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Sample records for loma alta catamarca

  1. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development... 385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind...

  2. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 285.207 (2009), Alta Wind I, LLC, Alta Wind...

  3. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as...

  4. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as...

  5. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as...

  6. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as...

  7. 33 CFR 334.890 - Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Point Loma....890 Pacific Ocean off Point Loma, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending southerly from Point Loma, California, described as...

  8. Cancer Research Institute, Loma Linda University Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) DOE/EA-0975, evaluating the construction, equipping and operation of the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) on its campus in Loma Linda, California. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This document describes alternatives, the affected environment and environmental consequences of the proposed action.

  9. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2016-07-12

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  10. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2012-01-01

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  11. Maria Israel and the Old Loma Point Lighthouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetz, Debbie

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Maria Israel who served as Assistant Keeper for the Point Loma Lighthouse at San Diego (California) harbor in the late 1800s. Maria's husband, Robert Decatur Israel, was the lighthouse keeper and wives often filled the position as assistant. Discusses the role of the United States Lighthouse Service and includes several photos. (MJP)

  12. National clearinghouse for Loma Prieta earthquake information catalog, April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This catalog lists 142 new citations on the Loma Prieta earthquake. Section titles are: General topics and conference proceedings; Selected topics in seismology; Engineering seismology; Strong-motion seismometry; Dynamics of soils, rocks, and foundations; Dynamics of structures; Earthquake-resistant design and construction; Earthquake damage; and Earthquakes as natural disasters. Included are indexes by author, title, subject, and format.

  13. Technical assessment of the Loma Linda University proton therapy accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    In April 1986, officials of Loma Linda University requested that Fermilab design and construct a 250 MeV proton synchrotron for radiotherapy, to be located at the Loma Linda University Medical Center. In June 1986 the project, having received all necessary approvals, commenced. In order to meet a desirable schedule providing for operation in early 1990, it was decided to erect such parts of the accelerator as were complete at Fermilab and conduct a precommissioning activity prior to the completion of the building at Loma Linda which will house the final radiotherapy facility. It was hoped that approximately one year would be saved by the precommissioning, and that important information would be obtained about the system so that improvements could be made during installation at Loma Linda. This report contains an analysis by Fermilab staff members of the information gained in the precommissioning activity and makes recommendations about steps to be taken to enhance the performance of the proton synchrotron at Loma Linda. In the design of the accelerator, effort was made to employ commercially available components, or to industrialize the products developed so that later versions of the accelerator could be produced industrially. The magnets could only be fabricated at Fermilab if the schedule was to be met, but efforts were made to transfer that technology to industry. Originally, it was planned to use a 1.7 MeV RFQ fabricated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory as injector, but LBL would have found it difficult to meet the project schedule. After consideration of other options, for example a 3.4 MeV tandem accelerator, a supplier (AccSys Inc.) qualified itself to provide a 2 MeV RFQ on a schedule well matched to the project schedule. This choice was made, but a separate supplier was selected to develop and provide the 425 MHz power amplifier for the RFQ.

  14. Peak accelerations from the 17 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.; Seekins, L.; Joyner, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Peak accelerations of the Loma Prieta main shock have been tabulated from instruments maintained by a number of organizations. A subset of 86 records from nominally free-field sites have been analyzed which have been subdivided into rock, alluvium, and bay-mud categories according to data available in various reports. After correction for attenuation, the peak accelerations on rock, alluvium, and bay-mud sites are factors of 1.6, 1.8 and 4.5 larger, on the average, than Joyner and Boore's (1988) predicted values for a M=6.9 earthquake. The Loma Prieta earthquake provided the first opportunity to study the relative amplitudes from strong-motion recordings. -from Authors

  15. Broadband study of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Hiroo; Satake, Kenji

    1990-07-01

    The authors determined the source characteristics of the Oct. 18, 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake using teleseismic data. The solution from body waves gives a mechanism with dip=70{degree}, rake=138{degree}, and strike=128{degree}, and a seismic moment of 3{times}10{sup 26} dyne-cm (M{sub w}=6.9). The body wave form suggests a depth of about 15 km. The effective duration of the source is 6 sec, which suggests a fault length of 30 km and 15 km for bilateral and unilateral faulting, respectively. Considering the extent of the aftershock area, they used 35 km as an estimate of the total rupture length. The strike-slip and the thrust components of the coseismic slip are 177 and 159 cm, respectively. If the Loma Prieta earthquake is a characteristic earthquake with a recurrence interval of about 100 years, the 159 cm displacement implies a long term uplift rate of about 1 cm/year, which appears too large for this region. Three hypotheses for reconciling this apparent conflict are: (1) the geometry of plate motion along the Santa Cruz Mountain segment changes over a time scale of several thousand years to that the coseismic displacement has not accumulated enough to produce high topographic relief; (2) the coseismic slip direction varies from event to event; (3) the slip plane of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is different from the major boundary between the Pacific and the North American plates. The surface slip of about 1 m for the 1906 San Francisco earthquake is one of the key data in long-term forecasting. No surface slip was observed for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, even if the horizontal slip at depth is as large as 1.8 m. This points to a risk of relying too heavily on surface observations for long-term seismic risk analysis.

  16. National clearinghouse for Loma Prieta earthquake information catalog, April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This catalog provides a descriptive list of 570 newspaper and periodical articles, papers in conference proceedings, maps, slides, videos, technical reports, and strong-motion data generated as a result of the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Section titles are: General topics and conference proceedings; Selected topics in seismology; Engineering seismology; Strong-motion seismometry; Dynamics of soils, rocks, and foundations; Dynamics of structures; Earthquake-resistant design and construction; Earthquake damage; and Earthquakes as natural disasters. Included are indexes by author, title, subject, and format.

  17. Aquifer test at Comore Loma No. 4, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1991-12-01

    An aquifer test was conducted at Comore Loma Well {number_sign}4 to determine the aquifer hydraulic characteristics at this location on July 11 and 12, 1991. Water was withdrawn from Comore Loma Well {number_sign}4 at approximately 850 gallons per minute for 8 hours while monitoring the water level in the plumping well and an observation well 930 ft away. The pumped well showed over 12 ft of drawdown with no discernable drawdown in the observation well. The drawdown in the pumped well was nearly instantaneous, showing little additional drawdown after 1 minute. The transmissivity was calculated to be approximately 140,000 ft{sup 2}/day using the Jacob solution. This gives a hydraulic conductivity of 1300 ft/day for the 110 ft interval tested. The high transmissivity and geologic setting suggest the aquifer may in part produce water from the Snake River Plain aquifer. However, the warm water temperature (71{degrees}F) indicates the presence of a geothermal source typical of the foothills aquifer. The storage coefficient could not be calculated since no water level decline was detected in the observation well.

  18. Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

  19. Aquifer test at Comore Loma No. 4, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1991-12-01

    An aquifer test was conducted at Comore Loma Well {number sign}4 to determine the aquifer hydraulic characteristics at this location on July 11 and 12, 1991. Water was withdrawn from Comore Loma Well {number sign}4 at approximately 850 gallons per minute for 8 hours while monitoring the water level in the plumping well and an observation well 930 ft away. The pumped well showed over 12 ft of drawdown with no discernable drawdown in the observation well. The drawdown in the pumped well was nearly instantaneous, showing little additional drawdown after 1 minute. The transmissivity was calculated to be approximately 140,000 ft{sup 2}/day using the Jacob solution. This gives a hydraulic conductivity of 1300 ft/day for the 110 ft interval tested. The high transmissivity and geologic setting suggest the aquifer may in part produce water from the Snake River Plain aquifer. However, the warm water temperature (71{degrees}F) indicates the presence of a geothermal source typical of the foothills aquifer. The storage coefficient could not be calculated since no water level decline was detected in the observation well.

  20. Implication from the aftershocks of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Fumiko; Sen, M.K. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors examined the P wave displacement spectra of nine aftershocks (M = 2.5{approximately}3.6) of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake recorded on PASSCAL/IRIS instruments to search for changes in the spectra that are indicative of heterogeneity in the source region. Temporal variations of spectral characteristics have been observed from the records of two events (No. 7 with M = 2.7 and No. 8 with M = 2.5) that occurred at an almost identical location with a time interval of 16 min and recorded at common stations. The different spectral characteristics can be attributed to the differences in the source time functions of these events. Also, the spectrum of event No. 2 (M = 2.5) that occurred near San Francisco, is substantially richer in high frequency than those from events of a comparable size in the immediate aftershock area. This could be an indication of progressive stress concentration beyond the present aftershock area.

  1. Surface displacements in the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA ); Lisowski, M. )

    1990-11-30

    The horizontal displacements accompanying the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are computed from geodetic survey measurements. The 1906 earthquake displacement field is entirely consistent with right-lateral strike slip on the San Andreas fault. In contrast, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake exhibited subequal components of strike slip and reverse faulting. This result, together with other seismic and geologic data, may indicate that the two earthquakes occurred on two different fault planes.

  2. Surface displacements in the 1906 San Francisco and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.; Lisowski, M.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontal displacements accompanying the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are computed from geodetic survey measurements. The 1906 earthquake displacement field is entirely consistent with right-lateral strike slip on the San Andreas fault. In contrast, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake exhibited subequal components of strike slip and reverse faulting. This result, together with other seismic and geologic data, may indicate that the two earthquakes occurred on two different fault planes.

  3. Surface displacements in the 1906 san francisco and 1989 loma prieta earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Segall, P; Lisowski, M

    1990-11-30

    The horizontal displacements accompanying the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are computed from geodetic survey measurements. The 1906 earthquake displacement field is entirely consistent with right-lateral strike slip on the San Andreas fault. In contrast, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake exhibited subequal components of strike slip and reverse faulting. This result, together with other seismic and geologic data, may indicate that the two earthquakes occurred on two different fault planes.

  4. Twenty Years of Proton Radiation Therapy at Loma Linda University Medical Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Jerry D.

    The proton treatment center at Loma Linda is the first hospital-based proton facility in the world. Dr. James M. Slater spearheaded its development in response to the need to reduce normal tissue injury and unacceptable side effects. Loma Linda physicians treat a wide range of cancers and other conditions with protons; studies are ongoing to expand applications and realize the still-evolving potential of the modality.

  5. Measurements of Loma Linda proton therapy gantry dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, H.D.; Mazur, P.O.; Sim, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    We describe the procedures used by the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility (MTF) to perform tests of dipoles to be installed in the beam lines of the Loma Linda University Medical Center Proton Therapy Facility. The dipoles were manufactured in two styles, one style having a 45{degree} bending angle and the other a 135{degree} bending angle. The tests included magnetic field measurements using a Hall probe and the measurement of coil temperatures, voltages, and water flow rates. The probe was mounted on a movable cart which could be wheeled along the magnet beam pipe; we mounted extensions onto each end of the beam pipe to allow for the probe to measure the magnet end fields. The probe was also mounted at varying transverse positions on the cart to allow for field shape measurements, from which body quadrupole and sextupole coefficients were determined. A longitudinal sampling of the field down the entire length of the magnet allowed us to measure the total integrated field of each magnet. Hall probe measurements were controlled by a C program running on a Unix workstation.

  6. 78 FR 72025 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is increasing a portion of an existing San Diego Bay security zone at Naval Base... permission of the Captain of the Port, the Commander of Naval Base Point Loma, the Commander of the...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1102 - Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Naval Base Point... Guard District § 165.1102 Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: The water adjacent to the Naval Base Point Loma, San...

  8. Biotic association and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the "Loma del Pterodaustro" fossil site (Early Cretaceous, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiappe, L.; Rivarola, D.; Cione, A.; Fregenal-Martinez, M.; Sozzi, H.; Buatois, L.; Gallego, O.; Laza, J.; Romero, E.; Lopez-Arbarello, A.; Buscalioni, A.; Marsicano, C.; Adamonis, S.; Ortega, F.; McGehee, S.; Di, Iorio O.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the basal section of the Early Cretaceous, lacustrine Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" (San Luis, Argentina) and a summary of its biological components are presented. Three sedimentological facies can be recognized in the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation. Fossil remains are particularly abundant in laminated claystones of a facies interpreted as deposits formed in offshore areas of the lake. The preservation of delicate structures allows recognition of these deposits as a Konservat Lagersta??tte. Up to now, rocks at "Loma del Pterodaustro" have yielded plants, conchostracans, semionotid and pleuropholid fishes, pterodactyloid pterosaurs, and a variety of invertebrate traces. The chronology of the Lagarcito Formation is discussed and it is concluded that this unit is of Albian age. The palaeoenvironment of deposition of the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" is interpreted as a perennial, shallow lake developed within an alluvial plain, under semiarid climatic conditions.

  9. Chapter B. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Liquefaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake both reconfirmed the vulnerability of areas in the San Francisco-Monterey Bay region to liquefaction and provided an opportunity to test methodologies for predicting liquefaction that have been developed since the mid-1970's. This vulnerability is documented in the chapter edited by O'Rourke and by the investigators in this chapter who describe case histories of liquefaction damage and warn us about the potential for even greater damage from liquefaction if an earthquake similar to the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, but located closer to their study sites, were to occur.

  10. [Weight-for-age percentile curves for the population of Catamarca province (Argentina)].

    PubMed

    López Barbancho, Diego; Terán de Frutos, José Manuel; Candelas González, Nieves; Díaz de Luna, María Cristina; Marrodán Serrano, María Dolores; Lomaglio, Delia Beatriz

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: La evaluación del desarrollo fetal y del peso al nacimiento es un objetivo prioritario en el ámbito de la epidemiología nutricional y de la salud pública. En la actualidad, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) no dispone de curvas específicas de peso al nacimiento para las distintas semanas gestacionales al considerar que las características socioeconómicas, ecológicas y étnicas de los distintos grupos humanos influyen en sus propios patrones de crecimiento. Objetivo: La presente investigación desarrolla las curvas percentilares de peso por edad gestacional para las poblaciones residentes en la provincia de Catamarca. Métodos: El procesamiento de los datos se llevó a cabo con el programa SPSS y para la posterior realización de las curvas percentilares se utilizó el programa LMS Chart Maker pro, a partir de un total de 22.576 nacimientos ocurridos entre 1994 y 2003. Discusión y conclusiones: Dichas curvas posibilitarán en el futuro una mejor valoración del desarrollo intrauterino y del peso de los recién nacidos en esta región del Noroeste de Argentina.

  11. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commander, Naval Base, San Diego, Calif. (3) The regulations in this section shall be enforced by the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That...

  12. Chapter B. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Forecasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    The magnitude (Mw) 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay region of central California at 5:04 p.m. P.d.t. on October 17, 1989, killing 62 people and generating billions of dollars in property damage. Scientists were not surprised by the occurrence of a destructive earthquake in this region and had, in fact, been attempting to forecast the location of the next large earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region for decades. This paper summarizes more than 20 scientifically based forecasts made before the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake for a large earthquake that might occur in the Loma Prieta area. The forecasts geographically closest to the actual earthquake primarily consisted of right-lateral strike-slip motion on the San Andreas Fault northwest of San Juan Bautista. Several of the forecasts did encompass the magnitude of the actual earthquake, and at least one approximately encompassed the along-strike rupture length. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake differed from most of the forecasted events in two ways: (1) it occurred with considerable dip-slip in addition to strike-slip motion, and (2) it was much deeper than expected.

  13. Liquefaction sand boils in San Francisco during 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Bardet, J.P.; Kapuskar, M. )

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the observations of the sand boils that emerged in the Marina District of San Francisco after the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989. The sand boils were located within the boundary of an old lagoon, the periphery of which was severely damaged in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. During the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, the soils underlying the Marina District amplified the ground motion as in 1906 and caused the liquefaction of the superficial sandy materials that were used to fill the old lagoon in 1915. Damage in the Marina District was concentrated along the edges of the old lagoon. The sand boils left behind by liquefaction were useful to delineate the liquefied area and to understand the ground displacement in the Marina District. The sand boils covered uniformly the liquefied area that experienced lateral spreading and settlement. The present work also indicates the high damage potential of transition zones between liquefiable and nonliquefiable soils.

  14. Response of regional seismicity to the static stress change produced by the loma prieta earthquake.

    PubMed

    Reasenberg, P A; Simpson, R W

    1992-03-27

    The 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake perturbed the static stress field over a large area of central California. The pattern of stress changes on major faults in the region predicted by models of the earthquake's dislocation agrees closely with changes in the regional seismicity rate after the earthquake. The agreement is best for models with low values of the coefficient of friction (0.1 Loma Prieta rupture, but decreased slightly on the Hayward fault. This relaxation does not warrant lower probability estimates for large earthquakes on the Hayward fault in the next 30 years, however.

  15. Medical response to catastrophic events: California's planning and the Loma Prieta earthquake.

    PubMed

    Haynes, B E; Freeman, C; Rubin, J L; Koehler, G A; Enriquez, S M; Smiley, D R

    1992-04-01

    The threat of a great earthquake has compelled California to develop a disaster plan for catastrophic medical events that calls for local response with state-coordinated mutual aid and casualty evacuation, if necessary. During the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake that killed 63 people and injured 3,700, local emergency medical services systems were busy but not stressed excessively. The medical mutual aid system delivered medical personnel, supplies, and blood. One hospital suffered severe nonstructural damage, but it was able to treat large numbers of casualties. Our system performed admirably in this limited response, but was hampered by difficulties with disaster intelligence, communications, emergency medical services dispatch, patient care records, hospital damage, and inadequate disaster training. We describe our state's mutual aid system, the Loma Prieta response, and lessons and recommendations for the future.

  16. Stability of coda wave attenuation during the Loma Prieta, California, earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beroza, Gregory C.; Cole, Alex T.; Ellsworth, William L.

    1995-03-01

    The Loma Prieta, California, earthquake occurred in a densely instrumented region with a history of microearthquake recording beginning more than a decade before the October 1989 mainshock. This affords an unprecedented opportunity to detect changes in seismic wave propagation in the Earth's crust associated with a major earthquake. In this study we use pairs of nearly identical earthquakes (doublets) to search for temporal changes of coda attenuation in the vicinity of the Loma Prieta earthquake. We analyze 21 earthquake doublets recorded from 1978 to 1991 that span the preseismic, coseismic, and postseismic intervals and measure the change in coda Q using a running window ratio of the doublet spectral amplitudes in three frequency bands from 2 to 15 Hz. This method provides an estimate of changes in coda Q that is insensitive to other factors that influence coda amplitudes.

  17. Platinum group minerals (PGM) in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit, Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquin A.; Zaccarini, Federica; Lewis, John F.; Garuti, Giorgio; Labrador, Manuel; Longo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Two Ni-laterite profiles from the Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic) have been investigated for their platinum group element (PGE) geochemistry and mineralogy. One profile (Loma Peguera) is characterized by PGE-enriched (up to 3.5 ppm total PGE) chromitite bodies incorporated within the saprolite, whereas the second profile is chromitite-free (Loma Caribe). Total PGE contents of both profiles slightly increase from parent rocks (36 and 30 ppb, respectively) to saprolite (˜50 ppb) and reach highest levels within the limonite zone (640 and 264 ppb, respectively). Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of saprolite and limonite reveal rather flat shapes with positive peaks of Ru and Pd. Three types of platinum group minerals (PGM) were found by using an innovative hydroseparation technique: (i) primary PGM inclusions in fresh Cr-spinel (laurite and bowieite), (ii) secondary PGM (e.g., Ru-Fe-Os-Ir compounds) from weathering of preexisting PGM (e.g., serpentinization and/or laterization), and (iii) PGM precipitated after PGE mobilization within the laterite (neoformation). Our results provide evidence that (i) PGM occurrence and PGE enrichment in the laterite profiles is independent of chromitite incorporation; (ii) PGE enrichment is residual on the profile scale; and (iii) PGE are mobile on a local scale leading to in situ growth of PGM within limonite, probably by bioreduction and/or electrochemical metal accretion.

  18. Paleocology and biogeography of Late Cretaceous Molluskan assemblages near Loma Prieta, California

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, W.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Deformed, fossilliferous turbidite deposits resembling the Great Valley sequence are present in a fault wedge just east of the San Andreas fault near Loma Prieta Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Near the top of these deposits late Campanian to early Maastrichtian Baculites rex is found along with late Campanian B. inornatus and B. aff B. anceps. Turbidite deposits associated with a conglomerate near the base of the Upper Cretaceous strata contain abundant exogyrid oysters and many rare or uncommon taxa including Amphidonte parasitica, Lyriochlamys traskii, Spondvlus subnodosus, and Hipponix dichotomus, which also imply a late Campanian age. Composition of the oyster-rich assemblage indicates a relatively high-energy, nearshore source area for those turbidite deposits. This source area consisted of mixed sand and rock or shell bed substrates. Fossils found in the overlying Upper Cretaceous turbidites are indicative of a more offshore shelf habitat, suggesting a seaward shift in sediment source area or transgression through time. Molluskan assemblages include North Pacific species having tectonically transported distributions ranging from Baja California to Vancouver Island. Some species in the oyster beds have been previously reported only to the north and some only to the south of Loma Prieta; thus, the unusual faunal composition is apparently due to the preservation of a very nearshore assemblage, which is rare in strata of this age in California, rather than to biogeographic constraints. The apparent absence of rudists in this very nearshore assemblage, where they would be expected if present suggests significant displacement of the Upper Cretaceous rudist-bearing rocks found to the west of the San Andreas fault relative to Loma Prieta.

  19. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Earthquake Occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coordinated by Bakun, William H.; Prescott, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Professional Paper 1550 seeks to understand the M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake itself. It examines how the fault that generated the earthquake ruptured, searches for and evaluates precursors that may have indicated an earthquake was coming, reviews forecasts of the earthquake, and describes the geology of the earthquake area and the crustal forces that affect this geology. Some significant findings were: * Slip during the earthquake occurred on 35 km of fault at depths ranging from 7 to 20 km. Maximum slip was approximately 2.3 m. The earthquake may not have released all of the strain stored in rocks next to the fault and indicates a potential for another damaging earthquake in the Santa Cruz Mountains in the near future may still exist. * The earthquake involved a large amount of uplift on a dipping fault plane. Pre-earthquake conventional wisdom was that large earthquakes in the Bay area occurred as horizontal displacements on predominantly vertical faults. * The fault segment that ruptured approximately coincided with a fault segment identified in 1988 as having a 30% probability of generating a M7 earthquake in the next 30 years. This was one of more than 20 relevant earthquake forecasts made in the 83 years before the earthquake. * Calculations show that the Loma Prieta earthquake changed stresses on nearby faults in the Bay area. In particular, the earthquake reduced stresses on the Hayward Fault which decreased the frequency of small earthquakes on it. * Geological and geophysical mapping indicate that, although the San Andreas Fault can be mapped as a through going fault in the epicentral region, the southwest dipping Loma Prieta rupture surface is a separate fault strand and one of several along this part of the San Andreas that may be capable of generating earthquakes.

  20. Chapter E. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Geologic Setting and Crustal Structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.

    2004-01-01

    Although some scientists considered the Ms=7.1 Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake of 1989 to be an anticipated event, some aspects of the earthquake were surprising. It occurred 17 km beneath the Santa Cruz Mountains along a left-stepping restraining bend in the San Andreas fault system. Rupture on the southwest-dipping fault plane consisted of subequal amounts of right-lateral and reverse motion but did not reach the surface. In the area of maximum uplift, severe shaking and numerous ground cracks occurred along Summit Road and Skyland Ridge, several kilometers south of the main trace of the San Andreas fault. The relatively deep focus of the earthquake, the distribution of ground failure, the absence of throughgoing surface rupture on the San Andreas fault, and the large component of uplift raised several questions about the relation of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to the San Andreas fault: Did the earthquake actually occur on the San Andreas fault? Where exactly is the San Andreas fault in the heavily forested Santa Cruz Mountains, and how does the fault relate to ground ruptures that occurred there in 1989 and 1906? What is the geometry of the San Andreas fault system at depth, and how does it relate to the major crustal blocks identified by geologic mapping? Subsequent geophysical and geologic investigations of crustal structure in the Loma Prieta region have addressed these and other questions about the relation of the earthquake to geologic structures observed in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The diverse papers in this chapter cover several topics: geologic mapping of the region, potential- field and electromagnetic modeling of crustal structure, and the velocity structure of the crust and mantle in and below the source region for the earthquake. Although these papers were mostly completed between 1992 and 1997, they provide critical documentation of the crustal structure of the Loma Prieta region. Together, they present a remarkably coherent, three

  1. Development and operation of the Loma Linda University Medical Center proton facility.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jerry D

    2007-08-01

    The Proton Treatment Center at Loma Linda University Medical Center, the world's first hospital-based proton facility, opened in 1990 after two decades of development. Its early years were marked by a deliberately cautious approach in clinical utilization of protons, with intent to establish hospital-based proton therapy on a scientific basis. The facility was designed to be upgradeable, and development since 1990 has proceeded in three distinct phases of upgrades, both in technology and clinical applications. Upgrades continue, all of them based on an underlying program of basic and clinical research; future new applications of proton radiation therapy are expected to follow.

  2. From fetal physiology to gene therapy: it all started in Loma Linda.

    PubMed

    Lorijn, Ronald H W

    2014-01-01

    Just having finished medical school in the Netherlands, without basically any serious research experience, Lawrence Longo, Gordon Power and Ray Gilbert received this 25 year young man with open arms at the end of July 1977. The Center for Perinatal Biology of Loma Linda University (CPB) would become for the next 3 years not the just the center of my postdoctoral activities, it would also lay the foundation for the following decades. The next paragraphs will describe three key success factors that can be traced back to these formative years that have contributed so much to my professional career.

  3. Progress toward a safer future since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Page, Robert A.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake interrupted several decades of seismic tranquility in the San Francisco Bay Area. It caused damage throughout the region and was a wakeup call to prepare for potentially even more damaging future quakes. Since 1989, the work of the U.S. Geological Survey and many other organizations has improved the understanding of the seismic threat in the Bay Area, promoted awareness of earthquake hazards, and contributed to more effective strategies to reduce earthquake losses. These collective efforts will help reduce the impact of future large earthquakes in the Bay Area.

  4. Tanque Loma, a new late-Pleistocene megafaunal tar seep locality from southwest Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Emily L.; Lopez R., Eric X.

    2015-01-01

    Fossil deposits in the petroleum-rich sediments of the Santa Elena Peninsula in southwestern Ecuador contain some of the largest and best-preserved assemblages of Pleistocene megafaunal remains known from the neotropics, and thus represent an opportunity to greatly expand our knowledge of Pleistocene paleoecology and the extinction of Quaternary megafauna in this region. This paper reports data from excavations at Tanque Loma, a late-Pleistocene locality on the Santa Elena Peninsula that preserves a dense assemblage of megafaunal remains in hydrocarbon-saturated sediments along with microfaunal and paleobotanical material. The megafauna bones are concentrated in and just above a ˜0.5 m thick asphaltic layer, but occur sparsely and with poorer preservation up to 1 m above this deposit. Several meters of presumed-Holocene sediments overlying the megafauna-bearing strata are rich in bones of microvertebrates including birds, squamates, and rodents. These are interpreted as raptor assemblages. While over 1000 megafaunal bones have been identified from the Pleistocene strata at Tanque Loma, more than 85% of these remains pertain to a single species, the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi. Only five other megafauna taxa have been identified from this site, including Glossotherium cf. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaeelenae, and a cervid tentatively assigned to cf. Odocoileus salinae based on body size and geography. No carnivores have yet been identified from Tanque Loma, and microvertebrate remains are extremely rare in the Pleistocene deposits, although terrestrial snail shells and fragmented remains of marine invertebrates are occasionally encountered. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dates on Eremotherium and cf. Notiomaston bones from within and just above the asphaltic layer yielded dates of ˜17,000 - 23,500 radiocarbon years BP. Taken together, the taxonomic composition, taphonomy

  5. Remote sensing analysis for fault-zones detection in the Central Andean Plateau (Catamarca, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traforti, Anna; Massironi, Matteo; Zampieri, Dario; Carli, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been extensively used to detect the structural framework of investigated areas, which includes lineaments, fault zones and fracture patterns. The identification of these features is fundamental in exploration geology, as it allows the definition of suitable sites for the exploitation of different resources (e.g. ore mineral, hydrocarbon, geothermal energy and groundwater). Remote sensing techniques, typically adopted in fault identification, have been applied to assess the geological and structural framework of the Laguna Blanca area (26°35'S-66°49'W). This area represents a sector of the south-central Andes localized in the Argentina region of Catamarca, along the south-eastern margin of the Puna plateau. The study area is characterized by a Precambrian low-grade metamorphic basement intruded by Ordovician granitoids. These rocks are unconformably covered by a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Miocene age, followed by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Upper Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene age. All these units are cut by two systems of major faults, locally characterized by 15-20 m wide damage zones. The detection of main tectonic lineaments in the study area was firstly carried out by classical procedures: image sharpening of Landsat 7 ETM+ images, directional filters applied to ASTER images, medium resolution Digital Elevation Models analysis (SRTM and ASTER GDEM) and hill shades interpretation. In addition, a new approach in fault zone identification, based on multispectral satellite images classification, has been tested in the Laguna Blanca area and in other sectors of south-central Andes. In this perspective, several prominent fault zones affecting basement and granitoid rocks have been sampled. The collected fault gouge samples have been analyzed with a Field-Pro spectrophotometer mounted on a goniometer. We acquired bidirectional reflectance spectra, from 0.35μm to 2.5μm with 1nm spectral sampling, of the sampled fault rocks

  6. Dialysis and disaster: San Francisco's dialysis community remembers the Loma Prieta earthquake. Interview by Susan L. Robertson.

    PubMed

    Lobley, L; Griffin, M; Turnbo, P; Heronimus, J; Sukolsky, A; Weber, P; Deveny, P; White, S; LaRue, L

    2001-10-01

    Unlike many regions of the United States that live with seasonal disasters such as hurricanes, snow storms, or flooding from torrential rains, the greatest threat of natural disaster in California still comes from earthquakes (TransPacific Renal Network, 1998). This was proven on October 17, 1989 when the Loma Prieta earthquake rolled through northern California. Measured as 7.1 on the Richter scale, the quake's epicenter was located about 10 miles northeast of Santa Cruz along a segment of the San Andreas Fault near the town of Loma Prieta in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The impact, however, was felt throughout most of the northern portion of the state.

  7. Chapter F. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Tectonic Processes and Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    If there is a single theme that unifies the diverse papers in this chapter, it is the attempt to understand the role of the Loma Prieta earthquake in the context of the earthquake 'machine' in northern California: as the latest event in a long history of shocks in the San Francisco Bay region, as an incremental contributor to the regional deformation pattern, and as a possible harbinger of future large earthquakes. One of the surprises generated by the earthquake was the rather large amount of uplift that occurred as a result of the reverse component of slip on the southwest-dipping fault plane. Preearthquake conventional wisdom had been that large earthquakes in the region would probably be caused by horizontal, right-lateral, strike-slip motion on vertical fault planes. In retrospect, the high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains and the elevated marine terraces along the coast should have provided some clues. With the observed ocean retreat and the obvious uplift of the coast near Santa Cruz that accompanied the earthquake, Mother Nature was finally caught in the act. Several investigators quickly saw the connection between the earthquake uplift and the long-term evolution of the Santa Cruz Mountains and realized that important insights were to be gained by attempting to quantify the process of crustal deformation in terms of Loma Prieta-type increments of northward transport and fault-normal shortening.

  8. Chapter E. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Hydrologic Disturbances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rojstaczer, Stuart A.

    1994-01-01

    Seismic events have long been known to cause changes in the level of oceans, streams, lakes, and the water table. The great San Francisco earthquake of 1906 induced significant hydrologic changes that were qualitatively similar to those changes observed for the Loma Prieta earthquake. What is different is that the hydrologic data sets collected from the Loma Prieta event have enough detail to enable hypotheses on the causes for these changes to be tested. The papers in this chapter document changes in ocean level, stream morphology and flow, water table height, and ground-water flow rates in response to the earthquake. Although hydrologic disturbances may have occurred about 1 hour before the main shock, the papers in this chapter deal strictly with postevent hydrologic changes. The hydrologic responses reported here reflect changes that are not the result of surface rupture. They appear to be the result of landslides, the static displacements induced by the earthquake, and changes in the permeability of the near surface.

  9. Radiocarbon ages of lacustrine deposits in volcanic sequences of the Lomas Coloradas area, Socorro Island, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, J. D.; Farmer, M. C.; Berger, R.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive eruptions of alkalic basalt from low-elevation fissures and vents on the southern flank of the dormant volcano, Cerro Evermann, accompanied the most recent phase of volcanic activity on Socorro Island, and created the Lomas Coloradas, a broad, gently sloping terrain comprising the southern part of the island. We obtained 14C ages of 4690 +/- 270 BP (5000-5700 cal BP) and 5040 +/- 460 BP (5300-6300 cal BP) from lacustrine deposits that occur within volcanic sequences of the lower Lomas Coloradas. Apparently, the sediments accumulated within a topographic depression between two scoria cones shortly after they formed. The lacrustine environment was destroyed when the cones were breached by headward erosion of adjacent stream drainages. This was followed by the eruption of a thin basaltic flow from fissures near the base of the northernmost cone. The flow moved downslope for a short distance and into the drainages that presently bound the study area on the east and west. The flow postdates development of the present drainage system and may be very recent. Our 14C data, along with historical accounts of volcanic activity over the last century, including submarine eruptions that occurred a few km west of Socorro in early 1993, underscore the high risk for explosive volcanism in this region and the need for a detailed volcanic hazards plan and seismic monitoring.

  10. Loma salmonae (Protozoa: Microspora) infections in seawater reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, M.L.; Elliott, D.G.; Groff, J.M.; Hedrick, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Loma salmonae (Putz et al., 1965) infections were observed in five groups of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, reared in seawater net-pens in Washington State, U.S.A. in 1984–1986. Ultrastructural characteristics, size of spores, tissues and host infected, and geographical location identified the microsporidium as Loma salmonae. Preserved spores measured 4.4×2.3 (4–5.6×2–2.4) μm and exhibited 14–17 turns of the polar filament. Infections were evident in the gills of some fish before seawater entry, but few parasites were observed and they caused little tissue damage. Infections observed in fish after transfer to seawater were associated with significant pathological changes in the gills. A mixed inflammatory infiltrate was associated with ruptured microsporidian xenomas within the vessels and interstitium of the primary lamellae. Microsporidian spores were dispersed throughout the lesions and were often seen inside phagocytes. The parasite was also observed in the heart, spleen, kidney and pseudobranchs; however, the inflammatory lesions were common only in the heart.Monthly examination of fish after transfer to seawater showed peak prevalences (33–65%) of gill infections during the summer. Although moribund fish were often infected with other pathogens, the high prevalence of L. salmonae infections and the severity of the lesions it caused, suggested that this parasite significantly contributed to the recurrent summer mortalities observed at this net-pen site.

  11. The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta Earthquake: Effects on selected power and industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, S.W.; Roche, T.R. ); Schiff, A.J. )

    1991-09-01

    The Loma Prieta Earthquake of Tuesday, October 17, 1989, was the most damaging seismic event in California since the great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. The earthquake created Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI) of 7 or 8 throughout the northern Monterey and southern San Francisco Bay areas. This heavily shaken region included over 5000 square kilometers, and an urban population of over 3 million. This region includes a wide variety of modern industry, ranging from conventional smokestack'' operations to electronics and information processing facilities. The area nearest the fault rupture contains some of the largest power generation and transmission stations operated by the regional utility -- Pacific Gas Electric (PG E). This report summarizes the latest study in a program of post-earthquake investigations sponsored by The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Loma Prieta Earthquake created the largest amount of potentially useful data of any EPRI study to date. Over two dozen electric power and industrial facilities were reviewed following the earthquake. The following sections provide an overview of some of the primary observations. 16 figs.

  12. Chapter B. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Highway Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yashinsky, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the impact of the Loma Prieta earthquake on highway systems. City streets, urban freeways, county roads, state routes, and the national highway system were all affected. There was damage to bridges, roads, tunnels, and other highway structures. The most serious damage occurred in the cities of San Francisco and Oakland, 60 miles from the fault rupture. The cost to repair and replace highways damaged by this earthquake was $2 billion. About half of this cost was to replace the Cypress Viaduct, a long, elevated double-deck expressway that had a devastating collapse which resulted in 42 deaths and 108 injuries. The earthquake also resulted in some positive changes for highway systems. Research on bridges and earthquakes began to be funded at a much higher level. Retrofit programs were started to upgrade the seismic performance of the nation's highways. The Loma Prieta earthquake changed earthquake policy and engineering practice for highway departments not only in California, but all over the world.

  13. Site velocities before and after the Loma Prieta and Gulf of Alaska earthquakes determined from VLBI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, Donald F.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    We use geodetic data from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) to determine the pre- and postseismic velocities of two sites. We then place limits on variations in interseismic strain buildup. The 1987 and 1988 Gulf of Alaska earthquakes (each Ms = 7.6) broke the Pacific plate interior. During the earthquakes the Cape Yakataga site moved 78 mm toward southwest. During the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (Ms = 7.1) the Fort Ord site moved 48 mm toward north. Baselines (a) from Fairbanks to Cape Yakataga and (b) from Mojave to Fort Ord change at nearly the same rate before and after the earthquakes. Postseismic transients, which we determine from differences between post- and preseismic rates, are minor: at Cape Yakataga the transient is 3 +/- 4 mm in a postseismic interval of 23 months, and at Fort Ord the transient is 6 +/- 5 mm in 21 months. The slip beneath the Loma Prieta rupture needed to generate the Fort Ord transient is 0.22 +/- 0.19 m, one-tenth the coseismic slip (2 m). We analyze elastic lithosphere-viscous asthenosphere models to determine that the characteristic time describing exponential decay in deep fault slip is longer than 6 years. The VLBI measurements are consistent with uniform interseismic strain buildup. They disagree with fast postseismic rates caused by an asthenosphere with very low viscosity.

  14. A large eruption convulsed in prehistoric times an extensive area of Catamarca, Southern Central Andes, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Ratto, Norma; Perez-Torrado, Francisco-Jose; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Rejas, Marta; Lobo, Agustin

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphological, stratigraphical, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of many recent 30-160 cm ash deposits occurring at the Bolsón de Fiambalá in Catamarca, NW Argentina, allow their correlation. This lithostratigraphic unit is named Fiambalá Ash and it is uncovered or covered by colluvial deposits and present-day aeolian deposits, reworked products of the primary fall deposits. The grain size of these ash deposits is gritty rather than silty. They are nearly unique among regional ashes in containing hornblende phenocrysts. In addition, they are made up of glass (subangular blocky shards), feldspars, biotite, and quartz; magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and titanite are scarce. The glass is rhyolitic (˜75 to 79 % m/m SiO2; ˜3 to 4 % m/m Na2O; ˜3 to 5 % m/m K2O; 1 to 2 % m/m CaO; normalized to 100 %). On the other hand, in northern margins of Fiambalá basin, extensive remnants of fines-poor pumiceous debris flows and hyperconcentrated sandflow deposits as thick as 10 m are exposed on the walls of the river gorges, where the base is usually covered, e.g., Chuquisaca River. There is no significant unconformity or intercalation of other materials, thus suggesting rapid emplacement after a single eruptive event. A preliminary age of Fiambalá Ash based on archaeological studies bracket it between 1400-1270 and 1270-980 cal a BP (OxCal 4.2.4, SHCal13, 2 sigma). The geographical distribution, the geomorphological features observed in satellite images and the information on the main trends of the stratigraphy, the abundance of hornblende and biotite in the younger proximal ash fall deposits, ignimbrites and lava-domes of the Nevado Tres Cruces complex, favours this edifice as the strongest candidate to be the source of the Upper Holocene pyroclastic deposits found in the Fiambalá basin. The archaeological records seem to evidence the abrupt environmental and societal changes associated with this major eruption. Significant areas of Catamarca were likely

  15. Integrative Approach for the Reliable Detection and Specific Identification of the Microsporidium Loma morhua in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Frenette, Aaron P; Eydal, Matthías; Hansen, Haakon; Burt, Michael D B; Duffy, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Microsporidia are fungal parasites that infect diverse invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Finfish aquaculture supports epizootics due to high host density and the high biotic potential of these parasites. Reliable methods for parasite detection and identification are a necessary precursor to empirical assessment of strategies to mitigate the effects of these pathogens during aquaculture. We developed an integrative approach to detect and identify Loma morhua infecting Atlantic cod. We show that the spleen is more reliable than the commonly presumed gills as best organ for parasite detection in spite of substantial morphological plasticity in xenoma complexes. We developed rDNA primers with 100% sensitivity in detecting L. morhua and with utility in distinguishing some congeneric Loma species. ITS sequencing is necessary to distinguish L. morhua from other congeneric microsporidia due to intraspecific nucleotide variation. 64% of L. morhua ITS variants from Atlantic cod have a 9-nucleotide motif that distinguishes it from Loma spp. infecting non-Gadus hosts. The remaining 36% of ITS variants from Atlantic cod are distinguished from currently represented Loma spp., particularly those infecting Gadus hosts, based on a 14-nucleotide motif. This research approach is amenable to developing templates in support of reliable detection and identification of other microsporidian parasites in fishes.

  16. On the origin of diverse aftershock mechanisms following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilb, Debi; Ellis, M.; Gomberg, J.; Davis, S.

    1997-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the origin of the diverse suite of aftershock mechanisms following the 1989 M 7.1 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake is related to the post-main-shock static stress field. We use a 3-D boundary-element algorithm to calculate static stresses, combined with a Coulomb failure criterion to calculate conjugate failure planes at aftershock locations. The post-main-shock static stress field is taken as the sum of a pre-existing stress field and changes in stress due to the heterogeneous slip across the Loma Prieta rupture plane. The background stress field is assumed to be either a simple shear parallel to the regional trend of the San Andreas fault or approximately fault-normal compression. A suite of synthetic aftershock mechanisms from the conjugate failure planes is generated and quantitatively compared (allowing for uncertainties in both mechanism parameters and earthquake locations) to well-constrained mechanisms reported in the US Geological Survey Northern California Seismic Network catalogue. We also compare calculated rakes with those observed by resolving the calculated stress tensor onto observed focal mechanism nodal planes, assuming either plane to be a likely rupture plane. Various permutations of the assumed background stress field, frictional coefficients of aftershock fault planes, methods of comparisons, etc. explain between 52 and 92 per cent of the aftershock mechanisms. We can explain a similar proportion of mechanisms however by comparing a randomly reordered catalogue with the various suites of synthetic aftershocks. The inability to duplicate aftershock mechanisms reliably on a one-to-one basis is probably a function of the combined uncertainties in models of main-shock slip distribution, the background stress field, and aftershock locations. In particular we show theoretically that any specific main-shock slip distribution and a reasonable background stress field are able to generate a highly variable suite of failure

  17. Business closure and relocation: a comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Wasileski, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Havidán; Diaz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of a number of large-scale disasters or catastrophes in recent years, including the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), the Kashmir earthquake (2005), Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), have raised our awareness regarding the devastating effects of disasters on human populations and the importance of developing mitigation and preparedness strategies to limit the consequences of such events. However, there is still a dearth of social science research focusing on the socio-economic impact of disasters on businesses in the United States. This paper contributes to this research literature by focusing on the impact of disasters on business closure and relocation through the use of multivariate logistic regression models, specifically focusing on the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) and Hurricane Andrew (1992). Using a multivariate model, we examine how physical damage to the infrastructure, lifeline disruption and business characteristics, among others, impact business closure and relocation following major disasters.

  18. Intermediate-term prediction in advance of the Loma Prieta earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Keilis-Borok, V.I.; Kossobokov, V.; Rotvain, I. ); Knopoff, L. )

    1990-08-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 was predicted by the use of two pattern recognition algorithms, CN and M8. The prediction with algorithm CN was that an earthquake with magnitude greater than or equal to 6.4 was expected to occur in a roughly four year interval staring in midsummer 1986 in a polygonal spatial window of approximate average dimensions 600 {times} 450 km, encompassing Northern California and Northern Nevada. The prediction with algorithm M8 was that an earthquake with magnitude greater than or equal to 7.0 was expected to occur within 5 to 7 years after 1985, in a spatial window of approximate average dimensions 800 {times} 560 km. The predictions were communicated in advance of the earthquake. In previous, mainly retrospective applications of these algorithms, successful predictions occurred in about 80% of the cases.

  19. Damage to urban infrastructure and other public property from the 1989 Loma Prieta (California) earthquake.

    PubMed

    French, S P

    1995-03-01

    This research project investigated the damage to public property caused by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The claims filed by state and local governments, special districts and non-profit organizations under the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) disaster assistance program were analyzed to understand better the pattern of damage caused by the earthquake. These claims accounted for nearly $600 million. The damage distribution was very skewed with eleven agencies claiming more than 70 per cent of this total. Non-profit agencies accounted for a surprisingly large portion of overall damage. Heavy damage was concentrated in relatively few areas. The extent of damage in an area was a function of concentration of property, site conditions, characteristics of building stock, and distance from the epicenter.

  20. The origin of the tsunami excited by the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake - Faulting or slumping

    SciTech Connect

    Kuofong Ma; Satake, Kenji; Kanamori, Hiroo )

    1991-04-01

    The authors investigated the tsunami recorded at Monterey, California, during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (M{sub w} = 6.9). The first arrival of the tsunami was about 10 min after the origin time of the earthquake. Using an elastic half space, they computed vertical ground displacements for many different fault models for the Loma Prieta earthquake, and used them as the initial condition for computation of tsunamis in Monterey Bay. The synthetic tsunami computed for the uniform dislocation model determined from seismic data can explain the arrival time, polarity, and amplitude of the beginning of the tsunami. However, the period of the synthetic tsunami is too long compared with the observed. The authors tested other fault models with more localized slip distribution. None of the models could explain the observed period. The residual waveform, the observed minus the synthetic waveform, begins as a downward motion at about 18 min after the origin time of the earthquake, and could be interpreted as due to a secondary source near Moss Landing. If the large scale slumping near Moss Landing suggested by an eyewitness observation occurred about 9 min after the origin time of the earthquake, it could explain the residual waveform. To account for the amplitude of the observed tsunami, the volume of sediments involved in the slumping is approximately 0.013 km{sup 3}. Thus the most likely cause of the tsunami observed at Monterey is the combination of the vertical uplift of the sea floor due to the main faulting and a large scale slumping near Moss Landing.

  1. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Societal Response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coordinated by Mileti, Dennis S.

    1993-01-01

    Professional Paper 1553 describes how people and organizations responded to the earthquake and how the earthquake impacted people and society. The investigations evaluate the tools available to the research community to measure the nature, extent, and causes of damage and losses. They describe human behavior during and immediately after the earthquake and how citizens participated in emergency response. They review the challenges confronted by police and fire departments and disruptions to transbay transportations systems. And they survey the challenges of post-earthquake recovery. Some significant findings were: * Loma Prieta provided the first test of ATC-20, the red, yellow, and green tagging of buildings. It successful application has led to widespread use in other disasters including the September 11, 2001, New York City terrorist incident. * Most people responded calmly and without panic to the earthquake and acted to get themselves to a safe location. * Actions by people to help alleviate emergency conditions were proportional to the level of need at the community level. * Some solutions caused problems of their own. The police perimeter around the Cypress Viaduct isolated businesses from their customers leading to a loss of business and the evacuation of employees from those businesses hindered the movement of supplies to the disaster scene. * Emergency transbay ferry service was established 6 days after the earthquake, but required constant revision of service contracts and schedules. * The Loma Prieta earthquake produced minimal disruption to the regional economy. The total economic disruption resulted in maximum losses to the Gross Regional Product of $725 million in 1 month and $2.9 billion in 2 months, but 80% of the loss was recovered during the first 6 months of 1990. Approximately 7,100 workers were laid off.

  2. On the reported magnetic precursor of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jeremy N.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Johnston, Malcolm J. S.

    2009-04-01

    Among the most frequently cited reports in the science of earthquake prediction is that by Fraser-Smith et al. (1990) and Bernardi et al. (1991). They found anomalous enhancement of magnetic-field noise levels prior to the 18 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in the ultra-low-frequency range (0.0110-10.001 Hz) from a ground-based sensor at Corralitos, CA, just 7 km from the earthquake epicenter. In this analysis, we re-examine all of the available Corralitos data (21 months from January 1989 to October 1990) and the logbook kept during this extended operational period. We also examine 1.0-Hz (1-s) data collected from Japan, 0.0167-Hz (1-min) data collected from the Fresno, CA magnetic observatory, and the global Kp magnetic-activity index. The Japanese data are of particular importance since their acquisition rate is sufficient to allow direct comparison with the lower-frequency bands of the Corralitos data. We identify numerous problems in the Corralitos data, evident from both straightforward examination of the Corralitos data on their own and by comparison with the Japanese and Fresno data sets. The most notable problems are changes in the baseline noise levels occurring during both the reported precursory period and at other times long before and after the earthquake. We conclude that the reported anomalous magnetic noise identified by Fraser-Smith et al. and Bernardi et al. is not related to the Loma Prieta earthquake but is an artifact of sensor-system malfunction.

  3. On the reported magnetic precursor of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.N.; Love, J.J.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Among the most frequently cited reports in the science of earthquake prediction is that by Fraser-Smith et al. (1990) and Bernardi et al. (1991). They found anomalous enhancement of magnetic-field noise levels prior to the 18 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in the ultra-low-frequency range (0.0110-10.001 Hz) from a ground-based sensor at Corralitos, CA, just 7 km from the earthquake epicenter. In this analysis, we re-examine all of the available Corralitos data (21 months from January 1989 to October 1990) and the logbook kept during this extended operational period. We also examine 1.0-Hz (1-s) data collected from Japan, 0.0167-Hz (1-min) data collected from the Fresno, CA magnetic observatory, and the global Kp magnetic-activity index. The Japanese data are of particular importance since their acquisition rate is sufficient to allow direct comparison with the lower-frequency bands of the Corralitos data. We identify numerous problems in the Corralitos data, evident from both straightforward examination of the Corralitos data on their own and by comparison with the Japanese and Fresno data sets. The most notable problems are changes in the baseline noise levels occurring during both the reported precursory period and at other times long before and after the earthquake. We conclude that the reported anomalous magnetic noise identified by Fraser-Smith et al. and Bernardi et al. is not related to the Loma Prieta earthquake but is an artifact of sensor-system malfunction. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Lifelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiff, Anshel J.

    1998-01-01

    To the general public who had their televisions tuned to watch the World Series, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake was a lifelines earthquake. It was the images seen around the world of the collapsed Cypress Street viaduct, with the frantic and heroic efforts to pull survivors from the structure that was billowing smoke; the collapsed section of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and subsequent home video of a car plunging off the open span; and the spectacular fire in the Marina District of San Francisco fed by a broken gasline. To many of the residents of the San Francisco Bay region, the relation of lifelines to the earthquake was characterized by sitting in the dark because of power outage, the inability to make telephone calls because of network congestion, and the slow and snarled traffic. Had the public been aware of the actions of the engineers and tradespeople working for the utilities and other lifeline organizations on the emergency response and restoration of lifelines, the lifeline characteristics of this earthquake would have been even more significant. Unobserved by the public were the warlike devastation in several electrical-power substations, the 13 miles of gas-distribution lines that had to be replaced in several communities, and the more than 1,200 leaks and breaks in water mains and service connections that had to be excavated and repaired. Like the 1971 San Fernando, Calif., earthquake, which was a seminal event for activity to improve the earthquake performance of lifelines, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrated that the tasks of preparing lifelines in 'earthquake country' were incomplete-indeed, new lessons had to be learned.

