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Sample records for logic mathematics

  1. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  2. Can Mathematics be Justified by Natural Logic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Lothar; Sommer, Hanns

    2010-11-01

    Charles Darwin claimed that the forms and the behaviour of living beings can be explained from their will to survive. But what are the consequences of this idea for humans knowledge, their theories of nature and their mathematics?. We discuss the view that even Plato's objective world of mathematical objects does not exist absolutely, without the intentions of mathematicians. Using Husserl's Phenomenological Method, cognition can be understood as a process by which meaning is deduced from empirical data relative to intentions. Thereby the essential structure of any cognition process can be detected and this structure is mirrored in logic. A natural logic becomes the direct result of cognition. Only in a second step, mathematics is obtained by abstraction from natural logic. In this way mathematics gains a well-defined foundation and is no longer part of a dubious 'a-priori knowledge' (Kant). This access to mathematics offers a new look on many old problems, e.g. the Petersburg problem and the problem 'P = NP?'. We demonstrate that this new justification of mathematics has also important applications in Artificial Intelligence. Our method provides a procedure to construct an adequate logic to solve most efficiently the problems of a given problem class. Thus, heuristics can be tailor-made for the necessities of applications.

  3. Rebuilding mathematics on a quantum logical foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJonghe, Richard J., III

    We construct a rich first-order quantum logic which generalizes the standard classical predicate logic used in the development of virtually all of modern mathematics, and we use this quantum logic to build the foundations of a new quantum mathematics. First, we prove both soundness and completeness for the quantum logic we develop, and also prove a powerful new completeness result which heretofore had been known to hold for classical, but not quantum, first-order logic. We then use our quantum logic to develop multiple areas of mathematics, including abstract algebra, axiomatic set theory, and arithmetic. In some preliminary investigations into quantum mathematics, Dunn found that the Peano axioms for arithmetic yield the same theorems using either classical or quantum logic. We prove a similar result for certain classes of abstract algebras, and then show that Dunn's result is not generic by presenting examples of quantum monoids, groups, lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras, all which differ from their classical counterparts. Moreover, we find natural classes of quantum lattices, vector spaces, and operator algebras which all have a beautiful inter-relationship, and make some preliminary investigations into using these structures as a basis for a new mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. We also develop a quantum set theory (equivalent to ZFC under classical logic) which is far more tractable than quantum set theory previously developed. We then use this set theory to construct a quantum version of the natural numbers, and develop an arithmetic of these numbers based upon an alternative to Peano's axioms (which avoids Dunn's theorem). Surprisingly, we find that these "quantum natural numbers" satisfy our arithmetical axioms if and only if the underlying truth values form a modular lattice, giving a new arithmetical characterization of this important lattice-theoretic property. Finally, we show that these numbers have a natural interpretation as

  4. The Role of Symbolic Logic in a Student's Mathematical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharlow, John F.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between logic and mathematics is examined. Four basic concepts inherent in symbolic logic that are typically included in ninth- and tenth-grade mathematics programs are reviewed. Symbolic logic is advocated for all students who will study algebra and/or geometry. (MP)

  5. An introduction to mathematical logic and type theory

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, P.B.

    1986-01-01

    Of the languages of symbolic logic, typed lambda-calculus (a formation of higher-order logic) is the most suitable for use in automated mathematical systems. This book begins with a study of propositional calculus and first-order logic, then provides a complete introduction to typed lambda-calculus. CONTENTS: Introduction. Propositional Calculus. First-Order Logic. Probability and Refutability. Further Topics in First-Order Logic. Type Theory. Formalized Number Theory. Incompleteness and Undecidability. Appendix: Summary of Theorems. Bibliography. Index.

  6. Logic-Operated Mathematical Morphology and Its Optical Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hongmei; Liu, Liren; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Changhe

    1999-09-01

    A more powerful tool for binary image processing, i.e., logic-operated mathematical morphology (LOMM), is proposed. With LOMM the image and the structuring element (SE) are treated as binary logical variables, and the multiply between the image and the SE in correlation is replaced with 16 logical operations. A total of 12 LOMM operations are obtained. The optical implementation of LOMM is described. The application of LOMM and its experimental results are also presented.

  7. The Assessment of Mathematical Logic: Abstract Patterns and Familiar Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teppo, Anne R.; Esty, Warren W.; Kirkpatrick, Kay

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students' written exams were analyzed from a freshman-level mathematics course that emphasized, among other topics, the study of mathematical logic. Findings indicate that on questions related to the negation of a conditional sentence, students performed much better when given natural-language contexts than they did on questions…

  8. The logical status of thermodynamic proofs of mathematical theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deakin, M. A. B.; Troup, G. J.

    1981-06-01

    The logical status of such thermodynamic proofs of mathematical theorems as Landsberg's derivation of the inequality of arithmetic and geometric means is considered. The status is not as absolute as the rigorous demonstration of a mathematical theorem. Many axiomatic accounts of thermodynamics use this inequality to reduce the number of physical assumptions required.

  9. The Completion of the Emergence of Modern Logic from Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic to Frege's Begriffsschrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetli, Priyedarshi

    Modern logic begins with Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic when the algebra of logic was developed so that classical logic syllogisms were proven as algebraic equations and the turn from the logic of classes to propositional logic was suggested. The emergence was incomplete as Boole algebraised classical logic. Frege in Begriffsschrift replaced Aristotelian subject-predicate propositions by function and argument and displaced syllogisms with an axiomatic propositional calculus using conditionals, modus ponens and the law of substitution. Further Frege provided the breakthrough to lay down the groundwork for the development of quantified logic as well as the logic of relations. He achieved all of this through his innovative formal notations which have remained underrated. Frege hence completed the emergence of modern logic. Both Boole and Frege mathematised logic, but Frege's goal was to logicise mathematics. However the emergence of modern logic in Frege should be detached from his logicism.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL TEACHING OF MATHEMATICAL LOGIC IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BINFORD, FREDERICK; SUPPES, PATRICK

    STUDY OBJECTIVES WERE DEVELOPED AROUND THE IDEA THAT DELIBERATE AND PLANNED TEACHING OF FORMAL SYMBOLIC LOGIC WILL BENEFIT THE STUDENT AT ANY AGE BY ENLARGING HIS SCOPE AND PROVIDING FOR A DEEPER AND MORE PENETRATING STUDY OF MATHEMATICS AND OTHER DEDUCTIVELY FORMULATED DISCIPLINES. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT THE ABLE STUDENT IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IS…

  11. Reasoning with Computer Code: a new Mathematical Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissanetzky, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    A logic is a mathematical model of knowledge used to study how we reason, how we describe the world, and how we infer the conclusions that determine our behavior. The logic presented here is natural. It has been experimentally observed, not designed. It represents knowledge as a causal set, includes a new type of inference based on the minimization of an action functional, and generates its own semantics, making it unnecessary to prescribe one. This logic is suitable for high-level reasoning with computer code, including tasks such as self-programming, objectoriented analysis, refactoring, systems integration, code reuse, and automated programming from sensor-acquired data. A strong theoretical foundation exists for the new logic. The inference derives laws of conservation from the permutation symmetry of the causal set, and calculates the corresponding conserved quantities. The association between symmetries and conservation laws is a fundamental and well-known law of nature and a general principle in modern theoretical Physics. The conserved quantities take the form of a nested hierarchy of invariant partitions of the given set. The logic associates elements of the set and binds them together to form the levels of the hierarchy. It is conjectured that the hierarchy corresponds to the invariant representations that the brain is known to generate. The hierarchies also represent fully object-oriented, self-generated code, that can be directly compiled and executed (when a compiler becomes available), or translated to a suitable programming language. The approach is constructivist because all entities are constructed bottom-up, with the fundamental principles of nature being at the bottom, and their existence is proved by construction. The new logic is mathematically introduced and later discussed in the context of transformations of algorithms and computer programs. We discuss what a full self-programming capability would really mean. We argue that self

  12. The Contribution of Logical Reasoning to the Learning of Mathematics in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Evans, Deborah; Bell, Daniel; Gardner, Selina; Gardner, Adelina; Carraher, Julia

    2007-01-01

    It has often been claimed that children's mathematical understanding is based on their ability to reason logically, but there is no good evidence for this causal link. We tested the causal hypothesis about logic and mathematical development in two related studies. In a longitudinal study, we showed that (a) 6-year-old children's logical abilities…

  13. Growth Processes and Formal Logic. Comments on History and Mathematics Regarded as Combined Educational Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltman, Muriel; Seltman, P. E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The authors stress the importance of bringing together the causal logic of history and the formal logic of mathematics in order to humanize mathematics and make it more accessible. An example of such treatment is given in a discussion of the centrality of Euclid and the Euclidean system to mathematics development. (MN)

  14. [Influence of music on a decision of mathematical logic tasks].

    PubMed

    Pavlygina, R A; Karamysheva, N N; Sakharov, D S; Davydov, V I

    2012-01-01

    Accompaniment of a decision of mathematical logical tasks by music (different style and power) influenced on the time of the decision. Classical music 35 and 65 dB and roc-music 65 and 85 dB decreased the time of the decision. More powerful classical music (85 dB) did not effect like that. The decision without the musical accompaniment led to increasing of coherent values especially in beta1, beta2, gamma frequency ranges in EEG of occipital cortex. The intrahemispheric and the interhemispheric coherences of frontal EEG increased and EEG asymmetry (in a number of Coh-connections in left and right hemispheres) arose during the tasks decision accompanied by music. Application of classical music 35 and 65 dB caused left-side asymmetry in EEG. Using of more powerful classical or rock music led to prevalence of quantity of Coh-connections in a right hemisphere. PMID:23101361

  15. [Influence of music on a decision of mathematical logic tasks].

    PubMed

    Pavlygina, R A; Karamysheva, N N; Sakharov, D S; Davydov, V I

    2012-01-01

    Accompaniment of a decision of mathematical logical tasks by music (different style and power) influenced on the time of the decision. Classical music 35 and 65 dB and roc-music 65 and 85 dB decreased the time of the decision. More powerful classical music (85 dB) did not effect like that. The decision without the musical accompaniment led to increasing of coherent values especially in beta1, beta2, gamma frequency ranges in EEG of occipital cortex. The intrahemispheric and the interhemispheric coherences of frontal EEG increased and EEG asymmetry (in a number of Coh-connections in left and right hemispheres) arose during the tasks decision accompanied by music. Application of classical music 35 and 65 dB caused left-side asymmetry in EEG. Using of more powerful classical or rock music led to prevalence of quantity of Coh-connections in a right hemisphere.

  16. The Role of Logic and Mathematics in the Heisenberg Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venezia, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, by means of a logical and linguistic analysis of Heisenberg's work, the properties of a logical model suitable for quantum mechanics are obtained. This model is an alternative to traditional quantum logic, because it uses an intuitionist negation. It is able to justify the passage from the problem of conjugate variables measurement to the mathematical formalization (commutation rules) of matrix mechanics.

  17. Sex differences in factorial dimension of verbal, logical, mathematical and visuospatial ability.

    PubMed

    Wormack, L

    1980-04-01

    The factor structure of verbal, logical, visuospatial, and mathematical ability was compared for responses from 52 male and 54 female college students. Separate verbal, quantitative, and visuospatial factors were isolated among males while compound verbal-mathematical-visuospatial and verbal-logical-field dependence factors were isolated among females. The data supported the hypothesis of sex-related differences in the factorial organization of verbal, mathematical, reading, writing, and visuospatial ability.

  18. Five Departures in Logic, Mathematics, and thus—Whether We Like It, or Not—in Physics as Well...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosinger, Elemér E.

    2015-07-01

    Physics depends on "physical intuition", much of which is formulated in terms of Mathematics. Mathematics itself depends on Logic. The paper presents three latest novelties in Logic which have major consequences in Mathematics. Further, it presents two possible significant departures in Mathematics itself. These five departures can have major implications in Physics. Some of them are indicated, among them in Quantum Mechanics and Relativity.

  19. Playing Games in Logic and Reasoning in Liberal Arts Mathematics and Getting Students' Work Published

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes two classroom activities and a project that supplement a Liberal Arts Mathematics course's coverage of logic and reasoning. The first classroom activity introduces the writing of inductive and deductive arguments, and the second activity involves analyzing a guest speaker's arguments. The project consists of using logic and…

  20. Mathematical, Logical, and Formal Methods in Information Retrieval: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crestani, Fabio; Dominich, Sandor; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Cornelis Joost

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of research on the use of mathematical, logical, and formal methods in information retrieval to help enhance retrieval effectiveness and clarify underlying concepts of information retrieval. Highlights include logic; probability; spaces; and future research needs. (Author/LRW)

  1. Teaching Proofs and Algorithms in Discrete Mathematics with Online Visual Logic Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigas, John; Hsin, Wen-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Visual logic puzzles provide a fertile environment for teaching multiple topics in discrete mathematics. Many puzzles can be solved by the repeated application of a small, finite set of strategies. Explicitly reasoning from a strategy to a new puzzle state illustrates theorems, proofs, and logic principles. These provide valuable, concrete…

  2. The Effect of Teaching Certain Concepts of Logic on Verbalization of Discovered Mathematical Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retzer, Kenneth Albert

    Reported are the results of a study designed to test the effects of a programed unit in fundamentals of logic on the ability of college capable junior high school students to verbalize mathematical generalizations. The independent variables were the presence or absence of study of the logic unit, and ability level being college capable (I.Q.…

  3. The Nature of Quantum Truth: Logic, Set Theory, & Mathematics in the Context of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Kimberly

    The purpose of this dissertation is to construct a radically new type of mathematics whose underlying logic differs from the ordinary classical logic used in standard mathematics, and which we feel may be more natural for applications in quantum mechanics. Specifically, we begin by constructing a first order quantum logic, the development of which closely parallels that of ordinary (classical) first order logic --- the essential differences are in the nature of the logical axioms, which, in our construction, are motivated by quantum theory. After showing that the axiomatic first order logic we develop is sound and complete (with respect to a particular class of models), this logic is then used as a foundation on which to build (axiomatic) mathematical systems --- and we refer to the resulting new mathematics as "quantum mathematics." As noted above, the hope is that this form of mathematics is more natural than classical mathematics for the description of quantum systems, and will enable us to address some foundational aspects of quantum theory which are still troublesome --- e.g. the measurement problem --- as well as possibly even inform our thinking about quantum gravity. After constructing the underlying logic, we investigate properties of several mathematical systems --- e.g. axiom systems for abstract algebras, group theory, linear algebra, etc. --- in the presence of this quantum logic. In the process, we demonstrate that the resulting quantum mathematical systems have some strange, but very interesting features, which indicates a richness in the structure of mathematics that is classically inaccessible. Moreover, some of these features do indeed suggest possible applications to foundational questions in quantum theory. We continue our investigation of quantum mathematics by constructing an axiomatic quantum set theory, which we show satisfies certain desirable criteria. Ultimately, we hope that such a set theory will lead to a foundation for quantum

  4. Contributions from sociology of science to mathematics education in Brazil: logic as a system of beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, Thales Haddad Novaes; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-09-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of interlocutions and pose a dialogue between the field of mathematics education in Brazil and the sociology of science proposed by David Bloor. The main point of Bloor's theory is that logical-mathematical knowledge is far from being true and universal and is socially conditioned. In particular we will be discussing the first principle of the strong program, which deals with conditions that generate beliefs promoted by education policies in Brazil, such as the MEC/USAID treaties. In this case the "naturalization of logic" was stimulated by a widespread diffusion of both Piaget studies and the Modern Mathematics Movement.

  5. Contributions from Sociology of Science to Mathematics Education in Brazil: Logic as a System of Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novaes de Andrade, Thales Haddad; Vilela, Denise Silva

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, mathematics education was associated with Jean Piaget's theory. Scholars in the field of education appropriated Piaget's work in different ways, but usually emphasized logical aspects of thought, which probably lead to an expansion of mathematics education influenced by psychology. This study attempts to extend the range of…

  6. Combining fuzzy mathematics with fuzzy logic to solve business management problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Joseph A.

    1993-12-01

    Fuzzy logic technology has been applied to control problems with great success. Because of this, many observers fell that fuzzy logic is applicable only in the control arena. However, business management problems almost never deal with crisp values. Fuzzy systems technology--a combination of fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics and a graphical user interface--is a natural fit for developing software to assist in typical business activities such as planning, modeling and estimating. This presentation discusses how fuzzy logic systems can be extended through the application of fuzzy mathematics and the use of a graphical user interface to make the information contained in fuzzy numbers accessible to business managers. As demonstrated through examples from actual deployed systems, this fuzzy systems technology has been employed successfully to provide solutions to the complex real-world problems found in the business environment.

  7. The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate.

    PubMed

    Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C

    2015-08-28

    The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor. PMID:26234709

  8. The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate.

    PubMed

    Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C

    2015-08-28

    The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor.

  9. The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dridi, G.; Julien, R.; Hliwa, M.; Joachim, C.

    2015-08-01

    The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor.

  10. Gödel '96. Logical Foundations of Mathematics, Computer Science and Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, Petr

    This is a proceedings volume of the conference celebrating the 90th anniversary of the birth of Kurt Goedel. The conference has been recognized as an ASL sponsored meeting. Invited papers and contributed papers concern mainly mathematical logic but also philosophy of mathematics, computer science and physics and are devoted to topics related to Goedel's work and reflect the present state of knowledge domains deeply influenced by Goedel.

  11. A Generalized Instructional System for Elementary Mathematical Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele

    A computer-based instructional system for teaching the notion of mathematical proof is described. The system is capable of handling formalizations of the full predicate calculus with identity and, with minor work, definite description. Designed as an instructional device, the program is also the basis for a number of research projects involving…

  12. An Analysis of Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Their Logical Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incikabi, Lutfi; Tuna, Abdulkadir; Biber, Abdullah Cagri

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the existence of the relationship between mathematics teacher candidates' critical thinking skills and their logical thinking dispositions in terms of the variables of grade level in college, high school type, and gender. The current study utilized relational survey model and included a total of 99 mathematics…

  13. Identification of Prospective Science Teachers' Mathematical-Logical Structures in Reference to Magnetism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative case study designed to identify prospective science teachers' mathematical-logical structures on the basis of their knowledge and achievement levels in magnetism. The study also made an attempt to reveal the effects of knowledge-level variables and procedural variables, which were considered to be potential…

  14. On the Formal-Logical Analysis of the Foundations of Mathematics Applied to Problems in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalanov, Temur Z.

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of the foundations of mathematics applied to problems in physics was proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is methodological basis of the analysis. It is shown that critical analysis of the concept of mathematical quantity - central concept of mathematics - leads to the following conclusion: (1) The concept of ``mathematical quantity'' is the result of the following mental operations: (a) abstraction of the ``quantitative determinacy of physical quantity'' from the ``physical quantity'' at that the ``quantitative determinacy of physical quantity'' is an independent object of thought; (b) abstraction of the ``amount (i.e., abstract number)'' from the ``quantitative determinacy of physical quantity'' at that the ``amount (i.e., abstract number)'' is an independent object of thought. In this case, unnamed, abstract numbers are the only sign of the ``mathematical quantity''. This sign is not an essential sign of the material objects. (2) The concept of mathematical quantity is meaningless, erroneous, and inadmissible concept in science because it represents the following formal-logical and dialectical-materialistic error: negation of the existence of the essential sign of the concept (i.e., negation of the existence of the essence of the concept) and negation of the existence of measure of material object.

  15. A Safety Conundrum Illustrated: Logic, Mathematics, and Science Are Not Enough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.; Collins, Kristine R.

    2010-01-01

    In an ideal world, conversations about whether a particular system is safe, or whether a particular method or tool enhances safety, would be emotion-free discussions concentrating on the level of safety required, available evidence, and coherent logical, mathematical, or scientific arguments based on that evidence. In the real world, discussions about safety are often not emotion-free. Political and economic arguments may play a bigger role than logical, mathematical, and scientific arguments, and psychological factors may be as important, or even more important, than purely technical factors. This paper illustrates the conundrum that can result from this clash of the ideal and the real by means of an imagined conversation among a collection of fictional characters representing various types of people who may be participating in a safety discussion.

  16. The link between logic, mathematics and imagination: evidence from children with developmental dyscalculia and mathematically gifted children.

    PubMed

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Devine, Amy; Nobes, Alison; Szűcs, Dénes

    2013-07-01

    This study examined performance on transitive inference problems in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), typically developing controls matched on IQ, working memory and reading skills, and in children with outstanding mathematical abilities. Whereas mainstream approaches currently consider DD as a domain-specific deficit, we hypothesized that the development of mathematical skills is closely related to the development of logical abilities, a domain-general skill. In particular, we expected a close link between mathematical skills and the ability to reason independently of one's beliefs. Our results showed that this was indeed the case, with children with DD performing more poorly than controls, and high maths ability children showing outstanding skills in logical reasoning about belief-laden problems. Nevertheless, all groups performed poorly on structurally equivalent problems with belief-neutral content. This is in line with suggestions that abstract reasoning skills (i.e. the ability to reason about content without real-life referents) develops later than the ability to reason about belief-inconsistent fantasy content.A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=90DWY3O4xx8. PMID:23786472

  17. Non Locality Proofs in Quantum Mechanics Analyzed by Ordinary Mathematical Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisticò, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    The so-called non-locality theorems aim to show that Quantum Mechanics is not consistent with the Locality Principle. Their proofs require, besides the standard postulates of Quantum Theory, further conditions, as for instance the Criterion of Reality, which cannot be formulated in the language of Standard Quantum Theory; this difficulty makes the proofs not verifiable according to usual logico-mathematical methods, and therefore it is a source of the controversial debate about the real implications of these theorems. The present work addresses this difficulty for Bell-type and Stapp's arguments of non-locality. We supplement the formalism of Quantum Mechanics with formal statements inferred from the further conditions in the two different cases. Then an analysis of the two arguments is performed according to ordinary mathematical logic.

  18. Causal Mathematical Logic as a guiding framework for the prediction of "Intelligence Signals" in brain simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzalaco, Felix; Pissanetzky, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    A recent theory of physical information based on the fundamental principles of causality and thermodynamics has proposed that a large number of observable life and intelligence signals can be described in terms of the Causal Mathematical Logic (CML), which is proposed to encode the natural principles of intelligence across any physical domain and substrate. We attempt to expound the current definition of CML, the "Action functional" as a theory in terms of its ability to possess a superior explanatory power for the current neuroscientific data we use to measure the mammalian brains "intelligence" processes at its most general biophysical level. Brain simulation projects define their success partly in terms of the emergence of "non-explicitly programmed" complex biophysical signals such as self-oscillation and spreading cortical waves. Here we propose to extend the causal theory to predict and guide the understanding of these more complex emergent "intelligence Signals". To achieve this we review whether causal logic is consistent with, can explain and predict the function of complete perceptual processes associated with intelligence. Primarily those are defined as the range of Event Related Potentials (ERP) which include their primary subcomponents; Event Related Desynchronization (ERD) and Event Related Synchronization (ERS). This approach is aiming for a universal and predictive logic for neurosimulation and AGi. The result of this investigation has produced a general "Information Engine" model from translation of the ERD and ERS. The CML algorithm run in terms of action cost predicts ERP signal contents and is consistent with the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. A working substrate independent natural information logic would be a major asset. An information theory consistent with fundamental physics can be an AGi. It can also operate within genetic information space and provides a roadmap to understand the live biophysical operation of the phenotype

  19. From boring to scoring - a collaborative serious game for learning and practicing mathematical logic for computer science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Andreas; Holz, Jan; Leonhardt, Thiemo; Schroeder, Ulrik; Brauner, Philipp; Ziefle, Martina

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we address the problem of low retention and high dropout rates of computer science university students in early semesters of the studies. Complex and high abstract mathematical learning materials have been identified as one reason for the dropout rate. In order to support the understanding and practicing of core mathematical concepts, we developed a game-based multitouch learning environment in which the need for a suitable learning environment for mathematical logic was combined with the ability to train cooperation and collaboration in a learning scenario. As application domain, the field of mathematical logic had been chosen. The development process was accomplished along three steps: First, ethnographic interviews were run with 12 students of computer science revealing typical problems with mathematical logic. Second, a multitouch learning environment was developed. The game consists of multiple learning and playing modes in which teams of students can collaborate or compete against each other. Finally, a twofold evaluation of the environment was carried out (user study and cognitive walk-through). Overall, the evaluation showed that the game environment was easy to use and rated as helpful: The chosen approach of a multiplayer game supporting competition, collaboration, and cooperation is perceived as motivating and "fun."

  20. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 27, Logic, Chapter 28, Applications of Probability and Statistics. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    One chapter in the fourteenth unit of this SMSG series deals with logic; simple and compound statements, truth tables, logical equivalence, rules of a logical argument, proof, quantifiers, and negations are the topics covered. The second chapter of the unit discusses applications of probability and statistics, including random sampling,…

  1. The Study on the Effect of Educational Games for the Development of Students’ Logic-Mathematics of Multiple Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Sujuan; Ma, Linqing

    Firstly, in this article, we expound the theory of the educational games and multiple intelligence and analyze the relationship between them. Then, further, we elaborate educational games' effect on the development of students' multiple intelligence, taking logic-mathematics intelligence for example. Also, we discuss the strategies of using educational games to improve students' intelligence. In a word, we can use the computer games to develop the students' multi-intelligence.

  2. Black-box Brain Experiments, Causal Mathematical Logic, and the Thermodynamics of Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissanetzky, Sergio; Lanzalaco, Felix

    2013-12-01

    Awareness of the possible existence of a yet-unknown principle of Physics that explains cognition and intelligence does exist in several projects of emulation, simulation, and replication of the human brain currently under way. Brain simulation projects define their success partly in terms of the emergence of non-explicitly programmed biophysical signals such as self-oscillation and spreading cortical waves. We propose that a recently discovered theory of Physics known as Causal Mathematical Logic (CML) that links intelligence with causality and entropy and explains intelligent behavior from first principles, is the missing link. We further propose the theory as a roadway to understanding more complex biophysical signals, and to explain the set of intelligence principles. The new theory applies to information considered as an entity by itself. The theory proposes that any device that processes information and exhibits intelligence must satisfy certain theoretical conditions irrespective of the substrate where it is being processed. The substrate can be the human brain, a part of it, a worm's brain, a motor protein that self-locomotes in response to its environment, a computer. Here, we propose to extend the causal theory to systems in Neuroscience, because of its ability to model complex systems without heuristic approximations, and to predict emerging signals of intelligence directly from the models. The theory predicts the existence of a large number of observables (or "signals"), all of which emerge and can be directly and mathematically calculated from non-explicitly programmed detailed causal models. This approach is aiming for a universal and predictive language for Neuroscience and AGI based on causality and entropy, detailed enough to describe the finest structures and signals of the brain, yet general enough to accommodate the versatility and wholeness of intelligence. Experiments are focused on a black-box as one of the devices described above of which

  3. Carpenter, Tractors and Microbes for the Development of Logical-Mathematical Thinking--The Way 10th Graders and Pre-Service Teachers Solve Thinking Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazit, Avikam

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to investigate the ability of 10th graders and pre-service teachers to solve logical-mathematical thinking challenges. The challenges do not require mathematical knowledge beyond that of primary school but rather an informed use of the problem representation. The percentage of correct answers given by the 10th…

  4. The relationships between spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematics performance and kinematics graph interpretation skills of 12th grade physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    Graphs have a broad use in science classrooms, especially in physics. In physics, kinematics is probably the topic for which graphs are most widely used. The participants in this study were from two different grade-12 physics classrooms, advanced placement and calculus-based physics. The main purpose of this study was to search for the relationships between student spatial ability, logical thinking, mathematical achievement, and kinematics graphs interpretation skills. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test, the Middle Grades Integrated Process Skills Test (MIPT), and the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) were used for quantitative data collection. Classroom observations were made to acquire ideas about classroom environment and instructional techniques. Factor analysis, simple linear correlation, multiple linear regression, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Each instrument has two principal components. The selection and calculation of the slope and of the area were the two principal components of TUG-K. MIPT was composed of a component based upon processing text and a second component based upon processing symbolic information. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test was composed of a component based upon one-step processing and a second component based upon two-step processing of information. Student ability to determine the slope in a kinematics graph was significantly correlated with spatial ability, logical thinking, and mathematics aptitude and achievement. However, student ability to determine the area in a kinematics graph was only significantly correlated with student pre-calculus semester 2 grades. Male students performed significantly better than female students on the slope items of TUG-K. Also, male students performed significantly better than female students on the PSAT mathematics assessment and spatial ability. This study found that students have different levels of spatial ability, logical thinking

  5. Dispositional logic

    SciTech Connect

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived. 7 references.

