prediabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethan, Danna; Rennis, Lesley; Samuel, Lalitha; Seidel, Erica J.; Basch, Corey H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and metabolic syndrome are increasingly relevant health problems for United States (US) college-aged students and their family members. This study's aim was to determine the extent to which these chronic conditions were covered in leading college-level personal health textbooks and to what degree the…

  11. Strategies and Considerations for Teaching an Adolescent with Down Syndrome and Type I Diabetes to Self-Administer Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosner, Sylvia M.; Belfiore, Phillip J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a system of least prompts, partial participation, and parental involvement was used to successfully teach an adolescent with Down syndrome, moderate mental retardation, and Type I diabetes to self-administer an injection of insulin as part of an overall plan to increase self-determination and independence. (Contains seven…

  12. Strategies and Considerations for Teaching an Adolescent with Down Syndrome and Type I Diabetes to Self-Administer Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosner, Sylvia M.; Belfiore, Phillip J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a system of least prompts, partial participation, and parental involvement was used to successfully teach an adolescent with Down syndrome, moderate mental retardation, and Type I diabetes to self-administer an injection of insulin as part of an overall plan to increase self