  5. Getting the Most from Alta Vista.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Jim

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Alta Vista, one of the most heavily used search engines on the World Wide Web. Describes the following search term manipulations: wildcard and truncation, adjacency, Boolean, and capitalization. Notes problems due to the Internet's constant state of transition and discusses advanced search mode. (AEF)

  6. Chapter C. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Fire, Police, Transportation and Hazardous Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Anne, Craig; Scawthorn, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    The papers in this chapter discuss some of the failures and successes that resulted from the societal response by a multitude of agencies to the Loma Prieta earthquake. Some of the lessons learned were old ones relearned. Other lessons were obvious ones which had gone unnoticed. Still, knowledge gained from past earthquakes spawned planning and mitigation efforts which proved to be successful in limiting the aftermath effects of the Loma Prieta event. At least four major areas of response are presented in this chapter: the Oakland Police Department response to the challenge of controlled access to the Cypress freeway collapse area without inhibiting relief and recovery efforts; search and rescue of the freeway collapse and the monumental crisis management problem that accompanied it; the short- and long-term impact on transbay transportation systems to move a large work force from home to business; and the handling of hazardous material releases throughout the Bay Area.

  7. Twenty-Five Years of Postseismic Viscous Relaxation Following the Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M. H.; Burgmann, R.; Johanson, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    The 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacement from 1989.8 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 years of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe 1-4 mm/yr GPS horizontal displacement toward the Loma Prieta epicenter until 2000, and ~2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989-1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation between 1994 and 2010 based on geodetic observations. The best fitting result predicts an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of about 1019 Pa s below a 19-km-thick elastic upper crust, underlain by a bi-viscous upper mantle with transient viscosity of 1016.5-17.5 and steady-state viscosity of 1017.5-18.5 Pa s. The millimeter scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in different layers very well, but the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with estimates in southern California. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas Fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  8. Chapter D. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Earth Structures and Engineering Characterization of Ground Motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    This chapter contains two papers that summarize the performance of engineered earth structures, dams and stabilized excavations in soil, and two papers that characterize for engineering purposes the attenuation of ground motion with distance during the Loma Prieta earthquake. Documenting the field performance of engineered structures and confirming empirically based predictions of ground motion are critical for safe and cost effective seismic design of future structures as well as the retrofitting of existing ones.

  9. A comparison of broadband source spectra, seismic energies, and stress drops of the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1988 Armenian earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, H. )

    1990-08-01

    Broadband source spectra of the 1989 Loma Prieta (M{sub W} = 6.9) and 1988 Armenian (M{sub W} = 6.7) earthquakes are computed at periods from 1 to 50 sec using digitally-recorded teleseismic P body waves. The effects of attenuation, geometrical spreading, and radiation pattern are removed from the spectra of individual stations, which are then averaged. The source spectra of the Loma Prieta and Armenian earthquakes are higher for their seismic moments than the spectra of 11 intraplate earthquakes studied by Zhuo and Kanamori (1987), which in turn are 2 to 4 times larger than average spectra of interplate subduction zone earthquakes. The seismically radiated energy can be computed from the source spectrum using Haskell's (1964) formulation assuming a point source with no directivity. An Orowan stress drop can be obtained from the seismic energy and moment. The Orowan stress drops for the Loma Prieta and Armenian earthquakes are both about 20 bars, significantly higher than Orowan stress drops of recent large interplate earthquakes. There is a positive correlation between the Orowan stress drops and the estimated repeat times, consistent with the notion that mechanical fault strength increases with increasing interseismic period.

  10. Seismotectonics of the Loma Prieta, California, region determined from three-dimensional Vp, Vp/Vs, and seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Michael, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional Vp and Vp/Vs velocity models for the Loma Prieta region were developed from the inversion of local travel time data (21,925 P arrivals and 1,116 S arrivals) from earthquakes, refraction shots, and blasts recorded on 1700 stations from the Northern California Seismic Network and numerous portable seismograph deployments. The velocity and density models and microearthquake hypocenters reveal a complex structure that includes a San Andreas fault extending to the base of the seismogenic layer. A body with high Vp extends the length of the rupture and fills the 5 km wide volume between the Loma Prieta mainshock rupture and the San Andreas and Sargent faults. We suggest that this body controls both the pattern of background seismicity on the San Andreas and Sargent faults and the extent of rupture during the mainshock, thus explaining how the background seismicity outlined the along-strike and depth extent of the mainshock rupture on a different fault plane 5 km away. New aftershock focal mechanisms, based on three-dimensional ray tracing through the velocity model, support a heterogeneous postseismic stress field and can not resolve a uniform fault normal compression. The subvertical (or steeply dipping) San Andreas fault and the fault surfaces that ruptured in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are both parts of the San Andreas fault zone and this section of the fault zone does not have a single type of characteristic event.

  11. Research activities at the Loma Linda University and Proton Treatment Facility--an overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, G. A.; Green, L. M.; Gridley, D. S.; Archambeau, J. O.; Slater, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    The Loma Linda University (LLU) Radiobiology Program coordinates basic research and proton beam service activities for the university and extramural communities. The current focus of the program is on the biological and physical properties of protons and the operation of radiobiology facilities for NASA-sponsored projects. The current accelerator, supporting facilities and operations are described along with a brief review of extramural research projects supported by the program. These include space craft electronic parts and shielding testing as well as tumorigenesis and animal behavior experiments. An overview of research projects currently underway at LLU is also described. These include: 1) acute responses of the C57Bl/6 mouse immune system, 2) modulation of gene expression in the nematode C. elegans and rat thyroid cells, 3) quantitation of dose tolerance in rat CNS microvasculature, 4) behavioral screening of whole body proton and iron ion-irradiated C57Bl/6 mice, and 5) investigation of the role of cell integration into epithelial structures on responses to radiation.

  12. Chapter C. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, David K.

    1998-01-01

    Central California, in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays, has a history of fatal and damaging landslides, triggered by heavy rainfall, coastal and stream erosion, construction activity, and earthquakes. The great 1906 San Francisco earthquake (MS=8.2-8.3) generated more than 10,000 landslides throughout an area of 32,000 km2; these landslides killed at least 11 people and caused substantial damage to buildings, roads, railroads, and other civil works. Smaller numbers of landslides, which caused more localized damage, have also been reported from at least 20 other earthquakes that have occurred in the San Francisco Bay-Monterey Bay region since 1838. Conditions that make this region particularly susceptible to landslides include steep and rugged topography, weak rock and soil materials, seasonally heavy rainfall, and active seismicity. Given these conditions and history, it was no surprise that the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake generated thousands of landslides throughout the region. Landslides caused one fatality and damaged at least 200 residences, numerous roads, and many other structures. Direct damage from landslides probably exceeded $30 million; additional, indirect economic losses were caused by long-term landslide blockage of two major highways and by delays in rebuilding brought about by concern over the potential long-term instability of some earthquake-damaged slopes.

  13. Radiocarbon ages of lacustrine deposits in volcanic sequences of the Lomas Coloradas area, Socorro Island, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D. ); Farmer, M.C. . Dept. of Geography and Anthropology); Berger, R. . Depts. of Geography and Anthropology and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    Extensive eruptions of alkalic basalt from low-elevation fissures and vents on the southern flank of the dormant volcano, Cerro Evermann, accompanied the most recent phase of volcanic activity on Socorro Island, and created the Lomas Coloradas, a broad, gently sloping terrain comprising the southern part of the island. The authors obtained [sup 14]C ages of 4690 [plus minus] 270 Bp (5000-5700 cal Bp) and 5040 [plus minus] 460 Bp (53090-6300 cal Bp) from lacustrine deposits that occur within volcanic sequences of the lower Lonas Coloradas. Apparently, the sediments accumulated within a topographic depression between two scoria cones shortly after they formed. The lacustrine environment was destroyed when the cones were breached by headward erosion of adjacent stream drainages. This was followed by the eruption of a thin basaltic flow from fissures near the base of the northernmost cone. The flow moved downslope for a short distance and into the drainages that presently bound the study area on the east and west. The flow postdates development of the present drainage system and may be very recent. These [sup 14]C data, along with historical accounts of volcanic activity over the last century, including submarine eruptions that occurred a few km west of Socorro in early 1993, underscore the high risk for explosive volcanism in the region and the need for a detailed volcanic hazards plan and seismic monitoring.

  14. Profile of mortality from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake using coroner and medical examiner reports.

    PubMed

    Eberhart-Phillips, J E; Saunders, T M; Robinson, A L; Hatch, D L; Parrish, R G

    1994-06-01

    Mortality patterns from earthquakes in the United States may differ from those observed in other parts of the world. We reviewed coroner and medical examiner records for all investigated deaths from seven California counties for 15 days following the Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (N = 327). Data on the circumstances surrounding death were used to classify each case as directly earthquake-related, indirectly earthquake-related, or not earthquake-related. Fifty-seven deaths were judged as directly earthquake-related. Six other deaths were indirectly related. Ten circumstances accounted for all directly earthquake-related deaths, with the collapse of an elevated freeway accounting for 40 of these deaths. Forty-six (80.8 per cent) of the 57 directly earthquake-related deaths occurred in motor vehicles on public roadways. Fifty-three (93.0 per cent) of the directly earthquake-related deaths occurred within seconds or minutes of injury. Future earthquake deaths in the United States may best be prevented by identifying and modifying seismic hazards in earthquake-prone regions, particularly transportation structures.

  15. Immunologic changes occurring at kindergarten entry predict respiratory illnesses after the Loma Prieta earthquake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W T; Chesterman, E A; Martin, N; Folkman, S; Cohen, F; Wara, D

    1993-10-01

    Previous studies in adult populations have demonstrated alterations in immune function after psychologically stressful events, and pediatric research has shown significant associations between stress and various childhood morbidities. However, no previous work has examined stress-related immune changes in children and subsequent illness experience. Twenty children were enrolled in a study on immunologic changes after kindergarten entry and their prospective relationship to respiratory illness (RI) experience. Midway through a 12-week RI data collection period, the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred. The timing of this event created a natural experiment enabling us to study possible associations between immunologic changes at kindergarten entry, the intensity of earthquake-related stress for children and parents, and changes in RI incidence over the 6 weeks after the earthquake. Immunologic changes were measured using helper (CD4+)-suppressor (CD8+) cell ratios, lymphocyte responses to pokeweed mitogen, and type-specific antibody responses to Pneumovax, in blood sampled 1 week before and 1 week after school entry. RI incidence was assessed using home health diaries and telephone interviews completed every 2 weeks. RIs per child varied from none to six. Six children showed an increase in RI incidence after the earthquake; five experienced a decline. Changes in helper-suppressor cell ratios and pokeweed mitogen response predicted changes in RI incidence in the postearthquake period (r = .43, .46; p < .05). Children showing upregulation of immune parameters at school entry sustained a significant increase in RI incidence after the earthquake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Chapter D. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Aftershocks and Postseismic Effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    While the damaging effects of the earthquake represent a significant social setback and economic loss, the geophysical effects have produced a wealth of data that have provided important insights into the structure and mechanics of the San Andreas Fault system. Generally, the period after a large earthquake is vitally important to monitor. During this part of the seismic cycle, the primary fault and the surrounding faults, rock bodies, and crustal fluids rapidly readjust in response to the earthquake's sudden movement. Geophysical measurements made at this time can provide unique information about fundamental properties of the fault zone, including its state of stress and the geometry and frictional/rheological properties of the faults within it. Because postseismic readjustments are rapid compared with corresponding changes occurring in the preseismic period, the amount and rate of information that is available during the postseismic period is relatively high. From a geophysical viewpoint, the occurrence of the Loma Prieta earthquake in a section of the San Andreas fault zone that is surrounded by multiple and extensive geophysical monitoring networks has produced nothing less than a scientific bonanza. The reports assembled in this chapter collectively examine available geophysical observations made before and after the earthquake and model the earthquake's principal postseismic effects. The chapter covers four broad categories of postseismic effect: (1) aftershocks; (2) postseismic fault movements; (3) postseismic surface deformation; and (4) changes in electrical conductivity and crustal fluids.

  17. Statiscal analysis of an earthquake-induced landslide distribution - The 1989 Loma Prieta, California event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    The 1989 Loma Prieta, California earthquake (moment magnitude, M=6.9) generated landslides throughout an area of about 15,000 km2 in central California. Most of these landslides occurred in an area of about 2000 km2 in the mountainous terrain around the epicenter, where they were mapped during field investigations immediately following the earthquake. The distribution of these landslides is investigated statistically, using regression and one-way analysisof variance (ANOVA) techniques to determine how the occurrence of landslides correlates with distance from the earthquake source, slope steepness, and rock type. The landslide concentration (defined as the number of landslide sources per unit area) has a strong inverse correlation with distance from the earthquake source and a strong positive correlation with slope steepness. The landslide concentration differs substantially among the various geologic units in the area. The differences correlate to some degree with differences in lithology and degree of induration, but this correlation is less clear, suggesting a more complex relationship between landslide occurrence and rock properties. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Petrology and geochemistry of the Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cribb, J.W.; Lewis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, located in the NW Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, is a heterogeneous intrusive complex composed of a zoned ultramafic-mafic core surrounded by tonalite and diorite. The batholith intrudes metasbasaltic rocks of the Duarte Complex of early Cretaceous age. The ultramafic-mafic core consists of peridotite, olivine-pyroxenite, pyroxenite, and augite-hypersthene gabbro-norite. Pyroxenites and gabbro-norites exhibit large scale interlayering and small scale layering involving a regular variation in the proportions of ortho- and clinopyroxene. Tonalities and diorites are mafic to leucocratic, some being porphyritic. Petrographic types include hornblende, hornblende-pyroxene, hornblende-biotite, and muscovite-biotite types. Aplites are abundant. Intrusive relations suggest that ultramafic-mafic complex is the oldest intrusive phase, and was partially amphibolitized during later intrusion of the felsic rocks. Ultramafic-mafic rocks contain 43-54% SiO/sub 2/ and MgO ranges from 8-45%. Trace and REE in these rocks are relatively depleted. Tonalitic rocks range in SiO/sub 2/ from 53-76%, with K/sub 2/O varying from 0.15-2.9%. In addition, they are LREE enriched. A small Eu anomaly is best explained by fractionation of plagioclase and hornblende. Trends shown by Rb-Sr data suggest that fractional crystallization of hornblende and plagioclase, that is high level fractionation, is the important factor in controlling chemical variation in the tonalites.

  19. Chapter B. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Public Response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolton, Patricia A.

    1993-01-01

    Major earthquakes provide seismologists and engineers an opportunity to examine the performance of the Earth and the man-made structures in response to the forces of the quake. So, too, do they provide social scientists an opportunity to delve into human responses evoked by the ground shaking and its physical consequences. The findings from such research can serve to guide the development and application of programs and practices designed to reduce death, injury, property losses, and social disruption in subsequent earthquakes. This chapter contains findings from studies focused mainly on public response to the Loma Prieta earthquake; that is, on the behavior and perceptions of the general population rather than on the activities of specific organizations or on the impact on procedures or policies. A major feature of several of these studies is that the information was collected from the population throughout the Bay area, not just from persons in the most badly damaged communities or who had suffered the greatest losses. This wide range serves to provide comparisons of behavior for those most directly affected by the earthquake with others who were less directly affected by it but still had to consider it very 'close to home.'

  20. Whole body net ion fluxes, plasma electrolyte concentrations and haematology during a Loma salmonae infection in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Powell, M D; Speare, D J; Becker, J A

    2006-12-01

    Loma salmonae infections of salmonids culminate in the development of branchial xenomas and subsequent focal hyperplasia of the lamellar or filament epithelium following xenoma rupture and spore release. The effects of this acute branchial disruption upon net ionic flux rates and plasma electrolyte concentrations were determined in juvenile rainbow trout given an experimental oral exposure to L. salmonae. Mean numbers of branchial xenomas peaked at week 5 post-exposure (PE), which coincided with a reduction in the specific growth rate, although there were no significant differences in mass, length or condition of Loma-exposed fish compared with unexposed controls. Following exposure, negative net whole body Na(+) and K(+) fluxes decreased, whereas net Cl(-) fluxes remained unchanged compared with non-exposed control fish. At week 3 PE during the initial branchial xenoma formation stage, there was a significant negative whole body net K(+) flux in Loma-exposed trout compared with other points during the exposure and subsequent infection. Additionally, Loma-exposed fish had marginally elevated plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, whilst K(+) levels remained unchanged, compared with control fish. Although there was a progressive decrease in leucocrit, haematocrit remained unchanged over the course of the Loma exposure and subsequent infection. These results suggest that ionic compensation can occur at the gills during the development of xenomas during exposure to L. salmonae and the resultant infection, therefore allowing defence of plasma electrolyte concentrations, unlike the acute ionic disturbances seen with some other parasitic diseases.

  1. A new species of Protrellus Cobb, 1920 (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) parasite of the field cockroach Blatella vaga Hebard, 1919 (Blattodea, Blattidae) from Catamarca, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camino, Nora B; de Villalobos, Cristina

    2013-03-01

    A new species of the genus Protrellus, P. blatta sp. nov. parasitizing a field cockroach Blatella vaga Hebard, 1919, from El Tala river, Catamarca, Argentina, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by having the mouth opening circular, the buccal capsule with eight very small teeth, the nerve ring around oesophageal corpus, the excretory pore anterior to vulva, the vulva anterior to base of oesophagus, didelphic, the posterior ovary reflexed anterior to rectum, about one third of a body length from posterior end, the egg ellipsoidal, colourless, bearing a lateral cuticular crest, tail conical, with long filiform projection, the male with testis single, outstretched, one spicule, very small, short and straight, gubernaculums absent, the genital papillae arranged in three pairs of ventrolateral papillae, of which the first pair are close together and preanal position, two pairs postanal, tail conical and short, less than one twentieth of total body. A taxonomic key of Protrellus species is given.

  2. Geochemical record of subduction initiation in the sub-arc mantle: Insights from the Loma Caribe peridotite (Dominican Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Hidas, Károly; Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Butjosa, Lidia; Lewis, John F.

    2016-05-01

    The Loma Caribe peridotite body is mainly composed of serpentinized spinel harzburgites and lherzolites and minor orthopyroxene-bearing dunites and dunites. Modal proportions, mineral and whole-rock major and trace element compositions generally coincide with those of abyssal mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges for the lherzolites, and refractory supra-subduction peridotites for the harzburgites and dunites. The clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites have intermediate compositions that overlap with those of residual mantle from both these settings. Major elements in the peridotites were mostly undisturbed by serpentinization and/or seafloor weathering whereas light rare earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE) were enriched by syn- and/or post-melting interaction with fluids/melts. Major element variations indicate that protoliths of the Loma Caribe peridotites mostly melted at 1-2 GPa and 1250 °C-1500 °C, as normal mid-ocean ridge and supra-subduction zone mantle. The MREE/HREE fractionations in both whole rocks and clinopyroxene can be explained by initial low (5%-6%) fractional melting of a garnet lherzolite source followed by variable (5%-20%) melting in the spinel stability field. The lherzolites and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites are residues of increasing melting triggered by increasing addition of slab fluids to a spinel peridotite source, while melting of the harzburgite protoliths was likely the result of focused flux of slab hydrous melts. The dunites and orthopyroxene-bearing dunites are products of pyroxene dissolution in residual peridotites caused by reaction with two different subduction-related melts, probably the parental magmas of Early Cretaceous low-Ti island arc tholeiites (IAT) and boninites from Central Hispaniola, respectively. We conclude that the geochemical heterogeneity of the Loma Caribe peridotites records shifting conditions of melting during the development of subduction beneath the incipient Greater Antilles

  3. Improving tobacco dependence education among the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry faculty.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Margie R; Baba, Nadim Z

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco-related health problems are among the most preventable forms of illness. By assuming proactive tobacco use counseling roles, dental professionals can help reduce the number of people who use tobacco. Minimum standards for intervention by dental care providers were established more than a decade ago by the American Dental Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association. The goal of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry in its tobacco-cessation efforts is to move beyond those standards towards more effective interventions. The school conducted a study to determine the formal education of the faculty, evaluate the current state of tobacco dependence education (TDE) delivered to students, identify topics that dental faculty members wanted to further their education, promote tobacco dependence education among the dental faculty, and enhance teaching moments on the clinic floor. A fifty-seven question survey was e-mailed to all faculty members with >0.4 FTE (full-time equivalent) during the 2007-08 school year. The response rate was 80 percent (101 out of 126). The results revealed that faculty members have limited formal training; however, 73.1 percent agreed that TDE would be beneficial to them. They also believed that, upon graduation, dental professionals should be able to perform at least a ten-minute moderate intervention program and discuss options for tobacco dependence treatments with patients. This project was designed to establish a 2008-09 baseline of TDE clinical practices, knowledge, and attitudes and to assess the effects of faculty development, curricular didactic, and clinical changes.

  4. Increasing student diversity and cultural competence as part of Loma Linda University School of Dentistry's service mission.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Margie R; Forde, Ron

    2012-06-01

    For many years, studies have identified a need for greater racial and ethnic diversity among dental professionals. However, the ability of the field to collectively address the problem has been hindered by the low numbers of underrepresented minority students who apply to dental school. Over the past two decades, college attendance rates have increased and U.S. dental school applications have tripled, but the number of underrepresented minority dental applicants has remained about the same. With the increasing diversity of the U.S. population and specifically that of the state of California, the dental workforce would be enhanced by the presence of more underrepresented minority dentists. Additionally, curricular changes should be implemented to better prepare dental students to meet the oral health care needs of diverse populations. There is general agreement that these workforce and curricular changes would enhance access to care for underserved populations. For seven years, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry participated in the Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program. The first phase of this national program addressed deficiencies in diversity in dentistry and in access to oral health care. In the second phase, Loma Linda University continued to collaborate with other California dental schools on specific state initiatives. This article provides an overview of the school's efforts to enroll a more diverse student body, enhance all its students' cultural competence, and expand care to underserved populations.

  5. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and damage in Los Gatos, California, from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Aftershock records of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are used to calculate site response in the frequency band of 0.5-10 Hz at 24 locations in Los Gatos, California, on the edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Two different methods are used: spectral ratios relative to a reference site on rock and a source/site spectral inversion method. These two methods complement each other and give consistent results. Site amplification factors are compared with surficial geology, thickness of alluvium, shallow shear-wave velocity measurements, and ground deformation and structural damage resulting from the Loma Prieta earthquake. Higher values of site amplification are seen on Quaternary alluvium compared with older Miocene and Cretaceous units of Monterey and Franciscan Formation. However, other more detailed correlations with surficial geology are not evident. A complex pattern of alluvial sediment thickness, caused by crosscutting thrust faults, is interpreted as contributing to the variability in site response and the presence of spectral resonance peaks between 2 and 7 Hz at some sites. Within the range of our field measurements, there is a correlation between lower average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 m and 50% higher values of site amplification. An area of residential homes thrown from their foundations correlates with high site response. This damage may also have been aggravated by local ground deformation. Severe damage to commercial buildings in the business district, however, is attributed to poor masonry construction.

  6. Formation of left-lateral fractures within the Summit Ridge shear zone, 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.M.; Fleming, R.W. |

    1993-12-01

    The 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake is characterized by the lack of major, throughgoing, coseismic, right-lateral faulting along strands of the San Andreas fault zone in the epicentral area. Instead, throughout the Summit Ridge area there are zones of tension cracks and left-lateral fracture zones oriented about N45 deg W, that is, roughly parallel to the San Andreas fault in this area. The left-lateral fractures zones are enigmatic because their left-lateral slip is opposite to the right-lateral sense of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American plates. We suggest that the enigmatic fractures can be understood if we assume that coesiesmic deformation was by right-lateral shear across a broad zone, about 0.5 km wide and 4 km long, beneath Summit Ridge. Contrary to most previous reports on the Loma Prieta earthquake, which assert that coseismic, right-lateral ground rupture was restricted to considerable (greater than 4 km) depths in the epicentral area, we find that nearly all the right-lateral offset is represented at the ground surface by the Summit Ridge shear zone.

  7. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Strong Ground Motion and Ground Failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Professional Paper 1551 describes the effects at the land surface caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake. These effects: include the pattern and characteristics of strong ground shaking, liquefaction of both floodplain deposits along the Pajaro and Salinas Rivers in the Monterey Bay region and sandy artificial fills along the margins of San Francisco Bay, landslides in the epicentral region, and increased stream flow. Some significant findings and their impacts were: * Strong shaking that was amplified by a factor of about two by soft soils caused damage at up to 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the epicenter. * Instrumental recordings of the ground shaking have been used to improve how building codes consider site amplification effects from soft soils. * Liquefaction at 134 locations caused $99.2 million of the total earthquake loss of $5.9 billion. Liquefaction of floodplain deposits and sandy artificial fills was similar in nature to that which occurred in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and indicated that many areas remain susceptible to liquefaction damage in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. * Landslides caused $30 million in earthquake losses, damaging at least 200 residences. Many landslides showed evidence of movement in previous earthquakes. * Recognition of the similarities between liquefaction and landslides in 1906 and 1989 and research in intervening years that established methodologies to map liquefaction and landslide hazards prompted the California legislature to pass in 1990 the Seismic Hazards Mapping Act that required the California Geological Survey to delineate regulatory zones of areas potentially susceptible to these hazards. * The earthquake caused the flow of many streams in the epicentral region to increase. Effects were noted up to 88 km from the epicenter. * Post-earthquake studies of the Marina District of San Francisco provide perhaps the most comprehensive case history of earthquake effects at a specific site developed for

  8. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits

  9. Near Surface Damage Caused by the Strong Ground Motion of the M6.9 Loma Prieta and M5.4 Chittenden Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, J. L.; Beroza, G. C.; Bokelmann, G.; Schaff, D.

    2002-12-01

    We use a catalog of 57 repeating earthquake sequences to study the damage to near-surface materials, manifest as changes in seismic wave velocity, caused by strong ground motion. We believe that near surface damage (cracking) is the most likely cause for velocity reductions that we observe immediately following both the M6.9 Loma Prieta and M5.4 Chittenden earthquakes. The strong ground motion during both of these events was strong enough to open cracks near the Earth's surface, the presence of which reduces seismic velocities. The velocity reductions heal with time, following Loma Prieta and Chittenden in a manner similar to the "slow dynamic" healing behavior observed in laboratory studies [TenCate, et al., 2000]. Since the damage left by Loma Prieta had not completely healed by the time Chittenden occurred, it is probable that the local rocks were more susceptible to further damage, allowing the much weaker motions of the Chittenden Earthquake to cause damage comparable in magnitude as that of the Loma Prieta Earthquake. We have identified the above conditions by studying repeating earthquakes (multiplets) on the San Andreas Fault. Using a moving window cross correlation technique to identify changes in the nearly identical waveforms of a repeating earthquake sequence, we can observe late-arriving phases, after both the Loma Prieta and Chittenden earthquakes. We attribute these delays to near surface velocity reductions localized to a damage zone close to the Loma Prieta rupture zone. We observe a similar phenomenon in the cross correlation coefficient (CCC) data. Immediately following the Loma Prieta and Chittenden Earthquakes, the CCC drops sharply and heals in time in a manner similar to the healing of the velocity reductions. This is not surprising because the changes in CCC reductions should scale linearly with the magnitude of the velocity perturbation. The drops in CCC don't always parallel velocity changes; however, they can also measure more general

  10. Re-evaluating the resource potential of lomas fog oasis environments for Preceramic hunter-gatherers under past ENSO modes on the south coast of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresford-Jones, David; Pullen, Alexander G.; Whaley, Oliver Q.; Moat, Justin; Chauca, George; Cadwallader, Lauren; Arce, Susana; Orellana, Alfonso; Alarcón, Carmela; Gorriti, Manuel; Maita, Patricia K.; Sturt, Fraser; Dupeyron, Agathe; Huaman, Oliver; Lane, Kevin J.; French, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Lomas - ephemeral seasonal oases sustained by ocean fogs - were critical to ancient human ecology on the desert Pacific coast of Peru: one of humanity's few independent hearths of agriculture and "pristine" civilisation. The role of climate change since the Late Pleistocene in determining productivity and extent of past lomas ecosystems has been much debated. Here we reassess the resource potential of the poorly studied lomas of the south coast of Peru during the long Middle Pre-ceramic period (c. 8000-4500 BP): a period critical in the transition to agriculture, the onset of modern El Niño Southern Oscillation ('ENSO') conditions, and eustatic sea-level rise and stabilisation and beach progradation. Our method combines vegetation survey and herbarium collection with archaeological survey and excavation to make inferences about both Preceramic hunter-gatherer ecology and the changed palaeoenvironments in which it took place. Our analysis of newly discovered archaeological sites - and their resource context - show how lomas formations defined human ecology until the end of the Middle Preceramic Period, thereby corroborating recent reconstructions of ENSO history based on other data. Together, these suggest that a five millennia period of significantly colder seas on the south coast induced conditions of abundance and seasonal predictability in lomas and maritime ecosystems, that enabled Middle Preceramic hunter-gatherers to reduce mobility by settling in strategic locations at the confluence of multiple eco-zones at the river estuaries. Here the foundations of agriculture lay in a Broad Spectrum Revolution that unfolded, not through population pressure in deteriorating environments, but rather as an outcome of resource abundance.

  11. Notes about Alta Vista in Chalchihuites, Zacatecas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero García, Ismael Arturo

    2016-11-01

    The Tropic of Cancer is a parallel located at the latitude of 23°26'16''. This imaginary line extends across northern Mexico from the southernmost point of the Baja California Peninsula, to the Gulf of Mexico, passing through the states of Baja California Sur, Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas. The Tropic of Cancer marks the northernmost position of the sun at its midday zenith, which takes place in the Summer solstice. On this day, the sun's rays hit the earth's surface vertically along the entire length of this latitude, which was supposed to be significant for the priest/astronomers of ancient times, who dedicated themselves to observing the apparent movements of the sun. It so happens that Alta Vista in Zacatecas, corresponds to the westernmost peak where this phenomenon can occur, although the date of the zenith's course differs depending on the latitude of each position and so various archaeoastronomical specialists stress how the ancient indigenous cultures, at least those dating from Mexico's Classical period, valued this finding in developing their calendars. On the other hand, the research contributes new elements for discussion because it presents a calendar of the horizon, based on of the highest peaks of the Sierra Prieta mountain range ranging from the archaeological sites of El Chapín, Cerro Pedregoso, to the excavations at El Picacho Pelón (peak El Pelón).

  12. Acoustic Emission Precursors of M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri

    2005-02-01

    Two recent strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault(SAF) in California, the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietaevents, revealed peaks in the acoustic emission (AE) activity in thesurrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakesdirectly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from theanalysis. The observed increase in AE is assumed to be a signature of theincreasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak andsubsequent decrease in AE starting several months prior to the mainevents is attributed to damage-induced softening processes as discussedherein. Further, distinctive zones of low seismic activity surroundingthe epicentral regions in the pre-event time period are present for thetwo studied events. Both AE increases in the crust surrounding apotential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentralzone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could helpsignal the arrival of large earthquakes.

  13. Stress responses of emergency services personnel to the Loma Prieta earthquake Interstate 880 freeway collapse and control traumatic incidents.

    PubMed

    Marmar, C R; Weiss, D S; Metzler, T J; Ronfeldt, H M; Foreman, C

    1996-01-01

    A three-group quasi-experimental design contrasted the responses of rescue workers to the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake Interstate 880 freeway collapse (n = 198) with responses to critical incident exposure of Bay Area Controls (n = 140) and San Diego Controls (n = 101). The three groups were strikingly similar with respect to demographics and years of emergency service. The I-880 group reported higher exposure, greater immediate threat appraisal, and more sick days. The three groups did not differ on current symptoms. For the sample as a whole EMT/Paramedics reported higher peritraumatic dissociation compared with Police. EMT/Paramedics and California road workers reported higher symptoms compared with Police and Fire personnel. Nine percent of the sample were characterized as having symptom levels typical of psychiatric outpatients. Compared with lower distress responders, those with greater distress reported greater exposure, greater peritraumatic emotional distress, greater peritraumatic dissociation, greater perceived threat, and less preparation for the critical incident.

  14. A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Morrow, J

    1991-07-01

    Measures of emotional health and styles of responding to negative moods were obtained for 137 students 14 days before the Loma Prieta earthquake. A follow-up was done 10 days again 7 weeks after the earthquake to test predictions about which of the students would show the most enduring symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Regression analysis showed that students who, before the earthquake, already had elevated levels of depression and stress symptoms and a ruminative style of responding to their symptoms had more depression and stress symptoms for both follow-ups. Students who were exposed to more dangerous or difficult circumstances because of the earthquake also had elevated symptom levels 10 days after the earthquake. Similarly, students who, during the 10 days after the earthquake, had more ruminations about the earthquake were still more likely to have high levels of depressive and stress symptoms 7 weeks after the earthquake.

  15. Large-scale mapping of landslides in the epicentral area Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989, Santa Cruz County

    SciTech Connect

    Spittler, T.E.; Sydnor, R.H.; Manson, M.W.; Levine, P.; McKittrick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 triggered landslides throughout the Santa Cruz Mountains in central California. The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) responded to a request for assistance from the County of Santa Cruz, Office of Emergency Services to evaluate the geologic hazard from major reactivated large landslides. DMG prepared a set of geologic maps showing the landslide features that resulted from the October 17 earthquake. The principal purpose of large-scale mapping of these landslides is: (1) to provide county officials with regional landslide information that can be used for timely recovery of damaged areas; (2) to identify disturbed ground which is potentially vulnerable to landslide movement during winter rains; (3) to provide county planning officials with timely geologic information that will be used for effective land-use decisions; (4) to document regional landslide features that may not otherwise be available for individual site reconstruction permits and for future development.

  16. Seismomagnetic effect generated by the October 18, 1989, M sub L 7. 1 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.J.; Johnston, M.J.S. )

    1990-07-01

    A differentially connected array of proton magnetometers operated within the epicentral region of the October 18, 1989, M{sub L} 7.1. Loma Prieta earthquake for 12 years from 1974 to 1986. The closest magnetometer station was located 7.3 km from the epicenter of the earthquake and within 3 km of the site where anomalous ULF magnetic noise measurements were observed. Following the earthquake, the magnetometers were reinstalled with sensors replaced in the original undisturbed sensor holders. Comparison of pre-1986 total intensity magnetic field data with data obtained during the months following the earthquake indicate local offsets of about 1 nT may have been generated at stations nearest the epicenter. Tests on other continuous differenced data from 1983 to present indicate that offsets determined could be biased by as much as 0.7 nT. The offsets can be approximately fit with a simple seismomagnetic model of the earthquake for which 1.9 m of right lateral and 1.3 m of dip slip (southwest side up) occurred on a fault patch between 6 km and 18 km deep and 45 km long. The total rock magnetization is assumed to be 1.5 A/m. Since the offset has persisted following the earthquake, an alternate explanation in terms of electokinetic effects is unlikely even though transient ground water flow occurred following the earthquake. Comparison of pre-1986 and similar post-seismic total magnetic field noise does not indicate any change caused by aliasing of ULF (0.01 Hz-10 Hz) magnetic noise in the vicinity of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  17. Benthic insects of the El Tala River (Catamarca, Argentina): longitudinal variation of their structure and the use of insects to assess water quality.

    PubMed

    Colla, M F; César, I I; Salas, L B

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the structure of the benthic entomofauna and its variation along the El Tala River (Catamarca, Argentina). Five sampling stations were established, considering the location of nearby housing with respect to the watercourse. The following variables were determined in situ: altitude, latitude and longitude, bedstream width, river depth, river-current speed, water and air temperatures. Benthic insects were collected with a square parcel sampler of 0.09-m2 area and 300-µm net opening and identified to the family level. Faunal density, richness, and diversity exhibited a longitudinal variation. From sampling Stations 1 (reference site) to 3, the number of orders and families decreased, whereas in sampling Station 4 those values increased and continued to do so through to Station 5 (downstream station). Station 5 showed the highest family richness (17) and the highest value for the Shannon-Wiener index (2.74) and the lowest value in Simpson's Dominance index (D = 0.22). These values could be explained because of the self-cleansing capabilities of the river downstream. The water quality of El Tala River is Class I (very clean and non-impacted), according to the results obtained from the application of the biotic Biological-Monitoring-Working-Party and Average-Store-per-Taxon indices.

  18. The Alta schist, North Norway: unique rock with unique history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli

    2015-04-01

    Near the small town of Alta, northernmost Norway, are more than thousand small and large schist quarries, some of them dating back to the 1850's. It was the need for roofing material on a local church and a hospital that triggered the production. Since then, the Alta schist has been widely applied in Norway and abroad, known for its quality for roofing material and hard floor covering. The quality lies in the processes behind the formation of the schist. Emplacement of thrust nappes during the Caledonian mountain chain formation in the Silurian caused deformation and metamorphism of the rocks. The Alta schist is situated in one such nappe sheet, where arkosic sandstone where flattened and transformed into mylonite. This made fine mica layers along which the rock can be split, rythmically spaced and separated by quartz-dominated bands. The production of the Alta schist is still characterized by old craft traditions, reflecting a rich history and culture around the schist production.

  19. Arias intensity assessment of liquefaction test sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay affected by the Loma Prieta, California, earthquake of 17 October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. Uncompacted artificial-fill deposits on the east side of San Francisco Bay suffered severe levels of soil liquefaction during the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Damaged areas included maritime-port facilities, office buildings, and shoreline transportation arteries, ranging from 65 to 85 km from the north end of the Loma Prieta rupture zone. Typical of all these sites, which represent occurrences of liquefaction-induced damage farthest from the rupture zone, are low cone penetration test and Standard Penetration Test resistances in zones of cohesionless silty and sandy hydraulic fill, and underlying soft cohesive Holocene and Pleistocene sediment that strongly amplified ground motions. Postearthquake investigations at five study sites using standard penetration tests and cone penetration tests provide a basis for evaluation of the Arias intensity-based methodology for assessment of liquefaction susceptibility. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  20. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Bürgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-02-01

    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1-4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ∼2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989-1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ∼ 6 ×1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 ×1018 and 2 ×1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  1. Stress transfer by the 1988-1989 M=5.3 and 5.4 Lake Elsman foreshocks to the Loma Prieta fault: Unclamping at the site of peak mainshock slip

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perfettini, H.; Stein, R.S.; Simpson, R.; Cocco, M.

    1999-01-01

    We study the stress transferred by the June 27, 1988, M=5.3 and August 8, 1989, M=5.4 Lake Elsman earthquakes, the largest events to strike within 15 km of the future Loma Prieta rupture zone during 74 years before the 1989 M=6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. We find that the first Lake Elsman event brought the rupture plane of the second event 0.3-1.6 bars (0.03-0.16 MPa) closer to Coulomb failure but that the Lake Elsman events did not bring the future Loma Prieta hypocentral zone closer to failure. Instead, the Lake Elsman earthquakes are calculated to have reduced the normal stress on (or "undamped") the Loma Prieta rupture surface by 0.5-1.0 bar (0.05-0.10 MPa) at the site where the greatest slip subsequently occurred in the Loma Prieta earthquake. This association between the sites of peak unclamping and slip suggests that the Lake Elsman events did indeed influence the Loma Prieta rupture process. Unclamping the fault would have locally lowered the resistance to sliding. Such an effect could have been enhanced if the lowered normal stress permitted fluid infusion into the undamped part of the fault. Although less well recorded, the ML=5.0 1964 and ML=5.3 1967 Corralitos events struck within 10 km of the southwest end of the future Loma Prieta rupture. No similar relationship between the normal stress change and subsequent Loma Prieta slip is observed, although the high-slip patch southwest of the Loma Prieta epicenter corresponds roughly to the site of calculated Coulomb stress increase for a low coefficient of friction. The Lake Elsman-Loma Prieta result is similar to that for the 1987 M=6.2 Elmore Ranch and M=6.7 Superstition Hills earthquakes, suggesting that foreshocks might influence the distribution of mainshock slip rather than the site of mainshock nucleation. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Response of a 42-storey steel-frame building to the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    1993-01-01

    A set of 14 acceleration records was obtained from a 42-storey steel-frame building, the Chevron Building, in San Francisco during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Data were analysed using a system identification method based on the discretetime linear filtering, and the least-squares estimation techniques. The results show that the response of the building is dominated by two modes: a translational mode in the weaker (southwest-northeast) principal direction of the building at 0.16 Hz with 5% damping, and a translational-torsional mode along the east-west diagonal of the building's cross-section at 0.20 Hz with 7% damping. There are significant contributions from higher modes at 0.54 Hz, 0.62 Hz, 1.02 Hz and 1.09 Hz. All the modes incorporate some torsion, but the amplitudes of torsional components are small, about 10% of translational amplitudes. Soil-structure interaction influences the vibrations near 1.0 Hz. The contribution of soil-structure interaction to the peak displacements of the building is significant, particularly at lower floors. ?? 1993.

  3. Military Contributions to Rescue and Relief During the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iversen, E. H.

    2006-12-01

    In both the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire and the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake the military has played a significant role in rescue and relief operations. This paper focuses on the work done by the Army at the Presidio of San Francisco and gives briefer accounts of the work done by other installations and services. The role the Army played in 1989 is compared and contrasted to the role it played in the 1906 Earthquake and Fire. One of the most striking points is that in both cases the city of San Francisco never included military aid in planning but also did not refuse it. Due to the reduction of the Department of Defense budget the Presidio of San Francisco was transferred to the National Park Service on October 1, 1994. Almost all other San Francisco Bay area military installations have been closed with the exception of those belonging to the Coast Guard. Considering the important role the military has played in the 1906 and 1989 earthquakes there is concern as to how the cities of the Bay Area will cope when the earth shakes the next time.

  4. Offshore and onshore liquefaction at Moss Landing spit, central California - result of the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.G.; Chase, T.E.; Hicks, K.R. ); Gardner-Taggart, J.; Ledbetter, M.T.; Barminski, R. ); Baxter, C. )

    1991-09-01

    As a result of the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta (Santa Cruz Mountains, California) earthquake, liquefaction of the fluvial, estuarine, eolian, and beach sediments under a sand spit destroyed the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories and damaged other structures and utilities. Initial studies suggested that the liquefaction was a local phenomenon. More detailed offshore investigations, however, indicate that it occurred over a large area (maximum 8 km{sup 2}) during or shortly after the earthquake with movement of unconsolidated sediment toward and into the head of Monterey submarine canyon. This conclusion is supported by side-scan sonographs, high-resolution seismic-reflection and bathymetric profiles, onshore and sea-floor photographs, and underwater video tapes. Many distinct lobate features were identified on the shallow shelf. These features almost certainly were the result of the October 17 earthquake; they were subsequently destroyed by winter storms. In addition, fresh slump scars and recently dislodged mud debris were found on the upper, southern wall of Monterey submarine canyon.

  5. Improving tobacco dependence education for dental and dental hygiene students at Loma Linda University School of Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Margie R; Baba, Nadim Z; Cheek, Darlene

    2012-04-01

    In a general effort to facilitate dental professionals' effective tobacco-dependence education (TDE), the student part of the project reported here had three purposes: 1) to promote tobacco cessation activities in the dental school clinic, 2) to evaluate dental and dental hygiene students' confidence level in treating tobacco-dependent patients, and 3) to determine the frequency, duration, and depth with which the students assisted tobacco-dependent patients. Surveys of senior dental and dental hygiene students at the Loma Linda University School of Dentistry were conducted in 2008. Of the twenty-seven questions on the survey, nineteen related to the procedures students performed and questions asked of patients, one question asked how many minutes students spent counseling patients, and seven questions related to barriers to incorporating TDE activities. Only 56.5 percent of the responding dental students reported they routinely "asked and advised" about their patients' smoking behaviors, but 87.5 percent of the responding dental hygiene students reported they routinely did so. After the curricular intervention, the follow-up survey found that the dental students more frequently showed their patients the effects of tobacco on the oral mucosa and more frequently discussed pharmacotherapy options and made referrals during routine care. Until all dental and dental hygiene students are required to meet written board and clinical competencies in TDE and given adequate mentoring by clinical faculty to treat tobacco-dependent patients, the likelihood of seeing major improvements in tobacco-cessation treatment in dental practices is low.

  6. Seismicity Precursors of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-03-09

    The M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietastrike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were preceded byseismicity peaks occurring several months prior to the main events.Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded fromthe analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather thanstress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpretedas a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust,whereas the peaks and the subsequent decrease in seismicity areattributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in bothcases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surroundsthe epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicityin the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development ofa low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursoryinformation that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. TheGutenberg-Richter relationship (GRR) should allow extrapolation ofseismicity changes down to seismic noise level magnitudes. Thishypothesis is verified by comparison of seismic noise at 80 Hz with theParkfield M4 1993-1994 series, where noise peaks 5 months before theseries to about twice the background level.

  7. Low genetic variation in the salmon and trout parasite Loma salmonae (Microsporidia) supports marine transmission and clarifies species boundaries.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amanda M V; Kent, Michael L; Adamson, Martin L

    2010-07-26

    Loma salmonae is a microsporidian parasite prevalent in wild and farmed salmon species of the genus Oncorhynchus. This study compared ribosomal RNA (rDNA) and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1alpha) gene sequences to look for variation that may provide a basis for distinguishing populations. Specimens were collected from laboratory, captive (sea netpen farm and freshwater hatchery) and wild populations of fish. The host range included rainbow trout O. mykiss, Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Canada, from California, Colorado, Idaho, U.S.A. and from Chile. Both loci suggested that a variant in S. fontinalis (named 'SV') was a separate species. This was supported by the absence of similar variants in the source material (isolated from laboratory-held O. tshawytscha) and high divergence (1.4 to 2.3% in the rDNA and EF-1alpha) from L. salmonae in the type host and locality (0. mykiss in California). L. salmonae from freshwater and anadromous Oncorhynchus spp. were distinguished, providing a basis on which to evaluate possible sources of infection and suggesting geographic boundaries are important. Higher genetic variation occurred among samples of freshwater origin and from a sea netpen farm in Chile, suggesting these environments may present greater population diversity. Invariance in rDNA sequence across 17 samples from anadromous salmon in rivers, lakes, ocean, farms and hatcheries supports the hypothesis that marine transmission occurs and effectively prevents population substructuring caused by freshwater transmission.

  8. Ground-motion modeling of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, part I: Validation using the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Brocher, T.M.; Dolenc, D.; Dreger, D.; Graves, R.W.; Harmsen, S.; Hartzell, S.; Larsen, S.; Zoback, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    We compute ground motions for the Beroza (1991) and Wald et al. (1991) source models of the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake using four different wave-propagation codes and recently developed 3D geologic and seismic velocity models. In preparation for modeling the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, we use this well-recorded earthquake to characterize how well our ground-motion simulations reproduce the observed shaking intensities and amplitude and durations of recorded motions throughout the San Francisco Bay Area. All of the simulations generate ground motions consistent with the large-scale spatial variations in shaking associated with rupture directivity and the geologic structure. We attribute the small variations among the synthetics to the minimum shear-wave speed permitted in the simulations and how they accommodate topography. Our long-period simulations, on average, under predict shaking intensities by about one-half modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) units (25%-35% in peak velocity), while our broadband simulations, on average, under predict the shaking intensities by one-fourth MMI units (16% in peak velocity). Discrepancies with observations arise due to errors in the source models and geologic structure. The consistency in the synthetic waveforms across the wave-propagation codes for a given source model suggests the uncertainty in the source parameters tends to exceed the uncertainty in the seismic velocity structure. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that a source model with slip more evenly distributed northwest and southeast of the hypocenter would be preferable to both the Beroza and Wald source models. Although the new 3D seismic velocity model improves upon previous velocity models, we identify two areas needing improvement. Nevertheless, we find that the seismic velocity model and the wave-propagation codes are suitable for modeling the 1906 earthquake and scenario events in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  9. Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Galehouse, J.S.; Simpson, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

  10. Landslides and ridge-top failures associated with the epicentral area of the Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 Santa Cruz County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Spittler, T.E.; Sydnor, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive landslides and ridge-top failures occurred in the epicentral are of the Loma Prieta earthquake. These failures have been subdivided into four categories: (1) small rockfalls, dry debris flows, minor slumps, wedge-failure landslides along highway cut-slopes, and sea cliff failures; (2) ridge-top fractures dominated by tensional separation; (3) crown scarps of incipient landslides on the axes of steeply-plunging, steed-sided spur ridges; and (4) remobilized portions of existing large-scale rotational landslide complexes. These failures are described in detail.

  11. Chemical composition and antidiabetic activity of Opuntia Milpa Alta extracts.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan; Zheng, Chengjian; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan

    2010-12-01

    Three new compounds, 1-3, and 20 known compounds were isolated from the AcOEt and BuOH extract of edible Opuntia Milpa Alta. The petroleum ether extract was examined by GC and MS. A total of 26 compounds were identified, representing 95.6% of the total extract, phytosterol (36.03%) being the most abundant component, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (18.57%) represented the second largest group, followed by phytol (12.28%), palmitic acid, palmitate (13.54%), vitamin E (4.51%), and other compounds (7.47%). The effects of various extracts from edible Opuntia Milpa Alta (petroleum ether extract, AcOEt extract, BuOH extract, aqueous extract, H₂O parts) and the positive control (received dimethylbiguanide) were tested on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results indicated that all the treatment groups could significantly decrease blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice compared to the model control group (P<0.01), except the aqueous extract group (P<0.05). Especially, the petroleum ether extract group and the positive control group showed remarkable decrease of blood glucose levels. Taken together, the results indicate that the petroleum ether extract is the major hypoglycemic part in edible Opuntia Milpa Alta, which may be developed to a potential natural hypoglycemic functional ingredient.

  12. Age and characteristics of the Loma del Aire unit (SW Iberia): Implications for the regional correlation of the Ossa-Morena Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-García, T.; Quesada, C.; Bellido, F.; Dunning, G. R.; Pin, Ch.; Moreno-Eiris, E.; Perejón, A.

    2016-06-01

    Finding of ca. 620 Ma old zircons in a volcanic rock of the Loma del Aire unit, one of many structural divisions in the Ossa Morena Zone, some years ago, attracted much attention to this unit, which would contain, if proven, the oldest rocks so far dated not only in Ossa Morena but also in the entire Iberian Massif. In this paper, new field, petrographic, whole-rock geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data as well as new TIMS U-Pb zircon ages are presented, which collectively allow a much better characterization and dating as Cambrian of the rock sequence in the Loma del Aire unit; the previously found ca. 620 Ma old zircon population is now interpreted as xenocrysts incorporated in the Cambrian magma. Our data together with recently published provenance studies, bear important implications concerning the nature and evolution of the underlying lithospheric basement of the Ossa Morena Zone, which shares many characteristics with the Neoproterozoic peri-West-African craton arc systems currently exposed in the Precambrian inliers of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, the North Armorican Zone of Brittany, Normandy and the Channel Islands (Cadomian Arc), and the Saxo-Thuringian and Teplá-Barrandian Zones of the Bohemian Massif. A correlation of the Ossa Morena zone with these arc systems in the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic is thus proposed.

  13. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  14. Launching and Undergraduate Earth System Science Curriculum with a Focus on Global Sustainability: the Loma Linda University Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R. E.; Dunbar, S. G.; Soret, S.; Wiafe, S.; Gonzalez, D.; Rossi, T.