  6. Dispositional logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  7. The Link between Logic, Mathematics and Imagination: Evidence from Children with Developmental Dyscalculia and Mathematically Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Devine, Amy; Nobes, Alison; Szucs, Denes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined performance on transitive inference problems in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), typically developing controls matched on IQ, working memory and reading skills, and in children with outstanding mathematical abilities. Whereas mainstream approaches currently consider DD as a domain-specific deficit, we hypothesized…

  8. Exploring Logical Reasoning and Mathematical Proof in Grade 6 Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flegas, Konstantinos; Charalampos, Lemonidis

    2013-01-01

    Research and classroom experience reveal that the construction of mathematical proofs is difficult for all students. While many contemporary mathematics curricula recognize the importance of teaching reasoning and proof, in Greece these concepts are introduced at the secondary education level. In this study, we will attempt to investigate a group…

  9. Assessment and the Logic of Instructional Practice in Secondary 3 English and Mathematics Classrooms in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, David; Chan, Melvin; Rahim, Ridzuan; Kwek, Dennis; Aye, Khin Maung; Loo, Siok Chen; Sheng, Yee Zher; Luo, Wenshu

    2013-01-01

    By any measure, Singapore's educational system has generated an extraordinary record of achievement over the past two or three decades. In this article, we report on one key component of a broader three year investigation into why Singapore has done so well, and explore the logic, strength, resilience and limits of the underlying pedagogical…

  10. Mathematical Modeling of spatial disease variables by Spatial Fuzzy Logic for Spatial Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, M.; Rapp, J.; Groessler, M.; Niehaus, E.; Babu, A.; Soman, B.

    2014-11-01

    A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) provides support for decision makers and should not be viewed as replacing human intelligence with machines. Therefore it is reasonable that decision makers are able to use a feature to analyze the provided spatial decision support in detail to crosscheck the digital support of the SDSS with their own expertise. Spatial decision support is based on risk and resource maps in a Geographic Information System (GIS) with relevant layers e.g. environmental, health and socio-economic data. Spatial fuzzy logic allows the representation of spatial properties with a value of truth in the range between 0 and 1. Decision makers can refer to the visualization of the spatial truth of single risk variables of a disease. Spatial fuzzy logic rules that support the allocation of limited resources according to risk can be evaluated with measure theory on topological spaces, which allows to visualize the applicability of this rules as well in a map. Our paper is based on the concept of a spatial fuzzy logic on topological spaces that contributes to the development of an adaptive Early Warning And Response System (EWARS) providing decision support for the current or future spatial distribution of a disease. It supports the decision maker in testing interventions based on available resources and apply risk mitigation strategies and provide guidance tailored to the geo-location of the user via mobile devices. The software component of the system would be based on open source software and the software developed during this project will also be in the open source domain, so that an open community can build on the results and tailor further work to regional or international requirements and constraints. A freely available EWARS Spatial Fuzzy Logic Demo was developed wich enables a user to visualize risk and resource maps based on individual data in several data formats.

  11. Quantum logic with quantized control fields beyond the 1/ nmacr limit: Mathematically possible, physically unlikely

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gea-Banacloche, Julio; Miller, Mayo

    2008-09-01

    A formal Hamiltonian is presented that allows quantum logic with quantized control fields beyond the 1/ nmacr error level, if the field is initially in a (multimode) number state. The key requirement is that the interaction be completely insensitive to the phase of the field. We find, however, that when we try to satisfy this requirement by using a realistic interaction model for trapped ions in phase-insensitive decoherence-free subspaces, the 1/ nmacr scaling is obtained again. We conjecture that it may not be possible to improve on this scaling by physically realizable radiation-matter interactions.

  12. Biomedical Mathematics, Unit IV: Symbolic Logic, Trigonometry and Statistics. Student Text. Revised Version, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This text presents lessons in specific mathematical concepts. It usually presents concepts in the context of problems typically occurring in health care situations or relating to biomedical concepts. Some lessons relate to concepts being studied in other disciplinary components of the biomedical interdisciplinary curriculum. For example, symbolic…

  13. The Fallacy of Composition: Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Use of Logical Fallacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernoff, Egan J.; Russell, Gale L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address the lack of research on teachers' knowledge of probability. As has been the case in prior research, we asked prospective mathematics teachers to determine which of the presented sequences of coin flips was least likely to occur. However, instead of using the traditional perspectives of heuristic and…

  14. Constrained Mathematics for Calculating Logical Safety and Reliability Probabilities with Uncertain Inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D.K.; Cooper, J.A.; Ferson, S.

    1999-01-21

    Calculating safety and reliability probabilities with functions of uncertain variables can yield incorrect or misleading results if some precautions are not taken. One important consideration is the application of constrained mathematics for calculating probabilities for functions that contain repeated variables. This paper includes a description of the problem and develops a methodology for obtaining an accurate solution.

  15. Making Sense of Student Performance Data: Data Use Logics and Mathematics Teachers' Learning Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Ilana Seidel; Kane, Britnie Delinger; Wilson, Jonee

    2015-01-01

    In the accountability era, educators are pressed to use evidence-based practice. In this comparative case study, we examine the learning opportunities afforded by teachers' data use conversations. Using situated discourse analysis, we compare two middle school mathematics teacher workgroups interpreting data from the same district assessment.…

  16. The Effect of Scratch- and Lego Mindstorms Ev3-Based Programming Activities on Academic Achievement, Problem-Solving Skills and Logical-Mathematical Thinking Skills of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Özgen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…

  17. Carpenter, tractors and microbes for the development of logical-mathematical thinking - the way 10th graders and pre-service teachers solve thinking challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazit, Avikam

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this case study was to investigate the ability of 10th graders and pre-service teachers to solve logical-mathematical thinking challenges. The challenges do not require mathematical knowledge beyond that of primary school but rather an informed use of the problem representation. The percentage of correct answers given by the 10th graders was higher than that of the pre-service teachers. Unlike the 10th graders, some of whom used various strategies for representing the problem, most of the pre-service teachers' answers were based on a technical algorithm, without using control processes. The obvious conclusion drawn from the findings supports and recommends expanding and enhancing the development of logical-mathematical thinking, both in specific lessons and as an integral part of other lessons in pre-service frameworks.

  18. Logic via Computer Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieschenberg, Agnes A.

    This paper proposed the question "How do we teach logical thinking and sophisticated mathematics to unsophisticated college students?" One answer among many is through the writing of computer programs. The writing of computer algorithms is mathematical problem solving and logic in disguise and it may attract students who would otherwise stop…

  19. A Study of Students' Conceptual, Procedural Knowledge, Logical Thinking and Creativity during the First Year of Tertiary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tularam, Gurudeo Anand; Hulsman, Kees

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on students in first year environmental science degree programs, where traditionally mathematical emphasis has been much less than within the strict science or math majors. The importance now placed on applied mathematics, however, means that students need to gain more conceptual and quantitative knowledge of mathematics in not…

  20. Logical-Mathematical Constructions in an Initial Course at the University: A View of Their Syntactic, Semantic and Pragmatic Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falsetti, Marcela; Alvarez, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of students' formal constructions in mathematics regarding to syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects. The analyzed tasks correspond to students of the Course of Mathematics for the admission to the university. Our study was qualitative, consisted in the identification, analysis and interpretation, focused in logic…

  1. Foundations of logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first book to give an account of the mathematical foundations of Logic Programming. Its purpose is to collect the basic theoretical results of Logic Programming, which have previously only been available in widely scattered research papers. In addition to presenting the technical results, the book also contains many illustrative examples. Many of the examples and problems are part of the folklore of Logic Programming and are not easily obtainable elsewhere.

  2. Identifying Logical Necessity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David

    2010-01-01

    Understanding logical necessity is an important component of proof and reasoning for teachers of grades K-8. The ability to determine exactly where young students' arguments are faulty offers teachers the chance to give youngsters feedback as they progress toward writing mathematically valid deductive proofs. As defined, logical necessity is the…

  3. Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…

  4. Mathematical Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Martin

    1978-01-01

    Describes the life and work of Charles Peirce, U.S. mathematician and philosopher. His accomplishments include contributions to logic, the foundations of mathematics and scientific method, and decision theory and probability theory. (MA)

  5. Set-Theory and Logic in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapadia, Ramesh

    1976-01-01

    The author argues that the emphasis on logic and set theory in the school mathematics program is unnecessary and possibly harmful. He discusses briefly the relationships between semantics and logic. (SD)

  6. Exploring the use of artificial intelligence, logic programming, and computer-aided symbolic manipulation in computational physics. 1. The mathematical structure of phase transition theory

    SciTech Connect

    Jacucci, G.; Rasetti, M.

    1987-09-10

    The solution of Ising models and other exactly solvable models in statistical mechanics reveals a close connection with such diverse mathematical fields as number theory, geometry, topology, algebra, and combinatorial group theory. It is suggested that computer-aided approaches are natural candidates to cope with the related algebraic and combinatorial complexity. It is shown how several problems in statistical mechanics which can be formulated in the language of enumerative graph theory - such as finding the generating function of closed loops on a finite lattice - or of formal logic and combinatorial group theory - such as Dehn's problem of finding all the words in a group which belong to the equivalence class of the identity-lend themselves naturally to symbolic computation. One of the advantages of these computational techniques is that their applicability is not restricted to cases where some problem-specific knowledge already exists. However, the combinatorial complexity of the problems grows extremely rapidly, so that it is essential to use intelligent knowledge-based techniques.

  7. Why physics needs mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2011-12-01

    Classical and the quantum mechanical sciences are in essential need of mathematics. Only thus can the laws of nature be formulated quantitatively permitting quantitative predictions. Mathematics also facilitates extrapolations. But classical and quantum sciences differ in essential ways: they follow different laws of logic, Aristotelian and non-Aristotelian logics, respectively. These are explicated.

  8. Leveraging Structure: Logical Necessity in the Context of Integer Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Whitacre, Ian; Schappelle, Bonnie P.

    2016-01-01

    Looking for, recognizing, and using underlying mathematical structure is an important aspect of mathematical reasoning. We explore the use of mathematical structure in children's integer strategies by developing and exemplifying the construct of logical necessity. Students in our study used logical necessity to approach and use numbers in a…

  9. The Logic of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  10. The Logic of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  11. A Mathematics Software Database Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)

  12. Fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.

  13. Ambiguity and Paradox in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, William

    2007-01-01

    Many people believe that mathematics provides a model of what thinking is, or should be. They imagine that mathematical thinking always proceeds in a logically rigorous, step-by-step fashion from one truth to another, like a formal proof or a computer program. In fact, insights in mathematics -- whether they are the scholar's breakthroughs or the…

  14. Nanomagnetic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, David Bryan

    The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly

  15. Context-based exercises in logic: to park or not to park, 'tis the question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, Mika

    2011-07-01

    In this article, ambiguous street and park signs are analysed and deciphered using symbolic logic. These examples showcase the ways in which instructors of undergraduate mathematics courses can blend their students' everyday exposure to logical reasoning with classroom experiences.

  16. Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…

  17. Mythical systems: mathematic and logical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nescolarde-Selva, J.; Usó-Doménech, J. L.; Lloret-Climent, M.

    2015-01-01

    The process of elaboration of the symbolic universe leads to exciting insights regarding the search for human emotional security. The symbols end up as explanatory axes of universal reality and on them are constructed myths that form a superstructure for belief systems. Human society is a multi-level system with a material structure (society), an ideological superstructure (belief systems, values, etc.) and a super superstructure with two parts: mythical (origin and justification) and utopic (final goal). All mythical belief systems have a numinous-religious nature.

  18. Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Logical Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2013-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills are important for a successful mathematical learning and in students' future career. These skills are essential for a primary school teacher, because they need to explain solving methods and solutions to their pupils. In this research we studied pre-service primary school teachers' logical reasoning skills. The results…

  19. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    2003-09-01

    Otter 3.3 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  20. Automated deduction for first-order logic with equality

    2001-06-01

    Otter 3.2 is the current version of ANL's automated deduction system designed to search for proofs and countermodels of conjectures stated in first-order logic with equality. It is used mostly for research in mathematics and logic and also for various applications requiring deductive data processing.

  1. A Logic Programming Testbed for Inductive Thought and Specification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Norman D.

    This paper describes applications of logic programming technology to the teaching of the inductive method in computer science and mathematics. It discusses the nature of inductive thought and its place in those fields of inquiry, arguing that a complete logic programming system for supporting inductive inference is not only feasible but necessary.…

  2. From Searle's Chinese Room to the Mathematics Classroom: Technical and Cognitive Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavalas, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Employing Searle's views, I begin by arguing that students of Mathematics behave similarly to machines that manage symbols using a set of rules. I then consider two types of Mathematics, which I call "Cognitive Mathematics" and "Technical Mathematics" respectively. The former type relates to concepts and meanings, logic and sense, whilst the…

  3. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Understanding of Logical Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauk, Shandy; Judd, April Brown; Tsay, Jenq Jong; Barzilai, Harel; Austin, Homer

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the logical reasoning efforts of five prospective elementary school teachers as they responded to interview prompts involving nonsense, natural, and mathematical representations of conditional statements. The interview participants evinced various levels of reliance on personal relevance, linguistic contextualization, and…

  4. Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.

    PubMed

    Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A

    2014-01-01

    A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design. PMID:25177713

  5. Robust Fuzzy Logic Stabilization with Disturbance Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A.

    2014-01-01

    A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design. PMID:25177713

  6. Robust fuzzy logic stabilization with disturbance elimination.

    PubMed

    Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A

    2014-01-01

    A robust fuzzy logic controller is proposed for stabilization and disturbance rejection in nonlinear control systems of a particular type. The dynamic feedback controller is designed as a combination of a control law that compensates for nonlinear terms in a control system and a dynamic fuzzy logic controller that addresses unknown model uncertainties and an unmeasured disturbance. Since it is challenging to derive a highly accurate mathematical model, the proposed controller requires only nominal functions of a control system. In this paper, a mathematical derivation is carried out to prove that the controller is able to achieve asymptotic stability by processing state measurements. Robustness here refers to the ability of the controller to asymptotically steer the state vector towards the origin in the presence of model uncertainties and a disturbance input. Simulation results of the robust fuzzy logic controller application in a magnetic levitation system demonstrate the feasibility of the control design.

  7. Logic integer programming models for signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Haus, Utz-Uwe; Niermann, Kathrin; Truemper, Klaus; Weismantel, Robert

    2009-05-01

    We propose a static and a dynamic approach to model biological signaling networks, and show how each can be used to answer relevant biological questions. For this, we use the two different mathematical tools of Propositional Logic and Integer Programming. The power of discrete mathematics for handling qualitative as well as quantitative data has so far not been exploited in molecular biology, which is mostly driven by experimental research, relying on first-order or statistical models. The arising logic statements and integer programs are analyzed and can be solved with standard software. For a restricted class of problems the logic models reduce to a polynomial-time solvable satisfiability algorithm. Additionally, a more dynamic model enables enumeration of possible time resolutions in poly-logarithmic time. Computational experiments are included.

  8. Audiovisual Materials in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Joseph A.

    This pamphlet lists five thousand current, readily available audiovisual materials in mathematics. These are grouped under eighteen subject areas: Advanced Calculus, Algebra, Arithmetic, Business, Calculus, Charts, Computers, Geometry, Limits, Logarithms, Logic, Number Theory, Probability, Soild Geometry, Slide Rule, Statistics, Topology, and…

  9. Fuzzy logic controller optimization

    DOEpatents

    Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael

    2004-03-23

    A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.

  10. Characteristics of 5th Graders' Logical Development Through Learning Division with Decimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Masakazu; Koyama, Masataka

    2005-01-01

    When we consider the gap between mathematics at elementary and secondary levels, and given the logical nature of mathematics at the latter level, it can be seen as important that the aspects of children's logical development in the upper grades in elementary school be clarified. In this study we focus on the teaching and learning of "division with…

  11. Unified Modern Mathematics, Course 2, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    This is Part 1 of the second course in a series which focuses on building fundamental mathematical structures. Topics considered in this book include: an introduction to mathematical logic and mathematical proof, a continuation of the study of groups, an introduction to axiomatic affine geometry, fields, the real number system, and coordinate…

  12. Mathematical Texts as Narrative: Rethinking Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for reading mathematics texts as narratives. Building from a narrative framework of Meike Bal, a reader's experience with the mathematical content as it unfolds in the text (the "mathematical story") is distinguished from his or her logical reconstruction of the content beyond the text (the…

  13. a Modal Logic of Indiscernibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Décio Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker; Merlussi, Pedro

    This paper is a continuation of the authors' attempts to deal with the notion of indistinguishability (or indiscernibility) from a logical point of view. Now we introduce a two-sorted first-order modal logic to enable us to deal with objects of two different species. The intended interpretation is that objects of one of the species obey the rules of standard S5, while the objects of the other species obey only the rules of a weaker notion of indiscernibility. Quantum mechanics motivates the development. The basic idea is that in the `actual' world things may be indiscernible but in another accessible world they may be distinguished in some way. That is, indistinguishability needs not be seen as a necessary relation. Contrariwise, things might be distinguished in the `actual' world, but they may be indiscernible in another world. So, while two quantum systems may be entangled in the actual world, in some accessible world, due to a measurement, they can be discerned, and on the other hand, two initially separated quantum systems may enter in a state of superposition, losing their individualities. Two semantics are sketched for our system. The first is constructed within a standard set theory (the ZFC system is assumed at the metamathematics). The second one is constructed within the theory of quasi-sets, which we believe suits better the purposes of our logic and the mathematical treatment of certain situations in quantum mechanics. Some further philosophically related topics are considered.

  14. Fuzzy branching temporal logic.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-ick; Lee, Kwang H; Lee, Doheon

    2004-04-01

    Intelligent systems require a systematic way to represent and handle temporal information containing uncertainty. In particular, a logical framework is needed that can represent uncertain temporal information and its relationships with logical formulae. Fuzzy linear temporal logic (FLTL), a generalization of propositional linear temporal logic (PLTL) with fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states defined on a linear time model, was previously proposed for this purpose. However, many systems are best represented by branching time models in which each state can have more than one possible future path. In this paper, fuzzy branching temporal logic (FBTL) is proposed to address this problem. FBTL adopts and generalizes concurrent tree logic (CTL*), which is a classical branching temporal logic. The temporal model of FBTL is capable of representing fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states, and the order relation among them is represented as a directed graph. The utility of FBTL is demonstrated using a fuzzy job shop scheduling problem as an example. PMID:15376850

  15. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  16. Digital Holographic Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, K., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of the holographic logic computer are discussed. The holographic operation is reviewed from the Fourier transform viewpoint, and the formation of holograms for use in performing digital logic are described. The operation of the computer with an experiment in which the binary identity function is calculated is discussed along with devices for achieving real-time performance. An application in pattern recognition using neighborhood logic is presented.

  17. Fuzzy Logic Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna

    2005-01-01

    The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.

  18. Rhythms essential to logical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2011-05-01

    In the context of quantum theory, recently we distinguished mathematics for expressing evidence from mathematics for explaining evidence. Here this distinction is made in spacetime physics. We offer a system of mathematical thought-or as termed in geodesy a reference system-for evidence, separated out from additional assumptions of a geometry in terms of which to explain that evidence. The offered reference system for evidence, free of any assumption of a particular explanatory geometry, whether Euclidean or general relativistic, amounts to a (theoretical) "assemblage of histories accumulated in the memories of parties to a synchronous communications network." The assemblage of histories gives voice to the known experimental finding, sometimes forgotten by theorists, that any memory device for recording logical symbols must be insensitive to variations in signals in which those symbols are carried. Out of acknowledging this insensitivity comes an appreciation of rhythms essential to the communication of digital symbols and of the need for analog measurements to maintain these rhythms. The separate reference system for evidence reconciles what otherwise is a conflict between the demand in quantum mechanics for repeatable experiments and the lack in spacetime metrics appropriate to the Global Positioning System of any exact symmetry, a lack that rules out an isometry between two spacetime regions for two occurrences of an experiment.

  19. Meaning and Process in Mathematics and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogono, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Trends in computer programing language design are described and children's difficulties in learning to write programs for mathematics problems are considered. Languages are compared under the headings of imperative programing, functional programing, logic programing, and pictures. (DC)

  20. Fundamentals of Digital Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, Monica L.

    This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…

  1. Logic Programming: PROLOG.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)

  2. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  3. Optical logic: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2005-05-01

    Progress of optical logic has been anything but uniform or even monotonic. The hope for "all optical computers" was largely abandoned after devastating critiques by Keyes. Over time, optical logic transformed into a very viable niche activity by the needs of optical communication for "all optical" logic and the advent of a critical component: the SOA or Semiconductor Optical Amplifier. I argue that a new phase in this uneven history can be defined - linear (single photon, not multiple entangled photon) quantum optical logic. These can perform conservative, reversible logic operations without energy or time penalties, but cascading requires the irreversible act of measurement, so only single devices or single layers can deliver those advantages.

  4. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    PubMed Central

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295

  5. Fuzziness in abacus logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhas, Othman Qasim

    1993-10-01

    The concept of “abacus logic” has recently been developed by the author (Malhas, n.d.). In this paper the relation of abacus logic to the concept of fuzziness is explored. It is shown that if a certain “regularity” condition is met, concepts from fuzzy set theory arise naturally within abacus logics. In particular it is shown that every abacus logic then has a “pre-Zadeh orthocomplementation”. It is also shown that it is then possible to associate a fuzzy set with every proposition of abacus logic and that the collection of all such sets satisfies natural conditions expected in systems of fuzzy logic. Finally, the relevance to quantum mechanics is discussed.

  6. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  7. Regulatory Conformance Checking: Logic and Logical Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinesh, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of checking whether an organization conforms to a body of regulation. Conformance is studied in a runtime verification setting. The regulation is translated to a logic, from which we synthesize monitors. The monitors are evaluated as the state of an organization evolves over time, raising an alarm if a violation is…

  8. Logical Thinking in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Thomas C.

    1973-01-01

    College students' responses to conditional syllogisms are used to analyze the students' interpretations of implication. Child's Logic'' was used much more frequently than Math Logic'' even after a one-semester course in logic. (JP)

  9. Fuzzy logic based robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.

    1994-01-01

    Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.

  10. Reasoning, logic, and psychology.

    PubMed

    Stenning, Keith; van Lambalgen, Michiel

    2011-09-01

    We argue that reasoning has been conceptualized so narrowly in what is known as 'psychology of reasoning' that reasoning's relevance to cognitive science has become well-nigh invisible. Reasoning is identified with determining whether a conclusion follows validly from given premises, where 'valid' is taken to mean 'valid according to classical logic'. We show that there are other ways to conceptualize reasoning, more in line with current logical theorizing, which give it a role in psychological processes ranging from (verbal) discourse comprehension to (nonverbal) planning. En route we show that formal logic, at present marginalized in cognitive science, can be an extremely valuable modeling tool. In particular, there are cases in which probabilistic modeling must fail, whereas logical models do well. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 555-567 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.134 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  11. Soap Bubbles and Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Shellie-helane; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Introduces questions and activities involving soap bubbles which provide students with experiences in prediction and logic. Examines commonly held false conceptions related to the shapes that bubbles take and provides correct explanations for the phenomenon. (ML)

  12. Mathematics Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  13. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil's Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children's LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions.

  14. Effects of Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematical Metacognition on Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Mathematical Learning Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yinghui; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yinghe; Li, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is one of the most objective, logical, and practical academic disciplines. Yet, in addition to cognitive skills, mathematical problem solving also involves affective factors. In the current study, we first investigated effects of mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematical metacognition on word problem solving (WPS). We tested 224 children (116 boys, M = 10.15 years old, SD = 0.56) with the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Children, the Chinese Revised-edition Questionnaire of Pupil’s Metacognitive Ability in Mathematics, and WPS tasks. The results indicated that mathematical metacognition mediated the effect of MA on WPS after controlling for IQ. Second, we divided the children into four mathematics achievement groups including high achieving (HA), typical achieving (TA), low achieving (LA), and mathematical learning difficulty (MLD). Because mathematical metacognition and MA predicted mathematics achievement, we compared group differences in metacognition and MA with IQ partialled out. The results showed that children with MLD scored lower in self-image and higher in learning mathematics anxiety (LMA) than the TA and HA children, but not in mathematical evaluation anxiety (MEA). MLD children’s LMA was also higher than that of their LA counterparts. These results provide insight into factors that may mediate poor WPS performance which emerges under pressure in mathematics. These results also suggest that the anxiety during learning mathematics should be taken into account in mathematical learning difficulty interventions. PMID:26090806

  15. Diagnosable structured logic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  16. Context-Based Exercises in Logic: To Park or Not to Park, 'Tis the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munakata, Mika

    2011-01-01

    In this article, ambiguous street and park signs are analysed and deciphered using symbolic logic. These examples showcase the ways in which instructors of undergraduate mathematics courses can blend their students' everyday exposure to logical reasoning with classroom experiences. (Contains 4 tables and 6 figures.)

  17. Twenty-Five Years of the Fuzzy Factor: Fuzzy Logic, the Courts, and Student Press Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plopper, Bruce L.; McCool, Lauralee

    A study applied the structure of fuzzy logic, a fairly modern development in mathematical set theory, to judicial opinions concerning non-university, public school student publications, from 1975 to 1999. The study examined case outcomes (19 cases generated 27 opinions) as a function of fuzzy logic, and it evaluated interactions between fuzzy…

  18. Paper-Pencil Methodology in the Assessment of Logical Operations in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarvey, Linda J.; And Others

    The construct underlying simple paper-and-pencil logical operations tasks administered to young children in group settings was examined. The logical operations, number concepts, and visual discrimination subtests of the Early School Assessment (ESA) were administered as part of the Fall 1987 national tryout of the ESA. The mathematics concepts and…

  19. Mathematical Teaching Strategies: Pathways to Critical Thinking and Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Hui Fang Huang; Ricci, Frederick A.; Mnatsakanian, Mamikon

    2016-01-01

    A teacher that emphasizes reasoning, logic and validity gives their students access to mathematics as an effective way of practicing critical thinking. All students have the ability to enhance and expand their critical thinking when learning mathematics. Students can develop this ability when confronting mathematical problems, identifying possible…

  20. Benchmarking emerging logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, Dmitri

    2014-03-01

    As complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CMOS FET) are being scaled to ever smaller sizes by the semiconductor industry, the demand is growing for emerging logic devices to supplement CMOS in various special functions. Research directions and concepts of such devices are overviewed. They include tunneling, graphene based, spintronic devices etc. The methodology to estimate future performance of emerging (beyond CMOS) devices and simple logic circuits based on them is explained. Results of benchmarking are used to identify more promising concepts and to map pathways for improvement of beyond CMOS computing.