    2004-12-01

    The vision of the School of Science and Technology (SST) at Loma Linda University (LLU) is to develop an interdisciplinary approach to doing science that bridges the social, biological, earth, and health sciences. It will provide opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and professional students to apply new tools and concepts to the promotion of global service and citizenship while addressing issues of global poverty, health and disease, environmental degradation, poverty, and social inequality. A primary teaching strategy will be to involve students with faculty in applied field social and science policy research on "global sustainability" issues and problems in real places such as Fiji, Jamaica, Honduras, Bahamas, East Africa, and the US southwest (Great Basin, Salton Sea, coastal California, southern Utah). Recently we became a partner in the NASA/USRA ESSE21 Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century). We bring to that consortium strengths and experience in areas such as social policy, sustainable development, medicine, environmental health, disaster mitigation, humanitarian relief, geoinformatics and bioinformatics. This can benefit ESSE21, the NASA Earth Enterprise Mission, and the wider geosciences education community by demonstrating the relevance of such tools, and methods outside the geosciences. Many of the graduate and undergraduate students who will participate in the new program come from around the world while many others represent underserved populations in the United States. The PI and Co-PIs have strong global as well as domestic experience serving underrepresented communities, e.g. Seth Wiafe from Ghana, Sam Soret from Spain, Stephen Dunbar from the South Pacific, and Robert Ford from Latin America and Africa. Our partnership in implementation will include other institutions such as: La Sierra University, the California State University, Pomona, Center for Geographic Information Science Research, ESRI, Inc., the University of

  15. CSMIP (California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program) strong-motion records from the Santa Cruz Mountains (Loma Prieta), California earthquake of 17 October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Shakal, A.; Reichle, M.; Ventura, C.; Cao, T.; Sherburne, R.; Savage, M.; Darragh, R.; Petersen, C.

    1990-01-01

    Strong-motion records were recovered from 93 stations of the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) after the earthquake. CSMIP provides information on the force of ground motion and the deformation induced in structures and in rock and soil by earthquake-generated ground motion. This information is recorded by strong-motion sensors placed in engineered structures and at free field (ground) sites, and is used by earthquake engineers and earth scientists to improve the design of earthquake-resistant structures. The strong-motion instrumentation program was established after the San Fernando earthquake in 1971. A total of 125 records were recovered from the 93 CSMIP stations which recorded the Loma Prieta event. These 125 records contain data from a total of 690 strong-motion sensors. These data are important because of the unique structures and sites at which records were obtained during this event. Some highlights of particular interest are included in this paper.

  16. Variably Depleted Peridotites from Loma Caribe (Dominican Republic): A Possible Record of Subduction Initiation beneath the Greater Antilles Paleo-Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C. J.; Proenza, J. A.; Butjosa, L.; Lewis, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Several mantle peridotite massifs crop out as isolated dismembered bodies in tectonic belts along the northern margin of the Caribbean plate. Among these bodies, the Loma Caribe peridotite forms the core of the Median Belt in central Dominican Republic. This peridotite massif is mainly composed of Cpx-bearing harzburgite, harzburgite, lherzolite and (Opx-bearing) dunite, locally intruded by gabbroic rocks of Barremian age (~ 125 Ma). Mg# of olivine increases from lower values in lherzolite (90), to higher values in Cpx-harzburgite (91), harzburgite (92) and dunite (92-94). Cr# of spinel spans from 0.23 in lherzolite to 0.87 in dunite, and progressively increases from fertile to refractory lithologies. These variations overlap the mineral compositions of both abyssal and supra-subduction zone peridotites. The sample/chondrite REE concentrations of whole rocks are variable (0.002 < LREEN < 0.11 and 0.003 < HREEN < 1.02), and the HREE contents generally reflect the fertility of the samples. Similar to mineral chemistry, these trace element abundances overlap the compositions of both highly depleted supra-subduction and more fertile abyssal peridotites. Peridotites are variably enriched in the most incompatible and fluid-mobile trace elements (Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, U and Pb), and show negative anomalies of Nb and Ta. MREE/HREE fractionations in whole rocks and clinopyroxene support that these rocks are residues after initial fractional melting (~ 4%) in the garnet stability field and additional melting (~ 5-15%) in the spinel peridotite facies. The relative enrichment in incompatible and fluid-mobile elements (e.g., LILE and LREE) probably resulted from interaction of melting residues with ascending fluids/melts. We interpret the compositional variability of the Loma Caribe peridotite as reflecting different stages of generation of sub-oceanic mantle lithosphere during the Lower Cretaceous initiation of subduction beneath the Greater Antilles Paleo-arc.

  17. 75 FR 76455 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order December 1, 2010. Take notice that on November 19, 2010, Alta Wind I, LLC filed a Petition for Declaratory...

  18. 75 FR 55323 - Alta Wind Holdings, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind Holdings, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order September 2, 2010. Take notice that on August 31, 2010, Alta Wind Holdings, LLC filed a Petition...

  19. Character and origins of ground rupturing and ground deformation during the 28 June 1992 Landers, California earthquake (as well as the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 Northridge earthquakes). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.M.

    1996-09-17

    The overall objective of the research has been to understand the form and significance of surface rupture produced by earthquakes. Specific objectives are to describe fracturing and other manifestations of broad belts of ground rupture during the Landers earthquake and to mechanically analyze the structures that form along the belts. The author has learned much about ground rupture during earthquakes, even though he has studied only three earthquakes to date: Loma Prieta, Landers and Northridge.

  20. Mineral and whole rock compositions of peridotites from Loma Caribe (Dominican Republic): insights into the evolution of the oceanic mantle in the Caribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C. J.; Proenza, J. A.; Konc, Z.; Hidas, K.; Lewis, J.; Lidiak, E.

    2012-04-01

    Several mantle peridotite massifs crop out as isolated dismembered bodies in tectonic belts along the northern margin of the Caribbean plate, especially in Cuba, Guatemala, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Among these bodies, the Loma Caribe peridotite forms the core of the Median Belt in central Dominican Republic and is considered to have been emplaced in Aptian time as result of the collision between an oceanic plateau (the Duarte plateau terrane) and the primitive Caribbean island arc. This peridotite massif is mainly composed of clinopyroxene-rich harzburgite, harzburgite, lherzolite and dunite which mainly have porphyroclastic texture with strongly deformed orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, as commonly observed in ophiolitic mantle tectonites. Mg# [100*Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)] of olivine increases from lower values in lherzolite (89-90), to higher values in harzburgite (89-91) and dunite (91-92). Orthopyroxene in harzburgite has higher Mg# (91-92) and lower Al2O3 (0.89 to 1.12 wt.%) than in lherzolite (Mg# = 89-91; Al2O3 = 2.4-3.5wt.%), similarly to clinopyroxene (Mg# = 94-95 and Al2O3 = 0.89-1.10 wt% in harzburgite, versus Mg# = 86-94 and Al2O3 = 2.3-4.0 wt% in lherzolite). Cr# [Cr/(Cr+Al)] of spinel spans from 0.30 in lherzolite to 0.88 in dunite. These variations in terms of Mg# in olivine and Cr# in spinel overlap the mineral compositions in both abyssal and supra-subduction zone peridotites. The sample/chondrite REE concentrations of peridotites are variable (0.002 < LREE chondrite-normalized < 0.11 and 0.002 < HREE chondrite-normalized < 1.02) and their HREE contents generally reflect the clinopyroxene proportions in the samples, i.e. harzburgite has lower HREE abundances than lherzolite. These trace element abundances are transitional between those of highly depleted supra-subduction peridotites from ophiolites in eastern Cuba and those of fertile mantle rocks in ultramafic massifs from Puerto Rico. Chondrite-normalized patterns are U-shaped (i.e., relatively

  1. Identifying a large landslide with small displacements in a zone of coseismic tectonic deformation; the Villa Del Monte landslide triggered by the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, David K.; Harp, Edwin L.; Griggs, Gary B.; Evans, Stephen G.; DeGraff, Jerome V.

    2002-01-01

    The Villa Del Monte landslide was one of 20 large and complex landslides triggered by the 1989 LomaPrieta, California, earthquake in a zone of pervasive coseismicground cracking near the fault rupture. The landslide was approximately 980 m long, 870 m wide, and encompassed an area of approximately 68 ha. Drilling data suggested that movement may have extended to depths as great as 85 m below the ground surface. Even though the landslide moved <1 m, it caused substantial damage to numerous dwellings and other structures, primarily as a result of differential displacements and internal Assuring. Surface cracks, scarps, and compression features delineating the Villa Del Monte landslide were discontinuous, probably because coseismic displacements were small; such discontinuous features were also characteristic of the other large, coseismic landslides in the area, which also moved only short distances during the earthquake. Because features marking landslide boundaries were discontinuous and because other types of coseismic ground cracks were widespread in the area, identification of the landslides required detailed mapping and analysis. Recognition that landslides such as that at Villa Del Monte may occur near earthquake-generating fault ruptures should aid in future hazard evaluations of areas along active faults.

  2. Hydrogeological research on intensively exploited deep aquifers in the `Loma de Úbeda' area (Jaén, southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Ramón, Antonio; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Javier; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Gollonet, Javier

    2013-06-01

    The intensive use of groundwater for irrigation in the area of Úbeda (`Loma de Úbeda', Jaén, southern Spain) has transformed an area of traditionally rain-fed dry farmland into fields with some of the highest olive oil productivity in the world. Early hydrogeological research studies, initiated just after the beginning of the groundwater exploitation, revealed that the water was collected from three different overlapping aquifers occupying an area of over 1,100 km2, with the lower aquifers located at depths from 300 to over 700 m in an area of 440 km2. Multidisciplinary research, based on geological characterization, and piezometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, has led to a conceptual model of functioning in this complex hydrogeological system. The proposed model allows for the identification of the recharge areas, and the discharge, which is at present mainly associated with the groundwater pumping. Areas of mixing of waters from the different aquifers and the main hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality are described.

  3. Health assessment for Vega Alta Public Supply Wells Site, Vega Alta, Puerto Rico, Region 2. CERCLIS No. PRS187147. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-02

    The Vega Alta Public Supply Wells Site is a public water supply wellfield located in the municipality of Vega Alta, Puerto Rico. Based on data collected from 1983 to 1985, the ground water is contaminated with volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), notably trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene. A remediation alternative selected in a Record of Decision dated September 29, 1987 calls for treatment of 4 of the more highly contaminated wells and shutting down 2 others. Remediation efforts are to include air stripping and possibly treatment by carbon adsorption. Monitoring of the effectiveness of these efforts will determined their adequacy to bring the quality of the tap water to acceptable levels. It is not known whether the water currently supplied through the municipality has elevated concentrations of VOCs. Therefore, based on the limited information available, ATSDR has concluded that the Vega Alta Wells site is of public health concern.

  4. Ground fracturing at the southern end of Summit Ridge caused by October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake sequence (maps of Summit Ridge Shear Zones, en echelon tension cracks, complex and compound fractures, and small faults that formed coactively with the earthquake sequence)

    SciTech Connect

    Martosudarmo, S.Y.; Johnson, A.M.; Fleming, R.W.

    1997-12-31

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989 was the first of three large earthquakes that occurred in California in less than 5 years. The main shock of the Loma Prieta earthquake was deep-seated, the rupture zones of the main shock did not reach the surface, and the earthquake produced enigmatic surface ruptures along the frontal faults of the Coast Range and in the epicentral area that were explained in several quite different ways. The Landers earthquake of 28 June 1992 was near surface and produced more than 80 km of spectacular surface rupture of many different kinematic expressions. Detailed study of fractures at Landers has provided a basis for re-evaluating earlier work on fractures produced by the Loma Prieta earthquake. This paper is a description of some of the fractures produced by the Loma Prieta earthquake and a discussion of their causes. Detailed mapping (scale of 1:250) in an area on either side of Summit Road and between Morrell Cutoff Road in the northwest and the intersection of Summit Road and San Jose-Soquel Road in the southeast has provided documentation of fracture orientations and differential displacements required to decipher the ground deformation in that area during the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  5. Analysis of a Spatial Point Pattern: Examining the Damage to Pavement and Pipes in Santa Clara Valley Resulting from the Loma Prieta Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes some simple spatial statistical methods to explore the relationships of scattered points to geologic or other features, represented by points, lines, or areas. It also describes statistical methods to search for linear trends and clustered patterns within the scattered point data. Scattered points are often contained within irregularly shaped study areas, necessitating the use of methods largely unexplored in the point pattern literature. The methods take advantage of the power of modern GIS toolkits to numerically approximate the null hypothesis of randomly located data within an irregular study area. Observed distributions can then be compared with the null distribution of a set of randomly located points. The methods are non-parametric and are applicable to irregularly shaped study areas. Patterns within the point data are examined by comparing the distribution of the orientation of the set of vectors defined by each pair of points within the data with the equivalent distribution for a random set of points within the study area. A simple model is proposed to describe linear or clustered structure within scattered data. A scattered data set of damage to pavement and pipes, recorded after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, is used as an example to demonstrate the analytical techniques. The damage is found to be preferentially located nearer a set of mapped lineaments than randomly scattered damage, suggesting range-front faulting along the base of the Santa Cruz Mountains is related to both the earthquake damage and the mapped lineaments. The damage also exhibit two non-random patterns: a single cluster of damage centered in the town of Los Gatos, California, and a linear alignment of damage along the range front of the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. The linear alignment of damage is strongest between 45? and 50? northwest. This agrees well with the mean trend of the mapped lineaments, measured as 49? northwest.

  6. The impact of evolving current rheology on multi-scale heterogeneity in submarine lobe strata: an example from the Upper Cretaceous Point Loma Formation, San Diego, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlown, A.; Mohrig, D. C.; Perillo, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing recognition of transitional flow deposits in submarine fans has shown that the evolution of flow rheology in sediment-gravity currents can have a significant impact on the heterogeneity of deepwater sediment accumulations. Sea-cliff exposure of the Cretaceous Point Loma Formation in San Diego, California, provides a unique opportunity to document the internal variability and spatial distribution of thin, fine-grained event beds. Upper portions of beds which commonly appear as featureless mud in exposures of typical quality are revealed as thin, clast-rich debrites in areas where sea cliffs are polished by waves. The ubiquity of these deposits in distal lobe strata suggests complex rheological evolution for nearly all currents that were able to run out to lobe margins. Here we supplement qualitative outcrop characterization with statistical analysis to quantify relationships between deposit thickness, grain size, and the spatial distribution of sedimentary facies. Intervals dominated by transitional flow deposits are shown to occur vertically near the base of coarsening-upward successions and laterally toward lobe margins, reflecting a combination of dynamic processes during individual events and the spatial distribution of consecutive deposits. We show that the ability to distinguish patterns of bed-scale variability reflecting flow evolution from patterns associated with larger-scale processes, such as distributary channel avulsion and compensational stacking, is critical if one is to accurately model heterogeneity within submarine fan systems. Furthermore, the observation that thin, fine-grained debrites can be nearly impossible to distinguish from featureless mud intervals unless exceptionally well-exposed may cast doubt on existing interpretations where outcrop quality is less than remarkable.

  7. Underrepresented Minority High School and College Students Report STEM-Pipeline Sustaining Gains After Participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Salto, Lorena M.; Riggs, Matt L.; Delgado De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A.; De Leon, Marino

    2014-01-01

    An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU) Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS) and undergraduate (UG) student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE) is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical workforce

  8. Underrepresented minority high school and college students report STEM-pipeline sustaining gains after participating in the Loma Linda University Summer Health Disparities Research Program.

    PubMed

    Salto, Lorena M; Riggs, Matt L; Delgado De Leon, Daisy; Casiano, Carlos A; De Leon, Marino

    2014-01-01

    An urgent need exists for graduate and professional schools to establish evidence-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) pipeline programs to increase the diversity of the biomedical workforce. An untapped yet promising pool of willing participants are capable high school students that have a strong STEM interest but may lack the skills and the guided mentoring needed to succeed in competitive STEM fields. This study evaluates and compares the impact of the Loma Linda University (LLU) Summer Health Disparities Research Program on high school (HS) and undergraduate (UG) student participants. The primary focus of our summer research experience (SRE) is to enhance the research self-efficacy of the participants by actively involving them in a research project and by providing the students with personalized mentoring and targeted career development activities, including education on health disparities. The results of our study show that our SRE influenced terminal degree intent and increased participant willingness to incorporate research into future careers for both the HS and the UG groups. The quantitative data shows that both the HS and the UG participants reported large, statistically significant gains in self-assessed research skills and research self-efficacy. Both participant groups identified the hands-on research and the mentor experience as the most valuable aspects of our SRE and reported increased science skills, increased confidence in science ability and increased motivation and affirmation to pursue a science career. The follow-up data indicates that 67% of the HS participants and 90% of the UG participants graduated from college with a STEM degree; for those who enrolled in graduate education, 61% and 43% enrolled in LLU, respectively. We conclude that structured SREs can be highly effective STEM strengthening interventions for both UG and HS students and may be a way to measurably increase institutional and biomedical workforce

  9. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection: a new method for hemorrhoid surgery.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki; Hishiyama, Houhei; Kunimoto, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid injection (ALTA) is a useful and less-invasive treatment for internal hemorrhoids. However, it is not a treatment option for external hemorrhoidal diseases, including mixed hemorrhoids. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection involves surgical resection of external piles, followed by injection therapy on internal piles. We report technical details and the short-term results of this procedure in patients with mixed hemorrhoids. Seventy-two patients with mixed hemorrhoids treated between 2010 and 2011 were included. The main outcome measures were the short-term response and complication rates. At 28 days after surgery, the disappearance rate of prolapse was 100%. Three patients (4%) had postoperative complications, all minor in nature. No prolapse recurrence was observed within a median follow-up period of 6 months. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection appears to be a promising treatment option for patients with mixed hemorrhoids.

  10. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  11. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for...

  12. 76 FR 3881 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TransAlta Energy Marketing (U... be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and...

  13. 78 FR 18972 - Alta Wind X, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind X, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Alta Wind X, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  14. 78 FR 33101 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Alta East Wind Project, Kern County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...-energy generation facility on a 2,592- acre site (public and private lands) with 106 wind turbines... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Alta East Wind Project... Alta East Wind Project (AEWP). The Acting Assistant Secretary for Land and Minerals Management...

  15. Breaks in Pavement and Pipes as Indicators of Range-Front Faulting Resulting from the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake near the Southwest Margin of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Kevin M.; Ellen, Stephen D.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Peterson, David M.; Phelps, Geoffery A.

    1995-01-01

    Damage to pavement and near-surface utility pipes, caused by the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake, provide indicators for ground deformation in a 663 km2 area near the southwest margin of the Santa Clara Valley, California. The spatial distribution of 1284 sites of such damage documents the extent and distribution of detectable ground deformation. Damage was concentrated in four zones, three of which are near previously mapped faults. The zone through Los Gatos showed the highest concentration of damage, as well as evidence for pre- and post-earthquake deformation. Damage along the foot of the Santa Cruz Mountains reflected shortening that is consistent with movement along reverse faults in the region and with the hypothesis that tectonic strain is distributed widely across numerous faults in the California Coast Ranges.

  16. [A case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after ALTA therapy for an internal hemorrhoid].

    PubMed

    Aomatsu, Naoki; Nakamura, Masanori; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakao, Shigetomi; Uchima, Yasutake; Aomatsu, Keiho

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after aluminum potassium and tannic acid (ALTA) therapy for an internal hemorrhoid. A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of bleeding during defecation. He was diagnosed via anoscopy with Goligher grade II internal hemorrhoids. Examination via colonoscopy revealed 2 yellowish submucosal tumors in the lower rectum that were 5mm and 10mm in diameter. A rectal carcinoid tumor was diagnosed based on histopathology. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated no metastases to the liver or lymph nodes. First, we performed ALTA therapy for the internal hemorrhoids. Two weeks later, we performed laparoscopic-assisted low anterior resection (D2) for the rectal carcinoid. The patient was discharged without complications and has not experienced recurrence during the 2 years of follow-up care.

  17. Semitendinosus Tendon Transfer Associated With Distal Alignment for Patella Alta in a Patient With Recurrent Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Calderazzi, Filippo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Coviello, Gianluca; Groppi, Giulia; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Patellofemoral instability is characterized by pain during normal daily activities and frequent dislocation events. In the reported case, an adolescent girl, aged 15 years, affected by left patellofemoral instability, underwent surgery with a double technique comprising tibial tubercle distalization and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. In case of patella alta associated with patellofemoral instability, surgical treatment should focus on medial patellofemoral ligament repair and on recurrent instability prevention. PMID:26900548

  18. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  19. Data and shape files for the sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    This data release contains spatial data associated the sedimentation survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey cfor the Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, during March and April 2015 to provide up-to-date information about the relation of pool elevation and storage volume in the reservoir. The survey was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. A total of 264 navigation lines were surveyed, using a depth sounding device coupled to a global positioning system. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom referenced with respect to the spillway elevation.

  20. First record of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Opuntia ficus-indica in Milpa Alta, Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Pérez, Martín; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Brailovsky, Harry; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a species of Hesperolabops has become a problem as a pest of nopalitos, Opuntia ficus-indica, in Milpa Alta, in the south of Mexico City, which is the most important production region of this vegetable in the country. A survey of Hesperolabops in Milpa Alta has resulted in the first report of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter. This occurrence should be monitored and considered in future studies in order to avoid misidentification of Hesperolabops spp. Kirkaldy native populations there, and to avoid the confusion of the damage that may be caused on O. ficus-indica.

  1. 78 FR 11672 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Alta East Wind Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... of Mojave and 11 miles east of the city of Tehachapi. The project would include wind turbines, access... East Wind Project, Kern County, CA, and Proposed Land Use Plan Amendment AGENCY: Bureau of Land... (CDCA) Plan Amendment/Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Alta East Wind Project...

  2. Alta Scuola Politecnica: An Ongoing Experiment in the Multidisciplinary Education of Top Students towards Innovation in Engineering, Architecture and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetto, S.; Bernelli Zazzera, F.; Bertola, P.; Cantamessa, M.; Ceri, S.; Ranci, C.; Spaziante, A.; Zanino, R.

    2010-01-01

    Politecnico di Milano and Politecnico di Torino, the top technical universities in Italy, united their efforts in 2004 by launching a unique excellence programme called Alta Scuola Politecnica (ASP). The ASP programme is devoted to 150 students, selected each year from among the top 5-10% of those enrolled in the Engineering, Architecture and…

  3. Natural and induced endoreic hydrological conditions in the Alta Murgia karstic region (Apulia, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, F.; Fidelibus, M. D.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    A study aimed at understanding the hydrological processes in karst areas related to the presence of natural and artificial endoreic basins and their modification due to land use change, as well as the influence of above factors on the infiltration rate has been carried out in the Alta Murgia region (Apulia, Southern Italy). The region is a Cretaceous limestone plateau of the Apulian platform, characterized by a mature karstic landscape: due to its elevation, climatic conditions and lithology, the plateau constitutes the main recharge area of the Murgia aquifer. The typical karst topography is essentially related to the subterranean drainage (sinkholes, caves, conduit): surface and subsurface karst geomorphology is strictly interrelated with hydrology. The morphological features of the karstic plateau are defined by the high density of surface karstic forms (mainly dolines), the presence of exposed karst and karren fields, as well as by the extensive outcrop of fractured rocks. Karst surface shows, on the bottom of the morpho-structural depressions called "lame", natural distribution of modest deposits of "terra rossa" and regolith. The "lame" work as streams during and after intense rainfall events, often outlining a primordial ephemeral hydrographical network, frequently convergent towards dolines, poljes or endoreic basins. Alta Murgia shows many natural endoreic basin conditions in a quite flat morphology. In this environment, when intense rainfall events cover large areas and rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of soils and/or sinkholes, significant runoff amounts are produced and stored in the basins causing floods. Most of the natural endoreic basins are small and independent: while the majority of them continue functioning as endoreic even in presence of extreme events of high return time, others (quasi-endoreic), under the same circumstances can start contributing to other basins, due to exceeding their water storage capability. This way

  4. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  5. Birds of a high-altitude cloud forest in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Eisermann, Knut; Schulz, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Central American Highlands have been recognized as endemic bird area, but little is known about bird communities in Guatemalan cloud forests. From 1997 to 2001 a total of 142 bird species were recorded between 2000 and 2400 masl in cloud forest and agricultural clearings on Montaña Caquipec (Alta Verapaz, Guatemala). The bird community is described based on line transect counts within the forest. Pooling census data from undisturbed and disturbed forest, the Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) was found to be the most abundant species, followed in descending order by the Common Bush-Tanager (Chlorospingus ophthalmicus), the Paltry Tyrannulet (Zimmerius vilissimus), the Yellowish Flycatcher (Empidonax flavescens), the Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush (Catharus frantzi), and the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus). Bird communities in undisturbed and disturbed forest were found to be similar (Serensen similarity index 0.85), indicating low human impact. Of all recorded species, approximately 27% were Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds. The most abundant one was the Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla). The Montaña Caquipec is an important area for bird conservation, which is indicated by the presence of four species listed in the IUCN Red List (Highland Guan Penelopina nigra, Resplendent Quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno, Pink-headed Warbler Ergaticus versicolor, Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia), and 42 Mesoamerican endemics, of which 14 species are endemic to the Central American Highlands. The results presented here will be useful as baseline data for a long-term monitoring.

  6. Purification and neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides from Opuntia Milpa Alta in cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Zhao, Bo; Huang, Xiaolan; Zhan, Jinjin; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Mei; Guo, Lianjun

    2011-11-01

    Opuntia is a traditional plant from China with medicinal applications. In this experiment, polysaccharides from Opuntia Milpa Alta (MAPs) were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) method and result showed that MAPs contained mannose (6.37%), rhamnose (14.94%), xylose (1.99%), arabinose (24.07%), galactose (38.25%), ribose (2.63%) and glucose (11.48%). The neuroprotective effects of MAPs were evaluated at the mechanistic level in vitro models of cerebral ischemic injury. In vitro oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) model, MAPs (0.5 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml) effectively increased cell viability by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, inhibited cell cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, reduced neuronal cell death, suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)), and reduced extracellular glutamate level. Therefore, MAPs might prevent intracellular calcium overload and decreased glutamate excitotoxicity, both of which can cause neuronal injury and death in vitro models of cerebral ischemic injury.

  7. Wet Conditions during the Last Glaciation in the Chihuahuan Desert, Alta Babicora Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Sarah; Say, Alison; Black, Stuart; McCulloch, Robert; O'Hara, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    A 467-cm core (B94/3) from the Alta Babicora basin in the Chihuahuan Desert, northern Mexico (29°N, 108°W), documents lake-level and climate changes over the past ca. 65,000 yr. Chronological control is provided by four accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dates and five U-series dates on diatom silica. The core has been analyzed for magnetic susceptibility, loss-on-ignition, carbonate content, sediment chemistry and mineralogy, and pollen and diatom composition. The basin was occupied by a deep freshwater lake throughout the late Pleistocene which, based on shoreline evidence, was at least 19 m deeper than today. The lake shallowed after ca. 57,000 yr B.P. High variability typified the period between 54,600 and 38,000 yr B.P., probably with periodic desiccation and deflation. A deep-water lake was reestablished after 38,000 yr B.P. and persisted until ca. 29,000 yr B.P. Shallowing occurred through the last glacial maximum, although the lake was still deeper than at present. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition was marked by a distinctive change in the diatom flora. There is no diatom record for much of the Holocene, but other proxies indicate generally dry, stable catchment conditions. The Babicora record is more akin to those from the southwest United States than it is to Central America and northern South America. Wet conditions in the late Pleistocene are attributed to winter rainfall from midlatitudes in contrast to the modern, tropical, summer rainfall regime.

  8. Adaptation of rainfed agriculture to climatic variability in the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogé, P.; Friedman, A. R.; Astier, M.; Altieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    The traditional management systems of the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico offer historical lessons about resilience to climatic variability. We interviewed small farmers to inquire about the dynamics of abandonment and persistence of a traditional management systems. We interpret farmers' narratives from a perspective of general agroecological resilience. In addition, we facilitated workshops in small farmers described their adaptation to past climate challenges and identified 14 indicators that they subsequently used to evaluate the condition of their agroecosystems. The most recent years presented increasingly extreme climatic and socioeconomic hardships: increased temperatures, delayed rainy seasons, reduced capacity of soils to retain soil moisture, changing cultural norms, and reduced rural labor. Farmers reported that their cropping systems were changing for multiple reasons: more drought, later rainfall onset, decreased rural labor, and introduced labor-saving technologies. Examination of climate data found that farmers' climate narratives were largely consistent with the observational record. There have been increases in temperature and rainfall intensity, and an increase in rainfall seasonality that may be perceived as later rainfall onset. Farmers ranked landscape-scale indicators as more marginal than farmer management or soil quality indicators. From this analysis, farmers proposed strategies to improve the ability of their agroecosystems to cope with climatic variability. Notably, they recognized that social organizing and education are required for landscape-level indicators to be improved. Transformative change is required to develop novel cropping systems and complementary activities to agriculture that will allow for farming to be sustained in the face of these challenges. Climate change adaptation by small farmers involves much more than just a set of farming practices, but also community action to tackle collective problems.

  9. [Evaluation of heart rate and blood pressure in residents of Milpa Alta, D.F].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Girón, C; Brust-Mascher, E; De Icaza-Herrera, M; Vidrio-Amor, H; Brust-Carmona, H

    1992-01-01

    Both the altitude of Mexico City (D.F.) and the increase in atmospheric pollutants make it important to establish parameters of comparison for cardiovascular variables, such as heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). The epidemiological transition occurring in Mexico is increasing the need for human and physical resources at the first level of health care in order to perform early diagnoses of cardiovascular disorders among the population. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were recorded under diverse conditions (seated, standing, performing 30 sit-ups, and then standing and seated after the sit-ups) in 235 inhabitants of Milpa Alta (a suburb of Mexico City). The procedures and equipment used were designed and produced at the Center for Development and Technological Applications, Ministry of Health. The following results were found: HR decreases with age and body surface. Likewise, the HR increase due to exercise is lower with increasing age and larger body surface and its return to resting levels is slower. SBP and DBP magnitude is directly related to body surface. In women an increase of body weight was found to be significantly related to a higher SBP. The orthostatic reflex (OR) decreases with age and body surface. The descending slope is higher in women than in men. We propose that the study of OR could provide better information for predicting cardiovascular changes. The described procedures can be performed with the physical and human resources available at the Health Centers. The extension of this type of applied research to first level health care centers would allow the country to respond efficiently to the epidemiological transition.

  10. Sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, March–April 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-10-31

    IntroductionLago La Plata is operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District. The reservoir serves a population of about 425,000 people. During 2013 the reservoir provided 0.307 million cubic meters (Mm3 ) of water per day (about 81 million gallons per day), which is equivalent to 31 percent of the total water demand for the metropolitan area (Wanda L. Molina, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2015). The dam was constructed in 1974 and is located about 5 kilometers (km) south of the town of Toa Alta and 5 km north of the town of Naranjito (fig. 1). The drainage area upstream from the Lago La Plata dam is about 469 square kilometers (km2 ). The storage capacity at construction in 1974 was 26.84 Mm3 with a spillway elevation of 47.12 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl). Storage capacity was increased to 40.21 Mm3 in 1989 after the installation of bascule gates to provide a normal dam pool elevation at 52 m above msl (Puerto Rico Electric and Power Authority, 1979). The maximum height of the dam is about 40 m above the river bottom near the dam, and the intake structure consists of six 1.82-m-diameter ports facing upstream, with 6-m vertical spacing that begins at an elevation of 19 m above msl. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lago La Plata reservoir during March and April 2015. The hydrographic survey was designed to provide an update of the reservoir storage capacity and sedimentation rate. Areas with substantial sediment accumulation are also discussed in this report. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom (fig. 2) referenced with respect to the spillway elevation. This report also includes a summary of a previous bathymetric survey conducted in 2006 (Soler-López, 2008).

  11. Biotechnical performance of vegetal species in slope conservation in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prates Bisso, Fernando; Durlo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of biotechnical performance of different vegetal species growth in the slope soil conservation and reforest (revegetate). The study was performed with oxic soil talus, in Cruz Alta - RS, Brazil (28°23'28.14" S and 53°22'25.61" W) and began in January 2010. The sow treatments employed were: 1) cuttings of Ateleia glazioveana; 2) cuttings of Pyrostegia venusta; 3) seedlings of Baccharis trimera; 4) Seedlings of Cynodom plectostachyus; 5) blank, no sow. The evaluated parameters were: plant survival ratio (%); vegetal covered percentage; natural revegetation (plants/m2); the slope soil level reduction (cm); and water and soil runoff. C. plectostachyus and B. trimera afforded considerable higher survival (92% and 78.5%, respectively) and vegetation cover of the slope (99.6% and 82.9%) than other species. The natural revegetation showed an increase according to the ground above the slope (146.9 plants/m2) compared with the slope ramp (22.1 plants/m2). Moreover, C. plectostachyus, A. glazioveana, P. venusta, B. trimera and C. plectostachyus treatments showed 34.9, 28.6, 23.0 and 21.0 plants/m2, respectively, when compared with the blank (2.5 plants/m2) in the slope ramp region. Furthermore, the sow line regions gave 91.2 plants/m2) whereas the regions among lines afforded 8.6 plants/m2. Additionally, C. plectostachyus showed soil average drawdown profile decrease of 12.8 mm after 360 days after planting, and A. glazioveana reached 16.9 mm after 540 days according to the blank (34.0 mm). Considering the period of 60 to 360 days, it was observed significant differences in the soil loss estimative and reduction percentage compared to blank were: Blank 127.9 ton/ha/year; A. glazioveana, 117.9 ton/ha/year (-8%); P. venusta, 116.3 ton/ha/year (-9%); B. trimera, 106.7 ton/ha/year (-17%); and C. plectostachyus, 73.2 ton/ha/year (-43%). Thus, C. plectostachyus showed the best survival and vegetal coverage producing significant reduction of

  12. 78 FR 36635 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Lomas Altas, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico; Av. Pablo Neruda No. 4111, Casa 1, Colonia Lomas del Valle..., Av. Vallarta No. 3060, Colonia Vallarta San Jorge, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; DOB 03 Mar 1971; POB.... DE C.V.). 10. GARZA RODRIGUEZ, Beatriz (a.k.a. GARZA RODRIGUEZ DE SANCHEZ, Beatriz), Av. Vallarta...

  13. Origen de los rayos cósmicos a las más altas energías

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, J. E.; Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Medina Tanco, G. A.

    Discutimos en este trabajo la identificación de las fuentes de rayos cósmicos de las más altas energías observadas (E >= 1020 eV). Presentamos los resultados de varias simulaciones numéricas 3-D donde se calcula explícitamente el ángulo de desviación α del primario por efecto de los campos magnéticos ambientes. Con estos resultados investigamos las hipótesis de un origen extragaláctico local y halo galáctico.

  14. Human influence on late Holocene fluvial landscape and stratigraphy in the Mixteca Alta of Oaxaca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, D. S.; Holdridge, G. H.; Kowalewski, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Mixteca Alta of south-central Mexico (state of Oaxaca) is a high-elevation plateau where population and agricultural steadily grew over the past 3000 years, but with a few significant episodes of population decline. Currently, the landscape is highly eroded and gullied in response to widespread land abandonment and diminished population attributed to the Spanish conquest during the 1500s and 1600s. Abandonment apparently resulted in neglect of prehistoric cross-drainage retaining walls, known as lama-bordos, which had been constructed throughout agricultural watersheds for millennia to retain runoff and sediment. Our research seeks to establish the earliest ages for construction of lama-bordos, which are buried by more than 10 m of alluvium in some localities; and we hope to determine if the chronology of alluvial sedimentation is related to fluctuations in population density versus climate changes or other drivers. Sampling is focused on relatively small tributary watersheds (<10 km^2) in the valley of Rio Culebra near the town of Coixlahuaca. Our general hypothesis is counter to Malthusian theory in that we posit land degradation and erosion was punctuated by episodes of population decline when there were insufficient people to maintain the lama-bordo infrastructure. Methods involve: (1) detailed stratigraphic and pedogenic description and sampling of several outcrops; (2) radiocarbon and luminescence dating of stratigraphic sections; (3) geochemical and lithological tracing of sedimentary beds to discriminate time periods of gully erosion; (4) relating the alluvial chronology to archaeological surveys that have established the occupation history of the region. Results indicate that upland gully erosion had occurred prior to widespread human occupation of the area, because >4000 cal yr BP cut-and-fill stratigraphic units commonly contain detritus from upland subsoil and underlying bedrock. We provide numerous radiocarbon dates for the oldest lama-bordos, and

  15. An aldonolactonase AltA from Penicillium oxalicum mitigates the inhibition of β-glucosidase during lignocellulose biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengjuan; Cao, Qing; Qin, Yuqi; Li, Xuezhi; Liu, Guodong; Qu, Yinbo

    2017-02-04

    Efficient deconstruction of lignocellulose is achieved by the synergistic action of various hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes. However, the aldonolactones generated by oxidative enzymes have inhibitory effects on some cellulolytic enzymes. In this work, D-glucono-1,5-lactone was shown to have a much stronger inhibitory effect than D-glucose and D-gluconate on β-glucosidase, a vital enzyme during cellulose degradation. AltA, a secreted enzyme from Penicillium oxalicum, was identified as an aldonolactonase which can catalyze the hydrolysis of D-glucono-1,5-lactone to D-gluconic acid. In the course of lignocellulose saccharification conducted by cellulases from P. oxalicum or Trichoderma reesei, supplementation of AltA was able to relieve the decrease of β-glucosidase activity obviously with a stimulation of glucose yield. This boosting effect disappeared when sodium azide and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were added to the saccharification system to inhibit the activities of oxidative enzymes. In summary, we describe the first heterologous expression of a fungal secreted aldonolactonase and its application as an efficient supplement of cellulolytic enzyme system for lignocellulose biodegradation.

  16. Contact metamorphism surrounding the Alta stock: Finite element model simulation of heat- and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O mass-transport during prograde metamorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.J.; Bowman, J.R.; Forster, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of calcite-dolomite geothermometry and oxygen isotope studies of marbles in the southern portion of the contact aureole surrounding the Alta stock (Utah) provide evidence for extensive hydrothermal metamorphism in this part of the aureole. Simulation of these two independent data sets with two-dimensional, finite element fluid flow and heat transport models constrains the pattern of fluid flow, minimum permeability, and the permeability structure in this part of the aureole. Model results demonstrate that intrusion of the stock into a homogeneous, isotropic permeability medium yields peak metamorphic temperatures significantly lower than those measured in the marbles and significant {sup 18}O depletions both above and below the Alta-Grizzly thrust system. The latter contradicts the observations in the south aureole that {sup 18}O depletions in the marbles are restricted to marbles below the Alta-Grizzly thrust; dolomitic marbles above the thrust retain original sedimentary values up to the intrusive contact. Models with horizontal permeability barriers above the Alta-Grizzly thrust and extending over the top of the Alta stock are capable of reproducing the observed thermal and {delta}{sup 18}O profiles in the southern aureole. The presence of such horizontal barriers reduces the predominantly vertical fluid flow and heat transfer that would occur in a homogeneous and isotropic permeability medium, forcing fluid flow and heat transfer laterally away from the upper flanks of the stock. Such horizontal flow patterns are necessary to produce significant {sup 18}O depletion above the thrust, and to provide the necessary lateral heat transfer to duplicate the observed temperature profile. Best fit model results to the observed thermal and {delta}{sup 18}O profiles provide several new insights into the dynamics of fluid circulation and hydrogeologic characteristics of the southern Alta aureole during prograde metamorphism.

  17. An observatory system for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic Sea: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile sea environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the sea surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler system that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video system (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo System, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy sea surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of sea temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the sea bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin

  18. Mapping of available heavy metals in Catamarca (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, N.; Pazos, M. S.; Bech, J.

    2009-04-01

    Copper, iron, manganese and zinc are four essential elements for plant growth. Mapping heavy metal migration and distribution in soils is a preliminary step in assessing heavy metal availability in soils. However, data of qualitative and quantitative trace elements composition of soils of Argentina are scarce. Despite the small amounts required by plants, agricultural soils are usually deficient in one or more micronutrients, therefore, their concentration in plant tissues falls below the levels that allow optimal growth. Soil nature plays a fundamental role in the availability of micronutrients and their behaviour at a soil-plant level. The aim of this study is to determine the plant availability and areas of deficiency in agricultural soils with risk of salinization. The presented maps have been elaborated on the basis of the information provided by the monochromatic aerial photographs, scale 1:7000 and projected using the topographic information of the National Topographic Maps. Soils were sampled according to the spatial variation of soil types and land use. Sampling points were geo-referenced. Soil samples were analyzed at the laboratory for complete physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The percentage of organic matter is the determining factor in the presence and distribution of the available metals in the soils of the studied area, being the top horizon the one of greatest accumulation. CuDTPA, FeDPTA and MnDPTA are mobile within the profile, whereas ZnDPTA remains adsorbed without vertical displacement. ZnDTPA is the only available metal which also shows differences due to soil salinity and textural classes. However, soil geochemical conditions imply low extractability and a certain difficulty for micronutrient absorption by plants.

  19. Estudio fotométrico de estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Osborn, W.

    Se presentan resultados obtenidos en los Observatorios de Cerro Tololo, Kitt Peak, Lowell y Las Campanas, a partir de fotometría UBV y DDO de 54 estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos. La aplicación de dos criterios fotométricos independientes permite asignar a cada estrella probabilidades de pertenencia a cada agregado. Se encuentra que 32 estrellas son muy probablemente miembros de los cúmulos, mientras que las restantes son objetos del campo. En todos los casos se determinan excesos de color E(B-V) a través de procedimientos fotométricos y espectroscópicos tradicionales. Recientes calibraciones del sistema DDO permiten, además, derivar tipos espectrales MK, temperaturas efectivas, y abundancias superficiales de la muestra examinada. Las metalicidades DDO derivadas se distribuyen entre valores típicos de cúmulos moderadamente pobres en metales ([Fe/H]~=-0.3) y moderadamente ricos ([Fe/H]~=0.2), en tanto que las masas calculadas para las gigantes rojas oscilan entre 1 y 4 masas solares, con una dispersión dentro de cada cúmulo menor que 1 Msolar.

  20. Evidencia de alta concentración de masa en la región nuclear de una galaxia liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.; Goldes, G.

    Usando técnicas de espectroscopía bidimensional en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre, se obtuvo el campo de velocidades de la región nuclear de NGC 1672, galaxia LINER con un anillo circumnuclear de regiones HII. La curva de rotación media para los 2 kpc centrales sugiere la presencia de una gran concentración de masa (ρc~ 1011Msolar /kpc3). Este resultado es respaldado por la presencia de ciertos caracteres morfológicos detectados en imágenes obtenidas con el mencionado telescopio. Según recientes simulaciones hidrodinámicas de galaxias barreadas, estos caracteres sugieren la presencia de altas densidades en las regiones nucleares. El análisis espectrofotométrico indicaría, además, la presencia de dos componentes en la emisión nuclear, con una diferencia de velocidades de ~ 200 km/s. La velocidad circular del gas ionizado a 125 pc del centro señalaría la existencia de una masa interior de ~ 7× 108Msolar .

  1. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

  2. Importance of landscape features and Earth observation derived habitat maps for modelling amphibian distribution in the Alta Murgia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Adamo, Maria; Bonardi, Anna; De Pasquale, Vito; Liuzzi, Cristiano; Lovergine, Francesco; Marcone, Francesco; Mastropasqua, Fabio; Tarantino, Cristina; Blonda, Palma; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, analyses of relationships between amphibians and habitat focused on breeding environments (i.e., pond features) more than on the features of the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, for most amphibians the terrestrial phase is longer than the aquatic phase, and consequently landscape features (i.e., habitat mosaics) may have an important role for modelling amphibian distribution. There were different aims in this analysis. Firstly, we compared the effectiveness of the information provided by land cover/use (LC/LU) classes and habitat classes defined according to a new habitat taxonomy named General Habitat Category (GHC), which is based on the concept of biological forms of dominant vegetation and class naturalness. The GHC map used was obtained from a pre-existing validated LC/LU map, by integrating spectral and spatial measurements from very high resolution Earth observation data according to ecological expert rules involving concepts related to spatial and temporal relationships among LC/LU and habitat classes. Then, we investigated the importance for amphibians of the landscape surrounding ponds within the Italian Alta Murgia National Park. The work assessed whether LC/LU classes in pond surrounds are important for the presence/absence of amphibians in this area, and identified which classes are more important for amphibians. The results obtained can provide useful indications to management strategies aiming at the conservation of amphibians within the study area. An information-theoretic approach was adopted to assess whether GHC maps allow to improve the performance of species distribution models. We used the Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) to compare the effectiveness of GHC categories versus LC/LU categories in explaining the presence/absence of pool frogs. AICc weights suggest that GHC categories can better explain the distribution of frogs, compared to LC/LU classes.

  3. Forecasts of the atmospherical parameters close to the ground at the LBT site in the context of the ALTA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchi, Alessio; Masciadri, Elena; Fini, Luca

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we study the abilities of an atmospherical mesoscale model in forecasting the classical atmospherical parameters relevant for astronomical applications at the surface layer (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity) on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site - Mount Graham, Arizona. The study is carried out in the framework of the ALTA project aiming at implementing an automated system for the forecasts of atmospherical parameters (Meso-Nh code) and the optical turbulence (Astro-Meso-Nh code) for the service-mode operation of the LBT. The final goal of such an operational tool is to provide predictions with high time frequency of atmospheric and optical parameters for an optimized planning of the telescope operation (dome thermalization, wind-dependent dome orientation, observation planning based on predicted seeing, adaptive optics optimization, etc...). Numerical simulations are carried out with the Meso-Nh and Astro-Meso-Nh codes, which were proven to give excellent results in previous studies focused on the two ESO sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones (MOSE Project). In this paper we will focus our attention on the comparison of atmospherical parameters forescasted by the model close to the ground with measurements taken by the observatory instrumentations and stored in the LBT telemetry in order to validate the numerical predictions. As previously done for Cerro Paranal (Lascaux et al., 2015), we will also present an analysis of the model performances based on the method of the contingency tables, that allows us to provide complementary key information with the respect to the bias and RMSE (systematic and statistical errors), such as the percentage of correct detection and the probability to obtain a correct detection inside a defined interval of values.

  4. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season.

  5. Electrodeposition of Al-Ta alloys in NaCl-KCl-AlCl3 molten salt containing TaCl5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuki; Matsushima, Hisayoshi; Ueda, Mikito

    2016-12-01

    To form Al-Ta alloys for high temperature oxidation resistance components, molten salt electrolysis was carried out in an AlCl3-NaCl-KCl melt containing TaCl5 at 423 K. The voltammogram showed two cathodic waves at 0.45 V and 0.7 V vs. Al/Al(III), which may correspond to reduction from Ta(V) to Ta(III) and from Ta(III) to tantalum metal, respectively. Electrodeposits of Al and Ta were obtained in the range from -0.05 to 0.3 V and the highest concentration of Ta in the electrodeposit was 72 at% at 0.3 V. With increasing Ta content in the alloy, the morphology of the electrodeposits became powdery and the particle size smaller.

  6. The environmental balance of the Alta Val d'Agri: a contribution to the evaluation of the industrial risk and strategic sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, S.; Cosmi, C.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the preliminary environmental balance of the Alta Val d'Agri (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), an area of great naturalistic interest characterized by the presence of huge oil and gas fields. The Driving Forces-Pressure-State-Impact-Responses (DPSIR) methodology was used to outline the background in terms of environmental impacts mainly caused by oil extraction activities, as well as potential existing responses. The study aims at providing stakeholders with an exhaustive framework to identify the existing data, the main sources of pollution, their potential impacts, the associated industrial risks and the existing policy strategies. Moreover, the DPSIR approach allows the identification of the vulnerable areas and the definition of targeted actions for a sustainable development of the area.

  7. Land-surface subsidence at Seabrook, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.; Bonnet, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    Probable future subsidence was calculated by two different methods for each of two different loading situations. In the first loading situation, the artesian heads in the Alta Loma Sand (Rose, 1943) and Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at the respective rates of 8 feet per year and 7 feet per year until 1980 and then cease. In the second loading situation, the artesian heads in the Alta Loma Sand and Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at rates of 8 and 7 feet per year ulntil 1990 and then cease. 

  8. Land-surface subsidence in the area of Moses Lake near Texas City, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.; Bonnet, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Probable future subsidence was calculated by two methods for two loading situations. In the first loading situation, the artesian head in the middle Chicot aquifer, in the Alta Loma Sand (Rose, 1943), and in the Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at respective rates of 1, 3, and 3 feet per year until 1980 and then cease. In the second loading situation, the artesian head in the middle Chicot aquifer, in the Alta Loma Sand, and in the Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at respective rates of 1, 3, and 3 feet per year until 1990 and then cease. 

  9. Loma Prieta earthquake, October 17, 1989, Santa Cruz County, California

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, S.

    1990-01-01

    On Tuesday, October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred on the San Andreas fault 10 miles northeast of Santa Cruz. This earthquake was the largest earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay area since 1906, and the largest anywhere in California since 1952. The earthquake was responsible for 67 deaths and about 7 billion dollars worth of damage, making it the biggest dollar loss natural disaster in United States history. This article describes the seismological features of the earthquake, and briefly outlines a number of other geologic observations made during study of the earthquake, its aftershocks, and its effects. Much of the information in this article was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  10. The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California, earthquake: selected photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, John K.; Meyer, C.E.; Wilshire, H.G.; Tinsley, J. C.; Updegrove, W.S.; Peterson, D.M.; Ellen, S.D.; Haugerud, R.A.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Fisher, G.R.; Diggles, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains 103 digitized color 35-mm images from Open-File Report 90-547 (Nakata and others, 1990). Our photographic coverage reflects the time and resources available immediately after the event and is not intended to portray the full extent of earthquake damage. This CD-ROM provides images for use by the interested public, multimedia producers, desktop publishers, and the high-end printing industry.

  11. National clearinghouse for Loma Prieta earthquake information catalog, November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This catalog lists 440 new citations including recently completed work, abstracts of National Science Foundation research projects in progress, and contributions to the clearinghouse received after April, 1991. Section titles are: General topics and conference proceedings; Selected topics in seismology; Engineering seismology; Strong-motion seismometry; Dynamics of soils, rocks, and foundations; Dynamics of structures; Earthquake-resistant design and construction; Earthquake damage; and Earthquakes as natural disasters. Included are indexes by author, title, subject, and format.

  12. Lacustrine Records of Forest Fire Indicators and Trace Elements Deposition in an Land Use Change Region in the Brazilian Amazonia (Alta Floresta, MT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, R. R.; Conceicão, M. G.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B. J.; Seoane, J. S.; Sifeddine, A.

    2009-05-01

    The dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems depend on interactions between the carbon cycle, nutrient cycles, and the hydrological cycle, all of which may be modified by climate and human actions. Terrestrial ecological systems, in which carbon is retained in live biomass, decomposing organic matter, and soil, play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Human activities change carbon stocks in these pools and exchanges between them and the atmosphere through land-use change and other activities. From 1850 to 1998 about 136 (+55) Gt C has been emitted as a result of land-use change, predominantly from forest ecosystems. Amazonia's carbon storage potential gives great importance to land-use changes in this region because disturbances of the natural landscape can increase atmospheric carbon and affect global biogeochemical cycles. Mercury release from gold mining activities and deforestation are the two most important environmental issues in the Amazon Basin. Gold mining activities in Amazonia have been responsible for the release of about 2000-3000 t of Hg over the last 20 y. In Alta Floresta region (southern Amazonia), concurrent with the deforestation, an intense gold rush occurred with the exploration of riverbed sediments. This region was a significant gold mining site from 1980 to 1996. This study aims to understand the atmospheric deposition rates of charcoal particles, mercury and other trace elements and discuss the environmental changes caused by man activities in an area of an intense land use change. Accordingly to the fact that in Brazilian Amazonia the colonization process generally takes place after the building of a road, an 82 cm core (AF SSW 150) was collected in a lake formed by the barrier effect of a road embankment and distant 150 km of the center of Alta Floresta city. The ages of the sedimentary sections in the core were calculated by the activity of 210Pb. The grain size profile showed a huge change from 1985, with the dominance of fine

  13. Relative importance of the saturated and the unsaturated zones in the hydrogeological functioning of karst aquifers: The case of Alta Cadena (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudarra, M.; Andreo, B.

    2011-02-01

    SummaryFrom analysis of the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical responses of karst springs, it is possible to know the behaviour of the aquifers they drain. This manuscript aims to contribute to the characterization of infiltration process, and to determine the relative importance of the saturated zone and of the unsaturated zone in the hydrogeological functioning of carbonate aquifers, using natural hydrochemical tracers. Thus, chemical components together with temperature and electrical conductivity (both punctual and continuous records) have been monitored in three springs which drain Alta Cadena carbonate aquifer, Southern Spain. An evaluation of the percentage of the electrical conductivity frequency peaks determined for each of the three springs is linked to the chemical parameters that comprise the conductivity signal. One of these springs responds rapidly to precipitation (conduit flow system), due to the existence of a high degree of karstification in the unsaturated zone and in the saturated zone, both of which play a similar role in the functioning of the spring. Another spring responds to precipitation with small increases in water flow, somewhat lagged, because the aquifer has a low degree of karstification, even in the unsaturated zone, which seems to influence its functioning more strongly than does the saturated zone. The third spring drains a sector of the aquifer with a moderately developed degree of karstification, one that is intermediate between the other two, in which both the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone participate in the functioning of the spring, but with the latter zone having a stronger influence. These three springs show different hydrogeological functioning although they are in similar geological and climatic contexts, which show the heterogeneity of karst media and the importance of an adequate investigation for groundwater management and protection in karst areas.

  14. 77 FR 12761 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycle Route

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Trail is a 2.8 mile long hiking and equestrian trail that originates at the Loma Alta Trailhead and..., equestrian and bicycle use. Shortly after acquiring the land, NPS closed the route to motor vehicles and bicycles. The trail is currently open to hiker and equestrian use only. Although closed to...

  15. 77 FR 60050 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Saguaro National Park, Bicycling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Hope Camp Trail is a 2.8-mile-long hiking and equestrian trail that originates at the Loma Alta... route to be used for recreational purposes, including hiking, equestrian, and bicycle use. Shortly after... hiker and equestrian use only. Although closed to vehicular traffic, the route remains approximately...

  16. Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

    2003-08-01

    Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

  17. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Galt, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (3) Florin, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (4) Elk Grove... Traction railroad at the northern boundary of section 27, T7N, R6E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (4) Proceed... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5)...

  18. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Galt, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (3) Florin, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (4) Elk Grove... Traction railroad at the northern boundary of section 27, T7N, R6E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (4) Proceed... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5)...

  19. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Galt, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (3) Florin, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (4) Elk Grove... Traction railroad at the northern boundary of section 27, T7N, R6E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (4) Proceed... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5)...

  20. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Galt, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (3) Florin, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (4) Elk Grove... Traction railroad at the northern boundary of section 27, T7N, R6E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (4) Proceed... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5)...

  1. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Galt, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (3) Florin, Calif., 1968, photorevised 1980; (4) Elk Grove... Traction railroad at the northern boundary of section 27, T7N, R6E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (4) Proceed... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5)...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1102 - Security Zone; Naval Base Point Loma; San Diego Bay, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Point J) 32°41′10.2″ N, 117°13′58.2″ W (Point K) Thence running generally north along the shoreline to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Naval Base Point... following coordinates: 32°42′28.8″ N, 117°14′13.2″ W (Point A) 32°42′28.8″ N, 117°14′12.6″ W (Point B)...

  3. Chapter C. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Building Structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet

    1998-01-01

    Several approaches are used to assess the performance of the built environment following an earthquake -- preliminary damage surveys conducted by professionals, detailed studies of individual structures, and statistical analyses of groups of structures. Reports of damage that are issued by many organizations immediately following an earthquake play a key role in directing subsequent detailed investigations. Detailed studies of individual structures and statistical analyses of groups of structures may be motivated by particularly good or bad performance during an earthquake. Beyond this, practicing engineers typically perform stress analyses to assess the performance of a particular structure to vibrational levels experienced during an earthquake. The levels may be determined from recorded or estimated ground motions; actual levels usually differ from design levels. If a structure has seismic instrumentation to record response data, the estimated and recorded response and behavior of the structure can be compared.

  4. Chapter D. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Recovery, Mitigation, and Reconstruction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nigg, Joanne M.

    1998-01-01

    The papers in this chapter reflect the broad spectrum of issues that arise following a major damaging urban earthquake-the regional economic consequences, rehousing problems, reconstruction strategies and policies, and opportunities for mitigation before the next major seismic event. While some of these papers deal with structural or physical science topics, their significant social and policy implications make them relevant for improving our understanding of the processes and dynamics that take place during the recovery period.

  5. Evaluation of ambient asbestos concentrations in buildings following the Loma Prieta earthquake.

    PubMed

    van Orden, D R; Lee, R J; Bishop, K M; Kahane, D; Morse, R

    1995-02-01

    On October 17, 1989, an earthquake struck central, coastal California including San Francisco and the Bay Area, damaging many buildings. Because of concern over the possible exposure to asbestos in the damaged buildings, building owners/managers hired several Bay Area industrial hygiene firms to collect air samples in suspect buildings. RJ Lee Group analyzed a total of 419 air samples from 55 buildings (25 school, 3 university, 20 commercial, 5 public, and 2 residential buildings) using transmission electron microscopy and has compiled the results. The data from each building were averaged and grouped accordingly into three classifications: indoor buildings, buildings with asbestos abatement in progress at the time of the earthquake, and buildings where sampling was performed to monitor clean-up of debris. Several buildings were sampled on more than 1 day. The results indicate that asbestos levels differed little from outdoor levels, even immediately after the earthquake. Exceptions to this were samples collected in the vicinity of debris clean-up and in buildings undergoing abatement which were higher than the indoor or outdoor samples. However, these samples generally had concentrations below the AHERA clearance levels and all were well below the OSHA action limit.

  6. Chapter F. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Marina District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Rourke, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    During the earthquake, a total land area of about 4,300 km2 was shaken with seismic intensities that can cause significant damage to structures. The area of the Marina District of San Francisco is only 4.0 km2--less than 0.1 percent of the area most strongly affected by the earthquake--but its significance with respect to engineering, seismology, and planning far outstrips its proportion of shaken terrain and makes it a centerpiece for lessons learned from the earthquake. The Marina District provides perhaps the most comprehensive case history of seismic effects at a specific site developed for any earthquake. The reports assembled in this chapter, which provide an account of these seismic effects, constitute a unique collection of studies on site, as well as infrastructure and societal, response that cover virtually all aspects of the earthquake, ranging from incoming ground waves to the outgoing airwaves used for emergency communication. The Marina District encompasses the area bounded by San Francisco Bay on the north, the Presidio on the west, and Lombard Street and Van Ness Avenue on the south and east, respectively. Nearly all of the earthquake damage in the Marina District, however, occurred within a considerably smaller area of about 0.75 km2, bounded by San Francisco Bay and Baker, Chestnut, and Buchanan Streets. At least five major aspects of earthquake response in the Marina District are covered by the reports in this chapter: (1) dynamic site response, (2) soil liquefaction, (3) lifeline performance, (4) building performance, and (5) emergency services.

  7. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Performance of the Built Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Professional Paper 1552 focuses on the response of buildings, lifelines, highway systems, and earth structures to the earthquake. Losses to these systems totaled approximated $5.9 billion. The earthquake displaced many residents from their homes and severely disrupted transportation systems. Some significant findings were: * Approximately 16,000 housing units were uninhabitable after the earthquake including 13,000 in the San Francisco Bay region. Another 30,000-35,000 units were moderately damaged in the earthquake. Renters and low-income residents were particularly hard hit. * Failure of highway systems was the single largest cause of loss of life during the earthquake. Forty-two of the 63 earthquake fatalities died when the Cypress Viaduct in Oakland collapsed. The cost to repair and replace highways damaged by the earthquake was $2 billion, about half of which was to replace the Cypress Viaduct. * Major bridge failures were the result of antiquated designs and inadequate anticipation of seismic loading. * Twenty one kilometers (13 mi) of gas-distribution lines had to be replaced in several communities and more than 1,200 leaks and breaks in water mains and service connections had to be excavated and repaired. At least 5 electrical substations were badly damaged, overwhelming the designed redundancy of the electrical system. * Instruments in 28 buildings recorded their response to earthquake shaking that provided opportunities to understand how different types of buildings responded, the importance of site amplification, and how buildings interact with their foundation when shaken (soil structure interaction).

  8. Geology and ground-water resources of Galveston County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petitt, Ben McDowell; Winslow, Allen George

    1957-01-01

    Much additional ground water could be obtained from both the "Alta Loma" sand and the upper part of the Beaumont clay, especially in the northern and western parts of the county. Before large developments of supplies are planned, however, these areas should be explored by test drilling. The problems of well spacing and pumping rates should be thoroughly studied in order to determine the maximum development permitted by the ground-water supply. Current observations should be continued with special emphasis on the progress of salt-water encroachment.

  9. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor. Part 2 (Agnew, California-Loma Linda, California)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    W #-- W 0. 0) 1-1 ZII4EI0 I I 0 C4 11 0 iz 0 cc 0 2 00 0oil mU 1 0 " 1I- TL -4 I- w N N- ~ -41- 1- f- N 0 Q11 is 0 0 I 0a 04 It U 0) 00 0 00U 0 C. 0...4Le -4 0 r-l’- 44 < 4’" .-4<<~*-4 -4 (A M-4 I -i 42 - iZ -4222 -42* -4 z -422 -4ZZ2222z -422 -42 * ~ to 000 fui Ia a ZZZ* IaZ* lu2 fuzz* 40222222* fiaZZ...11..J0() 20) 0000)00-1 00 .1 0O 000)4 1.-)))000 - I0) 0 -A 0) F UA u00 CD- W (-44 4 Wj 2 < <- 4c < mU (140N 442 N-Ŕ- F.- 0 0 1-- < I- w $-- C C0 U I

  10. Deformation from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake near the southwest margin of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Kevin M.; Ellen, Stephen D.; Peterson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    To gain additional measurement of any permanent ground deformation that accompanied this damage, we compiled and conducted post-earthquake surveys along two 5-km lines of horizontal control and a 15-km level line. Measurements of horizontal distortion indicate approximately 0.1 m shortening in a NE-SW direction across the valley margin, similar to the amount measured in the channel lining. Evaluation of precise leveling by the National Geodetic Survey showed a downwarp, with an amplitude of >0.1 m over a span of >12 km, that resembled regional geodetic models of coseismic deformation. Although the leveling indicates broad, regional warping, abrupt discontinuities characteristic of faulting characterize both the broad-scale distribution of damage and the local deformation of the channel lining. Reverse movement largely along preexisting faults and probably enhanced significantly by warping combined with enhanced ground shaking, produced the documented coseismic ground deformation.

  11. 78 FR 53109 - Security Zones; Naval Base Point Loma; Naval Mine Anti-Submarine Warfare Command; San Diego Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ..., such as vessels, property and waterfront facilities from destruction, loss of injury from sabotage or... also extended the existing security zone along the naval base and provided an additional 500 feet of... safety guard from destruction, loss or injury from sabotage or other subversive acts, accidents, or...

  12. Map showing sediment isopachs in the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin, Point Conception to Point Loma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Masson, D.G.; McCulloch, D.S.; Grim, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    See Also "U.S. Pacific West Coast Field Activities" (Paskevich and others, 2011; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1332/htmldocs/pc/pc_overview.html). Paskevich, V.F., Wong, F.L., O?Malley, J.J., Stevenson, A.J., and Gutmacher, C.E., 2011, GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010?1332, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1332/.

  13. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  14. Formación de Estrellas de Alta Masa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldaño, Hugo Pablo

    2011-03-01

    En este Trabajo Especial se presenta un estudio en el infrarrojo cercano de las regiones de formacíon estelar asociadas con las fuentes IRAS 12272-6240 y IRAS 17149-3916. En un an álisis fotométrico sobre las imágenes de las regiones en los filtros J(1.25 μm), H(1.65 μm) y Ks (2.16 μm), obtenidas con el telescopio Baade (Las Campanas, Chile), se identificaron potenciales cúmulos jóvenes asociados con cada una de las fuentes IRAS y se detectaron estrellas jóvenes en formación en un amplio rango de masas (desde 0.5 a 40 M⊙). También se analizan imágenes en Bγ y H2 obtenidas con el mismo telescopio. Este Trabajo Especial contribuye a una mejor comprensión de la formación de las estrellas de gran masa.

  15. The State Trustee Organization. ALTA Publication Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Barbara B.

    The topic of this document is statewide organizations of and for library trustees. The reasons for such organizations are: (1) to educate individual library trustees, (2) to inform and stimulate library trustees, individually and as library boards, (3) to work with libraries to plan for interlibrary cooperation and library systems, and (4) to work…

  16. Natural killer cells after altaïr mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, I. V.; Rykova, M.; Meshkov, D.; Peres, C.; Husson, D.; Schmitt, D. A.

    Reduced in vitro NK cytotoxic activity have routinely been observed after both prolonged and short-term space flights. This study investigated the effects of space flight on NK cell functions, NK cell counts and the production of IL-2 and TNF by lymphocytes of French-Russian crew members. In the French cosmonaut, after 21 days space flight, the cytotoxic activity of NK cells, the capacity the NK cells to bind and lyse the individual target cells and the percentage of NK cells were decreased. In this cosmonaut a twofold reduction TNF production in cultures of lymphocytes stimulated with PMA and with the mixture of PHA and PMA was observed on the first day after landing. However, the activity of the production of TNF in 48-hour PHA-cultures of lymphocytes was unchanged and the biological activity of IL-2 was not reduced. The immunological examination did not detecte any substantial deviations from the norm in both russian cosmonauts after 197 days space flight. Various explanations for decreased cytotoxicity in cosmonauts after space flight can be proposed, and these include the defective function of NK cells and reduced numbers of circulating effector cells.

  17. Order Denying Review -- Hadson Power 12 - Alta Vista Applicant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. COLD-SAT orbital experiment configured for Altas launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Bennett, F. O.; Wachter, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    A study was done of the feasibility of conducting liquid hydrogen orbital storage, acquisition, and transfer experiments aboard a spacecraft launched by a commercial Atlas launch vehicle. Three hydrogen tanks are mated to a spacecraft bus that is similar to that used for three-axis-controlled satellites. The bus provides power, communications, and attitude control along with acceleration levels ranging from 10 exp -6 to 10 exp -4 g. At launch, all the liquid hydrogen is contained in the largest tank, which has an insulation system designed for both space operation and the short-term launch pad and ascent environment. This tank is much lighter and lower in cost than a vacuum-jacketed design, and is made possible by the experiment tanking options available due to the hydrogen-fueled Centaur upper stage of the Atlas I.

  19. Development of an Autologous Macrophage-based Adoptive Gene Transfer Strategy to Treat Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA) and Osteoarithritis (OA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ORGANIZATION: Loma Linda University REPORT DATE: TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command...8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Loma Linda University Loma Linda , CA 92350 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY

  20. Sexual size dimorphism, sex ratio and the relationship between seasonality and water quality in four species of Gordiida (Nematomorpha) from Catamarca, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salas, L; De Villalobos, C; Zanca, F

    2011-09-01

    A total of 687 adult nematomorphs of four species of Gordiida: Chordodes brasiliensis (393 specimens), Noteochorododes cymatium (47 specimens), N. talensis (162 specimens) and Pseudochordodes dugesi (85 specimens) were collected during a period of 1 year from El Simbolar stream, Argentina. Free-living worms were abundant during autumn and spring, but their number decreased during winter and summer. Males were shorter and significantly more abundant than females. The presence of N. cymatium, N. talensis and P. dugesi was correlated with water temperature and these species were most abundant in winter and spring. The presence of C. brasiliensis was correlated with flow rate and pH; this species was more abundant in autumn and winter. These four species are sympatric.

  1. Preliminary report on land-surface subsidence in the area of Burnett, Scott, and Crystal Bays near Baytown, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gabrysch, R.K.

    1973-01-01

    Removal of water, oil, and gas from the subsurface in Harris County has caused declines in fluid pressures which in turn have resulted in subsidence of the land surface. One critical area of subsidence is in the area of Burnett, Scott, and Crystal Bays near Baytown. Much of this area is now subject to inundation by high tides. Production of oil and gas from the Goose Creek Field at the southern edge of Baytown had caused as much as 3.25 feet of subsidence by 1925. The subsidence bowl is restricted to the area of production and has not extended to the area of Burnett, Scott, and Crystal Bays. Withdrawals of water from large-capacity industrial wells, which resulted in declines in artesian pressure, began about 1918; as much as 250 feet of water-pressure decline has occurred in the Evangeline aquifer, Significant subsidence of the land surface probably began about 1920 or later. Possibly as much as 7.5 feet of subsidence had occurred in the area by 1971. The study of subsidence in the area of the three bays included the collection of undisturbed clay samples for laboratory analyses, collection of water-level records, and installation and monitoring of pressure transducers in clays and of observation wells in sands. Probable future subsidence was calculated for two loading situations. Case I provided that the artesian pressure in both the Alta Loma Sand of Rose (1943) and Evangeline aquifer would continue to decline at a rate of 6 feet per year until 1980 and then cease. Case II provided that artesian pressure in the Alta Loma Sand would continue to decline at a rate of about 6 feet per year until about 1995, when the potentiometric head would reach the top of the Alta Loma Sand. The artesian pressure in the Evangeline aquifer would also decline about 6 feet per year until 1995. The ultimate subsidence expected for the assumed conditions of case I and case II is 11.2 feet and 14.5 feet, respectively. However, only 1.8 feet of subsidence below present land surface

  2. City of San Diego E.W. Blom Point Loma Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant and Ocean Outfall; NPDES Permit #CA0107409

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    U.S. EPA and San Diego Water Board are jointly seeking public comments on proposed revisions to the Compliance Schedule for Pure Water San Diego Potable Reuse Tasks in section VI.C.7 of the Revised Tentative Order No. R9-2017-0007.

  3. Instrumental shaking thresholds for seismically induced landslides and preliminary report on landslides triggered by the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The generation of seismically induced landslide depends on the characteristics of shaking as well as mechanical properties of geologic materials. A very important parameter in the study of seismically induced landslide is the intensity based on a strong-motion accelerogram: it is defined as Arias intensity and is proportional to the duration of the shaking record as well as the amplitude. Having a theoretical relationship between Arias intensity, magnitude and distance it is possible to predict how far away from the seismic source landslides are likely to occur for a given magnitude earthquake. Field investigations have established that the threshold level of Arias intensity depends also on site effects, particularly the fracture characteristics of the outcrops present. -from Author

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory post-Loma Prieta earthquake initiative: Seismic analysis of an elevated portion of the Bay Bridge distribution system structure

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, D.; Goudreau, G.

    1990-06-01

    Because of the importance of earthquake safety for the citizens of California, and the potential devastating effects of future large earthquakes on the California economy, upper management at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) made a decision that LLNL should make available any unique laboratory resources to aid in post-earthquake studies. One area in which LLNL has attempted to help is in computer simulation of the performance of large scale transportation structures. The computer horsepower available at LLNL, coupled together with the in-house finite element software capabilities, results in a unique numerical simulation capability for large structures. The effort summarized in this report is one of a number of post-earthquake efforts at LLNL. The financial support for this project was provided by the LLNL Engineering Department. 9 refs., 26 figs.

  5. Examining Participation in Relation to Students' Development of Health-Related Action Competence in a School Food Setting: LOMA Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruge, Dorte; Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Bruun-Jensen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how students' participation in an integrated school food program was related to the development of components of food and health-related action competence (F & HRAC). These components were understood to be the knowledge, insight, motivation, ownership and social skills that made students able to…

  6. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable of being established. It provides statistics that indicate the beneficial effect of improving soil with organic matter and amendments in the survival rate and vegetative growth of tree species.

  7. The Loma Seca tuff and the Calabozos caldera: a major ash-flow and caldera complex in the southern Andes of central Chile.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Grunder, A.L.; Drake, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    A composite ring-structure caldera of Late Pleistocene age, 26 X 14km in size, has been discovered and mapped near the Andean crest in central Chile (35o 30'S). Rhyolitic to dacitic zoned ashflow sheets, each representing 150-300 km3 of magma, were erupted 0.8, 0.3 and 0.15 m.y. ago; the youngest of the associated collapses was closely followed by resurgent doming of the caldera floor and the development of a longitudinal graben. Post-caldera eruption of dacite and andesite have persisted into Holocene time and active hot springs are abundant along caldera-marginal and resurgent fault systems, suggesting a significant geothermal energy resource. The ash-flow magmatism has been no less important in this segment of the glaciated S Andes than in the arid central Andes and may well be accounted for by the existence of thicker crust in both regions.- L.H.

  8. Map showing depth to basement in the deep-sea basins of the Pacific continental margin, Point Conception to Point Loma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, J.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Masson, D.G.; McCulloch, D.S.; Grim, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    Paskevich, V.F., Wong, F.L., O?Malley, J.J., Stevenson, A.J., and Gutmacher, C.E., 2011, GLORIA sidescan-sonar imagery for parts of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and adjacent areas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2010?1332, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1332/.

  9. Breast infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... female breast anatomy Breast infection Female breast References Hunt KK, Mittendorf EA. Diseases of the breast. In: ... Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for ...

  10. Summary of Hydrologic and Geochemical Investigations of the Albion Basin, Little Cottonwood Canyon, Alta, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalbeck, J.; Clancy, J.; Kraus, J.

    2013-12-01

    This hydrologic and geochemical investigation of the Albion Basin was initiated in August 2005 as a background study that included reviewing existing reports, publications, maps, and other available data and preparing a phased research plan. Annual field investigations have continued with the goal to evaluate watershed characteristics of the Albion Basin and provide scientific information that can be used in watershed management decisions. In August 2006, ten piezometers were installed in the Albion Basin for water level and water chemistry monitoring at three wetland areas (Albion Basin Fen, Catherine's Pass, and Collins/Sugarloaf) and in the streambed of Little Cottonwood Creek. In August 2012, a single piezometer was installed in the Patsy Marley wetland area. The August 2013 field season represents the 8th monitoring period for this investigation. Annual monitoring consists of collecting: (1) automated water levels using pressure transducers, (2) manual water levels using an electronic sounder, (3) field water parametes (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity), and (4) water samples for laboratory chemical analysis of major cations and anions. Water samples have been collected from piezometers, springs, and surface water to characterize the potential source water for the wetland areas. In 2011 and 2012, snow samples were collected for laboratory chemical analysis to characterize the water chemistry from precipitation. A reconnaissance survey of springs located in each of the wetland areas within the basin was performed during the August 2013 record general vegetation and rock type, water field water parameter measurements, and relative flow characteristics. The goal is to assess the contribution of source water for each of the wetland areas and to identify water source areas and flow paths within the basin. In general the water sample results represent calcium, magnesium bicarbonate fresh water. These results, along with the snow sample results, provide for evaluation of precipitation input to the wetlands based on water chemistry. The water chemistry results combined with the water level signatures indicate three distinct characteristics for these wetland areas. The Catherine's Pass wetland is groundwater dominant while the Albion Basin Fen area is precipitation (surface water) dominant. The wetland area at Collins/Sugarloaf is a mixture of groundwater and surface water and the wetland may persist due to perched water. Data from the new Patsy Marley area and the spring survey are still being evaluated. Spring flow data looks promising for evaluating baseflow conditions within the watershed areas. This study is instrumental for describing the uniqueness of the Albion Basin Fen, discussing the hydrologic connections of the Albion Basin Fen, and assessing effects on the Albion Basin Fen from proposed water diversions. The proposed diversions were judged to result in a permanent loss of water from the Albion Basin and would affect the natural stream and wetland environment in the Albion Basin Fen wetland study area.

  11. Estudio de Maseres Circunestelares de Monoxido de Silicio con muy alta Resolucion Espacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Ruiz, Rebeca

    2006-03-01

    We present high-spatial and high-spectral resolution studies of SiO masers in the circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars. These masers occur in the inner layers of the CSEs, in a region dominated by the stellar pulsation, thus being good (if not the only) probes available to understand the physics in these regions. Using the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array, we have produced maps of the 28SiO v=1 and v=2 J=1-0 and J=2-1 transitions towards several AGB stars: two Mira-type (TXCam and RLeo), one OH/IR (IRC+10011) and one S-type (xCyg) stars. The 29SiO v=0 J=1-0 and J=2-1 emission has also been studied. The spatial distributions retrieved, some of them for the first time, are in clear contradiction with the predictions of the models developed to date. We suggest that spectral line overlap may explain the results obtained. This work has been conducted by Dr. Javier Alcolea Jimenez and Dr. Francisco Colomer Sanmartin, at Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (Spain). The PhD thesis manuscript, in spanish, is available at ftp://ftp.oan.es/pub/users/r.soria/TESIS-RSoria.pdf .

  12. 77 FR 38823 - Notice of Availability of the Alta East Wind Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... compatibility of wind energy generation facilities with other uses on public lands, requires that all sites proposed for power generation or transmission not already identified in the Plan be considered through the... the project area either (1) available for future wind energy generation projects; or (2)...

  13. Diabrotica collicola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)a new species of leaf beetle from Argentina Discussion and key to some similar species of the Diabrotica virgifera group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new species Diabrotica collicola Cabrera & Cabrera Walsh is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from Balcozna, Catamarca Province (Argentina). A full description is provided and includes morphological characters of the mouthparts, hind wing venation, binding patch, metendoster...

  14. High-Dose Hypofractionated Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Is Safe and Effective for Central and Peripheral Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a 12-Year Experience at Loma Linda University Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, David A.; Cheek, Gregory; Zaheer, Salman; Wallen, Jason; Mirshahidi, Hamid; Katerelos, Ari; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We update our previous reports on the use of hypofractionated proton beam radiation therapy for early-stage lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had biopsy-proven non-small cell carcinoma of the lung and were medically inoperable or refused surgery. Clinical workup required staging of T1 or T2, N0, M0. Subjects received hypofractionated proton beam therapy to the primary tumor only. The dose delivered was sequentially escalated from 51 to 60 Gy, then to 70 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Endpoints included toxicity, pulmonary function, overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and local control (LC). Results: One hundred eleven subjects were analyzed for treatment outcomes. The patient population had the following average characteristics; age 73.2 years, tumor size 3.6 cm, and 1.33 L forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The entire group showed improved OS with increasing dose level (51, 60, and 70 Gy) with a 4-year OS of 18%, 32%, and 51%, respectively (P=.006). Peripheral T1 tumors exhibited LC of 96%, DSS of 88%, and OS of 60% at 4 years. Patients with T2 tumors showed a trend toward improved LC and survival with the 70-Gy dose level. On multivariate analysis, larger tumor size was strongly associated with increased local recurrence and decreased survival. Central versus peripheral location did not correlate with any outcome measures. Clinical radiation pneumonitis was not found to be a significant complication, and no patient required steroid therapy after treatment for radiation pneumonitis. Pulmonary function was well maintained 1 year after treatment. Conclusions: High-dose hypofractionated proton therapy achieves excellent outcomes for lung carcinomas that are peripherally or centrally located. The 70-Gy regimen has been adopted as standard therapy for T1 tumors at our institution. Larger T2 tumors show a trend toward improved outcomes with higher doses, suggesting that better results could be seen with intensified treatment.

  15. Examination of Habitat Fragmentation and Effects on Species Persistence in the Vicinity of Naval Base Pt. Loma and Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, San Diego, CA and Development of a Multi-Species Planning Framework for Fragmented Landscapes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    chaparral in coastal southern California with different population responses to one of the primary ecosystem drivers, wildland fire, and with...verrucosus C. verrucosus Nutt. (Figure 3) is a long-lived shrub of the coastal chaparral of southern California and northern Baja California . Figures 4–6...a very long-lived shrub, occurs in the coastal chaparral of southern California and northern Baja California (Hickman 1993; Keeley 1993). Figures 7

  16. Demographic survey of black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in the Lachuá Eco-region in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Meda, Marleny; Estrada, Alejandro; López, Jorge E

    2008-03-01

    Guatemala harbors three species of primates (Alouatta palliata, Alouatta pigra and Ateles geoffroyi), but the distribution and state of conservation of populations of these species are poorly documented. In the case of A. pigra, populations have been studied recently and documented in several sites in Mexico and Belize, and only in one site in Guatemala (Tikal National Park). In this study, we report first-time population data for A. pigra existing in the Lachuá Eco-region in northwestern Guatemala. Surveys were conducted between September 2002 and April 2003 in the northern portion (32 km2) of the Lachuá National Park (LLNP; 145 km2) and in a fragmented landscape north of the protected area. In this latter area we surveyed a large forest fragment (17.14 km2), "Nueve Cerros", and 26 small forest fragments that ranged in size from 0.01 to 3.9 km2. Surveys resulted in a total count of 414 howler monkeys of which 403 belonged to 80 mixed-sex groups, four were solitary males, two were solitary females and five were found in two male groups. Standardized sampling effort among sites indicated 16.7 monkeys/100 survey hours at LLNP, 35.8 individuals/100 survey hours at "Nueve Cerros" and 71.0+/-62.2 individuals/100 survey hours in the forest fragments. Mean group size varied from 4.07 individuals at LLNP to 5.19 individuals in the forest fragments. Conservation problems for the black howler population surveyed are discussed, along with possible conservation scenarios.

  17. Argument in Transition: Proceedings of the Summer Conference on Argumentation (3rd, Alta, Utah, July 28-31, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarefsky, David, Ed.; And Others

    Prepared by scholars from across the United States, the more than 80 papers in this collection address new developments and recurrent problems in the theory, practice, criticism, and teaching of argumentation. The papers are organized according to 10 broad categories: argumentation theory, argumentation in special fields, political argumentation,…

  18. EDITORIAL: XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Juan; Contreras, Guillermo; Delepine, David; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2012-08-01

    Juan Barranco Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) jbarranc@fisica.ugto.mx Guillermo Contreras Departamento de Fisica Aplicada Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Merida (Mexico) jgcn@mda.cinvestav.mx David Delepine Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) delepine@fisica.ugto.mx Mauro Napsuciale Physics Department, Guanajuato University, Loma del Bosque 103, col. Loma del Campestre, 37150, Leon (Mexico) mauro@fisica.ugto.mx The XIII Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields (MWPF) took place from 20-26 October 2011, in the city of León, Guanajuato, México. This is a biennial meeting organized by the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society designed to gather specialists in different areas of high energy physics to discuss the latest developments in the field. The thirteenth edition of this meeting was hosted by the Department of Cultural Studies of Guanajuato University in a nice environment dedicated to the Arts and Culture. The XIII MWPF was organized by three working groups who organized the corresponding sessions around three topics. The first one was Strings, Cosmology, Astroparticles and Physics Beyond the Standard Model. In this category we included: Cosmic Rays, Gamma Ray Bursts, Physics Beyond the Standard Model (theory and experimental searches), Strings and Cosmology. The working group for this topic was formed by Arnulfo Zepeda, Oscar Loaiza, Axel de la Macorra and Myriam Mondragón. The second topic was Hadronic Matter which included Perturbative QCD, Jets and Diffractive Physics, Hadronic Structure, Soft QCD, Hadron Spectroscopy, Heavy Ion Collisions and Soft Physics at Hadron Colliders, Lattice Results and Instrumentation. The working group for this topic was integrated by Wolfgang Bietenholz and Mariana Kirchbach. The third topic was

  19. Northwestern Argentina as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Puna de Atacama area of northwestern Argentina, Provinces of Salta and Catamarca, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 154th revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 175 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 243 hours and 58 minutes.

  20. 7 CFR 319.28 - Notice of quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tasmania); Japan and adjacent islands; the Republic of Korea; Mauritius; Seychelles; Argentina (except for....) Osbeck, and Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle, from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay is... indicated in the previous paragraph, is prohibited from Argentina (except for the States of Catamarca,...

  1. Análisis de la región de alta temperatura en las estrellas Be y estudio de sus propiedades y geometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, A. F.; Ringuelet, A. E.

    The aim of this study is to analyse the Hot Temperature Region (HTR) that surrounds the photospheres of Be stars. Consequently, we have chosen 54 Be stars of spectral types B0, B1, B2, B3, B8 and B9; the sample is representative of a considerable range of temperature. We have analysed different lines that originate in the HTR from archival IUE spectra reprocessed by the INES: He II λ1640, Si IV λλ1394, 1403 and Al III λλ1855, 1863. From the measured values, we derive several relations that provide information on the geometry and thermodynamical properties of the HTR. Our major findings can be summarised as follows: 1) The equivalent widths of the selected lines in the spectrum of the program stars persist with similar values through all v sin(i) inclinations. 2) The equivalent widths of the Si IV lines are well correlated with the kinetic energy expansion of the wind. This suggests that the dissipation of mechanical energy in the HTR is an important source of heating. 3) The He II lines formation region, which is located at the dense base of the wind, shows full spherical symmetry. 4) The formation region of Si IV lines is located in a low-density well-developed wind and it extends over very high latitudes (˜75o). 5) The Al III lines are formed in an elongated region which is the beginning of the cool envelope. The analysis followed in this work has been completely independent from any theoretical model. Consequently, these results will be useful for deciding whether the circunstellar envelope of Be stars has an ellipsoidal geometry or a disklike shape.

  2. Use of mussel casts from archaeological sites as paleoecological indicators: An example from CA-MRN-254, Marin County, Alta California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, Mary; Starratt, Scott W.; Powell, Charles L.; Bieling, David G

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological investigations at prehistoric site CA-MRN-254 at the Dominican University of California in Marin County, California, revealed evidence of Native American occupation spanning the past 1,800 years. A dominant source of food for the inhabitants in the San Francisco Bay area was the intertidal, quiet-water dwelling blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus), although rare occurrences of the open coast-dwelling California mussel (Mytilus californianus) suggest that this species was also utilized sporadically. On rare occasions, cultural horizons at this site contain abundant sediment-filled casts of the smaller mussel Modiolus sp. These casts were formed soon after death when the shells filled with sediment and were roasted along with living bivalve shellfish for consumption. Thin sections of these mussel casts display sedimentological and microbiological constituents that shed light on the paleoenvironmental conditions when they were alive. Fine-grained sediment and pelletal muds comprising these casts suggest that the mussels were collected in a low energy, inner bay environment. The rare presence of the diatoms Triceratium dubium and Thalassionema nitzschioides indicate more normal marine (35 psu) and possibly warmer conditions than presently exist in San Francisco Bay. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal associated with the mussel casts containing these diatoms correlates with a 600-year period of warming from ca. A.D. 700–1300, known as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. Results of this mussel cast study demonstrate that they have great potential for providing paleoenvironmental information at this and other archaeological sites.

  3. Argument and Social Practice: Proceedings of the Speech Communication Association/American Forensic Association Conference on Argumentation (4th, Alta, Utah, August 1-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, J. Robert, Ed.; And Others

    Prepared by scholars from four countries, the 63 papers in this collection address recent developments and recurrent problems in the theory, practice, criticism, and teaching of argumentation. Following the texts of two keynote addresses, the papers are presented according to eight broad categories: argumentation theory, historical and political…

  4. Libraries, Building for the Future. Proceedings of the Library Buildings Institute and the American Library Trustee Association (ALTA) Workshop (Detroit, Michigan, July 1-3, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Robert J., Ed.

    Included are the texts of all available papers given at the Institute and Workshop, as well as the presentations of the panelists and the discussions that ensued between members of the audience and the program speakers. Floor plans and similarly important illustrative materials are reproduced. The following sessions were included--(1) general…

  5. LIVING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD FIREPLACE AND PORCH ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIVING ROOM, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD FIREPLACE AND PORCH ENTRANCE - Hamilton Field, Field Officers' Quarters Type A, Sunset Drive, Las Lomas Drive, South Circle, & Casa Grande Real, Novato, Marin County, CA

  6. Redescription of Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan (Siphonaptera: Ctenophthalmidae: Neotyphloceratini).

    PubMed

    López Berrizbeitia, M Fernanda; Sanchez, Juliana; Díaz, M Monica; Barquez, Rubén M; Lareschi, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    Neotyphloceras crassispina hemisus Jordan is redescribed from male and female specimens collected at the type locality (Otro Cerro, Catamarca Province, Argentina) and nearby localities. New diagnostic morphological characters for both sexes are provided, which include the shape of the upper lobe of the fixed process of clasper, the crochet of the aedeagus and the shape and chaetotaxy of the distal arm of sternum IX for males, and the contour of the distal margin of sternum VII for females.

  7. Forest Restoration in a Fog Oasis: Evidence Indicates Need for Cultural Awareness in Constructing the Reference

    PubMed Central

    Balaguer, Luís; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Jiménez, Percy; Jiménez, María Dolores; Villegas, Luís; Cordero, Irene; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Fernández-Delgado, Raúl; Ron, María Eugenia; Manrique, Esteban; Vargas, Pablo; Cano, Emilio; Pueyo, José J.; Aronson, James

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru) of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. Conclusions/Significance Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for ecological restoration

  8. Proceedings of the ISTVS (International Society for Terrain-Vehicle Systems) Workshop on Measurement and Evaluation of Tire Performance under Winter Conditions, Alta, Utah, 11-14 April 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    related phe- tire/snow surface interface, then one nomena reflect the snowpack history as could observe the mobilization of resis- such. tant forces... history of the processes will be described and dis- snowpack, solar and radiational/cooling cussed. effects, etc. These effects or phenomena . cannot...resistance of pneumatic tires. testing as seen by the independent test- Journal of Automotive Engineering (4). er. SAE Technical Paper 820344. 6. Yong

  9. Pipeline experiment co-located with USGS Parkfield earthquake prediction project

    SciTech Connect

    Isenberg, J.; Richardson, E.

    1995-12-31

    A field experiment to investigate the response of buried pipelines to lateral offsets and traveling waves has been operational since June, 1988 at the Owens` Pasture site near Parkfield, CA where the US Geological Survey has predicted a M6 earthquake. Although the predicted earthquake has not yet occurred, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and 1992 M4.7 earthquake near Parkfield produced measurable response at the pipeline experiment. The present paper describes upgrades to the experiment which were introduced after Loma Prieta which performed successfully in the 1992 event.

  10. SQUAW Mooring Project. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    selected site was some 32 nautical miles southwest of Point Loma where the water depth was 6000 feet, the Squaw was to be submerged to a depth of 300...the selected site was soirle 32 nautical miles southiest of Point Loma where the water depth was 6000 feet; the S4;AW was to be submerged to a depth...the SQUAW was practically alongside the MANATI. The MANATI then got underway and headed south to within about 5400 feet of the newly selected south

  11. Licensing the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  12. Essential Civil Support Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    community over a variety of issues, such as hunger , poor employment opportunities, inadequate community services, poor housing, and labor issues...and Loma Prieta Earthquakes, and the Martin Luther King Assassination and Los Angeles Riots make an excellent sample of Army operations to draw

  13. Research Study of River Information Services on the US Inland Waterway Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    9 7.1.3 Interface with ACEIT ...higher management. 7.1.3 Interface with ACEIT During the implementation of LOMA it turned out that the procedures to meet the IT security requirements...from ACEIT were difficult to identify and caused far more effort on project management and development than initially estimated. Also the strict IT

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  15. Mechanistic Liquid State Thermochemical Decomposition of Neat 1,3,5,5-Tetranitrohexahydropyrimidine (DNNC) and Its DNNC-d2, DNNC-d4, DNNC-d6 Structural Isotopomers: Entering the DNNC Molecule (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-09

    From - To) 09-01-2007 Journal Article 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Mechanistic Liquid State Thermochemical Decomposition of Neat...controlling bond rupture as previously reported.4 Acknowledgements. We gratefully acknowledge the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR...Heasley, and Dr. Dale F. Shellhamer, Department of Chemistry, Pt. Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, CA contributed helpful scientific discussions

  16. 44 CFR 72.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROCEDURES AND FEES FOR PROCESSING MAP...) Requests for map changes based on mapping or study analysis errors; (b) Requests for map changes based on the effects of natural changes within SFHAs; (c) Requests for a Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA);...

  17. 44 CFR 72.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROCEDURES AND FEES FOR PROCESSING MAP...) Requests for map changes based on mapping or study analysis errors; (b) Requests for map changes based on the effects of natural changes within SFHAs; (c) Requests for a Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA);...

  18. 44 CFR 72.5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program PROCEDURES AND FEES FOR PROCESSING MAP...) Requests for map changes based on mapping or study analysis errors; (b) Requests for map changes based on the effects of natural changes within SFHAs; (c) Requests for a Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA);...

  19. Networking the Light Fantastic--CD-ROMs on LANs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Paul W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of a local area network (LAN) at Loma Linda University that allows remote access for both IBM and Macintosh microcomputers to CD-ROMs. Topics discussed include types of networks; fiber optic technology; networking CD-ROM drives; remote access; modems; CD-ROM databases; memory management; interface software; and future…

  20. Analysis of a Quality Program in the Formation of Engineers Based on the ISO Norm 9000 Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Nestor H.

    This paper discusses problems with the theoretical basis and conditions for implementing the quality insurance model for engineering programs. An analysis of a program of development and educational quality implemented in the Engineering Faculty of the National University of Lomas de Zamora in Argentina is presented. The minimum conditions are…

  1. Energy Conservation: Three Projects That Worked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Compact design and insulation cut energy use at a junior high school in Rexon (New Brunswick). Loma Linda University in California has reduced consumption of natural gas by installing cogeneration equipment. Morningside College in Sioux City (Iowa) has replaced deteriorating windows. (Author/MLF)

  2. DRAWING R100131, COMPANY OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRAWING R-1001-31, COMPANY OFFICERS' AREA, BUILDING LOCATIONS, DRIVEWAYS, AND SIDEWALKS, LAS LOMAS AND BUENA VISTA DRIVES. Ink on linen, signed by H.B. Nurse. Date has been erased, but probably June 15, 1933. Also marked "PWC 104288." - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  3. Applying College Credit to a Noncollegiate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarraghy, John J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the evaluation process as it was applied at the Life Office Management Association (LOMA)-the first organization to have a nationally conducted adult education program evaluated. Information about other noncollegiate sponsored programs for college credit is also provided. (ABM)

  4. 75 FR 74073 - Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Cameron and Willacy Counties, TX; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... wetlands, estuarine wetlands, lomas (clay ridges), wind tidal flats, and barrier island beaches and ] dunes... strategies to address future establishment of artificial water sources. Selected Alternative After... species, and provide/enhance brush land, wetland and grassland habitat for ocelots, migratory...

  5. Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents information about the duo exhibit, "CHICANO," and provides background information about Chicano culture. Offers a discussion on artists in the exhibition, such as Carmen Lomas Garza, Leo Limon, Cesar Martinez, and Patssi Valdez. Includes reproductions of art works in the exhibit. (CMK)

  6. View facing east (70°) of Transmission Line crossing Marias River, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing east (70°) of Transmission Line crossing Marias River, near Structure 47-9, grain elevators in town of Loma visible in background - Havre Rainbow Transmission Line, Havre City to Great Falls vicinity, Montana, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  7. POISONOUS AND VENOMOUS MARINE ANIMALS OF THE WORLD: REVIEW OF MONOGRAPH

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the World Life Research Institute in Coulton, California, and associate of the Institute of Tropical and Preventive Medicine at the University of Loma Linda....more than 1000 pages in octavo with many excellent color illustrations. Halstead is a prominent specialist in the field of biotoxicology, director of

  8. Putting the Medical Library Online: Electronic Bulletin Boards. . . and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Paul W.

    1985-01-01

    Describes use of microcomputers with system called "TBBS" ("The Bread Board System") at Loma Linda University Medical Center to allow users enhanced services from home, whether library facilities are open or not. Flexibility and security, dialing into medical library, and suggestions for setting up similar computerized…

  9. 78 FR 34404 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... School, 408 E. Newton St., Dothan, 13000406 CALIFORNIA Los Angeles County Batchelder, Ernest and Alice...., Pasadena, 13000409 Frank, Richard and Mary Alice, Garden, (Designed Gardens in Pasadena MPS), 919 La Loma... County Proctor, William, House, 7037 IN 64, Marengo, 13000419 Hamilton County Carmel Monon Depot, 211...

  10. 76 FR 19783 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Pueblo of Jemez 70.277-Acre Fee-to-Trust...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Regional Office, 1001 Indian School Road, NW., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104. The public hearing will be held at the Loma Linda Elementary School, 1451 Donaldson Avenue, Anthony, New Mexico 88021. See the.... Pueblo of Jemez, (contact: Ashley New Mexico 87024. Chinana). BIA Southwest Regional 1001 Indian...

  11. SLC positron source: Simulation and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pitthan, R.; Braun, H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Ecklund, S.D.; Helm, R.H.; Kulikov, A.V.; Odian, A.C.; Pei, G.X.; Ross, M.C.; Woodley, M.D.

    1991-06-01

    Performance of the source was found to be in good general agreement with computer simulations with S-band acceleration, and where not, the simulations lead to identification of problems, in particular the underestimated impact of linac misalignments due to the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Revision of the Solanum medians complex (Solanum section Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum medians is a widely distributed wild potato species growing along the coast and along the western slopes of the Andes from central Peru and northern Chile, from along the coastal lomas near sea level to 3800 m. Fertile diploid and triploid cytotypes are common, are believed to associated wit...

  13. Conjugated fatty acids and methane production by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil alone or mixed with fish oil and/or malate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang Z; Gao, Qing S; Yan, Chang G; Choi, Seong H; Shin, Jong S; Song, Man K

    2015-08-01

    We hypothesized that manipulating metabolism with fish oil and malate as a hydrogen acceptor would affect the biohydrogenation process of α-linolenic acid by rumen microbes. This study was to examine the effect of fish oil and/or malate on the production of conjugated fatty acids and methane (CH4 ) by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil. Linseed oil (LO), LO with fish oil (LO-FO), LO with malate (LO-MA), or LO with fish oil and malate (LO-FO-MA) was added to diluted rumen fluid, respectively. The LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased pH and propionate concentration compared to the other treatments. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA reduced CH4 production compared to LO. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased the contents of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and c9,t11,c15-conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) compared to LO. The content of malate was rapidly reduced while that of lactate was reduced in LO-MA and LO-FO-MA from 3 h incubation time. The fold change of the quantity of methanogen related to total bacteria was decreased at both 3 h and 6 h incubation times in all treatments compared to the control. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined malate and/or fish oil when incubated with linseed oil, could depress methane generation and increase production of propionate, CLA and CLnA under the conditions of the current in vitro study.

  14. [Coccidioidomycosis in Argentina, 1892-2009].

    PubMed

    Canteros, C E; Toranzo, A; Ibarra-Camou, B; David, V; Carrizo, S G; Santillán-Iturres, A; Serrano, J; Fernández, N; Capece, P; Gorostiaga, J; Chacón, Y A; Tonelli, R; Boscaro, G; Abiega, C; Mendieta, S; Fernández, C; Fernández, A; Vitale, R; Santos, P; Pizarro, M R; López-Joffre, M C; Lee, W; Mazza, M; Posse, G; Tiraboschi, I N; Negroni, R; Davel, G

    2010-01-01

    Clinical cases of coccidioidomycosis are rare in Argentina and are generally found in the large arid precordilleran area of the country. This study aims to perform a retrospective review of all coccidioidomycosis cases documented in the country from 1892 to 2009, and to describe those occurring in the last 4 years. One hundred and twenty eight cases were documented in the 117 year-period. Since the original description of the disease in 1892 until 1939, only 6 cases were registered; between 1940 and 1999, 59 (6-14/10 yrs) and the remaining 63 (49% of total cases) occurred in the last decade. The median age of 34 patients registered in 2006-2009 was 31 years (range: 7-89), male/female ratio was 1.3:1 and 12 patients were immunocompromised. Twenty-six cases were confirmed by direct microscopy and/or culture whereas the remaining ones by serology. All isolates were identified as Coccidioides posadasii. Thirty patients lived in a vast geographic region with epicenter in Catamarca Valley. Between 2006 and 2009, annual disease incidence rates in Catamarca Province increased from historical values below 0.5/100,000 to 2/100,000 inhabitants. Such increase suggests an emergency of coccidioidomycosis in that region.

  15. Two new species of Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with taxonomic notes on some congeneric taxa.

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Aguirre, María B; Aquino, Daniel A

    2014-09-15

    Two new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from Argentina, A. cachamai Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Córdoba, Salta and Tucumán Provinces) and A. quilmes Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Salta and Tucumán). Both new species are parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Anagyrus cachamai is a parasitoid of H. pungens Granara de Willink on Alternanthera paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. (Amaranthaceae), and also of a Hypogeococcus sp. on Cleistocactus baumannii and Hypogeococcus sp. on C. smaragdiflorus (Cactaceae). Anagyrus quilmes is a parasitoid of H. pungens on A. paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. Other biological traits of the new species are also reported. These parasitoids may be of importance as potential candidate biological control agents against a Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and identified as H. pungens, but possibly not belonging to that species. This mealybug threatens the native cacti in some Caribbean islands and Florida, USA, and is devastating the native columnar cacti in Puerto Rico. Illustrations and taxonomic notes on the type specimens of some other, little known described species of Anagyrus from Argentina and Chile are provided, and a key to females of the 14 species of Anagyrus known from Argentina is given. Anagyrus nigriceps (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized under A. bellator (De Santis). Lectotypes are designated for Paranusia bifasciata Brèthes, Philoponectroma pectinatum Brèthes, and Protanagyrus aciculatus Blanchard. 

  16. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  17. 76 FR 35882 - Paulding Wind Farm II, LLC, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ....] Paulding Wind Farm II, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Paulding Wind Farm II LLC EG11-61-000 Macho Springs Power I, LLC EG11-63-000 Alta Wind III Owner Lessor A EG11-64-000 Alta Wind III Owner Lessor B EG11-65-000 Alta Wind III Owner Lessor C EG11-66-000 Alta...

  18. 78 FR 21924 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ...-000. Applicants: Alta Wind III, LLC. Description: First Revised MBR Tariff to be effective 4/4/2013...: ER13-1240-000. Applicants: Alta Wind II, LLC. Description: First Revised MBR Tariff to be effective 4/4... Numbers: ER13-1241-000. Applicants: Alta Wind IV, LLC. Description: First Revised MBR Tariff to...

  19. 78 FR 57377 - KC Pittsfield LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... of one megawatt or installing a new, smaller turbine. The Alta Powerhouse receives water from the Alta forebay via the Towle canal, which diverts water from Canyon Creek. Water discharged from the Alta..., located at the terminus of the Bear River canal discharge to the Halsey forebay; and (3) approximately...

  20. THE RAPID CYCLING MEDICAL SYNCHROTRON RCMS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEGGS,S.; BARTON,D.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; CARDONA,J.; BRENNAN,M.; FISCHER,W.; GARDNER,C.; GASSNER,D.; ET AL

    2002-06-02

    Thirteen hadron beam therapy facilities began operation between 1990 and 2001 - 5 in Europe, 4 in North America, 3 in Japan, and 1 in South Africa [l]. Ten of them irradiate tumors with protons, 2 with Carbon- 12 ions, and 1 with both protons and Carbon-12. The facility with the highest patient throughput - a total of 6 174 patients in 11 years and as many as 150 patient treatments per day -is the Loma Linda University Medical Center, which uses a weak focusing slow cycling synchrotron to accelerate beam for delivery to passive scattering nozzles at the end of rotatable gantries [2, 3,4]. The Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotron (RCMS) is a second generation synchrotron that, by contrast with the Loma Linda synchrotron, is strong focusing and rapid cycling, with a repetition rate of 30 Hz. Primary parameters for the RCMS are listed in Table 1.