  1. On Mathematical Proving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaneas, Petros; Vandoulakis, Ioannis M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper outlines a logical representation of certain aspects of the process of mathematical proving that are important from the point of view of Artificial Intelligence. Our starting-point is the concept of proof-event or proving, introduced by Goguen, instead of the traditional concept of mathematical proof. The reason behind this choice is that in contrast to the traditional static concept of mathematical proof, proof-events are understood as processes, which enables their use in Artificial Intelligence in such contexts, in which problem-solving procedures and strategies are studied. We represent proof-events as problem-centered spatio-temporal processes by means of the language of the calculus of events, which captures adequately certain temporal aspects of proof-events (i.e. that they have history and form sequences of proof-events evolving in time). Further, we suggest a "loose" semantics for the proof-events, by means of Kolmogorov's calculus of problems. Finally, we expose the intented interpretations for our logical model from the fields of automated theorem-proving and Web-based collective proving.

  2. Logic and Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straumanis, Joan

    A major problem in teaching symbolic logic is that of providing individualized and early feedback to students who are learning to do proofs. To overcome this difficulty, a computer program was developed which functions as a line-by-line proof checker in Sentential Calculus. The program, DEMON, first evaluates any statement supplied by the student…

  3. Temporal logics meet telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutten, Eric; Marce, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The specificity of telerobotics being the presence of a human operator, decision assistance tools are necessary for the operator, especially in hostile environments. In order to reduce execution hazards due to a degraded ability for quick and efficient recovery of unexpected dangerous situations, it is of importance to have the opportunity, amongst others, to simulate the possible consequences of a plan before its actual execution, in order to detect these problematic situations. Hence the idea of providing the operator with a simulator enabling him to verify the temporal and logical coherence of his plans. Therefore, the power of logical formalisms is used for representation and deduction purposes. Starting from the class of situations that are represented, a STRIPS (the STanford Research Institute Problem Solver)-like formalism and its underlying logic are adapted to the simulation of plans of actions in time. The choice of a temporal logic enables to build a world representation, on which the effects of plans, grouping actions into control structures, will be transcribed by the simulation, resulting in a verdict and information about the plan's coherence.

  4. Quantum probabilistic logic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.

  5. Effective Methods for Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Goldstein, Laurence

    1984-01-01

    Describes computer assisted instruction programs for teaching logic during first year philosophy courses at the University of Hong Kong. These programs include JOHN, which introduces Venn-diagrams for evaluating syllogistic arguments; LUDWIG, which introduces techniques for evaluating arguments in propositional calculus; and TIARA, which provides…

  6. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  7. The Logic of Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, John; Yang, Taewon

    2015-12-01

    Since the work of Crown (J. Natur. Sci. Math. 15(1-2), 11-25 1975) in the 1970's, it has been known that the projections of a finite-dimensional vector bundle E form an orthomodular poset ( omp) {P}(E). This result lies in the intersection of a number of current topics, including the categorical quantum mechanics of Abramsky and Coecke (2004), and the approach via decompositions of Harding (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 348(5), 1839-1862 1996). Moreover, it provides a source of omps for the quantum logic program close to the Hilbert space setting, and admitting a version of tensor products, yet having important differences from the standard logics of Hilbert spaces. It is our purpose here to initiate a basic investigation of the quantum logic program in the vector bundle setting. This includes observations on the structure of the omps obtained as {P}(E) for a vector bundle E, methods to obtain states on these omps, and automorphisms of these omps. Key theorems of quantum logic in the Hilbert setting, such as Gleason's theorem and Wigner's theorem, provide natural and quite challenging problems in the vector bundle setting.

  8. The Logic of Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, Gordon A.

    The logic of the evaluation of educational and other action programs is discussed from a methodological viewpoint. However, no attempt is made to develop methods of evaluating programs. In Part I, the structure of an educational program is viewed as a system with three components--inputs, transformation of inputs into outputs, and outputs. Part II…

  9. TEACHER-PUPIL INTERACTION DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCHOOL MATHEMATICS STUDY GROUP AND TRADITIONAL MATHEMATICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATE, ROBERT T.; SLOAN, FRED A.

    TEACHER-STUDENT INTERACTIONS WERE STUDIED IN (1) A TRADITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROGRAM, AND (2) A NEW MATHEMATICS PROGRAM BASED ON PROCEDURES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PROCESS OF DISCOVERY AND INQUIRY AND THE USE OF SYMBOLIC LOGIC. FORTY CLASSES OF REGULARLY ENROLLED FOURTH-GRADE STUDENTS PARTICIPATED IN THE STUDY. DURING OBSERVATIONS OF EACH CLASS, THE…

  10. Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.

  11. Mathematics, Anyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin

    2011-01-01

    In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…

  12. Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu; Wu, Kung C.

    1996-12-31

    A zeroth level introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single- degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.

  13. Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.

    1995-07-01

    An introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single-degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.

  14. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  15. The mysterious connection between mathematics and physics.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Louis H; Ul-Haq, Rukhsan

    2015-12-01

    The essay is in the form of a dialogue between the two authors. We take John Wheeler's idea of "It from Bit" as an essential clue and we rework the structure of the bit not to the qubit, but to a logical particle that is its own anti-particle, a logical Marjorana particle. This is our key example of the amphibian nature of mathematics and the external world. We emphasize that mathematics is a combination of calculation and concept. At the conceptual level, mathematics is structured to be independent of time and multiplicity. Mathematics in this way occurs before number and counting. From this timeless domain, mathematics and mathematicians can explore worlds of multiplicity and infinity beyond the apparent limitations of the physical world and see that among these possible worlds there are coincidences with what is observed. PMID:26278645

  16. The mysterious connection between mathematics and physics.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Louis H; Ul-Haq, Rukhsan

    2015-12-01

    The essay is in the form of a dialogue between the two authors. We take John Wheeler's idea of "It from Bit" as an essential clue and we rework the structure of the bit not to the qubit, but to a logical particle that is its own anti-particle, a logical Marjorana particle. This is our key example of the amphibian nature of mathematics and the external world. We emphasize that mathematics is a combination of calculation and concept. At the conceptual level, mathematics is structured to be independent of time and multiplicity. Mathematics in this way occurs before number and counting. From this timeless domain, mathematics and mathematicians can explore worlds of multiplicity and infinity beyond the apparent limitations of the physical world and see that among these possible worlds there are coincidences with what is observed.

  17. Conditional Logic and Primary Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Robert H.

    Conditional logic, as interpreted in this paper, means deductive logic characterized by "if-then" statements. This study sought to investigate the knowledge of conditional logic possessed by primary children and to test their readiness to learn such concepts. Ninety students were designated the experimental group and participated in a 15-week…

  18. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter's column will include some announcements and some recent radiation test results and evaluations of interest. Specifically, the following topics will be covered: the Military and Aerospace Applications of Programmable Devices and Technologies Conference to be held at GSFC in September, 1998, proton test results, heavy ion test results, and some total dose results.

  19. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  20. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  1. Formal verification of mathematical software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods are investigated for formally specifying and verifying the correctness of mathematical software (software which uses floating point numbers and arithmetic). Previous work in the field was reviewed. A new model of floating point arithmetic called the asymptotic paradigm was developed and formalized. Two different conceptual approaches to program verification, the classical Verification Condition approach and the more recently developed Programming Logic approach, were adapted to use the asymptotic paradigm. These approaches were then used to verify several programs; the programs chosen were simplified versions of actual mathematical software.

  2. Rainforest Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the contested way that ethnomathematics has sometimes been received by mathematicians and others and what that disagreement might suggest about issues in mathematics education; namely, (a) the relation of ethnomathematics to academic mathematics; (b) recent efforts to reform secondary school mathematics so that it prepares…

  3. Managing Medical Logic Modules.

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, A. R.; Roderer, N. K.

    1991-01-01

    A key element of IAIMS development at the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC) is the Medical Logic Module (MLM), designed to provide decision support to clinical users. A standard has been established for MLMs, and a number of institutions have agreed in principle to share them. At CPMC, MLMs are under development and MLMs from other institutions are being reviewed. The Columbia Health Sciences Library has developed a management system for MLMs which supports both internal development and sharing of MLMs among institutions. This paper describes the elements of the MLM management system. PMID:1807599

  4. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  5. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    1999-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter the focus is on some experimental data on low voltage drop out regulators to support mixed 5 and 3.3 volt systems. A discussion of the Small Explorer WIRE spacecraft will also be given. Lastly, we show take a first look at robust state machines in Hardware Description Languages (VHDL) and their use in critical systems. If you have information that you would like to submit or an area you would like discussed or researched, please give me a call or e-mail.

  6. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  7. A mathematical model of a computational problem solving system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aris, Teh Noranis Mohd; Nazeer, Shahrin Azuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model based on fuzzy logic for a computational problem solving system. The fuzzy logic uses truth degrees as a mathematical model to represent vague algorithm. The fuzzy logic mathematical model consists of fuzzy solution and fuzzy optimization modules. The algorithm is evaluated based on a software metrics calculation that produces the fuzzy set membership. The fuzzy solution mathematical model is integrated in the fuzzy inference engine that predicts various solutions to computational problems. The solution is extracted from a fuzzy rule base. Then, the solutions are evaluated based on a software metrics calculation that produces the level of fuzzy set membership. The fuzzy optimization mathematical model is integrated in the recommendation generation engine that generate the optimize solution.

  8. Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2015-01-01

    Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…

  9. An SEU immune logic family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canaris, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new logic family, which is immune to single event upsets, is described. Members of the logic family are capable of recovery, regardless of the shape of the upsetting event. Glitch propagation from an upset node is also blocked. Logic diagrams for an Inverter, Nor, Nand, and Complex Gates are provided. The logic family can be implemented in a standard, commercial CMOS process with no additional masks. DC, transient, static power, upset recovery and layout characteristics of the new family, based on a commercial 1 micron CMOS N-Well process, are described.

  10. The materiality of mathematics: presenting mathematics at the blackboard.

    PubMed

    Greiffenhagen, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Sociology has been accused of neglecting the importance of material things in human life and the material aspects of social practices. Efforts to correct this have recently been made, with a growing concern to demonstrate the materiality of social organization, not least through attention to objects and the body. As a result, there have been a plethora of studies reporting the social construction and effects of a variety of material objects as well as studies that have explored the material dimensions of a diversity of practices. In different ways these studies have questioned the Cartesian dualism of a strict separation of 'mind' and 'body'. However, it could be argued that the idea of the mind as immaterial has not been entirely banished and lingers when it comes to discussing abstract thinking and reasoning. The aim of this article is to extend the material turn to abstract thought, using mathematics as a paradigmatic example. This paper explores how writing mathematics (on paper, blackboards, or even in the air) is indispensable for doing and thinking mathematics. The paper is based on video recordings of lectures in formal logic and investigates how mathematics is presented at the blackboard. The paper discusses the iconic character of blackboards in mathematics and describes in detail a number of inscription practices of presenting mathematics at the blackboard (such as the use of lines and boxes, the designation of particular regions for specific mathematical purposes, as well as creating an 'architecture' visualizing the overall structure of the proof). The paper argues that doing mathematics really is 'thinking with eyes and hands' (Latour 1986). Thinking in mathematics is inextricably interwoven with writing mathematics. PMID:24620862

  11. The materiality of mathematics: presenting mathematics at the blackboard.

    PubMed

    Greiffenhagen, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Sociology has been accused of neglecting the importance of material things in human life and the material aspects of social practices. Efforts to correct this have recently been made, with a growing concern to demonstrate the materiality of social organization, not least through attention to objects and the body. As a result, there have been a plethora of studies reporting the social construction and effects of a variety of material objects as well as studies that have explored the material dimensions of a diversity of practices. In different ways these studies have questioned the Cartesian dualism of a strict separation of 'mind' and 'body'. However, it could be argued that the idea of the mind as immaterial has not been entirely banished and lingers when it comes to discussing abstract thinking and reasoning. The aim of this article is to extend the material turn to abstract thought, using mathematics as a paradigmatic example. This paper explores how writing mathematics (on paper, blackboards, or even in the air) is indispensable for doing and thinking mathematics. The paper is based on video recordings of lectures in formal logic and investigates how mathematics is presented at the blackboard. The paper discusses the iconic character of blackboards in mathematics and describes in detail a number of inscription practices of presenting mathematics at the blackboard (such as the use of lines and boxes, the designation of particular regions for specific mathematical purposes, as well as creating an 'architecture' visualizing the overall structure of the proof). The paper argues that doing mathematics really is 'thinking with eyes and hands' (Latour 1986). Thinking in mathematics is inextricably interwoven with writing mathematics.

  12. Fuzzy logic and coarse coding using programmable logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Geoffrey

    2009-05-01

    Naturally-occurring sensory signal processing algorithms, such as those that inspired fuzzy-logic control, can be integrated into non-naturally-occurring high-performance technology, such as programmable logic devices, to realize novel bio-inspired designs. Research is underway concerning an investigation into using field programmable logic devices (FPLD's) to implement fuzzy logic sensory processing. A discussion is provided concerning the commonality between bio-inspired fuzzy logic algorithms and coarse coding that is prevalent in naturally-occurring sensory systems. Undergraduate design projects using fuzzy logic for an obstacle-avoidance robot has been accomplished at our institution and other places; numerous other successful fuzzy logic applications can be found as well. The long-term goal is to leverage such biomimetic algorithms for future applications. This paper outlines a design approach for implementing fuzzy-logic algorithms into reconfigurable computing devices. This paper is presented in an effort to connect with others who may be interested in collaboration as well as to establish a starting point for future research.

  13. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  14. Simulation and Verification of Synchronous Set Relations in Rewriting Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocha, Camilo; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical foundation and a rewriting logic infrastructure for the execution and property veri cation of synchronous set relations. The mathematical foundation is given in the language of abstract set relations. The infrastructure consists of an ordersorted rewrite theory in Maude, a rewriting logic system, that enables the synchronous execution of a set relation provided by the user. By using the infrastructure, existing algorithm veri cation techniques already available in Maude for traditional asynchronous rewriting, such as reachability analysis and model checking, are automatically available to synchronous set rewriting. The use of the infrastructure is illustrated with an executable operational semantics of a simple synchronous language and the veri cation of temporal properties of a synchronous system.

  15. Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, Andrew

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.

  16. Quantificational logic of context

    SciTech Connect

    Buvac, Sasa

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we extend the Propositional Logic of Context, to the quantificational (predicate calculus) case. This extension is important in the declarative representation of knowledge for two reasons. Firstly, since contexts are objects in the semantics which can be denoted by terms in the language and which can be quantified over, the extension enables us to express arbitrary first-order properties of contexts. Secondly, since the extended language is no longer only propositional, we can express that an arbitrary predicate calculus formula is true in a context. The paper describes the syntax and the semantics of a quantificational language of context, gives a Hilbert style formal system, and outlines a proof of the system`s completeness.

  17. Molecular logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2003-01-13

    Miniaturization has been an essential ingredient in the outstanding progress of information technology over the past fifty years. The next, perhaps ultimate, limit of miniaturization is that of molecules, which are the smallest entities with definite size, shape, and properties. Recently, great effort has been devoted to design and investigate molecular-level systems that are capable of transferring, processing, and storing information in binary form. Some of these nanoscale devices can, in fact, perform logic operations of remarkable complexity. This research--although far from being transferred into technology--is attracting interest, as the nanometer realm seems to be out of reach for the "top-down" techniques currently available to microelectronics industry. Moreover, such studies introduce new concepts in the "old" field of chemistry and stimulate the ingenuity of researchers engaged in the "bottom-up" approach to nanotechnology.

  18. Contingencies, logic, and learning.

    PubMed

    Bower, T G

    1997-01-01

    A logical analysis of operant learning is presented. In total, the analysis makes a number of predictions that are different from the predictions of any other theory. Individual predictions can be explained by other theories, but the pattern of predictions is unique. Some tests of the predictions of the analysis with human newborns are described. The analysis predicts increased variance in sucking with the introduction of continuous reinforcement. This does occur. The analysis predicts a decreased rate of sucking with a shift from continuous to partial reinforcement. This does occur. The analysis predicts an increased rate of sucking with a shift from continuous reinforcement to continuous plus noncontingent reinforcement. Due to methodological deficiencies, we have been unable to test this prediction. However, it has been confirmed by others. The most exciting prediction of the analysis is a rapid way of producing extinction. That has not been tested with newborns; however, there is confirmatory evidence in the literature.

  19. A Logical Process Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  20. The New Quantum Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2014-06-01

    It is shown how all the major conceptual difficulties of standard (textbook) quantum mechanics, including the two measurement problems and the (supposed) nonlocality that conflicts with special relativity, are resolved in the consistent or decoherent histories interpretation of quantum mechanics by using a modified form of quantum logic to discuss quantum properties (subspaces of the quantum Hilbert space), and treating quantum time development as a stochastic process. The histories approach in turn gives rise to some conceptual difficulties, in particular the correct choice of a framework (probabilistic sample space) or family of histories, and these are discussed. The central issue is that the principle of unicity, the idea that there is a unique single true description of the world, is incompatible with our current understanding of quantum mechanics.

  1. Molecular logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita

    2003-01-13

    Miniaturization has been an essential ingredient in the outstanding progress of information technology over the past fifty years. The next, perhaps ultimate, limit of miniaturization is that of molecules, which are the smallest entities with definite size, shape, and properties. Recently, great effort has been devoted to design and investigate molecular-level systems that are capable of transferring, processing, and storing information in binary form. Some of these nanoscale devices can, in fact, perform logic operations of remarkable complexity. This research--although far from being transferred into technology--is attracting interest, as the nanometer realm seems to be out of reach for the "top-down" techniques currently available to microelectronics industry. Moreover, such studies introduce new concepts in the "old" field of chemistry and stimulate the ingenuity of researchers engaged in the "bottom-up" approach to nanotechnology. PMID:12596465

  2. [Brunschvicg, bachelard and the internal logic of scientific discourse].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Yvon

    2013-01-01

    Bachelard is seen as sharing with Brunschvicg an "internalist" epistemology of mathematics and exact sciences. Brunschvicg's notion of constructive idealism concurs with Bachelard's surrationalism. Both philosophers defended the idea of an internal logic of scientific discourse which discloses the dialectics inherent in the dynamics of reason. The aim of philosophy is then to emphasize the genesis and progress of rationality in the historical development of science. PMID:24091652

  3. [Brunschvicg, bachelard and the internal logic of scientific discourse].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Yvon

    2013-01-01

    Bachelard is seen as sharing with Brunschvicg an "internalist" epistemology of mathematics and exact sciences. Brunschvicg's notion of constructive idealism concurs with Bachelard's surrationalism. Both philosophers defended the idea of an internal logic of scientific discourse which discloses the dialectics inherent in the dynamics of reason. The aim of philosophy is then to emphasize the genesis and progress of rationality in the historical development of science.

  4. Programmable Logic Controllers. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauh, Bob; Kaltwasser, Stan

    These materials were developed for a seven-unit secondary or postsecondary education course on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) that treats most of the skills needed to work effectively with PLCs as programming skills. The seven units of the course cover the following topics: fundamentals of programmable logic controllers; contracts, timers,…

  5. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  6. Mathematiques 14-24 (Mathematics 14-24).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    To set goals and make informed choices, students need an array of thinking and problem-solving skills. Fundamental to this is an understanding of mathematical techniques and processes that will enable them to apply the basic skills necessary to address everyday mathematical situations, as well as acquire higher order skills in logical analysis and…

  7. Investigating Student Use of Electronic Support Tools and Mathematical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Kristina N.; Crawford, Lindy; Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; Horney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical reasoning involves comprehending mathematical information and concepts in a logical way and forming conclusions and generalizations based on this comprehension. Computer-based learning has been incorporated into classrooms across the country, and specific aspects of technology need to be studied to determine how programs are…

  8. Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study Information Bulletin 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study, New York, NY.

    The background, objectives, and design of Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum Improvement Study (SSMCIS) are summarized. Details are given of the content of the text series, "Unified Modern Mathematics," in the areas of algebra, geometry, linear algebra, probability and statistics, analysis (calculus), logic, and computer programming.…

  9. A Mathematics Educator's Introduction to Rural Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Michael S., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Most of the scholarship and commentary on mathematics education deals with issues of curriculum and instruction; this is understandable in a field logically belonging to the domain of curriculum and instruction. Moreover, issues of teaching and learning are compelling to people who love to learn and teach mathematics. Policy receives shorter…

  10. Teaching Mathematics from a Chemist's Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorenzo, Ronald A.

    This paper describes a chemistry professor's approach to teaching mathematics in the college classroom. Based on the assumption that the four main goals of the educational process in general are to teach students to communicate clearly, study regularly, master basic math skills, and think logically, a description is provided of the manner in which…

  11. Nucleic acid based logical systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2014-05-12

    Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.

  12. Fuzzy logic for fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comly, James B.; Bonissone, Piero P.; Dausch, Mark E.

    1991-02-01

    Advanced real-time digital controls for complex plants or processes will use a model (an " Observer" ) which predicts the values for sensor readings expected from the actual plant these vote as alternate " sensors" if the real ones fail. We are exploring further use of the Observer for real-time embedded diagnostics based on high speed fuzzy logic chips just becoming available. We have established a Fuzzy Inferencing Test Bed for fuzzy logic applications. It uses a set of development tools which allow applications to be built and tested against simulated systems and then ported directly to a high speed fuzzy logic chip. With the Fuzzy Inferencing Test we investigate very high speed fuzzy logic to: isolate faults using static information and early fault information that evolves rapidly in time validate and smooth readings from redundant sensors and smoothly select alternate control modes in intelligent controllers. This paper reports our experience with fuzzy logic in these kinds of applications.

  13. Power optimization in logic isomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panwar, Ramesh; Rennels, David; Alkalaj, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Logic isomers are labeled, 2-isomorphic graphs that implement the same logic function. Logic isomers may have significantly different power requirements even though they have the same number of transistors in the implementation. The power requirements of the isomers depend on the transition activity of the input signals. The power requirements of isomorphic graph isomers of n-input NAND and NOR gates are shown. Choosing the less power-consuming isomer instead of the others can yield significant power savings. Experimental results on a ripple-carry adder are presented to show that the implementation using the least power-consuming isomers requires approximately 10 percent less power than the implementation using the most power-consuming isomers. Simulations of other random logic designs also confirm that designs using less power-consuming isomers can reduce the logic power demand by approximately 10 percent as compared to designs using more power-consuming isomers.

  14. Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2011-11-10

    Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.

  15. Mathematics for understanding disease.

    PubMed

    Bies, R R; Gastonguay, M R; Schwartz, S L

    2008-06-01

    The application of mathematical models to reflect the organization and activity of biological systems can be viewed as a continuum of purpose. The far left of the continuum is solely the prediction of biological parameter values, wherein an understanding of the underlying biological processes is irrelevant to the purpose. At the far right of the continuum are mathematical models, the purposes of which are a precise understanding of those biological processes. No models in present use fall at either end of the continuum. Without question, however, the emphasis in regards to purpose has been on prediction, e.g., clinical trial simulation and empirical disease progression modeling. Clearly the model that ultimately incorporates a universal understanding of biological organization will also precisely predict biological events, giving the continuum the logical form of a tautology. Currently that goal lies at an immeasurable distance. Nonetheless, the motive here is to urge movement in the direction of that goal. The distance traveled toward understanding naturally depends upon the nature of the scientific question posed with respect to comprehending and/or predicting a particular disease process. A move toward mathematical models implies a move away from static empirical modeling and toward models that focus on systems biology, wherein modeling entails the systematic study of the complex pattern of organization inherent in biological systems.

  16. The "Mathnet" Format on "SQUARE ONE": Children's Informal Problem Solving, Understanding of Mathematical Concepts, and Ideas and Attitudes about Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauble, Leona; Peel, Tina

    Problem solving is a main topic in mathematics education, and considerable headway has been made in identifying the processes involved in solving well-formed problems like algebra word problems, mathematical algorithms, and logical puzzles like the Tower of Hanoi. The "Mathnet" format of the SQUARE ONE TV program, however, requires viewers to…

  17. Cognitive Rationality and Its Logic-Mathematical Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masalova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the cognitive (flexible) rationality, combining rational and irrational moments of the scientific search of the cognizing subject. Linguo-cognitive model of the concept as the flexible regulative rationality reveals the activity of the cognitive processes and the mentality of the epistemological-ontic subject, its leading…

  18. Killeen's (2005) p rep coefficient: logical and mathematical problems.

    PubMed

    Maraun, Michael; Gabriel, Stephanie

    2010-06-01

    In his article, "An alternative to null-hypothesis significance tests," Killeen (2005) urged the discipline to abandon the practice of p obs-based null hypothesis testing and to quantify the signal-to-noise characteristics of experimental outcomes with replication probabilities. He described the coefficient that he invented, prep, as the probability of obtaining "an effect of the same sign as that found in an original experiment" (Killeen, 2005, p. 346). The journal Psychological Science quickly came to encourage researchers to employ prep, rather than p obs, in the reporting of their experimental findings. In the current article, we (a) establish that Killeen's derivation of prep contains an error, the result of which is that prep is not, in fact, the probability that Killeen set out to derive; (b) establish that prep is not a replication probability of any kind but, rather, is a quasi-power coefficient; and (c) suggest that Killeen has mischaracterized both the relationship between replication probabilities and statistical inference, and the kinds of claims that are licensed by knowledge of the value assumed by the replication probability that he attempted to derive. PMID:20515239

  19. Use of mathematical logical concepts in quantum mechanics: an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    2002-07-01

    The representation of numbers by product states in quantum mechanics can be extended to the representation of words and word sequences in languages by product states. This can be used to study quantum systems that generate text that has meaning. A simple example of such a system, based on an example described by Smullyan, is studied here. Based on a path interpretation for some word states, definitions of truth, validity, consistency and completeness are given and their properties studied. It is also shown that the relation between the potential meaning, if any, of word states and the quantum algorithmic complexity of the process generating the word states must be quite complex or nonexistent.

  20. Motivating Computer Engineering Freshmen through Mathematical and Logical Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parhami, B.