  1. Variations in strength and slip rate along the san andreas fault system.

    PubMed

    Jones, C H; Wesnousky, S G

    1992-04-03

    Convergence across the San Andreas fault (SAF) system is partitioned between strike-slip motion on the vertical SAF and oblique-slip motion on parallel dip-slip faults, as illustrated by the recent magnitude M(s) = 6.0 Palm Springs, M(s) = 6.7 Coalinga, and M(s) = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquakes. If the partitioning of slip minimizes the work done against friction, the direction of slip during these recent earthquakes depends primarily on fault dip and indicates that the normal stress coefficient and frictional coefficient (micro) vary among the faults. Additionally, accounting for the active dip-slip faults reduces estimates of fault slip rates along the vertical trace of the SAF by about 50 percent in the Loma Prieta and 100 percent in the North Palm Springs segments.

  2. Proton Radiation Therapy in the Hospital Environment: Conception, Development, and Operation of the Initial Hospital-Based Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, James M.; Slater, Jerry D.; Wroe, Andrew J.

    The world's first hospital-based proton treatment center opened at Loma Linda University Medical Center in 1990, following two decades of development. Patients' needs were the driving force behind its conception, development, and execution; the primary needs were delivery of effective conformal doses of ionizing radiation and avoidance of normal tissue to the maximum extent possible. The facility includes a proton synchrotron and delivery system developed in collaboration with physicists and engineers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and from other high-energy-physics laboratories worldwide. The system, operated and maintained by Loma Linda personnel, was designed to be safe, reliable, flexible in utilization, efficient in use, and upgradeable to meet demands of changing patient needs and advances in technology. Since the facility opened, nearly 14,000 adults and children have been treated for a wide range of cancers and other diseases. Ongoing research is expanding the applications of proton therapy, while reducing costs.

  3. Broadband Ground Motion Estimates for Scenario Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Using broadband (0-10 Hz) simulation procedures, we are assessing the ground motions that could be generated by different earthquake scenarios occurring on major strike-slip faults of the San Francisco Bay region. These simulations explicitly account for several important ground motion features, including rupture directivity, 3D basin response, and the depletion of high frequency ground motions that occurs for surface rupturing events. This work compliments ongoing USGS efforts to quantify the ground shaking hazards throughout the San Francisco Bay region. These efforts involve development and testing of a 3D velocity model for northern California (USGS Bay Area Velocity Model, version 05.1.0) using observations from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, characterization of 1906 rupture scenarios and ground motions, and the development and analysis of rupture scenarios on other Bay Area faults. The adequacy of the simulation model has been tested using ground motion data recorded during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and by comparison with the reported intensity data from the 1906 earthquake. Comparisons of the simulated broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions with the recorded motions for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrate that the modeling procedure matches the observations without significant bias over a broad range of frequencies, site types, and propagation distances. The Loma Prieta rupture model is based on a wavenumber-squared refinement of the Wald et al (1991) slip distribution, with the rupture velocity set at 75 percent of the local shear wave velocity and a Kostrov-type slip function having a rise time of about 1.4 sec. Simulations of 1906 scenario ruptures indicate very strong directivity effects to the north and south of the assumed epicenter, adjacent to San Francisco. We are currently analyzing additional earthquake scenarios on the Hayward-Rodgers Creek and San Andreas faults in order to provide a more comprehensive framework for assessing

  4. An All-Solid Cryocooler to 100K Based on Optical Refrigeration in Yb:YLF Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-06

    Bahae University of New Mexico Department of Physics and Astronomy 1919 Lomas Blvd., NE Albuquerque, NM 87131 6 May 2014 Final Report...in Yb:YLF Crystals 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 8809 Mansoor Sheik- Bahae 5e. TASK NUMBER...intentionally left blank) Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. i Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Table of

  5. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in San Mateo County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, Angela S.; De Mouthe, Jean; Lajoie, Kenneth R.; Ramsey, David W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $55 million in damages were assessed in San Mateo County. The only fatality attributed to landsliding in the region during the period occurred in San Mateo County near Loma Mar.

  6. Liquid State Thermochemical Decomposition of Neat 1,3,5,5-Tetranitrohexahydropyrimidine (DNNC) and its DNNC-d2, DNNC-d4, DNNC-d6 Structural Isotopomers: Mechanistic Entrance into the DNNC Molecule (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-29

    From - To) 29-05-2007 Journal Article 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Liquid State Thermochemical Decomposition of Neat 1,3,5,5...We gratefully acknowledge the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) for funding this research study. The authors thank Dr. John L...E. Heasley, and Dr. Dale F. Shellhamer, Department of Chemistry, Pt. Loma Nazarene University, San Diego, CA contributed helpful scientific

  7. Ballast Water Treatment Corrosion Scoping Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    One of the risks of treating ballast water is the potential to accelerate corrosion in the ballast tanks and piping . Although most commercially...of treating ballast water is the potential to increase the rate of corrosion in the ballast tanks and piping system which can affect ship safety and...where the coating has disbonded. Figure 2. Example of crevice corrosion that developed under a pipe hanger due to stagnant water . (Lomas

  8. Laser System Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    NEALE CAPT. RANDALL D. GODFREY CAPT. JOHN E. ACTON HR. DAVE B. LEMMING (ASD) :,^ 19 . ••^w**** SECTION III RELIABILITY PREDICTION...Dete Exchange Program) failure rate date bank. In addition, some data have been obtained from Hughes. Rocketdyne , Garrett, and the AFWL’s APT Failure...Central Ave, Suite 306, Albuq, NM 87108 R/M Systems, Inc (Dr. K. Blemel), 10801 Lomas 81vd NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112 Rocketdyne 01 v, Rockwell

  9. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Coos County, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DTM Digital Terrain Model FBFM Flood Boundary and Floodway Map FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FHBM Flood Hazard Boundary Map FIRM Flood...GSP Ground Sample Distance H&H Hydrologic and Hydraulic LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LOMA Letter of Map Amendment LOMC Letters of Map Change LOMR...produced from the following three broad categories of geospatial data: (1) Base Map, (2) Digital Terrain Model ( DTM ), and (3) Flood Insurance Risk

  10. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Belknap County, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DEM Digital Elevation Model DFIRM Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map DOQ Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle DOQQ Digital Ortho Quarter Quadrangle DTM ...Ground Sample Distance H&H Hydrologic and Hydraulic LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LOMA Letter of Map Amendment LOMC Letters of Map Change LOMR Letter...Terrain Model ( DTM ), and (3) Flood Insurance Risk Zones. The spatial accuracy of each of these three categories is fixed by the specifications contained

  11. The Secretary of the Navy/Chief of Naval Operations Chair in Oceanographic Sciences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    2292. Lomas, M., D. Steinberg, T. Dickey, C. Carlson, N. Nelson, R. Condon, and N. Bates, 2009, Increased ocean carbon export in the Sargasso Sea ...predictive capabilities. These efforts bear on various naval operations in adverse weather and sea -state conditions. Mesoscale eddies, their...light across the air- sea interface and into and exiting the surface and upper ocean boundary layers. The first field experiment (relatively benign sea

  12. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Suppresses TLR8 Expression and TLR8-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Monocytes In Vitro and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-14

    International Agency for Research on Cancer , Lyon, France, 3Musculoskeletal Disease Center, Jerry L. Pettis Memorial Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Loma...vitamin D, was able to suppress inflammatory cytokine production in the inflamed EAE spinal cords and effectively ameliorate EAE [6], [7], [8], [9...was recorded daily and presented in the Figure S1A. Immunostaining of the spinal cord sections for microglia/ macrophage maker F4/80 revealed a severe

  13. NHRC (Naval Health Research Center) Report 1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    is located on Point Loma in San Diego and occupies, in tenant status, six of the Naval Ocean Systems Center’s "barracks" buildings , and spaces at the...9. Public Works Center provides maintenance and public works functions, transportation and building custodial services on a reimbursable basis. % 10...working conditions or materials and advises the CO on command safety matters. f. ADP Committee Reviews requests for ADP hardware and software. Evaluates the

  14. Resolution of fault slip along the 470-km-long rupture of the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake and its implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.; Marshall, G.; Lisowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    Data from all available triangulation networks affected by the 1906 earthquake have been combined to assess the trade-off between slip resolution and its uncertainty and to construct a conservative image of coseismic slip along the rupture. Because of varying network aperture and station density, slip resolution is very uneven. Although slip is determined within uncertainties of ??1.0 m along 60% of the fault, constraints are poor on the remaining, mostly offshore portions of the rupture. Slip decreases from maxima of 8.6 and 7.5 m at Shelter Cove and Tomales Bay to 4.5 m near Mount Tamalpais and 2.7 m at Loma Prieta. The geodetically derived slip distribution is in poor agreement with estimates based on analysis of S wave seismograms, probably because these waves register only 20-30% of the total seismic moment obtained from longer-period surface waves. Consideration of a range of fault geometries for 1906 slip near Loma Prieta indicates right-lateral motions lie between 2.3 and 3.1 m. These values are considerably greater than the 1.5 m of measured surface slip on which several assessments of high earthquake hazard for this fault segment were based. This factor, along with the absence of 1989 slippage where 1906 surface slip was used to make the forecasts, casts doubt on some claims of success in predicting the 1989 M = 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake.

  15. Heterogeneous slip and rupture models of the San Andreas fault zone based upon three-dimensional earthquake tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, William

    1992-11-01

    Crystal fault zones exhibit spatially heterogeneous slip behavior at all scales, slip being partitioned between stable frictional sliding, or fault creep, and unstable earthquake rupture. An understanding the mechanisms underlying slip segmentation is fundamental to research into fault dynamics and the physics of earthquake generation. This thesis investigates the influence that large-scale along-strike heterogeneity in fault zone lithology has on slip segmentation. Large-scale transitions from the stable block sliding of the Central 4D Creeping Section of the San Andreas, fault to the locked 1906 and 1857 earthquake segments takes place along the Loma Prieta and Parkfield sections of the fault, respectively, the transitions being accomplished in part by the generation of earthquakes in the magnitude range 6 (Parkfield) to 7 (Loma Prieta). Information on sub-surface lithology interpreted from the Loma Prieta and Parkfield three-dimensional crustal velocity models computed by Michelini (1991) is integrated with information on slip behavior provided by the distributions of earthquakes located using, the three-dimensional models and by surface creep data to study the relationships between large-scale lithological heterogeneity and slip segmentation along these two sections of the fault zone.

  16. [Death as a process: an anthropological perspective].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Bárbara

    2013-09-01

    This article combines recent approximations that question the homology between death and biological demise from an anthropological perspective with the tradition of studies that review the death rituals in the Andean geographical area. In particular, it examines how in El Cajón, Catamarca, Northeast Argentina the dead are incorporated in the cosmologic scheme, and how death, being the initial step for this to occur, is not merely a biological event but also a highly dynamic social process. Based on ethnographical field work and using multiple-session open interviews and participant observation as methodological tools, it presents an analytical proposal that seeks to transcend the homology between death and biological demise, suggesting a notion that includes not only the organic dimension but also the social dimension: the process of death.

  17. [Clinical problems in medical mycology: problem number 45].

    PubMed

    Santiso, Gabriela; Arechavala, Alicia; Maiolo, Elena; Balarezo Juncos, Silvia; Fernández, Marisa Liliana; Messina, Fernando; Bianchi, Mario; Negroni, Ricardo

    2013-01-03

    A 43 year-old diabetic woman, who suffered chronic cough and brown expectoration, is presented in this clinical problem. X-ray exam and CT thorax scan showed a cavitary lung lesion, located at the upper field of the left lung. This lesion had 5 cm in diameter, with a thick wall and a spherical shadow inside. The diagnosis of chronic cavitary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis was based on the isolation of Coccidioides sp. from cultures of expectoration and bronchoalveolar lavage, and the detection of specific antibodies in immunodiffusion test and counterimmunoelectrophoresis with coccidiodin. Her diabetes was not well controlled. She was treated with intravenous amphotericin B and oral itraconazole, with good clinical response; after four months of treatment the patient abandoned clinical controls. We suppose that the patient presented a coccidioidal fungus ball, inside a chronic cavitary lesion due to pulmonary coccidiodomycosis. She came from an endemic zone of coccidioidomycosis in the Northwest of the Argentine Republic (Catamarca Province).

  18. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  19. Stress sensitivity of fault seismicity: A comparison between limited-offset oblique and major strike-slip faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Stein, R.S.; Simpson, R.W.; Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional inventory of the southern San Francisco Bay area faults and use it to calculate stress applied principally by the 1989 M = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake and to compare fault seismicity rates before and after 1989. The major high-angle right-lateral faults exhibit a different response to the stress change than do minor oblique (right-lateral/thrust) faults. Seismicity on oblique-slip faults in the southern Santa Clara Valley thrust belt increased where the faults were unclamped. The strong dependence of seismicity change on normal stress change implies a high coefficient of static friction. In contrast, we observe that faults with significant offset (>50-100 km) behave differently; microseismicity on the Hayward fault diminished where right-lateral shear stress was reduced and where it was unclamped by the Loma Prieta earthquake. We observe a similar response on the San Andreas fault zone in southern California after the Landers earthquake sequence. Additionally, the offshore San Gregorio fault shows a seismicity rate increase where right-lateral/oblique shear stress was increased by the Loma Prieta earthquake despite also being clamped by it. These responses are consistent with either a low coefficient of static friction or high pore fluid pressures within the fault zones. We can explain the different behavior of the two styles of faults if those with large cumulative offset become impermeable through gouge buildup; coseismically pressurized pore fluids could be trapped and negate imposed normal stress changes, whereas in more limited offset faults, fluids could rapidly escape. The difference in behavior between minor and major faults may explain why frictional failure criteria that apply intermediate coefficients of static friction can be effective in describing the broad distributions of aftershocks that follow large earthquakes, since many of these events occur both inside and outside major fault zones.

  20. Vesicularity variation to pyroclasts from silicic eruptions at Laguna del Maule volcanic complex, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, H. M. N.; Fierstein, J.; Amigo, A.; Miranda, J.

    2014-12-01

    Crystal-poor rhyodacitic to rhyolitic volcanic eruptions at Laguna del Maule volcanic complex, Chile have produced an astonishing range of textural variation to pyroclasts. Here, we focus on eruptive deposits from two Quaternary eruptions from vents on the northwestern side of the Laguna del Maule basin: the rhyolite of Loma de Los Espejos and the rhyodacite of Laguna Sin Puerto. Clasts in the pyroclastic fall and pyroclastic flow deposits from the rhyolite of Loma de Los Espejos range from dense, non-vesicular (obsidian) to highly vesicular, frothy (coarsely vesicular reticulite); where vesicularity varies from <1% to >90%. Bulk compositions range from 75.6-76.7 wt.% SiO2. The highest vesicularity clasts are found in early fall deposits and widely dispersed pyroclastic flow deposits; the frothy carapace to lava flows is similarly highly vesicular. Pyroclastic deposits also contain tube pumice, and macroscopically folded, finely vesicular, breadcrusted, and heterogeneously vesiculated textures. We speculate that preservation of the highest vesicularities requires relatively low decompression rates or open system degassing such that relaxation times were sufficient to allow extensive vesiculation. Such an inference is in apparent contradiction to documentation of Plinian dispersal to the eruption. Clasts in the pyroclastic fall deposit of the rhyodacite (68-72 wt.% SiO2) of Laguna Sin Puerto are finely vesicular, with vesicularity modes at ~50% and ~68% corresponding to gray and white pumice colors, respectively. Some clasts are banded in color (and vesicularity). All clasts were fragmented into highly angular particles, with subplanar to slightly concave exterior surfaces (average Wadell Roundness of clast margins between 0.32 and 0.39), indicating brittle fragmentation. In contrast to Loma de Los Espejos, high bubble number densities to Laguna Sin Puerto rhyodacite imply high decompression rates.

  1. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Kennedy, George L.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    1994-07-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ˜80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ˜125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ˜80,000 and the ˜125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ˜105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ˜125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ˜80,000 and ˜105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  2. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ???80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ???125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ???80,000 and the ???125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ???105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ???125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ???80,000 and ???105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  3. Feasibility Survey of Pilot Prevention and Health Intervention Strategies Management Information Analysis Center (PRHISM-IAC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Group Zip: 39215 City: Plattsburgh AFB State: NY Zip: 12903 106 Las Name: Bricceni Last Name: Brown First Name: Albert B. Col First Name: Linda Dr...Col First Name: David Dr. Address: PO Box 953 Phone Number: 919-541-3441 City: Loma Linda Company Name: Department of Health State: CA Address: PO Box...MT 59402-5300 131 Last Name: Hunt Last Name: Ibrahim First Name: Don Mr. First Name: Michel Dr. Phone Number: 614-522-7712 Phone Number: 919-966-3215

  4. A philosophy for restoring virgin caries.

    PubMed

    Henry, Dan B

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates and discusses the clinical relevance for the use of direct gold, especially in restoring virgin caries in the modern restorative dental practice. In addition, this article is intented to highlight the advantages for oral health of placing restorative materials with the highest probability of long-term success. Also, this paper demonstrates the use of the latest formula of direct gold (E-Z Gold), developed by Dr Lloyd Baum of Loma Linda, CA, USA, and how this new product has made it practical to include direct gold restorations as an integral part of an active restorative practice.

  5. Preclinical Mouse Models of Neurofibromatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    Tumor Center, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202, USA; 5Department of Biology and Center for Cancer Research, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute...206. Lomas, J., Bello, M.J., Arjona, D., Alonso, M.E., Martinez-Glez, V., Lopez-Marin, I., Aminoso, C., de Campos , J.M., Isla, A., Vaquero, J., et al... Varga , M., Ramesh, V., Gusella, J., and Maruta, H. 1994. An anti-Ras function of neurofibromatosis type 2 gene product (NF2/Merlin). J. Biol. Chem

  6. Wind Measuring and Indication System Maintenance Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Speed 2R 6660 00-556-1895 ID 586 Indicator, Direction 2R 6660 00-527-9496 and Speed RD 108B Recorder 2R 6660 00-552-0095 "MT 535 Mount 2R 6660 00-223...TOLOVANA TO 00002 LCC 7 USS MOUNT MCKINLEY ZC 00001 AGDS 2 USS POINT LOMA ZA 00002 AF, I USS MARS ZA 00002 AOE I USS SACRAMENTG ZA 00002 AOE 2 USS CAMDEN...USS SANTA BARBARA ZA 00002 AE 29 USS MOUNT HOOD ZA 00002 AE 32 USS FLINT T A 00002 AE 33 USS SHASTA ZA 00002 AE 34 USS MOUNT BAKER ZA 00002 AFS 6 USS

  7. New Argentine Central-West Line taps rich Neuquen gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.

    1982-02-01

    Argentina's Centro-Oeste (Central-West) Gas Pipeline is now a reality, carrying gas from the extensive Loma de la Lata (Hill of Tin) field in Neuquen State to cities which had been relying on bottled gas. The project is impressive, but hardly seems unique. A pipeline consisting of 697 miles of 30-in. line and 451 miles of smaller diameter gathering and distribution lines is a big project but nothing that has not been done before. Sometimes figures and statistics hide more than they reveal. A discussion is provided of project financing, logistics, pipeline outlets, treatment plants, route, construction, other lines, compressor stations, and suppliers.

  8. Palaeobiology: Argentinian unhatched pterosaur fossil.

    PubMed

    Chiappe, Luis M; Codorniú, Laura; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Rivarola, David

    2004-12-02

    Our knowledge of the eggs and embryos of pterosaurs, the Mesozoic flying reptiles, is sparse. Until now, the recent discovery of an ornithocheirid embryo from 121-million-year-old rocks in China constituted the only reliable evidence of an unhatched pterosaur. Here we describe an embryonic fossil of a different pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous lacustrine deposits of Loma del Pterodaustro (the Lagarcito Formation, which is about 100 million years old) in central Argentina. This new fossil provides insight into the eggshell morphology, early growth and nesting environments of pterosaurs.

  9. Timing and nature of alluvial fan and strath terrace formation in the Eastern Precordillera of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedrick, Kathryn; Owen, Lewis A.; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Meigs, Andrew; Costa, Carlos; Caffee, Marc W.; Masana, Eulalia; Ahumada, Emilio

    2013-11-01

    Sixty-eight 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages are presented to define the timing of alluvial fan and strath terrace formation in the hyper-arid San Juan region of the Argentine Precordillera. This region is tectonically active, and numerous fault scarps traverse Quaternary landforms. The three study sites, Marquesado strath complex, Loma Negra alluvial fan and Carpintería strath complex reveal a history of alluvial fan and strath terrace development over the past ˜225 ka. The Marquesado complex Q3m surface dates to ˜17 ± 3 ka, whereas the Loma Negra Q1ln, Q2ln, Q3ln, Q4ln, and Q5ln surfaces date to ˜24 ± 3 ka, ˜48 ± 2 ka, ˜65 ± 13 ka, ˜105 ± 21 ka, and ˜181 ± 29 ka, respectively. The Carpintería complex comprises eight surfaces that have been dated and include the Q1c (˜23 ± 3 ka), Q2c (˜5 ± 5 ka), Q3ac (˜25 ± 12 ka), Q3bc (˜29 ± 15 ka), Q4c (˜61 ± 12 ka), Q5c (˜98 ± 18 ka), Q6c (˜93 ± 18 ka), and Q7c (˜212 ± 37 ka). 10Be TCN depth profile data for the Loma Negra alluvial fan complex and Carpintería strath terrace complex, as well as OSL ages on some Carpintería deposits, aid in refining surface ages for comparison with local and global climate proxies, and additionally offer insights into inheritance and erosion rate values for TCNs (˜10 × 10410Be atoms/g of SiO2 and ˜5 m Ma-1, respectively). Comparison with other alluvial fan studies in the region show that less dynamic and older preserved surfaces occur in the Carpintería and Loma Negra areas with only younger alluvial fan surfaces preserved both to the north and south. These data in combination with that of other studies illustrate broad regional agreement between alluvial fan and strath terrace ages, which suggests that climate is the dominant forcing agent in the timing of terrace formation in this region.

  10. U.S. Coast Guard 1994 Oil Pollution Research Grants Publications - Part II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    discussion with the FBI). Medical Emergency Situations: The Loma Linda University Pediatric Cardiology unit (discussions are in process with UCLAs ICUs). We...INAC~C W190 ___gw ?.ý KrCC-1MC KCC(hIA r M MC CL M(Koh sKKmKKKm ZK ( KJCCCCCCCM K.x. USMCCCKK CKKM(MK(KC M- SO MKK(MCVCCK.1C-Il ~ ~ ~ p~ J3 XTMNg~l~ "Cl x...laboratories, petrochemicals, nuclear power, computer hardware, and medical care organizations. A major issue was the use of crew resource management (a

  11. Inhalation Toxicity of Single Materials and Mixtures. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-29

    Lymphocytes (percent leukocytes counted) MONO . monocytes (percent leukocytes counted) EOS - eosinophiLs (percent leukocytes counted) BASO - basophiLs...leukocytes counted) LYMPH - lymphocytes (percent leukocytes counted) MONO - monocytes (percent leukocytes counted) EOS - eosinophils (percent leukocytes...Ex 24 24 0 9 12 12 PULMONARY LN # Ex 21 22 0 8 10 6 Hyperptasia 0 2 0.18 0 8 2.38 0 0 Granu loma 0 0 0 0 6 1.70 6 3.83 Pigment 0 0 0 8 3.00 0 0

  12. Uses of the internet in emergency response.

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C. L.; Newsom, D. E.; Swietlik, C. E.; Bertram, K. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    1999-01-01

    Past and potential future uses of the Internet in emergency preparedness and emergency response are examined. Discussion of past experience in use of the Internet in crises includes some examples from the Kobe earthquake in 1995, the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989, and the ice storm in the northeastern United States in 1998. Various advantages and drawbacks of use of the Internet in emergency response are examined. Both some promising applications and issues that may arise in use of the Internet for emergency response are discussed.

  13. Data Files for Ground-Motion Simulations of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Scenario Earthquakes on the Northern San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Barall, Michael; Brocher, Thomas M.; Dolenc, David; Dreger, Douglas; Graves, Robert W.; Harmsen, Stephen; Hartzell, Stephen; Larsen, Shawn; McCandless, Kathleen; Nilsson, Stefan; Petersson, N. Anders; Rodgers, Arthur; Sjogreen, Bjorn; Zoback, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    This data set contains results from ground-motion simulations of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, seven hypothetical earthquakes on the northern San Andreas Fault, and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The bulk of the data consists of synthetic velocity time-histories. Peak ground velocity on a 1/60th degree grid and geodetic displacements from the simulations are also included. Details of the ground-motion simulations and analysis of the results are discussed in Aagaard and others (2008a,b).

  14. Nearshore Pelagic Microbial Community Abundance Affects Recruitment Success of Giant Kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Megan M.; Haggerty, John M.; Papudeshi, Bhavya N.; Vega, Alejandro A.; Edwards, Matthew S.; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microbes mediate key ecological processes in kelp forest ecosystems and interact with macroalgae. Pelagic and biofilm-associated microbes interact with macroalgal propagules at multiple stages of recruitment, yet these interactions have not been described for Macrocystis pyrifera. Here we investigate the influence of microbes from coastal environments on recruitment of giant kelp, M. pyrifera. Through repeated laboratory experiments, we tested the effects of altered pelagic microbial abundance on the settlement and development of the microscopic propagules of M. pyrifera during recruitment. M. pyrifera zoospores were reared in laboratory microcosms exposed to environmental microbial communities from seawater during the complete haploid stages of the kelp recruitment cycle, including zoospore release, followed by zoospore settlement, to gametophyte germination and development. We altered the microbial abundance states differentially in three independent experiments with repeated trials, where microbes were (a) present or absent in seawater, (b) altered in community composition, and (c) altered in abundance. Within the third experiment, we also tested the effect of nearshore versus offshore microbial communities on the macroalgal propagules. Distinct pelagic microbial communities were collected from two southern California temperate environments reflecting contrasting intensity of human influence, the nearshore Point Loma kelp forest and the offshore Santa Catalina Island kelp forest. The Point Loma kelp forest is a high impacted coastal region adjacent to the populous San Diego Bay; whereas the kelp forest at Catalina Island is a low impacted region of the Channel Islands, 40 km offshore the southern California coast, and is adjacent to a marine protected area. Kelp gametophytes reared with nearshore Point Loma microbes showed lower survival, growth, and deteriorated morphology compared to gametophytes with the offshore Catalina Island microbial community

  15. Synchrotrons for Hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullia, Marco G.

    Since 1990, when the world's first hospital-based proton therapy center opened in Loma Linda, California, interest in dedicated proton and carbon ion therapy facilities has been growing steadily. Today, many proton therapy centers are in operation, but the number of centers offering carbon ion therapy is still very low. This difference reflects the fact that protons are well accepted by the medical community, whereas radiotherapy with carbon ions is still experimental. Furthermore, accelerators for carbon ions are larger, more complicated and more expensive than those for protons only. This article describes the accelerator performance required for hadrontherapy and how this is realized, with particular emphasis on carbon ion synchrotrons.

  16. Basic ideas and concepts in hot wire anemometry: an experimental approach for introductory physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of hot wire anemometry is to measure the speed of an air stream. The classical method is based on the measure of the value of a temperature dependant resistor inserted in a Wheatstone bridge (Lomas 1986 Fundamentals of Hot Wire Anemometry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this paper we exhibit the physics behind this method and show that by using a wire whose resistance does not vary on the field of temperature explored (from 20 °C to 200 °C), it is however possible to make accurate measurements. Finally, limitations of the method are discussed.

  17. Seismotectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Hauksson, E. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in seismotectonics, the characterization of the structural framework of a region using earthquake, geophysical, geodetic, and geological data, are discussed in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Sections are devoted to the transform boundary in California (the San Andreas fault system, the Central Coast and Transverse ranges, the Los Angeles basin, and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake), intraplate regions and subduction zones in the U.S., ridge and transform boundaries, and volcanic seismicity. A comprehensive bibliography is provided.

  18. Impact of less invasive treatments including sclerotherapy with a new agent and hemorrhoidopexy for prolapsing internal hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Yukihiko; Sasaki, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Conventional hemorrhoidectomy is applied for the treatment of prolapsing internal hemorrhoids. Recently, less-invasive treatments such as sclerotherapy using aluminum potassium sulphate/tannic acid (ALTA) and a procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) have been introduced. We compared the results of sclerotherapy with ALTA and an improved type of PPH03 with those of hemorrhoidectomy. Between January 2006 and March 2009, we performed hemorrhoidectomy in 464 patients, ALTA in 940 patients, and PPH in 148 patients with second- and third-degree internal hemorrhoids according to the Goligher's classification. The volume of ALTA injected into a hemorrhoid was 7.3 ± 2.2 (mean ± SD) mL. The duration of the operation was significantly shorter in ALTA (13 ± 2 minutes) than in hemorrhoidectomy (43 ± 5 minutes) or PPH (32 ± 12 minutes). Postoperative pain, requiring intravenous pain medications, occurred in 65 cases (14%) in hemorrhoidectomy, in 16 cases (1.7%) in ALTA, and in 1 case (0.7%) in PPH. The disappearance rates of prolapse were 100% in hemorrhoidectomy, 96% in ALTA, and 98.6% in PPH. ALTA can be performed on an outpatient basis without any severe pain or complication, and PPH is a useful alternative treatment with less pain. Less-invasive treatments are beneficial when performed with care to avoid complications.

  19. 76 FR 80356 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Numbers: EC12-50-000 Applicants: Alta Wind VIII, LLC, BAIF U.S. Renewable Power Holdings LLC Description... Power Act and Request for Expedited Action of Alta Wind VIII, LLC, et al. Filed Date: 12/14/11 Accession...: ISO New England Inc. submits tariff filing per 35.13(a)(2)(iii: Load Reconstitution for...

  20. Student Projects in Cosmic Ray Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, W.; Pinfold, J.; Soluk, R.; McDonough, B.; Pasek, V.; Bao-shan, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The Alberta Large-area Time-coincidence Array (ALTA) study has been in existence for about 10 years under the direction of Jim Pinfold of the Centre for Particle Physics at the University of Alberta. The purpose of the ALTA project is to involve Alberta high schools, and primarily their physics classes, to assist in the detection of the presence…

  1. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-21

    A.R. de Arellano-López, A. Sayir. “Microestructura y Comportamiento Plástico de Perovsquitas Conductoras Protónicas de Alta Temperatura ”. Bol. Soc...Conductores Protónicos de Alta Temperatura Crecidos por Fusión de Zona Flotante”. VII Reunión Nacional y VI Conferencia Iberoamericana (Electrocerámica

  2. Microalloyed HSLA (High Strength Low Alloy) Steels: Proceedings of Microalloying 󈨜 Held in Conjunction with the 1988 World Materials Congress, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-30 September 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Baixa (27) POSCO Steel Products. Pohang Iron and Liga e Alta Resistencia (acos BLAR) com Niobio. Steel Company Ltd. Conpany publication. Siderurgia...R.C.. Perspectivas Tecnologicas Chapas Grossas de Alta Resistencia Originadas para a Ind6stria Sideriirgica Brasileira. do Lingotamento Continuo

  3. 77 FR 74652 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 1 Take notice that the Commission received the...; ER10-2605-004. Applicants: Agua Caliente Solar, LLC, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Topaz...

  4. 76 FR 43318 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... on Tuesday, August 02, 2011. Docket Numbers: ER11-2206-001. Applicants: Alta Wind V, LLC. Description: Alta Wind V, LLC, Notice of Non-Material Change in Status. Filed Date: 07/13/2011. Accession Number... WDT SERV AG SCE-GBU 2782 W. Edison Porterville, CA Roof Top Solor Project to be effective...

  5. Using Web-Based Conferencing in Post-Secondary Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichelmeyer, B. A.; Kiggins, Elizabeth A.

    This paper highlights features, uses, and training issues related to AltaVista Forums, a World Wide Web-based conferencing tool. An overview of the features of AltaVista Forums is provided; highlights include asynchronous online discussions, chats, document attachments, URL posting, a calendar feature, and mail-to listings. Pricing and system…

  6. Geopolitical Data Elements and Related Features

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-09-29

    AL HOCEIMA PEN I MELLAL CASABLANCA (PREFECTURE) EL JAOIDA FES KENITRA KHOURIPGA KSAR ES SOUK MARPAKECH WEKNES NADOR OUARZAZATE OUJOA...SEBASTIAN RQ6* SANTA ISABEL R066 TOA ALTA R067 TOA RAJA R068 TRUJILLO ALTO R069 UT’IADO R070 VFGA ALTA R071 VEGA RAJA P07? VIEQUES R073

  7. 77 FR 34373 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... following exempt wholesale generator filings: Docket Numbers: EG12-70-000. Applicants: AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC. Description: Notice of EWG Self-Certification of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado...: ER12-1834-001. Applicants: Vermont Electric Power Company, Inc. Description: Amendment to True...

  8. Proton therapy construction projects in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    Proton and heavy-ion radiation therapy has been taking place now for 40 years, at many accelerator laboratories around the world, essentially all of these centers built originally for physics research. The high degree of promise shown for using these particles for treating and curing cancer has stimulated the medical community to look seriously at building dedicated accelerator facilities in a hospital setting, where more rapid progress can be made in clinical research, and development of effective treatments with these beams. In the United States, the first such facility, at the Loma Linda University Medical Center, has been in operation now for two years, and is currently treating a total of 35 to 40 patients per day. Two new projects are being designed at present, one at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, the second a joint project of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the University of California at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento, California. This paper will discuss accelerator and beam characteristics relevant to the proton-therapy application, and will present performance and operations characteristics for the Loma Linda facility, as well as details of the plans, process and progress towards construction of the new facilities in Boston and Sacramento.

  9. Magnetic Anomaly Modeling of Volcanic Structure and Stratigraphy - Socorro Island, Eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Escorza-Reyes, Marisol; Pavon-Moreno, Julio; Perez-Cruz, Ligia; Sanchez-Zamora, Osvaldo

    2013-04-01

    Results of a magnetic survey of the volcanic structure of Socorro Island in the Revillagigedo Archipielago are presented. Socorro is part of a group of seamounts and oceanic islands built by volcanic activity at the northern end of the Mathematician ridge and intersection with the Clarion and Rivera fracture zones. Subaerial volcanic activity is characterized by alkaline and peralkaline compositions, marked by pre-, syn- and post-caldera phases of the Evermann volcano, and the Holocene mafic activity of the Lomas Coloradas. The magnetic survey conducted in the central-southern sector of the island permits to investigate the volcanic structure and subsurface stratigraphy. Regional fields for second- and third-degree polynomials show a magnetic low over the caldera, positive anomalies above the pre-caldera deposits and intermediate amplitude anomalies over Lomas Coloradas. Residual fields delineate the structural rim of the caldera, anomaly trends for the pre- and post-caldera deposits and a broad anomaly over Lomas Coloradas. Regional-residual anomalies, first vertical derivative, analytical upward and downward continuations, and forward four-layer modeling are used to construct the geophysical models. Rock magnetic properties were analyzed on samples collected at 24 different sites. Magnetic susceptibility showed wide range of variation from ~10 to ~500 10-3 SI, corresponding to the different lithologies from trachytes and glass-rich tuffs to alkali basalts. Data have been divided into groups with low, intermediate and high values. Rock magnetic analyses indicate that magnetite and titanomagnetites are the main magnetization carriers. Magnetic hysteresis loops indicate low coercivity minerals, with high saturation and remanent magnetizations and PSD domain states. Magnetic susceptibility versus temperature curves show irreversible behavior with Curie temperatures around 560-575 C, suggesting magnetite and Ti-poor titanomagnetites. Paleomagnetic directions

  10. A new Tertiary borax deposit in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, R. N.; Helvacı, C.; Sureda, R. J.; Viramonte, J. G.

    1988-10-01

    The Loma Blanca borate deposit was formed in the muds of playa-lake environments during the Late Miocene and is the fourth Tertiary commercial borax deposit discovered within the borate districts of the world. It is the only South American deposit known to contain any of the minerals colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax, tincalconite and teruggite with a unique and characteristic mineral sequence among the other Argentinian borate deposits. The Loma Blanca deposit is characterized by abundant Ca, Na and B, very low Cl and relatively high As, S and Mg concentrations compared with other borate deposits. Thermal springs and hydrothermal solutions associated with local volcanic activity are thought to be the source of the borates. The early colemanite, inyoite, ulexite, borax and teruggite nodules and crystals appear to have been formed directly from brines penecontemporaneously within the unconsolidated sediments, and they continued to grow as the sediments were compacted. Later generations of borate minerals occur in vughs, veins and as thin layers. Diagenetic alterations include the partial replacement of borax by ulexite and tincalconite; when weathered, borates are often almost completely replaced by calcite.

  11. Modeling and validation of a 3D velocity structure for the Santa Clara Valley, California, for seismic-wave simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Williams, R.A.; Carver, D.; Frankel, A.; Choy, G.; Liu, P.-C.; Jachens, R.C.; Brocher, T.M.; Wentworth, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 3D seismic velocity and attenuation model is developed for Santa Clara Valley, California, and its surrounding uplands to predict ground motions from scenario earthquakes. The model is developed using a variety of geologic and geophysical data. Our starting point is a 3D geologic model developed primarily from geologic mapping and gravity and magnetic surveys. An initial velocity model is constructed by using seismic velocities from boreholes, reflection/refraction lines, and spatial autocorrelation microtremor surveys. This model is further refined and the seismic attenuation is estimated through waveform modeling of weak motions from small local events and strong-ground motion from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Waveforms are calculated to an upper frequency of 1 Hz using a parallelized finite-difference code that utilizes two regions with a factor of 3 difference in grid spacing to reduce memory requirements. Cenozoic basins trap and strongly amplify ground motions. This effect is particularly strong in the Evergreen Basin on the northeastern side of the Santa Clara Valley, where the steeply dipping Silver Creek fault forms the southwestern boundary of the basin. In comparison, the Cupertino Basin on the southwestern side of the valley has a more moderate response, which is attributed to a greater age and velocity of the Cenozoic fill. Surface waves play a major role in the ground motion of sedimentary basins, and they are seen to strongly develop along the western margins of the Santa Clara Valley for our simulation of the Loma Prieta earthquake.

  12. Paleohydrologic bounds and extreme flood frequency of the Upper Arkansas River, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, J. F., Jr.; Godaire, J. E.; Klinger, R. E.; Bauer, T. R.; Julien, P. Y.

    2010-12-01

    The Upper Arkansas River basin has experienced notable large floods, including the event of 2-6 June 1921 that devastated the city of Pueblo, Colorado. We investigated flood and paleoflood hydrology at strategic sites to determine the frequency and geographic extent of extreme floods within the basin for a dam safety application. Streamgage, historical, and paleoflood data were utilized to develop frequency curves at sites near Salida, Cotopaxi, Parkdale, and Pueblo. Soil/stratigraphic descriptions, radiocarbon dating, and hydraulic modeling were used to estimate paleoflood nonexceedance bounds at the four sites, which ranged from 400 to 2200 YBP for late Holocene surfaces to late Pleistocene surfaces near Cotopaxi. Peak-flow data are from lower-magnitude snowmelt runoff in May and June in the upper basin and from high-magnitude rainfall runoff from June to August in the lower basin. Flood frequency curves reflect this transition near Parkdale from snowmelt to extreme rainfall-runoff. For similar return periods, paleoflood peak discharges increase from about 480 m 3/s upstream at Loma Linda to about 4250 m 3/s downstream near Pueblo. This increase is attributed to the larger rainfall component derived from lower elevations between Loma Linda and Pueblo. Return periods for design floods at Pueblo Dam exceeded 10,000 years based on paleoflood frequency curve extrapolations.

  13. Evaluation of CAMEL - comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, S.B.; Keefer, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    A new comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides (CAMEL) has been developed to assist in planning decisions related to disaster risk reduction. CAMEL provides an integrated framework for modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides using fuzzy logic systems and geographic information systems. CAMEL is designed to facilitate quantitative and qualitative representation of terrain conditions and knowledge about these conditions on the likely areal concentration of each landslide type. CAMEL has been empirically evaluated with respect to disrupted landslides (Category I) using a case study of the 1989 M = 6.9 Loma Prieta, CA earthquake. In this case, CAMEL performs best in comparison to disrupted slides and falls in soil. For disrupted rock fall and slides, CAMEL's performance was slightly poorer. The model predicted a low occurrence of rock avalanches, when none in fact occurred. A similar comparison with the Loma Prieta case study was also conducted using a simplified Newmark displacement model. The area under the curve method of evaluation was used in order to draw comparisons between both models, revealing improved performance with CAMEL. CAMEL should not however be viewed as a strict alternative to Newmark displacement models. CAMEL can be used to integrate Newmark displacements with other, previously incompatible, types of knowledge. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  15. Karyotypic variation in the Andean rodent Phyllotisxanthopygus (Waterhouse, 1837) (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae).

    PubMed

    Labaroni, Carolina Alicia; Malleret, Matías Maximiliano; Novillo, Agustina; Ojeda, Agustina; Rodriguez, Daniela; Cuello, Pablo; Ojeda, Ricardo; Dardo Martí; Lanzone, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Phyllotisxanthopygus (Waterhouse, 1837) is an Andean rodent endemic to South America. Despite its wide geographical distribution in Argentina, few individuals have been studied on the cytogenetic level and only through conventional staining. In this work, chromosome characterization of Argentine samples of this species was performed using solid staining, C-banding and base-specific fluorochromes. Twenty two specimens were analyzed, collected in the provinces of Jujuy, Catamarca, and the north and south of Mendoza. All studied specimens showed 2n=38, having mostly the bi-armed autosomes, metacentric or submetacentric. Fundamental Number varied between 70 and 72. These changes were due to the presence of chromosome heteromorphisms in individuals from southern Mendoza and Jujuy. C-banding revealed pericentromeric blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in most chromosomes. Acrocentric chromosomes involved in heteromorphisms showed high variation in the amount of heterochromatin within and among populations. Additionally, banding with fluorochromes (DAPI and chromomycin A3) revealed homologous localization of AT and GC rich regions among chromosomes of the different populations analyzed. Comparisons among heteromorphic pairs suggested, however, that the variation might be the result of complex chromosome rearrangements, involving possibly amplifications and/or deletions of heterochromatic segments. These results are in accordance with molecular studies that indicate genetic variability within and among the populations of this taxon.

  16. Molecular phylogeography of the Chagas' disease vector Triatoma infestans in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pérez de Rosas, A R; Segura, E L; García, B A

    2011-01-01

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas' disease in South America between latitudes 10°S and 46°S. A multilocus microsatellite data set of 836 individuals from 27 populations of T. infestans, from all its range of distribution in Argentina, was analyzed. Our results favor the hypothesis of two independent migration events of colonization in Argentina and secondary contacts. The majority of the populations of the western provinces of Catamarca, La Rioja, San Juan and the west of Cordoba province, had almost no shared ancestry with the rest of the populations analyzed. Probably those populations, belonging to localities close to the Andean region, could have been established by the dispersal line of T. infestans that would have arrived to Argentina through the Andes, whereas most of the rest of the populations analyzed may have derived from the dispersal line of T. infestans in non-Andean lowlands. Among them, those from the provinces of Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero and Santa Fe shared different percentages of ancestry and presented lower degree of genetic differentiation. The migratory movement linked to regional economies and possibly associated with passive dispersal, would allow a higher genetic exchange among these populations of T. infestans. This study, using microsatellite markers, provides a new approach for evaluating the validity of the different hypotheses concerning the evolutionary history of this species. Two major lineages of T. infestans, an Andean and non-Andean, are suggested. PMID:21224874

  17. Quantification by SEM-EDS in uncoated non-conducting samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván Josa, V.; Castellano, G.; Bertolino, S. R.

    2013-07-01

    An approach to perform elemental quantitative analysis in a conventional scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive spectrometer has been developed for non-conductive samples in which the conductive coating should be avoided. Charge accumulation effects, which basically decrease the energy of the primary beam, were taken into account by means of the Duane-Hunt limit. This value represents the maximum energy of the continuum X-ray spectrum, and is related to the effective energy of the incident electron beam. To validate the results obtained by this procedure, a non-conductive sample of known composition was quantified without conductive coating. Complementarily, changes in the X-ray spectrum due to charge accumulation effects were studied by Monte Carlo simulations, comparing relative characteristic intensities as a function of the incident energy. This methodology is exemplified here to obtain the chemical composition of white and reddish archaeological pigments belonging to the Ambato style of "Aguada" culture (Catamarca, Argentina 500-1100 AD). The results obtained in this work show that the quantification procedure taking into account the Duane-Hunt limit is suitable for this kind of samples. This approach may be recommended for the quantification of samples for which coating is not desirable, such as ancient artwork, forensic or archaeological samples, or when the coating element is also present in the sample.

  18. Influence of oregano essential oil on traditional Argentinean cheese elaboration: Effect on lactic starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Marcial, Guillermo E; Gerez, Carla L; de Kairuz, Martha Nuñez; Araoz, Victoria Coll; Schuff, Carola; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    The aim of this work is to study the oregano essential oil (OEO) composition from Northwestern Argentinean regions and to evaluate its effect on the lactic starter cultures. The oregano used, Origanum vulgare var hirtum, was obtained from Andalgalá, Catamarca. The essential oil presented high amounts of α-terpinene (10%), γ-terpinene (15.1%), terpinen-4-ol (15.5%) and thymol (13.0%) as the main components. No negative effect on growth or metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 728 and CRL 813, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 656 and CRL 468, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CRL 597 up to the maximum concentration (200μg/g) assayed was observed. No differences in the organoleptic characteristics of semi-hard cheeses flavored with oregano essential oil (200μg/g) and homemade cheeses flavored with oregano leaves were found. With respect to the microbiological quality of the products, neither enterobacteria nor mold and yeast were detected during ripening in essential-oil flavored cheese compared to control cheese (enterobacteria 2×10(3)UFC/g) and cheese flavored with oregano leaves (mold/yeast 4×10(4)CFU/g). Our results showed that the use of oregano essential oil and lactic starter culture considerably improved cheese quality.

  19. Sitios de interés astronómico en el Noroeste Argentino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; Mosconi, M.; García Lambas, D.; Sarazin, M.; Giovanelli, R.

    Se presenta la distribución geográfica de nubosidad en la región comprendida entre las latitudes 23o y 28o Sur, y las longitudes 66o y 69o Oeste, obtenida a partir del análisis de imágenes GOES, tomadas durante los años 1999 al 2002 inclusive. Del análisis de esta información, se revelan como de gran interés las áreas circundantes a los Salares de Antofalla y de Arizaro, en la región de la Puna, en las provincias de Catamarca y Salta. Se hacen comentarios sobre sitios explorados en estas regiones y sobre las posibilidades de asentamientos de grandes facilidades astronómicas en la región. Se complementa la presentación con información tectónica, topográfica y logística de relevante importancia y, finalmente, se discute sobre la selección de emplazamientos para dos estaciones meteorológicas automáticas de la Universidad de Cornell, en las áreas mencionadas.

  20. A new species of Hammerschmidtiella Chitwood, 1932 (Nematoda, Thelastomatidae) parasite of the brown cockroach Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister, 1838 (Blattodea, Blattidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Camino, Nora Beatriz; de Villalobos, Cristina

    2012-03-01

    A new species of the genus Hammerschmidtiella, H. eltalaensis sp. nov. parasitizing a brown cockroach Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister from El Tala river, Catamarca, Argentina, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by having the cuticle striated, without lateral alae, mouth with three toothed lips and eight labial papillae, amphids small and pore shaped, buccal capsule short, wide, with four mobile teeth, oesophagus with metacorpus valvate, isthmus cylindrical and thin surrounded by nerve ring, and a rounded basal bulb heavily muscled and valvate, the vulva is slightly protruding and lies in the anterior third of the body, didelphic, prodelphic, eggs small and elongate, the male with one spicule, without gubernaculum, the genital papillae arranged in one pair of small preanal papillae, and two postanal papillae, one pair is the base of the tail appendage. Tail appendage very long, thin, and reaching almost one third of the length of the body in the female. In the male the posterior end of the body abruptly truncated posterior to anus with spine-like long tail appendage.

  1. Phlebotominae sand flies associated with a tegumentary leishmaniasis outbreak, Tucumán Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Flores, Isolina; Andina, Ana María; Molina, Silvia; Montivero, Lucía; Rosales, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of sand flies and cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the area surrounding JB Alberd city, and the proximities of Catamarca province were studied, after an increase of reported cases from JB Alberdi, Tucumán province, in 2003. Of 14 confirmed cases, 57% were females and 57% were less than 15 years old, suggesting peridomestic transmission. However, 86% of them lived close to the Marapa river forest gallery and related wooded areas. Over 1,013 sand flies were collected; Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) was prevalent at all the sites (92.3%), while Lutzomyia migonei (França, 1920) (6.7%) and Lu. cortelezzii (Brèthes, 1923) (1%) were also found. The spatial distribution of Lu. neivai overlapped that of the cases, with higher abundance in microfocal hot spots close to the river in stable vegetated habitats or modified habitats with shadow and animal blood sources. The cumulative outcome of anthropic, ecological and climatic factors could have contributed to the onset of the outbreak.

  2. Final Technical Progress Report: High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program; July 14, 2010 - January 13, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mattos, L.

    2012-03-01

    This is the final technical progress report of the High-Efficiency Low-Cost Thin-Film GaAs Photovoltaic Module Development Program. Alta Devices has successfully completed all milestones and deliverables established as part of the NREL PV incubator program. During the 18 months of this program, Alta has proven all key processes required to commercialize its solar module product. The incubator focus was on back end process steps directed at conversion of Alta's high quality solar film into high efficiency 1-sun PV modules. This report describes all program deliverables and the work behind each accomplishment.

  3. Characterizing Slow Slip Events on the Hayward Fault from Two Decades of SBAS-InSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanson, I. A.; Burgmann, R.

    2011-12-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), two million people live in a geologically complex, tectonically active region that has experienced several historic earthquakes, including the 1868 Hayward, the 1906 San Francisco, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (2008) puts a 63% probability of a M6.7 or greater in the SFBA before 2038 and a 31% probability for the Hayward fault alone, the highest for any fault in the SFBA. The Hayward fault along the eastern side of San Francisco Bay is arguably one of the most hazardous faults in the world when one combines the probability of an earthquake with proximity to urban centers. Assessment of earthquake potential along Bay Area faults is complicated by the recognition that the system is not static and, in particular, that creep rates vary through time. Hayward fault monitoring by creepmeter, strainmeter and alinement array has detected a number of variations in creep rate on the Hayward fault. The largest in 1996, when an alinement array survey detected a SSE that produced 18 mm of fault creep within at most 63 days. The SSE also marked a change in longer-term creep rate, from nearly zero post-Loma Prieta to 3.9 mm/yr, still lower than the pre-Loma Prieta rate of ~9 mm/yr. More recent alinement array surveys (since 2006) show an increase in creep rates on the southern Hayward fault by ~2-5 mm/yr over the long-term average. The Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach is a method for extracting time series of range change at certain locations from a large set of InSAR data and is well suited to reveal time varying deformation without a known functional form. This project incorporates time series processing of InSAR data spanning 18 years and three satellites, together with 17 years of GPS acquisitions. In particular, we use these data to investigate slow slip events (SSEs) on the Hayward fault. The spatial density of SBAS-InSAR gives us more information on the spatial extent of the

  4. Primary and secondary carbonaceous species in the atmosphere of Western Riverside County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Sawant, Aniket A.; Song, Chen; Cocker, David R.

    Elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and PM 2.5 mass concentrations were measured from September 2001 through January 2002 in Mira Loma, CA. EC and OC were analyzed using the NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) 5040 thermal/optical transmittance method. OC concentrations in Mira Loma were found to be higher than those of other urban sites in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB), while EC concentrations were comparable to or lower than those of other SoCAB sites. Overall, OC and EC concentrations accounted for 26% and 5% of the total PM 2.5, respectively. OC/EC ratios ranged from 1.6 to 12.8 with an average of 5.2. These values were higher than those observed at other urban sites in the United States by a factor of 2. A stronger correlation between suspended OC and EC concentrations was noted in months with lower photochemical activity (December and January, r=0.82) than in months with greater photochemical activity (September and October, r=0.64). The elevated levels of OC, OC/EC ratios, and the seasonal difference in correlation between OC and EC concentrations were attributed in part to significant secondary organic aerosol formation. The fraction of total organic carbon that was secondary organic carbon (SOC) was estimated using the OC/EC minimum ratio method and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling. Based on the OC/EC minimum ratio method, the contribution of SOC to the total organic carbon tended to be higher during the months with greater photochemical activity (63%) than those with lower photochemical activity (44%). Based on CMB modeling, SOC contributed to 14% of the total PM 2.5 mass and 57% of the total organic carbon during the study period. Overall, these findings suggest that photochemical activity can appreciably affect total PM 2.5 mass concentrations in Mira Loma, and that measures to control emissions of SOC precursors incorporated as part of a region-wide air quality management plan could lead to a perceptible drop in

  5. New Evidence for Nonlinearity in Strong Ground Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beroza, G. C.; Schaff, D. P.

    2001-12-01

    Dynamic strains associated with the strong ground motion of large earthquakes are well within the regime found to show nonlinearity in the laboratory; however, evidence for nonlinearity in recorded seismic waves is often ambiguous and controversial. We present new and independent evidence that nonlinearity in strong ground motion may be widespread. The evidence consists of velocity changes measured by repeating microearthquakes in the aftermath of the 1984 M=6.2 Morgan Hill and 1989 M=6.9 Loma Prieta events. We have identified over 20 sets of repeating earthquakes in the aftershock zones of these mainshocks that contain up to 40 repeats of the same event. Waveform analysis reveals clearly detectable delays of arrivals from events after the Loma Prieta earthquake, compared with events before, of as much as 3.5% in the early S-wave coda. Source array analysis and waveform similarity over a wide range of source-receiver distances both suggest that the early coda is generated by scattering in the shallow crust near the receiver. We find that the magnitude of the velocity change decreases logarithmically in time following the Loma Prieta mainshock. We have not yet recovered repeating earthquake seismograms from before the Morgan Hill earthquake; however, we observe a clear post-seismic increase in velocity, again with a logarithmic time dependence, suggesting that the same effect accompanied both events. Recent experiments indicate that velocity decreases followed by logarithmic recovery in time accompany recoverable nonlinearity in laboratory samples at ambient conditions [Ten Cate et al., 2000]. Thus, we believe that we have detected the lingering effects of nonlinear mainshock strong ground motion in the time-varying wave propagation characteristics of the Earth's crust. The changes are strongly concentrated near the rupture zones of the two mainshocks; however, the effect is also observed at more distant stations. We use our observations to illuminate the possible

  6. 77 FR 61654 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... cross four local surface streets: Sanyo Avenue, Enrico Fermi Drive, Alta Road, and Siempre Viva Road.... SR-11 will include a full interchange at Enrico Fermi Drive and partial interchange at Siempre...

  7. 76 FR 80961 - Notice of Public Meeting: Resource Advisory Councils, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Basin RAC in Las Vegas, Nevada. The meeting is open to the public and a public comment period will be... Hotel and Casino, 9090 Alta Drive, Las Vegas, Nevada. Agenda topics include a presentation...

  8. 76 FR 13613 - Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference Docket No. Priority Rights to..., LLC Alta Windpower Development, LLC........ TGP Development Company, LLC Puget Sound Energy, Inc...

  9. 76 FR 60451 - Questa Ranger District, Carson National Forest; Taos County, NM; Taos Ski Valley's 2010 Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... authorize several (Phase 1) projects included in the Taos Ski Valley (TSV) 2010 Master Development Plan (MDP... National Forest, Taos Ski Valley MDP--Phase 1 Projects, 208 Cruz Alta Road, Taos, NM 87571. Comments...

  10. Association of Cytokine Candidate Genes with Severity of Pain and Co-Occurring Symptoms in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    1, 236 breast cancer patients were enrolled across the three research sites (UCSF, Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, and El Camino Hospital), and...Precise screening procedures vary by site, and typically, at El Camino and Alta Bates, nurses or physicians are required to verify participant... Camino Hospital (N=25). On average, women were 53.5 (± 10.7) years old (range: 21 – 86). For details regarding ethnicity and race, see Table 1 below

  11. Clinical evidence of particle beam therapy (proton).

    PubMed

    Ogino, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Proton beam therapy (PBT) makes it possible to deliver a high concentration of radiation to a tumor using its Bragg peak, and it is simple to utilize as its radiobiological characteristics are identical to those of photon beams. PBT has now been used for half a century, and more than 60,000 patients worldwide are reported to have been treated with proton beams. The most significant change to PBT occurred in the 1990s, when the Loma Linda University Medical Center became the first hospital in the world to operate a medically dedicated proton therapy facility. Following its success, similar medically dedicated facilities have been constructed. Internationally, results have demonstrated the therapeutic superiority of PBT over alternative treatment options for several disease sites. Further advances in PBT are expected from both clinical and technological perspectives.

  12. Spectral characteristics of vertical ground motion in the Northridge and other earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Niazi, M.; Campbell, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    Spectral characteristics of vertical ground motion recorded during the Northridge earthquake are evaluated and compared to those of other earthquakes. Relationship between vertical and horizontal spectra is examined through development of attenuation of vertical and horizontal response spectra. Vertical-to-horizontal response spectral relationship is then compared to that of 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and several other earthquakes recorded over SMART-1 array in Taiwan. This preliminary analysis shows that the main characteristics of vertical-to-horizontal spectral ratio are similar to those of other earthquakes. One main characteristic is that in the near-field region and in short period range, the ratio is much higher than commonly assumed ratio of 2/3.

  13. Predicted reversal and recovery of surface creep on the Hayward fault following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, D. A.; Bürgmann, R.

    2008-10-01

    Offset cultural features suggest that creep rates along the Hayward fault have remained constant since 1920 until the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake despite evidence in the earthquake record of an enduring stress shadow after 1906. We re-construct the stressing history on the Hayward fault in order to predict when creep, assumed to have slowed, likely resumed at historical rates. The resumption of creep is dependent on the stressing history imposed from postseismic processes. Basic viscoelastic models produce stress histories that allow creep to resume within a couple decades. A detachment zone model for the Bay Area predicts that creep would not resume for 70+ years after the 1906 earthquake, in disagreement with historical creep observations. The recovery of creep is also advanced by potential left-lateral slip that could have been induced by the 1906 earthquake. Calculations for a friction-less fault suggest that 30-210 mm of left-lateral slip could have occurred.

  14. An earthquake strength scale for the media and the public

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    A local engineer, E.P Hailey, pointed this problem out to me shortly after the Loma Prieta earthquake. He felt that three problems limited the usefulness of magnitude in describing an earthquake to the public; (1) most people don't understand that it is not a linear scale; (2) of those who do realized the scale is not linear, very few understand the difference of a factor of ten in ground motion and 32 in energy release between points on the scale; and (3) even those who understand the first two points have trouble putting a given magnitude value into terms they can relate to. In summary, Mr. Hailey wondered why seismologists can't come up with an earthquake scale that doesn't confuse everyone and that conveys a sense of true relative size. Here, then, is m attempt to construct such a scale. 

  15. Technical design of hadron therapy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1993-08-01

    Radiation therapy with hadron beams now has a 40-year track record at many accelerator laboratories around the world, essentially all of these originally physics-research oriented. The great promise shown for treating cancer has led the medical community to seek dedicated accelerator facilities in a hospital setting, where more rapid progress can be made in clinical research. This paper will discuss accelerator and beam characteristics relevant to hadron therapy, particularly as applied to hospital-based facilities. A survey of currently-operating and planned hadron therapy facilities will be given, with particular emphasis on Loma Linda (the first dedicated proton facility in a hospital) and HIMAC (the first dedicated heavy-ion medical facility).

  16. Applications of the Strategic Defense Initiative's compact accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montanarelli, Nick; Lynch, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative's (SDI) investment in particle accelerator technology for its directed energy weapons program has produced breakthroughs in the size and power of new accelerators. These accelerators, in turn, have produced spinoffs in several areas: the radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator (RFQ linac) was recently incorporated into the design of a cancer therapy unit at the Loma Linda University Medical Center, an SDI-sponsored compact induction linear accelerator may replace Cobalt-60 radiation and hazardous ethylene-oxide as a method for sterilizing medical products, and other SDIO-funded accelerators may be used to produce the radioactive isotopes oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11, and fluorine-18 for positron emission tomography (PET). Other applications of these accelerators include bomb detection, non-destructive inspection, decomposing toxic substances in contaminated ground water, and eliminating nuclear waste.

  17. Dynamic properties of biologically active synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Jesús; Hricovíni, Milos; Gairi, Margarida; Guerrini, Marco; de Paz, José Luis; Ojeda, Rafael; Martín-Lomas, Manuel; Nieto, Pedro M

    2005-10-01

    A complete study of the dynamics of two synthetic heparin-like hexasaccharides, D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (1) and -->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHAc-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-1-->iPr (2), has been performed using 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation parameters, T1, T2, and heteronuclear nuclear Overhauser effect (NOEs). Compound 1 is constituted from sequences corresponding to the major polysaccharide heparin region, while compound 2 contains a sequence never found in natural heparin. They differ from each other only in sulphation patterns, and are capable of stimulating fibroblast growth factors (FGFs)-1 induced mitogenesis. Both oligosaccharides exhibit a remarkable anisotropic overall motion in solution as revealed by their anisotropic ratios (tau /tau||), 4.0 and 3.0 respectively. This is a characteristic behaviour of natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG) which has also been observed for the antithrombin (AT) binding pentasaccharide D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcA-beta-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-(3,6-SO4)-alpha-(1-->4)-L-IdoA-2-SO4-alpha-(1-->4)-D-GlcNHSO3-6-SO4-alpha-1-->Me (3) (Hricovíni, M., Guerrini, M., Torri, G., Piani, S., and Ungarelli, F. (1995) Conformational analysis of heparin epoxide in aqueous solution. An NMR relaxation study. Carbohydr. Res., 277, 11-23). The motional properties observed for 1 and 2 provide additional support to the suitability of these compounds as heparin models in agreement with previous structural (de Paz, J.L., Angulo, J., Lassaletta, J.M., Nieto, P.M., Redondo-Horcajo, M., Lozano, R.M., Jiménez-Gallego, G., and Martín-Lomas, M. (2001) The activation of fibroblast growth factors by heparin: synthesis, structure and biological activity of heparin-like oligosaccharides. Chembiochem, 2, 673-685; Ojeda, R

  18. Mobile satellite services for public safety, disaster mitigation and disaster medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freibaum, Jerry

    1990-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1987 nearly three million lives were lost and property damage of $25 to $100 billion resulted form natural disasters that adversely affected more than 829 million people. The social and economic impacts have been staggering and are expected to grow more serious as a result of changing demographic factors. The role that the Mobile Satellite Service can play in the International Decade is discussed. MSS was not available for disaster relief operations during the recent Loma Prieta/San Francisco earthquake. However, the results of a review of the performance of seven other communication services with respect to public sector operations during and shortly after the earthquake are described. The services surveyed were: public and private telephone, mobile radio telephone, noncellular mobile radio, broadcast media, CB radio, ham radio, and government and nongovernment satellite systems. The application of MSS to disaster medicine, particularly with respect to the Armenian earthquake is also discussed.

  19. Radiation tests of the EMU spacesuit for the International SpaceStation using energetic protons

    SciTech Connect

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Shavers, M.

    2001-06-04

    Measurements using silicon detectors to characterize theradiation transmitted through the EMU spacesuit and a human phantom havebeen performed using 155 and 250 MeV proton beams at the Loma LindaUniversity Medical Center (LLUMC). The beams simulate radiationencountered in space, where trapped protons having kinetic energies onthe order of 100 MeV are copious. Protons with 100 MeV kinetic energy andabove can penetrate many centimeters of water of other light materials,so that astronauts exposed to such energetic particles will receive dosesto their internal organs. This dose can be enhanced or reduced byshielding - either from the spacesuit or the self-shielding of the body -but minimization of the risk depends on details of the incident particleflux (in particular the energy spectrum) and on the dose responses of thevarious critical organs.

  20. Effects of the 1989 San Francisco earthquake on frequency and content of nightmares.

    PubMed

    Wood, J M; Bootzin, R R; Rosenhan, D; Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Jourden, F

    1992-05-01

    In a systematic evaluation of the effects of a natural disaster on nightmares, nightmare frequency was found to be about twice as high among 92 San Francisco Bay area college students as among 97 control subjects in Tucson, Arizona, after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Subjects in California had not only more nightmares in general but substantially more nightmares about earthquakes. Over a 3-week period, about 40% of those in the San Francisco Bay area reported one or more nightmares about an earthquake, as compared with only 5% of those in Arizona. However, nightmares about earthquakes were not more emotionally intense than other nightmares. These findings support the long-held view that the experience of a potentially traumatic event can result in more frequent nightmares, particularly about the event itself, but contradict the common opinion that nightmares about such events are unusually intense.

  1. Balance of risks and benefits in preparation for earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Bolt, B A

    1991-01-11

    Widespread proposals to benefit from lessons of the 17 October 1989 (Loma Prieta) earthquake dramatize the difficulties associated with reducing seismic risk. There are three main problems. First, the understanding of earthquake generation is far from complete. For example, the unanticipated source style of this earthquake raises vital questions; claims of predicting its occurrence are weak, and, for practical reasons, the detailed pattern of damaging strong ground shaking was not predicted. Second, although their interactions are not well understood, competing social forces continue to prevent the optimum growth and application of knowledge for earthquake hazard mitigation. Third, the recent use of the probabilities of seismic risk has had mixed results. Because of indecision between minimizing loss of life and maximizing broader benefits, general agreement on acceptable earthquake risk remains confused.

  2. Remembering the earthquake: direct experience vs. hearing the news.

    PubMed

    Neisser, U; Winograd, E; Bergman, E T; Schreiber, C A; Palmer, S E; Weldon, M S

    1996-07-01

    Three groups of informants--two in California, one in Atlanta--recalled their experiences of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake shortly after the event and again 11/2 years later. The Californians' recalls of their own earthquake experiences were virtually perfect. Even their recalls of hearing the news of an earthquake-related event were very good: much higher than Atlantan recalls of hearing about the quake itself. Atlantans who had relatives in the affected area remembered significantly more than those who did not. These data show that personal involvement in the quake led to greatly improved recall, but do not show why. Many Californian informants reported low levels of stress/arousal during the event; arousal ratings were not significantly correlated with recall. The authors suggest that repeated narrative rehearsals may have played an important role.

  3. Evidence for aseismic deformation rate changes prior to earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    For ten earthquakes in nonmagmatic settings, there are credible published accounts of pre-earthquake deformation-rate changes lasting hundreds of seconds to more than a decade. Although most M > 7.5 earthquakes have occurred without detectable pre-earthquake deformation, the detection threshold for aseismic deformation remains high, in that aseismic slip with moment equivalent to an M5 earthquake would in most (although not all) cases have been missed. Interseismic deformation rates vary without being followed by earthquakes, and a strain-rate change prior to the 1989 Mw6.9 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake is shown to be similar in size to many other rate changes that have occurred since that time. Most examples of pre-earthquake aseismic deformation lasting hundreds of seconds or more probably originate adjacent to, or downdip of, the seismic rupture plane, rather than within the zone that undergoes seismic failure. Copyright ?? 2006 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of seismic activity preceding large earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Bruce E.; Carlson, J. M.; Langer, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    A mechanical model of seismic faults is employed to investigate the seismic activities that occur prior to major events. The block-and-spring model dynamically generates a statistical distribution of smaller slipping events that precede large events, and the results satisfy the Gutenberg-Richter law. The scaling behavior during a loading cycle suggests small but systematic variations in space and time with maximum activity acceleration near the future epicenter. Activity patterns inferred from data on seismicity in California demonstrate a regional aspect; increased activity in certain areas are found to precede major earthquake events. One example is given regarding the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 which is located near a fault section associated with increased activity levels.

  5. Fault zone amplified waves as a possible seismic hazard along the Calaveras fault in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spudich, P.; Olsen, K.B.

    2001-01-01

    The Calaveras fault lies within a low velocity zone (LVZ) 1-2 km wide near Gilroy, California. Accelerographs G06, located in the LVZ 1.2 km from the Calaveras fault, and G07, 4 km from G06, recorded both the M 6.2 1984 Morgan Hill and the M 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Comparison of the ground motions shows that a large 0.6-1.0 Hz velocity pulse observed at G06 during the Morgan Hill event may be amplified by focussing caused by the LVZ. Such amplified waves might be a mappable seismic hazard, and the zone of increased hazard can extend as much as 1.2 km from the surface trace of the fault. Finite-difference simulations of ground motions in a simplified LVZ model show a zone of amplified motion similar to the observations.

  6. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs.

    PubMed

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K

    2009-07-01

    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  7. Initial overview of the San Francisco Bay and Santa Cruz mountains ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, A. Gerald

    1990-01-01

    The strong-motion accelerograms from the Loma Prieta earthquake are analyzed for their long-period content in order to obtain a clearer picture of the long-period wave propogation details. Shear waves having periods in the 3.5 to 4 sec, and 5 to 7 sec ranges travel across four groups of stations with satisfactory coherency. Displacement accuracies are of the order of 0.5 cm for most of this data, with signal amplitudes an order of magnitude higher than the noise. Resonances associated with shear waves of 1.5 sec period are responsible for about 3/4 of the differential displacement necessary to unseat the 15 m section of the Bay Bridge.

  8. The mass media and disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, E. M.

    1990-01-01

    Past investigations by myself and others on the role of the mass media in disasters indicate that news people typically find themselves in situations of uncertainty, ambiguity, and conflicting information; the communication and transportation services that these people use in covering a story become inoperative. However, the media are expected to make sense of the disaster situation almost immediately. the difficulties of doing so were reflected by the ABC Goodyear Blimp footage of the collapsed Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, California, broadcast nationally on the evening of October 17, 1989. The televised picture showed the disastrous results of the Loma Prieta earthquake, but for an hour or more the announcer could not correctly identify what was being shown. He did not seem to realize that the upper deck of the freeway had collapsed on the lower deck, crushing vechiles and people. 

  9. Forecasting California's earthquakes: What can we expect in the next 30 years?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin R.; ,

    2008-01-01

    In a new comprehensive study, scientists have determined that the chance of having one or more magnitude 6.7 or larger earthquakes in the California area over the next 30 years is greater than 99%. Such quakes can be deadly, as shown by the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta and the 1994 magnitude 6.7 Northridge earthquakes. The likelihood of at least one even more powerful quake of magnitude 7.5 or greater in the next 30 years is 46%?such a quake is most likely to occur in the southern half of the State. Building codes, earthquake insurance, and emergency planning will be affected by these new results, which highlight the urgency to prepare now for the powerful quakes that are inevitable in California?s future.

  10. The effects of variable-time versus contingent reinforcement delivery on problem behavior maintained by escape.

    PubMed

    Lomas Mevers, Joanna E; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E; Fredrick, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Results of previous research indicate that the delivery of positive reinforcement (e.g., food) for an appropriate, alternative target response (e.g., compliance) or delivery of food on a time-based schedule can decrease problem behavior reinforced by escape, even when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., ; Lomas, Fisher, & Kelley, ). In this study, we compared the levels of both compliance and problem behavior when food and praise were delivered either contingent on compliance or on a time-based schedule. Results for 3 of the 4 participants showed that contingent delivery of preferred edible items and praise was more effective in both reducing problem behavior and increasing compliance compared to variable-time delivery of these same items. These findings are discussed in the context of motivating operations and competition between positive and negative reinforcement.

  11. Seismic upgrades of healthcare facilities.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, A

    1997-06-01

    Before 1989 seismic upgrading of hospital structures was not a primary consideration among hospital owners. However, after extensive earthquake damage to hospital buildings at Loma Prieta in Northern California in 1989 and then at Northridge in Southern California in 1994, hospital owners, legislators, and design teams become concerned about the need for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. Because the damage hospital structures sustained in the earthquakes was so severe and far-reaching, California has enacted laws that mandate seismic upgrading for existing facilities. Now hospital owners will have to upgrade buildings that do not conform to statewide seismic adequacy laws. By 2030, California expects all of its hospital structures to be sufficiently seismic-resistant. Slowly, regions in the Midwest and on the East Coast are following their example. This article outlines reasons and ways for seismic upgrading of existing facilities.

  12. Comparisons between GRNTRN simulations and beam measurements of proton lateral broadening distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher; Moyers, Michael; Walker, Steven; Tweed, John

    Recent developments in NASA's High Charge and Energy Transport (HZETRN) code have included lateral broadening of primary ion beams due to small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering, and coupling of the ion-nuclear scattering interactions with energy loss and straggling. The new version of HZETRN based on Green function methods, GRNTRN, is suitable for modeling transport with both space environment and laboratory boundary conditions. Multiple scattering processes are a necessary extension to GRNTRN in order to accurately model ion beam experiments, to simulate the physical and biological-effective radiation dose, and to develop new methods and strategies for light ion radiation therapy. In this paper we compare GRNTRN simulations of proton lateral scattering distributions with beam measurements taken at Loma Linda Medical University. The simulated and measured lateral proton distributions will be compared for a 250 MeV proton beam on aluminum, polyethylene, polystyrene, bone, iron, and lead target materials.

  13. A high resolution stratigraphic framework for the remarkable fossil cetacean assemblage of the Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Leonard; Urbina, Mario; Chadwick, Arthur; DeVries, Thomas J.; Esperante, Raul

    2011-04-01

    The Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation of Peru contains a rich marine vertebrate fossil record, providing a unique opportunity for the study of paleoecology and evolution, along with the sedimentological context of the fossils. The lack of a high-resolution stratigraphic framework has hampered such study. In this paper we develop the needed stratigraphy for the areas in the Pisco Formation where most of the vertebrate paleontological research is occurring. In the Ica Valley and in the vicinity of Lomas, series of lithologically or paleontologically unique marker beds were identified. These were walked out and documented with GPS technology. Measured sections connecting these marker beds provide a stratigraphic framework for the areas studied. GPS locations, maps of the marker beds on aerial photographs, and outcrop photographs allow field determination of the stratigraphic positions of study areas.

  14. Validation of ground-motion simulations for historical events using SDoF systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galasso, C.; Zareian, F.; Iervolino, I.; Graves, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is among the first in a series of studies toward the engineering validation of the hybrid broadband ground‐motion simulation methodology by Graves and Pitarka (2010). This paper provides a statistical comparison between seismic demands of single degree of freedom (SDoF) systems subjected to past events using simulations and actual recordings. A number of SDoF systems are selected considering the following: (1) 16 oscillation periods between 0.1 and 6 s; (2) elastic case and four nonlinearity levels, from mildly inelastic to severely inelastic systems; and (3) two hysteretic behaviors, in particular, nondegrading–nonevolutionary and degrading–evolutionary. Demand spectra are derived in terms of peak and cyclic response, as well as their statistics for four historical earthquakes: 1979 Mw 6.5 Imperial Valley, 1989 Mw 6.8 Loma Prieta, 1992 Mw 7.2 Landers, and 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge.

  15. Detection of hydrothermal precursors to large northern california earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Silver, P G; Valette-Silver, N J

    1992-09-04

    During the period 1973 to 1991 the interval between eruptions from a periodic geyser in Northern California exhibited precursory variations 1 to 3 days before the three largest earthquakes within a 250-kilometer radius of the geyser. These include the magnitude 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake of 18 October 1989 for which a similar preseismic signal was recorded by a strainmeter located halfway between the geyser and the earthquake. These data show that at least some earthquakes possess observable precursors, one of the prerequisites for successful earthquake prediction. All three earthquakes were further than 130 kilometers from the geyser, suggesting that precursors might be more easily found around rather than within the ultimate rupture zone of large California earthquakes.

  16. Repetitive mixing events and holocene pyroclastic activity at Pico de Orizaba and Popocatepetl (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantagrel, J. M.; Gourgaud, A.; Robin, C.

    1984-12-01

    The Holocene volcanic activity which built up the present terminal cones of Pico de Orizaba and Popocatepetl in eastern Mexico, was characterized by repeated pyroclastic Saint-Vincent type eruptions. Radiocarbon data show that these paroxysmal events occurred at more or less regular intervals, and were followed by moderate activity producing ash and pumice falls and andesitic lava flows from the summit craters. Typical ash and scoria pyroclastic flows exhibit a heterogeneous composition given by the interaction of a dacitic component with a more basic andesitic one. Scoria bombs are characterized by banded to emulsified textures, mineralogical desequilibrium assemblages and linear chemical variations on element-element plots as exemplified by the Loma Grande flow at Pico. Periodic replenishments of the magmatic reservoir could be the major phenomenon that started mixing and consequently triggered the pyroclastic eruptions.

  17. To boldly go: a partnership enterprise to produce applied health and nursing services researchers in Canada.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Patricia

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the origins of the Regional Training Centres (RTCs) from the perspective of the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF), a national funder of applied health and nursing services research in Canada. The author details the contributions of CHSRF, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and Capacity for Applied and Developmental Research and Evaluation (CADRE) program, as well as an essential feature of the RTCs: their application of the linkage and exchange model (Lomas 2000). The discussion encompasses the RTC program requirements and selection process, as well as the fourth-year review, the aim of which was to assess the early results of the RTCs. The role that CHSRF plays in facilitating the national network of RTCs is highlighted. The author concludes with reflections on what has worked well, what might be done differently and advice to others interested in developing graduate education based on the linkage and exchange model.

  18. Accelerator Facilities for Radiation Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1999-01-01

    HSRP Goals in Accelerator Use and Development are: 1.Need for ground-based heavy ion and proton facility to understand space radiation effects discussed most recently by NAS/NRC Report (1996). 2. Strategic Program Goals in facility usage and development: -(1) operation of AGS for approximately 600 beam hours/year; (2) operation of Loma Linda University (LLU) proton facility for approximately 400 beam hours/year; (3) construction of BAF facility; and (4) collaborative research at HIMAC in Japan and with other existing or potential international facilities. 3. MOA with LLU has been established to provide proton beams with energies of 40-250 important for trapped protons and solar proton events. 4. Limited number of beam hours available at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS).

  19. Paleogeography and sedimentology of Upper Cretaceous turbidites, San Diego, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, T.H.; Abbott, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous (Campanian and Maestrichtian) marine strata of the Rosario Group in the San Diego area include the Point Loma Formation and overlying Cabrillo Formation. Thes units contain 6 facies associations which define a deep-sea fan deposited by westward-flowing sediment gravity flows that transported sediments derived chiefly from batholithic and pre-batholithic metamorphic rocks of the Peninsular Ranges. The sedimentary basin initially deepened abruptly. The fan then prograded westward into the basin, with a retrogradational phase recorded in the uppermost part of the sequence. The fan was deposited along the eastern edge of a forearc basin similar to that of the Great Valley sequence in northern California. The western part of the fan appears to have been truncated by late Cenozoic strike-slip faulting.-from Authors

  20. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  1. Fishbones in Joint European Torus plasmas with high ion-cyclotron-resonance-heated fast ions energy content

    SciTech Connect

    Nabais, F.; Borba, D.; Mantsinen, M.; Nave, M.F.F.; Sharapov, S.E.; Joint

    2005-10-01

    In Joint European Torus (JET) [P. J. Lomas, Plasma Phys. Controled Fusion 31, 1481 (1989)], discharges with ion cyclotron resonance heating only, low-density plasmas and high fast ions energy contents provided a scenario where fishbones behavior has been observed to be related with sawtooth activity: Crashes of monster sawteeth abruptly changed the type of observed fishbones from low-frequency fishbones [B. Coppi and F. Porcelli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2272 (1986)] to high-frequency fishbones [L. Chen, R. White, and M. Rosenbluth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1122 (1984)]. During periods between crashes, the type of observed fishbones gradually changed in the opposite way. Two new fishbones regimes have been observed in intermediate stages: Fishbones bursts covering both high and low frequencies and low amplitude bursts of both types occurring simultaneously. Both sawtooth and fishbones behavior have been explained using a variational formalism.

  2. Thermal metamorphism of mantle chromites and the stability of noble-metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Jiménez, José M.; Reich, Martin; Camprubí, Antoni; Gervilla, Fernando; Griffin, William L.; Colás, Vanessa; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Pearson, Norman J.; Centeno-García, Elena

    2015-08-01

    The Loma Baya complex in south-western Mexico is a volume of chromitite-bearing oceanic mantle that records a complex metamorphic history, defined by a first stage of hydrous metamorphism overprinted by a short-lived thermal event associated with an Eocene granite intrusion. During the hydrous metamorphism, the primary magmatic chromite-olivine assemblage was replaced by a secondary, porous intergrowth of Fe2+-rich chromite and chlorite. The heat supplied by an Eocene-age granite intrusion reversed the hydration reaction, producing chromite rims with perfectly developed crystal faces. This third-generation chromite is in equilibrium with highly magnesian (neoformed) olivine and defines a chemical trend analogous to the original magmatic one. The preservation of both reactions in the Loma Baya chromitite provides compelling evidence that the hydration of chromite can be reversed by either prograde metamorphism or any heating event, confirming previous thermodynamic predictions. Understanding these complex features is of particular interest due to the fact that changes in temperature and variable degrees of fluid/rock interaction during metamorphism and intrusion have also significantly affected the chromite-hosted IPGE carrier phases. Here, we propose that the metamorphic fluids involved in the hydrous metamorphism have caused the desulphurization of laurite RuS2, releasing minute particles of Ru-Os-Ir alloys <50 nm in diameter. The following short-lived thermal event that promoted dehydration in the chromitite had the opposite effect on nanoparticle stability, producing a significant coarsening of metal nanoparticles to dimensions larger than a micron. Based on such observations, we argue that IPGE nanoparticles can be exsolved and grown (or coarsen) from sulphide matrices during prograde metamorphism or heating and not exclusively upon cooling under magmatic conditions as it has been previously suggested. These results provide new insights on the relevant role of

  3. Fracture resistance of orthodontic mini-implants: a biomechanical in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Benedict; Panayotidis, Agamemnon; Drescher, Dieter

    2011-08-01

    Sufficient primary stability is of importance for the survival of orthodontic mini-implants. This means that adequate torque has to be achieved during insertion. However, as moments exceeding the fracture resistance of a mini-implant may result in their fracture, the maximum torque load capacity should be known. In this study, the threshold torque values resulting in the fracture of various mini-implant types and diameters were evaluated. Forty-one different mini-implants with diameters ranging from 1.3 to 2.0 mm (Aarhus screw, Abso Anchor, Ancora, Bone screw, Dual Top, Lomas, MAS, O.S.A.S, Ortho Easy, Spider Screw, and Tomas pin) were inserted in acrylic glass by a robot system. Ten specimens of each mini-implant type were tested. The insertion torque was measured and the maximum torque at the time of mini-implant fracture was evaluated. Significance of the mean value differences was evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis tests. Fracture moments varied depending on the diameter of the mini-implants. The measured values ranged from 108.9 Nmm (MAS 1.3×11 mm) to 640.9 Nmm (Lomas 2.0×11 mm). The differences were highly statistically significant (P<0.001). The risk of mini-implant fracture should be borne in mind at the time of insertion, especially if mini-implants with a small diameter are employed. To minimize the risk of fracture, pre-drilling should be carried out if the mini-implants are to be inserted at a site with a high bone density.

  4. Discrete Scaling in Earthquake Precursory Phenomena: Evidence in the Kobe Earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Anders; Sornette, Didier; Wakita, Hiroshi; Tsunogai, Urumu; Newman, William I.; Saleur, Hubert

    1996-10-01

    We analyze the ion concentration of groundwater issuing from deep wells located near the epicenter of the recent earthquake of magnitude 6.9 near Kobe, Japan, on January 17, 1995. These concentrations are well fitted by log-periodic modulations around a leading power law. The exponent (real and imaginary parts) is very close to those already found for the fits of precursory seismic activity for Loma Prieta and the Aleutian Islands. This brings further support for the general hypothesis that complex critical exponents are a general phenomenon in irreversible self-organizing systems and particularly in rupture and earthquake phenomena. Nous analysons les fluctuations de concentrations ioniques de l'eau issue de puits profonds situés à proximité de l'épicentre du récent tremblement de terre de magnitude 6.9 proche de Kobe au Japon, le 17 janvier 1995. Ces fluctuations sont bien reproduites par des modulations log-périodiques autour d'une loi de puissance. Les parties réelle et imaginaire de l'exposant sont très proches de celles trouvées précédemment pour les tremblements de terre de Loma Prieta et des Iles Aléoutiennes. Ces résultats renforcent l'hypothèse que des exposants critiques complexes sont une propriété générale des phénomènes de croissance irréversible, et en particulier des problèmes de rupture et des tremblements de terre.

  5. Using Modified Mercalli Intensities to estimate acceleration response spectra for the 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boatwright, J.; Bundock, H.; Seekins, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    We derive and test relations between the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) and the pseudo-acceleration response spectra at 1.0 and 0.3 s - SA(1.0 s) and SA(0.3 s) - in order to map response spectral ordinates for the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Recent analyses of intensity have shown that MMI ??? 6 correlates both with peak ground velocity and with response spectra for periods from 0.5 to 3.0 s. We use these recent results to derive a linear relation between MMI and log SA(1.0 s), and we refine this relation by comparing the SA(1.0 s) estimated from Boatwright and Bundock's (2005) MMI map for the 1906 earthquake to the SA(1.0 s) calculated from recordings of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. South of San Jose, the intensity distributions for the 1906 and 1989 earthquakes are remarkably similar, despite the difference in magnitude and rupture extent between the two events. We use recent strong motion regressions to derive a relation between SA(1.0 s) and SA(0.3 s) for a M7.8 strike-slip earthquake that depends on soil type, acceleration level, and source distance. We test this relation by comparing SA(0.3 s) estimated for the 1906 earthquake to SA(0.3 s) calculated from recordings of both the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 Northridge earthquakes, as functions of distance from the fault. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  6. Earthquake travel time tomography of the southern Santa Cruz Mountains: Control of fault rupture by lithological heterogeneity of the San Andreas fault zone

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W.; Michelini, A.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1993-10-10

    The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred along the stretch of the San Andreas fault zone within the southern Santa Cruz Mountains that last failed as a major earthquake in 1906. The southeastern end of the 1989 rupture marks the transition from stable, aseismic slip on the central creeping section of the San Andreas fault to unstable failure on the locked 1906 segment. The authors investigate this transition and the rupture characteristics of the 1989 earthquake using a 3-D P wave velocity model of the southern Santa Cruz Mountains section of the fault zone. The model images a large anomalous high-velocity body at midcrustal depths within the rupture zone of the 1989 earthquake that the available evidence suggests might have gabbroic or other mafic composition. On the basis of the relationship of the lithological features interpreted from the velocity model to the seismicity and surface creep the authors propose a model in which the high-velocity body is primarily responsible for the transition from stable to unstable fault slip at Pajaro Gap. The active plane of the San Andreas fault cuts throughout the body. The fault system attempts to circumvent this barrier by transferring slip to secondary faults, including splay faults that have propagated along the frictionally favorable contact between the high-velocity rock mass and Franciscan country rocks. However, the near arrest of the stable sliding causes stress to concentrate within the body, and the high-strength, unstable contact within it evolves from a barrier to the asperity that failed in the 1989 earthquake. The general features of the 1989 rupture predicted by this asperity model agree with several rupture histories computed for the earthquake. The model implies that as proposed by other workers, the Loma Prieta earthquake did not involve a repeat of the 1906 slip, which has an important bearing on earthquake recurrence estimates for the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the fault. 114 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Leaf-trait responses to irrigation of the endemic fog-oasis tree Myrcianthes ferreyrae: can a fog specialist benefit from regular watering?

    PubMed

    Ramírez, David A; Balaguer, Luis; Mancilla, Rosa; González, Virginia; Coaguila, Daniel; Talavera, Carmelo; Villegas, Luis; Ortega, Aldo; Jiménez, Percy; Moreno, José M

    2012-01-01

    Myrcianthes ferreyrae is an endemic, endangered species, with a small number of individuals located only in hyperarid, fog-oases known as lomas along the Peruvian desert in southern Peru, where fog is the main source of water. Following centuries of severe deforestation, reforestation with this native species was conducted in the Atiquipa lomas, Arequipa-Perú. On five slopes, five 2-year-old seedlings were irrigated monthly with water trapped by raschel-mesh fog collectors, supplementing natural rainfall with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mm month(-1) from February to August 2008. We measured plant growth, increment in basal diameter, height and five leaf traits: leaf mass area (LMA), leaf carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C), nitrogen per leaf area, total leaf carbon and stomatal density; which are indicative of the physiological changes resulting from increased water supply. Plant growth rates, estimated from the variation of either shoot basal diameter or maximum height, were highly correlated with total biomass. Only LMA and δ(13)C were higher in irrigated than in control plants, but we found no further differences among irrigation treatments. This threshold response suggests an on-off strategy fitted to exploit pulses of fog water, which are always limited in magnitude in comparison with natural rain. The absence of a differential response to increased water supply is in agreement with the low phenotypic plasticity expected in plants from very stressful environments. Our results have practical implications for reforestation projects, since irrigating with 20 mm per month is sufficient to achieve the full growth capacity of this species.

  8. Neogene contraction between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley, San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Schmidt, K.M.; Jachens, R.C.; Stanley, R.G.; Jayko, A.S.; McDougall, K.A.; Tinsley, J.C.; Valin, Z.C.

    1999-01-01

    In the southern San Francisco Bay region of California, oblique dextral reverse faults that verge northeastward from the San Andreas fault experienced triggered slip during the 1989 M7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. The role of these range-front thrusts in the evolution of the San Andreas fault system and the future seismic hazard that they may pose to the urban Santa Clara Valley are poorly understood. Based on recent geologic mapping and geophysical investigations, we propose that the range-front thrust system evolved in conjunction with development of the San Andreas fault system. In the early Miocene, the region was dominated by a system of northwestwardly propagating, basin-bounding, transtensional faults. Beginning as early as middle Miocene time, however, the transtensional faulting was superseded by transpressional NE-stepping thrust and reverse faults of the range-front thrust system. Age constraints on the thrust faults indicate that the locus of contraction has focused on the Monte Vista, Shannon, and Berrocal faults since about 4.8 Ma. Fault slip and fold reconstructions suggest that crustal shortening between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley within this time frame is ~21%, amounting to as much as 3.2 km at a rate of 0.6 mm/yr. Rates probably have not remained constant; average rates appear to have been much lower in the past few 100 ka. The distribution of coseismic surface contraction during the Loma Prieta earthquake, active seismicity, late Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terrace warping, and geodetic data further suggest that the active range-front thrust system includes blind thrusts. Critical unresolved issues include information on the near-surface locations of buried thrusts, the timing of recent thrust earthquake events, and their recurrence in relation to earthquakes on the San Andreas fault.

  9. Heavy metals and pesticide exposure from agricultural activities and former agrochemical factory in a Salvadoran rural community.

    PubMed

    Quinteros, Edgar; Ribó, Alexandre; Mejía, Roberto; López, Alejandro; Belteton, Wilfredo; Comandari, Aimee; Orantes, Carlos M; Pleites, Ernesto B; Hernández, Carlos E; López, Dina L

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide handling in farming activities involves substantial hazards for the rural population and for the environment. In Latin America, it is estimated that the population at risk of being affected by heavy metals is over 4 million. This research describes the different types of exposure to pesticides and heavy metals in a rural population (Loma del Gallo), considering both environmental and occupational exposure. This study consists of an inspection in a former pesticide factory (QUIMAGRO), analysis of heavy metals in samples from surface and ground water in the community close to the factory, and a survey to the local population about their perceptions of pesticide exposures. Containers with 34.6 tons of chemicals improperly stored were identified in the former factory and removed by the government. Arsenic and cadmium were found in groundwater, and the highest values were 0.012 and 0.004 mg/l, respectively. These contaminants were also detected in most surface water samples, with maximum values of 0.026 and 0.0001 mg/l, respectively. Results of the survey show that of the 44 participants 42 % were farmers. Farmers used 19 different pesticide products containing 11 active ingredients. The most used active ingredients were paraquat (65 %), methamidophos (35 %), and atrazina (29 %). Eighty-two percent of the farmers did not use personal protective equipment. In addition to the pesticides used in the agriculture of the area, pesticide containers were removed from the QUIMAGRO area, but the pollution was still present at time of sampling and it is evident by the odor of the site. Surface water had the major concentration of heavy metals than the groundwater. Loma del Gallo population has been exposed to toxic pesticide from QUIMAGRO and agriculture for many years. The farmers carry out mishandling of pesticides and they not use PPE.

  10. MATERNAL AND POST-WEANING EXPOSURE TO A HIGH FAT DIET PROMOTES VISCERAL OBESITY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN ADULT RATS.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Perez, Gabriela; Santana dos Santos, Lucimeire; dos Santos Cordeiro, Gabriele; Matos Paraguassú, Gardênia; Abensur Athanazio, Daniel; Couto, Ricardo David; Bonfim de Jesus Deiró, Tereza Cristina; Manhães de Castro, Raul; Barreto-Medeiros, Jairza Maria

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: teniendo en cuenta el consumo frecuente de dietas ricas en grasas por las mujeres en edad reproductiva, el objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos del consumo materno de una dieta alta en grasas durante el periodo perinatal y/o post-destete en el higado y el metabolismo de los lipidos en ratas jovenes. Métodos: ratas hembra Wistar fueron alimentadas durante el embarazo y la lactancia con un alto contenido de grasa (H) o de control (C). La descendencia se asigno a cuatro grupos: Control (CC, n = 11), descendencia alimentada con una dieta de control despues del destete; Control de dieta alta en grasa (CH, n = 10), crias alimentadas con una dieta alta en grasas despues del destete; Alta en grasas de alta en grasa (HH, n = 10), hijos de madres H alimentados con una dieta alta en grasas despues del destete; y Control de alta en grasa (HC, n = 9), hijos de madres H alimentados con dieta de control tras el destete. Resultados y discusión: la ingesta de alimentos no difirio entre los grupos; sin embargo, el peso relativo del tejido adiposo fue mayor en los animales de los grupos HC, HH y CH (p ≤ 0,005). La esteatosis hepatica se encontro en los CH y HH, que tambien presentaban hipercolesterolemia (p ≤ 0,05). Los niveles de las enzimas hepaticas alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y gamma-glutamil transpeptidasa (GGT) fueron mayores en el grupo de HH, y el nivel de LDL fue mayor en el grupo CH en comparacion con el CC. El consumo de la dieta propicio la obesidad durante los periodos criticos del desarrollo y puede contribuir a la aparicion de obesidad visceral, esteatosis hepatica e hipercolesterolemia en ratas adultas, incluso en ausencia de cambios en la ingesta dietetica.

  11. Intraspecific variation in essential oil composition of the medicinal plant Lippia integrifolia (Verbenaceae). Evidence for five chemotypes.

    PubMed

    Marcial, Guillermo; de Lampasona, Marina P; Vega, Marta I; Lizarraga, Emilio; Viturro, Carmen I; Slanis, Alberto; Juárez, Miguel A; Elechosa, Miguel A; Catalán, César A N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Lippia integrifolia (incayuyo) are widely used in northwestern and central Argentina for their medicinal and aromatic properties. The essential oil composition of thirty-one wild populations of L. integrifolia covering most of its natural range was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. A total of one hundred and fifty two terpenoids were identified in the essential oils. Sesquiterpenoids were the dominant components in all but one of the collections analyzed, the only exception being a sample collected in San Juan province where monoterpenoids amounted to 51%. Five clearly defined chemotypes were observed. One possessed an exquisite and delicate sweet aroma with trans-davanone as dominant component (usually above 80%). Another with an exotic floral odour was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenoids based on the rare lippifoliane and africanane skeletons. The trans-davanone chemotype is the first report of an essential oil containing that sesquiterpene ketone as the main constituent. The absolute configuration of trans-davanone from L. integrifolia was established as 6S, 7S, 10S, the enantiomer of trans-davanone from 'davana oil' (Artemisia pallens). Wild plants belonging to trans-davanone and lippifolienone chemotypes were propagated and cultivated in the same parcel of land in Santa Maria, Catamarca. The essential oil compositions of the cultivated plants were essentially identical to the original plants in the wild, indicating that the essential oil composition is largely under genetic control. Specimens collected near the Bolivian border that initially were identified as L. boliviana Rusby yielded an essential oil practically identical to the trans-davanone chemotype of L. integrifolia supporting the recent view that L. integrifolia (Gris.) Hieron. and L. boliviana Rusby are synonymous.

  12. Mechanical analysis of feeding behavior in the extinct "terror bird" Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae).

    PubMed

    Degrange, Federico J; Tambussi, Claudia P; Moreno, Karen; Witmer, Lawrence M; Wroe, Stephen

    2010-08-18

    The South American phorusrhacid bird radiation comprised at least 18 species of small to gigantic terrestrial predators for which there are no close modern analogs. Here we perform functional analyses of the skull of the medium-sized (approximately 40 kg) patagornithine phorusrhacid Andalgalornis steulleti (upper Miocene-lower Pliocene, Andalgalá Formation, Catamarca, Argentina) to assess its mechanical performance in a comparative context. Based on computed tomographic (CT) scanning and morphological analysis, the skull of Andalgalornis steulleti is interpreted as showing features reflecting loss of intracranial immobility. Discrete anatomical attributes permitting such cranial kinesis are widespread phorusrhacids outgroups, but this is the first clear evidence of loss of cranial kinesis in a gruiform bird and may be among the best documented cases among all birds. This apomorphic loss is interpreted as an adaptation for enhanced craniofacial rigidity, particularly with regard to sagittal loading. We apply a Finite Element approach to a three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull. Based on regression analysis we estimate the bite force of Andalgalornis at the bill tip to be 133 N. Relative to results obtained from Finite Element Analysis of one of its closest living relatives (seriema) and a large predatory bird (eagle), the phorusrhacid's skull shows relatively high stress under lateral loadings, but low stress where force is applied dorsoventrally (sagittally) and in "pullback" simulations. Given the relative weakness of the skull mediolaterally, it seems unlikely that Andalgalornis engaged in potentially risky behaviors that involved subduing large, struggling prey with its beak. We suggest that it either consumed smaller prey that could be killed and consumed more safely (e.g., swallowed whole) or that it used multiple well-targeted sagittal strikes with the beak in a repetitive attack-and-retreat strategy.

  13. Testing albendazole resistance in Fasciola hepatica: validation of an egg hatch test with isolates from South America and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Canevari, J; Ceballos, L; Sanabria, R; Romero, J; Olaechea, F; Ortiz, P; Cabrera, M; Gayo, V; Fairweather, I; Lanusse, C; Alvarez, L

    2014-09-01

    The main goal of the current work was to develop and validate an in vitro fluke egg hatch test, as a method for the detection of albendazole (ABZ) resistance in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Fluke eggs (200/ml, n= 5) from six different isolates were used in the current experimental work. They were obtained from different geographical locations and named Cullompton (UK), CEDIVE (Chascomus, Argentina), INTA-Bariloche (Bariloche, Argentina), Rubino (Uruguay), Cajamarca (Perú) and Río Chico (Catamarca, Argentina). The fluke eggs were incubated (25 °C) for a 12-h period in the presence of either ABZ or its sulphoxide metabolite (ABZ.SO) (5, 0.5 or 0.05 nmol/ml). Untreated eggs were incubated as a control. Incubated eggs (with or without drug present) were kept in darkness at 25 °C for 15 days. Afterwards, the trematode eggs were exposed to daylight over a 2-h period. Hatched and unhatched eggs were evaluated using an optical microscope, and the ovicidal activity was assessed for each fluke isolate. A very low ovicidal activity ( ≤ 13.4%) was observed in the ABZ-resistant CEDIVE isolate for both ABZ and ABZ.SO. Conversely, in the INTA-Bariloche and Río Chico isolates, which are suspected to be susceptible to ABZ, ovicidal activities ≥ 70.3% were observed after incubation with ABZ at the lowest concentration tested (0.05 nmol/ml). This finding correlates with that previously described for the ABZ-susceptible Cullompton. Finally, the Cajamarca and Rubino isolates behaved as ABZ resistant, since no ovicidal activity was observed after eggs were incubated with ABZ at 0.5 nmol/ml. Considering the specific results obtained for each isolate under assessment, the egg hatch test described here may be a suitable method for detection of ABZ resistance in F. hepatica.

  14. Implementation of new tools in molecular epidemiology studies of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato in South America.

    PubMed

    Avila, Héctor G; Santos, Guilherme B; Cucher, Marcela A; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Pérez, Matías G; Baldi, Germán; Jensen, Oscar; Pérez, Verónica; López, Raúl; Negro, Perla; Scialfa, Exequiel; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B; Rosenzvit, Mara; Kamenetzky, Laura

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species and genotypes in intermediate and definitive hosts and in human isolates from endemic regions of Argentina and Brazil including those where no molecular data is available by a combination of classical and alternative molecular tools. A total of 227 samples were isolated from humans, natural intermediate and definitive hosts. Amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene fragment was performed and a combination of AluI digestion assay, High Resolution Melting analysis (HRM) assay and DNA sequencing was implemented for Echinococcus species/genotype determination. E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) was found in sheep (n=35), cattle (n=67) and dogs (n=5); E. ortleppi (G5) in humans (n=3) and cattle (n=108); E. canadensis (G6) in humans (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) in pigs (n=7). We reported for the first time the presence of E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6) in humans from San Juan and Catamarca Argentinean provinces and E. canadensis (G7) in pigs from Cordoba Argentinean province. In this work, we widened molecular epidemiology studies of E. granulosus s. l. in South America by analyzing several isolates from definitive and intermediate hosts, including humans from endemic regions were such information was scarce or unavailable. The presence of different species/genotypes in the same region and host species reinforce the need of rapid and specific techniques for accurate determination of Echinococcus species such as the ones proposed in this work.

  15. Mechanical Analysis of Feeding Behavior in the Extinct “Terror Bird” Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Degrange, Federico J.; Tambussi, Claudia P.; Moreno, Karen; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Wroe, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The South American phorusrhacid bird radiation comprised at least 18 species of small to gigantic terrestrial predators for which there are no close modern analogs. Here we perform functional analyses of the skull of the medium-sized (∼40 kg) patagornithine phorusrhacid Andalgalornis steulleti (upper Miocene–lower Pliocene, Andalgalá Formation, Catamarca, Argentina) to assess its mechanical performance in a comparative context. Based on computed tomographic (CT) scanning and morphological analysis, the skull of Andalgalornis steulleti is interpreted as showing features reflecting loss of intracranial immobility. Discrete anatomical attributes permitting such cranial kinesis are widespread phorusrhacids outgroups, but this is the first clear evidence of loss of cranial kinesis in a gruiform bird and may be among the best documented cases among all birds. This apomorphic loss is interpreted as an adaptation for enhanced craniofacial rigidity, particularly with regard to sagittal loading. We apply a Finite Element approach to a three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull. Based on regression analysis we estimate the bite force of Andalgalornis at the bill tip to be 133 N. Relative to results obtained from Finite Element Analysis of one of its closest living relatives (seriema) and a large predatory bird (eagle), the phorusrhacid's skull shows relatively high stress under lateral loadings, but low stress where force is applied dorsoventrally (sagittally) and in “pullback” simulations. Given the relative weakness of the skull mediolaterally, it seems unlikely that Andalgalornis engaged in potentially risky behaviors that involved subduing large, struggling prey with its beak. We suggest that it either consumed smaller prey that could be killed and consumed more safely (e.g., swallowed whole) or that it used multiple well-targeted sagittal strikes with the beak in a repetitive attack-and-retreat strategy. PMID:20805872

  16. Multi-proxy evidence for tectonic control on the expansion of C4 grasses in northwest Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Jennifer M.; Hyland, Ethan G.; Sheldon, Nathan D.

    2014-06-01

    The timing of the rise of C4 grasses and the climatic conditions driving their expansion are widely debated, with recent studies suggesting that the expansion was more complex than previously thought. Proxy reconstructions from northwestern Argentina record multiple increases and decreases in C4 abundance throughout the late Miocene to early Pliocene, as well as variations in the timing of the spread of C4 grasses into the region. Here we present a multi-proxy paleovegetation reconstruction of the proportions of C3 and C4 vegetation using organic carbon and phytoliths preserved in paleosols at Entre Ríos in the Santa María Basin of Catamarca, Argentina between 6.2 and 3.3 Ma. Both δCorg13 and phytolith assemblages indicate a C3 dominated ecosystem with no evidence for substantial amounts of C4 vegetation from the late Miocene through mid-Pliocene, despite their rise to dominance elsewhere during this time. These data suggest that by 6.2 Ma the Santa María basin floor was at an elevation high enough to create locally cool conditions that allowed C3 vegetation to outcompete C4 grasses. Phytolith assemblages show that later uplift of the Sierra Calchaquies and Sierra Aconquija ranges through the Pliocene increased aridity and drove the expansion of C3 grasses at the expense of palms and other forest indicators. This multi-proxy paleovegetation reconstruction demonstrates that tectonics played an important role in controlling the late Miocene expansion C4 grasses by suppressing their spread into northwest Argentina.

  17. Securing water for the cities.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management.

  18. Methodology for processing backscattered electron images. Application to Aguada archaeological paints.

    PubMed

    Galván Josa, V; Bertolino, S R; Riveros, J A; Castellano, G

    2009-12-01

    Scanning electron microscopy is a powerful technique in several fields of science and technology. In particular it is an important complement in the characterization of materials for which X-ray analysis is not possible. Such is the case of thin paint layers on ceramic pots, in which, even for low incident energies, the electron interaction volume can be greater than the paint thickness--in addition to the problem arising from similar compositions. With the aim of complementing other common techniques used in compositional materials characterization, in this work, an image-processing software has been developed, which implements a new methodology for the treatment of backscattered electron (BSE) images in order to bring to evidence small mean atomic number contrasts, usually imperceptible to human eye. The program was used to study black and white pigments of ceramic pieces belonging to the Ambato style of "Aguada" culture (Catamarca province, Argentina, IV-XII centuries AD). Although the BSE images acquired for these samples showed no apparent contrast between sherd and black and white pigments, through image-processing algorithms using different space filters, chemical contrast between regions has been brought to evidence with a minor detail loss. This has been accomplished by applying a smoothing filter, after which the main routine for contrast enhancement reveals details in the grey-level region of interest; finally, a filter for edge enhancement permits to recover some details lost in the previous steps, achieving satisfactory results for the painted sherd samples analyzed. In order to validate the mean atomic number differences found between each pigment and the ceramic body, X-ray diffraction diagrams have been refined with Rietveld method using the software DIFFRACplus Topas, arriving to mineralogical differences which agree with the results obtained. As a consequence of this study, the program developed has proven to be a suitable tool for routine

  19. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C

    2012-03-21

    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  20. [Efficiency, cost-effectiveness and justification of need for investment in nutrition therapy in a hospital of third level; the role of specialists in endocrinology and nutrition and the coding unit].

    PubMed

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Enciso Izquierdo, Fidel Jesús; Beneítez Moralejo, Belén; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Piedra León, María; Amado Señaris, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    La desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) es una entidad con alta prevalencia en el medio hospitalario español. Según la OMS, entre el 20 y el 40% del gasto sanitario se pierde por ineficiencia. Demostrar que la DRE es una fuente de ineficiencia y que la contratación de un médico especialista para su detección y tratamiento es coste-efectiva para el sistema. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Comparación de diagnósticos y procedimientos nutricionales detectados y codificados en informes de alta mediante test de McNemar. Recodificación de 55 informes de alta incluyendo diagnósticos y procesos nutricionales. Determinar variaciones en IC, coste proceso, coste proceso/punto GRD tras la recodificación. Comparación con test de Wilcoxon.

  1. [Early discharge of the healthy newborn from the nursery of the Hospital Español de México].

    PubMed

    Santos Burgoa-Larrañaga, Lorena; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el riesgo-beneficio del alta temprana en neonatos es controversial. No encontramos estudios concluyentes que analicen las variables del neonato y el impacto en su morbilidad al alta temprana. Asociamos estadísticamente variables con alguna terapia adicional que pudiera poner en riesgo al neonato de alta temprana. Métodos: estudio prolectivo observacional en recién nacidos de término desde el nacimiento hasta el alta (de agosto a diciembre de 2013). Se hizo seguimiento telefónico al mes de vida para conocer su estado de salud. Las variables dependientes fueron las horas intrahospitalarias, las terapias adicionales y la atención intrahospitalaria en el primer mes. Resultados: 701 neonatos a término, 41 con terapia adicional, 23 ingresos a UCIN (22 en < 24 horas). Hubo un RR de 12.9 si el Apgar era < 8.8. Hubo 9 veces más riesgo de terapia adicional si había < 38 semanas de gestación. El peso bajo triplicó el riesgo para ingreso a UCIN. Hubo 143 altas tempranas, 58 % seguimiento telefónico, 0 % de reingresos. Las principales variables que influyen en requerir terapia adicional son el Apgar < 8 a los 5 minutos, tener < 38 semanas de gestación y peso bajo.Conclusión: los elementos para el manejo de pacientes con alta temprana son datos de alarma, seguimiento con pediatra a los tres días de vida, vigilancia estrecha si el APGAR es < 8 a los 5 minutos o < 38 semanas de gestación o si hay peso bajo para la edad gestacional.

  2. Combined Spectroscopic and Interferometric (NPOI) Observations of the Be Star o Cassiopeiae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    orbitales de este sistema SB1 implican una función de masa muy alta de alrededor de una masa solar . Esto implica una masa muy alta de la estrella...caracteŕısticas de este sistema binario peculiar. ABSTRACT The analysis of radial velocities of the Be star o Cas from spectra taken between 1992 and...in 1978, but later refuted by several authors. The orbital parameters of this SB1 system imply a very high mass function of about one solar mass. This

  3. Prediction of novel alloy phases of Al with Sc or Ta

    PubMed Central

    Bilić, Ante; Gale, Julian D.; Gibson, Mark A.; Wilson, Nick; McGregor, Kathie

    2015-01-01

    Using the evolutionary optimization algorithm, as implemented in the USPEX crystal predictor program, and first principles total energy calculations, the compositional phase diagrams for Al-Sc and Al-Ta alloy systems at zero temperature and pressure have been calculated. In addition to the known binary intermetallic phases, new potentially stable alloys, AlSc3 and AlTa7, have been identified in the Al-poor region of the phase diagram. The dynamic and thermal stability of their lattices has been confirmed from the calculated vibrational normal mode spectra in the harmonic approximation. PMID:25950915

  4. On the hydrodynamics of rocket propellant engine inducers and turbopumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Agostino, L.

    2013-12-01

    The lecture presents an overview of some recent results of the work carried out at Alta on the hydrodynamic design and rotordynamic fluid forces of cavitating turbopumps for liquid propellant feed systems of modern rocket engines. The reduced order models recently developed for preliminary geometric definition and noncavitating performance prediction of tapered-hub axial inducers and centrifugal turbopumps are illustrated. The experimental characterization of the rotordynamic forces acting on a whirling four-bladed, tapered-hub, variable-pitch high-head inducer, under different load and cavitation conditions is presented. Future perspectives of the work to be carried out at Alta in this area of research are briefly illustrated.

  5. Positive Identification of Microgram Quantities of Asbestos Using Infrared Spectroscopy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    I- - ,, - e m m au m . ... are shown in Figures 3-5. -19- Figure 3. (a) A spectrum of a boiler gasket material composed of asbestos...AMTE 2- DAES 1 - RAE 2 - CFB Shearwater, N.S. 1 - NAML 1 - CFB Comox, B.C. 1 - AOL 1 - CFB Edmonton, Alta. 1 - CFB Cold Lake, Alta. 2 - BDLS 1...diocuiie in t is rlasSltied) 1 0111I(INAIIN( At:IIVIIY 2.1. (OCUMI NI SECURITY CLASSIF ICArION Defence Research Establishment Pacific UNCLASSIFIED CFB

  6. Shallow marine event sedimentation in a volcanic arc-related setting: The Ordovician Suri Formation, Famatina range, northwest Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Loma del Kilome??tro Member of the Lower Ordovician Suri Formation records arc-related shelf sedimentation in the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina. Nine facies, grouped into three facies assemblages, are recognized. Facies assemblage 1 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) locally punctuated by normally graded or parallel-laminated silty sandstones (facies B] records deposition from suspension fall-out and episodic storm-induced turbidity currents in an outer shelf setting. Facies assemblage 2 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) interbedded with rippled-top very fine-grained sandstones (facies D)] is interpreted as the product of background sedimentation alternating with distal storm events in a middle shelf environment. Facies assemblage 3 [normally graded coarse to fine-grained sandstones (facies C); parallel-laminated to low angle cross-stratified sandstones (facies E); hummocky cross-stratified sandstones and siltstones (facies F); interstratified fine-grained sandstones and mudstones (facies G); massive muddy siltstones and sandstones (facies H); tuffaceous sandstones (facies I); and interbedded thin units of massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A)] is thought to represent volcaniclastic mass flow and storm deposition coupled with subordinated suspension fall-out in an inner-shelf to lower-shoreface setting. The Loma del Kilo??metro Member records regressive-transgressive sedimentation in a storm- and mass flow-dominated high-gradient shelf. Volcano-tectonic activity was the important control on shelf morphology, while relative sea-level change influenced sedimentation. The lower part of the succession is attributed to mud blanketing during high stand and volcanic quiescence. Progradation of the inner shelf to lower shoreface facies assemblage in the middle part represents an abrupt basinward shoreline migration. An erosive-based, non-volcaniclastic, turbidite unit at the base of this package suggests a sea

  7. Post-Wildfire Sedimentation in Saguaro National Park, Rincon Mountain District, and Effects on Lowland Leopard Frog Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.

    2006-01-01

    erosional mechanisms were rainsplash and sheetwash that delivered high sediment loads to headwater tributaries. The increased runoff also led to scouring of the headwater tributaries and the downstream transport of a sediment slug by a series of episodic debris flows or hyperconcentrated flows. The sediment slug, following intense summer precipitation, moved downstream several hundred meters at a time. Sediment was remobilized during subsequent periods of runoff. As of fall 2005, sediment had traveled 3.3 km downstream from the nearest burn area margin and had buried several tinajas in as much as a meter of sediment. Sediment continued to overwhelm the transport capacity of the channel even as the hillslopes in the burn area were showing evidence of recovery. The sedimentation history and effects on leopard frog habitat in other channels in the Rincon Mountains was evaluated by analyzing observations made by Saguaro National Park staff during monitoring surveys of leopard frog populations. The best record of post-wildfire sediment deposition was that of Loma Verde Wash in which the filling of all tinajas in the two years after the 1999 Box Canyon fire was recorded. Monitoring of leopard frog populations in Wildhorse Canyon appeared to reflect the lingering effects of heavy sedimentation related to the 1989 Chiva fire. Populations appear to be recovering in the upper tinajas, which were mainly free of sediment, but sightings of frogs were sparse in the lower tinajas that still contained high volumes of sediment. In Madrona Canyon, leopard frog sightings were sparse, possibly indicating that habitat had been detrimentally affected by the Rincon fire of 1994. Based on rates of filling of tinajas in Joaquin Canyon and Loma Verde Wash, minimum estimated rates of sediment yield from burn areas ranged from 425 to 1,960 kg ha-1. The residence time of sediment in tinajas was found to be highly variable. Tinajas in Loma Verde Wash that were buried following the

  8. Testing the stress shadow hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Brodsky, Emily E.

    2005-05-01

    A fundamental question in earthquake physics is whether aftershocks are predominantly triggered by static stress changes (permanent stress changes associated with fault displacement) or dynamic stresses (temporary stress changes associated with earthquake shaking). Both classes of models provide plausible explanations for earthquake triggering of aftershocks, but only the static stress model predicts stress shadows, or regions in which activity is decreased by a nearby earthquake. To test for whether a main shock has produced a stress shadow, we calculate time ratios, defined as the ratio of the time between the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it and the time between the last earthquake to precede the main shock and the first earthquake to follow it. A single value of the time ratio is calculated for each 10 × 10 km bin within 1.5 fault lengths of the main shock epicenter. Large values of the time ratio indicate a long wait for the first earthquake to follow the main shock and thus a potential stress shadow, whereas small values indicate the presence of aftershocks. Simulations indicate that the time ratio test should have sufficient sensitivity to detect stress shadows if they are produced in accordance with the rate and state friction model. We evaluate the 1989 MW 7.0 Loma Prieta, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, 1994 MW 6.7 Northridge, and 1999 MW 7.1 Hector Mine main shocks. For each main shock, there is a pronounced concentration of small time ratios, indicating the presence of aftershocks, but the number of large time ratios is less than at other times in the catalog. This suggests that stress shadows are not present. By comparing our results to simulations we estimate that we can be at least 98% confident that the Loma Prieta and Landers main shocks did not produce stress shadows and 91% and 84% confident that stress shadows were not generated by the Hector Mine and Northridge main shocks, respectively. We also investigate the long hypothesized existence

  9. [A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert].

    PubMed

    Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    The vegetation of the sandy hills ("lomas") constitutes the main originality of the Peruvian and Chilean desert with a high number of endemics that shapes the vicarious associations. In this work, a phytosociological view of sandy environments of the Peruvian coastal desert is presented. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, we have made up 32 phytosociological inventories and added 138 ones from others authors. In each inventory, we have analyzed its floristic composition and ecological parameters, as altitude, soil and geomorphology. All releves were synthesized in a table to deduce the different associations, higher phytosociological units, and the distribu tion of its flora along the Peruvian coast and the Andean Cordillera. Using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the diversity of this flora is discussed making a comparison with historical data about the use of the territory with livestock during pre-Inca and Inca cultures, and Spanish invasion. As a result, two associations from Southern Peru -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae and Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri-, two alliances -Nolanion humifusae from central Peru, and Nolanion spathulatae from the Southern Peru- and a new order -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis- are described. In Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae, Dictyophragnus englerianus, Leptoglossis lomana, Nolana scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua velutina and Tetragonia vestita are the main characteristics, while in Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri association N. scaposa and P. velutina are replaced by Palaua camanensis and P. weberbaueri. Nolanion humifusae alliance integrates species as Geranium limae, Hymenocallis amancaes, Nolana humifusa, N. latipes, Palaua rhombifolia or Villanova oppositifolia. Likewise, Cistanthe weberbaueri, Cryptantha parviflora, Hoffmannseggia miranda, Lupinus mollendoensis, Nolana confinis, N. pallidula, N. scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua camanensis, P. velutina, P. weberbaueri, Tetragonia vestita and

  10. Late Quaternary geomorphic history of a glacial landscape - new sedimentary and chronological data from the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J.-H.; Preusser, F.; Zech, R.; Ilgner, J.; Veit, H.

    2009-04-01

    Throughout the Central Andes, glacial landscapes have long been used for the reconstruction of Late Quaternary glaciations and landscape evolution. Much work has focused on the Andes in Peru, Chile and the Bolivian Altiplano, whereas relatively little data has been published on glaciation history in the eastern Andean ranges and slopes. Even less is known with regard to the postglacial evolution of these glacial landscapes. In the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), local maximum advances probably peaked around 20-25 ka BP and were followed by significant readvances between ~12-16 ka BP. This generally points to temperature controlled maximum glacial advances along the humid eastern slopes of the Central Andes, which is supported by glacier-climate-modelling studies. However, most studies include only marginal information with regard to the complex geomorphic and sedimentary situation in the Cordillera de Cochabamba. Furthermore, the chronological results are afflicted with several methodological uncertainties inherent to surface exposure dating and call for application of alternative, independent age dating methods. Therefore this study aims at i) documenting and interpreting the complex glacial geomorphology of the Huara Loma valley in the Cordillera de Cochabamba (Bolivia), ii) analyzing the involved units of glacial sediments, and iii) improving the chronological framework by applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon dating (14C). For this purpose, geomorphic mapping was combined with field documentation of sedimentary profiles. The involved sediments were subject to geochemical and mineralogical analysis in order to deduce information on their erosional and weathering histories. In addition, the interpretation of OSL ages from glacial and proglacial sediments integrated several methodological procedures with regard to sample preparation and statistical analysis of the measurements in order to increase the degree of confidence. These

  11. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulation Across a Complex Fault System: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes ruptures sometimes take place on a secondary fault and surprisingly do not activate an adjacent major one. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is a classic case where rupture occurred on a blind thrust while the adjacent San Andreas Fault was not triggered during the process. Similar to Loma Prieta, the Mw7.0, January 12 2010, Haiti earthquake also ruptured a secondary blind thrust, the Léogâne fault, adjacent to the main plate boundary, the Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, which did not rupture during this event. Aftershock relocalizations delineate the Léogâne rupture with two north dipping segments with slightly different dip, where the easternmost segment had mostly dip-slip motion and the westernmost one had mostly strike-slip motion. In addition, an offshore south dipping structure inferred from the aftershocks to the west of the rupture zone coincides with the offshore Trois Baies reverse fault, a region of increase in Coulomb stress increase. In this study, we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake in a complex fault system of multiple segments identified by the aftershock relocations. We suppose a background stress regime that is consistent with the type of motion of each fault and with the regional tectonic regime. We initiate a nucleation on the east segment of the Léogâne fault by defining a circular region with a 2 km radius where shear stress is slightly greater than the yield stress. By varying friction on faults and background stress, we find a range of plausible scenarios. In the absence of near-field seismic records of the event, we score the different models against the static deformation field derived from GPS and InSAR at the surface. All the plausible simulations show that the rupture propagates from the eastern to the western segment along the Léogâne fault, but not on the Enriquillo fault nor on the Trois Baies fault. The best-fit simulation shows a significant increase of shear stresses on the Trois Baies

  12. Status and perspectives of the studies on anomalous phosphene perceptions in the frame of the ALTEA program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, Livio; Carozzo, Simone; Casolino, Marco; de Martino, Angelo; di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Paci, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Adele; Sannita, Walter G.; Zaconte, Veronica; Schardt, Dieter; Khan, Elias; Marechal, Francoise; Nelson, Gregory; Obenaus, Andre; Titova, Elena

    One of the major aims of the ALTEA program is to study the anomalous phosphenes per-ceptions reported by astronauts since Apollo 11 lunar flight. This is pursued via space and ground-based experiments. The ALTEA detection systems in the ISS allow concurrent mea-surement of the particles travelling through the brain/eyes of the astronauts (discriminating Z and trajectory of the ions), as well as the electrophysiological brain activity, including the retinogram, and the instances of phosphene perceptions. These measurements permitted to document the electrophysiological responses to particle passages concomitant with phosphene perception with links between the electrophysiological signals and ions traveling through the eye. We have also measured the average number of ions impinging in the eye / brain of the astronaut per minute. On ground-based experiments we have measured the mouse electrophys-iological responses to very short (¡ 5 ms) 12C bursts in the eyes, and the summation effect of the 12C/light stimuli concomitance. We also studied hadron therapy patients reporting phosphenes when irradiated. At the carbon-ion treatment unit at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) we also em-ployed electrophysiological recording, while at the proton therapy center in Orsay, France and at Loma Linda (CA, USA) we are collecting subjective data from treated patients. In the GSI case we have been able to measure electrophysiological responses to ion bursts and to link the perceptions to specific irradiated regions. At Loma Linda the perceived phosphenes correlate temporally with individual accelerator spills, so that the patients can count them. They appear bright white or intense cobalt blue (essentially no other colors) depending on the portion of the eye/optic nerve receiving dose. Foul or burning smells and taste illusions that may last from days to more than a week were also reported during irradiation. In Orsay patients routinely perceive flashes, mostly light blue, but also white

  13. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  14. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... follows: (1) Measure of damages is the same as in the case of coal. Benson Mining and Smelting Co. v. Alta Mining and Smelting Co. (145 U.S. 428, 36 L. ed. 762; Durant Mining Co. v. Percy Consolidated Mining...

  15. 76 FR 45789 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 2 Take notice that the Commission received the... Interconnection, L.L.C. Description: PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. submits tariff filing per 35.13(a)(2)(iii: Queue... Edison Company submits tariff filing per 35.13(a)(2)(iii: LGIA Alta Visa SunTower Generating...

  16. 77 FR 12276 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 2 Take notice that the Commission received the.... Description: Section 203 Application of AES Red Oak, L.L.C. Filed Date: 2/21/12. Accession Number: 20120221... Alta Wind VIII, LLC, et al. Filed Date: 2/21/12. Accession Number: 20120221-5193. Comments Due: 5...

  17. New species of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Stelis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, Anthidiini) from the Nearctic Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Descriptions and diagnoses of ten new Nearctic species of Stelis are presented: S. alta, S. anasazi, S. anthocopae, S. broemelingi, S. imperialis, S. joanae, S. lamelliterga, S. occidentalis, S. paiute, and S. shoshone. Six of these species have been reared from trapnests. Host associations, all wi...

  18. Find Good Sources of Online Images: A Picture Doesn't Have to Be a Thousand Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    The Internet is a natural place to look for images that teachers can use in lessons and students can use in projects and assignments. Google, Yahoo, AltaVista--many of these popular search engines offer image searching. Usually there is a tab to click at the top of the page to select image searching; just enter a search term and go! However, this…

  19. Spectral Analysis of Sound Propagation in Stratified Fluids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    Kodaira, K., The eigenvalue problem for ordinary differential equations of the second order and Heisenberg’s theory of S- matrices , Amer. J. Math. 71...Transient electromagnetic wave propagation in a r dielectric waveguide, Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica , 4 Symposia Mathematica XVIII, 239-277

  20. 77 FR 63809 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Combined Notice of Filings 2 Take notice that the Commission received the following electric rate filings: Docket Numbers: ER12-1875-001. Applicants: AltaGas Renewable...

  1. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration Stimulation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Trenton T. Cladouhos, Matthew Clyne, Maisie Nichols,; Susan Petty, William L. Osborn, Laura Nofziger

    2011-10-23

    As a part of Phase I of the Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration project, several data sets were collected to characterize the rock volume around the well. Fracture, fault, stress, and seismicity data has been collected by borehole televiewer, LiDAR elevation maps, and microseismic monitoring. Well logs and cuttings from the target well (NWG 55-29) and core from a nearby core hole (USGS N-2) have been analyzed to develop geothermal, geochemical, mineralogical and strength models of the rock matrix, altered zones, and fracture fillings (see Osborn et al., this volume). These characterization data sets provide inputs to models used to plan and predict EGS reservoir creation and productivity. One model used is AltaStim, a stochastic fracture and flow software model developed by AltaRock. The software's purpose is to model and visualize EGS stimulation scenarios and provide guidance for final planning. The process of creating an AltaStim model requires synthesis of geologic observations at the well, the modeled stress conditions, and the stimulation plan. Any geomechanical model of an EGS stimulation will require many assumptions and unknowns; thus, the model developed here should not be considered a definitive prediction, but a plausible outcome given reasonable assumptions. AltaStim is a tool for understanding the effect of known constraints, assumptions, and conceptual models on plausible outcomes.

  2. Obesity, Poverty, and Participation in Nutrition Assistance Programs. Family Programs. Report No. FSP-04-PO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linz, Paul; Lee, Michael; Bell, Loren

    2005-01-01

    In September 2003, the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) contracted with ALTA Systems to conduct a project with the goal of providing a comprehensive overview of the relationship between poverty, program participation and obesity by conducting an in depth literature review; and convening an expert panel. The…

  3. Explorers of the Local Region. Grade 3 Model Lesson for Unit 3, Standard 3. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Denise

    Three Spanish explorers who visited the southern California region were Juan Cabrillo, Sebastian Vizcaino, and Gaspar de Portola. In the 1500s, the king of Spain sent explorers from Mexico to Baja and Alta, California, (most of today's California) looking for new wealth, gold, and a waterway to the Strait of Anian. Europeans thought that…

  4. Web Indexing with Meta Fields: A Survey of Web Objects in Polymer Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jian; Wesley, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    This survey of 1037 World Wide Web objects on polymer chemistry collected by four search engines (AltaVista, Lycos, Excite, Webcrawler) examined document information and use of meta fields, images, and chemical names. Found that the use of meta fields was not widespread and that knowledge of meta fields in HTML varied among Web object creators.…

  5. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-27

    AZANZA(+) AND R. N. PÉREZ-BRUZÓN(+) (*) LABORATORIO DE MAGNETISMO DE SÓLIDOS, DEPARTAMENTO DE FÍSICA DE MATERIA CONDENSADA AND ICMA, UNIVERSIDAD...H. TORRES-SILVA(2) (1) Escuela de Electricidad y Electrónica - (2) Instituto de Alta Investigación Universidad de Tarapacá, 18 de Septiembre 2222

  6. 77 FR 72742 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... (TransAlta). The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) submitted its Regional Haze State... at 40 CFR 50.308. On December 29, 2011 Ecology submitted an update to the SIP submittal containing a...? Ecology submitted its Regional Haze SIP on December 22, 2010 to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 50.308....

  7. 77 FR 30467 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Washington; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) submitted its Regional Haze State Implementation Plan (SIP) on December 22, 2010 to meet the requirements of 40 CFR 50.308. On December 29, 2011 Ecology... (NO X ) emissions from TransAlta. Ecology submitted its Regional Haze SIP on December 22, 2010,...

  8. Internet Resources for Community College Practitioners. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankar, Kalpana

    Internet resources provide a library of information to community college practitioners. Guides to these online resources include Yahoo!, Alta Vista, and Hotbot. Community college Internet sites, valuable research tools, are available for the American Association of Community Colleges, the League for Innovation in the Community College, the…

  9. Image Searching across the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to find digital images on the Web. Considers images and copyright; provides an overview of the search capabilities of six search engines, including AltaVista, Google, AllTheWeb.com, Ditto.com, Picsearch, and Lycos; and describes specialized image search engines. (LRW)

  10. Tumacacori National Historical Park: Making History Come Alive. "Encounters" Fourth Grade Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This 9-unit curriculum guide for 4th grade includes activities relating to the cultural and environmental history of southern Arizona, specifically the area known as the Pimeria Alta. The guide was designed by a group of teachers to be thematic and sequential, and to deal with the encounters of various cultures that are the history of the Santa…

  11. A Procedure for Generating the Convex Hull of a 0-1 Programming Polytope with Positive Coefficients.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    if ax < a0 belongs to e (U). II Observe that the testing of condition (17) merely involves the solution of a linear program. This proposition is now...Programming 8 (1975) 146-164. [2] E. Balas, Facets of One-Dimensional and Multi-Dimensional Knapsack Polytopes, Istituto Nazionale di Alta Matematica

  12. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume II: Beyond the Basics. Advanced Searches, Multimedia, and Composing a Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This second of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on advanced searches, multimedia, and composing a World Wide Web page. Lesson 1 is a review of the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus. Lesson 2 covers AltaVista's advanced search tips, searching for information excluding certain text, and advanced and nested Boolean…

  13. 78 FR 28219 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Master Fund, L.P.; MICROS Systems, Inc.; ValueAct Capital Master Fund, L.P. 20130738 G KIA VIII (Power), L.P.; PowerTeam Services, LLC; KIA VIII (Power), L.P. 20130741 G AltaGas Ltd.; LS Power Equity.../2013 20130755 G E. Stanley Kroenke; Outdoor Channel Holdings, Inc.; E. Stanley Kroenke. 20130761 G...

  14. Power Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskin, David

    1997-01-01

    Compares six leading Web search engines (AltaVista, Excite, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, and Northern Light), looking at the breadth of their coverage, accuracy, and ease of use, and finds a clear favorite of the six. Includes tips that can improve search results. (AEF)

  15. Internet Search Engines - Fluctuations in Document Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettrop, Wouter; Nieuwenhuysen, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Reports an empirical investigation of the consistency of retrieval through Internet search engines. Evaluates 13 engines: AltaVista, EuroFerret, Excite, HotBot, InfoSeek, Lycos, MSN, NorthernLight, Snap, WebCrawler, and three national Dutch engines: Ilse, Search.nl and Vindex. The focus is on a characteristic related to size: the degree of…

  16. Web Search Services in 1998: Trends and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Charts the trends and challenges that 1998 has brought to popular search engines such as AltaVista, Excite, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, and Northern Light. Highlights testing strategies used, use of real (not artificial) intelligence, innovations, online market pressures, barriers to use, and tips and recommendations. (AEF)

  17. Where Do I Find It?--An Internet Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Monte, Erin; Manso, Angela

    2001-01-01

    Lists 13 different Internet search engines that might be of interest to educators, including: AOL Search, Alta Vista, Google, Lycos, Northern Light, and Yahoo. Gives a brief description of each search engine's capabilities, strengths, and weaknesses and includes Web addresses of U.S. government offices, including the U.S. Department of Education.…

  18. 77 FR 31034 - Notice of Public Meeting, Farmington District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., 226 Cruz Alta Road, Taos, NM. A field trip is planned for June 13 at 8:30 a.m. The meeting is... include discussion of a proposed transportation plan for the Taos Field Office and a planned wild horse... management plan amendment to the Farmington Field Office Resource Management Plan. Felicia J. Probert,...

  19. 78 FR 21353 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal... Refining Company, LLC, PBF Power Marketing LLC. Description: Supplement to Lea Power Partners, LLC's.... Applicants: Alta Wind VIII, LLC, Bear Swamp Power Company LLC, Brookfield Energy Marketing, Inc,...

  20. CCD Photometer Installed on the Telescope - 600 OF the Shamakhy Astrophysical Observatory II. The Technique of Observation and Data Processing of CCD Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullayev, B. I.; Gulmaliyev, N. I.; Majidova, S. O.; Mikayilov, Kh. M.; Rustamov, B. N.

    2009-12-01

    Basic technical characteristics of CCD matrix U-47 made by the Apogee Alta Instruments Inc. are provided. Short description and features of various noises introduced by optical system and CCD camera are presented. The technique of getting calibration frames: bias, dark, flat field and main stages of processing of results CCD photometry are described.

  1. 76 FR 41817 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Joint Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for the Proposed Alta East Wind Project, and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Kern..., California, intend to prepare a joint Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)/ Environmental Impact Report...

  2. National Aerospace Fuels Research Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    formulated or supplied the drawings, specifications, or other data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation ; or convey any rights...Logistics Agency) ECAT Estudios Combustibles y Altas Temperaturas (rig) F-T Fischer-Tropsch FSII Fuel System Icing Inhibitor GC Gas Chromatograph

  3. 78 FR 41391 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Amendment Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    .... 3, Spaulding No. 1 and No. 2, Alta, Drum No. 1 and No. 2, and Dutch Flats Developments; and (3) Deer Creek Project (Project No. 14530-000) consisting of the Deer Creek Development (application amendment...-102), Drum-Spaulding (P-2310-193), and Deer Creek (P-14530-000) license applications according to...

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miles W. Beemer, Photographer c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Miles W. Beemer, Photographer c. 1920 From right to left: Alta House, unidentified house, O'Gorman House, Carrington House, Mandeville House, unidentified house, Richter House, two unidentified houses, Hedges House. - Broad Street, 900 Block (House), Newark, Essex County, NJ

  5. Savoia seaplane S.55 : military or commercial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    The S.55 is a two engine twin hull seaplane built by Societa Idrovolanti Alta Italia (Seaplane Company of Upper Italy). The S.55 (Santa Maria) is to be used for an around the world flight In 1927. It will have a useful load of 7,500 lbs. and a cruising speed of 100 MPH.

  6. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  7. Quality Dimensions of Internet Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, M.; Wang, H.; Goh, T. N.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews commonly used search engines (AltaVista, Excite, infoseek, Lycos, HotBot, WebCrawler), focusing on existing comparative studies; considers quality dimensions from the customer's point of view based on a SERVQUAL framework; and groups these quality expectations in five dimensions: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and…

  8. The Honeymoon Is Over: Leading the Way to Lasting Search Habits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Melissa

    1997-01-01

    To become efficient Internet searchers, students and teachers need to learn online search skills. Discusses hierarchical subject directories (Yahoo) and search engines (Excite, Lycos, Alta Vista, HotBot); lists top search engines and their universal resource locators (URL). Provides examples of search strings; outlines search tips, and a…

  9. "Just the Answers, Please": Choosing a Web Search Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Presents guidelines for selecting World Wide Web search engines. Real-life questions were used to test six search engines. Queries sought company information, product reviews, medical information, foreign information, technical reports, and current events. Compares performance and features of AltaVista, Excite, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, and Open…

  10. Using the Internet in Career Education. Practice Application Brief No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Judith O.

    The World Wide Web has a wealth of information on career planning, individual jobs, and job search methods that counselors and teachers can use. Search engines such as Yahoo! and Magellan, organized like library tools, and engines such as AltaVista and HotBot search words or phrases. Web indexes offer a variety of features. The criteria for…

  11. Staleness Among Web Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Wallace

    1998-01-01

    Describes a study of four major Web search engines that tested for staleness, a condition when a significant number of the hits it returns point to Web pages or server-level domains (SLD) that are no longer viable. Results of tests of URLs with AltaVista, HotBot, InfoSeek, and Open Text are discussed. (Author/LRW)

  12. How To Do Field Searching in Web Search Engines: A Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Ran

    1998-01-01

    Describes the field search capabilities of selected Web search engines (AltaVista, HotBot, Infoseek, Lycos, Yahoo!) and includes a chart outlining what fields (date, title, URL, images, audio, video, links, page depth) are searchable, where to go on the page to search them, the syntax required (if any), and how field search queries are entered.…

  13. Reliability and interobserver variability in radiological patellar height ratios.

    PubMed

    Seil, R; Müller, B; Georg, T; Kohn, D; Rupp, S

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the reliability and interobserver variability of five patellar height ratios as measured by two examiners on standard radiographs: Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (MIS), Blackburne-Peel (BP), Caton-Deschamps (CD), and Labelle-Laurin (LL). Plain lateral radiographs with a knee flexion angle of 20 degrees for IS, MIS, BP, and CD ratios and 90 degrees for the LL method of 22 knees of 21 patients with varying pathological knee conditions were analyzed. Statistical results revealed a low interobserver variability with high correlation coefficients (0.86 for IS, 0.82 for MIS, 0.86 for BP, 0.92 for CD, and 0.81 for LL; P > 0.3) and low mean interobserver errors. However, regarding the reliability of the radiographic results of the different methods for patella alta, baja, or norma we found varying results in 68% of the patients. In two patients the patellar height was classified as alta, norma, or baja depending on the ratio used. Regarding the definitions of patellar height used by the authors of these methods, we found the lowest number of normal patellae with the IS ratio and no patella alta for the CD ratio. The LL method revealed the highest number of patella alta. The BP ratio showed intermediate results for both patella alta and baja, being the most moderate method. This study showed that there was a good interobserver reliability for the evaluation of patellar height according to the common radiological ratios. However, the high frequency of differing results between the different radiographic ratios showed that patellar height classification as "alta," "norma," or "baja" depends heavily on the chosen index. The differing results were due mainly to the normative patellar height data and to anatomical differences. Based on these findings we recommend a ratio using the articular surface of the patella in relation to the joint line. We recommend the BP method because it revealed the lowest interobserver variability and discriminated

  14. Human fascioliasis in Argentina: retrospective overview, critical analysis and baseline for future research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In Argentina, human fascioliasis has never been adequately analysed, although having a physiography, climate, animal prevalences and lymnaeids similar to those of countries where the disease is endemic such as Bolivia, Peru and Chile. We performed a literature search identifying 58 reports accounting for 619 cases, involving 13 provinces, their majority (97.7%) from high altitudes, in central mountainous areas and Andean valleys, concentrated in Cordoba (430 cases), Catamarca (73), San Luis (29) and Mendoza (28), the remaining provinces being rarely affected. This distribution does not fit that of animal fascioliasis. Certain aspects (higher prevalence in females in a local survey, although a trend non-significant throughout Argentina) but not others (patient's age 3-95 years, mean 37.1 years) resemble human endemics in Andean countries, although the lack of intensity studies and surveys in rural areas does not allow for an adequate evaluation. Human infection occurs mainly in January-April, when higher precipitation and temperatures interact with field activities during summer holidays. A second June peak may be related to Easter holidays. The main risk factor appears to be wild watercress ingestion (214) during recreational, weekend outings or holiday activities, explaining numerous family outbreaks involving 63 people and infection far away from their homes. Diagnosis mainly relied on egg finding (288), followed by serology (82), intradermal reaction (63), surgery (43), and erratic fluke observation (6). The number of fascioliasis-hydatidosis co-infected patients (14) is outstanding. Emetine appears as the drug most used (186), replaced by triclabendazole in recent years (21). Surgery reports are numerous (27.0%). A long delay in diagnosis (average almost 3.5 years) and high lithiasis proportion suggest that many patients are frequently overlooked and pose a question mark about fascioliasis detection in the country. High seroprevalences found in recent random

  15. Geophysics News 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    The last two years have witnessed many major geophysical events such as the Loma Prieta earthquake, new insights into plate motions, new seismic and mid-ocean ridge observational programs, and new views of a distant planet. AGU's Public Information Committee, chaired by Debra Knopman of the U.S. Geological Survey, was asked by the American Institute of Physics to prepare a series of articles on the major topics in geophysics for publication in Physics News in 1990. Several of those papers did appear in the AIP publication. In the absence of a comparable publication devoted solely to a summary of news in geophysics, AGU is publishing the 20 articles solicited by the Public Information Committee as a booklet, Geophysics News 1990, that is being distributed to the media. The articles are also being published in Eos starting with this issue and continuing for the next several weeks. The topics covered in these articles range from the world's deepest rocks to the powerful blast waves from major solar flares.

  16. A new Miocene baleen whale from the Peruvian desert

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The Pisco-Ica and Sacaco basins of southern Peru are renowned for their abundance of exceptionally preserved fossil cetaceans, several of which retain traces of soft tissue and occasionally even stomach contents. Previous work has mostly focused on odontocetes, with baleen whales currently being restricted to just three described taxa. Here, we report a new Late Miocene rorqual (family Balaenopteridae), Incakujira anillodefuego gen. et sp. nov., based on two exceptionally preserved specimens from the Pisco Formation exposed at Aguada de Lomas, Sacaco Basin, southern Peru. Incakujira overall closely resembles modern balaenopterids, but stands out for its unusually gracile ascending process of the maxilla, as well as a markedly twisted postglenoid process of the squamosal. The latter likely impeded lateral (omega) rotation of the mandible, in stark contrast with the highly flexible craniomandibular joint of extant lunge-feeding rorquals. Overall, Incakujira expands the still meagre Miocene record of balaenopterids and reveals a previously underappreciated degree of complexity in the evolution of their iconic lunge-feeding strategy. PMID:27853573

  17. Spill-to-spill and daily proton energy consistency with a new accelerator control system.

    PubMed

    Moyers, M F; Ghebremedhin, A

    2008-05-01

    The Loma Linda University proton accelerator has had several upgrades installed including synchrotron dipole power supplies and a system for monitoring the beam energy. The consistency of the energy from spill-to-spill has been tested by measuring the depth ionization at the distal edge as a function of time. These measurements were made with a minimally equipped beamline to reduce interference from confounding factors. The consistency of the energy over several months was measured in a treatment room beamline using an ionization chamber based daily quality assurance device. The results showed that the energy of protons delivered from the accelerator (in terms of water equivalent range) was consistent from spill-to-spill to better than +/-0.03 mm at 70, 155, and 250 MeV and that the energy check performed each day in the treatment room over a several month period was within +/-0.11 mm (+/-0.06 MeV) at 149 MeV. These results are within the tolerances required for the energy stacking technique.

  18. Practices, Attitudes, and Beliefs associated with Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Kristen; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Hardin, Steven; Knecht, Kathryn; Chen, C.S.; Montgomery, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients (40 – 83%) receiving conventional treatment and the complex relationship between the psychosocial factors that may contribute to or result from CAM use requires further understanding. We conducted a descriptive mixed-methods pilot study to understand CAM practices, attitudes and beliefs among cancer patients at the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC). Methods This was the qualitative phase of the study and no hypotheses were set. Twenty-three face-to-face interviews were conducted and thematic coding was used to analyze 22 interview transcriptions. There were fourteen CAM users (64%) and eight non-users (36%). Findings The themes present among those who used CAM were: physicians viewed as one aspect of health care options, a holistic view on wellbeing, satisfaction with CAM use, and three key coping methods (confrontive, supportive, and optimistic) to confront cancer. Themes were not independent of each other. Two themes were present among nonusers; nonusers trusted their physician and were more likely to express evasive coping methods. Discussion Perceptions and behavioral patterns are complex predictors of CAM use. A better understanding of CAM, medical pluralism, and the perceptions of patients would help health care providers deliver a better quality of care. The promotion of integrative care may help health care providers better identify medical pluralism and would shift focus to patient-centered care. PMID:22313741

  19. Final Report “Physiological, demographic, competitive and biogeochemical controls on the response of California’s ecosystems to environmental change”

    SciTech Connect

    Goulden, Michael L.

    2016-02-08

    The Loma Ridge Global Change Experiment is a large, well-replicated water and nitrogen input manipulation in the Santa Ana Mountain foothills that operated with DOE support from 2006 to 2015. The experiment considers the effects of increased and decreased water input and increased N input on two adjacent ecosystem types: California Annual Grassland (GL), which is dominated by exotic, Eurasian grasses and forbs, and Coastal Sage Shrubland (CSS), which is dominated by native, drought deciduous, perennial shrubs. The experiment proceeded in two phases: "Phase I Severe treatment", and "Phase II Return to ambient". Phase I showed very rapid change in species composition or ANPP with altered water or N input (low resistance), whereas Phase II showed a very rapid return to initial conditions once ambient water or N input were restored (high resilience). The severe drought treatment killed most of the shrubs in the dry plots and opened the canopy to herbaceous species, but this damage was ephemeral, and the shrubland community is recovering through the mechanisms and patterns that more typically mediate recovery from crown fire. The pattern of low resistance and high resilience carries implications for other "global change experiments", which have often also seen large and rapid treatment effects (low resistance), but have less frequently considered the subsequent recovery or resilience of the system.

  20. Comparison of damping in buildings under low-amplitude and strong motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of damping values and other dynamic characteristics of five buildings using strong-motion and low-amplitude (ambient vibration) data. The strong-motion dynamic characteristics of five buildings within the San Francisco Bay area are extracted from recordings of the 17 October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE). Ambient vibration response characteristics for the same five buildings were inferred using data collected in 1990 following LPE. Additional earthquake data other than LPE for one building and ambient vibration data collected before LPE for two other buildings provide additional confirmation of the results obtained. For each building, the percentages of critical damping and the corresponding fundamental periods determined from low-amplitude test data are appreciably lower than those determined from strong-motion recordings. These differences are attributed mainly to soil-structure interaction and other non-linear behavior affecting the structures during strong shaking. Significant contribution of radiation damping to the effective damping of a specific building is discussed in detail.

  1. Seismic response of transamerica building. II. System identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.; Celebi, M.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the recorded seismic response of the Transamerica Building during the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake is presented. The system identification algorithm used for the analysis is based on the discrete-time linear filtering approach with least-squares approximation, and assumes a multi-input, single-output model for the building. Fifteen modes in the north-south direction, and 18 modes in the east-west direction are identified from the records. The analysis shows that the building's response to the earthquake was dominated by a coupled mode of vibration at 0.28 Hz in the southwest-northeast direction, which is almost parallel to one of the diagonals in the building's square cross section. The reason for this behavior is the symmetry of the building's structural characteristics, as well as the strong polarization of the S-waves of the earthquake. Several higher modes of the building were excited during the strong-motion part of the earthquake. The results also show a significant amount of rocking in the building at a frequency of 2.15 Hz.

  2. A Contribution to Mitigating Seismic Risk in the Bay Area: The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlie, N.; Romanowicz, B.; Hellweg, P.

    2007-05-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), two million people live in a geologically complex, tectonically active region that has experienced several historic earthquakes, including the 1868 Hayward, the 1906 San Francisco, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes. Geodetic measurements, which are especially useful for detecting deformation and strain on deep structures throughout the seismic cycle, show that Bay Area deformation is both spatially complex and varying with time. Increasingly, GPS data can also be used in real time to complement seismic data in providing robust real-time earthquake information, and, potentially, early warning. The Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network of permanent, continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers monitors crustal deformation in the Bay Area and northern California. BARD is a network collocated with several seismic networks (BDSN, NHFN, mini-PBO) operating in Northern California. As the local determination of magnitude is problematic for large earthquakes, the GPS will provide strong constraints on rupture geometry and amount of slip along the slipping fault. Thus, the collocation of all the networks will help mitigate earthquake- related risks associated with an earthquake in the SFBA or in northern California.

  3. Seismic Risk Assessment of Italian Seaports Using GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomei, Anna; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.

    2008-07-08

    Seaports are crucial elements in the export and import of goods and/or on the flow of travellers in the tourism industry of many industrialised nations included Italy. Experience gained from recent earthquakes (e.g. 1989 Loma Prieta in USA, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu and 2003 Tokachi-Oki in Japan) have dramatically demonstrated the seismic vulnerability of seaport structures and the severe damage that can be caused by ground shaking. In Italy, the Department of Civil Protection has funded a research project to develop a methodology for the seismic design of new marginal wharves and assessment of existing structures at seaports located in areas of medium or high seismicity. This paper shows part of the results of this research project, currently underway, with particular reference to the seismic risk assessment through an interactive, geographically referenced database (GIS). Standard risk assessment have been carried out for the Gioia Tauro port in Calabria (Italy) using the empirical curves implemented by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS, 2004)

  4. Bringing politics and evidence together: policy entrepreneurship and the conception of the At Home/Chez Soi Housing First Initiative for addressing homelessness and mental illness in Canada.

    PubMed

    Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; Goering, Paula

    2013-04-01

    An interesting question concerns how large-scale (mental) health services policy initiatives come into being, and the role of evidence within the decision-making process behind their origins. This paper illustrates the process by which motivation to address homelessness, in the context of the upcoming 2010 Vancouver Olympics, was leveraged into a pan-Canadian project including sites in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, New Brunswick. The aim of the initiative was to implement and evaluate an intervention, Housing First, to provide housing and support to previously homeless people with mental illness. This qualitative case study was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010, employing grounded theory, and drawing on archival documents and interviews with 19 key informants involved in the conception of the project. Overall, the findings affirm that policy-making does not follow a rational, linear process of knowledge translation/exchange (KTE) and implementation, whereby evidence-based "products" are brought forward to address objectively determined needs and then "placed into decision-making events" (Lomas, 2007, p. 130). Instead, evidence-based policy making should be understood within the much more complex context of "policy entrepreneurship" (Kingdon, 2003; Mintrom & Norman, 2009) which entails taking advantage of windows of opportunity, and helping to bring together the "streams" of problems, politics, and policy ideas (Kingdon, 2003).

  5. Procedures for computing site seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferritto, John

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthquake ground motion. The Navy's problem is further complicated by the presence of soft saturated marginal soils that can significantly amplify the levels of seismic shaking as evidenced in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command's seismic design manual, NAVFAC P355.l, requires a probabilistic assessment of ground motion for design of essential structures. This report presents the basis for the Navy's Seismic Hazard Analysis procedure that was developed and is intended to be used with the Seismic Hazard Analysis computer program and user's manual. This report also presents data on geology and seismology to establish the background for the seismic hazard model developed. The procedure uses the historical epicenter data base and available geologic data, together with source models, recurrence models, and attenuation relationships to compute the probability distribution of site acceleration and an appropriate spectra. This report discusses the developed stochastic model for seismic hazard evaluation and the associated research.

  6. Atmospheric channel transfer function estimation from experimental free-space optical communications data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Colin N.; Tsintikidis, Dimitris; Hammel, Stephen; Kuga, Yasuo; Ritcey, James A.; Ishimaru, Akira

    2012-03-01

    Using an 850-nanometer-wavelength free-space optical (FSO)communications system of our own design, we acquired field data for the transmitted and received signals in fog at Point Loma, CA for a range of optical depths within the multiple-scattering regime. Statistical estimators for the atmospheric channel transfer function and the related coherency function were computed directly from the experimental data. We interpret the resulting channel transfer function estimates in terms of the physics of the atmospheric propagation channel and fog aerosol particle distributions. We investigate the behavior of the estimators using both real field-test data and simulated propagation data. We compare the field-data channel transfer function estimates against the outputs from a computationally-intensive radiative-transfer theory model-based approach, which we also developed previously for the FSO multiple-scattering atmospheric channel. Our results show that the data-driven channel transfer function estimates are in close agreement with the radiative transfer modeling, and provide comparable receiver signal detection performance improvements while being significantly less time and computationally-intensive.

  7. Ocean outfall plume characterization using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Otero, Mark; Hazard, Lisa; Middleton, William

    2013-01-01

    A monitoring mission to map and characterize the Point Loma Ocean Outfall (PLOO) wastewater plume using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was performed on 3 March 2011. The mobility of an AUV provides a significant advantage in surveying discharge plumes over traditional cast-based methods, and when combined with optical and oceanographic sensors, provides a capability for both detecting plumes and assessing their mixing in the near and far-fields. Unique to this study is the measurement of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in the discharge plume and its application for quantitative estimates of the plume's dilution. AUV mission planning methodologies for discharge plume sampling, plume characterization using onboard optical sensors, and comparison of observational data to model results are presented. The results suggest that even under variable oceanic conditions, properly planned missions for AUVs equipped with an optical CDOM sensor in addition to traditional oceanographic sensors, can accurately characterize and track ocean outfall plumes at higher resolutions than cast-based techniques.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Length Scales Characterizing the Evolution of Seismicity Rates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, S. Z.; Tiampo, K. F.; Bowman, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous studies have documented systematic changes in seismicity rates preceding large magnitude events. Many works suggest that these changes can be used to conduct time-dependent earthquake forecasting. We use two approaches to examine the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the seismicity rate changes, with the goal of exploring the underlying physical process. The first set of analyses follow the methodology outlined in Tiampo et al. [2002], for determining the eigenfunctions describing spatial and temporal correlation in regional seismicity. We extend the method by incorporating a temporal lag in construction of the covariance matrix. Decomposing the matrix into its eigenmodes then highlights correlated activity separated in time by the specified lag. Here, we present the results obtained for southern California seismicity from 1932 to 2004, using a range of temporal lags. Our second approach considers changes in yearly seismicity rates as a function of distance from the rupture plane of major historical events. To quantify the significance of trends in the seismicity rates, we auto-correlate the data, using a range of spatial and temporal lags. Here, we focus on the results for the 1987 Superstition Hills, 1992 Landers, and 1994 Northridge, California, earthquakes. We also briefly address the results for the 1971 San Fernando, 1983 Coalinga, 1986 Chalfant Valley, 1989 Loma Prieta, 1999 Hector Mine events and the 2002 Denali, AK, earthquake.