    2009-01-01

    As in many other fields of science and technology, college students in computer engineering do not come into full contact with the key ideas and challenges of their chosen discipline until the third year of their studies. This situation poses a problem in terms of keeping the students motivated as they labor through their foundational, basic…

  1. Developing Learning Materials Using an Ontology of Mathematical Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyatt, Russell; Joy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Ontologies describe a body of knowledge and give formal structure to a domain by describing concepts and their relationships. The construction of an ontology provides an opportunity to develop a shared understanding and a consistent vocabulary to be used for a given activity. This paper describes the construction of an ontology for an area of…

  2. State-time spectrum of signal transduction logic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNamara, Aidan; Terfve, Camille; Henriques, David; Peñalver Bernabé, Beatriz; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2012-08-01

    Despite the current wealth of high-throughput data, our understanding of signal transduction is still incomplete. Mathematical modeling can be a tool to gain an insight into such processes. Detailed biochemical modeling provides deep understanding, but does not scale well above relatively a few proteins. In contrast, logic modeling can be used where the biochemical knowledge of the system is sparse and, because it is parameter free (or, at most, uses relatively a few parameters), it scales well to large networks that can be derived by manual curation or retrieved from public databases. Here, we present an overview of logic modeling formalisms in the context of training logic models to data, and specifically the different approaches to modeling qualitative to quantitative data (state) and dynamics (time) of signal transduction. We use a toy model of signal transduction to illustrate how different logic formalisms (Boolean, fuzzy logic and differential equations) treat state and time. Different formalisms allow for different features of the data to be captured, at the cost of extra requirements in terms of computational power and data quality and quantity. Through this demonstration, the assumptions behind each formalism are discussed, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and possible future developments.

  3. Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langbort, Carol, Ed.; Curtis, Deborah, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The focus of this special issue is mathematics education. All articles were written by graduates of the new masters Degree program in which students earn a Master of Arts degree in Education with a concentration in Mathematics Education at San Francisco State University. Articles include: (1) "Developing Teacher-Leaders in a Masters Degree Program…

  4. Making Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckstep, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Contends teachers must resist the temptation to suggest that, while children can create stories and melodies, they cannot create mathematics. Quotes mathematician G. H. Hardy: "A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a 'maker' of patterns." Considers mathematics should be able to stand up for itself. (BT)

  5. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  6. Mathematics Scrapbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazka, Helen

    2004-01-01

    One section of this "scrapbook" section describes Pythagoras' belief in the connections between music and mathematics -- that everything in the universe was a series of harmonies and regulated by music. Another section explains why Phythagoras felt it important for women to be encouraged to learn mathematics. At least 28 women were involved in his…

  7. Holism, ambiguity and approximation in the logics of quantum computation: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computation has suggested some new forms of quantum logic (called quantum computational logics), where meanings of sentences are identified with quantum information quantities. This provides a mathematical formalism for an abstract theory of meanings that can be applied to investigate different kinds of semantic phenomena (in social sciences, in medicine, in natural languages and in the languages of art), where both ambiguity and holism play an essential role.

  8. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen Chien

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and applications of fuzzy-logic controllers (FLCs) are examined in an analytical review. The fundamental principles of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are recalled; the basic FLC components (fuzzification and defuzzification interfaces, knowledge base, and decision-making logic) are described; and the advantages of FLCs for incorporating expert knowledge into a control system are indicated. Particular attention is given to fuzzy implication functions, the interpretation of sentence connectives (and, also), compositional operators, and inference mechanisms. Applications discussed include the FLC-guided automobile developed by Sugeno and Nishida (1985), FLC hardware systems, FLCs for subway trains and ship-loading cranes, fuzzy-logic chips, and fuzzy computers.

  9. The Logic of Reachability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Jonsson, Ari K.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, Graphplan style reachability analysis and mutual exclusion reasoning have been used in many high performance planning systems. While numerous refinements and extensions have been developed, the basic plan graph structure and reasoning mechanisms used in these systems are tied to the very simple STRIPS model of action. In 1999, Smith and Weld generalized the Graphplan methods for reachability and mutex reasoning to allow actions to have differing durations. However, the representation of actions still has some severe limitations that prevent the use of these techniques for many real-world planning systems. In this paper, we 1) separate the logic of reachability from the particular representation and inference methods used in Graphplan, and 2) extend the notions of reachability and mutual exclusion to more general notions of time and action. As it turns out, the general rules for mutual exclusion reasoning take on a remarkably clean and simple form. However, practical instantiations of them turn out to be messy, and require that we make representation and reasoning choices.

  10. Suicide as social logic.

    PubMed

    Kral, M J

    1994-01-01

    Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.

  11. Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitbol, Michel

    The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  12. Comparing Knowledge Bases and Reasoning Structures in Discussions of Mathematics and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    While teaching, teachers need to access both their knowledge of mathematics and knowledge of pedagogy. Practice-based materials afford teachers opportunities to reason about both mathematics and pedagogy within the context of teaching. Accepted systems exist for explaining and reasoning in the domain of mathematics; logic, procedures, and…

  13. How Syntactic Reasoners Can Develop Understanding, Evaluate Conjectures, and Generate Counterexamples in Advanced Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a highly successful student whose exploration of an advanced mathematical concept relies predominantly on syntactic reasoning, such as developing formal representations of mathematical ideas and making logical deductions. This student is observed as he learns a new mathematical concept and then completes…

  14. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  15. Heat exchanger expert system logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reduction is described of the operation and fault diagnostics of a Deep Space Network heat exchanger to a rule base by the application of propositional calculus to a set of logic statements. The value of this approach lies in the ease of converting the logic and subsequently implementing it on a computer as an expert system. The rule base was written in Process Intelligent Control software.

  16. Fuzzy logic and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.

  17. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene

    2002-01-01

    The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

  18. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  19. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Takahiro Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-07-06

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals.

  20. Application of linear logic to simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Thomas L.

    1998-08-01

    Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.

  1. The reasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Alex

    2011-12-01

    Mathematics and its relation to the physical universe have been the topic of speculation since the days of Pythagoras. Several different views of the nature of mathematics have been considered: Realism—mathematics exists and is discovered; Logicism—all mathematics may be deduced through pure logic; Formalism—mathematics is just the manipulation of formulas and rules invented for the purpose; Intuitionism—mathematics comprises mental constructs governed by self evident rules. The debate among the several schools has major importance in understanding what Eugene Wigner called, The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences. In return, this `Unreasonable Effectiveness' suggests a possible resolution of the debate in favor of Realism. The crucial element is the extraordinary predictive capacity of mathematical structures descriptive of physical theories.

  2. Dynamic Boolean Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic mathematical environments allow users to reify mathematical concepts through multiple representations, transform mathematical relations and organically explore mathematical properties, investigate integrated mathematics, and develop conceptual understanding. Herein, we integrate Boolean algebra, the functionalities of a dynamic…

  3. Mathematical wit and mathematical cognition.

    PubMed

    Aberdein, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The published works of scientists often conceal the cognitive processes that led to their results. Scholars of mathematical practice must therefore seek out less obvious sources. This article analyzes a widely circulated mathematical joke, comprising a list of spurious proof types. An account is proposed in terms of argumentation schemes: stereotypical patterns of reasoning, which may be accompanied by critical questions itemizing possible lines of defeat. It is argued that humor is associated with risky forms of inference, which are essential to creative mathematics. The components of the joke are explicated by argumentation schemes devised for application to topic-neutral reasoning. These in turn are classified under seven headings: retroduction, citation, intuition, meta-argument, closure, generalization, and definition. Finally, the wider significance of this account for the cognitive science of mathematics is discussed. PMID:23512504

  4. Mathematical Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.

    2009-10-14

    Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.

  5. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  6. Fuzzy logic control of the building structure with CLEMR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Cheng; Xu, Zhao-Dong; Huang, Xing-Huai; Zhu, Jun-Tao

    2013-04-01

    The semi-active control technology has been paid more attention in the field of structural vibration control due to its high controllability, excellent control effect and low power requirement. When semi-active control device are used for vibration control, some challenges must be taken into account, such as the reliability and the control strategy of the device. This study presents a new large tonnage compound lead extrusion magnetorheological (CLEMR) damper, whose mathematical model is introduced to describe the variation of damping force with current and velocity. Then a current controller based on the fuzzy logic control strategy is designed to determine control currents of the CLEMR dampers rapidly. A ten-floor frame structure with CLEMR dampers using the fuzzy logic control strategy is built and calculated by using MATLAB. Calculation results show that CLEMR dampers can reduce the seismic responses of structures effectively. Calculation results of the fuzzy logic control strategy are compared with those of the semi-active limit Hrovat control structure, the passive-off control structure, and the uncontrolled structure. Comparison results show that the fuzzy logic control strategy can determine control currents of CLEMR dampers quickly and can reduce seismic responses of the structures more effectively than the passive-off control strategy and the uncontrolled structure.

  7. Logic, probability, and human reasoning.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction.

  8. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  9. Abstract quantum computing machines and quantum computational logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe; Leporini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Classical and quantum parallelism are deeply different, although it is sometimes claimed that quantum Turing machines are nothing but special examples of classical probabilistic machines. We introduce the concepts of deterministic state machine, classical probabilistic state machine and quantum state machine. On this basis, we discuss the question: To what extent can quantum state machines be simulated by classical probabilistic state machines? Each state machine is devoted to a single task determined by its program. Real computers, however, behave differently, being able to solve different kinds of problems. This capacity can be modeled, in the quantum case, by the mathematical notion of abstract quantum computing machine, whose different programs determine different quantum state machines. The computations of abstract quantum computing machines can be linguistically described by the formulas of a particular form of quantum logic, termed quantum computational logic.

  10. A Logical Approach to Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.

  11. The semantics of fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruspini, Enrique H.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.

  12. A Logical Approach to Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Abhishek

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.

  13. Logic programming and metadata specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Saacks, Marguerite E.

    1992-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) ideas and techniques are critical to the development of intelligent information systems that will be used to collect, manipulate, and retrieve the vast amounts of space data produced by 'Missions to Planet Earth.' Natural language processing, inference, and expert systems are at the core of this space application of AI. This paper presents logic programming as an AI tool that can support inference (the ability to draw conclusions from a set of complicated and interrelated facts). It reports on the use of logic programming in the study of metadata specifications for a small problem domain of airborne sensors, and the dataset characteristics and pointers that are needed for data access.

  14. An Alternative Version of Conditional Probabilities and Bayes' Rule: An Application of Probability Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satake, Eiki; Amato, Philip P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative version of formulas of conditional probabilities and Bayes' rule that demonstrate how the truth table of elementary mathematical logic applies to the derivations of the conditional probabilities of various complex, compound statements. This new approach is used to calculate the prior and posterior probabilities…

  15. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Elementary Logic at the University Level. Technical Report No. 239.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele; Suppes, Patrick

    Earlier research by the authors in the design and use of computer-assisted instructional systems and curricula for teaching mathematical logic to gifted elementary school students has been extended to the teaching of university-level courses. This report is a description of the curriculum and problem types of a computer-based course offered at…

  16. Mathematical Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogness, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Advances in computer graphics have provided mathematicians with the ability to create stunning visualizations, both to gain insight and to help demonstrate the beauty of mathematics to others. As educators these tools can be particularly important as we search for ways to work with students raised with constant visual stimulation, from video games…

  17. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  18. Relevant Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catterton, Gene; And Others

    This material was developed to be used with the non college-bound student in the senior high school. It provides the student with everyday problems and experiences in which practical mathematical applications are made. The package includes worksheets pertaining to letterhead invoices, sales slips, payroll sheets, inventory sheets, carpentry and…

  19. Cooperative development of logical modelling standards and tools with CoLoMoTo.

    PubMed

    Naldi, Aurélien; Monteiro, Pedro T; Müssel, Christoph; Kestler, Hans A; Thieffry, Denis; Xenarios, Ioannis; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Helikar, Tomas; Chaouiya, Claudine

    2015-04-01

    The identification of large regulatory and signalling networks involved in the control of crucial cellular processes calls for proper modelling approaches. Indeed, models can help elucidate properties of these networks, understand their behaviour and provide (testable) predictions by performing in silico experiments. In this context, qualitative, logical frameworks have emerged as relevant approaches, as demonstrated by a growing number of published models, along with new methodologies and software tools. This productive activity now requires a concerted effort to ensure model reusability and interoperability between tools. Following an outline of the logical modelling framework, we present the most important achievements of the Consortium for Logical Models and Tools, along with future objectives. Our aim is to advertise this open community, which welcomes contributions from all researchers interested in logical modelling or in related mathematical and computational developments.

  20. Cooperative development of logical modelling standards and tools with CoLoMoTo.

    PubMed

    Naldi, Aurélien; Monteiro, Pedro T; Müssel, Christoph; Kestler, Hans A; Thieffry, Denis; Xenarios, Ioannis; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Helikar, Tomas; Chaouiya, Claudine

    2015-04-01

    The identification of large regulatory and signalling networks involved in the control of crucial cellular processes calls for proper modelling approaches. Indeed, models can help elucidate properties of these networks, understand their behaviour and provide (testable) predictions by performing in silico experiments. In this context, qualitative, logical frameworks have emerged as relevant approaches, as demonstrated by a growing number of published models, along with new methodologies and software tools. This productive activity now requires a concerted effort to ensure model reusability and interoperability between tools. Following an outline of the logical modelling framework, we present the most important achievements of the Consortium for Logical Models and Tools, along with future objectives. Our aim is to advertise this open community, which welcomes contributions from all researchers interested in logical modelling or in related mathematical and computational developments. PMID:25619997

  1. Gateways to Writing Logical Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school and high school students have a conception of what the basic demands of logic are, and they draw on this understanding in anticipating certain demands of parents and teachers when the adolescents have to defend positions. At the same time, many adolescents struggle to "write" highly elaborated arguments. Teaching students lessons in…

  2. The Logic of Research Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Michael; Coryn, Chris L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors offer suggestions about logical distinctions often overlooked in the evaluation of research, beginning with a strong plea not to treat technology as applied science, and especially not to treat research in technology as important only if it makes a contribution to scientific knowledge. They argue that the frameworks illustrated in this…

  3. Current Mode Logic Fan Out

    2011-05-07

    Current mode logic is used in high speed timing systems for particle accelerators due to the fast rise time of the electrical signal. This software provides the necessary documentation to produce multiple copies of a single input for distribution to multiple devices. This software supports the DOE mission by providing a method for producing high speed signals in accelerator timing systems.

  4. Surface-emitting laser logic

    SciTech Connect

    Olbright, G.R.; Bryan, R.P.; Brennan, T.M.; Lear, K.; Poirier, G.E.; Fu, W.S. ); Jewell, J.L.; Lee, Y.H. )

    1990-10-31

    We describe a new class of optical logic devices which consist of integrated phototransistors and surface-emitting lasers. The devices function as optical neurons having high gain and, as arrays, are ideal for neural networks, parallel optical signal processing and optical computing applications. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. The Logic of Quantum Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    We apply our previously developed formalism of contexts of histories, suitable to deal with quantum properties at different times, to the measurement process. We explore the logical implications which are allowed by the quantum theory, about the realization of properties of the microscopic measured system, before and after the measurement process with a given pointer value.

  6. Miniaturization of magnetic logic circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baba, P. D.

    1969-01-01

    Magnetic logic circuit design features two ferrite materials, with different formulation and magnetic characteristics, which are bonded into a continuous structure by preparing the materials as a slurry and using the doctor blade method to form flexible ferrite sheets. After firing, the sintering process was continuous across the bond.

  7. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…

  8. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  9. Logical Reasoning and Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bryce

    1993-01-01

    A study of logical reasoning ability of endusers searching a CD-ROM index and its correlation to searching performance was conducted at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Findings showed a correlation between cognitive skills and citation selection and indicated that computer system design can be improved using a cognitive engineering…

  10. Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.

  11. Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…

  12. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  13. Logic Dynamics for Deductive Inference -- Its Stability and Neural Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Ichiro

    2014-12-01

    We propose a dynamical model that represents a process of deductive inference. We discuss the stability of logic dynamics and a neural basis for the dynamics. We propose a new concept of descriptive stability, thereby enabling a structure of stable descriptions of mathematical models concerning dynamic phenomena to be clarified. The present theory is based on the wider and deeper thoughts of John S. Nicolis. In particular, it is based on our joint paper on the chaos theory of human short-term memories with a magic number of seven plus or minus two.

  14. Quantitative and logic modelling of gene and molecular networks

    PubMed Central

    Le Novère, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Behaviours of complex biomolecular systems are often irreducible to the elementary properties of their individual components. Explanatory and predictive mathematical models are therefore useful for fully understanding and precisely engineering cellular functions. The development and analyses of these models require their adaptation to the problems that need to be solved and the type and amount of available genetic or molecular data. Quantitative and logic modelling are among the main methods currently used to model molecular and gene networks. Each approach comes with inherent advantages and weaknesses. Recent developments show that hybrid approaches will become essential for further progress in synthetic biology and in the development of virtual organisms. PMID:25645874

  15. Mathematics Curriculum Guide. Mathematics IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary City Public School System, IN.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Mathematics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The subject matter is presented in four columns: major areas, significant outcomes, observations and suggestions, and films and references. The topics include: sets-relations-functions, circular functions, graphs of circular functions, inverses of circular…

  16. The Work Ratio--modeling the likelihood of return to work for workers with musculoskeletal disorders: A fuzzy logic approach.

    PubMed

    Apalit, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The world of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is complicated and fuzzy. Fuzzy logic provides a precise framework for complex problems characterized by uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision. Although fuzzy logic would appear to be an ideal modeling language to help address the complexity of MSDs, little research has been done in this regard. The Work Ratio is a novel mathematical model that uses fuzzy logic to provide a numerical and linguistic valuation of the likelihood of return to work and remaining at work. It can be used for a worker with any MSD at any point in time. Basic mathematical concepts from set theory and fuzzy logic are reviewed. A case study is then used to illustrate the use of the Work Ratio. Its potential strengths and limitations are discussed. Further research of its use with a variety of MSDs, settings and multidisciplinary teams is needed to confirm its universal value.

  17. A formal representation of the WHO and UNICEF estimates of national immunization coverage: a computational logic approach.

    PubMed

    Burton, Anthony; Kowalski, Robert; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Karimov, Rouslan; Brown, David

    2012-01-01

    Production of official statistics frequently requires expert judgement to evaluate and reconcile data of unknown and varying quality from multiple and potentially conflicting sources. Moreover, exceptional events may be difficult to incorporate in modelled estimates. Computational logic provides a methodology and tools for incorporating analyst's judgement, integrating multiple data sources and modelling methods, ensuring transparency and replicability, and making documentation computationally accessible. Representations using computational logic can be implemented in a variety of computer-based languages for automated production. Computational logic complements standard mathematical and statistical techniques and extends the flexibility of mathematical and statistical modelling. A basic overview of computational logic is presented and its application to official statistics is illustrated with the WHO & UNICEF estimates of national immunization coverage.

  18. Computerized logic design of digital circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussow, S.; Oglesby, R.

    1973-01-01

    This manual presents a computer program that performs all the work required for the logic design of digital counters or sequential circuits and the simplification of Boolean logic expressions. The program provides both the experienced and inexperienced logic designer with a comprehensive logic design capability. The manual contains Boolean simplification and sequential design theory, detailed instructions for use of the program, a large number of illustrative design examples, and complete program documentation.

  19. Dynamic Frames in Java Dynamic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattias; Weiß, Benjamin

    In this paper we present a realisation of the concept of dynamic frames in a dynamic logic for verifying Java programs. This is achieved by treating sets of heap locations as first class citizens in the logic. Syntax and formal semantics of the logic are presented, along with sound proof rules for modularly reasoning about method calls and heap dependent symbols using specification contracts.

  20. Logics of Business Education for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…

  1. Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wavering, Michael James

    2011-01-01

    In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…

  2. Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Garrett K.

    2011-01-01

    Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…

  3. A Domain-Specific Language for Discrete Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Rohit; Samuel, Alfy; Pawar, Ashmee; Kiruthika, M.

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses a Domain Specific Language (DSL) that has been developed to enable implementation of concepts of discrete mathematics. A library of data types and functions provides functionality which is frequently required by users. Covering the areas of Mathematical Logic, Set Theory, Functions, Graph Theory, Number Theory, Linear Algebra and Combinatorics, the language's syntax is close to the actual notation used in the specific fields.

  4. Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.

    1998-01-01

    Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.

  5. The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Álvarez, Edgardo T.

    The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.

  6. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  7. Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly. PMID:27427653

  8. Teaching Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Ritu; Shrivastava, Keerty; Bhardwaj, Ramakant

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is not only a subject but it is also a language consisting of many different symbols and relations. Taught as a compulsory subject up the 10th class, students are then able to choose whether or not to study mathematics as a main subject. The present paper discusses mathematical modeling in mathematics education. The article provides…

  9. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  10. Cosmic logic: a computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2016-02-01

    We initiate a formal study of logical inferences in context of the measure problem in cosmology or what we call cosmic logic. We describe a simple computational model of cosmic logic suitable for analysis of, for example, discretized cosmological systems. The construction is based on a particular model of computation, developed by Alan Turing, with cosmic observers (CO), cosmic measures (CM) and cosmic symmetries (CS) described by Turing machines. CO machines always start with a blank tape and CM machines take CO's Turing number (also known as description number or Gödel number) as input and output the corresponding probability. Similarly, CS machines take CO's Turing number as input, but output either one if the CO machines are in the same equivalence class or zero otherwise. We argue that CS machines are more fundamental than CM machines and, thus, should be used as building blocks in constructing CM machines. We prove the non-computability of a CS machine which discriminates between two classes of CO machines: mortal that halts in finite time and immortal that runs forever. In context of eternal inflation this result implies that it is impossible to construct CM machines to compute probabilities on the set of all CO machines using cut-off prescriptions. The cut-off measures can still be used if the set is reduced to include only machines which halt after a finite and predetermined number of steps.

  11. Mathematizing Darwin.

    PubMed

    Edwards, A W F

    2011-03-01

    Ernst Mayr called the first part of the evolutionary synthesis the 'Fisherian synthesis' on account of the dominant role played by R.A. Fisher in forging a mathematical theory of natural selection together with J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright in the decade 1922-1932. It is here argued that Fisher's contribution relied on a close reading of Darwin's work to a much greater extent than did the contributions of Haldane and Wright, that it was synthetic in contrast to their analytic approach and that it was greatly influenced by his friendship with the Darwin family, particularly with Charles's son Leonard. PMID:21423339

  12. Qualitative information modeling: The role of fuzzy logic in project economic evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Warnken, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    Conventional models rely on a precise mathematical formalism to express the quantitative essentials of the system being modeled. In contrast, decisionmakers in the real world employ cognitive skills to process information and arrive at decisions based on judgement and experience. Bridging the gap between the two analytic approaches -- that is, formulating intelligent models -- has met with very limited success using traditional computational methods. The difficulty stems from two problems. First, imprecision, which is the distinguishing feature of qualitative factors, is an information attribute that is not easily computable using the rules of traditional set theory and Boolean (bivalent) logic. Second, cognitive information processing is cumbersome using the numerical rule-based approaches common in today`s expert systems. Fuzzy models overcome these problems by employing new mathematical rules for expressing and processing knowledge. These rules are based on fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic is the formal symbolic language used to represent linguistic terms and verbal rules for computational and modeling purposes. This language provides model builders with the means to incorporate subjective judgements, imprecise information, and human reasoning capabilities as part of a model`s framework. This paper outlines the concepts needed to understand fuzzy modeling systems. The key concepts discussed include fuzzy sets, fuzzy logical operators, linguistic variables, and verbal rules. A simple fuzzy economic rating model for project investments is presented to demonstrate the fuzzy modeling technique. Finally, the paper discusses the role of fuzzy logic in the economic modeling process.

  13. The principle of least action as the logical empiricist's Shibboleth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    The present paper investigates why logical empiricists remained silent about one of the most philosophy-laden matters of theoretical physics of their day, the principle of least action (PLA). In the two decades around 1900, the PLA enjoyed a remarkable renaissance as a formal unification of mechanics, electrodynamics, thermodynamics, and relativity theory. Taking Ernst Mach's historico-critical stance, it could be liberated from much of its physico-theological dross. Variational calculus, the mathematical discipline on which the PLA was based, obtained a new rigorous basis. These three developments prompted Max Planck to consider the PLA as formal embodiment of his convergent realist methodology. Typically rejecting ontological reductionism, David Hilbert took the PLA as the key concept in his axiomatizations of physical theories. It served one of the main goals of the axiomatic method: "deepening the foundations." Although Moritz Schlick was a student of Planck's, and Hans Hahn and Philipp Frank enjoyed close ties to Göttingen, the PLA became a veritable Shibboleth to them. Rather than being worried by its historical connections with teleology and determinism, they erroneously identified Hilbert's axiomatic method tout court with Planck's metaphysical realism. Logical empiricists' strict containment policy against metaphysics required so strict a separation between physics and mathematics to exclude even those features of the PLA and the axiomatic method not tainted with metaphysics.

  14. Explaining Definitions in Secondary School Mathematics: A[superscript 0], A[superscript n], 0!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Tay Eng; Hoong, Leong Yew

    2012-01-01

    Educators look for "teaching opportunities" within the curriculum to "bring the practice of knowing mathematics in school closer to what it means to know within the discipline". The need to emphasise disciplinarity--and the concomitant canons of logic, consistency, and connections--in the teaching of mathematics is in line with the proficiency…

  15. Using the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle to Infuse Your Mathematics Classroom with Computer Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzocchi, Alison S.

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi…

  16. Sequential Mathematics Course III. Volume One. Staff Development Program 1986-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The Sequential Mathematics Sequence provides students with an integrated course of study, including lessons which interweave algebra, geometry, logic, probability, and mathematical systems. This handbook is designed to meet the needs of teachers who will be teaching Course III in the sequence. The handbook, for use with staff development programs,…

  17. Mixed Methods Study Using Constructive Learning Team Model for Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    The constructive learning team model for secondary mathematics teachers (CLTM) was created to provide students with learning opportunities and experiences that address deficiencies in oral and written communication, logical processes and analysis, mathematical operations, independent learning, teamwork, and technology utilization. This study…

  18. Logical gaps in the approximate solutions of the social learning game and an exact solution.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wenjie; Wang, Xin; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2014-01-01

    After the social learning models were proposed, finding solutions to the games becomes a well-defined mathematical question. However, almost all papers on the games and their applications are based on solutions built either upon an ad-hoc argument or a twisted Bayesian analysis of the games. Here, we present logical gaps in those solutions and offer an exact solution of our own. We also introduce a minor extension to the original game so that not only logical differences but also differences in action outcomes among those solutions become visible.

  19. Actualizacion Matematica, AM-2 (Modernizing Mathematics, AM-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    [Parot, Jean Jacques

    This document presents a series of exercises designed to help elementary school children develop skills in mathematics and logic. By means of stories, games, questions, and illustrations, the first set of exercises presents the idea of number systems with bases other than 10. Similar means are used to explain the concept of exponents and to teach…

  20. Communication Theory Offers Insight into Mathematics Teachers' Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Denise B.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how communication theory is used to understand the thoughts mathematics teachers employ when creating messages intended for students. According to communication theory, individuals have different premises about the act of communicating, and these thoughts, called message design logics, guide the process of reasoning from…

  1. Investigations in Mathematics Education. Volume 19, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N., Ed.; Kasten, Margaret L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of the journal contains abstracts and critical comments for ten published reports of research in mathematics education. The reports concern teaching probability and estimation of measurements through microcomputer games, mental addition, use of calculators at the intermediate level, logical reasoning hierarchies, two approaches to the…

  2. The universal magnetic tunnel junction logic gates representing 16 binary Boolean logic operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junwoo; Suh, Dong Ik; Park, Wanjun

    2015-05-01

    The novel devices are expected to shift the paradigm of a logic operation by their own nature, replacing the conventional devices. In this study, the nature of our fabricated magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) that responds to the two external inputs, magnetic field and voltage bias, demonstrated seven basic logic operations. The seven operations were obtained by the electric-field-assisted switching characteristics, where the surface magnetoelectric effect occurs due to a sufficiently thin free layer. The MTJ was transformed as a universal logic gate combined with three supplementary circuits: A multiplexer (MUX), a Wheatstone bridge, and a comparator. With these circuits, the universal logic gates demonstrated 16 binary Boolean logic operations in one logic stage. A possible further approach is parallel computations through a complimentary of MUX and comparator, capable of driving multiple logic gates. A reconfigurable property can also be realized when different logic operations are produced from different level of voltages applying to the same configuration of the logic gate.

  3. [Gaston Bachelard in front of mathematics].

    PubMed

    Alunni, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The issue regarding the bond between Bachelard's thought and contemporaneous mathematics has for a long time been concealed, aiming at the restricted benefit of an entirely misrepresented interpretation. The interpretation that indeed prevails, and in particular following the colloquium of Cerisy in 1974, is that of a man nurtured in the domain of both, physics and chemistry, and that has never drawn significant attention to mathematics. That is precisely the standpoint of the logician Roger Martin who sustains that the matters concerning the foundational problems (set theory, axiomatization and logicism) are in fact buried in a guilty silence. Departing from a meticulous assessment of the philosopher's texts, the present study thus aims at restoring a more appropriate image of a Bachelard, for whom mathematics is no less than the "superego" of science.

  4. Authenticity of Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Dung; Dougherty, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Some students leave high school never quite sure of the relevancy of the mathematics they have learned. They fail to see links between school mathematics and the mathematics of everyday life that requires thoughtful decision making and often complex problem solving. Is it possible to bridge the gap between school mathematics and the mathematics in…

  5. Tri-state logic circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, Richard Lee (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A line driver including a pair of complementary transistors having their conduction paths serially connected between an operating and a reference potential and their bases connected through a first switch to a signal input terminal. A second switch is connected between the common base connection and the common connection of the conduction paths. With the second switch open and the first closed, an output voltage, responsive to the input signal, corresponding to first or second binary values is obtained. When the second switch is closed and the first opened, the transistor pair is turned off, disconnecting the line driver from its load, thereby providing tri-state logic operation.

  6. Deoxyribozyme-based logic gates.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Milan N; Mitchell, Tiffany Elizabeth; Stefanovic, Darko

    2002-04-10

    We report herein a set of deoxyribozyme-based logic gates capable of generating any Boolean function. We construct basic NOT and AND gates, followed by the more complex XOR gate. These gates were constructed through a modular design that combines molecular beacon stem-loops with hammerhead-type deoxyribozymes. Importantly, as the gates have oligonucleotides as both inputs and output, they open the possibility of communication between various computation elements in solution. The operation of these gates is conveniently connected to a fluorescent readout.

  7. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  8. [Continuity and transformation of body logic].

    PubMed

    Bolens, Guillemette

    2003-01-01

    This article is concerned with two distinct corporeal logics. In the first, corporeality is founded on joints, tendons, and mobility; in the second, the envelope and its apertures are considered primordial. The first logic is extant in very few works. Although these texts (e.g. The Iliad, Beowulf) clearly share the same, very specific, conception of the body, they belong to different histories. The corporeal logic of the 'jointed body' (corps articulaire) cannot, therefore, be appraised in terms of longue durée. The texts represent, instead, a moment of transition between the psychodynamics of orality and literacy. A problem correlated to this fact is that readers (ancient and modern) no longer think using the same logic as that pertaining to the jointed body. They tend to translate information regarding the logic of the jointed body into data meaningful in their own logic.

  9. Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-01-01

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588

  10. Advanced mathematical study and the development of conditional reasoning skills.

    PubMed

    Attridge, Nina; Inglis, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Since the time of Plato, philosophers and educational policy-makers have assumed that the study of mathematics improves one's general 'thinking skills'. Today, this argument, known as the 'Theory of Formal Discipline' is used in policy debates to prioritize mathematics in school curricula. But there is no strong research evidence which justifies it. We tested the Theory of Formal Discipline by tracking the development of conditional reasoning behavior in students studying post-compulsory mathematics compared to post-compulsory English literature. In line with the Theory of Formal Discipline, the mathematics students did develop their conditional reasoning to a greater extent than the literature students, despite them having received no explicit tuition in conditional logic. However, this development appeared to be towards the so-called defective conditional understanding, rather than the logically normative material conditional understanding. We conclude by arguing that Plato may have been correct to claim that studying advanced mathematics is associated with the development of logical reasoning skills, but that the nature of this development may be more complex than previously thought.

  11. HDL to verification logic translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  12. River Protection Project (RPP) Level 0 Logic

    SciTech Connect

    SEEMAN, S.E.

    2000-01-20

    The following modifications were made to the River Protection Project Level-0 logic in going from Rev. I to Rev. 2. The first change was the change to the heading at the top of the drawing: ''TWRS Program Logic'' to ''River Protection Project Mission Logic''. Note that purely format changes (e.g., fonts, location of boxes, date format, addition of numbers to ''ghost'' boxes) are not discussed. However, the major format change was to show DOE-BNFL Inc. Interface Control Documents (ICDs) on the logic.

  13. An Analysis on the Pattern Generalizations of the Turkish Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers That Are Presented in a Different Structure and Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundar, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    The pattern, which is a key concept in understanding the mathematical information and concepts, is the basis in comprehending mathematical relations and in understanding mathematical order and logic. The fact that students discover the relationships contained within the patterns and generalize them helps them develop their skills to better…

  14. Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Pier Luigi

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

  15. Mathematical Story: A Metaphor for Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for interpreting the content found in mathematics curriculum in order to offer teachers and other mathematics educators comprehensive conceptual tools with which to make curricular decisions. More specifically, it describes a metaphor of "mathematics curriculum as story" and defines and…

  16. Mathematics for Life: Sustainable Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renert, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Ecological sustainability has not been a major focus of mathematics education research, even though it has attracted considerable attention in other areas of educational research in the past decade. The connections between mathematics education and ecological sustainability are not readily apparent. This paper explores how mathematics educators…

  17. Mathematical Modelling Approach in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    The topic of models and modeling has come to be important for science and mathematics education in recent years. The topic of "Modeling" topic is especially important for examinations such as PISA which is conducted at an international level and measures a student's success in mathematics. Mathematical modeling can be defined as using…

  18. Mathematics Anxiety and Attitudes toward Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, James B., Jr.; Hendel, Darwin D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate that the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale and the Math Anxiety Scale measure similar components of mathematics-anxiety domain. Mathematics-anxiety scales and Fennema-Sherman scales of Confidence and Effectance Motivation measure similar affective domains and are approximately equal predictors of arithmetic performance. (Author)

  19. Construction of cell type-specific logic models of signaling networks using CellNOpt.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melody K; Melas, Ioannis; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding protein signaling networks because they provide an integrated view of pharmacological and toxicological processes at the molecular level. Here we describe an approach previously introduced based on logic modeling to generate cell-specific, mechanistic and predictive models of signal transduction. Models are derived from a network encoding prior knowledge that is trained to signaling data, and can be either binary (based on Boolean logic) or quantitative (using a recently developed formalism, constrained fuzzy logic). The approach is implemented in the freely available tool CellNetOptimizer (CellNOpt). We explain the process CellNOpt uses to train a prior knowledge network to data and illustrate its application with a toy example as well as a realistic case describing signaling networks in the HepG2 liver cancer cell line.

  20. A novel fuzzy logic inference system for decision support in weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Yusuf Alper; Kilic, Ilke

    2010-12-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation represents one of the most challenging issues in management of critically ill patients. Currently used weaning predictors ignore many important dimensions of weaning outcome and have not been uniformly successful. A fuzzy logic inference system that uses nine variables, and five rule blocks within two layers, has been designed and implemented over mathematical simulations and random clinical scenarios, to compare its behavior and performance in predicting expert opinion with those for rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI), pressure time index and Jabour' weaning index. RSBI has failed to predict expert opinion in 52% of scenarios. Fuzzy logic inference system has shown the best discriminative power (ROC: 0.9288), and RSBI the worst (ROC: 0.6556) in predicting expert opinion. Fuzzy logic provides an approach which can handle multi-attribute decision making, and is a very powerful tool to overcome the weaknesses of currently used weaning predictors.

  1. Probabilistic and fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Licata, G

    2007-06-01

    In this study I have compared classic and fuzzy logic and their usefulness in clinical diagnosis. The theory of probability is often considered a device to protect the classical two-valued logic from the evidence of its inadequacy to understand and show the complexity of world [1]. This can be true, but it is not possible to discard the theory of probability. I will argue that the problems and the application fields of the theory of probability are very different from those of fuzzy logic. After the introduction on the theoretical bases of fuzzy approach to logic, I have reported some diagnostic argumentations employing fuzzy logic. The state of normality and the state of disease often fight their battle on scalar quantities of biological values and it is not hard to establish a correspondence between the biological values and the percent values of fuzzy logic. Accordingly, I have suggested some applications of fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis and in particular I have utilised a fuzzy curve to recognise subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal failure and liver disease. The comparison between classic and fuzzy logic findings seems to indicate that fuzzy logic is more adequate to study the development of biological events. In fact, fuzzy logic is useful when we have a lot of pieces of information and when we dispose to scalar quantities. In conclusion, increasingly the development of technology offers new instruments to measure pathological parameters through scalar quantities, thus it is reasonable to think that in the future fuzzy logic will be employed more in clinical diagnosis.

  2. Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Scott

    2009-02-01

    This paper considers George A. Reisch’s account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have political aims, and further suggests that political forces alone cannot explain this view’s rise to dominance during the Cold War, since political forces cannot explain why a philosophy of science with liberal democratic, anti-communist aims did not flourish. The paper then argues that if professionalization is understood in the right way, it might point toward an explanation of the apolitical stance of Cold War philosophy of science.

  3. Moral Particularism and Deontic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, Xavier

    The aim of this paper is to strengthen the point made by Horty about the relationship between reason holism and moral particularism. In the literature prima facie obligations have been considered as the only source of reason holism. I strengthen Horty's point in two ways. First, I show that contrary-to-duties provide another independent support for reason holism. Next I outline a formal theory that is able to capture these two sources of holism. While in simple settings the proposed account coincides with Horty's one, this is not true in more complicated or "realistic" settings in which more than two norms collide. My chosen formalism is so-called input/output logic.

  4. Strategy: The logic of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Luttwak, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book expounds a new way of thinking about the conduct of war and the diplomacy of peace, a theory Luttwak calls ''paradoxical logic,'' and illustrates, through abundant historical examples, the failure of commonsense logic in matters of military strategy and international politics. Topics considered include nuclear weapons, military strategy, decision making, historical aspects, political aspects, global aspects, and warfare.

  5. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, Ken

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a look at logic design from early in the US Space Program and examines faults in recent logic designs. Most examples are based on flight hardware failures and analysis of new tools and techniques. The paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  6. Zeno's arrow and classical phase space logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmoreland, Michael D.; Schumacher, Benjamin W.

    1994-06-01

    We analyze the Zeno's familiar paradox of the arrow using recently developed non-Boolean derived logics for classical systems. We show that the paradox depends upon a premise that is identically false in such logics, so that the language of experimental propositions is immune to the paradox.

  7. Hardware verification at Computational Logic, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Bishop C.; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) hardware verification; (2) Boyer-Moore logic; (3) core RISC; (4) the FM8502 fabrication, implementation specification, and pinout; (5) hardware description language; (6) arithmetic logic generator; (7) near term expected results; (8) present trends; (9) future directions; (10) collaborations and technology transfer; and (11) technology enablers.

  8. Natural language understanding and logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, V.; Saint-Dizier, P.

    1985-01-01

    Logic programming has been used in many natural language understanding applications, mainly in the areas of analysis, metagrammatical formalisms, logical treatment of linguistic problems, and meaning representations for naturla language. The particular methods and formal systems developed in this context usually exhibit attractive features of logic while remaining in the more pragmatic area of programming: conciseness, modularity, a declarative meaning that is independent from machine behaviour, and logical inference. All of these features, common to logic programming and to logic metagrammars, have been made possible through a chaining of various fundamental ideas. Outstanding among these are the resolution principle. Prolog itself; and interpretation of logic as a programming language. The machines of a relatively near future are likely to incorporate many related capabilities while increasing their speed manyfold. The Japanese Fifth Generation Computer project has triggered efforts towards future generations of computer systems based on these concepts. The potential in understanding natural language through logic programming is growing rapidly, and it might be wise to integrate the various theoretical and practical aspects involved, rather than yielding to the temptation of using all the extra power for programming ad-hoc systems. This conference is an effort toward such an integration.

  9. A survey of advancements in nucleic acid-based logic gates and computing for applications in biotechnology and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cuichen; Wan, Shuo; Hou, Weijia; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Jiehua; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Hu, Jun; Tan, Weihong

    2015-03-01

    Nucleic acid-based logic devices were first introduced in 1994. Since then, science has seen the emergence of new logic systems for mimicking mathematical functions, diagnosing disease and even imitating biological systems. The unique features of nucleic acids, such as facile and high-throughput synthesis, Watson-Crick complementary base pairing, and predictable structures, together with the aid of programming design, have led to the widespread applications of nucleic acids (NA) for logic gate and computing in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this feature article, the development of in vitro NA logic systems will be discussed, as well as the expansion of such systems using various input molecules for potential cellular, or even in vivo, applications.

  10. A Survey of Advancements in Nucleic Acid-based Logic Gates and Computing for Applications in Biotechnology and biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuichen; Wan, Shuo; Hou, Weijia; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Jiehua; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Hu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based logic devices were first introduced in 1994. Since then, science has seen the emergence of new logic systems for mimicking mathematical functions, diagnosing disease and even imitating biological systems. The unique features of nucleic acids, such as facile and high-throughput synthesis, Watson-Crick complementary base pairing, and predictable structures, together with the aid of programming design, have led to the widespread applications of nucleic acids (NA) for logic gating and computing in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this feature article, the development of in vitro NA logic systems will be discussed, as well as the expansion of such systems using various input molecules for potential cellular, or even in vivo, applications. PMID:25597946

  11. Reprogrammable Logic Gate and Logic Circuit Based on Multistimuli-Responsive Raspberry-like Micromotors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mei; Dong, Bin

    2016-06-22

    In this paper, we report a polymer-based raspberry-like micromotor. Interestingly, the resulting micromotor exhibits multistimuli-responsive motion behavior. Its on-off-on motion can be regulated by the application of stimuli such as H2O2, near-infrared light, NH3, or their combinations. Because of the versatility in motion control, the current micromotor has great potential in the application field of logic gate and logic circuit. With use of different stimuli as the inputs and the micromotor motion as the output, reprogrammable OR and INHIBIT logic gates or logic circuit consisting of OR, NOT, and AND logic gates can be achieved. PMID:27237969

  12. Magnetic tunnel junction based spintronic logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Andrew Paul

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicts that complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based technologies will hit their last generation on or near the 16 nm node, which we expect to reach by the year 2025. Thus future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by 'outside the box' designs and new physics, including molecular or DNA based computation, organics, magnonics, or spintronic. This dissertation investigates magnetic logic devices for post-CMOS computation. Three different architectures were studied, each relying on a different magnetic mechanism to compute logic functions. Each design has it benefits and challenges that must be overcome. This dissertation focuses on pushing each design from the drawing board to a realistic logic technology. The first logic architecture is based on electrically connected magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) that allow direct communication between elements without intermediate sensing amplifiers. Two and three input logic gates, which consist of two and three MTJs connected in parallel, respectively were fabricated and are compared. The direct communication is realized by electrically connecting the output in series with the input and applying voltage across the series connections. The logic gates rely on the fact that a change in resistance at the input modulates the voltage that is needed to supply the critical current for spin transfer torque switching the output. The change in resistance at the input resulted in a voltage margin of 50--200 mV and 250--300 mV for the closest input states for the three and two input designs, respectively. The two input logic gate realizes the AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic functions. The three input logic function realizes the Majority, AND, NAND, NOR, and OR logic operations. The second logic architecture utilizes magnetostatically coupled nanomagnets to compute logic functions, which is the basis of

  13. Students as Mathematics Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical…

  14. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  15. Mathematics for Real Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Zaghloul, Ed.; Draxler, Alexandra, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    A set of articles with the theme "Mathematics for Real Life" is presented. These article titles are: (1) Teaching Mathematics as a Tool for Problem Solving; (2) New Math or New Education; (3) Hand Calculators and Math in Primary School; (4) Mass Media in the Mathematical Training of Polish Primary Teachers; (5) The Goals of Mathematics Teaching in…

  16. Mathematical Epistemologies at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates young people's expression of mathematical ideas with a computer, the nature of mathematical practices, and the problem of mathematical meaning from cognitive and socio-cultural perspectives. Describes a mathematical activity system designed for learning and the role of digital technologies in helping to understand and reshape the…

  17. Functioning Mathematically: 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, David

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first part of the closing address given by the author to the 2007 Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference at Loughborough. In his closing address, the author focuses on functioning mathematically as opposed to functional mathematics. His view of functional mathematics is that the focus is on someone…

  18. Mathematics Lessons without ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Kath; Hibbs, John

    2006-01-01

    In the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference, 2006, the authors presented a list of important aspects of mathematics lessons, recommended for students to have a positive attitude to mathematics and for teachers to acquire effective teaching. The following are discussed in detail: (1) Mathematics lessons without good…

  19. Bio-logic builder: a non-technical tool for building dynamical, qualitative models.

    PubMed

    Helikar, Tomáš; Kowal, Bryan; Madrahimov, Alex; Shrestha, Manish; Pedersen, Jay; Limbu, Kahani; Thapa, Ishwor; Rowley, Thaine; Satalkar, Rahul; Kochi, Naomi; Konvalina, John; Rogers, Jim A

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling of biological processes is a promising tool in biomedical research. While a large part of its potential lies in the ability to integrate it with laboratory research, modeling currently generally requires a high degree of training in mathematics and/or computer science. To help address this issue, we have developed a web-based tool, Bio-Logic Builder, that enables laboratory scientists to define mathematical representations (based on a discrete formalism) of biological regulatory mechanisms in a modular and non-technical fashion. As part of the user interface, generalized "bio-logic" modules have been defined to provide users with the building blocks for many biological processes. To build/modify computational models, experimentalists provide purely qualitative information about a particular regulatory mechanisms as is generally found in the laboratory. The Bio-Logic Builder subsequently converts the provided information into a mathematical representation described with Boolean expressions/rules. We used this tool to build a number of dynamical models, including a 130-protein large-scale model of signal transduction with over 800 interactions, influenza A replication cycle with 127 species and 200+ interactions, and mammalian and budding yeast cell cycles. We also show that any and all qualitative regulatory mechanisms can be built using this tool.

  20. Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

  1. Fuzzy logic sliding mode control for command guidance law design.

    PubMed

    Elhalwagy, Y Z; Tarbouchi, M

    2004-04-01

    Recently, the combination of sliding mode and fuzzy logic techniques has emerged as a promising methodology for dealing with nonlinear, uncertain, dynamical systems. In this paper, a sliding mode control algorithm combined with a fuzzy control scheme is developed for the trajectory control of a command guidance system. The acceleration command input is mathematically derived. The proposed controller is used to compensate for the influence of unmodeled dynamics and to alleviate chattering. Simulation results show that the proposed controller gives good system performance in the face of system parameters variation and external disturbances. In addition, they show the effectiveness of the proposed missile guidance law against different engagement scenarios where the results demonstrate better performance over the conventional sliding mode control.

  2. DAIDALUS: Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Narkawicz, Anthony; Hagen, George; Upchurch, Jason; Dutle, Aaron; Consiglio, Maria; Chamberlain, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DAIDALUS (Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems), a reference implementation of a detect and avoid concept intended to support the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into civil airspace. DAIDALUS consists of self-separation and alerting algorithms that provide situational awareness to UAS remote pilots. These algorithms have been formally specified in a mathematical notation and verified for correctness in an interactive theorem prover. The software implementation has been verified against the formal models and validated against multiple stressing cases jointly developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and NASA. The DAIDALUS reference implementation is currently under consideration for inclusion in the appendices to the Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems presently being developed by RTCA Special Committee 228.

  3. Probabilistic logic modeling of network reliability for hybrid network architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyss, G.D.; Schriner, H.K.; Gaylor, T.R.

    1996-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has found that the reliability and failure modes of current-generation network technologies can be effectively modeled using fault tree-based probabilistic logic modeling (PLM) techniques. We have developed fault tree models that include various hierarchical networking technologies and classes of components interconnected in a wide variety of typical and atypical configurations. In this paper we discuss the types of results that can be obtained from PLMs and why these results are of great practical value to network designers and analysts. After providing some mathematical background, we describe the `plug-and-play` fault tree analysis methodology that we have developed for modeling connectivity and the provision of network services in several current- generation network architectures. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of the method by modeling the reliability of a hybrid example network that contains several interconnected ethernet, FDDI, and token ring segments. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Project W-058 monitor and control system logic

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERTS, J.B.

    1999-05-12

    This supporting document contains the printout of the control logic for the Project W-058 Monitor and Control System, as developed by Programmable Control Services, Inc. The logic is arranged in five appendices, one for each programmable logic controller console.

  5. Stock and option portfolio using fuzzy logic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarti, Novriana; Wahyudi, Nanang

    2014-03-01

    Fuzzy Logic in decision-making process has been widely implemented in various problems in industries. It is the theory of imprecision and uncertainty that was not based on probability theory. Fuzzy Logic adds values of degree between absolute true and absolute false. It starts with and builds on a set of human language rules supplied by the user. The fuzzy systems convert these rules to their mathematical equivalents. This could simplify the job of the system designer and the computer, and results in much more accurate representations of the way systems behave in the real world. In this paper we examine the decision making process of stock and option trading by the usage of MACD (Moving Average Convergence Divergence) technical analysis and Option Pricing with Fuzzy Logic approach. MACD technical analysis is for the prediction of the trends of underlying stock prices, such as bearish (going downward), bullish (going upward), and sideways. By using Fuzzy C-Means technique and Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System, we define the decision output where the value of MACD is high then decision is "Strong Sell", and the value of MACD is Low then the decision is "Strong Buy". We also implement the fuzzification of the Black-Scholes option-pricing formula. The stock and options methods are implemented on a portfolio of one stock and its options. Even though the values of input data, such as interest rates, stock price and its volatility, cannot be obtain accurately, these fuzzy methods can give a belief degree of the calculated the Black-Scholes formula so we can make the decision on option trading. The results show the good capability of the methods in the prediction of stock price trends. The performance of the simulated portfolio for a particular period of time also shows good return.

  6. Problems with Fallibilism as a Philosophy of Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Stuart; Graham, Ted; Berry, John

    2011-07-01

    Much reference has been made to Paul Ernest's `philosophy of mathematics education' to legitimise a strong fallibilist trend in mathematics education. This article presents the argument that: (1) This philosophy makes unwarranted assumptions that have been taken as `given'. For example, that `absolutist' or `Platonist' views of mathematics necessarily imply the transmission model of teaching mathematics. (2) The very basis of this philosophy contains a contradiction: that mathematics cannot be separated from its social origins, yet mathematics has a logical necessity that is independent of its origin. (3) This philosophy downplays mathematics as a formal, academic system of knowledge in the attempt to promote a child-centred pedagogy or the mathematics of social practices. (4) Ernest's attempt to semiotically reduce proof to calculation is flawed. This article explores what is meant by fallibilism in relation to the views of many educationalists who appear not to like mathematics as a formal, academic body of knowledge and draws out the educational implications of these views.

  7. An Assessment of a Social-Cognitive Model of Academic Performance in Mathematics in Argentinean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupani, Marcos; de Minzi, Maria Cristina Richaud; Perez, Edgardo Raul; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a set of hypotheses derived from the model of academic achievement in mathematics of the Social Cognitive Career Theory in a sample of Argentinean middle school students. To this aim, 277 students (male and female; age: 13-15 years) were assessed using the following instruments: logical-mathematical self-efficacy scale,…

  8. Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

    2001-12-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

  9. A Very Small Logical Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapit, Eliot

    Superconducting qubits are among the most promising platforms for building a quantum computer. However, individual qubit coherence times are not far past the scalability threshold for quantum error correction, meaning that millions of physical devices would be required to construct a useful quantum computer. Consequently, further increases in coherence time are very desirable. In this letter, we blueprint a simple circuit consisting of two transmon qubits and two additional lossy qubits or resonators, which is passively protected against all single qubit quantum error channels through a combination of continuous driving and engineered dissipation. Photon losses are rapidly corrected through two-photon drive fields implemented with driven SQUID couplings, and dephasing from random potential fluctuations is heavily suppressed by the drive fields used to implement the multi-qubit Hamiltonian. Comparing our theoretical model to published noise estimates from recent experiments on flux and transmon qubits, we find that logical state coherence could be improved by a factor of forty or more compared to the individual qubit T1 and T2 using this technique.

  10. Closed terminologies in description logics

    SciTech Connect

    Weida, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a predictive concept recognition methodology for description logics based on a new closed terminology assumption. During knowledge engineering, our system adopts the standard open terminology assumption as it automatically classifies concept descriptions into a taxonomy via subsumption inferences. However, for applications like configuration, the terminology becomes fixed during problem solving. Then, closed terminology reasoning is more appropriate. In our interactive configuration application, a user incrementally specifies an individual computer system in collaboration with a configuration engine. Choices can be made in any order and at any level of abstraction. We distinguish between abstract and concrete concepts to formally define when an individual`s description may be considered finished. We also take advantage of the closed terminology assumption, together with the terminology`s subsumption-based organization, to efficiently track the types of systems and components consistent with current choices, infer additional constraints on current choices, and appropriately guide future choices. Thus, we can help focus the efforts of both user and configuration engine.

  11. The Logic of Reflection: Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "treatise on Logic"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Janet Sanders

    Though others discuss Coleridge's interest in science, light imagery, the phenomenon of reflection, and his references to Newton and Opticks,^1 this is the first study to examine Coleridge's art in terms of optics, its developing theories, and the nature-of-light debate. This study examines Coleridge's early predilection for visions, illusions, and the supernatural and demonstrates that he gradually shifts from the supernatural to the scientific aspects of "visions" and "illusions," concentrating on causes of illusions and the effects of their deceptive qualities rather than their mystical features. By the 1820's, his preoccupation with illusions had become an interest in optics, fueled, no doubt, by the increasing controversy of the nature-of-light debate and the number of advances in optics resulting from the efforts of its opponents to prove their theories. Tracing the development of the debate, its escalation in the early nineteenth century, and the formation of Coleridge's opinion concerning key issues of the debate, I outline the evolution of Coleridge's theory of reflection and examine the exposition of that theory in his treatise, Logic (1981). Finally, I analyze the relationship between the advances in optics and Coleridge's concepts of thought and knowledge and his notion of the mind as an instrument of knowledge. These ideas in turn, altered his opinions concerning the validity of knowledge resulting from philosophic debate, scientific experiment, and poetic exploration. ftn^1John Beer, "Coleridge and Wordsworth on Reflection," The Wordsworth Circle 20 (1989): 20-29; Coleridge the Visionary. London: Chatto and Windus, 1959; and Coleridge's Poetic Intelligence. London: Macmillan, 1977 and M. H. Abrams Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. New York: Norton, 1971; and "Coleridge's 'A Light in Sound': Science, Metascience, and Poetic Imagination." The Correspondent Breeze: Essays on English Romanticism. Eds. M. H. Abrams

  12. Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Joseph S. Querlioz, Damien; Fadel, Eric R.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Sahakian, Alan V.

    2015-11-15

    A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.

  13. Software Safety Assurance of Programmable Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berens, Kalynnda

    2002-01-01

    Programmable Logic (PLC, FPGA, ASIC) devices are hybrids - hardware devices that are designed and programmed like software. As such, they fall in an assurance gray area. Programmable Logic is usually tested and verified as hardware, and the software aspects are ignored, potentially leading to safety or mission success concerns. The objective of this proposal is to first determine where and how Programmable Logic (PL) is used within NASA and document the current methods of assurance. Once that is known, raise awareness of the PL software aspects within the NASA engineering community and provide guidance for the use and assurance of PL form a software perspective.

  14. Coordination Logic for Repulsive Resolution Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for determining the direction an aircraft should maneuver in the event of a potential conflict with another aircraft. The algorithm is implicitly coordinated, meaning that with perfectly reliable computations and information, it will in- dependently provide directional information that is guaranteed to be coordinated without any additional information exchange or direct communication. The logic is inspired by the logic of TCAS II, the airborne system designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS II provides pilots with only vertical resolution advice, while the proposed algorithm, using a similar logic, provides implicitly coordinated vertical and horizontal directional advice.

  15. Ternary logic and mass quantum numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppeard, M. D.

    2010-06-15

    Koide's prediction of the tau mass may be formulated as a condition on the three eigenvalues of a quantum Fourier series, using simple parameters, and similar triplets have been found for neutrino and hadron masses [2]. Assuming these parameters arise from quantum gravity, one would like to understand them from the more abstract context of category theory. In particular, whereas the logic of lepton spin is a linear analogue of the ordinary Boolean logic of the category of sets, mass triplets suggest an analogous ternary logic, requiring higher dimensional categorical structures.

  16. Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Joseph S.; Fadel, Eric R.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Querlioz, Damien; Sahakian, Alan V.

    2015-11-01

    A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.

  17. Product Łukasiewicz Quantum Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Cesarino; Leporini, Roberto

    2011-02-01

    The theory of logical gates in quantum computation has suggested new forms of quantum logic, called quantum computational logics. The basic semantic idea is the following: the meaning of a sentence is identified with a density operator (called qumix). In this framework, any sentence α of the language gives rise to a quantum circuit that transforms the qumix associated to the atomic subformulas of α into the qumix associated to α. In this paper we enrich the language by adding a new connective which expresses truncated sum.

  18. Mathematical Modelling: A New Approach to Teaching Applied Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghes, D. N.; Borrie, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the advantages of mathematical modeling approach in teaching applied mathematics and gives many suggestions for suitable material which illustrates the links between real problems and mathematics. (GA)

  19. [Chaos research, fractals, fuzzy logic. From stereotypes to reality--consequences for medicine].

    PubMed

    Demling, L

    1992-02-28

    Both language and conventional mathematics aim to describe reality. Although language is more flexible, it is usually also inaccurate, while mathematics permits accurate presentations and clear prognoses. However, it is burdened by the fact that it is not everywhere applicable. Such chaotic structures as clouds, or lang-term weather forecasting, for example, cannot be expressed in terms of mathematics. Chaos researchers are attempting, in a non-linear world, to understand mathematically dynamic, apparently unordered systems. In this connection, the fractal dimension also appears--which can be employed in the area of diagnosis to define tumor contours. Fuzzy logic comes closer to reality by replacing the inflexible yes/no by a more or less option and by introducing linguistic nuances into machine-controlled processes. Chaos research and fuzzy logic teach us that there is no such thing as certainty of action or prognosis. In the world as it is, whoever claims to possess it is either naive or guilty of self-deception.

  20. Spectral Automorphisms in Quantum Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexandru; Caragheorgheopol, Dan

    2010-12-01

    In quantum mechanics, the Hilbert space formalism might be physically justified in terms of some axioms based on the orthomodular lattice (OML) mathematical structure (Piron in Foundations of Quantum Physics, Benjamin, Reading, 1976). We intend to investigate the extent to which some fundamental physical facts can be described in the more general framework of OMLs, without the support of Hilbert space-specific tools. We consider the study of lattice automorphisms properties as a “substitute” for Hilbert space techniques in investigating the spectral properties of observables. This is why we introduce the notion of spectral automorphism of an OML. Properties of spectral automorphisms and of their spectra are studied. We prove that the presence of nontrivial spectral automorphisms allow us to distinguish between classical and nonclassical theories. We also prove, for finite dimensional OMLs, that for every spectral automorphism there is a basis of invariant atoms. This is an analogue of the spectral theorem for unitary operators having purely point spectrum.

  1. Proof theory for locally finite many-valued logics: Semi-projective logics.

    PubMed

    Ciabattoni, Agata; Montagna, Franco

    2013-04-01

    We extend the methodology in Baaz and Fermüller (1999) [5] to systematically construct analytic calculi for semi-projective logics-a large family of (propositional) locally finite many-valued logics. Our calculi, defined in the framework of sequents of relations, are proof search oriented and can be used to settle the computational complexity of the formalized logics. As a case study we derive sequent calculi of relations for Nilpotent Minimum logic and for Hajek's Basic Logic extended with the [Formula: see text]-contraction axiom ([Formula: see text]). The introduced calculi are used to prove that the decidability problem in these logics is Co-NP complete. PMID:23576838

  2. Preface of the "Symposium on Logic Synthesis for Programmable Logic Devices"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kania, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    Logic synthesis is an indirect link between design description and technology mapping. In the result of synthesis process an implementation in terms of an interconnection of logic gates, flip-flops, LUTs, etc. is generated. Typically, synthesis is performed for an objective function, such as minimizing the number of logic blocks (area), delay of interconnection, minimizing the power consumed, or making the implementation more testable. Logic synthesis is typically separated into two stages: technology-independent optimization, followed by a technology mapping. Technology mapping is the process of expressing a boolean network in terms of elements characteristic for a given technology (or device family). The aim of the symposium is to show all aspects of logic synthesis dedicated for Programmable Logic Devices.

  3. Mathematics and Sports. Mathematical World. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadovskii, L. E.; Sadovskii, A. L.

    This volume contains some examples of mathematical applications in sports. Sports discussed include tennis, figure skating, gymnastics, track and field, soccer, skiing, hockey, and swimming. Problems and situations are posed and answers with thorough explanations are provided. Chapters include: (1) Mathematics and Sports; (2) What Is Applied…

  4. Mathematics Coursework Regulates Growth in Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth (LSAY), we examined the extent to which students' mathematics coursework regulates (influences) the rate of growth in mathematics achievement during middle and high school. Graphical analysis showed that students who started middle school with higher achievement took individual mathematics…

  5. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  6. Negotiation of Mathematical Meaning and Learning Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Jorg

    1994-01-01

    Presents a case study of a first-grade class and their teacher who were observed as they ascribed mathematical meanings of numbers and of numerical operations to empirical phenomena. Differences in ascriptions led to negotiation of meanings. Discusses some indirect relations between social interaction and mathematics learning. (Contains 60…

  7. Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-07-05

    Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network.

  8. Hierarchical structure of the logical Internet graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zihui; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Jaiswal, Sharad; Gao, Lixin

    2001-07-01

    The study of the Internet topology has recently received much attention from the research community. In particular, the observation that the network graph has interesting properties, such as power laws, that might be explored in a myriad of ways. Most of the work in characterizing the Internet graph is based on the physical network graph, i.e., the connectivity graph. In this paper we investigate how logical relationships between nodes of the AS graph can be used to gain insight to its structure. We characterize the logical graph using various metrics and identify the presence of power laws in the number of customers that a provider has. Using these logical relationships we define a structural model of the AS graph. The model highlights the hierarchical nature of logical relationships and the preferential connection to larger providers. We also investigate the consistency of this model over time and observe interesting properties of the hierarchical structure.

  9. Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network.

  10. Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network. PMID:27377165

  11. Nursing and fuzzy logic: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rodrigo; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2011-01-01

    This study conducted an integrative review investigating how fuzzy logic has been used in research with the participation of nurses. The article search was carried out in the CINAHL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PubMed and Medline databases, with no limitation on time of publication. Articles written in Portuguese, English and Spanish with themes related to nursing and fuzzy logic with the authorship or participation of nurses were included. The final sample included 21 articles from eight countries. For the purpose of analysis, the articles were distributed into categories: theory, method and model. In nursing, fuzzy logic has significantly contributed to the understanding of subjects related to: imprecision or the need of an expert; as a research method; and in the development of models or decision support systems and hard technologies. The use of fuzzy logic in nursing has shown great potential and represents a vast field for research.

  12. Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2012-07-20

    Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.

  13. Procedural and Logic Programming: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Will; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examines the similarities and fundamental differences between procedural programing and logic programing by comparing LogoWriter and PROLOG. Suggests that PROLOG may be a good first programing language for students to learn. (MVL)

  14. Implementing neural nets with programmable logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Networks of Boolean programmable logic modules are presented as one purely digital class of artificial neural nets. The approach contrasts with the continuous analog framework usually suggested. Programmable logic networks are capable of handling many neural-net applications. They avoid some of the limitations of threshold logic networks and present distinct opportunities. The network nodes are called dynamically programmable logic modules. They can be implemented with digitally controlled demultiplexers. Each node performs a Boolean function of its inputs which can be dynamically assigned. The overall network is therefore a combinational circuit and its outputs are Boolean global functions of the network's input variables. The approach offers definite advantages for VLSI implementation, namely, a regular architecture with limited connectivity, simplicity of the control machinery, natural modularity, and the support of a mature technology.

  15. Purification of Logic-Qubit Entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the logic-qubit entanglement shows its potential application in future quantum communication and quantum network. However, the entanglement will suffer from the noise and decoherence. In this paper, we will investigate the first entanglement purification protocol for logic-qubit entanglement. We show that both the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement can be well purified. Moreover, the bit-flip error in physical-qubit entanglement can be completely corrected. The phase-flip in physical-qubit entanglement error equals to the bit-flip error in logic-qubit entanglement, which can also be purified. This entanglement purification protocol may provide some potential applications in future quantum communication and quantum network. PMID:27377165

  16. The development of a digital logic concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Geoffrey Lindsay

    Instructors in electrical and computer engineering and in computer science have developed innovative methods to teach digital logic circuits. These methods attempt to increase student learning, satisfaction, and retention. Although there are readily accessible and accepted means for measuring satisfaction and retention, there are no widely accepted means for assessing student learning. Rigorous assessment of learning is elusive because differences in topic coverage, curriculum and course goals, and exam content prevent direct comparison of two teaching methods when using tools such as final exam scores or course grades. Because of these difficulties, computing educators have issued a general call for the adoption of assessment tools to critically evaluate and compare the various teaching methods. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education researchers commonly measure students' conceptual learning to compare how much different pedagogies improve learning. Conceptual knowledge is often preferred because all engineering courses should teach a fundamental set of concepts even if they emphasize design or analysis to different degrees. Increasing conceptual learning is also important, because students who can organize facts and ideas within a consistent conceptual framework are able to learn new information quickly and can apply what they know in new situations. If instructors can accurately assess their students' conceptual knowledge, they can target instructional interventions to remedy common problems. To properly assess conceptual learning, several researchers have developed concept inventories (CIs) for core subjects in engineering sciences. CIs are multiple-choice assessment tools that evaluate how well a student's conceptual framework matches the accepted conceptual framework of a discipline or common faulty conceptual frameworks. We present how we created and evaluated the digital logic concept inventory (DLCI).We used a Delphi process to

  17. Convection automated logic oven control

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, M.A.; Eke, K.I.

    1998-03-01

    For the past few years, there has been a greater push to bring more automation to the cooling process. There have been attempts at automated cooking using a wide range of sensors and procedures, but with limited success. The authors have the answer to the automated cooking process; this patented technology is called Convection AutoLogic (CAL). The beauty of the technology is that it requires no extra hardware for the existing oven system. They use the existing temperature probe, whether it is an RTD, thermocouple, or thermistor. This means that the manufacturer does not have to be burdened with extra costs associated with automated cooking in comparison to standard ovens. The only change to the oven is the program in the central processing unit (CPU) on the board. As for its operation, when the user places the food into the oven, he or she is required to select a category (e.g., beef, poultry, or casseroles) and then simply press the start button. The CAL program then begins its cooking program. It first looks at the ambient oven temperature to see if it is a cold, warm, or hot start. CAL stores this data and then begins to look at the food`s thermal footprint. After CAL has properly detected this thermal footprint, it can calculate the time and temperature at which the food needs to be cooked. CAL then sets up these factors for the cooking stage of the program and, when the food has finished cooking, the oven is turned off automatically. The total time for this entire process is the same as the standard cooking time the user would normally set. The CAL program can also compensate for varying line voltages and detect when the oven door is opened. With all of these varying factors being monitored, CAL can produce a perfectly cooked item with minimal user input.

  18. Abstract Object Creation in Dynamic Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang; de Boer, Frank S.; Grabe, Immo

    In this paper we give a representation of a weakest precondition calculus for abstract object creation in dynamic logic, the logic underlying the KeY theorem prover. This representation allows to both specify and verify properties of objects at the abstraction level of the (object-oriented) programming language. Objects which are not (yet) created never play any role, neither in the specification nor in the verification of properties. Further, we show how to symbolically execute abstract object creation.

  19. Pattern recognition using linguistic fuzzy logic predictors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habiballa, Hashim

    2016-06-01

    The problem of pattern recognition has been solved with numerous methods in the Artificial Intelligence field. We present an unconventional method based on Lingustic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster which is primarily used for the task of time series analysis and prediction through logical deduction wtih linguistic variables. This method should be used not only to the time series prediction itself, but also for recognition of patterns in a signal with seasonal component.

  20. Evaluation of pulmonary function tests by using fuzzy logic theory.

    PubMed

    Uncü, Umit

    2010-06-01

    Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) are very important in the medical evaluation of patients suffering from "shortness of breath", and they are effectively used for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, such as COPD (i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases). Measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Flow in the 1st second (FEV1) are very important for controlling the treatment of COPD. During PFTs, some difficulties are encountered which complicate the comparison of produced graphs with the standards. These mainly include the reluctance of the patients to co-operate and the physicians' weaknesses to make healthy interpretations. Main tools of the diagnostic process are the symptoms, laboratory tests or measurements and the medical history of the patient. However, quite frequently, most of the medical information obtained from the patient is uncertain, exaggerated or ignored, incomplete or inconsistent. Fuzziness encountered during PFT is very important. In this study, the purpose is to use "fuzzy logic" approach to facilitate reliable and fast interpretation of PFT graphical outputs. A comparison is made between this approach and methodologies adopted in previous studies. Mathematical models and their coefficients for the spirometric plots are introduced as fuzzy numbers. Firstly, a set of rules for categorizing coefficients of mathematical models obtained. Then, a fuzzy rule-base for a medical inference engine is constructed and a diagnostic "expert system COPDes" designed. This program, COPDes helps for diagnosing the degree of COPD for the patient under test.

  1. Perspectives from Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowder, Judith Threadgill

    1998-01-01

    Explores possible reasons for the gender differences in mathematics problem-solving strategies found in primary-grade students in the study by E. Fennema and others and considers implications of the findings for mathematics instruction. (SLD)

  2. Mathematical and statistical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, A. Glen

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

  3. Developing My Mathematics Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assuming the role of storyteller, the author uses her experiences as a graduate student and beginning teacher to reflect critically on issues related to mathematics, mathematics education, gender, and diversity.

  4. Mental Mathematics Moves Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Pamela

    1988-01-01

    The author suggests that the efficient use of mathematics in everyday life means translating situations into mathematical contexts, using a calculator and mental methods of calculation. Suggestions for teaching these concepts are included. (PK)

  5. Multiple neural representations of elementary logical connectives.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Giosuè; Cherubini, Paolo; Pischedda, Doris; Blumenthal, Anna; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo

    2016-07-15

    A defining trait of human cognition is the capacity to form compounds out of simple thoughts. This ability relies on the logical connectives AND, OR and IF. Simple propositions, e.g., 'There is a fork' and 'There is a knife', can be combined in alternative ways using logical connectives: e.g., 'There is a fork AND there is a knife', 'There is a fork OR there is a knife', 'IF there is a fork, there is a knife'. How does the brain represent compounds based on different logical connectives, and how are compounds evaluated in relation to new facts? In the present study, participants had to maintain and evaluate conjunctive (AND), disjunctive (OR) or conditional (IF) compounds while undergoing functional MRI. Our results suggest that, during maintenance, the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG, BA44, or Broca's area) represents the surface form of compounds. During evaluation, the left pIFG switches to processing the full logical meaning of compounds, and two additional areas are recruited: the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aIFG, BA47) and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS, BA40). The aIFG shows a pattern of activation similar to pIFG, and compatible with processing the full logical meaning of compounds, whereas activations in IPS differ with alternative interpretations of conditionals: logical vs conjunctive. These results uncover the functions of a basic cortical network underlying human compositional thought, and provide a shared neural foundation for the cognitive science of language and reasoning.

  6. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  7. Recognition and processing of logic diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Ahmed M.; Bashandy, Ahmed R.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present a vision system that is capable of interpreting schematic logic diagrams, i.e. determine the output as a logic function of the inputs. The system is composed of a number of modules each designed to perform a specific subtask. Each module bears a minor contribution in the form of a new mixture of known algorithms or extensions to handle actual real life image imperfections which researchers tend to ignore when they develop their theoretical foundations. The main contribution, thus, is not in any individual module, it is rather in their integration to achieve the target job. The system is organized more or less in a classical fashion. Aside from the image acquisition and preprocessing modules, interesting modules include: the segmenter, the identifier, the connector and the grapher. A good segmentation output is one reason for the success of the presented system. Several novelties exist in the presented approach. Following segmentation the type of each logic gate is determined and its topological connectivity. The logic diagram is then transformed to a directed acyclic graph in which the final node is the output logic gate. The logic function is then determined by backtracking techniques. The system is not only aimed at recognition applications. In fact its main usage may be to target other processing applications such as storage compression and graphics modification and manipulation of the diagram as is explained.

  8. Mathematics for Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Joseph R.; Nery, Karen P.

    This set of 20 modules was designed for use primarily to help teach and reinforce the basic mathematics skills in electronics classes. The modules are based on electronics competencies that require mathematics skills, as determined by a panel of high school electronics and mathematics teachers. Each module consists of one or two pages of basic…

  9. Making Mathematics Phenomenal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is often portrayed as an "abstract" cerebral subject, beyond the reach of many. In response, research with digital technology has led to innovative design in which mathematics can be experienced much like everyday phenomena. This lecture examines how careful design can "phenomenalise" mathematics and support not only engagement but…

  10. Translations toward Connected Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2010-01-01

    The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

  11. Mathematics and Comprehensive Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article revisits methods and debates about teaching mathematics that were common in the 1980s and early 1990s, and then moves up to date with the findings from three mathematics departments that set out to make a difference for their lowest attaining students. The methods they used were distinctly focused on core mathematical ideas, and how…

  12. Winning Women into Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenschaft, Patricia Clark, Ed.; Keith, Sandra Zaroodny, Ed.

    Mathematics is an auspicious discipline for young people of both sexes and all ethnic groups. This booklet aims to help members of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) and others to increase future participation of women in mathematics, to better understand their present roles, and to develop a vision of a world with greater equal…

  13. Mathematics Teaching Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Tami S.; Speer, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes features, consistent messages, and new components of "Mathematics Teaching Today: Improving Practice, Improving Student Learning" (NCTM 2007), an updated edition of "Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics" (NCTM 1991). The new book describes aspects of high-quality mathematics teaching; offers a model for observing,…

  14. Revisiting Mathematics Manipulative Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Paul; Marshall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    It is over 12 years since "APMC" published Bob Perry and Peter Howard's research on the use of mathematics manipulative materials in primary mathematics classrooms. Since then the availability of virtual manipulatives and associated access to computers and interactive whiteboards have caused educators to rethink the use of mathematics manipulative…

  15. Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the two issues of "Rural Mathematics Educator" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) includes articles on rural mathematics education, as well as information and descriptions of professional development opportunities for…

  16. Mathematics and Global Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    This resource was written to provide students with an awareness of critical issues facing the world today. In courses for college students, it can motivate their study of mathematics, teach them how to solve mathematical problems related to current global issues, provide coherence to mathematical studies through a focus on issues of human…

  17. Who Can Know Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores contemporary thinking about learning mathematics, and within that, social justice within mathematics education. The discussion first looks at mechanisms offered by conventional explanations on the emancipatory project and then moves towards more recent insights developed within mathematics education. Synergies are drawn between…

  18. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  19. Mathematical Epistemologies at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noss, Richard

    In this paper, I draw together a corpus of findings derived from two sources: studies of students using computers to learn mathematics, and research into the use of mathematics in professional practice. Using this as a basis, I map some elements of a theoretical framework for understanding the nature of mathematical knowledge in use, and how it is…

  20. Contrasts in Mathematical Challenges in A-Level Mathematics and Further Mathematics, and Undergraduate Mathematics Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Ellie

    2014-01-01

    This article describes part of a study which investigated the role of questions in students' approaches to learning mathematics at the secondary-tertiary interface, focussing on the enculturation of students at the University of Oxford. Use of the Mathematical Assessment Task Hierarchy taxonomy revealed A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics…

  1. Mathematics and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallian, Joseph A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Mathematics and Sports", edited by Joseph A. Gallian, gathers 25 articles that illuminate the power and role of mathematics in the worlds of professional and recreational play. Divided into sections by the kind of sports, the book offers source materials for classroom use and student projects. Readers will encounter mathematical ideas from an…

  2. A "Mathematics Background Check"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubisz, John

    2009-01-01

    Early in my career someone else reported that the best indicator of success in calculus-based physics (CBP) at our school was whether students had taken mathematics in a certain region of New Brunswick. I sat down with a very longtime mathematics teacher and asked him what he thought students should know in mathematics after high school to succeed…

  3. Topics in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Johnsie Jo, Ed.; And Others

    This manual is a collection of materials and teaching strategies to motivate the development of mathematical ideas in secondary school mathematics programs or in beginning college mathematics programs. The unit is written for the instructor with step-by-step procedures including lists of needed materials. The exercises in this unit also appear in…

  4. Mathematics and Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    The wide range of Mathematical Apps targeting different mathematical concepts and the various types of mobile devices available present a demanding and challenging problem to the teaching and learning in the field of mathematics. In an attempt to address this issue, a few Apps were selected, implemented and tested in this work. [For complete…

  5. Latinos and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Franco, Luis

    An historical perspective reveals that sophisticated mathematical activity has been going on in the Latino culture for thousands of years. This paper provides a general definition of the area of mathematics education that deals with issues of culture and mathematics (ethnomathematics) and defines what is meant by the term Latino in this essay.…

  6. Mathenger Hunt: Mathematics Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falba, Christy J.; Weiss, Maria J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity which shows how mathematics is used in real life and helps to establish a need for mathematics in students' futures. Adapted from a scavenger-hunt idea, this activity helps students to discover that almost every career makes use of mathematics. (KR)

  7. Mathematics. [SITE 2001 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.; Lowery, Norene Vail, Ed.; Harnisch, Delwyn L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on mathematics from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2001 conference: "Secondary Mathematics Methods Course with Technology Units: Encouraging Pre-Service Teachers To Use Technology" (Rajee Amarasinghe); "Competency Exams in College Mathematics" (Kathy R. Autrey and Leigh…

  8. Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

  9. Mathematics and mysticism.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    Is there a world of mathematics above and beyond ordinary reality, as Plato proposed? Or is mathematics a cultural construct? In this short article we speculate on the place of mathematical reality from the perspective of the mystical cosmologies of the ancient traditions of meditation, psychedelics, and divination.

  10. Creating Words in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galligan, Linda

    2016-01-01

    A "National Numeracy Report" and the Australian Curriculum (2014) have recognised the importance of language in mathematics. The general capabilities contained within the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" (2014) highlight literacy as an important tool in the teaching and learning of mathematics, from the interpretation of…

  11. On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupski, Vladimir N

    2011-05-31

    In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  12. On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupski, Vladimir N.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  13. The Temporal Logic of the Tower Chief System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelton, Lyman R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the logic used in the reasoning scheme employed in the Tower Chief system, a runway configuration management system. First, a review of classical logic is given. Defensible logics, truth maintenance, default logic, temporally dependent propositions, and resource allocation and planning are discussed.

  14. Nonmonotonic Logic for Use in Information Retrieval: An Exploratory Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Monotonic logic requires reexamination of the entire logic string when there is a contradiction. Nonmonotonic logic allows the user to withdraw conclusions in the face of contradiction without harm to the logic string, which has considerable application to the field of information searching. Artificial intelligence models and neural networks based…

  15. Why Mathematical Computer Simulations Are the New Laboratory for Scientists.

    PubMed

    Buscema, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new powerful scientific paradigm to understand natural and cultural processes. This new paradigm is based on two fundamental keywords: Data, as representative sample of the process we need to analyze, and Artificial Adaptive Systems, as a new mathematical technique able to make explicit the nonlinearity embedded in the process. We will try to make explicit these concepts analyzing how the distribution of events into the physical space may reveal the hidden logic connecting these events together.

  16. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    PubMed

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual. PMID:24771443

  17. Advanced logic gates for ultrafast network interchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.

    1995-08-01

    By overcoming speed bottlenecks from electronic switching as well as optical/electronic conversions, all-optical logic gates can permit further exploitation of the nearly 40 THz of bandwidth available from optical fibers. We focus on the use of optical solitons and all-optical logic gates to implement ultrafast ``interchanges'' or switching nodes on packet networks with speeds of 100 Gbit/s or greater. For example, all-optical logic gates have been demonstrated with speeds up to 200 Gbit/s, and they may be used to decide whether to add or drop a data packet. The overall goal of our effort is to demonstrate the key enabling technologies and their combination for header processing in 100 Gbit/s, time-division-multiplexed, packed switched networks. Soliton-based fiber logic gates are studied with the goal of combining attractive features of soliton-dragging logic gates, nonlinear loop mirrors, and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers to design logic gates with optimum switching energy, contrast ratio, and timing sensitivity. First, the experimental and numerical work studies low-latency soliton logic gates based on frequency shifts associated with cross-phase modulation. In preliminary experiments, switching in 15 m long low-birefringent fibers has been demonstrated with a contrast ratio of 2.73:1. Using dispersion-shifted fiber in the gate should lower the switching energy and improve the contrast ratio. Next, the low-birefringent fiber can be cross-spliced and wrapped into a nonlinear optical loop mirror to take advantage of mechanisms from both soliton dragging and loop mirrors. The resulting device can have low switching energy and a timing window that results from a combination of soliton dragging and the loop mirror mechanisms.

  18. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-to-one air-to-air combat. Volume 2: Program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Owens, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the computer programs in order to provide an understanding of the mathematical and geometrical relationships as implemented in the programs. The individual sbbroutines and their underlying mathematical relationships are described, and the required input data and the output provided by the program are explained. The relationship of the adaptive maneuvering logic program with the program to drive the differential maneuvering simulator is discussed.

  19. Does Logic Feel Good? Testing for Intuitive Detection of Logicality in Syllogistic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Singmann, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on syllogistic reasoning suggests that the logical status (valid vs. invalid) of even difficult syllogisms can be intuitively detected via small changes in affective state (Morsanyi & Handley, 2012). In a series of 6 experiments, we replicated effects of logical status on liking ratings of difficult syllogisms (although their…

  20. The Propositional Logic Test as a Diagnostic Tool for Misconceptions about Logical Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almstrum, Vicki L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a simple 16-item instrument, the Propositional Logic Test (PLT), that is based on Piagetian theory and a study that explored the use of the PLT in diagnosing student misunderstandings. Analysis of individual student responses revealed a number of systematic errors in interpreting the logical operations in the PLT items. (Contains 23…

  1. The History of Mathematics and Mathematical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grattan-Guinness, I.

    1977-01-01

    Answers to questions which were asked after the author's various lectures in Australia are gathered here. Topics touched upon include "new" mathematics, unknown constants and free variables, propositional functions, linear algebra, arithmetic and geometry, and student assessment. (MN)

  2. A computational paradigm for dynamic logic-gates in neuronal activity.

    PubMed

    Goldental, Amir; Guberman, Shoshana; Vardi, Roni; Kanter, Ido

    2014-01-01

    In 1943 McCulloch and Pitts suggested that the brain is composed of reliable logic-gates similar to the logic at the core of today's computers. This framework had a limited impact on neuroscience, since neurons exhibit far richer dynamics. Here we propose a new experimentally corroborated paradigm in which the truth tables of the brain's logic-gates are time dependent, i.e., dynamic logic-gates (DLGs). The truth tables of the DLGs depend on the history of their activity and the stimulation frequencies of their input neurons. Our experimental results are based on a procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in-vitro. We demonstrate that the underlying biological mechanism is the unavoidable increase of neuronal response latencies to ongoing stimulations, which imposes a non-uniform gradual stretching of network delays. The limited experimental results are confirmed and extended by simulations and theoretical arguments based on identical neurons with a fixed increase of the neuronal response latency per evoked spike. We anticipate our results to lead to better understanding of the suitability of this computational paradigm to account for the brain's functionalities and will require the development of new systematic mathematical methods beyond the methods developed for traditional Boolean algebra. PMID:24808856

  3. Simulation of the Predictive Control Algorithm for Container Crane Operation using Matlab Fuzzy Logic Tool Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Albert O.

    1997-01-01

    This research has investigated the use of fuzzy logic, via the Matlab Fuzzy Logic Tool Box, to design optimized controller systems. The engineering system for which the controller was designed and simulate was the container crane. The fuzzy logic algorithm that was investigated was the 'predictive control' algorithm. The plant dynamics of the container crane is representative of many important systems including robotic arm movements. The container crane that was investigated had a trolley motor and hoist motor. Total distance to be traveled by the trolley was 15 meters. The obstruction height was 5 meters. Crane height was 17.8 meters. Trolley mass was 7500 kilograms. Load mass was 6450 kilograms. Maximum trolley and rope velocities were 1.25 meters per sec. and 0.3 meters per sec., respectively. The fuzzy logic approach allowed the inclusion, in the controller model, of performance indices that are more effectively defined in linguistic terms. These include 'safety' and 'cargo swaying'. Two fuzzy inference systems were implemented using the Matlab simulation package, namely the Mamdani system (which relates fuzzy input variables to fuzzy output variables), and the Sugeno system (which relates fuzzy input variables to crisp output variable). It is found that the Sugeno FIS is better suited to including aspects of those plant dynamics whose mathematical relationships can be determined.

  4. Fuzzy logic control of water level in advanced boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chaung; Lee, Chi-Szu; Raghavan, R.; Fahrner, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    The feedwater control system in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is more challenging to design compared to other control systems in the plant, due to the possible change in level from void collapses and swells during transient events. A basic fuzzy logic controller is developed using a simplified ABWR mathematical model to demonstrate and compare the performance of this controller with a simplified conventional controller. To reduce the design effort, methods are developed to automatically tune the scaling factors and control rules. As a first step in developing the fuzzy controller, a fuzzy controller with a limited number of rules is developed to respond to normal plant transients such as setpoint changes of plant parameters and load demand changes. Various simulations for setpoint and load demand changes of plant performances were conducted to evaluate the modeled fuzzy logic design against the simplified ABWR model control system. The simulation results show that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is comparable to that of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, However, the fuzzy logic controller produced shorter settling time for step setpoint changes compared to the simplified conventional controller.

  5. A computational paradigm for dynamic logic-gates in neuronal activity

    PubMed Central

    Goldental, Amir; Guberman, Shoshana; Vardi, Roni; Kanter, Ido

    2014-01-01

    In 1943 McCulloch and Pitts suggested that the brain is composed of reliable logic-gates similar to the logic at the core of today's computers. This framework had a limited impact on neuroscience, since neurons exhibit far richer dynamics. Here we propose a new experimentally corroborated paradigm in which the truth tables of the brain's logic-gates are time dependent, i.e., dynamic logic-gates (DLGs). The truth tables of the DLGs depend on the history of their activity and the stimulation frequencies of their input neurons. Our experimental results are based on a procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on circuits of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in-vitro. We demonstrate that the underlying biological mechanism is the unavoidable increase of neuronal response latencies to ongoing stimulations, which imposes a non-uniform gradual stretching of network delays. The limited experimental results are confirmed and extended by simulations and theoretical arguments based on identical neurons with a fixed increase of the neuronal response latency per evoked spike. We anticipate our results to lead to better understanding of the suitability of this computational paradigm to account for the brain's functionalities and will require the development of new systematic mathematical methods beyond the methods developed for traditional Boolean algebra. PMID:24808856

  6. Does logic feel good? Testing for intuitive detection of logicality in syllogistic reasoning.

    PubMed

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Singmann, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on syllogistic reasoning suggests that the logical status (valid vs. invalid) of even difficult syllogisms can be intuitively detected via small changes in affective state (Morsanyi & Handley, 2012). In a series of 6 experiments, we replicated effects of logical status on liking ratings of difficult syllogisms (although their shape differs from that reported by Morsanyi and Handley), and we tested 2 alternative accounts of our and Morsanyi and Handley's findings in terms of surface features accidentally confounded with logical status: the partial-repetition hypothesis and the content-effects hypothesis. The results support the content-effects hypothesis, according to which the effects of logical status reflect differences in mean liking for the presented conclusions rather than effects of logical status itself.

  7. Tensor Arithmetic, Geometric and Mathematic Principles of Fluid Mechanics in Implementation of Direct Computational Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Alexander; Khramushin, Vasily

    2016-02-01

    The architecture of a digital computing system determines the technical foundation of a unified mathematical language for exact arithmetic-logical description of phenomena and laws of continuum mechanics for applications in fluid mechanics and theoretical physics. The deep parallelization of the computing processes results in functional programming at a new technological level, providing traceability of the computing processes with automatic application of multiscale hybrid circuits and adaptive mathematical models for the true reproduction of the fundamental laws of physics and continuum mechanics.

  8. Aptamer-controlled biofuel cells in logic systems and used as self-powered and intelligent logic aptasensors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Du, Yan; Chen, Chaogui; Li, Bingling; Wen, Dan; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2010-02-24

    This communication demonstrates for the first time the controlled power release of biofuel cells (BFCs) by aptamer logic systems processed according to the Boolean logic operations "programmed" into the biocomputing systems. On the basis of the built-in Boolean NAND logic, the fabricated aptamer-based BFCs logically controlled by biochemical signals enabled us to construct self-powered and intelligent logic aptasensors that can determine whether the two specific targets are both present in a sample.

  9. Fuzzy logic in autonomous orbital operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Jani, Yashvant

    1991-01-01

    Fuzzy logic can be used advantageously in autonomous orbital operations that require the capability of handling imprecise measurements from sensors. Several applications are underway to investigate fuzzy logic approaches and develop guidance and control algorithms for autonomous orbital operations. Translational as well as rotational control of a spacecraft have been demonstrated using space shuttle simulations. An approach to a camera tracking system has been developed to support proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Pattern recognition and object identification algorithms currently under development will become part of this camera system at an appropriate level in the future. A concept to control environment and life support systems for large Lunar based crew quarters is also under development. Investigations in the area of reinforcement learning, utilizing neural networks, combined with a fuzzy logic controller, are planned as a joint project with the Ames Research Center.

  10. Energy efficiency of adiabatic superconductor logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Adiabatic superconductor logic (ASL), including adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) logic, exhibits high energy efficiency because its bit energy can be decreased below the thermal energy through adiabatic switching operations. In the present paper, we present the general scaling laws of ASL and compare the energy efficiency of ASL with those of other energy-efficient logics. Also, we discuss the minimum energy-delay product (EDP) of ASL at finite temperature. Our study shows that there is a maximum temperature at which the EDP can reach the quantum limit given by ħ/2, which is dependent on the superconductor material and the Josephson junction quality, and that it is reasonable to operate ASL at cryogenic temperatures in order to achieve an EDP that approaches ħ/2.

  11. Policy Transfer via Markov Logic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrey, Lisa; Shavlik, Jude

    We propose using a statistical-relational model, the Markov Logic Network, for knowledge transfer in reinforcement learning. Our goal is to extract relational knowledge from a source task and use it to speed up learning in a related target task. We show that Markov Logic Networks are effective models for capturing both source-task Q-functions and source-task policies. We apply them via demonstration, which involves using them for decision making in an initial stage of the target task before continuing to learn. Through experiments in the RoboCup simulated-soccer domain, we show that transfer via Markov Logic Networks can significantly improve early performance in complex tasks, and that transferring policies is more effective than transferring Q-functions.

  12. Quantum Computational Logics and Possible Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, Maria Luisa Dalla; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; di Francia, Giuliano Toraldo

    2008-01-01

    In quantum computational logics meanings of formulas are identified with quantum information quantities: systems of qubits or, more generally, mixtures of systems of qubits. We consider two kinds of quantum computational semantics: (1) a compositional semantics, where the meaning of a compound formula is determined by the meanings of its parts; (2) a holistic semantics, which makes essential use of the characteristic “holistic” features of the quantum-theoretic formalism. The compositional and the holistic semantics turn out to characterize the same logic. In this framework, one can introduce the notion of quantum-classical truth table, which corresponds to the most natural way for a quantum computer to calculate classical tautologies. Quantum computational logics can be applied to investigate different kinds of semantic phenomena where holistic, contextual and gestaltic patterns play an essential role (from natural languages to musical compositions).

  13. Molecular implementation of simple logic programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud

    2009-11-01

    Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) <-- Man(X) (Every Man is Mortal), the system can answer molecular queries such as Mortal(Socrates)? (Is Socrates Mortal?) and Mortal(X)? (Who is Mortal?). This biomolecular computing system compares favourably with previous approaches in terms of expressive power, performance and precision. A compiler translates facts, rules and queries into their molecular representations and subsequently operates a robotic system that assembles the logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.

  14. Logic Design Pathology and Space Flight Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Barto, Rod L.; Erickson, K.

    1997-01-01

    Logic design errors have been observed in space flight missions and the final stages of ground test. The technologies used by designers and their design/analysis methodologies will be analyzed. This will give insight to the root causes of the failures. These technologies include discrete integrated circuit based systems, systems based on field and mask programmable logic, and the use computer aided engineering (CAE) systems. State-of-the-art (SOTA) design tools and methodologies will be analyzed with respect to high-reliability spacecraft design and potential pitfalls are discussed. Case studies of faults from large expensive programs to "smaller, faster, cheaper" missions will be used to explore the fundamental reasons for logic design problems.

  15. a Logical Account of Quantum Superpositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Décio Arenhart, Jonas R. Becker

    In this paper we consider the phenomenon of superpositions in quantum mechanics and suggest a way to deal with the idea in a logical setting from a syntactical point of view, that is, as subsumed in the language of the formalism, and not semantically. We restrict the discussion to the propositional level only. Then, after presenting the motivations and a possible world semantics, the formalism is outlined and we also consider within this scheme the claim that superpositions may involve contradictions, as in the case of the Schrödinger's cat, which (it is usually said) is both alive and dead. We argue that this claim is a misreading of the quantum case. Finally, we sketch a new form of quantum logic that involves three kinds of negations and present the relationships among them. The paper is a first approach to the subject, introducing some main guidelines to be developed by a `syntactical' logical approach to quantum superpositions.

  16. On Logic and Standards for Structuring Documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyers, David M.; Jones, Andrew J. I.; Kimbrough, Steven O.

    The advent of XML has been widely seized upon as an opportunity to develop document representation standards that lend themselves to automated processing. This is a welcome development and much good has come of it. That said, present standardization efforts may be criticized on a number of counts. We explore two issues associated with document XML standardization efforts. We label them (i) the dynamic point and (ii) the logical point. Our dynamic point is that in many cases experience has shown that the search for a final, or even reasonably permanent, document representation standard is futile. The case is especially strong for electronic data interchange (EDI). Our logical point is that formalization into symbolic logic is materially helpful for understanding and designing dynamic document standards.

  17. Fuzzy logic and neural network technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Lea, Robert N.; Savely, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Applications of fuzzy logic technologies in NASA projects are reviewed to examine their advantages in the development of neural networks for aerospace and commercial expert systems and control. Examples of fuzzy-logic applications include a 6-DOF spacecraft controller, collision-avoidance systems, and reinforcement-learning techniques. The commercial applications examined include a fuzzy autofocusing system, an air conditioning system, and an automobile transmission application. The practical use of fuzzy logic is set in the theoretical context of artificial neural systems (ANSs) to give the background for an overview of ANS research programs at NASA. The research and application programs include the Network Execution and Training Simulator and faster training algorithms such as the Difference Optimized Training Scheme. The networks are well suited for pattern-recognition applications such as predicting sunspots, controlling posture maintenance, and conducting adaptive diagnoses.

  18. Molecular implementation of simple logic programs.

    PubMed

    Ran, Tom; Kaplan, Shai; Shapiro, Ehud

    2009-10-01

    Autonomous programmable computing devices made of biomolecules could interact with a biological environment and be used in future biological and medical applications. Biomolecular implementations of finite automata and logic gates have already been developed. Here, we report an autonomous programmable molecular system based on the manipulation of DNA strands that is capable of performing simple logical deductions. Using molecular representations of facts such as Man(Socrates) and rules such as Mortal(X) <-- Man(X) (Every Man is Mortal), the system can answer molecular queries such as Mortal(Socrates)? (Is Socrates Mortal?) and Mortal(X)? (Who is Mortal?). This biomolecular computing system compares favourably with previous approaches in terms of expressive power, performance and precision. A compiler translates facts, rules and queries into their molecular representations and subsequently operates a robotic system that assembles the logical deductions and delivers the result. This prototype is the first simple programming language with a molecular-scale implementation.

  19. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment. PMID:27382498

  20. Digital Poetry: A Narrow Relation between Poetics and the Codes of the Computational Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurentiz, Silvia

    The project "Percorrendo Escrituras" (Walking Through Writings Project) has been developed at ECA-USP Fine Arts Department. Summarizing, it intends to study different structures of digital information that share the same universe and are generators of a new aesthetics condition. The aim is to search which are the expressive possibilities of the computer among the algorithm functions and other of its specific properties. It is a practical, theoretical and interdisciplinary project where the study of programming evolutionary language, logic and mathematics take us to poetic experimentations. The focus of this research is the digital poetry, and it comes from poetics of permutation combinations and culminates with dynamic and complex systems, autonomous, multi-user and interactive, through agents generation derivations, filtration and emergent standards. This lecture will present artworks that use some mechanisms introduced by cybernetics and the notion of system in digital poetry that demonstrate the narrow relationship between poetics and the codes of computational logic.

  1. Bio-Logic Builder: A Non-Technical Tool for Building Dynamical, Qualitative Models

    PubMed Central

    Helikar, Tomáš; Kowal, Bryan; Madrahimov, Alex; Shrestha, Manish; Pedersen, Jay; Limbu, Kahani; Thapa, Ishwor; Rowley, Thaine; Satalkar, Rahul; Kochi, Naomi; Konvalina, John; Rogers, Jim A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational modeling of biological processes is a promising tool in biomedical research. While a large part of its potential lies in the ability to integrate it with laboratory research, modeling currently generally requires a high degree of training in mathematics and/or computer science. To help address this issue, we have developed a web-based tool, Bio-Logic Builder, that enables laboratory scientists to define mathematical representations (based on a discrete formalism) of biological regulatory mechanisms in a modular and non-technical fashion. As part of the user interface, generalized “bio-logic” modules have been defined to provide users with the building blocks for many biological processes. To build/modify computational models, experimentalists provide purely qualitative information about a particular regulatory mechanisms as is generally found in the laboratory. The Bio-Logic Builder subsequently converts the provided information into a mathematical representation described with Boolean expressions/rules. We used this tool to build a number of dynamical models, including a 130-protein large-scale model of signal transduction with over 800 interactions, influenza A replication cycle with 127 species and 200+ interactions, and mammalian and budding yeast cell cycles. We also show that any and all qualitative regulatory mechanisms can be built using this tool. PMID:23082121

  2. Unlimited multistability and Boolean logic in microbial signalling.

    PubMed

    Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda; Cardelli, Luca; Soyer, Orkun S

    2015-07-01

    The ability to map environmental signals onto distinct internal physiological states or programmes is critical for single-celled microbes. A crucial systems dynamics feature underpinning such ability is multistability. While unlimited multistability is known to arise from multi-site phosphorylation seen in the signalling networks of eukaryotic cells, a similarly universal mechanism has not been identified in microbial signalling systems. These systems are generally known as two-component systems comprising histidine kinase (HK) receptors and response regulator proteins engaging in phosphotransfer reactions. We develop a mathematical framework for analysing microbial systems with multi-domain HK receptors known as hybrid and unorthodox HKs. We show that these systems embed a simple core network that exhibits multistability, thereby unveiling a novel biochemical mechanism for multistability. We further prove that sharing of downstream components allows a system with n multi-domain hybrid HKs to attain 3n steady states. We find that such systems, when sensing distinct signals, can readily implement Boolean logic functions on these signals. Using two experimentally studied examples of two-component systems implementing hybrid HKs, we show that bistability and implementation of logic functions are possible under biologically feasible reaction rates. Furthermore, we show that all sequenced microbial genomes contain significant numbers of hybrid and unorthodox HKs, and some genomes have a larger fraction of these proteins compared with regular HKs. Microbial cells are thus theoretically unbounded in mapping distinct environmental signals onto distinct physiological states and perform complex computations on them. These findings facilitate the understanding of natural two-component systems and allow their engineering through synthetic biology.

  3. Multiple neural representations of elementary logical connectives.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Giosuè; Cherubini, Paolo; Pischedda, Doris; Blumenthal, Anna; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo

    2016-07-15

    A defining trait of human cognition is the capacity to form compounds out of simple thoughts. This ability relies on the logical connectives AND, OR and IF. Simple propositions, e.g., 'There is a fork' and 'There is a knife', can be combined in alternative ways using logical connectives: e.g., 'There is a fork AND there is a knife', 'There is a fork OR there is a knife', 'IF there is a fork, there is a knife'. How does the brain represent compounds based on different logical connectives, and how are compounds evaluated in relation to new facts? In the present study, participants had to maintain and evaluate conjunctive (AND), disjunctive (OR) or conditional (IF) compounds while undergoing functional MRI. Our results suggest that, during maintenance, the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG, BA44, or Broca's area) represents the surface form of compounds. During evaluation, the left pIFG switches to processing the full logical meaning of compounds, and two additional areas are recruited: the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aIFG, BA47) and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS, BA40). The aIFG shows a pattern of activation similar to pIFG, and compatible with processing the full logical meaning of compounds, whereas activations in IPS differ with alternative interpretations of conditionals: logical vs conjunctive. These results uncover the functions of a basic cortical network underlying human compositional thought, and provide a shared neural foundation for the cognitive science of language and reasoning. PMID:27138210

  4. Development of ferrite logic devices for an arithmetic processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, C. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A number of fundamentally ultra-reliable, all-magnetic logic circuits are developed using as a basis a single element ferrite structure wired as a logic delay element. By making minor additions or changes to the basic wiring pattern of the delay element other logic functions such as OR, AND, NEGATION, MAJORITY, EXCLUSIVE-OR, and FAN-OUT are developed. These logic functions are then used in the design of a full-adder, a set/reset flip-flop, and an edge detector. As a demonstration of the utility of all the developed devices, an 8-bit, all-magnetic, logic arithmetic unit capable of controlled addition, subtraction, and multiplication is designed. A new basic ferrite logic element and associated complementary logic scheme with the potential of improved performance is also described. Finally, an improved batch process for fabricating joint-free power drive and logic interconnect conductors for this basic class of all-magnetic logic is presented.

  5. Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics based digital logic and circuits

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John. F.; Ditto, William L.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role and importance of dynamics in the brain and biological neural networks and argue that dynamics is one of the main missing elements in conventional Boolean logic and circuits. We summarize a simple dynamics based computing method, and categorize different techniques that we have introduced to realize logic, functionality, and programmability. We discuss the role and importance of coupled dynamics in networks of biological excitable cells, and then review our simple coupled dynamics based method for computing. In this paper, for the first time, we show how dynamics can be used and programmed to implement computation in any given base, including but not limited to base two. PMID:26029096

  7. Refining fuzzy logic controllers with machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the GARIC (Generalized Approximate Reasoning-Based Intelligent Control) architecture, which learns from its past performance and modifies the labels in the fuzzy rules to improve performance. It uses fuzzy reinforcement learning which is a hybrid method of fuzzy logic and reinforcement learning. This technology can simplify and automate the application of fuzzy logic control to a variety of systems. GARIC has been applied in simulation studies of the Space Shuttle rendezvous and docking experiments. It has the potential of being applied in other aerospace systems as well as in consumer products such as appliances, cameras, and cars.

  8. Runtime Analysis of Linear Temporal Logic Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    This report presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to B chi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.

  9. Universal programmable logic gate and routing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An universal and programmable logic gate based on G.sup.4-FET technology is disclosed, leading to the design of more efficient logic circuits. A new full adder design based on the G.sup.4-FET is also presented. The G.sup.4-FET can also function as a unique router device offering coplanar crossing of signal paths that are isolated and perpendicular to one another. This has the potential of overcoming major limitations in VLSI design where complex interconnection schemes have become increasingly problematic.

  10. Is Logic in the Mind or in the World? Why a Philosophical Question can Affect the Understanding of Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Hanns; Schreiber, Lothar

    2012-05-01

    Dreyfus' call ‘to make artificial intelligence (AI) more Heideggerian‘ echoes Heidegger's affirmation that pure calculations produce no ‘intelligence’ (Dreyfus, 2007). But what exactly is it that AI needs more than mathematics? The question in the title gives rise to a reexamination of the basic principles of cognition in Husserl's Phenomenology. Using Husserl's Phenomenological Method, a formalization of these principles is presented that provides the principal idea of cognition, and as a consequence, a ‘natural logic’. Only in a second step, mathematics is obtained from this natural logic by abstraction. The limitations of pure reasoning are demonstrated for fundamental considerations (Hilbert's ‘finite Einstellung’) as well as for the task of solving practical problems. Principles will be presented for the design of general intelligent systems, which make use of a natural logic.

  11. Early childhood mathematics intervention.

    PubMed

    Clements, Douglas H; Sarama, Julie

    2011-08-19

    Preschool and primary grade children have the capacity to learn substantial mathematics, but many children lack opportunities to do so. Too many children not only start behind their more advantaged peers, but also begin a negative trajectory in mathematics. Interventions designed to facilitate their mathematical learning during ages 3 to 5 years have a strong positive effect on these children's lives for many years thereafter.

  12. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  13. Consciousness and Logic in a Quantum-Computing Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zizzi, Paola

    of the quantum mind, which are not algorithmic in the usual sense: the self, and mathematical intuition. The self is due to a reversible self-measurement of a quantum state of superposed tubulins. Mathematical intuition is due to the paraconsistent logic of the internal observer in a quantum-computing universe.

  14. Mathematical Ties That Bind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Peggy A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes some mathematical investigations of the necktie which includes applications of geometry, statistics, data analysis, sampling, probability, symmetry, proportion, problem solving, and business. (MKR)

  15. Mathematics for Teaching: A Form of Applied Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we elaborate a conceptualisation of "mathematics for teaching" as a form of applied mathematics (using Bass's idea of characterising mathematics education as a form of applied mathematics) and we examine implications of this conceptualisation for the mathematical preparation of teachers. Specifically, we focus on issues of design…

  16. Using Mathematics Literature with Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Literature in mathematics has been found to foster positive improvements in mathematics learning. This manuscript reports on a mathematics teacher educator's use of literature via literature circles with 11 prospective secondary mathematics teachers in a mathematics content course. Using survey and reflection data, the author found that…

  17. Finite Mathematics and Discrete Mathematics: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marvin L.

    Discrete mathematics and finite mathematics differ in a number of ways. First, finite mathematics has a longer history and is therefore more stable in terms of course content. Finite mathematics courses emphasize certain particular mathematical tools which are useful in solving the problems of business and the social sciences. Discrete mathematics…

  18. Exploring Differential Effects of Mathematics Courses on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; McIntyre, Laureen J.

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Mathematics Participation (N = 1,518 students from 34 schools), we investigated the effects of pure and applied mathematics courses on mathematics achievement, controlling for prior mathematics achievement. Results of multilevel modelling showed that the effects of pure mathematics were significant after…

  19. Hands-On Mathematics: Two Cases from Ancient Chinese Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Youjun

    2009-01-01

    In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…

  20. A Capstone Mathematics Course for Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artzt, Alice F.; Sultan, Alan; Curcio, Frances R.; Gurl, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative capstone mathematics course that links college mathematics with school mathematics and pedagogy. It describes how college juniors in a secondary mathematics teacher preparation program engage in leadership experiences that enable them to learn mathematics for teaching while developing student-centered…

  1. The Development and Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary Cognitive-Affective Approach to General Education Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blitzer, Robert F.

    This dissertation describes the development and evaluation of course materials entitled "Confluent Math: A Multidisciplinary Thinking-Feeling Approach to Twentieth Century Mathematics." The goals of the materials were: (1) to develop understanding and appreciation of logical axiomatic structure; (2) to examine major philosophic ideas relating to…

  2. Mathematics Curriculum Outline and Sample Activities for Gifted Students Grades 2 through 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barson, Alan; And Others

    This document includes a statement of 11 basic considerations for a mathematics curriculum for the gifted in grades two through eight and a series of activities appropriate for such a curriculum. The activities are grouped under five strands: (1) logic; (2) combinations (combinatorics), probability, introduction to statistics; (3) geometry,…

  3. Teaching the Blue-Eyed Islanders Puzzle in a Liberal Arts Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The blue-eyed islanders puzzle is an old and challenging logic puzzle. This is a narrative of an experience introducing a variation of this puzzle on the first day of classes in a liberal arts mathematics course for non-majors. I describe an exercise that was used to facilitate the class's understanding of the puzzle.

  4. The Role of Automata and Machine Theory in School and College Mathematics Syllabuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcombe, M.

    1981-01-01

    The introduction of certain topics in the theory of machines and languages into school and college mathematics courses in place of the more usual discussion of groups and formal logic is proposed. Examples of machines and languages and their interconnections suitable for such courses are outlined. (MP)

  5. Geometry Students' Hedged Statements and Their Self-Regulation of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosko, Karl W.

    2012-01-01

    Statements conveying a degree of certainty or doubt, in the form of hedging, have been linked with logical inference in students' talk (Rowland, 2000). Considering the current emphasis on increasing student autonomy for effective mathematical discourse, I posit a relationship between hedging and student autonomy. In the current study, high school…

  6. Approaches to efficient execution of logic programs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Execution efficiency of logic programs can be improved in two major directions: parallel processing for more computation power and control guidance for less non-determinism. Parallel execution of a logic program represented in connection graph has to be guarded against the problems of logical inconsistency. Enforcing Bernstein conditions can prevent such problems buy results in an unacceptable reduction of parallelism. A subcycle-level parallel procedure with step-wise purity deletions is designed to remedy such problems. The concurrent step-wise purity deletion has been shown to preserve much of the deletion power of the sequential purity deletion. Recursion is what makes a logic program non-trivial. Fact propagation is proposed to reduce the run-time recursive interaction by a compile-time analysis of the recursive loops. Herbrand expansion tree provide a concise organization for the increasingly large number of unit clauses during the propagation. Symbolic execution through the loops reveals that if the effects of the routes in a simple recursive loop are either all non-destructive or all destructive, the exact control sequence can be derived by a context-free language parsing technique. For coupling recursive loops, similar techniques can be applied at segment level instead of route level.

  7. A Symbolic Logic for Representing Linear Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Charles E.

    A set of symbols is presented along with logical operators which represent the possible manipulations of the linear model. The use of these symbols and operators is to simplify the representation of analysis of variance models, correlation models and factor analysis models. (Author)

  8. Giving Programming Students a Logical Step Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a method to enhance the teaching of computer programing to secondary students that establishes a connection between logic, truth tables, switching circuits, gating symbols, flow charts, and pseudocode. The author asserts that the method prepares students for thinking processes related to programing. (MDH)

  9. Teleology as Logical Phenomenology: Some Therapeutic Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    Phenomenology is an important force in the development of psychological theory, rather than a variant type of counseling method. A distinction must be drawn between the sensory phenomenology in which gestaltists focus on sensory receptors, and logical pheomenology in which the grounding of belief or self-identity is viewed as a prediction or…

  10. Interacting institutional logics in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca; Holt, Robin

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the organisational field of general dental practice and how agents change or maintain the institution of values associated with the everyday work of health care provision. Our dataset comprise archival literature and policy documents, interview data from field level actors, as well as service delivery level interview data and secondary data gathered (2011-12) from 16 English dental practices. Our analysis provides a typology of institutional logics (prevailing systems of value) experienced in the field of dental practice. Confirming current literature, we find two logics dominate how care is assessed: business-like health care and medical professionalism. We advance the literature by finding the business-like health care logic further distinguished by values of commercialism on the one hand and those of accountability and procedural diligence on the other. The logic of professionalism we also find is further distinguished into a commitment to clinical expertise and independence in delivering patient care on the one hand, and concerns for the autonomy and sustainability of a business enterprise on the other. PMID:23931946

  11. Mapping individual logical processes in information searching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    An interactive dialog with a computerized information collection was recorded and plotted in the form of a flow chart. The process permits one to identify the logical processes employed in considerable detail and is therefore suggested as a tool for measuring individual thought processes in a variety of situations. A sample of an actual test case is given.

  12. New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi

    1982-12-01

    It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.

  13. Interacting institutional logics in general dental practice☆

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Rebecca; Holt, Robin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the organisational field of general dental practice and how agents change or maintain the institution of values associated with the everyday work of health care provision. Our dataset comprise archival literature and policy documents, interview data from field level actors, as well as service delivery level interview data and secondary data gathered (2011–12) from 16 English dental practices. Our analysis provides a typology of institutional logics (prevailing systems of value) experienced in the field of dental practice. Confirming current literature, we find two logics dominate how care is assessed: business-like health care and medical professionalism. We advance the literature by finding the business-like health care logic further distinguished by values of commercialism on the one hand and those of accountability and procedural diligence on the other. The logic of professionalism we also find is further distinguished into a commitment to clinical expertise and independence in delivering patient care on the one hand, and concerns for the autonomy and sustainability of a business enterprise on the other. PMID:23931946

  14. Demonstrating Boolean Logic Using Simple Electrical Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElhaney, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    While exploring the subject of geometric proofs, boolean logic operators AND and OR can be used to allow students to visualize their true-or-false patterns. An activity in the form of constructing electrical circuits is illustrated to explain the concept.

  15. Faster Evolution of More Multifunctional Logic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    A modification in a method of automated evolutionary synthesis of voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits makes it possible to synthesize more circuits in less time. Prior to the modification, the computations for synthesizing a four-function logic circuit by this method took about 10 hours. Using the method as modified, it is possible to synthesize a six-function circuit in less than half an hour. The concepts of automated evolutionary synthesis and voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits were described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A circuit is designed to perform one of several different logic functions, depending on the value of an applied control voltage. The circuit design is synthesized following an automated evolutionary approach that is so named because it is modeled partly after the repetitive trial-and-error process of biological evolution. In this process, random populations of integer strings that encode electronic circuits play a role analogous to that of chromosomes. An evolved circuit is tested by computational simulation (prior to testing in real hardware to verify a final design). Then, in a fitness-evaluation step, responses of the circuit are compared with specifications of target responses and circuits are ranked according to how close they come to satisfying specifications. The results of the evaluation provide guidance for refining designs through further iteration.

  16. Multiplexed logic controls solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Four inexpensive thermocouples monitor temperatures at key points. On command from logic circuitry, dampers open and close to direct airflow, and fan and auxiliary heater shut on or off. Controlling complex arranges heating system in any one of four operating configurations.

  17. Young Children's Comprehension of Logical Connectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Feldman, Shirley

    To determine to what extent children of preschool age comprehend the meaning of logical connectives, 64 5- and 6-year-olds were told to hand differently colored and shaped wooden blocks to an experimenter. The commands involved various English idioms used for conjunction (e.g. both black and round), disjunction (either black or round), and…

  18. Fuzzy logic mode switching in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Porter D.; Warburton, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    The application of fuzzy logic to a wide range of control problems has been gaining momentum internationally, fueled by a concentrated Japanese effort. Advanced Research & Development within the Engineering Department at Sikorsky Aircraft undertook a fuzzy logic research effort designed to evaluate how effective fuzzy logic control might be in relation to helicopter operations. The mode switching module in the advanced flight control portion of Sikorsky's motion based simulator was identified as a good candidate problem because it was simple to understand and contained imprecise (fuzzy) decision criteria. The purpose of the switching module is to aid a helicopter pilot in entering and leaving coordinated turns while in flight. The criteria that determine the transitions between modes are imprecise and depend on the varied ranges of three flight conditions (i.e., simulated parameters): Commanded Rate, Duration, and Roll Attitude. The parameters were given fuzzy ranges and used as input variables to a fuzzy rulebase containing the knowledge of mode switching. The fuzzy control program was integrated into a real time interactive helicopter simulation tool. Optimization of the heading hold and turn coordination was accomplished by interactive pilot simulation testing of the handling quality performance of the helicopter dynamic model. The fuzzy logic code satisfied all the requirements of this candidate control problem.

  19. Quantum logic gates for superconducting resonator qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Strauch, Frederick W.

    2011-11-15

    We study quantum information processing using superpositions of Fock states in superconducting resonators as quantum d-level systems (qudits). A universal set of single and coupled logic gates is theoretically proposed for resonators coupled by superconducting circuits of Josephson junctions. These gates use experimentally demonstrated interactions and provide an attractive route to quantum information processing using harmonic oscillator modes.

  20. Learning Probabilistic Logic Models from Probabilistic Examples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José

    2008-10-01

    We revisit an application developed originally using abductive Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) for modeling inhibition in metabolic networks. The example data was derived from studies of the effects of toxins on rats using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) time-trace analysis of their biofluids together with background knowledge representing a subset of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We now apply two Probabilistic ILP (PILP) approaches - abductive Stochastic Logic Programs (SLPs) and PRogramming In Statistical modeling (PRISM) to the application. Both approaches support abductive learning and probability predictions. Abductive SLPs are a PILP framework that provides possible worlds semantics to SLPs through abduction. Instead of learning logic models from non-probabilistic examples as done in ILP, the PILP approach applied in this paper is based on a general technique for introducing probability labels within a standard scientific experimental setting involving control and treated data. Our results demonstrate that the PILP approach provides a way of learning probabilistic logic models from probabilistic examples, and the PILP models learned from probabilistic examples lead to a significant decrease in error accompanied by improved insight from the learned results compared with the PILP models learned from non-probabilistic examples.

  1. Development of Logical Search Skills in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haake, Robert J.; Somerville, Susan C.

    1985-01-01

    Nine- to 18-month-old infants were presented with simple two-location manual search tasks involving invisible displacements of objects with sequence of displacements occurring before infants search. Results provided insights into age differences associated with development of logical search strategies, information-processing skills, and temporal…

  2. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kalyan; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Amit

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant integrated in a multimachine power system. The utilization factor of a fuel stack maintains steady state by tuning the fuel valve in the fuel processor at a rate proportional to a current drawn from the fuel stack. A suitable fuzzy logic control is used for the overall system, its objective being controlling the current drawn by the power conditioning unit and meet a desirable output power demand. The proposed control scheme is verified through computer simulations.

  3. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kalyan; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Amit

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant integrated in a multimachine power system. The utilization factor of a fuel stack maintains steady state by tuning the fuel valve in the fuel processor at a rate proportional to a current drawn from the fuel stack. A suitable fuzzy logic control is used for the overall system, its objective being controlling the current drawn by the power conditioning unit and meet a desirable output power demand. The proposed control scheme is verified through computer simulations. PMID:25053926

  4. The music of morality and logic.

    PubMed

    Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A

    2015-01-01

    Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely "happy" and "sad" (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought.

  5. The music of morality and logic

    PubMed Central

    Mesz, Bruno; Rodriguez Zivic, Pablo H.; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2015-01-01

    Musical theory has built on the premise that musical structures can refer to something different from themselves (Nattiez and Abbate, 1990). The aim of this work is to statistically corroborate the intuitions of musical thinkers and practitioners starting at least with Plato, that music can express complex human concepts beyond merely “happy” and “sad” (Mattheson and Lenneberg, 1958). To do so, we ask whether musical improvisations can be used to classify the semantic category of the word that triggers them. We investigated two specific domains of semantics: morality and logic. While morality has been historically associated with music, logic concepts, which involve more abstract forms of thought, are more rarely associated with music. We examined musical improvisations inspired by positive and negative morality (e.g., good and evil) and logic concepts (true and false), analyzing the associations between these words and their musical representations in terms of acoustic and perceptual features. We found that music conveys information about valence (good and true vs. evil and false) with remarkable consistency across individuals. This information is carried by several musical dimensions which act in synergy to achieve very high classification accuracy. Positive concepts are represented by music with more ordered pitch structure and lower harmonic and sensorial dissonance than negative concepts. Music also conveys information indicating whether the word which triggered it belongs to the domains of logic or morality (true vs. good), principally through musical articulation. In summary, improvisations consistently map logic and morality information to specific musical dimensions, testifying the capacity of music to accurately convey semantic information in domains related to abstract forms of thought. PMID:26191020

  6. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  7. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  8. Issues in Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that there are selected issues in mathematics instruction that educators should be well aware of when planning lessons and units of study. These issues provide a basis for thought and discussion when assisting pupils to attain more optimally. Purposeful studying of issues guides mathematics teachers in…

  9. Mathematics: The Universal Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Sharon B.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is considered the universal language, but students who speak languages other than English have difficulty doing mathematics in English. For instance, because of a lack of familiarity with the problem's context, many have trouble understanding exactly what operations to perform. In the United States, approximately one in seven students…

  10. Mathematical techniques: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Articles on theoretical and applied mathematics are introduced. The articles cover information that might be of interest to workers in statistics and information theory, computational aids that could be used by scientists and engineers, and mathematical techniques for design and control.

  11. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  12. Dyslexia, Dyspraxia and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Dorian

    This book explores how primary school children with dyslexia or dyspraxia and difficulty in math can learn math and provides practical support and detailed teaching suggestions. It considers cognitive features that underlie difficulty with mathematics generally or with specific aspects of mathematics. It outlines the ways in which children usually…

  13. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  14. Mathematics in Power Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, Carl; And Others

    This mathematics curriculum is designed to be taught by the technology education teacher during the power technology class over a period of 2 years. It is intended to be elective in nature; upon successful completion of both years, one-half credit in mathematics is to be awarded. A list of the academic competencies contained in the curriculum…

  15. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  16. What Is Discrete Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Karen Tobey

    This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…

  17. Consumer Mathematics Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This guide for high school consumer mathematics (one in a set of curriculum guides developed by Louisiana statewide mathematics curriculum committees) contains a course outline, performance objectives, and coordinated activities designed to teach skills that students will need as citizens and consumers. Background on the development,…

  18. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  19. Astronomy and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    There are many European countries where Astronomy does not appear as a specific course on the secondary school. In these cases Astronomy content can be introduced by means of other subjects. There are some astronomical topics within the subject of Physics but this talk concerns introducing Astronomy in Mathematics classes. Teaching Astronomy through Mathematics would result in more exposure than through Physics as Mathematics is more prevalent in the curriculum. Generally it is not easy to motivate students in Mathematics but they are motivated to find out more about the universe and Astronomy current events than appears in the media. This situation can be an excellent introduction to several mathematics topics. The teachers in secondary and high school can use this idea in order to present more attractive mathematics courses. In particular some different examples will be offered regarding * Angles and spherical coordinates considering star traces * Logarithms and visual magnitudes * Plane trigonometry related orbital movements * Spherical trigonometry in connection with ecliptic obliquity * Conic curves related to sundial at several latitudes Some students do not enjoy studying Mathematics but they can be attracted by practical situations using Applied Mathematics: Astronomy is always very attractive to teenagers.

  20. Quality Teaching in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    The best teaching possible needs to accrue in the mathematics curriculum. Pupils also need to become proficient in using mathematics in every day situations in life. Individuals buy goods and services. They pay for these in different ways, including cash. Here, persons need to be able to compute the total cost of items purchased and then pay for…

  1. Learning Mathematics while Black

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2012-01-01

    While research by scholars has contributed greatly to an emerging knowledge base on Black children and mathematics, there continues to be a dire need for insightful research that de-centers longstanding accounts that have contributed to the construction of Black children as mathematically illiterate and as less than ideal learners relative to…

  2. Intermediate Mathematics Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    This SMSG study guide is intended to provide teachers who use "Intermediate Mathematics," as a textbook with references to materials which will help them to gain a better understanding of the mathematics contained in the text. For each chapter of the text a brief resume of its content is followed by a list of annotated references which are…

  3. Mathematics in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenberg, Harvey

    1995-01-01

    Presents ideas for creating mathematical classroom activities associated with the history of mathematics: calculating sums and products the way ancient Greeks did it, using an abacus or moving stones on a sanded floor, and engaging elementary students through role playing specific mathematicians. Suggests that through such techniques, mathematics…

  4. Designing Assessment for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depka, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Teaching mathematics in today's world requires practices and procedures integrated with performance tasks that actively involve students. In this second edition of Designing Rubrics for Mathematics, Eileen Depka clarifies the purpose of rubrics in math instruction and illustrates the relationship between assessment, rubrics, and the National…

  5. Mathematical Graphic Organizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    As part of a math-science partnership, a university mathematics educator and ten elementary school teachers developed a novel approach to mathematical problem solving derived from research on reading and writing pedagogy. Specifically, research indicates that students who use graphic organizers to arrange their ideas improve their comprehension…

  6. Mathematics. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.; Lowery, Norene Vail, Ed.; Harnisch, Delwyn L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on mathematics from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "Teachers' Learning of Mathematics in the Presence of Technology: Participatory Cognitive Apprenticeship" (Mara Alagic); (2) "A Fractal Is a Pattern in Your Neighborhood" (Craig N. Bach); (3)…

  7. See a Different Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, L. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes four strategies for posing mathematics problems that raise the cognitive demands of the tasks given to students. Each strategy is illustrated with three common middle school mathematics examples: finding the greatest common factor, finding area or perimeter, and finding the equation of a line. Posing these types of problems…

  8. The Impossible in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Irving

    The material in this reprint, with minor editorial changes, is from the chapter "Doing the Impossible" in MONKEY BUSINESS by Irving Adler. This 25-page booklet contains brief accounts of historical attempts to prove impossible problems in mathematics. The mathematical recreations in this booklet of geometric constructions include the trisection…

  9. Strengthen Your Mathematical Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn; McDuffie, Amy Roth

    2010-01-01

    Developing deep knowledge and understanding of mathematics is a lifelong process, and building the foundation for teachers' development must begin in preservice preparation and continue throughout one's professional life. While teaching mathematics content courses and methods courses, the authors have found that preservice elementary school…

  10. Mathematics: Content and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2009-01-01

    The debate has gone on for some time in terms of which is more salient for the teacher to be well versed in, mathematical content versus methods and approaches in teaching. Both are salient. They cannot be separated from each other. The mathematics teacher must indeed have broad, in-depth knowledge of subject matter as well as in teaching and…

  11. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  12. [Collected Papers on Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Michael L., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on issues related to mathematics in technology and teacher education: "A Case for Strong Conceptualization in Technology Enhanced Mathematics Instruction" (Michael L. Connell and Delwyn L. Harnisch); "Faculty/Student Collaboration in Education and Math--Using the Web To Improve Student Learning and…

  13. Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)

  14. Mathematics and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Leder, Gilah C., Ed.

    This book reports on various studies that have increased our understanding of why females and males learn different kinds and amounts of mathematics. In particular, this book explicates the Autonomous Learning Behavior model, proposed by Fennema and Peterson, which is a possible explanation of the development of gender differences in mathematics.…

  15. Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates that U. S. teachers' mathematical knowledge continues to be weak, and there is an inherent difference between the mathematical knowledge needed to be an effective teacher and that needed by a mathematician. In this article, the author discusses pedagogical content knowledge. According to Schulman (1987), pedagogical content…

  16. Attitudes and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iben, Miriam F.

    1991-01-01

    Examines seventh and eighth grade students in Australia, Japan, and the United States for attitudes related to mathematics, and the relationship these attitudes have to students' development of abstract mathematical thought and spatial relations. Study uses the Iowa Algebra Aptitude Test, Differential Aptitude Test-Spatial Relations, and the…

  17. Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

  18. Mathematics and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John

    2012-01-01

    This relationship is omnipresent to those who appreciate the shared attributes of these two areas of creativity. The dynamic nature of media, and further study, enable mathematicians and artists to present new and exciting manifestations of the "mathematics in art", and the "art in mathematics". The illustrative images of the relationship--that…

  19. The Three Rs of Teaching Logic: Revelation, Relevance, and Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covel, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Covel offers a primer on logic and describes how students react when they realize what a useful resource it can be in their real lives. His article includes useful definitions of critical concepts and logical fallacies. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. An overview of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallum, Cecil R.

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical and statistical analysis components of RICIS (Research Institute for Computing and Information Systems) can be used in the following problem areas: (1) quantification and measurement of software reliability; (2) assessment of changes in software reliability over time (reliability growth); (3) analysis of software-failure data; and (4) decision logic for whether to continue or stop testing software. Other areas of interest to NASA/JSC where mathematical and statistical analysis can be successfully employed include: math modeling of physical systems, simulation, statistical data reduction, evaluation methods, optimization, algorithm development, and mathematical methods in signal processing.

  1. Business Mathematics. Mathematics Curriculum Guide (Career Oriented).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuschler, Alexandra; And Others

    The curriculum guide correlates concepts in business mathematics with career-oriented concepts and activities. The curriculum outline format gives the concepts to be taught, matched with related career-oriented performance objectives, concepts, and suggested instructional activities in facing page layouts. The outline is divided into the major…

  2. Technical Mathematics: Restructure of Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    Designed to accompany a series of videotapes, this textbook provides information, examples, problems, and solutions relating to mathematics and its applications in technical fields. Chapter I deals with basic arithmetic, providing information on fractions, decimals, ratios, proportions, percentages, and order of operations. Chapter II focuses on…

  3. Logic analysis of complex systems by characterizing failure phenomena to achieve diagnosis and fault-isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, J. T.; Andre, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    A recent result shows that, for a certain class of systems, the interdependency among the elements of such a system together with the elements constitutes a mathematical structure a partially ordered set. It is called a loop free logic model of the system. On the basis of an intrinsic property of the mathematical structure, a characterization of system component failure in terms of maximal subsets of bad test signals of the system was obtained. Also, as a consequence, information concerning the total number of failure components in the system was deduced. Detailed examples are given to show how to restructure real systems containing loops into loop free models for which the result is applicable.

  4. Examining Fourth-Grade Mathematics Writing: Features of Organization, Mathematics Vocabulary, and Mathematical Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Michael A.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, students are expected to write about mathematics. Mathematics writing may be informal (e.g., journals, exit slips) or formal (e.g., writing prompts on high-stakes mathematics assessments). In order to develop an effective mathematics-writing intervention, research needs to be conducted on how students organize mathematics writing and…

  5. The logic of physiognomony in the late Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the advances made in the logic of Renaissance physiognomy from the state of the subject in antiquity and the Middle Ages. The properties and accidents of the human body are investigated in the context of the signs selected by physiognomers, whether univocal or in syndromes, strong or weak in character, negative or positive, consistent with each other or contradictory. When these signs are translated into propositions, the construction of argument which flows from them is shown to be ut plurimum reasoning, in which an element of quasi-mathematical proto-probability and hermeneutical thinking (in the treatment of ambiguity and obscurity) may be detected. These allow the question "is x more likely to be the case than y or z?" to be answered through a variety of procedures. Renaissance physiognomy is shown to be a discipline in which a novel combination of rational procedures come together, and a site of conceptual change in respect of property and accidence. PMID:22073751

  6. Mobile Health in Maternal and Newborn Care: Fuzzy Logic

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Shahirose

    2014-01-01

    Whether mHealth improves maternal and newborn health outcomes remains uncertain as the response is perhaps not true or false but lies somewhere in between when considering unintended harmful consequences. Fuzzy logic, a mathematical approach to computing, extends the traditional binary “true or false” (one or zero) to exemplify this notion of partial truths that lies between completely true and false. The commentary explores health, socio-ecological and environmental consequences–positive, neutral or negative. Of particular significance is the negative influence of mHealth on maternal care-behaviors, which can increase stress reactivity and vulnerability to stress-induced illness across the lifespan of the child and establish pathways for intergenerational transmission of behaviors. A mHealth “fingerprinting” approach is essential to monitor psychosocial, economic, cultural, environmental and physical impact of mHealth intervention and make evidence-informed decision(s) about use of mHealth in maternal and newborn care. PMID:25003177

  7. Mobile health in maternal and newborn care: fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Premji, Shahirose

    2014-06-01

    Whether mHealth improves maternal and newborn health outcomes remains uncertain as the response is perhaps not true or false but lies somewhere in between when considering unintended harmful consequences. Fuzzy logic, a mathematical approach to computing, extends the traditional binary “true or false” (one or zero) to exemplify this notion of partial truths that lies between completely true and false. The commentary explores health, socio-ecological and environmental consequences–positive, neutral or negative. Of particular significance is the negative influence of mHealth on maternal care-behaviors, which can increase stress reactivity and vulnerability to stress-induced illness across the lifespan of the child and establish pathways for intergenerational transmission of behaviors. A mHealth “fingerprinting” approach is essential to monitor psychosocial, economic, cultural, environmental and physical impact of mHealth intervention and make evidence-informed decision(s) about use of mHealth in maternal and newborn care.

  8. Breast tumor malignancy modelling using evolutionary neural logic networks.

    PubMed

    Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios; Panagi, Georgia; Panourgias, Evangelia

    2006-01-01

    The present work proposes a computer assisted methodology for the effective modelling of the diagnostic decision for breast tumor malignancy. The suggested approach is based on innovative hybrid computational intelligence algorithms properly applied in related cytological data contained in past medical records. The experimental data used in this study were gathered in the early 1990s in the University of Wisconsin, based in post diagnostic cytological observations performed by expert medical staff. Data were properly encoded in a computer database and accordingly, various alternative modelling techniques were applied on them, in an attempt to form diagnostic models. Previous methods included standard optimisation techniques, as well as artificial intelligence approaches, in a way that a variety of related publications exists in modern literature on the subject. In this report, a hybrid computational intelligence approach is suggested, which effectively combines modern mathematical logic principles, neural computation and genetic programming in an effective manner. The approach proves promising either in terms of diagnostic accuracy and generalization capabilities, or in terms of comprehensibility and practical importance for the related medical staff.

  9. Teaching to the Test: A Pragmatic Approach to Teaching Logic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    The proper goal of an introductory logic course, teaching critical thinking, is best achieved by maintaining the principle of continuity between student experiences and the curriculum. To demonstrate this I explain Dewey's naturalistic approach to logic and the process of inquiry, one which presents the elements of traditional logic in the…

  10. 15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...

  11. 15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...

  12. 15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...

  13. 15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is...

  14. 76 FR 14392 - GeoLogics Corporation; Transfer of Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... AGENCY GeoLogics Corporation; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to GeoLogics Corporation in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). GeoLogics Corporation has been awarded a contract...

  15. Institutional Logics, Indie Software Developers and Platform Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Yixin

    2013-01-01

    This two-essay dissertation aims to study institutional logics in the context of Apple's independent third-party software developers. In essay 1, I investigate the embedded agency aspect of the institutional logics theory. It builds on the premise that logics constrain preferences, interests and behaviors of individuals and organizations, thereby…

  16. Electronics. Module 3: Digital Logic Application. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ed; Murphy, Mark

    This guide contains instructor's materials for a 10-unit secondary school course on digital logic application. The units are introduction to digital, logic gates, digital integrated circuits, combination logic, flip-flops, counters and shift registers, encoders and decoders, arithmetic circuits, memory, and analog/digital and digital/analog…

  17. Logic system aids in evaluation of project readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, S. J.; Obrien, T. J.

    1966-01-01

    Measurement Operational Readiness Requirements /MORR/ assignments logic is used for determining the readiness of a complex project to go forward as planned. The system used logic network which assigns qualities to all important criteria in a project and establishes a logical sequence of measurements to determine what the conditions are.

  18. Logical Connectives as Catalysts for Interactive L2 Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozono, Shuichi; Ito, Harumi

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on logical connectives as catalysts for interactive reading. Clarifies how text comprehension can be affected by the types of logical relations and by the levels of proficiency in English as a Second Language, using Japanese university students as the subjects for experimentation and focusing on three logical connectives: "for…

  19. A verification logic representation of indeterministic signal states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of modern CAD tools with formal verification environments require translation from hardware description language to verification logic. A signal representation including both unknown state and a degree of strength indeterminacy is essential for the correct modeling of many VLSI circuit designs. A higher-order logic theory of indeterministic logic signals is presented.

  20. 15 CFR 970.601 - Logical mining unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Resource Development Concepts § 970.601 Logical mining unit. (a) In the case of an exploration license, a logical mining unit is an... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Logical mining unit. 970.601...