  9. Distribution of Micronuclei in Human Fibroblasts across the Bragg Curve of Light and Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; Lacy, S.; Gridley, D. S.; Rusek, A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2007-01-01

    The space environment consists of energetic particles of varying mass and energy, and understanding the :biological Bragg curve" is essential in optimizing shielding effectiveness against space radiation induced biological impacts. The "biological Bragg curve" is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. Previously, we studied the induction of micronuclei (MN) across the Bragg curve of energetic Fe and Si ions, and observed no increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono- to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition of cell progression, was found higher at the Bragg peak location in comparison to the plateau region of the Bragg curve. Here, we report the induction of MN in normal human fibroblast cells across the Bragg curve of incident protons generated at Loma Linda University. Similar to Si and Fe ions, the ratio of mono- to bi-nucleated cells showed a clear spike as the protons reached the Bragg peak. Unlike the two heavy ions, however, the MN yield also increased at the Bragg peak location. These results confirm the hypothesis that severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak of heavy, but not light ions are more likely to go through reproductive death and not be evaluated for micronuclei.

  10. Operation of the preclinical head scanner for proton CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Geoghegan, T.; Harvey, E.; Johnson, R. P.; Plautz, T. E.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Bashkirov, V.; Hurley, R. F.; Piersimoni, P.; Schulte, R. W.; Karbasi, P.; Schubert, K. E.; Schultze, B.; Giacometti, V.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the operation and performance tests of a preclinical head scanner developed for proton computed tomography (pCT). After extensive preclinical testing, pCT is intended to be employed in support of proton therapy treatment planning and pre-treatment verification in patients undergoing particle-beam therapy. In order to assess the performance of the scanner, we have performed CT scans with 200 MeV protons from both the synchrotron of the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) and the cyclotron of the Northwestern Medicine Chicago Proton Center (NMCPC). The very high sustained rate of data acquisition, exceeding one million protons per second, allowed a full 360° scan to be completed in less than 7 min. The reconstruction of various phantoms verified accurate reconstruction of the proton relative stopping power (RSP) and the spatial resolution in a variety of materials. The dose for an image with better than 1% uncertainty in the RSP is found to be close to 1 mGy.

  11. Marine netpen farming leads to infections with some unusual parasites.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L

    2000-03-01

    Marine netpen farming of salmonid fishes is a rapidly growing industry in several countries. With this relatively recent industry, new or unusual infections by parasitic pathogens have been observed. This is due to different hosts being reared in new geographic areas, or by indigenous species being reared in a different environmental condition, i.e. the marine netpen. Examples of the former include Kudoa thyrsites (Myxozoa) and Hemobaphes disphaerocephalus (Copepoda) infections in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in the Pacific Northwest, Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Isopoda) infections in Atlantic salmon reared in Chile, Neoparamoeba (=Paramoeba) sp. (Sacromastigophora) from salmonids reared in Tasmania, and Stephanostomum tenue (Digenea) infections in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in Atlantic Canada. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in its native region, the Pacific Northwest, provides some examples of unusual or more severe infections than those normally seen in wild or freshwater reared chinook salmon. These include infections by Loma salmonae (Microsporidia), Gilguina squali (Cestoda) and the rosette agent, an undescribed fungus-like organism related to choanoflagellates. As the industry continues to expand, it is certain that more novel host-parasite relationships will be observed, providing challenges for fish farmers and parasitologists.

  12. The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake in the Context of the Earthquake Cycle in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaume, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 M 6.0 South Napa earthquake is the second M ≥ 5.5 earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay region since the 1989 M 7.0 Loma Prieta earthquake. This poster will examine how this earthquake fits into the earthquake history of the Bay region, which has shown considerable variation in the rate of moderate (M 5.5-6.5) earthquakes. A number of models have been developed to explain these changes in moderate earthquake rates, including the Accelerating Moment Release model (e.g., Sykes and Jaumé, Nature, 1990; Bufe and Varnes, J. Geophys. Res., 1993) and the Stress Shadow model (e.g., Harris and Simpson, J. Geophys. Res., 1998). In addition, various groups have made projections of future earthquake activity in the San Francisco Bay region, including the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (Field et al., USGS OFR, 2008) and Bebbington et al. (PAGEOPH, 2010), utilizing different physical models for earthquake occurrence. In my poster I will compare and contrast these different views of seismicity in the Bay region and where the 2014 South Napa earthquake fits into them. In particular, I will explore what these different models imply for future moderate earthquake occurrence and hazards thereof.

  13. A 3-D view of field-scale fault-zone cementation from geologically ground-truthed electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, H.; Spinelli, G. A.; Mozley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fault-zones are an important control on fluid flow, affecting groundwater supply, hydrocarbon/contaminant migration, and waste/carbon storage. However, current models of fault seal are inadequate, primarily focusing on juxtaposition and entrainment effects, despite the recognition that fault-zone cementation is common and can dramatically reduce permeability. We map the 3D cementation patterns of the variably cemented Loma Blanca fault from the land surface to ~40 m depth, using electrical resistivity and induced polarization (IP). The carbonate-cemented fault zone is a region of anomalously low normalized chargeability, relative to the surrounding host material. Zones of low-normalized chargeability immediately under the exposed cement provide the first ground-truth that a cemented fault yields an observable IP anomaly. Low-normalized chargeability extends down from the surface exposure, surrounded by zones of high-normalized chargeability, at an orientation consistent with normal faults in the region; this likely indicates cementation of the fault zone at depth, which could be confirmed by drilling and coring. Our observations are consistent with: 1) the expectation that carbonate cement in a sandstone should lower normalized chargeability by reducing pore-surface area and bridging gaps in the pore space, and 2) laboratory experiments confirming that calcite precipitation within a column of glass beads decreases polarization magnitude. The ability to characterize spatial variations in the degree of fault-zone cementation with resistivity and IP has exciting implications for improving predictive models of the hydrogeologic impacts of cementation within faults.

  14. [Four corner fusion in patients with wrist arthritis].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Alonso, María Francisca; Viñas-Silva, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Scapholunate advance collapse (SLAC) and Scaphoid nonunion advance collapse (SNAC), are the two most common patterns of postraumatic wrist arthritis. SLAC wrist develops after attenuation, either traumatically or atraumatically, of the scapholunate ligament. Atraumatic causes of SLAC wrist include calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate deposition disease, reumathoid arthritis, neuropathic diseases, and b2-microglobulin asociated amyloid deposition diseases. On the other hand, SNAC wrist develops following a scahpoid fracture that has progressed to a nonunion. Both of these processes lead to abnormal joint kinematics, since the lunate is unrestrained by the distal scaphoid and, therefore, assumes an extended posture. Over time, this may result in Dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI) deformity, which invariably progresses to degenerative arthritis of the radioescaphoid articulation, followed by carpal collapse and midcarpal arthritis. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the functional outcome and pain relief in SLAC/SNAC wrist, after four corner fusion. This study was made in 52 patients of the Hospital de Traumatología y Ortopedia Lomas Verdes, these patients undergone four corner fusion surgery, in a period january 2007 to december 2014. We used Quick Dash Questionary to evaluate functional outcome and pain relief in these patients.

  15. Earthquake recurrence models fail when earthquakes fail to reset the stress field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tormann, Thessa; Wiemer, Stefan; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Parkfield's regularly occurring M6 mainshocks, about every 25 years, have over two decades stoked seismologists' hopes to successfully predict an earthquake of significant size. However, with the longest known inter-event time of 38 years, the latest M6 in the series (28 Sep 2004) did not conform to any of the applied forecast models, questioning once more the predictability of earthquakes in general. Our study investigates the spatial pattern of b-values along the Parkfield segment through the seismic cycle and documents a stably stressed structure. The forecasted rate of M6 earthquakes based on Parkfield's microseismicity b-values corresponds well to observed rates. We interpret the observed b-value stability in terms of the evolution of the stress field in that area: the M6 Parkfield earthquakes do not fully unload the stress on the fault, explaining why time recurrent models fail. We present the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake as counter example, which did release a significant portion of the stress along its fault segment and yields a substantial change in b-values.

  16. Napa Earthquake impact on water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    South Napa earthquake occurred in Napa, California on August 24 at 3am, local time, and the magnitude is 6.0. The earthquake was the largest in SF Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Economic loss topped $ 1 billion. Wine makers cleaning up and estimated the damage on tourism. Around 15,000 cases of lovely cabernet were pouring into the garden at the Hess Collection. Earthquake potentially raise water pollution risks, could cause water crisis. CA suffered water shortage recent years, and it could be helpful on how to prevent underground/surface water pollution from earthquake. This research gives a clear view on drinking water system in CA, pollution on river systems, as well as estimation on earthquake impact on water supply. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (close to Napa), is the center of the state's water distribution system, delivering fresh water to more than 25 million residents and 3 million acres of farmland. Delta water conveyed through a network of levees is crucial to Southern California. The drought has significantly curtailed water export, and salt water intrusion reduced fresh water outflows. Strong shaking from a nearby earthquake can cause saturated, loose, sandy soils liquefaction, and could potentially damage major delta levee systems near Napa. Napa earthquake is a wake-up call for Southern California. It could potentially damage freshwater supply system.

  17. An imaging informatics-based system to support animal studies for treating pain in spinal cord injury utilizing proton-beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Mao, Xiao W.; Kotha, Nikhil

    2015-03-01

    In previous years we demonstrated an imaging informatics system designed to support multi-institutional research focused on the utilization of proton radiation for treating spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain. This year we will demonstrate an update on the system with new modules added to perform image processing on evaluation data using immunhistochemistry methods to observe effects of proton therapy. The overarching goal of the research is to determine the effectiveness of using the proton beam for treating SCI-related neuropathic pain as an alternative to invasive surgical lesioning. The research is a joint collaboration between three major institutes, University of Southern California (data collection/integration and image analysis), Spinal Cord Institute VA Healthcare System, Long Beach (patient subject recruitment), and Loma Linda University and Medical Center (human and preclinical animal studies). The system that we are presenting is one of its kind which is capable of integrating a large range of data types, including text data, imaging data, DICOM objects from proton therapy treatment and pathological data. For multi-institutional studies, keeping data secure and integrated is very crucial. Different kinds of data within the study workflow are generated at different stages and different groups of people who process and analyze them in order to see hidden patterns within healthcare data from a broader perspective. The uniqueness of our system relies on the fact that it is platform independent and web-based which makes it very useful in such a large-scale study.

  18. An imaging informatics-based system utilizing DICOM objects for treating pain in spinal cord injury patients utilizing proton beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.; Chun, Sophia; Gridley, Daila S.

    2014-03-01

    Many US combat personnel have sustained nervous tissue trauma during service, which often causes Neuropathic pain as a side effect and is difficult to manage. However in select patients, synapse lesioning can provide significant pain control. Our goal is to determine the effectiveness of using Proton Beam radiotherapy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) related neuropathic pain as an alternative to invasive surgical lesioning. The project is a joint collaboration of USC, Spinal Cord Institute VA Healthcare System, Long Beach, and Loma Linda University. This is first system of its kind that supports integration and standardization of imaging informatics data in DICOM format; clinical evaluation forms outcomes data and treatment planning data from the Treatment planning station (TPS) utilized to administer the proton therapy in DICOM-RT format. It also supports evaluation of SCI subjects for recruitment into the clinical study, which includes the development, and integration of digital forms and tools for automatic evaluation and classification of SCI pain. Last year, we presented the concept for the patient recruitment module based on the principle of Bayesian decision theory. This year we are presenting the fully developed patient recruitment module and its integration to other modules. In addition, the DICOM module for integrating DICOM and DICOM-RT-ION data is also developed and integrated. This allows researchers to upload animal/patient study data into the system. The patient recruitment module has been tested using 25 retrospective patient data and DICOM data module is tested using 5 sets of animal data.

  19. Model and parametric uncertainty in source-based kinematic models of earthquake ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, Stephen; Frankel, Arthur; Liu, Pengcheng; Zeng, Yuehua; Rahman, Shariftur

    2011-01-01

    Four independent ground-motion simulation codes are used to model the strong ground motion for three earthquakes: 1994 Mw 6.7 Northridge, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta, and 1999 Mw 7.5 Izmit. These 12 sets of synthetics are used to make estimates of the variability in ground-motion predictions. In addition, ground-motion predictions over a grid of sites are used to estimate parametric uncertainty for changes in rupture velocity. We find that the combined model uncertainty and random variability of the simulations is in the same range as the variability of regional empirical ground-motion data sets. The majority of the standard deviations lie between 0.5 and 0.7 natural-log units for response spectra and 0.5 and 0.8 for Fourier spectra. The estimate of model epistemic uncertainty, based on the different model predictions, lies between 0.2 and 0.4, which is about one-half of the estimates for the standard deviation of the combined model uncertainty and random variability. Parametric uncertainty, based on variation of just the average rupture velocity, is shown to be consistent in amplitude with previous estimates, showing percentage changes in ground motion from 50% to 300% when rupture velocity changes from 2.5 to 2.9 km/s. In addition, there is some evidence that mean biases can be reduced by averaging ground-motion estimates from different methods.

  20. Genetic structure and divergence in populations of Lutzomyia cruciata, a phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vector of Leishmania mexicana in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pech-May, Angélica; Marina, Carlos F; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Narváez-Zapata, José A; Moo-Llanes, David; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Ramsey, Janine M; Becker, Ingeborg

    2013-06-01

    The low dispersal capacity of sand flies could lead to population isolation due to geographic barriers, climate variation, or to population fragmentation associated with specific local habitats due to landscape modification. The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia cruciata has a wide distribution throughout Mexico and is a vector of Leishmania mexicana in the southeast. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity, structure, and divergence within and among populations of Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas, and to infer the intra-specific phylogeny using the 3' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We analyzed 62 sequences from four Lu. cruciata populations and found 26 haplotypes, high genetic differentiation and restricted gene flow among populations (Fst=0.416, Nm=0.701, p<0.001). The highest diversity values were recorded in populations from Loma Bonita and Guadalupe Miramar. Three lineages (100% bootstrap and 7% overall divergence) were identified using a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis which showed high genetic divergence (17.2-22.7%). A minimum spanning haplotype network also supported separation into three lineages. Genetic structure and divergence within and among Lu. cruciata populations are hence affected by geographic heterogeneity and evolutionary background. Data obtained in the present study suggest that Lu. cruciata in the state of Chiapas consists of at least three lineages. Such findings may have implications for vector capacity and hence for vector control strategies.

  1. The Global Drivers of Photosynthesis and Light Use Efficiency Seasonality: A Granger Frequency Causality Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.; Lee, J. E.; Gentine, P.; Berry, J. A.; Konings, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    hotosynthesis and light use efficiency (LUE) are major factors in the evolution of the continental carbon cycle due to their contribution to gross primary production (GPP). However, while the drivers of photosynthesis and LUE on a plant or canopy scale can often be identified, significant uncertainties exist when modeling these on a global scale. This is due to sparse observations in regions such as the tropics and the lack of a direct global observation dataset. Although others have attempted to address this issue using correlations (Beer, 2010) or calculating GPP from vegetation indices (Running, 2004), in this study we take a new approach. We combine the statistical method of Granger frequency causality and partial Granger frequency causality with remote sensing data products (including sun-induced fluorescence used as a proxy for GPP) to determine the main environmental drivers of GPP across the globe. References:Beer, C., M. Reichstein, E. Tomelleri, P. Ciais, M. Jung, N. Carvalhais, C. Ro¨denbeck, M. Altaf Arain, D. Baldocchi, G. B. Bonan, A. Bondeau, A. Cescatti, G. Lasslop, A. Lindroth, M. Lomas, S. Luyssaert, H. Margolis, K. W. Oleson, O. Roupsard, E. Veenendaal, N. Viovy, C. Williams, I. Woodward, and D. Papale, 2010: Terrestrial Gross Carbon Dioxide Uptake: Global Distribution and Covariation with Climate. doi: 10.1126/science.1184984. Running, S.W., Nemani, R. R., Heinsch, F. A., Zhao, M., Reeves, M., Hashimoto, H., 2004. A Continuous Satellite Derived Measure of Global Terrestrial Primary Production. BioScience 54(6), 547-560.

  2. Two-dimensional and quasi-three-dimensional dosimetry of hadron and photon beams with the Magic Cube and the Pixel Ionization Chamber.

    PubMed

    Cirio, R; Garelli, E; Schulte, R; Amerio, S; Boriano, A; Bourhaleb, F; Coutrakon, G; Donetti, M; Giordanengo, S; Koss, P; Madon, E; Marchetto, F; Nastasi, U; Peroni, C; Santuari, D; Sardo, A; Scielzo, G; Stasi, M; Trevisiol, E

    2004-08-21

    Two detectors for fast two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) verification of the dose delivered by radiotherapy beams have been developed at University and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) of Torino. The Magic Cube is a stack of strip-segmented ionization chambers interleaved with water-equivalent slabs. The parallel plate ionization chambers have a sensitive area of 24 x 24 cm2, and consist of 0.375 cm wide and 24 cm long strips. There are a total of 64 strips per chamber. The Magic Cube has been tested with the clinical proton beam at Loma Linda University Medical Centre (LLUMC), and was shown to be capable of fast and precise quasi-3D dose verification. The Pixel Ionization Chamber (PXC) is a detector with pixel anode segmentation. It is a 32 x 32 matrix of 1024 cylindrical ionization cells arranged in a square 24 x 24 cm2 area. Each cell has 0.4 cm diameter and 0.55 cm height, at a pitch of 0.75 cm separates the centre of adjacent cells. The sensitive volume of each single ionization cell is 0.07 cm3. The detectors are read out using custom designed front-end microelectronics and a personal computer-based data acquisition system. The PXC has been used to verify dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head-and-neck and breast cancers.

  3. [Proton therapy and particle accelerators].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Since the high energy accelerator plan was changed from a 40 GeV direct machine to a 12GeV cascade one, a 500 MeV rapid cycling booster synchrotron was installed between the injector linac and the 12 GeV main ring at KEK, National Lab. for High Energy Physics. The booster beams were used not only for injection to the main ring but also for medical use. Their energy was reduced to 250 MeV by a graphite block for clinical trial of cancer therapy. In 1970's, pi(-) or heavy ions were supposed to be promising. Although advantage of protons with Bragg Peak was pointed out earlier, they seemed effective only for eye melanoma at that time. In early 1980's, it was shown that they were effective for deep-seated tumor by Tsukuba University with KEK beams. The first dedicated facility was built at Loma Linda University Medical Center. Its synchrotron was made by Fermi National Accelerator Lab. Since a non-resonant accelerating rf cavity was installed, operation of the synchrotron became much easier. Later, innovation of the cyclotron was achieved. Its weight was reduced from 1,000 ton to 200 ton. Some of the cyclotrons are equipped with superconducting coils.

  4. Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes induced by 250 MeV protons: effects of dose, dose rate and shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, K.; Willingham, V.; Wu, H.; Gridley, D.; Nelson, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Although the space radiation environment consists predominantly of energetic protons, astronauts inside a spacecraft are chronically exposed to both primary particles as well as secondary particles that are generated when the primary particles penetrate the spacecraft shielding. Secondary neutrons and secondary charged particles can have an LET value that is greater than the primary protons and, therefore, produce a higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Using the accelerator facility at Loma Linda University, we exposed human lymphocytes in vitro to 250 MeV protons with doses ranging from 0 to 60 cGy at three different dose rates: a low dose rate of 7.5 cGy/h, an intermediate dose rate of 30 cGy/h and a high dose rate of 70 cGy/min. The effect of 15 g/cm2 aluminum shielding on the induction of chromosome aberrations was investigated for each dose rate. After exposure, lymphocytes were incubated in growth medium containing phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and chromosome spreads were collected using a chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. Aberrations were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with three different colored chromosome-painting probes. The frequency of reciprocal and complex-type chromosome exchanges were compared in shielded and unshielded samples. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular characterization of a German variant of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD Aachen).

    PubMed

    Efferth, T; Osieka, R; Beutler, E

    2000-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-chromosome-linked hereditary disorder. Clinically, patients with G6PD deficiency often present with drug- or food-induced hemolytic crises or neonatal jaundice. G6PD is involved in the generation of NADPH and reduced glutathione. In contrast to American, Mediterranean, and African ancestries, only few variants are known from Middle and Northern Europe. We describe the molecular characterization of a distinct variant from the northwestern area of Germany, G6PD Aachen. The sequence of the G6PD gene from three afflicted males was found to be hemizygous at cDNA residue 1089 for a C-->G mutation with a predicted amino acid change of Asn363Lys. The 1089 C-->G point mutation is unique, but produces the identical amino acid change found in a Mexican variant of G6PD deficiency, G6PD Loma Linda. This G6PD-deficient variant is caused by a 1089 C-->A mutation. The 363-amino-acid replacement is located outside a known mutation cluster region between amino acid residues 380 and 450, but may disrupt or weaken dimer interactions of G6PD enzyme subunits.

  6. The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC`s seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility`s structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a {open_quotes}reality basis{close_quotes} for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures.

  7. Predicting academic performance and clinical competency for international dental students: seeking the most efficient and effective measures.

    PubMed

    Stacey, D Graham; Whittaker, John M

    2005-02-01

    Measures used in the selection of international dental students to a U.S. D.D.S. program were examined to identify the grouping that most effectively and efficiently predicted academic performance and clinical competency. Archival records from the International Dental Program (IDP) at Loma Linda University provided data on 171 students who had trained in countries outside the United States. The students sought admission to the D.D.S. degree program, successful completion of which qualified them to sit for U.S. licensure. As with most dental schools, competition is high for admission to the D.D.S. program. The study's goal was to identify what measures contributed to a fair and accurate selection process for dental school applicants from other nations. Multiple regression analyses identified National Board Part II and dexterity measures as significant predictors of academic performance and clinical competency. National Board Part I, TOEFL, and faculty interviews added no significant additional help in predicting eventual academic performance and clinical competency.

  8. Development of Optimal Viscous Dampers for RC Structures in Near Field Ground Motions

    SciTech Connect

    Puthanpurayil, Arun M.; Reynolds, Paul

    2008-07-08

    Recent researches show that more than 50% of the economic loss in earthquakes is due to damage of non-structural elements: $8 billion loss in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and $18.5 billion in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. An approach to reduce the economic loss during a seismic event without compromising the structural safety aspect is to incorporate special mechanical devices like fluid viscous dampers in the parent structural system. A recent study carried out to assess the efficacy of viscous dampers in reducing nonstructural damage of low, medium and high rise structures shows that; linear dampers are well suited for low rise category whereas the medium and high rise category requires nonlinear dampers. In this paper an analytical approach is adopted to derive the optimal combination of damper design parameters for all the three categories of structure subjected to near field ground motion. Linear time history analysis by direct time integration was carried out for the linear viscous dampers, while the parameters of the nonlinear viscous dampers were obtained using nonlinear modal time history analysis (Fast Nonlinear analysis). The results of the study are presented in the form of a set of design curves which can be used for the initial selection of parameters for Damper design.

  9. The stress shadow problem in physics-based aftershock forecasting: Does incorporation of secondary stress changes help?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segou, M.; Parsons, T.

    2014-06-01

    Main shocks are calculated to cast stress shadows across broad areas where aftershocks occur. Thus, a key problem with stress-based operational forecasts is that they can badly underestimate aftershock occurrence in the shadows. We examine the performance of two physics-based earthquake forecast models (Coulomb rate/state (CRS)) based on Coulomb stress changes and a rate-and-state friction law for their predictive power on the 1989 Mw = 6.9 Loma Prieta aftershock sequence. The CRS-1 model considers the stress perturbations associated with the main shock rupture only, whereas CRS-2 uses an updated stress field with stresses imparted by M ≥ 3.5 aftershocks. Including secondary triggering effects slightly improves predictability, but physics-based models still underestimate aftershock rates in locations of initial negative stress changes. Furthermore, CRS-2 does not explain aftershock occurrence where secondary stress changes enhance the initial stress shadow. Predicting earthquake occurrence in calculated stress shadow zones remains a challenge for stress-based forecasts, and additional triggering mechanisms must be invoked.

  10. Injuries as a result of California earthquakes in the past decade.

    PubMed

    Shoaf, K I; Sareen, H R; Nguyen, L H; Bourque, L B

    1998-09-01

    The devastating effects of earthquakes have been demonstrated repeatedly in the past decade, through moderate and major earthquakes such as the October 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake (5.9 on the Richter scale), the October 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (7.1) and the January 1994 Northridge earthquake (6.7). While 'official' tallies of injuries and deaths are reported for each event, the numbers vary from report to report. For Northridge, the number of injuries vary between 8,000 and 12,000; the number of deaths from 33 to 73 (Peek-Asa et al., 1997; Durkin, 1996). While official estimates are commonly reported following disasters, the study of actual numbers, types and causes of casualties has not developed. In this paper, we identify the numbers and risk factors for injuries within community-based samples across three earthquakes in urban California. We first report the numbers and types of injuries in each earthquake and then identify risk factors specifically associated with the Northridge earthquake.

  11. Housing Damage Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

  12. Can fiber laser improve high speed multi-pulse drilling of aeronautic alloy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M.; Loumena, C.; Bussière, A.; Kling, R.; Delor, C.; Freysz, E.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of helicopter engines faster, better and more reliably is the triptych which binds LOMA, ALPhANOV and TURBOMECA. In current production machines, flash lamp pumped lasers are employed to drill thousands of cooling holes with specific geometries and diameters to ensure a homogeneous air flow over the surface. However we aim to enhance the production process. Therefore, the three partners started an initiative to identify and overcome the shortcomings of the current process, where the laser source is a key element for improvement. In this paper, we report on the latest developments in multi-pulse drilling using an IPG fiber laser. The latter delivers, at a tunable repetition rate (from single shot up to 2 kHz), laser pulses whose width and peak power are adjustable in between 0.2 - 10 ms and 0 - 12 kW respectively. We have focused our work on drilling of thick sheets of metal alloys with different geometries and different processing strategies. We will show that using such laser system it is possible to decrease the processing time while limiting the heat affected zones and collateral effects. Finally, the impact of the different physical processes in play during the drilling on the geometry of the holes will be discussed.

  13. Data from theodolite measurements of creep rates on San Francisco Bay region faults, California: 1979-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galehouse, Jon S.

    2002-01-01

    My purpose is to make our creep data on San Francisco Bay region active faults available to the scientific research community. My student research assistants and I measured creep (aseismic slip) rates on these faults from 1979 until my retirement from the project in 2001. These data are further described in my final technical report as principal investigator, which summarizes results from 22 September 1979 through 28 February 2001 (Galehouse, 2001). We made over 2,600 creep measurements, about one-third in the ten years prior to the Loma Prieta earthquake (LPEQ) and two-thirds in the 11.4 years following it. The measurements are continuing to be made by members of the Geosciences Department at San Francisco State University (SFSU) under the direction of Karen Grove and John Caskey. A complete analysis of our results obtained on the Hayward fault is presented in Lienkaemper, Galehouse, and Simpson (2001). A formal report based on the entire San Francisco Bay region data set is in preparation. Data sheets for each site along the fault are available for downloading in Excel format to facilitate analysis of the data. They are also available as tab-delimited raw data. The data include all regular measurement sites, SF–1 through SF–34, and the 20 SFSU and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) afterslip sites on the Hayward fault.

  14. Ignimbrite textural properties as determinants of endolithic colonization patterns from hyper-arid Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Cámara, Beatriz; Suzuki, Shino; Nealson, Kenneth H; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ascaso, Carmen; Artieda, Octavio; de los Ríos, Asunción

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the photosynthetic microbial colonization of rhyolitic ignimbrites in Lomas de Tilocalar, a hyper-arid region of the Atacama Desert, Chile. Colonization appeared in the form of a green layer a few millimeters beneath the ignimbrite surface. Some ignimbrite rocks revealed two distinct micromorphological areas of identical mineralogical and chemical composition but different textural properties. According to texture, colonization patterns varied in terms of the extension and depth of colonization. The diversity of photosynthetic microorganisms was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 23S rRNA gene and by generating clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. We observed a low diversity of photosynthetic microorganisms colonizing the ignimbrite microhabitat. Most rRNA gene sequences recovered greatly resembled those of Chroococcidiopsis hypolith clones from arid deserts. These results point to highly restrictive conditions of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert conditioning the diversity of cyanobacteria, and suggest that microbial colonization and composition patterns might be determined by the microscale physico-chemical properties of the ignimbrite rocks.

  15. Late Cenozoic basin evolution and fold-thrust deformation in the southern Central Andes: Initial constraints from synorogenic deposits of the Precordillera, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levina, M.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Stockli, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    In the Precordillera region of the Argentine Andes, Cenozoic shortening associated with flattening of the Pampean segment of the subducting Nazca plate has resulted in a series of thin skinned fold-thrust systems that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin deposits. The kinematic and temporal evolution of the Andean Precordillera can be approached through detailed analyses of the sedimentary fill now preserved in intermontane regions and the bedrock low-temperature thermochronology of the fold-thrust belt. In this project, we focus on Neogene foreland basin fill exposed in the central and eastern Precordillera along the San Juan River (Quebrada Albarracín and Pachaco regions), on the western flank of the Sierra Talacasto, and in the Loma de las Tapias area near the Ullum dam. The sedimentary successions exposed in these regions record the hinterland development of the Frontal Cordillera (detrital zircon provenance and composition of sandstone and conglomeratic units), regional volcanism (pyroclastic flows and tuffaceous sandstone units), and initial construction of the Precordillera (fault cutoff relationships, growth strata, and paleocurrent changes). We investigate the development and subsequent partitioning and deformation of these synorogenic sections using sediment provenance (detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, conglomerate clast counts, sandstone petrography, and paleocurrent measurements), facies analysis of measured stratigraphic successions, and initial apatite (U-Th)/He cooling histories to constrain the age of uplift-induced exhumation of successive thrust sheets in the Andean Precordillera.

  16. Saving lives through better design standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet; Spudich, Paul A.; Page, Robert A.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, scientists have put together a more complete picture of how the ground shakes during earthquakes. They have learned that shaking near the source of earthquakes is far more severe than once thought and that soft ground shakes more strongly than hard rock.This knowledge has enabled engineers to improve design standards so that structures arebetter able to survive strong earthquakes. When the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake struck, 42 people tragically lost their lives in the collapse of a half-mile-long section of the Cypress structure, an elevated double-decker freeway in Oakland, California.Yet adjacent parts of this structure withstood the magnitude 6.9 temblor—why? The part that collapsed was built on man-made fill over soft mud, whereas adjacent sections stood on older, firmer sand and gravel deposits. Following the collapse, scientists set out instruments in the area to record the earthquake's many strong aftershocks. These instruments showed that the softer ground shook more forcefully than the firmer material-even twice as violently

  17. Ocean color remote sensing of turbid plumes in the southern California coastal waters during storm events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahet, Florence; Stramski, Dariusz

    2007-09-01

    Water-leaving radiance data obtained from MODIS-Aqua satellite images at spatial resolution of 250 m (band 1 at 645 nm) and 500 m (band 4 at 555 nm) were used to analyze the correlation between plume area and rainfall during strong storm events in coastal waters of Southern California. Our study is focused on the area between Point Loma and the US-Mexican border in San Diego, which is influenced by terrigenous input of particulate and dissolved materials from San Diego and Tijuana watersheds and non-point sources along the shore. For several events of intense rainstorms that occurred in the winter of 2004-2005, we carried out a correlational analysis between the satellite-derived plume area and rainfall parameters. We examined several rainfall parameters and methods for the estimation of plume area. We identified the optimal threshold values of satellite-derived normalized water-leaving radiances at 645 nm and 555 nm for distinguishing the plume from ambient ocean waters. The satellite-derived plume size showed high correlation with the amount of precipitated water accumulated during storm event over the San Diego and Tijuana watersheds. Our results support the potential of ocean color imagery with relatively high spatial resolution for the study of turbid plumes in the coastal ocean.

  18. Impact and control of protozoan parasites in maricultured fishes.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture, including both freshwater and marine production, has on a world scale exhibited one of the highest growth rates within animal protein production during recent decades and is expected to expand further at the same rate within the next 10 years. Control of diseases is one of the most prominent challenges if this production goal is to be reached. Apart from viral, bacterial, fungal and metazoan infections it has been documented that protozoan parasites affect health and welfare and thereby production of fish in marine aquaculture. Representatives within the main protozoan groups such as amoebae, dinoflagellates, kinetoplastid flagellates, diplomonadid flagellates, apicomplexans, microsporidians and ciliates have been shown to cause severe morbidity and mortality among farmed fish. Well studied examples are Neoparamoeba perurans, Amyloodinium ocellatum, Spironucleus salmonicida, Ichthyobodo necator, Cryptobia salmositica, Loma salmonae, Cryptocaryon irritans, Miamiensis avidus and Trichodina jadranica. The present report provides details on the parasites' biology and impact on productivity and evaluates tools for diagnosis, control and management. Special emphasis is placed on antiprotozoan immune responses in fish and a strategy for development of vaccines is presented.

  19. Proton Lateral Broadening Distribution Comparisons Between GRNTRN, MCNPX, and Laboratory Beam Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Moyers, Michael F.; Walker, Steven A.; Tweed, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in NASA s deterministic High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) code have included lateral broadening of primary ion beams due to small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering, and coupling of the ion-nuclear scattering interactions with energy loss and straggling. This new version of HZETRN is based on Green function methods, called GRNTRN, and is suitable for modeling transport with both space environment and laboratory boundary conditions. Multiple scattering processes are a necessary extension to GRNTRN in order to accurately model ion beam experiments, to simulate the physical and biological-effective radiation dose, and to develop new methods and strategies for light ion radiation therapy. In this paper we compare GRNTRN simulations of proton lateral broadening distributions with beam measurements taken at Loma Linda University Proton Therapy Facility. The simulated and measured lateral broadening distributions are compared for a 250 MeV proton beam on aluminum, polyethylene, polystyrene, bone substitute, iron, and lead target materials. The GRNTRN results are also compared to simulations from the Monte Carlo MCNPX code for the same projectile-target combinations described above.

  20. Estimated subsidence in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas in Southern California for a postulated water-level lowering, 1965-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lofgren, Ben Elder

    1971-01-01

    One of the alternate plans for water utilization being considered by the California Department of Water Resources in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas in southern California involves partial mining of ground water during the period 1965-2015, and consequent substantial lowering of water levels. The Department wants to know whether land subsidence would be a problem as a result of the postulated lowering. To answer this question, to the extent that leveling control permits, the present study has been made at the request of and in cooperation with the State of California.At a few locations in the Chino-Riverside and Bunker Hill-Yucaipa areas, comparable water-level decline and subsidence data are available from which rough estimates can be made of subsidence that would occur as a result of the postulated lowering from 1965 to 2015. Limited leveling control, and apparent discrepancies in the data, preclude accurate determination of amounts of subsidence caused by historic water-level decline.Based on 1965-2015 water-level changes postulated by the California Department of Water Resources and on available subsidence/head decline ratios, as much as 6 feet of subsidence might occur northeast of the San Jacinto fault between Loma Linda and San Bernardino, in an area of more than 350 feet of projected water-level decline. Also, as much as 1.5 feet of subsidence might occur in the vicinity of Ontario.

  1. Effect of laser parameters and mode on pulp surgery outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Arrastia-Jitosho, Anna-Marie A.; Peavy, George M.; Kurosaki, Tom

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of localized laser pulp surgery in the canine model. Effects of laser parameters on treatment outcome were also investigated. Pulpal exposure 3 mm in diameter were prepared in healthy teeth and left open to infection from the oral cavity for 72 hours. Pulpal tissue was then removed using high speed handpiece with sterile irrigation, or a CO2 laser. Teeth were monitored clinically, radiographically for 3 months. Results for each criterion were evaluated on a scale of 0-(-2). After sacrifice, histological assessment was made soft and hard tissue response. Results for each category were evaluated on a standard scale of 0-(-2). All evaluations were performed by 1 blinded, pre-standardized clinician. Statistical assessment using the chi-square test and Fisher's Exact Test associated laser treatment with a significantly better clinical, radiographic and histological treatment outcome. NIH RRO1192, seed grant funding form Loma Linda University, the Edna P. Jacobsen Charitable Trust for Animals, Inc.

  2. Design, transport, and installation of autonomous Cherenkov detectors at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubén Calderón Cueva, Mario; Alejandro Vasquez, Nicolas; Martínez, Oscar; Carrera, Edgar; Cazar, Dennis; Audelo, Mario; Mantilla, Cristina; Quishpe, Raquel

    2015-08-01

    Ecuador, as a member of the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO), wishes to expand the understanding of astroparticle physics and space weather by the installation of Water Cherenkov detectors at high altitude. The challenge for such devices lies on their transport to the remote areas of operation, the autonomy of their electrical power supply, the robustness of their data transmission system, their remote operation stability, and the reliability of the water integrity for long periods of time. LAGO Ecuador features several studies of gamma ray bursts and high energy astrophysical sources, as well as of space weather. Based on these studies, we develop a feasibility study for the design, installation, operation and maintenance of the aforementioned devices in Papallacta, Chimborazo and Cruz Loma in the Ecuadorean highlands. As the atmospheric absorption, and so the area of detection to be instrumented, is significantly reduced with the altitude, the easy access to locations higher than 4000 m a.s.l. is one of the main advantages of the Ecuadorean Andes for the installation of these facilities.

  3. Broadband ground-motion simulation using a hybrid approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, R.W.; Pitarka, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes refinements to the hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (2004), which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies (f 1 Hz). In our approach, fault rupture is represented kinematically and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time. The prescribed slip distribution is constrained to follow an inverse wavenumber-squared fall-off and the average rupture speed is set at 80% of the local shear-wave velocity, which is then adjusted such that the rupture propagates faster in regions of high slip and slower in regions of low slip. We use a Kostrov-like slip-rate function having a rise time proportional to the square root of slip, with the average rise time across the entire fault constrained empirically. Recent observations from large surface rupturing earthquakes indicate a reduction of rupture propagation speed and lengthening of rise time in the near surface, which we model by applying a 70% reduction of the rupture speed and increasing the rise time by a factor of 2 in a zone extending from the surface to a depth of 5 km. We demonstrate the fidelity of the technique by modeling the strong-motion recordings from the Imperial Valley, Loma Prieta, Landers, and Northridge earthquakes.

  4. CPRIT/Johnson Space Center, September, 2011 (Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey; Lane, Helen; Baker, Tracey; Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    JSC researchers study carcinogenesis, cancer prevention and treatment along with epidemiological (primarily retrospective and longitudinal) studies, modeling, and interactions with the environment such as radiation, nutritional, and endocrine changes related to space flight along with behaviors such as smoking. Cancer research is a major focus for human space flight due to the exposure to space radiation which consists of particles of varying charges and energies, and secondary neutrons. The JSC laboratories collaborate with investigators from the U.S. as well as our European and Japanese partners. We use accelerator facilities at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Loma Linda University and Los Alamos National Laboratory that generate high energy charged particles and neutrons to simulate cosmic radiation and solar particle events. The research using cultured cells and animals concentrates on damage and repair from the level of DNA to organ tissues, due to exposure to simulated space radiation exposure, that contribute to the induction of leukemia and solid tumors in most major tissues such as lung, colon, liver and breast. The goal of the research is to develop a mathematical model that can predict cancer morbidity and mortality risks with sufficient accuracy for a given space mission.

  5. A proton imaging device: Design and status of realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipala, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Candiano, G.; Capineri, L.; P. Cirrone, G. A.; Civinini, C.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Marrazzo, L.; Mazzaglia, E.; Menichelli, D.; Randazzo, N.; Talamonti, C.; Valentini, S.

    2010-01-01

    Proton radiation therapy is a precise form of cancer therapy, which requires verification of the patient position and the accurate knowledge of the dose delivered to the patient. At present in the proton treatment centre, patients are positioned with X-ray radiography and dose calculations rely on the patient's morphology and electron densities obtained by X-ray computed tomography [U. Schneider, E. Pedroni, Med. Phys. 22 (1995) 353]. A proton imaging device can improve the accuracy of proton radiation therapy treatment planning and the alignment of the patient with the proton beam. Our collaboration has developed a pCR prototype consisting of a silicon microstrip tracker and a calorimeter to detect the residual energy [R. Shulte, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51 (2004) 866-872]. In this contribution we will show some results obtained testing the front-end board of the tracker and measurements performed at LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud) and in LLUMC (Loma Linda University Medical Centre) using 60 and 200 MeV proton beams to test the calorimeter.

  6. Nanodosimetry: Principle and Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Reinhard W.

    2011-05-01

    Due to the success of theoretical track structure Monte Carlo simulations, showing that features of ionization patterns on the nanometer level are important for the biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, several new methods for experimental track structure investigations have been developed in recent years. These methods all use the principle of density scaling in low-pressure gas to probe track structure in macroscopic dimensions, ideally with single-ionization resolution. The new field of experimental track structure investigation, which has been called nanodosimetry, can be approached in two ways: (1) the number of ionizations in a defined, ideally wall-less, sensitive volume is registered per single primary particle and cluster size distributions are obtained, or (2) the full track structure of an ion track segment is "imaged". Existing nanodosimetric methods are based on the first approach, but a track structure imaging detector is currently under development at Loma Linda University. This contribution will review the principle and existing technical approaches to nanodosimetry and will give an outlook on future developments and applications.

  7. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talamonti, C.; Reggioli, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Civinini, C.; Marrazzo, L.; Menichelli, D.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Petterson, M.; Blumenkrantz, N.; Feldt, J.; Heimann, J.; Lucia, D.; Seiden, A.; Williams, D. C.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Bashkirov, V.; Schulte, R.

    2010-01-01

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  8. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutrakon, G.; Wang, N.; Miller, D. W.; Yang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 × 10 × 8 cm3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  9. Proton lateral broadening distribution comparisons between GRNTRN, MCNPX, and laboratory beam measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Moyers, Michael F.; Walker, Steven A.; Tweed, John

    2010-04-01

    Recent developments in NASA’s deterministic High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) code have included lateral broadening of primary ion beams due to small-angle multiple Coulomb scattering, and coupling of the ion-nuclear scattering interactions with energy loss and straggling. This new version of HZETRN is based on Green function methods, called GRNTRN, and is suitable for modeling transport with both space environment and laboratory boundary conditions. Multiple scattering processes are a necessary extension to GRNTRN in order to accurately model ion beam experiments, to simulate the physical and biological-effective radiation dose, and to develop new methods and strategies for light-ion radiation therapy. In this paper we compare GRNTRN simulations of proton lateral broadening distributions with beam measurements taken at Loma Linda University Proton Therapy Facility. The simulated and measured lateral broadening distributions are compared for a 250 MeV proton beam on aluminum, polyethylene, polystyrene, bone substitute, iron, and lead target materials. The GRNTRN results are also compared to simulations from the Monte Carlo MCNPX code for the same projectile-target combinations described above.

  10. YAG(Ce) crystal characterization with proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipala, V.; Randazzo, N.; Aiello, S.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Russo, M.; Stancampiano, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Civinini, C.; Scaringella, M.; Bashkirov, V. A.; Schulte, R. W.

    2011-10-01

    A YAG(Ce) crystal has been characterized with a proton beam up to 100 MeV. Tests were performed to investigate the possibility of using this detector as a proton calorimeter. A crystal size has been chosen that is able to stop up to 200 MeV. Energy resolution and light response have been measured at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud with a proton beam up to 60 MeV and a spatial homogeneity study of the crystal has been performed at Loma Linda University Medical Center with a 100 MeV proton beam. The YAG(Ce) crystal showed a good energy resolution equal to 3.7% at 60 MeV and measurements, performed in the 30-60 MeV proton energy range, were fitted by Birks' equation. Using a silicon tracker to determine the particle entry point in the crystal, a spatial homogeneity value of 1.7% in the light response has been measured.

  11. Assessing the Archaeoparasitological Potential of Quids As a Source Material for Immunodiagnostic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Johnica J.; Reinhard, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, quids from La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) were subjected to ELISA tests for 2 protozoan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii (n=45) and Trypanosoma cruzi (n=43). The people who occupied CMC, the Loma San Gabriel, lived throughout much of present-day Durango and Zacatecas in Mexico. The known pathoecology of these people puts them into at-risk categories for the transmission of T. gondii and T. cruzi. Human antibodies created in response to these 2 parasites can be detected in modern saliva using ELISA kits intended for use with human serum. For these reasons, quids were reconstituted and subjected to ELISA testing. All test wells yielded negative results. These results could be a factor of improper methods because there is no precedence for this work in the existing literature. The results could equally be a simple matter of parasite absence among those people who occupied CMC. A final consideration is the taphonomy of human antibodies and whether or not ELISA is a sufficient method for recovering antibodies from archaeological contexts. An additional ELISA test targeting secretory IgA (sIgA) was conducted to further examine the failure to detect parasite-induced antibodies from quids. Herein, the methods used for quid preparation and ELISA procedures are described so that they can be further developed by future researchers. The results are discussed in light of the potential future of quid analysis. PMID:27853117

  12. A new Miocene baleen whale from the Peruvian desert.

    PubMed

    Marx, Felix G; Kohno, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    The Pisco-Ica and Sacaco basins of southern Peru are renowned for their abundance of exceptionally preserved fossil cetaceans, several of which retain traces of soft tissue and occasionally even stomach contents. Previous work has mostly focused on odontocetes, with baleen whales currently being restricted to just three described taxa. Here, we report a new Late Miocene rorqual (family Balaenopteridae), Incakujira anillodefuego gen. et sp. nov., based on two exceptionally preserved specimens from the Pisco Formation exposed at Aguada de Lomas, Sacaco Basin, southern Peru. Incakujira overall closely resembles modern balaenopterids, but stands out for its unusually gracile ascending process of the maxilla, as well as a markedly twisted postglenoid process of the squamosal. The latter likely impeded lateral (omega) rotation of the mandible, in stark contrast with the highly flexible craniomandibular joint of extant lunge-feeding rorquals. Overall, Incakujira expands the still meagre Miocene record of balaenopterids and reveals a previously underappreciated degree of complexity in the evolution of their iconic lunge-feeding strategy.

  13. Fractionated Proton Radiotherapy for Benign Cavernous Sinus Meningiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Jerry D.; Loredo, Lilia N.; Chung, Arthur; Bush, David A.; Patyal, Baldev; Johnson, Walter D.; Hsu, Frank P.K.; Slater, James M.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of fractionated proton radiotherapy for a population of patients with benign cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 72 patients were treated at Loma Linda University Medical Center with proton therapy for cavernous sinus meningiomas. Fifty-one patients had biopsy or subtotal resection; 47 had World Health Organization grade 1 pathology. Twenty-one patients had no histologic verification. Twenty-two patients received primary proton therapy; 30 had 1 previous surgery; 20 had more than 1 surgery. The mean gross tumor volume was 27.6 cm{sup 3}; mean clinical target volume was 52.9 cm{sup 3}. Median total doses for patients with and without histologic verification were 59 and 57 Gy, respectively. Mean and median follow-up periods were 74 months. Results: The overall 5-year actuarial control rate was 96%; the control rate was 99% in patients with grade 1 or absent histologic findings and 50% for those with atypical histology. All 21 patients who did not have histologic verification and 46 of 47 patients with histologic confirmation of grade 1 tumor demonstrated disease control at 5 years. Control rates for patients without previous surgery, 1 surgery, and 2 or more surgeries were 95%, 96%, and 95%, respectively. Conclusions: Fractionated proton radiotherapy for grade 1 cavernous sinus meningiomas achieves excellent control rates with minimal toxicities, regardless of surgical intervention or use of histologic diagnosis. Disease control for large lesions can be achieved by primary fractionated proton therapy.

  14. Compressional and shear-wave velocity versus depth relations for common rock types in northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents new empirical compressional and shear-wave velocity (Vp and Vs) versus depth relationships for the most common rock types in northern California. Vp versus depth relations were developed from borehole, laboratory, seismic refraction and tomography, and density measurements, and were converted to Vs versus depth relations using new empirical relations between Vp and Vs. The relations proposed here account for increasing overburden pressure but not for variations in other factors that can influence velocity over short distance scales, such as lithology, consolidation, induration, porosity, and stratigraphic age. Standard deviations of the misfits predicted by these relations thus provide a measure of the importance of the variability in Vp and Vs caused by these other factors. Because gabbros, greenstones, basalts, and other mafic rocks have a different Vp and Vs relationship than sedimentary and granitic rocks, the differences in Vs between these rock types at depths below 6 or 7 km are generally small. The new relations were used to derive the 2005 U.S. Geological Survey seismic velocity model for northern California employed in the broadband strong motion simulations of the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes; initial tests of the model indicate that the Vp model generally compares favorably to regional seismic tomography models but that the Vp and Vs values proposed for the Franciscan Complex may be about 5% too high.

  15. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to 137Cs) dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  16. Relative Efficiency of TLD-100 to Linear Energy Transfer Radiation: Correction to Astronaut Absorbed Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.; Cash, B. L.; Semones, E. J.; Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.

    1999-01-01

    Response of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD-100) to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles has been studied using helium, carbon, silicon, and iron ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (Japan), iron ions from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY) Alternate Gradient Synchrotron, and 53, 134, 185, and 232 MeV protons from the Loma Linda accelerator. Using the measured relative (to (137)Cs dose efficiency, and measured LET spectra from a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on 20 Space Shuttle flights, and 7 Mir flights, the underestimation of absorbed dose by these detectors has been evaluated. The dose underestimation is between 15-20% depending upon the flight inclination and shielding location. This has been confirmed by direct correlation of measured dose by TEPC and TLD-100 at a low shielded location in the Shuttle mid-deck. A comparison of efficiency- LET data with a compilation of similar data from TLD-700, shows that shapes of the two curves are nearly identical, but that the TLD-100 curve is systematically lower by about 13%, and is the major cause of dose underestimation. These results strongly suggest that TLDs used for crew dose estimation be regularly calibrated using heavy ions.

  17. [Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) a success story in apical surgery].

    PubMed

    von Arx, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of apical surgery is to retain teeth with persistent apical pathosis following orthograde root canal treatment if endodontic non-surgical revision is difficult or associated with risks, or is even declined by the patient. Since the most frequent cause of recurrent apical disease is bacterial reinfection from the (remaining) root canal system, the bacteria-tight root-end filling is the most important step in apical surgery. In the early 1990s, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed at the Loma Linda University in California/USA. Preclinical studies clearly showed that MTA has a high sealing capability, a good material stability and an excellent biocompatbility. Multiple experimental studies in animals highlighted the mild tissue reactions observed adjacent to this material. Furthermore, histological analysis of the periapical regions demonstrated a frequent deposition of new cementum not only onto the resection plane (cut dentinal surface), but also directly onto MTA. For these reasons, MTA is considered a bioactive material. In 1997 MTA was cleared for clinical use in patients. Multiple prospective clinical and randomized studies have documented high and constant success rates of MTA-treated teeth in apical surgery. A recently published longitudinal study showed that MTA-treated teeth remained stable over five years; hence the high healed rates documented after one year are maintained during long-term observation.

  18. Clinical and research validity of hadrontherapy with ion beams.

    PubMed

    Orecchia, Roberto; Krengli, Marco; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Franzetti, Silvia; Gerard, Jean Pierre

    2004-08-01

    Clinical results obtained with hadrontherapy have been extremely positive for various tumours, with percentages of local control and survival higher than those ascribed to conventional radiotherapy. Most clinical data obtained with charged particles are related to protontherapy but the implementation of carbon ion therapy has demonstrated to be of great interest in the last decade. These results, accompanied by the new performances in accelerator technology and calculation systems of the delivered doses, have determined over the past years an increased interest for the development of hadrontherapy, with the construction of new centres provided with equipment entirely dedicated to clinical activity (LLUMC, Loma Linda and NPTC, Boston in USA, HIMAC-NIRS, Chiba, PROBEAT, Tsukuba, and Hyogo Beam Medical Centres in Japan). A revision of the clinical indications specifically focused on ion therapy is presented as well as the results obtained in the different centres. With hadrontherapy, it is finally possible to increase the spectrum of treatments allowing preserving the organ and its functionality, with positive impacts from a social and economic point of view.

  19. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  20. Road Damage Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of water-saturated sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and slit, which moved from right to left towards the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed lateral spreading, is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage caused by the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey