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  1. Gender Politics and Privatization in the London Borough of Camden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Lisa D.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the differential impact of the privatization of social services on women in the London borough of Camden. Concludes that women will suffer greater decline than men in employment, wages, and status as a result of the privatization taking place in Great Britain. (JDH)

  2. Inequalities in the provision of paediatric speech and language therapy services across London boroughs.

    PubMed

    Pring, Tim

    2016-07-01

    The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Information on the employment of paediatric speech and language therapists was obtained from London boroughs by freedom-of-information requests. The relationship between the number of therapists and the index of multiple deprivation for the borough was examined. Twenty-nine of 32 boroughs responded. A positive relationship between provision and need was obtained, suggesting that the inverse-care law does not apply. However, large inequalities of provision were found particularly among the more socially deprived boroughs. In some instances boroughs had five times as many therapists per child as other boroughs. The data reveal that large differences in speech and language therapy provision exist across boroughs. The reasons for these inequalities are unclear, but the lack of comparative information across boroughs is likely to be unhelpful in planning equitable services. The use of freedom of information in assessing health inequalities is stressed and its future availability is desirable. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  3. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  4. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  5. The Wrong Side of the Tracks: Starting School in a Socially Disadvantaged London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsford, Elizabeth; Ralephata, Andrew; Bolderson, Sarah; Curtin, Martina; Parish, Esther; Klaber, Victoria; Griffin, Sue; Nash, Lisa; Cullen, Rachel; Musoke, Brenda; Bhalla, Sangheeta; Walker, Lindsay; Duffer, Luisa; O'Sullivan, Sylvia; Knowland, Victoria; Cozens, Suzanne; McLaren, Lindsey; Camilleri, Bernard; Halil, Suzan; Furze, Rachael; Leung, Wai; O'Gorman, Ciara; Carver, Verity; Young, Dorothy; Pring, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists that social circumstances can affect children's language development. As a result many children in socially deprived areas start school with delayed language, which may persist and adversely affect their attainment. We assessed the language of children in seven reception classes in a London (UK) borough and followed the…

  6. Provision of health promotion programmes to people with serious mental illness: a mapping exercise of four South London boroughs.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, C; Gardner-Sood, P; Corlett, S K; Ismail, K; Smith, S; Atakan, Z; Greenwood, K; Joseph, C; Gaughran, F

    2014-03-01

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) are at increased risk of developing various physical health diseases, contributing to significantly reduced life expectancies compared with the general population. In light of this, the Department of Health have set the physical health of people with mental health problems as a priority for improvement. Additionally, the UK government encourages the NHS and local authorities to develop health promotion programmes (HPPs) for people with SMI. To document how many and what types of HPPs were available to people with SMI across four South London boroughs, UK. We found 145 HPPs were available to people with SMI across the four boroughs, but with an inequitable distribution. We also found that certain HPPs set admission criteria that were likely to act as a barrier to improving health. A more integrated approach of documenting and providing information regarding the provision of HPPs for or inclusive of people with SMI is needed. People with serious mental illness (SMI) such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders and bipolar disorder are at increased risk of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease, contributing to significantly reduced life expectancies. As a result, emphasis has been placed on developing Health Promotion Programmes (HPPs) to modify the risk of poor physical health in SMI. We examined how many and what types of HPPs are available for or inclusive of people with SMI across four borough in South London, UK. A cross-sectional mapping study was carried out to identify the number of HPPs available to people with SMI. We found 145 HPPs available to people with SMI existed across the four boroughs but with an inequitable distribution, which in some boroughs we anticipate may not meet need. In some cases, HPPs set admission conditions which were likely to further impede access. We recommend that accurate and readily available information on the provision of HPPs for or inclusive of people

  7. Multicultural Music in the London Borough of Harrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Frank

    1991-01-01

    A project to introduce the music of different cultures into primary and secondary classrooms in London is reported. The six cultures are Indian music and dance, Latin American rock and steel pans, jazz, Indian drums, and Chinese music and movement. The project model is related to multicultural education in general. (Author/LB)

  8. Multicultural Music in the London Borough of Harrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Frank

    1991-01-01

    A project to introduce the music of different cultures into primary and secondary classrooms in London is reported. The six cultures are Indian music and dance, Latin American rock and steel pans, jazz, Indian drums, and Chinese music and movement. The project model is related to multicultural education in general. (Author/LB)

  9. Bangladeshi women's experiences of infant feeding in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.

    PubMed

    Rayment, Juliet; McCourt, Christine; Vaughan, Lisa; Christie, Janice; Trenchard-Mabere, Esther

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the main factors that influence Bangladeshi women living in London's decisions to partially breastfeed their children, including the influence of older women within the community. Fifty-seven women of Bangladeshi origin living in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets took part in seven discussion groups between April and June 2013. Five groups were held with women of child-bearing age and two groups with older women in the community. A further eight younger women and three older women took part in one-on-one interviews. Interviews were also carried out with eight local health care workers, including public health specialists, peer support workers, breastfeeding coordinators and a health visitor. The influences on women's infant feeding choices can be understood through a 'socio-ecological model', including public health policy; diverse cultural influences from Bangladesh, London and the Bangladeshi community in London; and the impacts of migration and religious and family beliefs. The women's commitment to breastfeeding was mediated through the complexity of their everyday lives. The tension between what was 'best' and what was 'possible' leads them not only to partially breastfeed but also to sustain partial breastfeeding in a way not seen in other socio-cultural groups in the United Kingdom.

  10. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902-1937.

    PubMed

    Aidt, Toke S; Mooney, Graham

    2014-04-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902-1914) and universal suffrage (1921-1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending.

  11. Voting suffrage and the political budget cycle: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Boroughs 1902–1937

    PubMed Central

    Aidt, Toke S.; Mooney, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We study the opportunistic political budget cycle in the London Metropolitan Boroughs between 1902 and 1937 under two different suffrage regimes: taxpayer suffrage (1902–1914) and universal suffrage (1921–1937). We argue and find supporting evidence that the political budget cycle operates differently under the two types of suffrage. Taxpayer suffrage, where the right to vote and the obligation to pay local taxes are linked, encourages demands for retrenchment and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year tax cuts and savings on administration costs. Universal suffrage, where all adult residents can vote irrespective of their taxpayer status, creates demands for productive public services and the political budget cycle manifests itself in election year hikes in capital spending and a reduction in current spending. PMID:25843984

  12. The prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV in Brent: a diverse London Borough

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Ava; Lorigan, James; Jowata, Mohamade; Brook, Gary; Banarsee, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV has changed from a rapidly deteriorating illness to a complex chronic disease, with increasing incidences of comorbidity, including cancer, and liver, lung and cardiovascular diseases. North West London has 6719 individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 873 of whom reside in the London Borough of Brent. Traditionally, commissioning services have focused on HIV therapy alone without considering how comorbidity affects treatment outcome and total service costs. Setting The setting for the study was NHS Brent Primary Care Trust, London UK. Question What associated comorbidities are present in people in Brent (London, UK) living with HIV, and how common are they? Methods A point-prevalence audit of retrospective data was conducted on all HIV-positive patients in Brent (financial year 2011/12). Data were collected from genito-urinary medicine (GUM) services, community services and general practitioners (GPs) on HIV diagnosis, patient demographics and past/current comorbidities: hepatitis B and C, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mental health disorders. Results This study identified that 29% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Brent have at least one comorbidity. The most common was hepatitis, followed by mental health disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Comorbidity was more likely in older male patients (in particular CVD and diabetes) and White patients (except for diabetes which was more common in Asian groups). Discussion/Conclusion Many PLWHA in Brent suffer from a number of other conditions, which appear largely independent of HIV. Findings confirm the need to treat HIV as a long-term condition, including patient education, empowerment and encouraging self-management. The multi-morbidity of many PLWHA suggests a role for both primary care and collaborative, holistic, patient-centred and individualised healthcare. Service providers and commissioners need to consider comorbidities in their treatment of and

  13. A review of social housing regeneration in the London Borough of Brent.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J; Rhoden, M

    2003-03-01

    Council high-rise estates sprang up rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s, with cross-governmental support to resolve the nation's housing crisis. It soon became apparent that many such new estates, designed by remote architects, and sometimes constructed rapidly and unsatisfactorily, did not provide the ideal living initially perceived. Many estates had early problems with architecture, construction and design. They proved an inhumane environment for many residents and there were frequent problems with communal features. Such estates were soon stigmatised and difficult to let as increasingly residual households were placed there, creating majority welfare-dependent estates. This created a downward spiral that traditional, and remote, housing management found difficult to address, and was too wide-scale to rectify financially within existing regimes. Prior to the 1980s, there were no specific government policies to tackle housing regeneration on high-rise estates. Problems became wider than traditional housing management and poor housing environments, encompassing social and economic exclusion. This paper, based on historical and contemporary literature as well as estate visits, reviews regeneration policy in three council housing estates within the London Borough of Brent. It traces successive government approaches since the 1980s from one that challenged the very status of council housing--notably at Stonebridge Park and Chalkhill, to one of partnership with the local authority--at South Kilburn. Housing policy is now concerned with more than just housing--it is about moving toward social inclusion, which requires initiative, flair, resource and commitment. It is about new accountabilities--not just numbers of bricks and mortar constructions, but about the lives, opportunities and health of those who live in an area. This fundamentally involves a partnership approach with residents at the centre of regeneration. This paper finds that sustainable estate regeneration

  14. Factors Affecting the Involvement of Day Centre Care Staff in the Delivery of Physiotherapy to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study in One London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, M. -J.; Kitchen, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapists for adults with intellectual disabilities often work in day centres, relying on care staff to support programmes. This study investigates factors affecting physiotherapy delivery in 4 day centres in one London borough. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with day centre care staff,…

  15. Factors Affecting the Involvement of Day Centre Care Staff in the Delivery of Physiotherapy to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study in One London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, M. -J.; Kitchen, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapists for adults with intellectual disabilities often work in day centres, relying on care staff to support programmes. This study investigates factors affecting physiotherapy delivery in 4 day centres in one London borough. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with day centre care staff,…

  16. Engaging the Somali community in the road safety agenda: a process evaluation from the London borough of Hounslow.

    PubMed

    Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Ahmed, Fatima; Knight, Elisabeth

    2012-08-01

    In the UK the most disadvantaged in society are more likely than those more affluent to be injured or killed in a road traffic collision and therefore it is a major cause of health inequality. There is a strong link between ethnicity, deprivation and injury. Whilst national road traffic injury data does not collect ethnic origin the London accident and analysis group does in terms of broad categories such as 'white', 'black' and 'Asian'. Analysis of this data revealed the over-representation of child pedestrian casualties from a 'black' ethnic origin. This information led road safety practitioners in one London borough to map child pedestrian casualties against census data which identified the Somali community as being particularly at risk of being involved in a road traffic collision. Working with the community they sought to discuss and address road safety issues and introduced practical evidence based approaches such as child pedestrian training. The process evaluation of the project used a qualitative approach and showed that engaging with community partners and working across organisational boundaries was a useful strategy to gain an understanding of the Somali community. A bottom approach provided the community with a sense of control and involvement which appears to add value in terms of reducing the sense of powerlessness that marginalised communities often feel. In terms of evaluation, small projects like these, lend themselves to a qualitative process evaluation though it has to be accepted that the strength of this evidence may be regarded as weak. Where possible routine injury data needs to take into account ethnicity which is a known risk factor for road casualty involvement which needs to be continually monitored.

  17. Secondary school pupils' food choices around schools in a London borough: Fast food and walls of crisps.

    PubMed

    Caraher, M; Lloyd, S; Mansfield, M; Alp, C; Brewster, Z; Gresham, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five 'A's of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of 'two for one' type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as 'cool', queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were 'cool'. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five 'A's above. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumption of takeaway and fast food in a deprived inner London Borough: are they associated with childhood obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Rachel; Risby, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Objective A major concern is the ubiquitous presence of fast food and takeaway outlets within easy walking distance of schools, particularly in the light of the increasing burden of childhood obesity. Here, the associations between the schoolchildren's weights, their consumption of fast food and takeaway outlets were examined in a deprived inner London Borough. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants 193 schoolchildren (aged between 11 and 14 years old) participated in this study. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) percentiles specific for age and gender were obtained. Frequency of food and drinks purchased from fast food outlets and takeaway outlets over a weekly period and preferred types of drinks and food products usually consumed were measured. Results More than 50% of the children in our survey purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets twice or more a week, with about 10% consuming fast food or drinks from these outlets daily. About 70% of these children from Black ethnic groups and 54% of Asians purchased fast food more than twice a week. BMI has a significantly inverse relationship to fast food consumption. However, when age and gender are accounted, the BMI age–gender percentile is no longer significantly related to fast food consumption. Conclusions This study revealed a very high frequency of fast food consumption among the schoolchildren. Taste, quick access and peer influence were major contributing factors. These schoolchildren are exposed to an obesogenic environment, and it is not surprising that in this situation, many of these children are already overweight and will likely become obese as adults. PMID:22721691

  19. Quality of Life and Unmet Need in People with Psychosis in the London Borough of Haringey, UK

    PubMed Central

    Lambri, Maria; Chakraborty, Apu; Leavey, Gerard; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Deinstitutionalization of long-term psychiatric patients produced various community-based residential care facilities. However, inner-city areas have many patients with severe mental illness (SMI) as well as deprivation, unemployment, and crime. This makes meeting their community needs complex. We undertook a needs assessment of service provision and consonance between service users' evaluation of need and by care workers. Design. Cross-sectional study with random sample of SMI service users in four housing settings: rehabilitation units; high-supported; medium-supported; low-supported housing. Setting. London Borough of Haringey. Outcome Measures. 110 SMI service users and 110 keyworkers were interviewed, using Camberwell Assessment of Need; SF-36; Lancashire Quality-of-Life profile; demographic and clinical information. Results. People in “low-support” and “high-support” housing had similar symptom scores, though low support had significantly lower quality of life. Quality of life was positively predicted by self-reported mental-health score and negatively predicted by unmet-need score in whole sample and in medium-support residents. Residents' and care-workers' assessments of need differed considerably. Conclusions. Although patients' housing needs were broadly met, those in low-supported housing fared least well. Attendance to self-reported mental health and unmet social needs to quality of life underpins planning of residential services for those with SMI. Social and personal needs of people in supported housing may be underestimated and overlooked; service providers need to prioritise these if concept of “recovery” is to advance. PMID:23213300

  20. Consumption of takeaway and fast food in a deprived inner London Borough: are they associated with childhood obesity?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Rachel; Risby, Alexander; Chan, Mei-Yen

    2012-01-01

    A major concern is the ubiquitous presence of fast food and takeaway outlets within easy walking distance of schools, particularly in the light of the increasing burden of childhood obesity. Here, the associations between the schoolchildren's weights, their consumption of fast food and takeaway outlets were examined in a deprived inner London Borough. This is a cross-sectional study. 193 schoolchildren (aged between 11 and 14 years old) participated in this study. Body mass index (BMI) percentiles specific for age and gender were obtained. Frequency of food and drinks purchased from fast food outlets and takeaway outlets over a weekly period and preferred types of drinks and food products usually consumed were measured. More than 50% of the children in our survey purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets twice or more a week, with about 10% consuming fast food or drinks from these outlets daily. About 70% of these children from Black ethnic groups and 54% of Asians purchased fast food more than twice a week. BMI has a significantly inverse relationship to fast food consumption. However, when age and gender are accounted, the BMI age-gender percentile is no longer significantly related to fast food consumption. This study revealed a very high frequency of fast food consumption among the schoolchildren. Taste, quick access and peer influence were major contributing factors. These schoolchildren are exposed to an obesogenic environment, and it is not surprising that in this situation, many of these children are already overweight and will likely become obese as adults.

  1. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  2. Cross-National Policy Borrowing and Educational Innovation: Improving Achievement in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of the London Education Authority of Barking and Dagenham's borrowing of Swiss educational practices, and the implementation and internalisation of those foreign practices in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools. The study employs analytical frameworks that might be used by policy makers or researchers…

  3. Evaluating quality and its determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of heart disease and stroke in primary care: a study in an inner London Borough.

    PubMed

    Dodhia, Hiten; Kun, Liu; Logan Ellis, Hugh; Crompton, James; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Williams, Helen; Hodgkinson, Anna; Balazs, John

    2015-12-09

    To assess quality of management and determinants in lipid control for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using multilevel regression models. Cross-sectional study. Inner London borough, with a primary care registered population of 378,000 (2013). 48/49 participating general practices with 7869 patients on heart disease/stroke registers were included. (1) Recording of current total cholesterol levels and lipid control according to national evidence-based standards. (2) Assessment of quality by age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, presence of other risks or comorbidity in meeting both lipid measurement and control standards. Some process standards were not met. Patients with a current cholesterol measurement >5 mmol/L were less likely to have a current statin prescription (adjusted OR=3.10; 95% CI 2.70 to 3.56). They were more likely to have clustering of other CVD risk factors. Women were significantly more likely to have raised cholesterol after adjustment for other factors (adjusted OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.53 to 1.98). In this study, the key factor that explained poor lipid control in people with CVD was having no current prescription record of a statin. Women were more likely to have poorly controlled cholesterol (independent of comorbid risk factors and after adjusting for age, ethnicity, deprivation index and practice-level variation). Women with CVD should be offered statin prescription and may require higher statin dosage for improved control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. A long-term study of Rattus norvegicus in the London borough of Enfield using baiting returns as an indicator of sewer population levels.

    PubMed Central

    Channon, D.; Cole, M.; Cole, L.

    2000-01-01

    This is a long-term study that investigates the dynamics of a population of Rattus norvegicus (Berk) inhabiting a sewerage system in London. Thirteen years (1986/7-1998/9) of data from sewer baiting records were analysed (a total of 35,478 records). Manholes were baited with the anticoagulant Brodifacoum (0.005%) on a pinhead oatmeal bait base. Time series analysis was conducted on the data set to determine the underlying trend of the data and the population fluctuations about this trend. An exponential curve was found to give an accurate and realistic fit to the data and indicated that the rat population had decreased over the study period. Decomposition analysis indicated a 5-year cycle best described fluctuations around this trend. PMID:11117969

  5. A fatal case of Lassa fever in London, January 2009.

    PubMed

    Kitching, A; Addiman, S; Cathcart, S; Bischop, L; Krahé, D; Nicholas, M; Coakley, J; Lloyd, G; Brooks, T; Morgan, D; Turbitt, D

    2009-02-12

    In January 2009, the eleventh [corrected] case of Lassa fever imported to the United Kingdom was diagnosed in London. Risk assessment of 328 healthcare contacts with potential direct exposure to Lassa virus - through contact with the case or exposure to bodily fluids - was undertaken. No contacts were assessed to be at high risk of infection and no secondary clinical cases identified.

  6. Autistic Disorder in Nineteenth-Century London. Three Case Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…

  7. Case Study on Adult Education in the Inner London Education Authority. The CDCC's Project No. 7: The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter-Grundin, Elizabeth; Karagiorges, Andreas

    English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction is a critical service provided by the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA). ILEA operates 19 adult education institutions serving 275,000 part-time students in a 12-borough area where 131 different languages are spoken. To provide immigrant adults for whom English is a second language with the…

  8. Altitude and Configuration of the Potentiometric Surface in the Upper White Clay Creek and Lower West Branch Brandywine Creek Basins including Portions of Penn, London Grove, New Garden, Londonderry, West Marlborough, Highland, and East Fallowfield Townships and West Grove, Avondale, Modena, and South Coatesville boroughs, Chester County, Pennsylvania, May through July 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Lindsay B.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Since 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been mapping the altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface in Chester County as part of an ongoing cooperative program to measure and describe the water resources of the county. These maps can be used to determine the general direction of ground-water flow and are frequently referenced by municipalities and developers to evaluate ground-water conditions for water supply and resource-protection requirements. For this study, the potentiometric surface was mapped for an area in south-central Chester County. The northern part of the map includes portions of Highland, East Fallowfield, Londonderry, and West Marlborough Townships and South Coatesville and Modena Boroughs. The southern part of the map includes portions of Londonderry, West Marlborough, Penn, London Grove, and New Garden Townships and West Grove and Avondale Boroughs. The study area is mostly underlain by metamorphic rocks of the Glenarm Supergroup including Peters Creek Schist, Octoraro Phyllite, Wissahickon Schist, Cockeysville Mrable, and Setters Quartzite; and by pegmatite, mafic gneiss, felsic gneiss, and diabase. Ground water is obtained from these bedrock formations by wells that intercept fractures. The altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface was contoured from water levels measured on different dates in available wells during May through July 2006 and from the altitude of springs and perennial streams. Topography was used as a guide for contouring so that the altitude of the potentiometric surface was inferred nowhere to be higher than the land surface. The potentiometric surface shown on this map is an approximation of the water table. The altitude of the actual potentiometric surface may differ from the water table, especially in areas where wells are completed in a semi-confined zone or have long open intervals that reflect the composite hydraulic head of multiple water-yielding fractures. A composite

  9. Occupation and cancer in London: an investigation into nasal and bladder cancer using the Cancer Atlas.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P J; McDowall, M E

    1986-01-01

    The Atlas of Cancer Mortality for England and Wales showed pronounced excesses of male mortality from nasal and bladder cancer in certain London boroughs. These excesses were investigated by case-referent studies using death certificate data for male deaths, 1968-78. Nasal cancer was found to be significantly associated with occupations involving heavy exposure to wood dust. Bladder cancer was significantly associated with occupations in road transport driving and in the handling of leather, whereas consistently raised relative risk ratios were also found for wood-workers, engineering fitters, printers, machinists, plumbers, and motor mechanics. These findings highlight the potential role of occupational factors in cancer causation in London.

  10. Developing Levels of Consultation in an Inner London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Rose; Thorne, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Many educational psychology services across the country have changed or are in the process of changing to a consultation approach to service delivery. This paper outlines the experiences of an inner city service in the development of consultation particularly in the area of group consultation. Group consultation involves a pair of educational…

  11. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  12. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  13. Inner London's Education Authority: Reflections on ILEA Twenty-Five Years after Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is 25 years since the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was abolished and management of education in central London transferred to 13 London boroughs. The author reflects on the experience of being an ex-ILEA head teacher, and of managing one of the new local education authorities in the immediate post-ILEA period. He begins by commenting…

  14. Inner London's Education Authority: Reflections on ILEA Twenty-Five Years after Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is 25 years since the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was abolished and management of education in central London transferred to 13 London boroughs. The author reflects on the experience of being an ex-ILEA head teacher, and of managing one of the new local education authorities in the immediate post-ILEA period. He begins by commenting…

  15. Building a Hypertextual Digital Library in the Humanities: A Case Study on London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Gregory; Smith, David A.; Wulfman, Clifford E.

    This paper describes the creation of a new humanities digital library collection: 11,000,000 words and 10,000 images representing books, images, and maps on pre-twentieth century London and its environs. The London collection contained far more dense and precise information than the materials from the Greco-Roman world. The London collection thus…

  16. Occupation and cancer in London: an investigation into nasal and bladder cancer using the Cancer Atlas.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; McDowall, M E

    1986-01-01

    The Atlas of Cancer Mortality for England and Wales showed pronounced excesses of male mortality from nasal and bladder cancer in certain London boroughs. These excesses were investigated by case-referent studies using death certificate data for male deaths, 1968-78. Nasal cancer was found to be significantly associated with occupations involving heavy exposure to wood dust. Bladder cancer was significantly associated with occupations in road transport driving and in the handling of leather, whereas consistently raised relative risk ratios were also found for wood-workers, engineering fitters, printers, machinists, plumbers, and motor mechanics. These findings highlight the potential role of occupational factors in cancer causation in London. Images PMID:3947560

  17. Are fuel poverty reduction schemes associated with decreased excess winter mortality in elders? A case study from London, U.K.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; El-Silimy, Sally

    2008-12-01

    The London Borough of Newham, London piloted the Warm Zone, a government-led fuel poverty reduction scheme. Fuel poverty is often cited as a factor in excess winter mortality (EWM) in the U.K. This study reported in this paper assessed whether EWM decreased for people aged > or =65 years in Newham as compared to all London, employing data from before and throughout the duration of the Warm Zone project. The paper also discusses the difficulties surrounding the measurement and interpretation of health impact relating to fuel poverty. We calculated and compared the yearly EWM indices for people aged > or =65 years for all of London, and for Newham over 12 years (1993-2005). The yearly EWM ratio for Newham in relation to all London was then calculated and compared. No definitive evidence to support the effect of the War Zone on EMW were noted. Relationships between EWM and fewer poverty reduction schemes are difficult to interpret, as many factors are entangled. These include cold strain and biological, genetic, gender, physiological, thermoregulation, environmental, meteorological, socio-economic, healthcare provision/expenditure, lifestyle and co-morbidity aspects, besides the challenges of sample sizes and whether other fuel poverty reduction schemes were simultaneously in operation. Those in privately owned housing might be ;masked' (underestimated) in their vulnerability to fuel poverty. Redefining the specific criteria for eligibility for fuel poverty grants and tackling heat inefficiency in privately owned homes not eligible for home heating improvement despite fulfilling other criteria for vulnerability requires attention. The implications are discussed.

  18. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1) To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2) To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3) To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10), lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13) representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8) and non-London network professionals (n = 2). Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed accommodation for

  19. Lessons for control of heroin-associated anthrax in Europe from 2009-2010 outbreak case studies, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Abbara, Aula; Brooks, Tim; Taylor, Graham P; Nolan, Marianne; Donaldson, Hugo; Manikon, Maribel; Holmes, Alison

    2014-07-01

    Outbreaks of serious infections associated with heroin use in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) occur intermittently and require vigilance and rapid reporting of individual cases. Here, we give a firsthand account of the cases in London during an outbreak of heroin-associated anthrax during 2009-2010 in the United Kingdom. This new manifestation of anthrax has resulted in a clinical manifestation distinct from already recognized forms. During 2012-13, additional cases of heroin-associated anthrax among PWIDs in England and other European countries were reported, suggesting that anthrax-contaminated heroin remains in circulation. Antibacterial drugs used for serious soft tissue infection are effective against anthrax, which may lead to substantial underrecognition of this novel illness. The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community.

  20. Lessons for Control of Heroin-Associated Anthrax in Europe from 2009–2010 Outbreak Case Studies, London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Abbara, Aula; Brooks, Tim; Taylor, Graham P.; Nolan, Marianne; Donaldson, Hugo; Manikon, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of serious infections associated with heroin use in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) occur intermittently and require vigilance and rapid reporting of individual cases. Here, we give a firsthand account of the cases in London during an outbreak of heroin-associated anthrax during 2009–2010 in the United Kingdom. This new manifestation of anthrax has resulted in a clinical manifestation distinct from already recognized forms. During 2012–13, additional cases of heroin-associated anthrax among PWIDs in England and other European countries were reported, suggesting that anthrax-contaminated heroin remains in circulation. Antibacterial drugs used for serious soft tissue infection are effective against anthrax, which may lead to substantial underrecognition of this novel illness. The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community. PMID:24959910

  1. Clinical Features of Imported Loiasis: A Case Series from the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Makoto; Armstrong, Margaret; Boadi, Samuel; Lowe, Patricia; Chiodini, Peter L.; Doherty, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the background, clinical features, and treatment response of 50 cases of imported loiasis who presented between 2000 and 2014 to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases (HTD), London, United Kingdom. Of them, 29 were migrants from, and 21 were visitors to, countries where the disease is endemic. Clinical features differed between these groups. Migrants experienced fewer Calabar swellings (odds ratio [OR] = 0.12), more eye worm (OR = 3.4), more microfilaremia (OR = 3.5), lower filarial antibody levels, and lower eosinophil counts (P < 0.05 for all tests). Among 46 patients who were started on treatment at HTD, 33 (72%) received diethylcarbamazine (DEC) monotherapy as first-line treatment, and among 26 patients who were followed up after treatment, seven (27%) needed a second course of treatment. There were 46 courses of treatment with DEC, and 20 (43%) of them had reactions. All patients with microfilaremia > 3,000 microfilariae/mL and all those with an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (≥ 5 mg/L) before treatment had reactions (P = 0.10 and P = 0.01, respectively). These data suggest that monotherapy with DEC may not be the optimal treatment for patients with loiasis, particularly for those with a high microfilarial load. PMID:26101271

  2. Case study of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic pharmacy service preparations.

    PubMed

    File, Hayley; Thomas, Trudy; Anderson, Geoff

    2015-06-01

    The Pharmacy Clinical Services Group (PCSG) was formed in 2009. Its aim was to design and deliver a world-class pharmacy service to 250 000 accredited persons and consider the pharmaceutical needs of 9.2 million visitors to the London 2012 Games. The explanatory case study method was used to investigate how the PCSG prepared and how they considered the wider vision of the Games. The study investigated two propositions: (1) that the PCSG has a communication function and (2) that it has a design function. A range of data were examined using NVivo 9 data management software. The study identified four emerging themes and a number of subthemes. The study validated the propositions and highlighted that the PCSG had a leading role within the wider multidisciplinary team. The study found that the PCSG embraced the wider vision of the Games and was exceptionally well prepared to deliver a world-class pharmacy service, anticipating a new gold standard for the provision of pharmacy services for future sporting events. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Priapism associated with risperidone: a case report, literature review and review of the South London and Maudsley hospital patients’ database

    PubMed Central

    Paklet, Lise; Olajide, Dele

    2013-01-01

    Priapism is a urological emergency defined as persistent penile erection that is unrelated to sexual stimulation and typically involving only the corporal cavernosa. It can occur as a rare side effect of antipsychotic medications and is mediated via their α-adrenergic antagonist effect. In this paper we describe a case of priapism in a patient started on risperidone and sodium valproate. We also review the South London and Maudsley Case Register Interactive Search database to assess how many other cases of priapism were reported in patients taking risperidone. We add this information to a literature review of cases of priapism associated with risperidone. PMID:23983987

  4. North Slope Borough Settles With EPA for Hazardous Waste Violations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle, WA - July 30, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the North Slope Borough, Alaska have reached a settlement that resolves alleged violations of hazardous waste requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. RC

  5. Steelton Borough, Pennsylvania CWA-03-2017-0108

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    US EPA Region 3 and the Borough of Steelton, Pennsylvania reached a proposed settlement for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Stormwater Discharges from Small Municipal Separate Sewer Systems (MS4) General Permit.

  6. Language and the Capital: A Case Study of English "Language Shock" among Chinese Students in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marr, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the experience of a group of Chinese teachers of English studying on ELT/Applied Linguistics-related MA courses at a London university. Drawing mainly on data from questionnaires, it shows how the early part of their stay was marked by surprise, disappointment and disorientation at the diversity and perceived poor quality of…

  7. "Kelo v. City of New London": An Ideal Case to Teach Ethical and Legal Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Lamar; Gonzalez, Analco

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a decision that caused much concern and anxiety across America. "Kelo v. City of New London" was viewed by many as an egregious violation of the Takings Clause of the U.S. Constitution. In "Kelo", the majority upheld a state statute that supported the use of eminent domain for purposes of economic…

  8. "Kelo v. City of New London": An Ideal Case to Teach Ethical and Legal Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Lamar; Gonzalez, Analco

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a decision that caused much concern and anxiety across America. "Kelo v. City of New London" was viewed by many as an egregious violation of the Takings Clause of the U.S. Constitution. In "Kelo", the majority upheld a state statute that supported the use of eminent domain for purposes of economic…

  9. Application of MM5/CMAQ for modelling urban air pollution a case study for London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitwiroon, N.; Fragkou, E.; Sokhi, R. S.; San Jose, R.; Pérez Camaño, J. L.; Middleton, D.

    2003-04-01

    Urban air pollution has been particularly studied for the last few decades because of its recognised environmental dangers and health implications. The complexity of the urban surface characteristics and turbulence patterns has dictated the use of numerical models by environmental research agencies and regulators in order to predict and manage urban air pollution. However, most of these models are not specifically adapted to urban applications and normally do not include detailed urban parameterisation, such as for surface roughness or urban heat fluxes. Flow structure and dispersion of air pollutants within cities, however, are influenced by urban features such as increased surface roughness. This paper presents a study using MM5 and CMAQ to assess the effect of urban boundary layer features on meteorological parameters, and hence London's air quality. MM5 is a non-hydrostatic (version 3), terrain-following sigma-coordinate model designed to simulate mesoscale and regional-scale atmospheric circulation. This paper employs an improved surface roughness treatment on meteorological profiles and pollution dispersion. A surface roughness scale has been developed for London and the surrounding region. The land cover data was derived from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) data, with a spatial resolution of 25 × 25 m. These z_o values are employed with MM5 for modelling meteorological parameters over London, covering an inner domain area of 49 × 49 km. The outputs of MM5 have been coupled to CMAQ photochemical model to predict concentrations of particles, NO_2 and O_3 for London and the surrounding regions at a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km. The predicted concentrations have been compared with monitored data obtained from a range of national air quality monitoring sites including Central London (Bloomsbury, Brent), East London (Bexley) and West London (Hillingdon). Comparison of hourly model predictions with measured data is made for pollution levels for

  10. Fritz London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  11. The Best, the Worst and the Average: Secondary School Choice and Education Performance in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Tim; Hamnett, Chris; Ramsden, Mark; Webber, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether the distance between school and the pupil's home is related to social background in a six borough area of East London. Also investigated is the extent to which schools in the area perform in line with expectations on the basis of the social composition of their intake. The research involves analysis of the…

  12. The Development of Forensic Pathology in London, England: Keith Simpson and the Dobkin Case, 1942.

    PubMed

    Bell, Amy

    2012-01-01

    During the Second World War in London, the bombing raids targeting civilians led to a greater public reliance on forensic pathologists. Hospitals used their skills to identify the victims of raids and determine their cause of death, though many bomb victims were never identified. The public reputation of forensic pathology was enhanced by Dr. Keith Simpson's 1942 identification of a body found in a bombed church as the missing Mrs. Dobkin, murdered by her husband and hidden in the rubble. The devastation wrought by the Blitz was countered by this public display of the collaboration between forensic pathology and wartime authorities desperate to maintain order.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Rockaway Borough Well Field, Rockaway Borough, New Jersey, September 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-29

    The Rockaway Borough Well Field site is located in Rockaway Borough, Morris County, New Jersey, and consists of three municipal supply wells which are in a glacial aquifer designated by EPA as the sole source aquifer for Rockaway Borough and the surrounding communities. High concentrations of TCE and PCE have been detected in the aquifer since 1980, but no sources of contamination have been identified. In 1981, the Borough of Rockaway constructed a three-bed granular activated-carbon adsorption system to treat contaminated well water. Treatment has effectively reduced volatile organic contaminant concentrations in finished water to less than 1 part per billion (ppb). Although thirteen VOCs have been detected in the well water, TCE and PCE are the primary contaminants of concern. The site was listed on the NPL in December of 1982, and the RI/FS was initiated in 1985. The remedial action for the Rockaway Borough site includes maintaining the existing filtration system and modifying operations to ensure compliance with Safe Drinking Water Act standards and EPA continuing the RI/FS in an attempt to identify the source and extent of contamination and evaluate alternatives to address source control. Estimated capital cost of remedial action is zero with annual OandM costs of $74,800.

  14. Basic life support education in secondary schools: a cross-sectional survey in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Salciccioli, Justin D; Marshall, Dominic C; Sykes, Mark; Wood, Alexander D; Joppa, Stephanie A; Sinha, Madhurima; Lim, P Boon

    2017-01-06

    Basic life support (BLS) training in schools is associated with improved outcomes from cardiac arrest. International consensus statements have recommended universal BLS training for school-aged children. The current practice of BLS training in London schools is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess current practices of BLS training in London secondary schools. A prospective audit of BLS training in London secondary schools was conducted. Schools were contacted by email, and a subsequent telephone interview was conducted with staff familiar with local training practices. Response data were anonymised and captured electronically. Universal training was defined as any programme which delivers BLS training to all students in the school. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the results. A total of 65 schools completed the survey covering an estimated student population of 65 396 across 19 of 32 London boroughs. There were 5 (8%) schools that provide universal training programmes for students and an additional 31 (48%) offering training as part of an extracurricular programme or chosen module. An automated external defibrillator (AED) was available in 18 (28%) schools, unavailable in 40 (61%) and 7 (11%) reported their AED provision as unknown. The most common reasons for not having a universal BLS training programme are the requirement for additional class time (28%) and that funding is unavailable for such a programme (28%). There were 5 students who died from sudden cardiac arrest over the period of the past 10 years. BLS training rates in London secondary schools are low, and the majority of schools do not have an AED available in case of emergency. These data highlight an opportunity to improve BLS training and AEDs provision. Future studies should assess programmes which are cost-effective and do not require significant amounts of additional class time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  15. Basic life support education in secondary schools: a cross-sectional survey in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Salciccioli, Justin D; Marshall, Dominic C; Sykes, Mark; Wood, Alexander D; Joppa, Stephanie A; Sinha, Madhurima; Lim, P Boon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Basic life support (BLS) training in schools is associated with improved outcomes from cardiac arrest. International consensus statements have recommended universal BLS training for school-aged children. The current practice of BLS training in London schools is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess current practices of BLS training in London secondary schools. Setting, population and outcomes A prospective audit of BLS training in London secondary schools was conducted. Schools were contacted by email, and a subsequent telephone interview was conducted with staff familiar with local training practices. Response data were anonymised and captured electronically. Universal training was defined as any programme which delivers BLS training to all students in the school. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the results. Results A total of 65 schools completed the survey covering an estimated student population of 65 396 across 19 of 32 London boroughs. There were 5 (8%) schools that provide universal training programmes for students and an additional 31 (48%) offering training as part of an extracurricular programme or chosen module. An automated external defibrillator (AED) was available in 18 (28%) schools, unavailable in 40 (61%) and 7 (11%) reported their AED provision as unknown. The most common reasons for not having a universal BLS training programme are the requirement for additional class time (28%) and that funding is unavailable for such a programme (28%). There were 5 students who died from sudden cardiac arrest over the period of the past 10 years. Conclusions BLS training rates in London secondary schools are low, and the majority of schools do not have an AED available in case of emergency. These data highlight an opportunity to improve BLS training and AEDs provision. Future studies should assess programmes which are cost-effective and do not require significant amounts of additional class time. PMID:28062467

  16. London, England

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-18

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth. This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04301

  17. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  18. Listening to those on the frontline: service users’ experiences of London tuberculosis services

    PubMed Central

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Belling, Ruth; Woods, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore tuberculosis (TB) service users’ experiences and satisfaction with care provision. Background: Thirty-nine percent of all new UK TB cases occur in London. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs. Overall, research suggests inadequate control of London’s TB transmission; TB has become a health care priority for all London Primary Care Trusts. Service users’ experiences and satisfaction with care provision have not been explored adequately previously. Methods: A qualitative research design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Ten service users, purposively selected in key risk groups across London, were interviewed. All interviews were digitally recorded with users’ permission, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Results: Participants were treated in local hospitals for 6–12 months. Treatment was administered by TB nurses to inpatients and outpatients receiving directly observed therapy in consultation with medical staff and home visits for complex cases. Two participants did not realize the importance of compliance. Overall, they were satisfied with many TB services’ aspects, communication, and service organization. Early access, low suspicion index amongst some GPs, and restricted referral routes were identified as service barriers. Other improvement areas were information provision on drug side effects, diet, nutritional status, and a few health professionals’ attitudes. The effects on people varied enormously from minimal impact to psychological shock; TB also affected social and personal aspects of their life. With regard to further support facilities, some positive views on managed accommodation by TB-aware professionals for those with accommodation problems were identified. Conclusion: This first in-depth study of TB service users’ experiences across London offers valuable insights into service users’ experiences, providing information and recommendations for a strategic

  19. Secondary School Admissions: The Choice for Black Parents in the London Borough of Hackney, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalman, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    In the UK, the law places a lot of emphasis on parental rights and choice--the right to choose the school that suits the needs of your child. Parents can list in order of preference and this ranked order is lodged with the education authority (through one common application form), and hope that within the complexities of the admissions process,…

  20. Suicide and AIDS: lessons from a case note audit in London.

    PubMed

    Sherr, L

    1995-01-01

    There is growing evidence that HIV infection and AIDS have an impact on a range of suicidal issues. The literature lacks clarity and the subject is traditionally problematic to research. True prevalence is often difficult to gauge and many researchers focus simply on death by suicide rather than exploring the extreme mental health burden brought about by suicidal thoughts, attempts, completions and bereavement. This study was set up to explore the nature and extent of problems in an unselected cohort of psychology clinic attenders (n = 188) in a London centre comprising 11% females and 89% males. For the cohort 21.4% had a suicide attempt recorded, 1 individual (0.5% of the sample) died by suicide and the level of suicidal ideation (both clear and vague) was noted for 50.5% of the sample. Suicidal issues were noted in 11.9% of referral letters from doctors. HIV seems to add an additional suicidal burden to this group where 43.9% attempted prior to HIV diagnosis, 41.5% after HIV diagnosis and 14.6% had attempts both pre- and post-diagnosis. The most common means involved overdosing. HIV related issues were often involved in triggers as was bereavement. There was a bimodal distribution of suicidal acts according to diagnosis with peaks at or around diagnosis and again at end stage illness. The data are discussed in terms of prevention, intervention and postvention with specific focus on the need to anticipate the mental health needs of people with HIV and AIDS as well as of their carers.

  1. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-04-15

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries.

  2. 19th century London dust-yards: a case study in closed-loop resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas A; Wilson, David C; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-04-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries.

  3. Problems of quality designation in diffusely polluted urban streams - the case of Pymme's Brook, north London.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, H; Edmonds-Brown, V; Green, A

    2000-07-01

    Downstream patterns in the biology and bacteriology of Pymme's Brook (north London) between 1985 and 1992, are compared with the local Environment Agency (EA, England and Wales) quality classification of the site, revealing a considerable discrepancy. Although downstream contaminant dispersal patterns showed that at low flow the brook was less successful in absorbing contaminants at polluted surface water outfall (PSWO) entry points than it was at high flow (supporting the low flow strategy of contemporary audit schedules), this effect was found to vary downstream in response to reoxygenation from less polluted outfalls. Additionally, temporal variations in suspended solids, Escherichia coli counts, sediment-bound and soluble pollutant concentrations at low flow, and during two sampled storms, revealed that significant pollutant transfer was concentrated in the 'first flush' of storm events. A downstream survey of sediment-bound lead (Pb) found that concentrations in the bed sediments, which were likely to be mobilised during a first flush, were significantly higher than in solution. So, a complex pattern of downstream contaminant dispersal emerges, which varies with differing antecedent conditions, and through storms. These results indicate that: (1) the new General Quality Assessments (GQA) audit schedule proposed by the EA for England and Wales remains inappropriate for diffusely polluted, urban environments, because it omits routine E. coli counts and sediment-bound heavy metals; and that (2) when audit is based on chemical determinants alone, the choice of site and timing of audit excessively influence quality designations. Pre-audit planning surveys and more reliable alternatives to the use of chemical audit for urban watercourses, are discussed as possible ways forward for the design of quality audit schedules. Implications for the monitoring schedules in operation in other EU countries and the USA are also considered.

  4. Higher Education Governance as Language Games: A Wittgensteinian Case Study of the Breakdown of Governance at the London School of Economics 2004-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-01-01

    This paper calls for a more detailed study of social practices in the analysis of governance failures. Using the Woolf report on the breakdown of governance at the London School of Economics as a case study and Wittgenstein's notion of language games as an analytic lens, the author argues that widely used institutional and structural theories of…

  5. Higher Education Governance as Language Games: A Wittgensteinian Case Study of the Breakdown of Governance at the London School of Economics 2004-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-01-01

    This paper calls for a more detailed study of social practices in the analysis of governance failures. Using the Woolf report on the breakdown of governance at the London School of Economics as a case study and Wittgenstein's notion of language games as an analytic lens, the author argues that widely used institutional and structural theories of…

  6. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  7. PM2.5 Indoor Air Quality at Two Sites in London Ontario - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mates, A. V.; Xu, X.; Gilliland, J.; Maltby, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Studies have shown an association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health impacts, particularly for the elderly and children. As part of a larger study, PM2.5 concentrations were measured using the DustTrak (Model 8520, TSI, St. Paul, MN, USA) at two schools within the city of London, Ontario (Canada). Site A was in a suburban environment while site B was in an urban setting. Monitoring took place for 3 weeks during winter (Feb. 16 - Mar. 8) and 3 weeks during spring (May 05 - 25) of 2010. The winter campaign monitored indoor PM2.5 only, while the spring campaign added outdoor monitors (PM2.5 and CO2) after the first week. Ten min. concentrations were used for analysis. Indoor measurements were split into weekday and weekend. For the same time interval, the outdoor concentrations showed mean values of 18 and 21 μg/m3 for sites A & B, respectively, both under the Canada Wide Standard of 30 μg/m3. Measurements at the two sites showed good associations (R^2 = 0.44), during the spring campaign. This indicates that the outdoor PM2.5 had similar sources. For indoor concentrations, Site B showed a significantly different mean concentration 5 times higher compared to site A during the winter ( 8.1 vs. 1.5 μg/m3 ) and 3 times higher (11.9 vs. 3.7 μg/m3) during the spring campaign. Since the outdoor concentrations were similar the large difference in indoor concentrations could be attributed to the following factors: site B being an older building, and the different physical characteristics between the two sites. The spring measurements showed an increase of 50% from weekday to weekend for site A and 22% for site B. The higher level of PM2.5 during weekends is possibly due to the infiltration of outdoor air while the ventilation/filtration system is shut off. During the winter campaign, Site A showed a 14% higher concentration during weekdays compared to weekends while site B weekend concentrations were 17% higher compared to weekday, which will be

  8. London, England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  9. London, England

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  10. Rockaway Borough Wellfield, Rockaway Borough, Morris County, New Jersey, Region 2. Cerclis No. NJD980654115. Addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-13

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) issued a Health Assessment for the Rockaway Borough Well Field site on April 17, 1989 (PB90-137613). The public health assessment addendum supplements the April 1989 health assessment and includes information gathered during the Phase II Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the Rockaway Borough Well Field site. Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) were detected in treated municipal water supplies at levels above health comparison values. Complete (past and present) exposure pathways exist from PCE and TCE contamination of municipal water supplies during periods of contaminant breakthrough within the groundwater treatment system. Potential (past, present, future) human exposure pathways exist from contaminated residential drinking wells and surface soil through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact.

  11. ‘Shell shock’ Revisited: An Examination of the Case Records of the National Hospital in London

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Stefanie Caroline; Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, in Queen Square, London, then Britain’s leading centre for neurology, took a key role in the treatment and understanding of shell shock. This paper explores the case notes of all 462 servicemen who were admitted with functional neurological disorders between 1914 and 1919. Many of these were severe or chronic cases referred to the National Hospital because of its acknowledged expertise and the resources it could call upon. Biographical data was collected together with accounts of the patient’s military experience, his symptoms, diagnostic interpretations and treatment outcomes. Analysis of the notes showed that motor syndromes (loss of function or hyperkinesias), often combined with somato-sensory loss, were common presentations. Anxiety and depression as well as vegetative symptoms such as sweating, dizziness and palpitations were also prevalent among this patient population. Conversely, psychogenic seizures were reported much less frequently than in comparable accounts from German tertiary referral centres. As the war unfolded the number of physicians who believed that shell shock was primarily an organic disorder fell as research failed to find a pathological basis for its symptoms. However, little agreement existed among the Queen Square doctors about the fundamental nature of the disorder and it was increasingly categorised as functional disorder or hysteria. PMID:25284893

  12. Place and provision: mapping mental health advocacy services in London.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ronan; Platzer, Hazel

    2007-02-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Executive for London carried out an investigation in 2002 as part of their wider mental health strategy to establish whether existing mental health advocacy provision in the city was meeting need. The project took a two-part approach, with an emphasis on, (a) mapping the provision of advocacy services and, (b) cartographic mapping of service location and catchments. Data were collected through a detailed questionnaire with service providers in collaboration with the Greater London Mental Health Advocacy Network (GLMHAN) and additional health and government sources. The service mapping identified some key statistics on funding, caseloads and models of service provision with an additional emphasis on coverage, capacity, and funding stability. The questionnaire was augmented by interviews and focus groups with commissioners, service providers and service users and identified differing perspectives and problems, which informed the different perspectives of each of these groups. The cartographic mapping exercise demonstrated a spatially-even provision of mental health advocacy services across the city with each borough being served by at least one local service as well as by London wide specialist schemes. However, at local level, no one borough had the full range of specialist provision to match local demographic need. Ultimately the research assisted the Advisory Group in providing commissioning agencies with clear information on the current status of city-wide mental health advocacy services, and on gaps in existing advocacy provision alongside previously unconsidered geographical and service dimensions of that provision.

  13. Community Engagement using World Café: The Well London Experience.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Kevin; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Trimble, Allison; Renton, Adrian; Bertotti, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The Well London programme was launched across twenty boroughs in London during late 2007 to improve the health and well-being of residents living in some of the most deprived communities in London. Well London employed a multi-stage community engagement process which informed the overall project strategy for each intervention area. In this article we establish and describe the key principles that guided the design of this innovative community engagement process. Principles included building collaborative partnerships, working with whole-systems, privileging community knowledge and working with the deficit of experience in each area. The article then describes in detail how these principles were operationalised throughout the preparation and delivery of forty World Cafes, which were the first open community activities of the Well London community engagement process. Finally, this article reflects on and summarises the lessons learned when employing innovative, inclusive and transparent community engagement for health promotion.

  14. Community Engagement using World Café: The Well London Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Kevin; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Trimble, Allison; Renton, Adrian; Bertotti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The Well London programme was launched across twenty boroughs in London during late 2007 to improve the health and well-being of residents living in some of the most deprived communities in London. Well London employed a multi-stage community engagement process which informed the overall project strategy for each intervention area. In this article we establish and describe the key principles that guided the design of this innovative community engagement process. Principles included building collaborative partnerships, working with whole-systems, privileging community knowledge and working with the deficit of experience in each area. The article then describes in detail how these principles were operationalised throughout the preparation and delivery of forty World Cafes, which were the first open community activities of the Well London community engagement process. Finally, this article reflects on and summarises the lessons learned when employing innovative, inclusive and transparent community engagement for health promotion. PMID:27857453

  15. Preventive Health Education Needs: A Survey of Adults in Elkland Borough, Tioga County, Pennsylvania, 1976. Rural Health Staff Papers - Paper Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taranto, Angelo A.; Leadley, Samuel M.

    From a population of 117 adult residents of Elkland Borough formerly interviewed in August 1974, 72 cases were chosen. Of these, 57 persons (43 women and 14 men) were reinterviewed in March 1976 as to their behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes related to preventing cancer and coronary heart disease. The age and sex of those interviewed were compared…

  16. Obstetric outcome of ethnic Turkish women in London: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, M; Bognanno, A; Subramanian, V; Macneilly, L; Miguel, L; Dong, S; Taiwo, E; Nauta, M; Yoong, W

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that the maternal mortality in ethnic minority women is significantly greater than that of Caucasian British women. The objective of this study was to compare the demographic and obstetric outcomes between these two groups. Data were collected retrospectively over a 2-year period from 148 index and 148 control cases. The study group had statistically similar maternal age, labour duration, blood loss and mode of delivery compared with Caucasian British women (p > 0.05). A total of 68% of Turkish women spoke little or no English; were more likely to be non-smokers and also more likely to be married to unemployed spouses (p = 0.0001). This is the first study comparing obstetric outcomes of immigrant Turkish women with their Caucasian British counterparts. There was no significant difference in maternal or fetal outcomes, which could be attributed to the 'healthy migrant' theory, coupled with increased vigilance in ethnic minority pregnancies.

  17. Obstetric performance of ethnic Kosovo Albanian asylum seekers in London: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yoong, W; Wagley, A; Fong, C; Chukwuma, C; Nauta, M

    2004-08-01

    The most recent Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths expressed concern that mortality in women from non-English-speaking ethnic groups was twice that of native-born women. There are very few published data on the obstetric performance of Kosovo Albanian refugees who have relocated to the United Kingdom and the aim of this study was to compare the obstetric performances of Kosovo Albanian women currently residing in the United Kingdom with their British-born Caucasian counterparts. Sixty-one index and 61 control cases were analysed; 63% of the Kosovo Albanian women spoke little or no English and 50% were on income support. Of the study group, 9.8% had caesarean sections, 8.2% had instrumental vaginal deliveries and 82% achieved normal deliveries. The Kosovo Albanian women were statistically younger and had shorter duration of labour compared to controls (P < 0.05, unpaired t-test). Epidural use was significantly lower in Kosovan women (P < 0.05, chi2 test). The rates of induction of labour (IOL), caesarean section, instrumental deliveries, premature delivery and low birth weight < 2.5 kg were not statistically different (P > 0.05 in all cases, chi2 test) between the two groups. This is the first study to examine the obstetric outcomes of Kosovo Albanian women who have resettled in a western European country. Most Kosovo Albanian refugees living in the United Kingdom are not socio-economic migrants but displaced due to civil unrest and many had reasonable socio-economic status prior to resettlement. The similarity in obstetric and fetal outcomes between the study and control groups could be attributed to the 'healthy immigrant effect', where immigrant groups appear to have better outcomes due to family support and relatively lower intake of alcohol and nicotine. It also suggests that obstetricians may be heeding the recommendations from recent Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths, which highlight the need for increased vigilance in women from ethnic

  18. A methodology for risk assessment of municipal infrastructure due to climate change: a case study of London, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowering, E.; Peck, A.; Simonovic, S.

    2009-12-01

    climate change scenario. Identifying regions of high risk is important in disaster management and preparedness. These results will be available in municipal policy development and decision making. This methodology is applied as a case study to the City of London, Ontario, Canada.

  19. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Trent

    2016-01-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems. PMID:27146689

  20. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Dillon, Trent; Bilec, Melissa M; Khanna, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. How a Regional Broker Can Improve Industry Demand for University Interaction: A Case Study of the London Technology Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter; Schofield, Matt

    2006-01-01

    UK university research produces highly cited publications (DTI, 2004), but demand from UK business for commercial ideas from academia is weak (HM Treasury, 2003). This paper reviews factors in the development of one regional UK technology broker, the London Technology Network (LTN), which has achieved significant and audited business demand. The…

  2. Affordable and Sustainable Energy in the Borough of Woking in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, John P.; Curran, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Woking Borough Council in the United Kingdom has long been committed to protecting the environment, a goal explicitly stated as one of the borough's top three priorities. Woking is also known for its pioneering approach in operating an extensive networked electricity and district heating system based on co- and trigeneration, as well as what is…

  3. Affordable and Sustainable Energy in the Borough of Woking in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, John P.; Curran, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Woking Borough Council in the United Kingdom has long been committed to protecting the environment, a goal explicitly stated as one of the borough's top three priorities. Woking is also known for its pioneering approach in operating an extensive networked electricity and district heating system based on co- and trigeneration, as well as what is…

  4. Knowledge Creation as an Approach to Facilitating Evidence Informed Practice: Examining Ways to Measure the Success of Using This Method with Early Years Practitioners in Camden (London)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three key aims. First it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in the London Borough of Camden. Second, it seeks to illustrate how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use and…

  5. Knowledge Creation as an Approach to Facilitating Evidence Informed Practice: Examining Ways to Measure the Success of Using This Method with Early Years Practitioners in Camden (London)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Rogers, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper has three key aims. First it examines the authors' attempts to use knowledge creation activity as a way of developing evidence informed practice amongst a learning community of 36 early years practitioners in the London Borough of Camden. Second, it seeks to illustrate how the authors approached the idea of measuring evidence use and…

  6. Computerisation in Public Libraries. A Report of the Survey Carried Out by the Technical Panel of the Association of London Chief Librarians during 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of London Chief Librarians (England).

    A survey of public library authorities located in the 34 London boroughs was conducted during the summer of 1982 to determine the characteristics and extent of library automation and to assess changes since a similar 1978/79 study. Replies were received from 33 authorities, of whom 30 reported using computerized techniques. Information on library…

  7. "If we build it, will it stay?" A case study of the sustainability of whole-system change in London.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Catherine; Woodard, Fran

    2012-09-01

    The long-term sustainability of whole-system change programs is rarely studied, and when it is, it is inevitably undertaken in a shifting context, thereby raising epistemological and methodological questions. This article describes a transferable methodology that was developed to guide the evaluation of a three-year follow-up of a large health care change program in London, which took place during a period of economic turbulence and rapid policy change. Using a mixed-method organizational case study design, we studied three services (stroke, kidney, and sexual health) across primary and secondary care. Each had received £5 million (US$7.8 million) in modernization funding in 2004. In 2010/2011, we gathered data on the services and compared them with data from 2004 to 2008. The new data set contained quantitative statistics (access, process, and outcome metrics), qualitative interviews with staff and patients, documents, and field notes. Our data analysis was informed by two complementary models of sustainability: intervention-focused (guided by the question, What, if anything, of the original program has been sustained?) and system-dynamic (guided by the question, How and why did change unfold as it did in this complex system?). Some but not all services introduced in the original transformation effort of 2004-2008 were still running; others had ceased or been altered substantially to accommodate contextual changes (e.g., in case mix, commissioning priorities, or national policies). Key cultural changes (e.g., quality improvement, patient centeredness) largely persisted, and innovative ideas and practices had spread elsewhere. To draw causal links between the original program and current activities and outcomes, it was necessary to weave a narrative thread with multiple intervening influences. In particular, against a background of continuous change in the local health system, the sustainability of the original vision and capacity for quality improvement was

  8. Incidence and case fatality rates of stroke subtypes in a multiethnic population: the South London Stroke Register

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, C; Rudd, A; Howard, R; Coshall, C; Stewart, J; Lawrence, E; Hajat, C; Hillen, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify sociodemographic differences in the incidence of the subtypes of first ever stroke in a multiethnic population. Methods: A prospective community stroke register (1995–8) was developed using multiple notification sources and pathological and clinical classifications of stroke. Standardisation of rates was to European and World populations and adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status in multivariate analyses. A multiethnic population of 234 533 in south London, of whom 21% are black was studied. Results: A total of 1254 cases were registered. The average age of stroke was 71.7 years with black patients being 11.3 years younger than white patients (p<0.0001). The incidence rate/1000 population was 1.33 (crude) (95% CI 1.26 to 1.41), 1.28 (European adjusted) (95% CI 1.2 to 1.35) with a 2.18 (95% CI 1.86 to 2.56) (p<0.0001) age and sex adjusted incidence rate ratio in the black population. Radiological diagnosis was confirmatory in 1107 (88.3%) with 862 (68.7%) infarction, 168 (13.4%) primary intracerebral haemorrhage, and 77 (6.2%) subarachnoid haemorrhage. Of the cerebral infarction cases 189 (21.9%) were total anterior circulatory, 250 (29%) partial anterior, 141 (16.4%) posterior (POCI) and 282 (32.7%) lacunar infarcts. The black group had a significantly higher incidence of all subtypes of stroke except for POCI and unclassified strokes. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for men compared with women was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19 to 1.50; p<0.001). The IRR for manual versus non-manual occupations in those aged 35–64 years was 1.64 (95%CI 1.22 to 2.23; p<0.0001). There was a borderline significant increase in adjusted survival at 6 months in the black group 95% (CI 0.61 to 1.03, p=0.078) with a hazard ratio of 0.79 after adjustment and stratification. Conclusions: Although the black population is at increased risk of stroke and most subtypes of stroke, this is not translated into significant differences in survival

  9. A validated methodology for the prediction of heating and cooling energy demand for buildings within the Urban Heat Island: Case-study of London

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokotroni, Maria; Bhuiyan, Saiful; Davies, Michael; Croxford, Ben; Mavrogianni, Anna

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method for predicting air temperatures within the Urban Heat Island at discreet locations based on input data from one meteorological station for the time the prediction is required and historic measured air temperatures within the city. It uses London as a case-study to describe the method and its applications. The prediction model is based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling and it is termed the London Site Specific Air Temperature (LSSAT) predictor. The temporal and spatial validity of the model was tested using data measured 8 years later from the original dataset; it was found that site specific hourly air temperature prediction provides acceptable accuracy and improves considerably for average monthly values. It thus is a very reliable tool for use as part of the process of predicting heating and cooling loads for urban buildings. This is illustrated by the computation of Heating Degree Days (HDD) and Cooling Degree Hours (CDH) for a West-East Transect within London. The described method could be used for any city for which historic hourly air temperatures are available for a number of locations; for example air pollution measuring sites, common in many cities, typically measure air temperature on an hourly basis. (author)

  10. Dispersion of odour: a case study with a municipal solid waste landfill site in North London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ujjaini; Hobbs, Stephen E; Longhurst, Philip

    2003-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are a potential source of offensive odours that can create annoyance within communities. Dispersion modelling was used to quantify the potential odour strength causing an impact on the community around a particular MSW landfill site north of the London area in the United Kingdom. The case studies were completed with the short-term mode of COMPLEX-I, software developed by the US-EPA. The year 1998 was chosen as a source of baseline data. It was observed that by 2004, when the landfill will progress towards the west and a big band of the area towards the north would be partly/fully restored, the maximum contribution of the new sources giving higher odour concentrations would be in the southwesterly regions away from the landfill. Concentrations as high as 25.0 ou(E)/m(3) were observed with 3 min averaging time in the southwesterly areas as compared to concentrations of 20.0 ou(E)/m(3) at 10 min averaging times. However, the percentage frequency of such critical events occurring would be low. All other surrounding farms and small villages would be exposed to the concentration of 3.0 ou(E)/m(3) on certain occasions. In the year 2008, the majority of the filling fronts would be filled with wastes with no contributions from the active and operational cells. The maximum odour concentration around the landfill site for 1 h averaging time would be approximately 3 ou(E)/m(3) about 1.0 km north and 500 m west of the landfill site. For 3 min averaging time, the stretch of 5 ou(E)/m(3) band would be up to 2.5 km towards the north of the landfill site. It is argued that further analysis of the model calculations considering effects of wind direction, frequency of wind direction, stability of the atmosphere, selected odour threshold, integration time of the model, etc. would form a basis for calculating the separation distances of the landfill site from the surrounding community.

  11. Use of psychotropics among looked after children: an audit in the Borough of Lambeth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Looked after children and young people (LAC) have higher incidence of mental health problems than non-looked after children. Many mental health difficulties are missed in this group, in particular the effects of trauma and loss and the resulting depression. LAC often move between placements, which further disrupts their care and therapeutic interventions. NICE recommends that in most mental health disorders, children and adolescents should receive specific psychological therapies as first-line treatment, before medication. This standard should apply to LAC. Setting The audit was conducted in the Lambeth CLAMHS, a specialist mental health team working with LAC. Question To ascertain if Lambeth LAC (living in the borough) are receiving psychotropic medication without CLAMHS input and as their only treatment. (All LAC who are on psychotropic medication should have been offered psychological treatments first.) Methods A questionnaire was sent out to Lambeth general practice (GP) surgeries to find out what medications children were prescribed, if any. When children were prescribed psychotropic medication checks were made to ascertain whether they were receiving input from mental health services. Results LAC were seen in 67 different GP surgeries across Lambeth. Responses from 63 surgeries relating to 145 children (87.34% of the total number) were received. Conclusions There were no LAC in Lambeth who were prescribed psychotropic medication without a CAMHS service being involved. All the patients that were on psychotropic medication were known by CLAMHS or another child and adolescent mental health service within the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. This is in accordance with NICE recommendations. PMID:25949619

  12. Use of psychotropics among looked after children: an audit in the Borough of Lambeth.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carmen; Barrett, Nadia

    2010-07-01

    Background Looked after children and young people (LAC) have higher incidence of mental health problems than non-looked after children. Many mental health difficulties are missed in this group, in particular the effects of trauma and loss and the resulting depression. LAC often move between placements, which further disrupts their care and therapeutic interventions. NICE recommends that in most mental health disorders, children and adolescents should receive specific psychological therapies as first-line treatment, before medication. This standard should apply to LAC. Setting The audit was conducted in the Lambeth CLAMHS, a specialist mental health team working with LAC. Question To ascertain if Lambeth LAC (living in the borough) are receiving psychotropic medication without CLAMHS input and as their only treatment. (All LAC who are on psychotropic medication should have been offered psychological treatments first.) Methods A questionnaire was sent out to Lambeth general practice (GP) surgeries to find out what medications children were prescribed, if any. When children were prescribed psychotropic medication checks were made to ascertain whether they were receiving input from mental health services. Results LAC were seen in 67 different GP surgeries across Lambeth. Responses from 63 surgeries relating to 145 children (87.34% of the total number) were received. Conclusions There were no LAC in Lambeth who were prescribed psychotropic medication without a CAMHS service being involved. All the patients that were on psychotropic medication were known by CLAMHS or another child and adolescent mental health service within the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. This is in accordance with NICE recommendations.

  13. Global sport mega-events and the politics of mobility: the case of the London 2012 Olympics.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Richard; Armstrong, Gary; Hales, Gavin; Hobbs, Dick

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the politics of mobility which surrounded the London 2012 Olympics. We provide a critical discussion of the mobility conflicts, problems and criticisms which emerged from our research with local people in the Stratford and wider Newham areas of London, where most Olympic events were located. The paper is divided into four broad parts. First, we identify and discuss the relevant components of the 'mobilities paradigm' in social science which underpin our analysis. Second, we briefly outline our research methods, centring particularly on fieldwork and interviews with different social groups. Third, we examine in detail the six main themes of mobility politics which were evident at London 2012, relating to social context, event construction, event mobility systems, commercial mobilities, the mobile politics of exclusion, and contested modes of mobility. In doing so, we seek to extend the mobilities paradigm by introducing various concepts and keywords - notably on the three-speed city, entryability, mobility panics, instrumental mobility, and corporate kettling - which may be utilized by social scientists to examine mobility systems in other social contexts. We conclude by reaffirming the significance of mobility-focused research at sport and other mega-events, and by indicating future lines of inquiry for social scientists.

  14. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  15. Outbreak investigation and case-control study: penta-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 associated with biltong in London in 2008.

    PubMed

    Mindlin, M J; Lang, N; Maguire, H; Walsh, B; Verlander, N Q; Lane, C; Taylor, C; Bishop, L A; Crook, P D

    2013-09-01

    In August 2008 an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 occurred in South West London. Sixteen cases were identified with a particular multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) pattern. In a matched case-control study 14 primary cases were included. These were defined as individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 isolated from a stool specimen, with a characteristic antibiotic resistance profile and MLVA pattern, and diagnosed in a local laboratory. Four controls per case were matched on age, gender and area of residence. Cases were 26 times more likely than controls to have eaten beef biltong, a South African speciality meat product (odds ratio 25·83, 95% confidence interval 4·92–135·59, P < 0·01). Although environmental investigation failed to identify Salmonella in the food product we conclude that beef biltong consumption led to this outbreak. This conclusion has importance in informing the ongoing risk assessment relating to uncontrolled foodstuffs.

  16. Air pollution and the incidence of ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke in the South London Stroke Register: a case-cross-over analysis.

    PubMed

    Butland, B K; Atkinson, R W; Crichton, S; Barratt, B; Beevers, S; Spiridou, A; Hoang, U; Kelly, F J; Wolfe, C D

    2017-07-01

    Few European studies investigating associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and incident stroke have considered stroke subtypes. Using information from the South London Stroke Register for 2005-2012, we investigated associations between daily concentrations of gaseous and particulate air pollutants and incident stroke subtypes in an ethnically diverse area of London, UK. Modelled daily pollutant concentrations based on a combination of measurements and dispersion modelling were linked at postcode level to incident stroke events stratified by haemorrhagic and ischaemic subtypes. The data were analysed using a time-stratified case-cross-over approach. Conditional logistic regression models included natural cubic splines for daily mean temperature and daily mean relative humidity, a binary term for public holidays and a sine-cosine annual cycle. Of primary interest were same day mean concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 and <10 µm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and NO2+nitrogen oxide (NOX). Our analysis was based on 1758 incident strokes (1311 were ischaemic and 256 were haemorrhagic). We found no evidence of an association between all stroke or ischaemic stroke and same day exposure to PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2 or NOX. For haemorrhagic stroke, we found a negative association with PM10 suggestive of a 14.6% (95% CI 0.7% to 26.5%) fall in risk per 10 µg/m(3) increase in pollutant. Using data from the South London Stroke Register, we found no evidence of a positive association between outdoor air pollution and incident stroke or its subtypes. These results, though in contrast to recent meta-analyses, are not inconsistent with the mixed findings of other UK studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. An Olympic Legacy? Does the urban regeneration associated with the London 2012 Olympic Games impact on adolescent mental health?

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Smuk, Melanie; Cummins, Steven; Eldridge, Sandra; Fahy, Amanda; Lewis, Daniel; Moore, Derek G; Smith, Neil; Taylor, Stephanie Jc; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2017-06-08

    Public expenditure on mega-events such as the London 2012 Olympic Games is often justified by the potential legacy of urban regeneration and its associated health and wellbeing benefits for local communities. The ORiEL (Olympic Regeneration in East London) study examined whether urban regeneration associated with the 2012 Games was associated with improved mental health. Adolescents aged 11-12 years attending schools in the Olympic host London Borough of Newham or in three adjacent comparison London Boroughs, completed a survey prior to the Olympic Games (2012) and six-months and 18-months after the Games (2013 and 2014, respectively). Change in depressive symptoms and wellbeing between baseline and each follow-up were examined. 2254 adolescents from 25 randomly selected schools participated. Adolescents from the Olympic host borough were more likely to have 'remained depressed' between baseline and the six-month and 18-month follow-ups (Relative Risk = 1.78, 95%CI 1.12-2.83; Relative Risk = 1.93, 95%CI 1.01-3.70), compared with adolescents from the comparison boroughs. No differences in wellbeing were observed. There was very little evidence that urban regeneration had any positive influence on adolescent mental health and some suggestion regeneration may have been associated with maintenance of depressive symptoms. Such programmes may have limited short-term impact on the mental health of adolescents. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  19. Can Social Support Protect Bullied Adolescents from Adverse Outcomes? A Prospective Study on the Effects of Bullying on the Educational Achievement and Mental Health of Adolescents at Secondary Schools in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to…

  20. Can Social Support Protect Bullied Adolescents from Adverse Outcomes? A Prospective Study on the Effects of Bullying on the Educational Achievement and Mental Health of Adolescents at Secondary Schools in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to…

  1. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  2. The effects of severe iron-deficiency anaemia on maternal and neonatal outcomes: A case-control study in an inner-city London hospital.

    PubMed

    Luis, J; Fadel, M G; Lau, G Y; Houssein, S; Ravikumar, N; Yoong, W

    2016-05-01

    This case-control study investigates the effects of severe iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes in a relatively deprived inner-city population in a North London hospital. The study group comprised of 106 women with haemoglobin (Hb) < 8 g/dl at any point during pregnancy, while controls were 106 women with Hb > 11 g/dl throughout pregnancy. The study group lost an average of 80 ml more blood at delivery (p = 0.032) and had higher rates of postpartum haemorrhage than the control group (27 vs 12 patients, p = 0.012). However, anaemia did not appear to influence other maternal or neonatal outcomes; these may have been confounded by antenatal intervention with oral haematinics or blood transfusion.

  3. The economic benefits of reducing the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) near primary schools: The case of London.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Carla; Chatzidiakou, Lia; Cairns, John; Mumovic, Dejan

    2016-10-01

    Providing a healthy school environment is a priority for child health. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology that allows quantification of the potential economic benefit of reducing indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in children attending primary schools. Using environmental and health data collected in primary schools in London, this study estimates that, on average, 82 asthma exacerbations per school can be averted each year by reducing outdoor NO2 concentrations. The study expands upon previous analyses in two ways: first it assesses the health benefits of reducing children's exposure to indoor NO2 while at school, second it considers the children's perspective in the economic evaluation. Using a willingness to pay approach, the study quantifies that the monetary benefits of reducing children's indoor NO2 exposure while at school would range between £2.5 k per school if a child's perspective based on child's budget is adopted up to £60 k if a parent's perspective is considered. This study highlights that designers, engineers, policymakers and stakeholders need to consider the reduction of outdoor pollution, and particularly NO2 levels, near primary schools as there may be substantial health and monetary benefits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Flood-inundation maps for the Saddle River from Upper Saddle River Borough to Saddle River Borough, New Jersey, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Kara M.; Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 4.1-mile reach of the Saddle River from 0.6 miles downstream from the New Jersey-New York State boundary in Upper Saddle River Borough to 0.2 miles downstream from the East Allendale Road bridge in Saddle River Borough, New Jersey, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to select water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01390450, Saddle River at Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01390450. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations (in effect March 2013) at USGS streamgage 01390450, Saddle River at Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, and documented high-water marks from recent floods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine eight water-surface profiles for flood stages at 0.5-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from bankfull, 0.5 ft below NWS Action Stage, to the upper extent of the stage-discharge rating which is approximately 1 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. Action Stage is the stage which when reached

  5. Jack London's "White Fang."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westall, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Relates the kinds of reading done in childhood by a now distinguished writer, Robert Westall. Describes specifically how Jack London's novel, "White Fang," influenced the development of this writer. Narrates and comments on the action of the novel. (HB)

  6. The London Schools Planetarium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Jones, P.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the scientific activities conducted at the London Schools Planetarium by students of primary and secondary schools and of teacher colleges. Included is a table illustrating the astronomical background of student teachers. (CC)

  7. Materials modelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciudad, David

    2016-04-01

    Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.

  8. Prevalence of Low Physical Activity and Its Relation to Social Environment in Deprived Areas in the London Borough of Redbridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Ge; Renton, Adrian; Wall, Martin; Estacio, Emee; Cawley, Justine; Datta, Pratibha

    2011-01-01

    Achieving adequate levels of physical activity (PA) is important to maintain health and prevent chronic disease. The costs of inadequate physical activity to the NHS have been estimated at over a billion pounds annually. While socio-demographic characteristics such as age, sex and ethnicity have been reported to be associated with different levels…

  9. Prevalence of Low Physical Activity and Its Relation to Social Environment in Deprived Areas in the London Borough of Redbridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Ge; Renton, Adrian; Wall, Martin; Estacio, Emee; Cawley, Justine; Datta, Pratibha

    2011-01-01

    Achieving adequate levels of physical activity (PA) is important to maintain health and prevent chronic disease. The costs of inadequate physical activity to the NHS have been estimated at over a billion pounds annually. While socio-demographic characteristics such as age, sex and ethnicity have been reported to be associated with different levels…

  10. Erosion of cohesive shorelines: the contribution of shore platform downwearing. A case study on the London Clay, Kent coastline, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Cherith

    2017-04-01

    The most rapidly eroding cliffed shorelines in the United Kingdom are composed of semi-consolidated cohesive materials with extensive shore platforms fronting actively eroding cliffs. Research has focussed on understanding and measuring their cliff retreat rates rather than platform downwearing. Yet, irreversible platform downwearing is thought to be a primary cause of beach lowering, a key driver of cliff retreat and contributor of large volumes of fine-grained sediment to the coastal budget. Despite this, few direct measurements of clay platform downwearing exist and current understanding of the erosion mechanisms of cohesive shore platforms is limited. This paper presents downwearing rates, measured over a ten year period across a shore platform in London Clay at Warden Point, Isle of Sheppey, Kent, UK using the specially designed Traversing Erosion Beam. The platform is 300 m wide with a gradient of 0.5 degrees and is backed by 48 m high cliffs. A thin mixed-sediment beach, 8 - 20 m wide and 0.1 m deep, covers the landward edge of the platform. Mean annual downwearing, on the upper to lower mid-shore, 2005 - 2015, is 17.52 ± 2.88 mm/yr. The highest downwearing rate, 29.85 ± 5.21 mm/yr, was recorded on the upper platform. The location of maximum downwearing has varied between measurement periods and is not consistently on one part of the platform. Downwearing is greatest during the winter period and lower during the summer. The results provide evidence of the contribution that platform downwearing makes to cliff erosion and the coastal sediment budget. The findings will assist in the development both of models to enhance prediction of coastal retreat on cohesive shorelines and of strategies for their management and conservation.

  11. Recovering mental health across outdoor places in Richmond, London: Tuning, skill and narrative.

    PubMed

    Bierski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    Both scientific and popular discourses assume that the environment can exert an influence on human health. Drawing on anthropological research conducted alongside mental health activists in the United Kingdom, I discuss how people affected by mental health problems sought to recover by visiting outdoor places in the London Borough of Richmond. Their intentional movement and stillness in the world involved tuning and narrative orientation, which, over time, became skilled. Recovery from mental ill-health was not an outcome of merely being in a particular place, but rather emerged as an ongoing process of relearning how to live in and as part of the environment.

  12. 110. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 122.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  13. 111. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. Shaws Cove Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 122.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. 117. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Thames River Bridge. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4215, MP 124.09. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. Forecasting Influenza Outbreaks in Boroughs and Neighborhoods of New York City

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ideal spatial scale, or granularity, at which infectious disease incidence should be monitored and forecast has been little explored. By identifying the optimal granularity for a given disease and host population, and matching surveillance and prediction efforts to this scale, response to emergent and recurrent outbreaks can be improved. Here we explore how granularity and representation of spatial structure affect influenza forecast accuracy within New York City. We develop network models at the borough and neighborhood levels, and use them in conjunction with surveillance data and a data assimilation method to forecast influenza activity. These forecasts are compared to an alternate system that predicts influenza for each borough or neighborhood in isolation. At the borough scale, influenza epidemics are highly synchronous despite substantial differences in intensity, and inclusion of network connectivity among boroughs generally improves forecast accuracy. At the neighborhood scale, we observe much greater spatial heterogeneity among influenza outbreaks including substantial differences in local outbreak timing and structure; however, inclusion of the network model structure generally degrades forecast accuracy. One notable exception is that local outbreak onset, particularly when signal is modest, is better predicted with the network model. These findings suggest that observation and forecast at sub-municipal scales within New York City provides richer, more discriminant information on influenza incidence, particularly at the neighborhood scale where greater heterogeneity exists, and that the spatial spread of influenza among localities can be forecast. PMID:27855155

  16. The Library Haines Built: Best Small Library in America 2005--Haines Borough Public Library, Haines, AK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2005-01-01

    "Community involvement," the standard cliche, does not come close to capturing the spirit and action that have structured the building, programs, collections, and services of the Haines Borough Public Library (HBPL), AK. Those achievements make HBPL the winner of the first annual award for the Best Small Library in America, cosponsored…

  17. The Library Haines Built: Best Small Library in America 2005--Haines Borough Public Library, Haines, AK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2005-01-01

    "Community involvement," the standard cliche, does not come close to capturing the spirit and action that have structured the building, programs, collections, and services of the Haines Borough Public Library (HBPL), AK. Those achievements make HBPL the winner of the first annual award for the Best Small Library in America, cosponsored…

  18. Forecasting Influenza Outbreaks in Boroughs and Neighborhoods of New York City.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan; Olson, Donald R; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    The ideal spatial scale, or granularity, at which infectious disease incidence should be monitored and forecast has been little explored. By identifying the optimal granularity for a given disease and host population, and matching surveillance and prediction efforts to this scale, response to emergent and recurrent outbreaks can be improved. Here we explore how granularity and representation of spatial structure affect influenza forecast accuracy within New York City. We develop network models at the borough and neighborhood levels, and use them in conjunction with surveillance data and a data assimilation method to forecast influenza activity. These forecasts are compared to an alternate system that predicts influenza for each borough or neighborhood in isolation. At the borough scale, influenza epidemics are highly synchronous despite substantial differences in intensity, and inclusion of network connectivity among boroughs generally improves forecast accuracy. At the neighborhood scale, we observe much greater spatial heterogeneity among influenza outbreaks including substantial differences in local outbreak timing and structure; however, inclusion of the network model structure generally degrades forecast accuracy. One notable exception is that local outbreak onset, particularly when signal is modest, is better predicted with the network model. These findings suggest that observation and forecast at sub-municipal scales within New York City provides richer, more discriminant information on influenza incidence, particularly at the neighborhood scale where greater heterogeneity exists, and that the spatial spread of influenza among localities can be forecast.

  19. 77 FR 2972 - City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City and Borough of Sitka, Alaska, Alaska; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission o...

  20. The wrong London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Hugh; Tong, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Your article "Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize" (November 2009 pp6-7) incorrectly states that Charles Kao, who shared the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physics with Willard Boyle and George Smith, received his PhD from Imperial College London.

  1. The impact of market oriented reforms on choice and information: a case study of cataract surgery in outer London and Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Fotaki, M

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of market-oriented reforms was introduced into health care systems of the UK and Sweden, two exemplary cases of reliance on planned budgeting and integrated provision of services. In the pursuit of increased efficiency, several County Councils in Sweden have followed the public competition model, while in the UK internal market reforms were introduced. It was expected that the separation of functions of planners and purchasers from those of providers, which were to be freely chosen by the former, would achieve higher allocative efficiency but also enhance users' satisfaction with care. This paper uses cataract surgery as a case study to trace the impact of competition among providers on choice and information. Qualitative research methods were employed to record the perception of changes in their type and amount as it was given to both purchasers and patients. A set of open ended and standardised questionnaires was designed to elicit the views of all actors involved and to measure the likely transformations. Four study sites from Outer London were selected representing the diversity of responses, and the only existing large provider of eye services to Stockholm County Council was used. The analysis of the data showed that the quasi-market reforms have resulted in a change of attitude of providers. Some improvements in the amount and type of information given to purchasers and patients could also be detected, although as far as direct users were concerned, the demand has not been fully satisfied. However, the impact on choice available to patients and purchasers alike seemed to be adverse, an effect that was particularly strong in the UK case.

  2. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  3. War, exile, moral knowledge and the limits of psychiatric understanding: a clinical case study of a Bosnian refugee in London.

    PubMed

    Summerfield, Derek

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes a Bosnian refugee, a survivor of war and ethnic cleansing, during a 3-year follow-up in a psychiatry clinic. This case throws light on the tension between medicotherapeutic and sociomoral ways of understanding the effects of such experiences, and of the limitations of morally and politically neutral psychiatric categories and technologies. Suffering always invokes questions of values: in this case the clinical picture represented a moral protest at what had been done with such impunity, and a refusal to accommodate to a world which now seemed unintelligible. The clinical picture also embodied the collective outrage, and sense of unfinished business, which many back in Bosnia itself were carrying in the wake of the 1995 Dayton peace accords which effectively legitimised the lines of ethnic cleansing. DSM or ICD diagnoses of depressive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder turned out to lack validity and explanatory power. Claims that victims of war and atrocity typically have an unmet need for mental health services are overstated. Recovery from the effects of war may depend on reestablishing a sense of intelligibility, a task that must primarily go on in social space rather than mental space.

  4. Use of Earth Observation in Support of Major Sport Events: Case Study for the Athens, Beijing and London Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Huili; Zhao, Wenhui; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenji

    2013-01-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (IPM) is one of the principal pollutants in Beijing. Sand weather in spring and winter seasons partly because of regional airflow, in most cases it is results from autochthonic pollution, especially in heating season of winter. In this paper, the law of temporal spatial distribution of IPM and the relationship between IPM and influence factors were studied combing RS techniques with ground-based monitoring. The change of underlying surface which were obtained from high resolution Remote Sensing images in different periods was analyzed; the content of different diameter of particles were collected by ground observation instrument and chemical composition were analyzed; the relationship of distribution of IPM and underlying surface was studied using spatial analysis of GIS. The results indicate that the pollution distribution of IPM has a very close relation with underlying surface, man-made pollution sources, population density and meteorological factors.

  5. Space-Time Analysis of Crime Patterns in Central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Williams, D.

    2012-07-01

    Crime continues to cast a shadow over citizen well-being in big cities today, while also imposing huge economic and social costs. Timely understanding of how criminality emerges and how crime patterns evolve is crucial to anticipating crime, dealing with it when it occurs and developing public confidence in the police service. Every day, about 10,000 crime incidents are reported by citizens, recorded and geo-referenced in the London Metropolitan Police Service Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) database. The unique nature of this dataset allows the patterns to be explored at particularly fine temporal granularity and at multiple spatial resolutions. This study provides a framework for the exploratory spatio-temporal analysis of crime patterns that combines visual inquiry tools (interactive animations, space-time cubes and map matrices) with cluster analysis (spatial-temporal scan statistics and the self-organizing map). This framework is tested on the CAD dataset for the London Borough of Camden in March 2010. Patterns of crime through space and time are discovered and the clustering methods were evaluated on their ability to facilitate the discovery and interpretation of these patterns.

  6. Suicide on the London Underground System.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R; O'Donnell, I; Tranah, T

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an increase in the numbers of people jumping/falling in front of trains on the London Underground system. Case-fatality rates have fallen from 70% in the 1950s to 55% today. The proportion certified as suicide has fallen while the proportions certified as accidents or open verdicts have risen. There is unusual clustering of events at some stations which are adjacent to psychiatric units. The hypothesis that ease of access to London Underground stations may sometimes be a determinant of suicide is investigated.

  7. Atmospheric merger in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    At the invitation of Imperial College, the Laboratory for Planetary Atmospheres, University College London, will be integrated in August with the Atmospheric Physics Group to form a single teaching and research unit. The new group, to be located at Imperial College, will be headed by Garry Hunt.The new group will possess a balanced research program in the observational and interpretative aspects of atmospheric physics. The existing Imperial College group actively researches cumulonimbus dynamics and climate modeling.

  8. Resilience of Self-Organised and Top-Down Planned Cities--A Case Study on London and Beijing Street Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaqiu

    2015-01-01

    The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street networks then is evaluated in primal space and dual space by deactivating road links under random and intentional attack scenarios. The results show that the reliability of London street network differs from that of Beijing, which seems to rely more on its architecture and connectivity. It is found that top-down planned Beijing with its higher average degree in the dual space and assortativity in the primal space is more robust than self-organised London using the measures of maximum and second largest cluster size and network efficiency. The article offers an insight, from a network perspective, into the reliability of street patterns in self-organised and top-down planned city systems.

  9. Resilience of Self-Organised and Top-Down Planned Cities—A Case Study on London and Beijing Street Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaqiu

    2015-01-01

    The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street networks then is evaluated in primal space and dual space by deactivating road links under random and intentional attack scenarios. The results show that the reliability of London street network differs from that of Beijing, which seems to rely more on its architecture and connectivity. It is found that top-down planned Beijing with its higher average degree in the dual space and assortativity in the primal space is more robust than self-organised London using the measures of maximum and second largest cluster size and network efficiency. The article offers an insight, from a network perspective, into the reliability of street patterns in self-organised and top-down planned city systems. PMID:26682551

  10. Controls of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, C.; Famulari, D.; Phillips, G. J.; Barlow, J. F.; Wood, C. R.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Nemitz, E.

    2011-03-01

    Eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were taken continuously between October 2006 and May 2008 at 190 m height in central London (UK) to quantify emissions and study their controls. Inner London, with a population of 8.2 million (~5000 inhabitants per km2) is heavily built up with 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs. CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). The measurement period allowed investigation of both diurnal patterns and seasonal trends. Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be correlated with traffic but also exhibited an inverse dependency on atmospheric stability in the near-neutral range, with higher fluxes coinciding with unstable stratification during most seasons and perhaps reflecting how changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity controlled the seasonal variability. Despite measurements being taken at ca. 22 times the mean building height, coupling with street level was adequate, especially during daytime. Night-time saw a higher occurrence of stable or neutral stratification, especially in autumn and winter, which resulted in data loss in post-processing and caused the tower to become decoupled from street level. CO2 fluxes observed at night were not always correlated with traffic counts, probably reflecting this decoupling, but also the fact that at night heating was always a larger source than traffic. No significant difference was found between the annual estimate of net exchange of CO2 for the expected measurement footprint and the values derived from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI), with daytime fluxes differing by only 3%. This agreement with NAEI data also supported the use of the simple flux footprint model which was applied to the London site; this also suggests that individual roughness elements did not significantly affect the measurements due

  11. Controls of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, C.; Famulari, D.; Phillips, G. J.; Barlow, J. F.; Wood, C. R.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Nemitz, E.

    2010-10-01

    Eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes were taken semi-continuously between October 2006 and May 2008 at 190 m height in central London (UK) to quantify emissions and study their controls. Inner London, with a population of 8.2 million (~5000 inhabitants per km2) is heavily built up with 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs. CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). The measurement period allowed investigation of both diurnal patterns and seasonal trends. Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity that controlled the seasonal variability. Despite measurements being taken at ca. 22 times the mean building height, coupling with street level was adequate, especially during daytime. Night-time saw a higher occurrence of stable or neutral stratification, especially in autumn and winter, which resulted in data loss in post-processing. No significant difference was found between the annual estimate of net exchange of CO2 for the expected measurement footprint and the values derived from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI), with daytime fluxes differing by only 3%. This agreement with NAEI data also supported the use of the simple flux footprint model which was applied to the London site; this also suggests that individual roughness elements did not significantly affect the measurements due to the large ratio of measurement height to mean building height.

  12. “If We Build It, Will It Stay?” A Case Study of the Sustainability of Whole-System Change in London

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Macfarlane, Fraser; Barton-Sweeney, Catherine; Woodard, Fran

    2012-01-01

    Context The long-term sustainability of whole-system change programs is rarely studied, and when it is, it is inevitably undertaken in a shifting context, thereby raising epistemological and methodological questions. This article describes a transferable methodology that was developed to guide the evaluation of a three-year follow-up of a large health care change program in London, which took place during a period of economic turbulence and rapid policy change. Method Using a mixed-method organizational case study design, we studied three services (stroke, kidney, and sexual health) across primary and secondary care. Each had received £5 million (US$7.8 million) in modernization funding in 2004. In 2010/2011, we gathered data on the services and compared them with data from 2004 to 2008. The new data set contained quantitative statistics (access, process, and outcome metrics), qualitative interviews with staff and patients, documents, and field notes. Our data analysis was informed by two complementary models of sustainability: intervention-focused (guided by the question, What, if anything, of the original program has been sustained?) and system-dynamic (guided by the question, How and why did change unfold as it did in this complex system?). Findings Some but not all services introduced in the original transformation effort of 2004–2008 were still running; others had ceased or been altered substantially to accommodate contextual changes (e.g., in case mix, commissioning priorities, or national policies). Key cultural changes (e.g., quality improvement, patient centeredness) largely persisted, and innovative ideas and practices had spread elsewhere. To draw causal links between the original program and current activities and outcomes, it was necessary to weave a narrative thread with multiple intervening influences. In particular, against a background of continuous change in the local health system, the sustainability of the original vision and capacity for

  13. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  14. Are Londoners Prepared for an Emergency? A Longitudinal Study Following the London Bombings

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, James; Amlôt, Richard; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The UK government sees increasing individual preparedness as a priority, but the level of preparedness of people in the UK for a large-scale emergency is not known. The London bombings of July 7, 2005, affected many Londoners and may have altered their sense of vulnerability to a future terrorist attack. We used a longitudinal study design to assess individual preparedness within the same sample of Londoners at 2 points in time: immediately after the bombings (T1) and 7 to 8 months later (T2). A demographically representative sample of 1,010 Londoners participated in a phone interview at T1. Subsequently, at T2, 574 of the same people participated in a follow-up phone interview. At T1 51% of Londoners had made 4 or more relevant emergency plans; 48% had gathered 4 or more relevant supplies in case of emergency. There was evidence of increased preparedness at T2, by which time 90% had made 4 or more emergency plans. Ethnicity, low social status, and having felt a sense of threat during the bombings predicted increased preparedness between T1 and T2. Women in general, and women of low social status in particular, perceived themselves to be unprepared in the event of a future terrorist attack. In summary, Londoners show moderate levels of emergency preparedness, which increased following the London bombings. Although we cannot know whether this association is causal, the prospective nature of the study increases the likelihood that it is. However, preparedness is still patchy, and there are important demographic associations with levels of preparedness and perception of vulnerability. These findings have implications for future development of individual and community emergency preparedness policy. PMID:19117430

  15. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K; Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  16. Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: A case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Asase, Mizpah; Yanful, Ernest K. Mensah, Moses; Stanford, Jay; Amponsah, Samuel

    2009-10-15

    Integrated waste management has been accepted as a sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region. It can be applied in both developed and developing countries. The difference is the approach taken to develop the integrated waste management system. This review looks at the integrated waste management system operating in the city of London, Ontario-Canada and how lessons can be drawn from the system's development and operation that will help implement a sustainable waste management system in the city of Kumasi, Ghana. The waste management system in London is designed such that all waste generated in the city is handled and disposed of appropriately. The responsibility of each sector handling waste is clearly defined and monitored. All major services are provided and delivered by a combination of public and private sector forces. The sustainability of the waste management in the city of London is attributed to the continuous improvement strategy framework adopted by the city based on the principles of integrated waste management. It is perceived that adopting a strategic framework based on the principles of integrated waste management with a strong political and social will, can transform the current waste management in Kumasi and other cities in developing countries in the bid for finding lasting solutions to the problems that have plagued the waste management system in these cities.

  17. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  18. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  19. London International Youth Science Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  20. Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Katherine; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Watson, Conall; Baguelin, Marc; Choga, Lethiwe; Patel, Anika; Raj, Thara; Jit, Mark; Griffiths, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design We analysed 2013–2015 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–2015 ImmForm general practitioner (GP) reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs and opinions about the programme. We conducted an online survey of London GPs to assess vaccine choice of vaccine and opinions about the pharmacy vaccine delivery programme. Setting All London boroughs. Participants London-based GPs, and pharmacies that currently offer seasonal flu vaccination. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Comparison of annual vaccine uptake in London across risk groups from years before pharmacy vaccination introduction to after pharmacy vaccination introduction. Completeness of vaccine uptake reporting data. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of flu vaccine delivery at pharmacies with that at GPs. Cost to pharmacists of flu delivery. Opinions of pharmacists and GPs regarding the flu vaccine pharmacy initiative. Results No significant change in the uptake of seasonal vaccination in any of the risk groups as a result of the pharmacy initiative. While on average a pharmacy-administered flu vaccine dose costs the NHS up to £2.35 less than a dose administered at a GP, a comparison of the 2 recording systems suggests there is substantial loss of data. Conclusions Flu vaccine delivery through pharmacies shows potential for improving convenience for vaccine recipients. However, there is no evidence that vaccination uptake increases and the use of 2 separate recording systems leads to time-consuming data entry and missing vaccine record data. PMID:26883237

  1. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    roadside monitoring sites was higher than at urban background locations. In the PM10 samples this increased oxidative activity appeared to be associated with increased concentrations of copper (Cu), barium (Ba), and bathophenanthroline disulfonate-mobilized iron (BPS Fe) in the roadside samples. In the PM2.5 samples, no simple association could be seen, suggesting that other unmeasured components were driving the increased oxidative potential in this fraction of the roadside samples. These data suggest that two components were contributing to the oxidative potential of roadside PM, namely Cu and BPS Fe in the coarse fraction of PM (PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm to 10 microm; PM(2.5-10)) and an unidentified redox catalyst in PM2.5. The data derived for this baseline study confirmed key observations from a more limited spatial mapping exercise published in our earlier HEI report on the introduction of the London's Congestion Charging Scheme (CCS) in 2003 (Kelly et al. 2011a,b). In addition, the data set in the current report provided robust baseline information on the oxidative potential and metal content of PM found in the London airshed in the period before implementation of the LEZ; the finding that a proportion of the oxidative potential appears in the PM coarse mode and is apparently related to brake wear raises important issues regarding the nature of traffic management schemes. The final goal of this baseline study was to establish the feasibility, in ethical and operational terms, of using the U.K.'s electronic primary-care records to evaluate the effects of the LEZ on human health outcomes. Data on consultations and prescriptions were compiled from a pilot group of general practices (13 distributed across London, with 100,000 patients; 29 situated in the inner London Borough of Lambeth, with 200,000 patients). Ethics approvals were obtained to link individual primary-care records to modeled NOx concentrations by means of post-codes. (To preserve

  2. Aircraft noise and cardiovascular disease near Heathrow airport in London: small area study.

    PubMed

    Hansell, Anna L; Blangiardo, Marta; Fortunato, Lea; Floud, Sarah; de Hoogh, Kees; Fecht, Daniela; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Laszlo, Helga E; Pearson, Clare; Beale, Linda; Beevers, Sean; Gulliver, John; Best, Nicky; Richardson, Sylvia; Elliott, Paul

    2013-10-08

    To investigate the association of aircraft noise with risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease in the general population. Small area study. 12 London boroughs and nine districts west of London exposed to aircraft noise related to Heathrow airport in London. About 3.6 million residents living near Heathrow airport. Risks for hospital admissions were assessed in 12 110 census output areas (average population about 300 inhabitants) and risks for mortality in 2378 super output areas (about 1500 inhabitants). Risk of hospital admissions for, and mortality from, stroke, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular disease, 2001-05. Hospital admissions showed statistically significant linear trends (P<0.001 to P<0.05) of increasing risk with higher levels of both daytime (average A weighted equivalent noise 7 am to 11 pm, L(Aeq),16 h) and night time (11 pm to 7 am, Lnight) aircraft noise. When areas experiencing the highest levels of daytime aircraft noise were compared with those experiencing the lowest levels (>63 dB v ≤ 51 dB), the relative risk of hospital admissions for stroke was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.43), for coronary heart disease was 1.21 (1.12 to 1.31), and for cardiovascular disease was 1.14 (1.08 to 1.20) adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, and a smoking proxy (lung cancer mortality) using a Poisson regression model including a random effect term to account for residual heterogeneity. Corresponding relative risks for mortality were of similar magnitude, although with wider confidence limits. Admissions for coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease were particularly affected by adjustment for South Asian ethnicity, which needs to be considered in interpretation. All results were robust to adjustment for particulate matter (PM10) air pollution, and road traffic noise, possible for London boroughs (population about 2.6 million). We could not distinguish between the effects of daytime or night time

  3. Who is more likely to use doctor-rating websites, and why? A cross-sectional study in London.

    PubMed

    Galizzi, Matteo Maria; Miraldo, Marisa; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Desai, Mihir; Jayatunga, Wikum; Joshi, Mitesh; Parikh, Sunny

    2012-01-01

    To explore the extent to which doctor-rating websites are known and used among a sample of respondents from London. To understand the main predictors of what makes people willing to use doctor-rating websites. A cross-sectional study. The Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, London, England. 200 individuals from the borough. The likelihood of being aware of doctor-rating websites and the intention to use doctor-rating websites. The use and awareness of doctor-rating websites are still quite limited. White British subjects, as well as respondents with higher income are less likely to use doctor-rating websites. Aspects of the doctor-patient relationship also play a key role in explaining intention to use the websites. The doctor has both a 'complementary' and 'substitute' role with respect to Internet information. Online rating websites can play a major role in supporting patients' informed decisions on which healthcare providers to seek advice from, thus potentially fostering patients' choice in healthcare. Subjects who seek and provide feedback on doctor-ranking websites, though, are unlikely to be representative of the overall patients' pool. In particular, they tend to over-represent opinions from non-White British, medium-low-income patients who are not satisfied with their choice of the healthcare treatments and the level of information provided by their GP. Accounting for differences in the users' characteristics is important when interpreting results from doctor-rating sites.

  4. Looking into 'London'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the microscopic imager on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rock abrasion tool target, 'London.' The image was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on its 149th sol on Mars (June 24, 2004). Scientists 'read' the geology of the image from bottom to top, with the youngest material pictured at the bottom of the image and the oldest material in the layers pictured at the top. Millimeter-scale layers run horizontally across the exposed surface, with two sliced sphere-like objects, or 'blueberries' on the upper left and upper right sides of the impression. This material is similar to the evaporative material found in 'Eagle Crater.' However, the intense review of these layers in Endurance Crater is, in essence, deepening the water story authored by ancient Mars.

    In Eagle Crater, the effects of water were traced down a matter of centimeters. Endurance Crater's depth has allowed the tracing of water's telltale marks up to meters. Another process that significantly affects martian terrain is muddying the water story a bit. Although it is clear that the layers in Endurance were affected by water, it is also evident that Aeolian, or wind, processes have contributed to the makeup of the crater.

  5. Ethnic variations in orthodontic treatment need in London schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, Mhd Nour; Bedi, Raman; Foster, Claire; Jopanputra, Pooja; Allan, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Background The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of orthodontic treatment need in children from minority ethnic groups and compare the need to the white population. The second objective was to explore variations in agreement between subjective and objective treatment need in a multiethnic context using the aesthetic component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN AC). Methods A cross-sectional study in North West London, 14 schools were randomly selected from the 27 schools in the two boroughs of Harrow and Hillingdon. Comparison between objective and subjective treatment need was carried out using IOTN AC index. Clinical orthodontic treatment need was also recorded using the dental health component of Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN DHC). Results 2,788 children were examined and completed the questionnaire. 16% of the study population were already wearing appliances or had finished orthodontic treatment. Of the remaining children; 15% had definite need for treatment using the dental health component of the IOTN. There was no significant variation in the need for orthodontic treatment between different ethnic backgrounds (P > 0.05) whether using the AC or DHC components of the IOTN index. However, poor agreement was detected between professional and subjective assessment of ethnic minority of orthodontic treatment need using IOTN AC index. Conclusion Orthodontic treatment need in children of ethnic minorities does not differ significantly from the vast majority of white children. However treatment need based on aesthetic index continues to vary in all ethnic groups from the professional aesthetic assessment PMID:16188024

  6. Flood-inundation maps for the Saddle River in Ho-Ho-Kus Borough, the Village of Ridgewood, and Paramus Borough, New Jersey, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Kara M.; Niemoczynski, Michal J.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the Saddle River in New Jersey from Hollywood Avenue in Ho-Ho-Kus Borough downstream through the Village of Ridgewood and Paramus Borough to the confluence with Hohokus Brook in the Village of Ridgewood were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Saddle River at Ridgewood, New Jersey (station 01390500). Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01390500 or at the National Weather Services (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?wfo=okx&gage=rwdn4. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation (March 11, 2011) at the USGS streamgage 01390500, Saddle River at Ridgewood, New Jersey. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from 5 ft, the NWS “action and minor flood stage”, to 14 ft, which is the maximum extent of the stage-discharge rating and 0.6 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system 3-meter (9.84-ft) digital elevation model derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data in order to delineate the area flooded

  7. Inequalities in the use of dental services among adults in inner South East London.

    PubMed

    Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Klass, Charlotte; Jones, Kate; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2013-06-01

    Improving access to National Health Service (NHS) dentistry is a public health issue that has been a focus for successive governments and policy makers in the UK. To inform this process, commissioners of services need to understand trends in service use and demands of the local population. This study explored inequalities in dental services use among adults in a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London; satisfaction with services; and public views for improvement of services. Data from 695 adults were analysed for this study (56% of the eligible sample). Inequalities in dental services use and satisfaction with care according to sociodemographic factors were assessed in unadjusted and fully adjusted models. The proportion of participants who reported attending the dentist in the last 24 months was 69%, with inequalities according to social grade, ethnicity, sex and age but not according to borough of residence. The most common areas identified by respondents for service improvement were availability of dentists, affordability of care, and accommodation of services. Among those who visited the dentist in the last 24 months, 90% were satisfied with the quality of care provided. However, there were inequalities in satisfaction with care according to borough and reason for the last dental visit. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Participants Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250 000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Findings to date Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Future plans Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20 000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume

  9. Predictors of care home and hospital admissions and their costs for older people with Alzheimer's disease: findings from a large London case register

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Martin; Chua, Kia-Chong; Broadbent, Matthew; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Fernandez, Jose-Luis; Milea, Dominique; Romeo, Renee; Lovestone, Simon; Spencer, Michael; Thompson, Gwilym; Stewart, Robert; Hayes, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine links between clinical and other characteristics of people with Alzheimer's disease living in the community, likelihood of care home or hospital admission, and associated costs. Design Observational data extracted from clinical records using natural language processing and Hospital Episode Statistics. Statistical analyses examined effects of cognition, physical health, mental health, sociodemographic factors and living circumstances on risk of admission to care home or hospital over 6 months and associated costs, adjusting for repeated observations. Setting Catchment area for South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust, provider for 1.2 million people in Southeast London. Participants Every individual with diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease seen and treated by mental health services in the catchment area, with at least one rating of cognition, not resident in care home at time of assessment (n=3075). Interventions Usual treatment. Main outcome measures Risk of admission to, and days spent in three settings during 6-month period following routine clinical assessment: care home, mental health inpatient care and general hospital inpatient care. Results Predictors of probability of care home or hospital admission and/or associated costs over 6 months include cognition, functional problems, agitation, depression, physical illness, previous hospitalisations, age, gender, ethnicity, living alone and having a partner. Patterns of association differed considerably by destination. Conclusions Most people with dementia prefer to remain in their own homes, and funding bodies see this as cheaper than institutionalisation. Better treatment in the community that reduces health and social care needs of Alzheimer's patients would reduce admission rates. Living alone, poor living circumstances and functional problems all raise admission rates, and so major cuts in social care budgets increase the risk of high-cost admissions which older

  10. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  11. 76 FR 66714 - City and Borough of Sitka, AK; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City and Borough of Sitka, AK; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On September 1, 2011, and supplemented on October 17,...

  12. D Modelling of the Lusatian Borough in Biskupin Using Archival Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawieska, D.; Markiewicz, J. S.; Kopiasz, J.; Tazbir, J.; Tobiasz, A.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the results of 3D modelling in the Lusatian Borough, Biskupin, using archival data. Pre-war photographs acquired from different heights, e.g., from a captive balloon (maximum height up to 150 m), from a blimp (at a height of 50-110 m) and from an aeroplane (at a height of 200 m, 300 m and up to 3 km). In order to generate 3D models, AgiSoft tools were applied, as they allow for restoring shapes using triangular meshes. Individual photographs were processed using Google SketchUp software and the "shape from shadow" method. The usefulness of these particular models in archaeological research work was also analysed.

  13. Predicting the Probability of Conversion to Natural Gas in the Fairbanks Northstar Borough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, Jordan M.

    In 2013 a phone survey was conducted for Northern Economics Inc. by Ivan Moore Research Group, with the goal of determining the willingness of households in the Fairbanks North Star Borough to convert their residence to natural gas. This paper provides an analysis of prior household discrete choice experiments involving energy usage. Probit regression is used to determine the probability of conversion given different levels of household income, payback period, cost of conversion, and annual saving associated with conversion, in addition to these variables three statistically significant attitudinal variables are included. Marginal effects and elasticities are presented and interpreted. Findings are congruent with past research and indicate that to maximize the conversion rate of households, the cost of conversion needs to be minimized or, if possible, subsidized and the annual level of saving maximized. Initial results suggest conversion cost is weighed more heavily than annual savings.

  14. Mortality and the concentration of elements in tap water in county boroughs in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, P C; St Leger, A S; Morton, M

    1977-01-01

    To explain the associations of water hardness and air temperature with area differences in ischaemic heart disease mortality, samples of tap water were obtained from homes in 61 county boroughs in England and Wales, and the concentration of calcium and 12 other elements was estimated. Multiple regressions were calculated with the death rates from various causes as dependent variables and with the concentration of the elements in the tap water, mean annual temperature, mean annual rainfall, and a socioeconomic index as independent variables. The well known negative association between water hardness and ischaemic heart disease was shown to be due to calcium, and none of 12 other elements examined appeared to contribute significantly to the association. Area differences in other causes of death also showed an association with calcium. There was little association between temperature and ischaemic heart disease. PMID:588857

  15. No evidence of transmission from an acute case of hepatitis A in a foodhandler: follow-up of almost 1,000 potentially exposed individuals, London, United Kingdom, April 2012.

    PubMed

    Hall, V; Abrahams, A; Turbitt, D; Cathcart, S; Maguire, H; Balasegaram, S

    2014-07-31

    Identification of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in a foodhandler in a London hotel led to a large incident response. We identified three potentially exposed groups: hotel staff who had regularly consumed food prepared by the case and shared toilet facilities with the case, patients who shared the same hospital ward as the case and hotel guests who consumed food prepared by the case. We arranged post-exposure HAV vaccination for all 83 potentially exposed hotel staff and all 17 patients. We emailed 887 guests advising them to seek medical care if symptomatic, but did not advise vaccination as it was too late to be effective for most guests. Through the International Health Regulations national focal points and the European Union Early warning and response system (EWRS), we communicated the details of the incident to public health agencies and potential risk of HAV transmission to international guests. Potentially exposed hotel staff and guests were asked to complete an online or telephone-administered questionnaire 50 days following possible exposure, to identify any secondary cases. Survey response was low, with 155 responses from guests and 33 from hotel staff. We identified no secondary cases of HAV infection through follow-up.

  16. London dispersion forces by range-separated hybrid density functional with second order perturbational corrections: the case of rare gas complexes.

    PubMed

    Gerber, I C; Angyán, J G

    2007-01-28

    A satisfactory account of the van der Waals (vdW) (London dispersion) forces is, in general not possible by the Kohn-Sham method using standard local, semilocal generalized gradient approximation (GGA), or meta-GGA density functionals. The recently proposed range-separated hybrid (RSH) approach, supplemented by second order perturbational corrections (MP2) to include long-range dynamic correlation effects, offers a physically consistent, seamless description of dispersion forces. It is based on a rigorous generalization of the Kohn-Sham method, where long-range exchange and correlation effects are treated by wave function methods, while short-range electron exchange and correlation are handled by local or semilocal functionals. The method is tested on a series of rare gas dimers in comparison with standard wave function theory and density functional theory approaches. In contrast to the most successful exchange correlation functionals, which describe at best the vdW minimum, the RSH+MP2 approach is valid also in the asymptotic region and the potential curve displays the correct 1/R(6) behavior at large internuclear separations. In contrast to usual MP2 calculations, the basis set superposition error is considerably reduced, making RSH+MP2 an ideal tool for exploring the potential energy surface of weakly bound molecular complexes.

  17. The epidemiology of suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R D

    1994-02-01

    A database containing details of every incident of suicidal behaviour on the London Underground railway system between 1940 and 1990 was assembled from the records of London Underground Ltd and the British Transport Police. The total number of cases was 3240. The mean annual number of suicidal acts on the London Underground system increased from 36.1 (1940-1949) to 94.1 (1980-1989). There were significantly fewer incidents on Sundays than on the other days of the week and the daily rate was highest in the spring. 64% of incidents involved males and the peak age group for both sexes was 25-34 yr. Suicide verdicts were returned for a greater proportion of women than men. Overall case fatality was 55%. However, case fatality rates differed between stations, environmental factors appearing to influence survival. Possible strategies to prevent railway suicides and reduce the lethality of this method are discussed.

  18. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource.

    PubMed

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250,000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20,000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume and depth of data. However, research projects still

  19. London through a Biologist's Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    A professor of biology discovered that the people who are in literature rather than science, saw the same readings very differently and were looking for very different things like how nature writings expressed the author's views on nature, or what they communicated about the human experience of the living world. Further he visits London to see the…

  20. London's Tutorial Classes; An Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, F. G.

    1970-01-01

    Growth during the 1960s in the number and scope of tutorial classes by the London University Department of Extra-Mural Studies is attributed to considerable help from voluntary personnel, emphasis on written work, and other factors potentially signficant to extension education elsewhere in Britain. (LY)

  1. Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, C; Roberts, I; Speirs, N

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area. Cross sectional study. 40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs. Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate. Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing. 39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5). Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.

  2. Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Speirs, N.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
SETTING—40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs.
PARTICIPANTS—Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing.
RESULTS—39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5).
CONCLUSIONS—Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.

 PMID:10519711

  3. Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in preschool children attending day care in London.

    PubMed

    Roche, Anita; Heath, Paul T; Sharland, Mike; Strachan, David; Breathnach, Aodhan; Haigh, John; Young, Yvonne

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and describe the antibiotic resistance patterns and serotypes in young children attending group day care in London. Cross-sectional survey of attendees at a sample of registered child day care centres (CDCCs) in a London borough. Urban setting with a socially and culturally diverse population. 19 CDCCs (13% of total) participated between March and November 2003. A single NP swab was required from each child, and parents completed a questionnaire about their child's health and attendance at day care. WHO methodology for pneumococcal carriage studies was followed. 30% of parents consented. 234 swabs were collected from children aged 6 months to 5 years. 53% were boys and 81% were white. 120 children (51%, 95% CI 45% to 58%) carried pneumococci in their nasopharynx. None of the isolates were resistant to penicillin (upper CL 3%). 21 isolates were resistant to erythromycin (17.5%, 95% CI 11% to 25.5%). 68 isolates (57%) were serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. Non-white children had a lower prevalence of carriage (27% vs 58%). The prevalence of pneumococcal NP carriage was high. The penicillin resistance rate is lower than in many other countries and may reflect a decrease in community antibiotic prescribing in the UK. Monitoring circulating serotypes is important in the context of recent changes to the vaccination policy. Further study is required to explore the association with ethnicity and risk factors for antibiotic resistance.

  4. "I don't know how I'm still standing" a Bakhtinian analysis of social housing and health narratives in East London.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C; Lewis, D J; Greenhalgh, T; Smith, N R; Fahy, A E; Cummins, S

    2017-03-01

    Housing is a significant determinant of health and substandard housing is a public health issue. East London has long had a shortage of social and affordable housing, worsened in recent years by a combination of stressors. In one of East London's most deprived boroughs, Newham, changes brought about by the 2011 Localism Act and the unique demands of being the host Olympic borough in 2012 have brought considerable pressures to bear on social infrastructure. This paper examines how these pressures were experienced by local residents via their narratives of social housing and health. The data reported here are from a qualitative study comprising two waves of data collection. Narrative family interviews and go-along interviews were conducted with 40 Newham residents at wave one and 28 at wave two. A narrative analysis with a Bakhtinian interpretation was undertaken. This revealed that residents framed experiences of social housing in terms of an inherent system-level ideology based on notions of need and waiting. A particularly striking feature of this ideology was the extent to which descriptions of ill health and impairment were implicated in constructions of housing need; participants directly attributed a range of health complaints to their housing predicaments, including stress, depression, cancer scares, panic attacks and loss of sleep. Understanding the contested ideology of social housing can illuminate both the dynamic processes of social exclusion and the ways in which its subjects seek to resist it.

  5. Simulations of flow and prediction of sediment movement in Wymans Run, Cochranton Borough, Crawford County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hittle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In small watersheds, runoff entering local waterways from large storms can cause rapid and profound changes in the streambed that can contribute to flooding. Wymans Run, a small stream in Cochranton Borough, Crawford County, experienced a large rain event in June 2008 that caused sediment to be deposited at a bridge. A hydrodynamic model, Flow and Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH), which is incorporated into the U.S. Geological Survey Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS) was constructed to predict boundary shear stress and velocity in Wymans Run using data from the June 2008 event. Shear stress and velocity values can be used to indicate areas of a stream where sediment, transported downstream, can be deposited on the streambed. Because of the short duration of the June 2008 rain event, streamflow was not directly measured but was estimated using U.S. Army Corps of Engineers one-dimensional Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). Scenarios to examine possible engineering solutions to decrease the amount of sediment at the bridge, including bridge expansion, channel expansion, and dredging upstream from the bridge, were simulated using the FaSTMECH model. Each scenario was evaluated for potential effects on water-surface elevation, boundary shear stress, and velocity.

  6. Fit for What? Special Education in London, 1890-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the implementation by the London School Board of special education for children designated 'feeble-minded' or 'mentally defective' in the period from 1890 to the passing of the Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act in 1914. Through an analysis of the choice of pedagogy for special schools,…

  7. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  8. Intussusception and the great smog of London, December 1952.

    PubMed

    Black, J

    2003-12-01

    To discuss the possible significance of the increased incidence of intussusception in children in relation to the "Great Smog" of London in December 1952. Cases of intussusception were recorded in two hospitals in East London for the years 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954. For 1952 the actual dates of admission were recorded. During the year 1952 the total number of cases of intussusception greatly exceeded that in the previous and succeeding years. Immediately during and after the fog there was a clustering of cases, which only occurred during this period. The increased incidence of cases during 1952 is thought to reflect the annual variation in incidence resulting from changes in the prevalence of viruses capable of causing intussusception. The clustering of cases in relation to the fog may reflect a facilitated entry of virus through the wall of the terminal ileum due to the effect of swallowed irritants such as sulphurous acid and smoke particles.

  9. Intussusception and the great smog of London, December 1952

    PubMed Central

    Black, J

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To discuss the possible significance of the increased incidence of intussusception in children in relation to the "Great Smog" of London in December 1952. Methods: Cases of intussusception were recorded in two hospitals in East London for the years 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954. For 1952 the actual dates of admission were recorded. Results: During the year 1952 the total number of cases of intussusception greatly exceeded that in the previous and succeeding years. Immediately during and after the fog there was a clustering of cases, which only occurred during this period. Conclusions: The increased incidence of cases during 1952 is thought to reflect the annual variation in incidence resulting from changes in the prevalence of viruses capable of causing intussusception. The clustering of cases in relation to the fog may reflect a facilitated entry of virus through the wall of the terminal ileum due to the effect of swallowed irritants such as sulphurous acid and smoke particles. PMID:14670763

  10. Who is more likely to use doctor-rating websites, and why? A cross-sectional study in London

    PubMed Central

    Galizzi, Matteo Maria; Miraldo, Marisa; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Desai, Mihir; Jayatunga, Wikum; Joshi, Mitesh; Parikh, Sunny

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore the extent to which doctor-rating websites are known and used among a sample of respondents from London. To understand the main predictors of what makes people willing to use doctor-rating websites. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, London, England. Participants 200 individuals from the borough. Main outcome measures The likelihood of being aware of doctor-rating websites and the intention to use doctor-rating websites. Results The use and awareness of doctor-rating websites are still quite limited. White British subjects, as well as respondents with higher income are less likely to use doctor-rating websites. Aspects of the doctor–patient relationship also play a key role in explaining intention to use the websites. The doctor has both a ‘complementary’ and ‘substitute’ role with respect to Internet information. Conclusions Online rating websites can play a major role in supporting patients’ informed decisions on which healthcare providers to seek advice from, thus potentially fostering patients’ choice in healthcare. Subjects who seek and provide feedback on doctor-ranking websites, though, are unlikely to be representative of the overall patients’ pool. In particular, they tend to over-represent opinions from non-White British, medium–low-income patients who are not satisfied with their choice of the healthcare treatments and the level of information provided by their GP. Accounting for differences in the users’ characteristics is important when interpreting results from doctor-rating sites. PMID:23148340

  11. Japan Biotech Forum: London 2010.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamahi, Asma

    2010-11-01

    The Japan Biotech Forum, held in London, included topics covering new licensing developments in the Japanese pharma and biotech industries. This conference report highlights selected presentations on licensing opportunities from several Japanese companies, including CanBas, LivTech, REGiMMUNE, D Western Therapeutics Institute and Chiome Bioscience. Investigational drugs discussed include CBP-501 (CanBas), LIV-2008 (LivTech), RGI-2001 (REGiMMUNE), IVX-214 (D Western Therapeutics Institute/ Nippon Shinyaku) and anti-Sema 3A (Chiome Bioscience).

  12. The Olympic Regeneration in East London (ORiEL) study: protocol for a prospective controlled quasi-experiment to evaluate the impact of urban regeneration on young people and their families

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Neil R; Clark, Charlotte; Fahy, Amanda E; Tharmaratnam, Vanathi; Lewis, Daniel J; Thompson, Claire; Renton, Adrian; Moore, Derek G; Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Eldridge, Sandra; Petticrew, Mark; Greenhalgh, Tricia; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Cummins, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Recent systematic reviews suggest that there is a dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of large-scale urban regeneration programmes in improving health and well-being and alleviating health inequalities. The development of the Olympic Park in Stratford for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games provides the opportunity to take advantage of a natural experiment to examine the impact of large-scale urban regeneration on the health and well-being of young people and their families. Design and methods A prospective school-based survey of adolescents (11–12 years) with parent data collected through face-to-face interviews at home. Adolescents will be recruited from six randomly selected schools in an area receiving large-scale urban regeneration (London Borough of Newham) and compared with adolescents in 18 schools in three comparison areas with no equivalent regeneration (London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Barking & Dagenham). Baseline data will be completed prior to the start of the London Olympics (July 2012) with follow-up at 6 and 18 months postintervention. Primary outcomes are: pre–post change in adolescent and parent mental health and well-being, physical activity and parental employment status. Secondary outcomes include: pre–post change in social cohesion, smoking, alcohol use, diet and body mass index. The study will account for individual and environmental contextual effects in evaluating changes to identified outcomes. A nested longitudinal qualitative study will explore families’ experiences of regeneration in order to unpack the process by which regeneration impacts on health and well-being. Ethics and dissemination The study has approval from Queen Mary University of London Ethics Committee (QMREC2011/40), the Association of Directors of Children's Services (RGE110927) and the London Boroughs Research Governance Framework (CERGF113). Fieldworkers have had advanced Criminal Records Bureau clearance. Findings

  13. Low on the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S.

    2013-09-01

    Until relatively recently, many authors have assumed that if extraterrestrial life is discovered it will be via the discovery of extraterrestrial intelligence: we can best try to detect life by adopting the SETI approach of trying to detect beacons or artefacts. The Rio Scale, proposed by Almár and Tarter in 2000, is a tool for quantifying the potential significance for society of any such reported detection. However, improvements in technology and advances in astrobiology raise the possibility that the discovery of extraterrestrial life will instead be via the detection of atmospheric biosignatures. The London Scale, proposed by Almár in 2010, attempts to quantify the potential significance of the discovery of extraterrestrial life rather than extraterrestrial intelligence. What might be the consequences of the announcement of a discovery that ranks low on the London Scale? In other words, what might be society's reaction if 'first contact' is via the remote sensing of the byproducts of unicellular organisms rather than with the products of high intelligence? Here, I examine some possible reactions to that question; in particular, I discuss how such an announcement might affect our views of life here on Earth and of humanity's place in the universe.

  14. Identifying socio-demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities in a diverse London community: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Responses to public health need require information on the distribution of mental and physical ill health by demographic and socioeconomic factors at the local community level. Methods The South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study is a community psychiatric and physical morbidity survey. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face computer assisted interviews with 1698 adults aged 16 years and over, from 1076 randomly selected private households in two south London boroughs. We compared the prevalence of common mental disorders, hazardous alcohol use, long standing illness and general physical health by demographic and socioeconomic indicators. Unadjusted and models adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic indicators are presented for all logistic regression models. Results Of those in the sample, 24.2% reported common mental disorder and 44.9% reported having a long standing illness, with 15.7% reporting hazardous alcohol consumption and 19.2% rating their health as fair or poor. The pattern of indicators identifying health inequalities for common mental disorder, poor general health and having a long term illness is similar; individuals who are socioeconomically disadvantaged have poorer health and physical health worsens as age increases for all groups. The prevalence of poor health outcomes by ethnic group suggests that there are important differences between groups, particularly for common mental disorder and poor general health. Higher socioeconomic status was protective for common mental disorder, fair or poor health and long standing illness, but those with higher socioeconomic status reported higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. The proportion of participants who met the criteria for common mental disorder with co-occurring functional limitations was similar or greater to those with poor physical health. Conclusions Health service providers and policy makers should prioritise high risk, socially defined groups in combating

  15. Severe tibial bone loss in revision total knee replacement managed with structural femoral head allograft: a prospective case series from the Royal London Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lyall, H S; Sanghrajka, A; Scott, G

    2009-10-01

    Large tibial bone defects may cause problems at the time of revision total knee replacement. We report on 15 patients (15 knees) followed at a mean of 5.4 years (33-115 months) who underwent revision total knee replacement for severe tibial bone loss using shaped femoral head allograft and Freeman-Samuelson revision components (Zimmer, Winterthur, Switzerland). The mean American Knee Society Score pre-operatively was 22.7 points (0-45) increasing to a mean of 77.2 points (15-95) after operation. The survivorship for the series at 6 years was seven out of nine knees. One patient required an above knee amputation at 3.5 years, whilst another underwent a second revision TKR procedure at 3.4 years. Thirteen knees did not require further surgery and showed a mean time for allograft incorporation of 1.9 years (12-36 months) with no component migration. Severe tibial bone loss at the time of revision TKR surgery is a difficult problem to treat. Our case series demonstrates that when shaped femoral heads are used as structural allograft along with long stemmed components a successful result can be achieved.

  16. How might the London 2012 Olympics influence health and the determinants of health? Local newspaper analysis of pre-Games pathways and impacts

    PubMed Central

    Selvanayagam, Marinie; Thompson, Claire; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Cummins, Steven; Bourke, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a content analysis of pre-Games local media coverage of the potential impact on health and the determinants of health in Newham, the site of the Olympic Park. Design Local newspaper content analysis. Setting Olympic park host site of the London Borough of Newham. Outcome measures Media coverage of employment, physical activity and well-being. Results Three hundred and 51 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. The overwhelming majority of the articles took a positive perspective on the Olympic Games being hosted in Newham with less than 10% (32/351) addressing potential adverse effects. The frequency of articles reporting on both employment and well-being increased significantly over time (p=0.002 and p=0.006, respectively). A non-significant increasing trend was observed for physical activity (p=0.146). New employment opportunities and the promotion of physical activity in young people were the pathways most frequently reported in the local media. However, much less attention is devoted to understanding the uncertainties about how much of these new opportunities will directly improve the determinants of health in the Newham population. Conclusions Pre-Games reporting on the impact on health and the determinants of health increased over time in the London Borough of Newham, and is overwhelmingly positive. However, specific uncertainties around the true nature of its impact on local employment and physical activity were articulated. Further evaluation of the tangible impacts on population health, and the determinants of health and health inequalities from the London 2012 Olympics, is required. PMID:23151394

  17. Influence of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on tuberculosis among Gujarati Asians in west London: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, R J; Llewelyn, M; Toossi, Z; Patel, P; Pasvol, G; Lalvani, A; Wright, D; Latif, M; Davidson, R N

    2000-02-19

    Susceptibility to disease after infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by environmental and host genetic factors. Vitamin D metabolism leads to activation of macrophages and restricts the intracellular growth of M. tuberculosis. This effect may be influenced by polymorphisms at three sites in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. We investigated the interaction between serum vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) concentrations and VDR genotype on susceptibility to tuberculosis. This study was a hospital-based case-control analysis of Asians of Gujarati origin, a mainly vegetarian immigrant population with a high rate of tuberculosis. We typed three VDR polymorphisms (defined by the presence of restriction endonuclease sites for Taq1, Bsm1, and Fok1) in 91 of 126 untreated patients with tuberculosis and 116 healthy contacts who had been sensitised to tuberculosis. Serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was recorded in 42 contacts and 103 patients. 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency was associated with active tuberculosis (odds ratio 2.9 [95% CI 1.3-6.5], p=0.008), and undetectable serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (<7 nmol/L) carried a higher risk of tuberculosis (9.9 [1.3-76.2], p=0.009). Although there was no significant independent association between VDR genotype and tuberculosis, the combination of genotype TT/Tt and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency was associated with disease (2.8 [1.2-6.5]) and the presence of genotype ff or undetectable serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was strongly associated with disease (5.1 [1.4-18.4]). 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency may contribute to the high occurrence of tuberculosis in this population. Polymorphisms in the VDR gene also contribute to susceptibility when considered in combination with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol deficiency.

  18. London's Jewish Communities and State Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The Inner London education authority was a notable example of a radical and powerful local government body from which the fight for the comprehensive principle in English secondary education emerged. Building on previous work of women's contribution to state education in London, this articles focuses on Anglo-Jewish educator activists who helped…

  19. School Improvement in London: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavy, Tony; Elwick, Alex

    2016-01-01

    This report considers how successful London's schools have been over the past decade and identifies potentially transferable components of the success story. There is much to be learned from the transformation undergone in London that is relevant to policymakers and educationalists worldwide, working in both high-income and low-income countries.…

  20. Jack London: The Paradox of Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Because of their interest in naturalism and socialism, critics often overlook the major intellectual conflict in Jack London's work: the paradox of individualism. London regards society as affecting the individual in two ways: it either promotes individuality or it demands a conformity that undermines individualism. When society fails Buck in…

  1. See you at London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2016-11-05

    London Vet Show is fast approaching: it takes place from November 17 to 18 and is being held at ExCeL London for the first time. Zoe Davies, marketing manager, highlights some of what BVA is offering at the event. British Veterinary Association.

  2. 'People make assumptions about our communities': sexual health amongst teenagers from black and minority ethnic backgrounds in East london.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Shamser; Curtis, Katherine; Jayakody, Amanda; Viner, Russell; Roberts, Helen

    2007-11-01

    (1) To explore sexual behaviour and relationships amongst Black and minority ethnic (BME) teenagers in East London. (2) To examine how these relationships are shaped by culture, gender, peer norms and religion. (3) To describe the implications for sexual health policy and practice in urban, multicultural areas. This report draws primarily on the qualitative arm of a mixed methods study which collected data from 126 young people, aged 15-18, largely through focus groups in the London boroughs of Hackney, Newham and Tower Hamlets. Previous research has reported culture influencing the patterning of risk/protection amongst BME groups. Our data suggest that this is mediated by gender, religion and youth. Religion reportedly influenced young women's sexual behaviour in multiple ways. Young people described gendered norms in meeting and flirting with partners, and the role of mobile phones and peer pressure. Our paper suggests culture, gender, religion and youth influence BME teenagers in aspects of sexual relationships, and that these social markers may have different contextual meanings for individuals. The multiplicity of factors affecting attitudes/behaviour requires a range of contraceptive, counselling, screening and sex education services available for all teenagers, although delivery patterns may differ in response to differing needs.

  3. Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in preschool children attending day care in London

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Anita; Heath, Paul T; Sharland, Mike; Strachan, David; Breathnach, Aodhan; Haigh, John; Young, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and describe the antibiotic resistance patterns and serotypes in young children attending group day care in London. Design and subjects Cross‐sectional survey of attendees at a sample of registered child day care centres (CDCCs) in a London borough. Setting Urban setting with a socially and culturally diverse population. Methods and outcomes 19 CDCCs (13% of total) participated between March and November 2003. A single NP swab was required from each child, and parents completed a questionnaire about their child's health and attendance at day care. WHO methodology for pneumococcal carriage studies was followed. Results 30% of parents consented. 234 swabs were collected from children aged 6 months to 5 years. 53% were boys and 81% were white. 120 children (51%, 95% CI 45% to 58%) carried pneumococci in their nasopharynx. None of the isolates were resistant to penicillin (upper CL 3%). 21 isolates were resistant to erythromycin (17.5%, 95% CI 11% to 25.5%). 68 isolates (57%) were serotypes included in the 7‐valent conjugate vaccine. Non‐white children had a lower prevalence of carriage (27% vs 58%). Conclusion: The prevalence of pneumococcal NP carriage was high. The penicillin resistance rate is lower than in many other countries and may reflect a decrease in community antibiotic prescribing in the UK. Monitoring circulating serotypes is important in the context of recent changes to the vaccination policy. Further study is required to explore the association with ethnicity and risk factors for antibiotic resistance. PMID:17768150

  4. Trauma and current symptoms of PTSD in a South East London community.

    PubMed

    Frissa, Souci; Hatch, Stephani L; Gazard, Billy; Fear, Nicola T; Hotopf, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its association with traumatic events in a representative sample of an inner city population in the UK. A representative community sample of 1,698 adults, aged 16 years and over, from two south London boroughs were interviewed face to face with structured survey questionnaires. The prevalence of current symptoms of PTSD was 5.5 %. Women were more likely to screen positive (6.4 %) than men (3.6 %), and symptoms of PTSD were high in the unemployed (12.5 %), in those not working because of health reasons (18.2 %) and in the lowest household income group (14.8 %). Most (78.2 %) of the study population had lifetime trauma and more than a third (39.7 %) reported childhood trauma. There was an independent association between childhood as well as lifetime trauma and current symptoms of PTSD and a gradient association between an increase in cumulative traumatic events and the likelihood of reporting symptoms of current PTSD (OR 1.8, 95 % CI (1.6-2.1)). Although we observed the highest prevalence of current symptoms of PTSD in those migrated for asylum or political reason (13.6 %), compared to the non-migrants, the prevalence of exposure to most traumatic life events was higher in the non-migrant group. The present study demonstrates the high prevalence of exposure to trauma in a South East London community and the cumulative effect on current symptoms of PTSD. As PTSD is a condition which is associated with disability and co-morbidity, the association of current PTSD with common adversities in the community should be noted.

  5. Oral impacts on quality of life and problem-oriented attendance among South East London adults.

    PubMed

    Gaewkhiew, Piyada; Bernabé, Eduardo; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Klass, Charlotte; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K

    2017-04-26

    Dental care seeking behaviour is often driven by symptoms. The value of oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures to predict utilisation of dental services is unknown. This study aims to explore the association between OHRQoL and problem-oriented dental attendance among adults. We analysed cross-sectional data for 705 adults, aged 16 years and above, living in three boroughs of Inner South East London. Data were collected during structured interviews at home. The short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to assess the frequency of oral impacts on daily life in the last year. Problem-oriented attendance was defined based on time elapsed since last visit (last 6 months) and reason for that visit (trouble with teeth). The association between OHIP-14 (total and domain) scores and problem-oriented attendance was tested in logistic regression models adjusting for participants' sociodemographic characteristics. Problem-oriented attenders had a higher OHIP-14 total score than regular attenders (6.73 and 3.73, respectively). In regression models, there was a positive association between OHIP-14 total score and problem-oriented attendance. The odds of visiting the dentist for trouble with teeth were 1.07 greater (95% Confidence Interval: 1.04-1.10) per unit increase in the OHIP-14 total score, after adjustment for participants' sociodemographic characteristics. In subsequent analysis by OHIP-14 domains, greater scores in all domains but handicap were significantly associated with problem-oriented attendance. This study shows that oral impacts on quality of life are associated with recent problem-oriented dental attendance among London adults. Six of the seven domains in the OHIP-14 questionnaire were also associated with dental visits for trouble with teeth.

  6. Pulmonary function of London firemen.

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, D B; Douglas, R B; Oakes, D; Scott, G

    1985-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of a sample of firemen in London 1006 firemen were interviewed and examined in 1976 and 895 were seen a second time 12 months later. On each occasion a Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was administered and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured. The average levels of FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC in both years compared favourably with conventional predicted values. Separate multiple regression analysis for the two years indicated that the FEV1 and FVC fell more rapidly in those aged over 40, and that cigarette smoking had a strong harmful effect on these measures of function. Only among men with over 20 years' service was there possibly any evidence (not statistically significant) of an effect from duration of employment. The comparatively large fall in FEV1 and FVC from 1976 to 1977 was due mainly to instrumental variation. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher in smokers than non-smokers and increased with the number of cigarettes smoked. PMID:3965016

  7. Striking back against racist violence in the East End of London, 1968–1970

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Stephen; Virdee, Satnam; Brown, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This article tells the hitherto untold story of how different Pakistani organisations mobilised in response to racist violence and harassment in the east London Borough of Tower Hamlets (1968–1970). In telling this story, the authors analyse the problematic nature of official and public understandings of, and responses to, racist violence, and how it distorted the lives of racialised minorities. Drawing on original archival research carried out in 2014, this piece identifies the emergence of two distinct political repertoires from within the Pakistani community: the integrationist approach and the autonomous approach. The integrationist approach involving the Pakistani Welfare Association (PWA) and the National Federation of Pakistani Associations (NFPA) tried to address the problem through existing local state ‘race relations’ apparatuses and mainstream political channels, while at the same time re-establishing consent for the police as the agents of law and order. In contrast, a network of Black Power groups, anti-imperialists and socialists led by the Pakistani Progressive Party (PPP) and the Pakistani Workers’ Union (PWU) challenged both the local political leadership and the authority of the police in Tower Hamlets, while also undermining the stereotype of Asian people as ‘weak’ and ‘passive’. In recovering this lost episode of resistance to ‘Paki-bashing’, unleashed in the aftermath of Enoch Powell’s inflammatory speeches, this essay makes a contribution to the history of autonomous anti-racist collective action undertaken by racialised minorities in Britain. PMID:28479657

  8. Striking back against racist violence in the East End of London, 1968-1970.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Stephen; Virdee, Satnam; Brown, Laurence

    2016-07-01

    This article tells the hitherto untold story of how different Pakistani organisations mobilised in response to racist violence and harassment in the east London Borough of Tower Hamlets (1968-1970). In telling this story, the authors analyse the problematic nature of official and public understandings of, and responses to, racist violence, and how it distorted the lives of racialised minorities. Drawing on original archival research carried out in 2014, this piece identifies the emergence of two distinct political repertoires from within the Pakistani community: the integrationist approach and the autonomous approach. The integrationist approach involving the Pakistani Welfare Association (PWA) and the National Federation of Pakistani Associations (NFPA) tried to address the problem through existing local state 'race relations' apparatuses and mainstream political channels, while at the same time re-establishing consent for the police as the agents of law and order. In contrast, a network of Black Power groups, anti-imperialists and socialists led by the Pakistani Progressive Party (PPP) and the Pakistani Workers' Union (PWU) challenged both the local political leadership and the authority of the police in Tower Hamlets, while also undermining the stereotype of Asian people as 'weak' and 'passive'. In recovering this lost episode of resistance to 'Paki-bashing', unleashed in the aftermath of Enoch Powell's inflammatory speeches, this essay makes a contribution to the history of autonomous anti-racist collective action undertaken by racialised minorities in Britain.

  9. Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

    2011-12-01

    The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine

  10. London Dispersion Forces and "The Wave"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, C. Jayne

    1998-10-01

    An analogy is presented likening London dispersion forces to "The Wave", a popular ritual performed by fans attending sports events in large stadia. Similarities between people in the stands and electrons in atoms are emphasized.

  11. Career development at London Vet Show.

    PubMed

    2016-09-03

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. British Veterinary Association.

  12. The Tower of London bomb explosion.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, K; Lettin, A

    1975-01-01

    After the detonation of a bomb in the Tower of London 37 people were brought to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. The explosion caused numerous severe injuries of a type rarely seen in peacetime. PMID:1148778

  13. EPA Finalizes Plan to Address Contaminated Groundwater at Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund Site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, N.J.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has finalized a plan to clean up contaminated groundwater at the Curtis Specialty Papers Superfund site in Milford Borough and Alexandria Township, New Jersey. The site includes the former Milford P

  14. A Study of Four Library Programs for Disadvantaged Persons. Part II Appendices A: Brooklyn Public Library Preschool Project, Queens Borough Public Library Operation Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Charlotte B.; Burrows, Lodema

    This document contains observations by library staff and interviews with members of the communities served about the Brooklyn Public Library preschool Project and the Queens Borough Public Library Operation Head Start. These two projects offer storybook and picture-book programs for preschool disadvantaged children and programs for their parents.…

  15. 12. Photo copy of drawing, May 21, 1963. NEW LONDON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photo copy of drawing, May 21, 1963. NEW LONDON LEDGE LIGHT STATION LIGHTING. Drawing no. 03-2730, U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - New London Ledge Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, East of main harbor channel, New London, New London County, CT

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Resin Disposal, Jefferson Borough, Allegheny County, PA. (First remedial action), June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-28

    The 26-acre Resin Disposal site is an inactive industrial landfill and former coal strip mining area in Jefferson Borough, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The site overlies a bedrock aquifer, a source of non-potable ground water. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses source control, as well as preventing migration of contaminated ground water in the Pittsburgh Coal Formation. The primary contaminants of concern affecting soil, debris, and ground water are VOCs including benzene, toluene, and xylenes; and other organics including napthalene, PAHs and phenols. The selected remedial action for the site includes capping the landfill with a multi-layer cap, and upgrading the landfill dike; relocating a sanitary sewer; installing a new oil/water separator for leachate treatment, and implementing institutional controls, including deed restrictions. The estimated present worth cost for this remedial action is $4,348,000.

  17. Studying policy implementation using a macro, meso and micro frame analysis: the case of the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research & Care (CLAHRC) programme nationally and in North West London.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Sarah E M; Mays, Nicholas

    2012-10-15

    The publication of Best research for best health in 2006 and the "ring-fencing" of health research funding in England marked the start of a period of change for health research governance and the structure of research funding in England. One response to bridging the 'second translational gap' between research knowledge and clinical practice was the establishment of nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs). The goal of this paper is to assess how national-level understanding of the aims and objectives of the CLAHRCs translated into local implementation and practice in North West London. This study uses a variation of Goffman's frame analysis to trace the development of the initial national CLAHRC policy to its implementation at three levels. Data collection and analysis were qualitative through interviews, document analysis and embedded research. Analysis at the macro (national policy), meso (national programme) and micro (North West London) levels shows a significant common understanding of the aims and objectives of the policy and programme. Local level implementation in North West London was also consistent with these. The macro-meso-micro frame analysis is a useful way of studying the transition of a policy from high-level idea to programme in action. It could be used to identify differences at a local (micro) level in the implementation of multi-site programmes that would help understand differences in programme effectiveness.

  18. Men with learning disabilities who have sex with men in public places: mapping the needs of services and users in south east London.

    PubMed

    Cambridge, P

    1996-06-01

    This survey investigated the prevalence of men with learning disabilities who have sex with men in public places in three south east London boroughs. The work was administered through contact with providers of services for people with learning disabilities and was commissioned by the local health authority. It represents the first example of needs assessment work on this theme. Service responses to risk assessment and risk management in relation to HIV and the sexual behaviour of male service users were explored. The survey identified 13 services where this was a management or practice issue, and 16 and 18 men for whom this behaviour definitely or possibly applied. This paper reports the findings of the survey and identifies issues relevant to commissioning and providing services for people with learning disabilities.

  19. Survey of women's experiences of care in a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area of London, England: 2. Specific aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Alison J; Rocca-Ihenacho, Lucia; Turner, Lyle R

    2014-09-01

    to describe and compare women's experiences of specific aspects of maternity care before and after the opening of the Barkantine Birth Centre, a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area. telephone surveys undertaken in late pregnancy and about six weeks after birth. Two separate waves of interviews were conducted, Phase 1 before the birth centre opened and Phase 2 after it had opened. Tower Hamlets, a deprived inner city borough in east London, 2007-2010. 620 women who were resident in Tower Hamlets and who satisfied the Barts and the London Trust's eligibility criteria for using the birth centre. Of these, 259 women were recruited to Phase 1 and 361 to Phase 2. the replies women gave show marked differences between the model of care in the birth centre and that at the obstetric unit at the Royal London Hospital with respect to experiences of care and specific practices. Women who initially booked for birth centre care were more likely to attend antenatal classes and find them useful and were less likely to be induced. Women who started labour care at the birth centre in spontaneous labour were more likely to use non-pharmacological methods of pain relief, most notably water and less likely to use pethidine than women who started care at the hospital. They were more likely to be able to move around in labour and less likely to have their membranes ruptured or have continuous CTG. They were more likely to be told to push spontaneously when they needed to rather than under directed pushing and more likely to report that they had been able to choose their position for birth and deliver in places other than the bed, in contrast to the situation at the hospital. The majority of women who had a spontaneous onset of labour delivered vaginally, with 28.6 per cent of women at the birth centre but no one at the hospital delivering in water. Primiparous women who delivered at the birth centre were less likely to have an episiotomy. Most women who delivered at the

  20. Fritz London's Legacy at Duke University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Horst

    2006-03-01

    When 3He became available in small quantities after WWII Fritz London, Professor at Duke University since 1939, became very interested in its properties in the liquid and solid phases, as contrasted with those of 4He. His influence and that of his colleague Walter Gordy led to the appointment of William Fairbank in 1952, who was able to verify experimentally the prediction on the Fermi degeneracy of liquid 3He below 1K, a few weeks before London's death in 1954. With his students and associates, Fairbank carried out a number of important experiments which became classics, several of which will be described. At Duke he also started planning other experiments inspired by London's predictions. After W. Fairbank's departure for Stanford in 1959, further research on liquid and solid 3He and 3He-4He mixtures was carried out by his successors at Duke University and some of the results in the sixties will be briefly described.

  1. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Boroughs of Lewisburg and Milton, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 8-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River from approximately 2 miles downstream from the Borough of Lewisburg, extending upstream to approximately 1 mile upstream from the Borough of Milton, Pennsylvania, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict the estimated areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa. In addition, the information has been provided to the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) for incorporation into their Susquehanna Inundation Map Viewer (SIMV) flood warning system (http://maps.srbc.net/simv/). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information (http://water.weather.gov/ahps) for USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibration of the model was achieved using the most current stage-discharge relations (rating number 11.1) at USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., a documented water-surface profile from the December 2, 2010, flood, and recorded peak stage data. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 14 feet (ft) to 39 ft. Modeled flood stages, as defined by NWS, include Action Stage, 14 ft; Flood Stage, 18 ft; Moderate Flood Stage, 23 ft; and Major Flood Stage, 28 ft. Geographic information system (GIS) technology

  2. Changing geographies of access to medical education in London.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gavin; Garlick, Pamela

    2007-06-01

    This paper highlights the need for health geographers to consider the social and cultural geographies of who gets to train as a doctor. The paper presents a case study of a scheme intended to widen access to medical education for working class students from inner London. This work examines the role of local education markets and cultures of education in shaping the aspirations and achievements of potential future doctors. It employs ethnographic data to consider how 'non-traditional' learners acclimatise to medical school. Our findings indicate that the students who succeed best are those who can see themselves as belonging within the education system, regardless of their social and cultural background.

  3. Ground-water availability in part of the Borough of Carroll Valley, Adams County, Pennsylvania, and the establishment of a drought-monitor well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Continued population growth in the Borough of Carroll Valley (Borough) coupled with the drought of 2001 have increased the demand for ground water in the Borough. This demand has led Borough officials to undertake an effort to evaluate the capability of the crystalline-bedrock aquifers to meet future, projected growth and to establish a drought-monitor well within and for the use of the Borough. As part of this effort, this report summarizes ground-water data available from selected sections within the Borough and provides geohydrologic information needed to evaluate ground-water availability and recharge sources within part of the Borough. The availability of ground water in the Borough is limited by the physical characteristics of the underlying bedrock, and its upland topographic setting. The crystalline rocks (metabasalt, metarhyolite, greenstone schist) that underlie most of the study area are among the lowest yielding aquifers in the Commonwealth. More than 25 percent of the wells drilled in the metabasalt, the largest bedrock aquifer in the study area, have driller reported yields less than 1.25 gallons per minute. Driller reports indicate also that water-producing zones are shallow and few in number. In general, 50 percent of the water-producing zones reported by drillers are penetrated at depths of 200 feet or less and 90 percent at depths of 370 feet or less. Borehole geophysical data indicate that most of the water-producing zones are at lithologic contacts, but such contacts are penetrated infrequently and commonly do not intersect areas of ground-water recharge. Single-well aquifer tests and slug tests indicate that the bedrock aquifers also do not readily transmit large amounts of water. The median hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity of the bedrock aquifers are 0.01 foot per dayand 2.75 feet squared per day, respectively. The crystalline and siliciclastic (Weverton and Loudoun Formations) bedrock aquifers are moderately to highly resistant to

  4. Jack London and the San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sachs, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    After it was over, it seemed to many, and especially to eyewitnesses like Jack London, that the earthquake and fire had devastated San Francisco. However people were confident that, like the phoeniz, San Francisco would rise from the ashes and regain her palce as the "Imperial City of the West." 

  5. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  6. Knives and Other Weapons in London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. R. St. J.

    2005-01-01

    London schools operate in an area where crime rates, including violent crime, is statistically more frequent than the average for the whole of England and Wales (Moore and Yeo 2004). Violent crime in the capital increased (though not to a statistically significant extent) between 2002/3 and 2003/4 (Moore and Yeo 2004b). This has led to a…

  7. Preventing suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R V; Poyner, B

    1994-02-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the possibility of preventing suicide on the London Underground. Four groups of potentially valuable measures were identified with the objectives of: (i) reducing public access to the tracks; (ii) improving surveillance by station staff; (iii) facilitating emergency stops; and (iv) reducing injury. These strategies are discussed.

  8. E. B. Nicholson and the London Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    This article provides a history of the London Institution from 1805 to 1912, with special emphasis on E. B. Nicholson's term of office. The last years of the Institution are considered, its financial difficulties being traced back to the terms of its original foundation, and to the changing situation of its members. (47 references) (Author/SJ)

  9. A resilient NHS for London 2012.

    PubMed

    Wapling, Andy; Mooney, Tom

    2011-02-01

    London will host the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012. Hosting the Games brings with it both opportunities and challenges for the capital and country. The National Health Service (NHS) in London has a crucial role to play in the delivery of a safe and secure Games. It must also protect its business as usual services and be prepared to respond to any enhanced or additional threats and hazards that may be created by the presence of the Games. NHS London leads a programme of work to ensure that the NHS fulfils its responsibilities during the Games. The programme's Health Resilience workstream has adopted a structured planning process to assess risks, identify gaps in the capability of the NHS, and ensure those gaps are addressed prior to the Games. It acknowledges that training, exercising and testing play vital roles in capability. This work aims to ensure that London's health services will respond in a timely, proportionate and appropriate manner to any incident during the Games. This paper gives an overview of the Olympic context within which this resilience work is taking place, and details the planning processes and relationships employed in planning for such a major event.

  10. Michael Fisher at King's College London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domb, Cyril

    Michael Fisher spent the first 16 years of his academic life in the Physics Department of King's College, London, starting as an undergraduate and ending as a full professor. A survey is undertaken of his activities and achievements during the various periods of this phase of his career.

  11. Knives and Other Weapons in London Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. R. St. J.

    2005-01-01

    London schools operate in an area where crime rates, including violent crime, is statistically more frequent than the average for the whole of England and Wales (Moore and Yeo 2004). Violent crime in the capital increased (though not to a statistically significant extent) between 2002/3 and 2003/4 (Moore and Yeo 2004b). This has led to a…

  12. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  13. Black Pupils' Achievement in Inner London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabey, Christine

    1986-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between reading attainment and examination achievement of Black Afro-Caribbean students who formed part of a cohort of inner London schoolchildren included in a longitudinal study. The findings of the research are discussed in terms of policy implications for education. (Author/CT)

  14. Ensuring equine biosecurity at London 2012.

    PubMed

    Slater, Josh

    2013-02-02

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Equestrian Games were the highest profile event in the 2012 equestrian calendar and were the culmination of four years of detailed and meticulous biosecurity planning to ensure that all horses arrived, competed and returned home safely and in good health. Josh Slater, Anthony Greenleaves and Andy Paterson describe how this was achieved.

  15. Flood magnitude and frequency of Franklin Pond tributary at the culvert on New Jersey Route 23, Franklin Borough, Sussex County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Flood magnitude and frequency values are presented for Franklin Pond tributary at the culvert at milepost 32.2 of New Jersey Route 23, Franklin Borough, New Jersey. The values were determined by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method. A description of the drainage-basin characteristics also is included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimate is 218 cubic feet per second.

  16. Limnology of nine small lakes, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska, and the survival and growth rates of rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woods, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The survival and growth rates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnieri) were concurrently measured with selected limnological characteristics in nine small (surface area < 25 sq hectometers) lakes in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough. The project goal was to develop empirical models for predicting rainbow trout growth rates from the following variables: total phosphorus concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, Secchi disc transparency, or the morphoedaphic index--a means of characterizing potential biological productivity. No suitable model could be developed from the data collected during 1982 and 1983. The lack of significant correlation was attributed in part to the wide variation in survival of rainbow trout. Winterkills, caused by severe depletion of dissolved oxygen, were suspected in four of the lakes. Varied levels of fishing pressure and competition with threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also influenced survival of rainbow trout but their effects were overshadowed by winterkill. Predictive capability was also reduced because of inconsistencies in rankings generated by each of the four limnological variables chosen as indicators of potential biological productivity. A lake ranked low in productivity by one variable was commonly ranked high in productivity by another variable. The survivability of rainbow trout stocked in lakes such as these nine may be a more important indicator of potential biomass production than are indicators of lake fertility. Assessments of a lake 's susceptibility to winterkill and the degree of competition with threespine stickleback are suggested as important topics for additional research. (Author 's abstract)

  17. 32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONN. OCTOBER 3, 1932. COMPLETION OF ERECTION OF STEELWORK FOR ELEVATOR. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  18. 30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF PHOTO CAPTIONED 'SUBMARINE BASE, NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT. 2 JUNE 1930. SUBMARINE TRAINING TANK - STEELWORK 98% COMPLETE; BRICKWORK 95% COMPLETE, PIPING 10% IN PLACE. LOOKING NORTH. CONTRACT NO. Y-1539-ELEVATOR, SUBMARINE ESCAPE TANK.' - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  19. Recognising and Developing Urban Teachers: Chartered London Teacher Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubb, Sara; Porritt, Vivienne

    2008-01-01

    Chartered London Teacher (CLT) status is a unique scheme designed by London Challenge to recognise and reward teachers' achievements and provide a framework for professional development. As well as having the prestige of being a Chartered London Teacher for life, educators receive a one-time payment of 1,000 British pounds from the school budget…

  20. 113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  1. 114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  2. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following bearings...

  3. 112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad: New London Station. New London, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 123.00. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. Care home managers' views of dental services for older people living in nursing and residential homes in inner city London.

    PubMed

    Belsi, A; Gonzalez-Maffe, J; Jones, K; Wright, D; Gallagher, J E

    2013-06-01

    To investigate care home managers' views on the provision of dental care (current and future; urgent, check-up and follow-up) for their residents, barriers to care and the impact of policy changes, by type of home (nursing vs residential), with a view to informing the planning and provision of care. A cross sectional postal questionnaire survey and follow-up semi-structured interviews. Care homes in South East London. PARTCIPANTS: All care home managers in three south east London boroughs. A 72% response rate (n=152) was achieved, 140 of which were designated as nursing and/or residential homes (92%). Almost all managers reported that the care homes had arrangements in place for residents to access some elements of dental care (99%, n=148). Reported barriers to care included residents' fear of treatment (53%), patients' limited mobility (45%) and waiting times for services (42%). Limited mobility (p=0.01) and transport issues (p=0.01) were more significant barriers for nursing homes, whereas fear (p=0.02) was more significant for residential homes. Access to a range of dental services and modes of service delivery were requested for the future; most notable were the demands for domiciliary services to be available to nursing homes and for residential homes to access local general dental practitioners to meet the needs of their residents. Managers report having arrangements in place for residents to access dental services; however, there was a clear view that future arrangements should be more appropriate to the needs and vulnerabilities of their residents.

  5. The nature and correlates of paid and unpaid work among service users of London Community Mental Health Teams.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Evans, B; Marwaha, S; Burns, T; Secker, J; Latimer, E; Blizard, R; Killaspy, H; Totman, J; Tanskanen, S; Johnson, S

    2013-06-01

    Aims. Little is known about how the rates and characteristics of mental health service users in unpaid work, training and study compare with those in paid employment. Methods. From staff report and patient records, 1353 mental health service users of seven Community Mental Health Teams in two London boroughs were categorized as in paid work, unpaid vocational activity or no vocational activity. Types of work were described using Standard Occupational Classifications. The characteristics of each group were reported and associations with vocational status were explored. Results. Of the sample, 5.5% were in paid work and 12.7% were in unpaid vocational activity, (including 5.3% in voluntary work and 8.1% in study or training). People in paid work were engaged in a broader range of occupations than those in voluntary work and most in paid work (58.5%) worked part-time. Younger age and high educational attainment characterized both groups. Having sustained previous employment was most strongly associated with being in paid work. Conclusions. Rates of vocational activity were very low. Results did not suggest a clear clinical distinction between those in paid and unpaid activity. The motivations for and functions of unpaid work need further research.

  6. Medical education in London during 1939-41, with special reference to the Blitz.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, K

    2006-03-01

    This article is concerned with medical education in London during 1939-41. It is set against the London Blitz, an event that was then unique in its subjecting of civilians to an intense and prolonged aerial bombardment. Its very uniqueness ensured that medical students, like others in the capital, had no set rules of conduct with which to govern their response to death and destruction on such an unprecedented scale in an urban area. For students at London's world-famous medical schools, the outbreak of war in 1939 resulted in the execution of evacuation plans formulated during the 1930s; these are outlined in the text. The London teaching hospitals and their attached medical schools were removed to sector hospitals and, in the case of the medical schools, to universities and colleges in areas deemed to be safe. Just as the schooling of children evacuated from Britain's big cities was subject to considerable disruption during this period, so was medical education. This article attempts to both chart the effects of these difficulties and study the manner in which the medical schools and, more particularly, London medical students, overcame them. Emphasis is placed on the dramatic months of the Blitz, not least because of the moulding effect such a sudden experience of warfare must have had on the very young, mainly male, students who lived through it. Finally, mention is made of some of the medical innovations the improvisations of the Blitz brought about.

  7. Launch of the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Aeppli, Gabriel; Pankhurst, Quentin

    2006-12-01

    Is nanomedicine an area with the promise that its proponents claim? Professors Gabriel Aeppli and Quentin Pankhurst explore the issues in light of the new London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN)--a joint enterprise between Imperial College and University College London--opened on November 7, 2006. The center is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to bridge the physical, engineering and biomedical sciences. In this interview, Professor Gabriel Aeppli, LCN co-Director, and Deputy Director Professor Quentin Pankhurst discuss the advent and future role of the LCN with Nanomedicine's Morag Robertson. Professor Aeppli was formerly with NEC, Bell Laboratories and MIT and has more than 15 years' experience in the computer and telecommunications industry. Professor Pankhurst is a physicist with more than 20 years' experience of working with magnetic materials and nanoparticles, who now works closely with clinicians and medics on innovative healthcare applications. He also recently formed the new start-up company Endomagnetics Inc.

  8. The 2015 Pregnancy Summit, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Cherynne

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy Summit, Cineworld, The O2, London, UK, 29 September to 1 October 2015 The 2015 Pregnancy Summit was held over 3 days from 29 September to 1 October at Cineworld, The O2, London, UK. The event brings together a multidisciplinary faculty of international researchers and clinicians to discuss both scientific and clinical aspects of pregnancy-related issues in an informal setting. The goal of the meeting was to provide delegates with an update of recent advances in management of pregnancy-related conditions, to present research data and to discuss the current attitudes and practices in relevant topics. An extensive range of topics were discussed, from preeclampsia and treatment of hypertension, to the psychological impact of termination of pregnancy and feticide. This report will summarize a selection of the lectures presented.

  9. Mortality and temperature in Sofia and London

    PubMed Central

    Pattenden, S; Nikiforov, B; Armstrong, B

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: Heat and cold have been associated with increased mortality, independently of seasonal trends, but details are little known. This study explores associations between mortality and temperature in two European capitals—Sofia and London—using four years of daily deaths, air pollution, and weather data. Design: Generalised additive models were used to permit non-linear modelling of confounders such as season and humidity, and to show the shape of mortality-temperature relations—using both two day and two week average temperatures separately. Models with linear terms for heat and cold were used to estimate lags of effect, linear effects, and attributable fractions. Participants: 44 701 all age all cause deaths in Sofia (1996–1999) and 256 464 in London (1993–1996). Main results: In London, for each degree of extreme cold (below the 10th centile of the two week mean temperature), mortality increased by 4.2% (95% CI 3.4 to 5.1), and in Sofia by 1.8% (0.6 to 3.9). For each degree rise above the 95th centile of the two day mean, mortality increased by 1.9% (1.4 to 2.4) in London, and 3.5% (2.2 to 4.8) in Sofia. Cold effects appeared after lags of around three days and lasted—particularly in London—at least two weeks. Main heat effects occurred more promptly. There were inverse associations at later lags for heat and cold in Sofia. Conclusions: Average temperatures over short periods do not adequately model cold, and may be inadequate for heat if they ignore harvesting effects. Cold temperatures in London, particularly, seem to harm the general population and the effects are not concentrated among persons close to death. PMID:12883072

  10. LondonMet e-Packs: A Pragmatic Approach to Learner/Teacher Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschirhart, Cecile; Rigler, Elina

    2009-01-01

    Online learning can play an important role in engaging language learners and fostering autonomy. The LondonMet e-pack, which provides online interactive language learning materials, is used as a case study to illustrate some of the theoretical and practical issues faced by those implementing online language learning programmes. This article begins…

  11. Biliteracy in a Monolingual School System? English and Gujarati in South London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Charmian

    2000-01-01

    Draws on research with 4-7-year-olds in a South London primary school to provide a longitudinal case study of one child's relationship to mother tongue literacy within the classroom. Findings demonstrate how the child, from the age of 4, actively combined Gujarati and English to enhance her literacy learning and to construct text that synthesized…

  12. Can social support protect bullied adolescents from adverse outcomes? A prospective study on the effects of bullying on the educational achievement and mental health of adolescents at secondary schools in East London

    PubMed Central

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to achieve the appropriate academic achievement benchmark for their age group and bullied boys (but not girls) were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms compared to those not bullied. High levels of social support from family were important in promoting good mental health. There was evidence that high levels of support from friends and moderate (but not high) family support was able to protect bullied adolescents from poor academic achievement. Support from friends and family was not sufficient to protect adolescents against mental health difficulties that they might face as a result of being bullied. More active intervention from schools is recommended. PMID:20637501

  13. Diabetes Complications at Presentation and One Year by Glycated Haemoglobin at Diagnosis in a Multiethnic and Diverse Socioeconomic Population: Results from the South London Diabetes Study.

    PubMed

    Azam, Mohsin; Marwood, Lindsey; Ismail, Khalida; Evans, Tyrrell; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Winkley, Kirsty; Amiel, Stephanie Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background. WHO's recommendation of HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) as diagnostic for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was adopted by three UK London boroughs in May 2012. The South London Diabetes (SOUL-D) study has recruited people with newly diagnosed T2DM since 2008. We compared participants diagnosed before May 2012 with HbA1c < 48 mmol/mol to those with diagnostic HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol. Methods. A prospective cohort study of newly diagnosed T2DM participants from 96 primary care practices, comparing demographic and biomedical variables between those with diagnostic HbA1c < 48 mmol/mol or HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol at recruitment and after one year. Results. Of 1488 participants, 22.8% had diagnostic HbA1c < 48 mmol/mol. They were older and more likely to be white (p < 0.05). At recruitment and one year, there were no between-group differences in the prevalence of diabetic complications, except that those diagnosed with HbA1c < 48 mmol/mol had more sensory neuropathy at recruitment (p = 0.039) and, at one year, had new myocardial infarction (p = 0.012) but less microalbuminuria (p = 0.012). Conclusions. Use of HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol as the sole T2DM diagnostic criterion may miss almost a quarter of those previously diagnosed in South London yet HbA1c < 48 mmol/mol may not exclude clinically important diabetes.

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 10): Artic Surplus Superfund Site, Fairbanks, Fairbanks North Star Borough, AK, September 28, 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions for the Arctic Surplus Salvage Yard (Arctic Surplus or Site) located near the city of Fairbanks in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska. The selected remedy is a series of remedial actions which address the principal threats, lead and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other contaminants at the site. The selected remedy combines source remediation, treatment of highly contaminated soils (hot spot), containment of hazardous substance residuals left onsite after treatment, and institutional controls to reduce the health risks posed by the contaminants in the soils at Arctic Surplus.

  15. Presence of Legionella in London's water supplies.

    PubMed

    Colbourne, J S; Trew, R M

    1986-09-01

    Legionella occurs frequently (52 to 54%) in domestic water and cooling water inside commercial, industrial and health care buildings, and these types of water systems are now regarded as a normal habitat for Legionella. The factors that predispose a particular water system to colonization by these organisms are ill-defined, although it is fairly certain that biological and physicochemical environmental factors play an important role in allowing Legionella to multiply in the circulating water. It has been postulated that the organism may gain access to water systems inside buildings by one of three routes: contact with air through open points such as uncovered storage tanks or vents, ingress of soil or surface water during construction or repair, or intermittent seeding with organisms present in low numbers in the public water supply. Three studies in the USA have found Legionella in 0.4 to 8.8% of drinking-water samples, but these were not representative of the public supply network as a whole. The aim of this study was to determine, over a period of 1 year, the frequency of Legionella in London's drinking water--from the treatment plant through to the consumer's tap. To date, Legionella has not been isolated from raw river water entering London's treatment works or from treated water entering the distribution network. Sixty-two monitoring taps in buildings located in 21 supply areas have been sampled twice for Legionella; only 2 (2.4%) have proved positive during the autumn and winter of 1985/86. The strain found was L. pneumophila serotype 1, subgroup Olda, and the numbers ranged from 10(2) to 10(4)/l. Although the survey is incomplete, it is already clear that the public water supplies in London are not a source of strains of Legionella associated with disease.

  16. Parasuicide in central London 1984-1988.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, G N; Rea, A J; Payne, J F; Lant, A F

    1989-01-01

    Experience of a central London unit dedicated to the care of patients following parasuicide between 1984 and 1988 is reviewed. There were 1160 admissions, which accounted for 11% of all acute adult medical admissions. The female to male ratio was 1.3, with a peak rate for females below 25 years and for males between 20 and 35. Unemployment was found to be a risk factor for parasuicide in men. Benzodiazepines were the most frequently used drug in parasuicide (35%), followed by paracetamol (13%) and aspirin (9%). PMID:2574238

  17. A cluster of suicides at a London psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Haw, C M

    1994-01-01

    In an epidemiologically based study, a spate of 14 suicides among current patients of a London psychiatric unit was investigated. Statistical analysis showed it to be a discrete cluster of suicides, rather than a chance occurrence. There was no evidence of direct linkage or "contagion" between the suicides. Thirteen of the patients suffered from severe, chronic mental illness and all but 2 had been known to the psychiatric unit for at least a year. Twelve used violent methods, in 8 cases jumping from a high place. Although no definite cause for the cluster could be established, it coincided with a period of uncertainty concerning the future of the hospital and with changes in and absenteeism of senior medical staff.

  18. Experiential Approaches to the Global City: London as Social Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gristwood, Anthony; Woolf, Michael

    2011-01-01

    London is the paramount example of a city that is not bounded by its geography and cannot be grasped in isolation. The U.K.'s national capital and the prime focus for business, finance and creative industries, London also transcends the U.K.'s borders as a hub of the world economy. This paper argues that London, a city riddled by the socioeconomic…

  19. Digital London: Creating a Searchable Web of Interlinked Sources on Eighteenth Century London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the conceptual and technical difficulties encountered, as well as the opportunities created, when developing an interlinked collection of web-based digitised primary sources on eighteenth century London. Design/methodology/approach: As a pilot study for a larger project, a variety of primary sources, including the "Old…

  20. Digital London: Creating a Searchable Web of Interlinked Sources on Eighteenth Century London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To outline the conceptual and technical difficulties encountered, as well as the opportunities created, when developing an interlinked collection of web-based digitised primary sources on eighteenth century London. Design/methodology/approach: As a pilot study for a larger project, a variety of primary sources, including the "Old…

  1. SETI and astrobiology: The Rio Scale and the London Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almár, Iván

    2011-11-01

    The public reaction to a discovery, the character of the corresponding risk communication, as well as the possible impact on science and society all depend on the character of the phenomenon discovered, on the method of discovery, on the distance to the phenomenon and, last but not least, on the reliability of the announcement itself. The Rio Scale - proposed together with Jill Tarter just a decade ago at an IAA symposium in Rio de Janeiro - attempts to quantify the relative importance of such a “low probability, high consequence event”, namely the announcement of an ETI discovery. After the publication of the book “The Eerie Silence” by Paul Davies it is necessary to control how the recently suggested possible “technosignatures” or “technomarkers” mentioned in this book could be evaluated by the Rio Scale. The new London Scale, proposed at the Royal Society meeting in January 2010, in London, is a similar attempt to quantify the impact of an announcement regarding the discovery of ET life on an analogous ordinal scale between zero and ten. Here again the new concept of a “shadow biosphere” raised in this book deserves a special attention since a “weird form of life” found on Earth would not necessarily have an extraterrestrial origin, nevertheless it might be an important discovery in itself. Several arguments are presented that methods, aims and targets of “search for ET life” and “search for ET intelligence” are recently converging. The new problem is raised whether a unification of these two scales is necessary as a consequence of the convergence of the two subjects. Finally, it is suggested that experts in social sciences should take the structure of the respective scales into consideration when investigating case by case the possible effects on the society of such discoveries.

  2. BK virus nephropathy in renal transplant patients in London.

    PubMed

    White, Laura H; Casian, Alina; Hilton, Rachel; Macphee, Iain A M; Marsh, James; Sweny, Paul; Trevitt, Ray; Frankel, Andrew H; Warrens, Anthony N

    2008-04-15

    BK nephropathy (BKN) is an important cause of renal transplant dysfunction, believed to be associated with higher levels of immunosuppression. We assessed the experience of BKN in renal transplant patients in the London region. All six London transplant centers participated and case notes of patients with BKN in 2004 to 2005 were reviewed. There were 17 cases of BKN, giving an incidence of 2.1%. Median time to diagnosis was 9 months. Median baseline creatinine rose from 150 to 196 mumol/L. At diagnosis, 16 patients were on tacrolimus, 15 on mycophenolate mofetil, and 10 on triple therapy with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone. Management of BKN involved reducing immunosuppression; cidofovir was used in two patients and methylprednisolone in five for acute rejection. Median follow-up time was 29.2 months. Creatinine returned to baseline in four patients, remained elevated in 12 and one patient lost his graft. The new median baseline creatinine was 216 mumol/L. Eight patients underwent repeat biopsies of which four became negative for BKV and three subsequently cleared the virus on blood and urine polymerase chain reaction and urine decoy cells. Overall, eight patients cleared the virus. None of age, sex, viral load, or biopsy characteristics (Banff ct score, Drachenberg grade, and number of BKV positive cells) were associated with poorer outcome when patients with increase in creatinine of less than 30% (n=7) or more than 30% (n=10) from baseline were compared. The incidence of BKN in this study is comparable with previous studies, with more favorable outcomes. It supports the association of BKN with potent immunosuppression.

  3. Optical legacy of Imperial College London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidger Webb-Moore, Tina E.

    2016-10-01

    The Industrial Revolution, beginning primarily in the UK, generated an increasing need for highly skilled technical people. Throughout the 19th century, technical instruction increased dramatically and the formation of schools specializing in science and technology grew quickly. In England, there was much motivation in favour of a national prestige center for science and technology centered in London. Central among the motivating forces was Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert. Although there were already existing specialist science and technology institutions in major English cities, the growth of superior institutions in other countries within Europe, especially Germany and the Charlottenburg area of Berlin (e.g., the Berlin Technical High School), encouraged important English dignitaries to become more competitive with continental Europe. As a result of this strong continental motivation, several science and technology institutions were built in the south Kensington part of London during the latter half of the 19th century. Imperial College, founded at the start of the 20th century, was a culmination and consolidation of several of these 19th century English institutions. Optical science and technology was an early beneficiary of the founding of Imperial College. This paper will attempt to provide the reader with an understanding of how great was the influence of the optical section of Imperial College in the further development of the world's optical science and technology.

  4. Geographical analysis of socioeconomic factors in risk of domestic burn injury in London 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Heng, Jacob S; Atkins, Joanne; Clancy, Olivia; Takata, Masao; Dunn, Ken W; Jones, Isabel; Vizcaychipi, Marcela P

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to explore the geographical distribution of burn injuries in Greater London and the association of socioeconomic factors in areas at risk. Data on burn injury cases classified as occurring in patients' own homes in Greater London and admitted to a specialised burns service for ≥1 day during a 7-year period were obtained from the International Burn Injury Database (iBID). Age- and gender-adjusted standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each Lower Layer Super Output Area (LSOA) in Greater London. Bayesian methods were used to calculate relative risks as best estimates of spatially-smoothed SIRs. Of a total of 2911 admissions to specialised burns services in Greater London in the study period, 2100 (72.1%) cases occurred in patients' own homes. Percentage of ethnic minorities (p=0.005), Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (p<0.001), Health Deprivation and Disability Score (p=0.031), percentage of families with 3 or more children (p=0.004) and Barriers to Housing and Services Score (p=0.001) remained independently associated with the relative risk of paediatric domestic burn injury in a multivariate linear regression model. Percentage of ethnic minorities (p<0.001), Health Deprivation and Disability Score (p<0.001) and Barriers to Housing and Services Score (p=0.036) remained independently associated with the relative risk of adult domestic burn injury in a multivariate linear regression model. Socioeconomic factors are associated with an increased risk of burn injury in Greater London, but may be more important in children than adults. The specific factors identified are ethnicity, poor general health, household structure, housing issues and income deprivation affecting children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty liver in birds at the Zoological Society of London.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, P F; Jones, D M; Pugsley, S L

    1984-04-01

    The livers of 531 captive wild birds necropsied at the Zoological Society of London were examined histologically. Marked fatty infiltration of the liver was found in 13 cases. Seven of the 13 cases were from the order Psittaciformes indicating that some species (cockatoos, parakeets and parrots) in this order may be particularly susceptible to fatty infiltration of the liver. Affected livers were commonly swollen or enlarged, pale, white or yellow in colour and soft, friable or fatty at post mortem examination. Histologically, marked fatty infiltration of the liver was characterised by the presence of intracytoplasmic fat vacuoles within hepatocytes without zonal or lobular distribution throughout the sections examined. Reticulolysis and fibrosis of the hepatic parenchyma were found in association with marked fatty liver in a proportion of cases. Macroscopic or histological evidence of hepatic haemorrhages was not found in affected birds. In psittacine birds, obesity was frequently seen at post mortem examination and it was considered that nutritional and/or metabolic factors were important causes of fatty liver in this group. Fatty liver was found in association with chronic wasting diseases caused by mycotic infection in two cases.

  6. Gonorrhoea in a south London genitourinary medicine department.

    PubMed

    Newell, A; Herbert, E; Vigus, J; Grieg, A; Rodgers, M E

    2003-09-01

    The management and outcome of all cases of gonorrhoea which presented to a south London genitourinary medicine clinic during 1999 were assessed and compared with published national guidelines. The incidence of penicillin resistance was calculated, as was the rate of co-infection with chlamydia and trichomonas. Information regarding demographic data, microscopy, culture results, test of cure, antibiotic use, sensitivity and health adviser contact was examined. A total of 257 cases of gonorrhoea were diagnosed in 238 patients. Heterosexual men constituted 52.9% of cases, 6.6% were in homosexual men and 40.5% in women. Direct microscopy was positive in 88.8% of men and in 40.5% of women. In women, the rate of gonorrhoea co-infection with chlamydia was 34.7% and with trichomonas was 11.5%. In men the rate of chlamydia co-infection was only 3.3%, however, we do not believe this to be an accurate figure as we are unable to routinely screen all men for chlamydia due to financial restrictions. Amoxicillin with probenecid were the most commonly used antibiotics in line with local guidelines. Penicillin resistance was demonstrated in 4.6% of infected cases. Health advisers saw 73.2% of patients.

  7. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emergencies, vessels shall not anchor in New London Harbor or the approaches thereto outside the anchorages... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147 Section 110.147 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  8. Alternative Spaces of Learning in East London: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article emerges from an ongoing exploration into how British minority ethnic communities in the London area create spaces in community-based programs to maintain or develop their languages and literacies. In London, more than one-third of the 850,000 school children speak a language other than English at home (Baker & Eversley, 2000).…

  9. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY AT THE NEW LONDON HARBOR FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A radiological survey done to assess levels of environmental radioactivity in and around navy harbor facilities located on the Thames River near New London, Connecticut. These facilities include the New London Submarine Base at Groton, the Electric Boat Company at Groton, Sound ...

  10. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY AT THE NEW LONDON HARBOR FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A radiological survey done to assess levels of environmental radioactivity in and around navy harbor facilities located on the Thames River near New London, Connecticut. These facilities include the New London Submarine Base at Groton, the Electric Boat Company at Groton, Sound ...

  11. Alternative Spaces of Learning in East London: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article emerges from an ongoing exploration into how British minority ethnic communities in the London area create spaces in community-based programs to maintain or develop their languages and literacies. In London, more than one-third of the 850,000 school children speak a language other than English at home (Baker & Eversley, 2000).…

  12. London air quality: a real world experiment in progress.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Kelly, Julia

    2009-07-01

    London currently has the highest nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration recorded for any European city and for particulate matter (PM) it has some of the worst hot spots. Therefore overall, for these two pollutants, London is the worst in the UK and amongst the worst in Europe. Exposure to elevated concentrations of air pollutants such as PM and NO2 has well-established heath effects and most countries now have strict guidelines for air quality. London's air quality problems are driven largely by traffic. This, along with the high density of people in an urban area results in air quality guidelines being exceeded on a regular basis and large numbers of people being affected. In an attempt to combat London's air quality problems the Mayor of London introduced a series of measures to decrease traffic emissions. These included both a restriction on the number of vehicles entering central London each day--the Congestions Charging Scheme (CCS), and the discouragement of the most polluting heavy goods vehicles from entering--the London Low Emission Zone (LEZ). Together, it is hoped that these measures will lead to an improvement in air quality and provide a direct health benefit to Londoners. Research underway is charting the progress of this real world experiment.

  13. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  14. Education in a Global City: Essays from London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim, Ed.; Fullick, Leisha, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This collection of essays by academic and policy experts brings together a wide range of data to offer a clear picture of London's changing education scene. Its mapping of new and developing strategies for successful urban education will be useful to educators and policymakers not only in London but also in other cities operating in similar…

  15. Education in a Global City: Essays from London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim, Ed.; Fullick, Leisha, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This collection of essays by academic and policy experts brings together a wide range of data to offer a clear picture of London's changing education scene. Its mapping of new and developing strategies for successful urban education will be useful to educators and policymakers not only in London but also in other cities operating in similar…

  16. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  17. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  18. London in Space and Time: Peter Ackroyd and Will Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the treatment of London by two authors who are profoundly influenced by the concept of the power of place and the nature of urban space. The works of Peter Ackroyd, whose writings embody, according to Onega (1997, p. 208) "[a] yearning for mythical closure" where London is "a mystic centre of…

  19. Multiple sclerosis among immigrants in Greater London.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, G; McLoughlin, H; Brady, R; Adelstein, A M; Tallett-Williams, J

    1976-01-01

    Among immigrants resident in greater London from Europe, Ireland, the USSR, the old Commonwealth countries of Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, North and South America, Egypt, Turkey, and Iran the incidence of admission to hospital for probable multiple sclerosis (MS) between 1960 and 1972 was high or moderately high. The incidence was the same order as that found in those born in the United Kingdom. Immigrants from India, Pakistan, and other Asian countries and from new Commonwealth Africa and America, which includes the West Indies, had a low incidence of hospital admission for MS. Immigrants from countries where the risk of MS is low whose parents were born in Europe had a reduced incidence of admission to hospital but not the very low incidence found in those parents were also born in these countries. Emigrating to England from low risk parts of the world did not seem to increase the risk of developing MS. PMID:1260384

  20. London Trusts proud to describe their work.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    'Waste not, Want not' was the title of a recent IHEEM seminar which examined some of the key issues for those responsible for dealing with healthcare waste--from regulatory compliance and correct segregation of waste streams, to the opportunities for more on-site processing. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports on the joint presentations given by key environmental and sustainability personnel at two of London's largest NHS Trusts, and their private sector waste management partners. These discussed some of the key initiatives that each Trust and its 'partner' have taken to not only significantly reduce the amount of waste generated on their estate, but also to dispose of it in an environmentally responsible way. These initiatives, the speakers explained, were all part of their organisations' journey on the road to achieving 'Deep Green', a 'nirvana'-like state where their activities have a zero net impact on the environment.

  1. What explains worse patient experience in London? Evidence from secondary analysis of the Cancer Patient Experience Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Catherine L; Abel, Gary A; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore why patients with cancer treated by London hospitals report worse experiences of care compared with those treated in other English regions. Design Secondary analysis of the 2011/2012 National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (n=69 086). Setting and participants Patients with cancer treated by the English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Main outcome measures 64 patient experience measures covering all aspects of cancer care (pre-diagnosis to discharge). Methods Using mixed effects logistic regression, we explored whether poorer scores in London hospitals could be explained by patient case-mix (age, gender, ethnicity and cancer type). Because patients referred to tertiary centres and/or with complex medical problems may report more critical experiences, we also explored whether the experiences reported in London may reflect higher concentration of teaching hospitals in the capital. Finally, using the data from the (general) Adult Inpatients Survey, we explored whether the extent of poorer experience reported by London patients was similar for respondents to either survey. Results For 52/64 questions, there was evidence of poorer experience in London, with the percentage of patients reporting a positive experience being lower compared with the rest of England by a median of 3.7% (IQR 2.5–5.4%). After case-mix adjustment there was still evidence for worse experience in London for 44/64 questions. In addition, adjusting for teaching hospital status made trivial difference to the case-mix-adjusted findings. There was evidence that London versus rest-of-England differences were greater for patients with cancer compared with (general) hospital inpatients for 10 of 16 questions in both the Cancer Patient Experience and the Adult Inpatients Surveys. Conclusions Patients with cancer treated by London hospitals report worse care experiences and by and large these differences are not explained by patient case-mix or teaching hospital status

  2. The emergency bed service — a barometer of London's hospital service

    PubMed Central

    Evans, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    The emergency bed service in London exists to facilitate admissions to hospital in cases referred to them by general practitioners and deputizing doctors. The data collected by the emergency bed service provides a unique London-wide perspective of the hospital service and the recent changes observed are examined in this paper. When the emergency bed service fails to arrange for the admission of a patient after trying at least four hospitals the case is medically refereed. The number of cases reviewed by the medical referee has increased over the period 1976-86 as has the necessity for hospitals to stop or slow nonemergency admissions (red and yellow alerts). External factors, such as severe weather and influenza epidemics, were examined to see whether they could account for these changes. However, it was concluded that bed closures accounted for the changes and were making it more difficult to obtain hospital admission for emergency cases via the emergency bed service in Greater London. PMID:3505639

  3. Estimation of the Rate of Unrecognized Cross-Contamination with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in London Microbiology Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Ruddy, M.; McHugh, T. D.; Dale, J. W.; Banerjee, D.; Maguire, H.; Wilson, P.; Drobniewski, F.; Butcher, P.; Gillespie, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    Isolates from patients with confirmed tuberculosis from London were collected over 2.5 years between 1995 and 1997. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed by the international standard technique as part of a multicenter epidemiological study. A total of 2,779 samples representing 2,500 individual patients from 56 laboratories were examined. Analysis of these samples revealed a laboratory cross-contamination rate of between 0.54%, when only presumed cases of cross-contamination were considered, and 0.93%, when presumed and possible cases were counted. Previous studies suggest an extremely wide range of laboratory cross-contamination rates of between 0.1 and 65%. These data indicate that laboratory cross-contamination has not been a common problem in routine practice in the London area, but in several incidents patients did receive full courses of therapy that were probably unnecessary. PMID:12409381

  4. Did policies to abate atmospheric emissions from traffic have a positive effect in London?

    PubMed

    Font, Anna; Fuller, Gary W

    2016-11-01

    A large number of policy initiatives are being taken at the European level, across the United Kingdom and in London to improve air quality and reduce population exposure to harmful pollutants from traffic emissions. Trends in roadside increments of nitrogen oxides (NOX), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM), black carbon (CBLK) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were examined at 65 London monitoring sites for two periods of time: 2005-2009 and 2010-2014. Between 2005 and 2009 there was an overall increase in NO2 reflecting the growing evidence of real world emissions from diesel vehicles. Conversely, NO2 decreased by 10%·year(-1) from 2010 onwards along with PM2.5 (-28%·year(-1)) and black carbon (-11%·year(-1)). Downwards trends in air pollutants were not fully explained by changes in traffic counts therefore traffic exhaust emission abatement policies were proved to be successful in some locations. PM10 concentrations showed no significant overall change suggesting an increase in coarse particles which offset the decrease in tailpipe emissions; this was especially the case on roads in outer London where an increase in the number of Heavy Good Vehicles (HGVs) was seen. The majority of roads with increasing NOX experienced an increase in buses and coaches. Changes in CO2 from 2010 onwards did not match the downward predictions from reduced traffic flows and improved fleet efficiency. CO2 increased along with increasing HGVs and buses. Polices to manage air pollution provided differential benefits across London's road network. To investigate this, k-means clustering technique was applied to group roads which behaved similarly in terms of trends to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to mitigate traffic emissions. This is the first time that London's roadside monitoring sites have been considered as a population rather than summarized as a mean behaviour only, allowing greater insight into the differential changes in air pollution abatement policies.

  5. Third Year Continuation of a Research and Design Criteria for the Implementation and Establishment of a Neighborhood Information Center in Five Public Libraries: Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, and Queens Borough. Final Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    The 1972-1975 Neighborhood Information Center (NIC) Project was undertaken in Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, and Queens Borough to demonstrate the feasibility of using existing library branches as neighborhood information centers. This summary evaluation utilized data from site visits, interviews with staff and clients, a questionnaire…

  6. A Comprehensive Occupational Education System: Research and Experimentation in a Career Development Center. Volume II. Plan for a Comprehensive Occupational Education System in New York City's Borough of the Bronx.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Educational Planning and Support.

    Designed to gather and analyze the information needed to develop a plan for a model comprehensive occupational education system (COES), this research project is reported in five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the project which was conducted in the Bronx borough of New York City because this area exemplifies the problems of urban…

  7. Interloan Procedures in the Public Libraries of New York City, A Survey Conducted for the Brooklyn Public Library, the Queens Borough Public Library, and the New York Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report contains the results of a study to design a communications network to facilitate interloan procedures in the three public library systems of New York City--the Brooklyn Public Library, Queens Borough Public Library, and New York Public Library. Methods employed for the study include interviews with appropriate library personnel,…

  8. Measurement of NO(x) fluxes from a tall tower in Central London, UK and comparison with emissions inventories.

    PubMed

    Lee, James D; Helfter, Carole; Purvis, Ruth M; Beevers, Sean D; Carslaw, David C; Lewis, Alastair C; Møller, Sarah J; Tremper, Anja; Vaughan, Adam; Nemitz, Eiko G

    2015-01-20

    Direct measurements of NOx concentration and flux were made from a tall tower in central London, UK as part of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project. Fast time resolution (10 Hz) NO and NO2 concentrations were measured and combined with fast vertical wind measurements to provide top-down flux estimates using the eddy covariance technique. Measured NOx fluxes were usually positive and ranged from close to zero at night to 2000-8000 ng m(-2) s(-1) during the day. Peak fluxes were usually observed in the morning, coincident with the maximum traffic flow. Measurements of the NOx flux have been scaled and compared to the UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) estimate of NOx emission for the measurement footprint. The measurements are on average 80% higher than the NAEI emission inventory for all of London. Observations made in westerly airflow (from parts of London where traffic is a smaller fraction of the NOx source) showed a better agreement on average with the inventory. The observations suggest that the emissions inventory is poorest at estimating NOx when traffic is the dominant source, in this case from an easterly direction from the BT Tower. Agreement between the measurements and the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI) are better, due to the more explicit treatment of traffic flow by this more detailed inventory. The flux observations support previous tailpipe observations of higher NOx emitted from the London vehicle diesel fleet than is represented in the NAEI or predicted for several EURO emission control technologies. Higher-than-anticipated vehicle NOx is likely responsible for the significant discrepancies that exist in London between observed NOx and long-term NOx projections.

  9. Mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases in the county boroughs of England and Wales classified according to the sources and hardness of their water supplies, 1958-1967.

    PubMed

    Stocks, P

    1973-06-01

    Relative rates of proportionate mortality from cancer of six sites based on total cancer deaths and the proportions expected in all towns, and from four types of cardiovascular disease based on total deaths from all causes, have been related in the 80 county boroughs of England and Wales to the sources of water supply and to the average hardness of water in the towns. The sources of water, from upland surfaces, artesian wells and rivers, were classified in eight groups, and significant associations were found for cancers of the stomach, oesophagus, prostate, male bladder and female breast, and for hypertensive and chronic rheumatic heart disease. No associations were apparent with intestinal cancer, vascular disease of the nervous system or arteriosclerotic heart disease. Hardness or softness of the water was classified in seven groups and significant associations were found for the same diseases as for source of water, none being evident for coronary disease.

  10. Mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases in the county boroughs of England and Wales classified according to the sources and hardness of their water supplies, 1958-1967

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, Percy

    1973-01-01

    Relative rates of proportionate mortality from cancer of six sites based on total cancer deaths and the proportions expected in all towns, and from four types of cardiovascular disease based on total deaths from all causes, have been related in the 80 county boroughs of England and Wales to the sources of water supply and to the average hardness of water in the towns. The sources of water, from upland surfaces, artesian wells and rivers, were classified in eight groups, and significant associations were found for cancers of the stomach, oesophagus, prostate, male bladder and female breast, and for hypertensive and chronic rheumatic heart disease. No associations were apparent with intestinal cancer, vascular disease of the nervous system or arteriosclerotic heart disease. Hardness or softness of the water was classified in seven groups and significant associations were found for the same diseases as for source of water, none being evident for coronary disease. PMID:4515876

  11. Raised incidence rates of all psychoses among migrant groups: findings from the East London first episode psychosis study.

    PubMed

    Coid, Jeremy W; Kirkbride, James B; Barker, Dave; Cowden, Fiona; Stamps, Rebekah; Yang, Min; Jones, Peter B

    2008-11-01

    Certain black and minority ethnic groups are at increased risk for psychoses. It is unknown whether risk for second- and later-generation black and minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom is universally increased or varies by ethnicity, population structure, or diagnostic category. To examine whether excess risk in black and minority ethnic groups varies by generation status and to determine whether this is explained solely by an excess of broadly defined schizophrenia. Population-based epidemiological survey of first-onset psychoses during a 2-year study period. Three inner-city boroughs in East London, England. Patients Four hundred eighty-four patients with first-episode psychosis aged 18 to 64 years. Nonaffective or affective psychoses according to the DSM-IV. Raised incidence of both nonaffective and affective psychoses were found for all of the black and minority ethnic subgroups compared with white British individuals. The risk of nonaffective psychoses for first and second generations varied by ethnicity (likelihood ratio test, P = .06). Only black Caribbean second-generation individuals were at significantly greater risk compared with their first-generation counterparts (incidence rate ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.2) [corrected]. No significant differences between first and second generations were observed in other ethnic groups. Asian women but not men of both generations were at increased risk for psychoses compared with white British individuals. Patterns were broadly upheld for the affective psychoses. Both first- and second-generation immigrants were at elevated risk for both nonaffective and affective psychoses, but this varied by ethnicity. Our results suggest that given the same age structure, the risk of psychoses in first and second generations of the same ethnicity will be roughly equal. We suggest that socioenvironmental factors operate differentially by ethnicity but not generation status, even if the exact specification of

  12. Challenges in researching migration status, health and health service use: an intersectional analysis of a South London community

    PubMed Central

    Gazard, Billy; Frissa, Souci; Nellums, Laura; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the associations between migration status and health-related outcomes and to examine whether and how the effect of migration status changes when it is disaggregated by length of residence, first language, reason for migration and combined with ethnicity. Design. A total of 1698 adults were interviewed from 1076 randomly selected households in two South London boroughs. We described the socio-demographic and socio-economic differences between migrants and non-migrants and compared the prevalence of health-related outcomes by migration status, length of residence, first language, reason for migration and migration status within ethnic groups. Unadjusted models and models adjusted for socio-demographic and socio-economic indicators are presented. Results. Migrants were disadvantaged in terms of socio-economic status but few differences were found between migrant and non-migrants regarding health or health service use indicators; migration status was associated with decreased hazardous alcohol use, functional limitations due to poor mental health and not being registered with a general practitioner. Important differences emerged when migration status was disaggregated by length of residence in the UK, first language, reason for migration and intersected with ethnicity. The association between migration status and functional limitations due to poor mental health was only seen in White migrants, migrants whose first language was not English and migrants who had moved to the UK for work or a better life or for asylum or political reasons. There was no association between migration status and self-rated health overall, but Black African migrants had decreased odds for reporting poor health compared to their non-migrant counterparts [odds ratio = 0.15 (0.05–0.48), p < 0.01]. Conclusions. Disaggregating migration status by length of residence, first language and reason for migration as well as intersecting it with ethnicity leads

  13. Multiple large clusters of tuberculosis in London: a cross-sectional analysis of molecular and spatial data.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine M; Maguire, Helen; Anderson, Charlotte; Macdonald, Neil; Hayward, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    Large outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) represent a particular threat to disease control because they reflect multiple instances of active transmission. The extent to which long chains of transmission contribute to high TB incidence in London is unknown. We aimed to estimate the contribution of large clusters to the burden of TB in London and identify risk factors. We identified TB patients resident in London notified between 2010 and 2014, and used 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat strain typing data to classify cases according to molecular cluster size. We used spatial scan statistics to test for spatial clustering and analysed risk factors through multinomial logistic regression. TB isolates from 7458 patients were included in the analysis. There were 20 large molecular clusters (with n>20 cases), comprising 795 (11%) of all cases; 18 (90%) large clusters exhibited significant spatial clustering. Cases in large clusters were more likely to be UK born (adjusted odds ratio 2.93, 95% CI 2.28-3.77), of black-Caribbean ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio 3.64, 95% CI 2.23-5.94) and have multiple social risk factors (adjusted odds ratio 3.75, 95% CI 1.96-7.16). Large clusters of cases contribute substantially to the burden of TB in London. Targeting interventions such as screening in deprived areas and social risk groups, including those of black ethnicities and born in the UK, should be a priority for reducing transmission.

  14. Multiple large clusters of tuberculosis in London: a cross-sectional analysis of molecular and spatial data

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Helen; Anderson, Charlotte; Macdonald, Neil; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Large outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) represent a particular threat to disease control because they reflect multiple instances of active transmission. The extent to which long chains of transmission contribute to high TB incidence in London is unknown. We aimed to estimate the contribution of large clusters to the burden of TB in London and identify risk factors. We identified TB patients resident in London notified between 2010 and 2014, and used 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units–variable number tandem repeat strain typing data to classify cases according to molecular cluster size. We used spatial scan statistics to test for spatial clustering and analysed risk factors through multinomial logistic regression. TB isolates from 7458 patients were included in the analysis. There were 20 large molecular clusters (with n>20 cases), comprising 795 (11%) of all cases; 18 (90%) large clusters exhibited significant spatial clustering. Cases in large clusters were more likely to be UK born (adjusted odds ratio 2.93, 95% CI 2.28–3.77), of black-Caribbean ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio 3.64, 95% CI 2.23–5.94) and have multiple social risk factors (adjusted odds ratio 3.75, 95% CI 1.96–7.16). Large clusters of cases contribute substantially to the burden of TB in London. Targeting interventions such as screening in deprived areas and social risk groups, including those of black ethnicities and born in the UK, should be a priority for reducing transmission. PMID:28149918

  15. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, R. J.; Hu, C.; Jing, L. S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.

  16. Lidar Observations of Pollution Transport From London to Rural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Hugo; Vaughan, Geraint; Wareing, David

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) Project took place in and around London, United Kingdom. The aim of the project was to learn how both atmospheric dynamics and chemistry affect air pollution in the south east of England. During the winter and summer of 2012 many different types of instrument including lidars were deployed throughout London city centre, suburbs and into rural areas. Amongst these instruments was the Boundary Layer Aerosol/Ozone Lidar owned by the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS) in the United Kingdom. Ozone and aerosol data are presented from data collected during July and August 2012 and compared to back trajectories to identify their origins.

  17. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  18. Survey of women's experiences of care in a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area of London, England. 1: Methods and women's overall ratings of care.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Alison J; Rocca-Ihenacho, Lucia; Turner, Lyle R; Roth, Carolyn

    2014-09-01

    to describe and compare women's choices and experiences of maternity care before and after the opening of the Barkantine Birth Centre, a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area. telephone surveys undertaken in late pregnancy and about six weeks after birth in two separate time periods, Phase 1 before the birth centre opened and Phase 2 after it had opened. Tower Hamlets, a deprived inner city borough in east London, England, 2007-2010. 620 women who were resident in Tower Hamlets and who satisfied the Barts and the London NHS Trust's eligibility criteria for using the birth centre. Of these, 259 women were recruited to Phase 1 and 361 to Phase 2. women who satisfied the criteria for birth centre care and who booked antenatally for care at the birth centre were significantly more likely to rate their care as good or very good overall than corresponding women who also satisfied these criteria but booked initially at the hospital. Women who started labour care in spontaneous labour at the birth centre were significantly more likely to be cared for by a midwife they had already met, have one to one care in labour and have the same midwife with them throughout their labour. They were also significantly more likely to report that the staff were kind and understanding, that they were treated with respect and dignity and that their privacy was respected. this survey in an inner city area showed that women who chose the freestanding midwifery unit care had positive experiences to report. Taken together with the findings of the Birthplace Programme, it adds further weight to the evidence in support of freestanding midwifery unit care for women without obstetric complications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Small-scale home composting of biodegradable household waste: overview of key results from a 3-year research programme in West London.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen R; Jasim, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    Home composting (HC) is recognized by both local and national Governments for its contribution to reducing household waste disposal in landfill. However, the quantitative impact of HC on the diversion of household waste from landfill is uncertain. An overview of key results is presented from a 3-year research programme on HC in the West London area of Runnymede Borough Council (RBC), Surrey, UK. The amount of biodegradable household waste diverted from landfill disposal by HC was measured in a 2-year monitoring study involving 64 homeowners. The total average annual waste input to a standard 290 L HC bin was approximately 370 kg per household. The average relative mass inputs of kitchen, paper and garden waste were 29, 2 and 69%, respectively. A survey of the study area indicated that approximately 20% of households were engaged in HC and, based on inputs to HC bins, this corresponded to an overall recycling/diversion rate equivalent to 20% of household biodegradable waste. Temperature and gas composition measurements indicated organic matter decomposition by HC was aerobic and only traces of CH(4) were occasionally detected. A field trial examined the end-use of composted products for the growth of Petunia grandiflora. Flower production increased with home-produced composts in comparison with peat-amended or untreated control soil. Compost chemical composition, bioaerosol emissions and vector attraction were also investigated.

  20. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dianna; Cummins, Steven; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2013-01-24

    The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001-2005 n=757) approaches. Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed a decrease of the mean healthy (-1.12, se 0.12) and unhealthy (-0.48, se 0.16) diet scores. There were significant positive relationships between the distances travelled to grocers and healthy diet scores though effects were very small (0.003, 95%CI 0.001 - 0.006). Significant negative relationships between proximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates. The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were

  1. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS). Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757) approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p< 0.001). Longitudinal analyses showed a decrease of the mean healthy (−1.12, se 0.12) and unhealthy (−0.48, se 0.16) diet scores. There were significant positive relationships between the distances travelled to grocers and healthy diet scores though effects were very small (0.003, 95%CI 0.001 – 0.006). Significant negative relationships between proximity to takeaways and unhealthy diet scores also resulted in small parameter estimates. Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools

  2. The Policy-Practice Nexus in English Classrooms in Delhi, Johannesburg, and London: Teachers and the Textual Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Rimli; Gupta, Snehlata; Jewitt, Carey; Newfield, Denise; Reed, Yvonne; Stein, Pippa

    2007-01-01

    This article makes a methodological contribution to investigating the policy-practice nexus in the English classroom. It looks beyond language to offer a multimodal case study analysis of English classrooms in three cities: Delhi, Johannesburg, and London. The article shows how policies mediated by the agencies of the state, the school, the…

  3. Outsourcing the State's Responsibilities? Third Sector Organizations Supporting Migrant Families' Participation in Schools in Catalonia and London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Alejandro; D'Angelo, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Based on two case studies of Third Sector Organizations (TSOs) working with schools and parents in Catalonia and London, this paper aims to discuss some of the implications of "participative" programmes aimed at involving those migrant families seen by schools as "hard to reach". First, we describe how an ambiguous notion of…

  4. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  5. The Making of Two Readers: Agatha Christie and Jack London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghban, Marcia

    1990-01-01

    Looks at the lives of two well-known writers to explore how diverse experiences produce literate adults. Discusses Agatha Christie and Jack London who used reading and writing to earn a living and to gain international reputations. (MG)

  6. 106. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 109. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 108. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. 107. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. 105. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. Niantic River Bridge. Niantic, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 116.74. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. 96. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 104. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  13. 98. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  14. 101. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 97. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  16. 102. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  17. 99. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. 100. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. Connecticut River Bridge. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  19. 103. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. Connecticut River Bridge draw span. Old Lyme, New London Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 106.89. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. East London Experience with Enteric Fever 2007-2012

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jayshree; Millar, Michael; Maxeiner, Horst; Freedman, Joanne; Meade, Rachel; Rosmarin, Caryn; Jordan, Matthew; Andrews, Nick; Holliman, Richard; Sefton, Armine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The clinical presentation and epidemiology for patients with enteric fever at two hospitals in East London during 2007–2012 is described with the aim to identify preventive opportunities and to reduce the cost of treatment. Methods A retrospective analysis of case notes from patients admitted with enteric fever during 2007 to 2012 with a microbiologically confirmed diagnosis was undertaken. Details on clinical presentation, travel history, demographic data, laboratory parameters, treatment, patient outcome and vaccination status were collected. Results Clinical case notes were available for 98/129 (76%) patients including 69 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and 29 Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi). Thirty-four patients (35%) were discharged from emergency medicine without a diagnosis of enteric fever and then readmitted after positive blood cultures. Seventy-one of the 98 patients (72%) were UK residents who had travelled abroad, 23 (23%) were foreign visitors/new entrants to the UK and four (4%) had not travelled abroad. Enteric fever was not considered in the initial differential diagnosis for 48/98 (49%) cases. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days (range 0–57 days). The total cost of bed days for managing enteric fever was £454,000 in the two hospitals (mean £75,666/year). Median time to clinical resolution was five days (range 1–20). Seven of 98 (7%) patients were readmitted with relapsed or continued infection. Six of the 71 (8%) patients had received typhoid vaccination, 34 (48%) patients had not received vaccination, and for 31 cases (44%) vaccination status was unknown. Conclusions Further interventions regarding education and vaccination of travellers and recognition of the condition by emergency medicine clinicians in travellers to South Asia is required. PMID:25790017

  1. Contemporary terrorism: risk perception in the London options market.

    PubMed

    Garvey, John; Mullins, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Previous studies have a demonstrated a linkage between terrorist attacks and the operation of financial markets. This article focuses on terrorist events carried out over the last five years and examines how they have been perceived among participants on the London financial market. Data from the London options market suggest a high degree of sensitivity to these events. We argue that this sensitivity reveals a vulnerability in the financial markets should the recent trends in terrorist activity continue.

  2. Dentists with enhanced skills (Special Interest) in Endodontics: gatekeepers views in London.

    PubMed

    Ghotane, Swapnil G; Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Kendall, Nick; Robertson, Claire; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2015-09-21

    Dentists with a special interest hold enhanced skills enabling them to treat cases of intermediate complexity. The aim of this study was to explore primary dental care practitioners' views of dentists with a special interest (DwSIs) in Endodontics in London, with reference to an educational and service initiative established by (the former) London Deanery in conjunction with the NHS. A cross-sectional postal survey of primary care dentists working across different models of care within London was conducted, with a target to achieve views of at least 5 % of London's dentists. The questionnaire instrument was informed by qualitative research and the dental literature and piloted prior to distribution; data were analysed using SPSS v19 and STATA v12.0. Six per cent of London's primary care dentists (n = 243) responded to the survey; 53 % were male. Just over one third (37 %; n = 90) were aware of the DwSI service being provided. Most practitioners reported that having access to a DwSI in Endodontics would support the care of their patients (89 %; n = 215), would carry out more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care if adequately reimbursed (93 %; n = 220), and had more time (76 %; n = 180). Female respondents appeared to be less confident in doing endodontic treatment (p = 0.001). More recently qualified respondents reported greater need for training/support for performing more endodontic treatment in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.001), were more dissatisfied with access to endodontic service in the NHS primary dental care (p = 0.007) and more interested to train as a DwSI in endodontics (p = 0.001) compared with respondents having a greater number of years of clinical experience since qualification. The findings lend support to the concept of developing dentists with enhanced skills as well as ensuring additional funding, time and support to facilitate more routine endodontics through the NHS primary care to meet

  3. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  4. Timeliness of electronic reporting and acceptability of public health follow-up of routine nonparatyphoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella infections, London and South East England, 2010 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Severi, E; Dabrera, G; Boxall, N; Harvey-Vince, L; Booth, L; Balasegaram, S

    2014-01-01

    Nonparatyphoidal and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections are major causes of food poisoning in England. Diagnostic laboratories and clinicians have a statutory responsibility to report NTS infection cases to the Health Protection Agency via various means, with electronic reporting encouraged as the universal method. The Health Protection Agency (Public Health England since 1 April 2013) refers cases to environmental health departments for follow-up. Timeliness of reporting and adequacy of NTS infection case follow-up are key factors in the implementation of public health actions. Laboratories, health protection units, and environmental health departments in London and South East (SE) regions of England completed three surveys between December 2010 and April 2011, collecting data about the NTS infection case reporting methods and the time elapsed between symptom onset and public health actions. The median period between symptom onset and public health investigation was 25 days in London and 23 days in SE when electronic reporting was used and 12 days in London and 11 days in SE when other means of reporting were used. The most common follow-up method was a telephone questionnaire in London (53%) and a postal questionnaire in SE (52%). The telephone questionnaire had the highest response rate (98% in London; 96% in SE). Timeliness and efficiency of electronic NTS infection case reports can be improved by decreasing the electronic laboratory report period and using telephone-administered questionnaires to maximize the public health benefit when following up single cases of NTS infection.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    PubMed

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles.

  6. Response of London's urban heat island to a marine air intrusion in an easterly wind regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemel, C.; Sokhi, R. S.

    2010-09-01

    London is long known to develop a pronounced urban heat island (UHI) resulting primarily from the storage of heat in the urban fabric during the day and released during the night, the differences in thermal and radiative properties of the surface between urban and rural areas, and lack of evapotranspiration in urban areas. Under calm, clear, and dry weather conditions, the difference in near-surface air temperature between two representative urban centre and rural locations at a given time typically reaches several degrees (i.e. warming) during the night and can be negative (i.e. cooling) during the day. Like the majority of large cities in the world, London is located in a coastal area. On certain occasions cooler marine air from the North Sea is advected across London by a sea breeze or easterly winds. In our work we examine the effects of a marine air intrusion, in an easterly wind regime, on the structure of London's UHI for a case study on 7 May 2008. For this purpose, numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model are performed for multiple nested domains with the innermost domain covering London and its rural surroundings at the kilometre scale. A sensitivity study is undertaken to assess how the categorisation of the urban land use and the parameterisation of the urban canopy in the model affect its performance characteristics for the near-surface air temperature field. The categorisation of the urban landuse, according to the fractional area that is built-up within each grid cell, is found to be key to capturing the spatial pattern of the temperature field. Using a multilayer rather than single layer urban canopy model improves the representation of the variability of the pattern and the intensity of the UHI. A notable outcome of this work is that the inclusion of building anthropogenic fluxes is comparatively less important as regards model performance for near-surface air temperature. The effects of the marine air intrusion on

  7. Study of 100 patients injured by London underground trains 1981-6.

    PubMed

    Cocks, R A

    1987-12-12

    One hundred patients who were injured by London underground trains during 1981-6 were studied; 43 of them died. Deliberate self harm was probable in roughly three quarters. Alcohol intoxication was thought to play an important part in a further tenth of cases. Thirteen were psychiatric inpatients at the time of the incident, and a further two had recently been discharged. Early warning of a potential suicide attempt was given during the 24 hours preceding the incident in 15 of the cases. Some of the deaths in the psychiatric patients may have been preventable.

  8. Study of 100 patients injured by London underground trains 1981-6.

    PubMed Central

    Cocks, R A

    1987-01-01

    One hundred patients who were injured by London underground trains during 1981-6 were studied; 43 of them died. Deliberate self harm was probable in roughly three quarters. Alcohol intoxication was thought to play an important part in a further tenth of cases. Thirteen were psychiatric inpatients at the time of the incident, and a further two had recently been discharged. Early warning of a potential suicide attempt was given during the 24 hours preceding the incident in 15 of the cases. Some of the deaths in the psychiatric patients may have been preventable. PMID:3122889

  9. The Struggle to Study. Financial Implications for Adults Studying in London. A Research Report Funded by London's Four Open College Networks: ALFA, CAWLOC, GLEAN, and OCSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Anne; Goddard, Ty

    The four Open College Networks in London assessed the climate in inner London for adult students who wished to return to education and training. The research focussed on: the extent to which recent legislative changes threatened adult participation in education and training; the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and…

  10. The Struggle to Study. Financial Implications for Adults Studying in London. A Research Report Funded by London's Four Open College Networks: ALFA, CAWLOC, GLEAN, and OCSL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Anne; Goddard, Ty

    The four Open College Networks in London assessed the climate in inner London for adult students who wished to return to education and training. The research focussed on: the extent to which recent legislative changes threatened adult participation in education and training; the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and…

  11. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attar, K. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books)" (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare…

  12. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attar, K. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in "Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books)" (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare…

  13. Exploring anterograde associative memory in London taxi drivers.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2012-10-24

    London taxi drivers are renowned for their navigation ability, spending a number of years acquiring 'The Knowledge' of London's complex layout and having to pass stringent examinations to obtain an operating licence. In several studies, this navigation skill has been associated with increased posterior but also decreased anterior hippocampal grey matter volume. Neuropsychologically, gain and loss has also been documented in taxi drivers; while very skilled at navigation in London, they are significantly poorer than controls at learning and recalling new object-location associations. Here we tested a group of London taxi drivers and matched control participants on this object-location associations task, while also subjecting them to a battery of challenging anterograde associative memory tests involving verbal, visual and auditory material both within and across modalities. Our aim was to assess whether their difficulty in previous studies reflected a general problem with associative memory, or was restricted to the spatial domain. We replicated previous findings of poor learning and memory of object-location associations. By contrast, their performance on the other anterograde associative memory tasks was comparable with controls. This resolves an outstanding question in the memory profile of London taxi drivers following hippocampal plasticity, and underlines the close relationship between space and the hippocampus.

  14. Epidemiological survey of human rotavirus serotypes and electropherotypes in young children admitted to two children's hospitals in northeast London from 1984 to 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, J S; Beards, G M; Cubitt, W D

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective and prospective survey was carried out to determine the relative frequency of rotavirus serotypes infecting children with diarrhea or vomiting or both who were admitted to the Hospitals for Sick Children in London during a 6-year period from 1984 to 1990. The results were compared with data for the same period from a study in Birmingham, United Kingdom. The serotype of rotaviruses infecting 1,019 children was ascertained by enzyme immunoassay with VP7-specific monoclonal antibodies. In London, serotype G1 accounted for 60% of the cases, serotype G4 accounted for 24%, serotype G2 accounted for 11%, G3 accounted for 3%, and coinfections accounted for 2%. Considerable differences in the relative prevalence of serotypes were seen when data from London and Birmingham were compared. A major shift from serotype G1 to G4 was observed in London in the 1989 to 1990 season, and a lesser shift was seen in Birmingham. Examination of the electrophoretic profiles of 611 rotaviruses from London showed that there were at least 108 different profiles. Continuous variation occurred throughout the 6-year period, and the same electropherotype never recurred once it had disappeared from the population. None of the electrophoretic profiles were characteristic of group B or group C rotaviruses. There was no evidence that any strain of rotavirus had become endemic in either of the children's hospitals in London. Images PMID:1658035

  15. Development of flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Borough of Jersey Shore, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Streamflow data, water-surface-elevation profiles derived from a Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System hydraulic model, and geographical information system digital elevation models were used to develop a set of 18 flood-inundation maps for an approximately 5-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Borough of Jersey Shore, Pa. The inundation maps were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and Lycoming County as part of an ongoing effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service to focus on continued improvements to the flood forecasting and warning abilities in the Susquehanna River Basin and to modernize flood-forecasting methodologies. The maps, ranging from 23.0 to 40.0 feet in 1-foot increments, correspond to river stage at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage 01549760 at Jersey Shore. The electronic files used to develop the maps were provided to the National Weather Service for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service website. The maps are displayed on this website, which serves as a web-based floodwarning system, and can be used to identify areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. During times of flooding or predicted flooding, these maps can be used by emergency managers and the public to take proactive steps to protect life and reduce property damage caused by floods.

  16. Aquifer-test analysis of the upper aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan- Magothy aquifer system, Union Beach Borough, Monmouth County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pucci, A.A.; Pope, D.A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    1989-01-01

    The hydraulic properties of the upper aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system and of the overlying and underlying confining units were determined from and aquifer test in the vicinity of Union Beach Borough, New Jersey, near Raritan Bay. The April 1986 test included the pumping of 2 test wells for 72 hours at a combined discharge rate of 1,375 gal/min, and the measurement of water levels in 10 observation wells. No lateral recharge boundary in Raritan Bay affected the observed water-level changes. Assuming leaky artesian conditions, the average transmissivity and storage coefficient of the upper aquifer are 7,754 sq ft/day and 0.00044 respectively. The leakance of the combined confining units ranges from 0.000030 to 0.000076/day/ft. On the basis of lithologic samples from a nearby well, the overlying and underlying confining units were assumed to have similar hydraulic properties. By using this assumption, the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining units ranges from 0.010 to 0.027 ft/day. (USGS)

  17. Health assessment for Garden State Cleaners Company, Buena Borough, Atlantic City, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD053280160. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The Garden State Cleaners Company is a dry cleaning establishment located in Buena Borough, New Jersey. Contaminated wastewater from on-site operations was routinely discharged to on-site soils. Analytical data has described significant soil and ground-water contamination from tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other volatile organic compounds. Ground-water contamination downgradient (to the south) of the site has required the recommended closing of private wells and the installation of a municipal water supply system. An Administrative Order and Notice of Civil Administrative Penalty Assessment (AO and PSO) were issued to Garden State Cleaners in December 1985, requiring GSC to perform a full RI/FS. Municipal water supplies have been made available to affected residens, but utilization is elective. The site was included on the NPL list in March 1989 and is currently ranked 105 of 108 sites in New Jersey. ATSDR and NJDOH consider the Garden State Cleaners site to be of public health concern. The site is being considered for follow-up health study or evaluation.

  18. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London street network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcio, Roberto; Masucci, A. Paolo; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not suffice to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, which can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, which converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofractal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through diffusion limited aggregation, evolve toward monofractality if their growth is constrained by a nonpermeable boundary.

  19. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, D. R.; Williams, L. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Dubey, M.; Ng, N. L.; Thornton, J.; Knighton, B.; Coulter, R.; Prévôt, Ash

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  20. Multifractal to monofractal evolution of the London street network.

    PubMed

    Murcio, Roberto; Masucci, A Paolo; Arcaute, Elsa; Batty, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We perform a multifractal analysis of the evolution of London's street network from 1786 to 2010. First, we show that a single fractal dimension, commonly associated with the morphological description of cities, does not suffice to capture the dynamics of the system. Instead, for a proper characterization of such a dynamics, the multifractal spectrum needs to be considered. Our analysis reveals that London evolves from an inhomogeneous fractal structure, which can be described in terms of a multifractal, to a homogeneous one, which converges to monofractality. We argue that London's multifractal to monofractal evolution might be a special outcome of the constraint imposed on its growth by a green belt. Through a series of simulations, we show that multifractal objects, constructed through diffusion limited aggregation, evolve toward monofractality if their growth is constrained by a nonpermeable boundary.

  1. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  2. Tuberculosis in London: the importance of homelessness, problem drug use and prison.

    PubMed

    Story, A; Murad, S; Roberts, W; Verheyen, M; Hayward, A C

    2007-08-01

    The control of tuberculosis (TB) is founded on early case detection and complete treatment of disease. In the UK, TB is concentrated in subgroups of the population in large urban centres. The impact of homelessness, imprisonment and problem drug use on TB control in London is reviewed. A cohort study was undertaken of all patients with TB in Greater London to determine the point prevalence of disease in different groups and to examine risk factors for smear positivity, drug resistance, treatment adherence, loss to follow-up and use of directly observed therapy (DOT). Data were collected on 97% (1941/1995) of eligible patients. The overall prevalence of TB was 27 per 100,000. An extremely high prevalence of TB was seen in homeless people (788/100,000), problem drug users (354/100,000) and prisoners (208/100,000). Multivariate analysis showed that problem drug use was associated with smear positive disease (OR 2.2, p<0.001), being part of a known outbreak of drug resistant TB (OR 3.5, p = 0.001) and loss to follow-up (OR 2.7, p<0.001). Imprisonment was associated with being part of the outbreak (OR 10.3, p<0.001) and poor adherence (OR 3.9, p<0.001). Homelessness was associated with infectious TB (OR 1.6, p = 0.05), multidrug resistance (OR 2.1, p = 0.03), poor adherence (OR 2.5, p<0.001) and loss to follow-up (OR 3.8, p<0.001). In London, homeless people, prisoners and problem drug users collectively comprise 17% of TB cases, 44% of smear positive drug resistant cases, 38% of poorly compliant cases and 44% of cases lost to follow-up. 15% of these patients start treatment on DOT but 46% end up on DOT. High levels of infectious and drug resistant disease, poor adherence and loss to follow-up care indicate that TB is not effectively controlled among homeless people, prisoners and problem drug users in London.

  3. Tuberculosis in London: the importance of homelessness, problem drug use and prison

    PubMed Central

    Story, A; Murad, S; Roberts, W; Verheyen, M; Hayward, A C

    2007-01-01

    Background The control of tuberculosis (TB) is founded on early case detection and complete treatment of disease. In the UK, TB is concentrated in subgroups of the population in large urban centres. The impact of homelessness, imprisonment and problem drug use on TB control in London is reviewed. Methods A cohort study was undertaken of all patients with TB in Greater London to determine the point prevalence of disease in different groups and to examine risk factors for smear positivity, drug resistance, treatment adherence, loss to follow‐up and use of directly observed therapy (DOT). Results Data were collected on 97% (1941/1995) of eligible patients. The overall prevalence of TB was 27 per 100 000. An extremely high prevalence of TB was seen in homeless people (788/100 000), problem drug users (354/100 000) and prisoners (208/100 000). Multivariate analysis showed that problem drug use was associated with smear positive disease (OR 2.2, p<0.001), being part of a known outbreak of drug resistant TB (OR 3.5, p = 0.001) and loss to follow‐up (OR 2.7, p<0.001). Imprisonment was associated with being part of the outbreak (OR 10.3, p<0.001) and poor adherence (OR 3.9, p<0.001). Homelessness was associated with infectious TB (OR 1.6, p = 0.05), multidrug resistance (OR 2.1, p = 0.03), poor adherence (OR 2.5, p<0.001) and loss to follow‐up (OR 3.8, p<0.001). In London, homeless people, prisoners and problem drug users collectively comprise 17% of TB cases, 44% of smear positive drug resistant cases, 38% of poorly compliant cases and 44% of cases lost to follow‐up. 15% of these patients start treatment on DOT but 46% end up on DOT. Conclusions High levels of infectious and drug resistant disease, poor adherence and loss to follow‐up care indicate that TB is not effectively controlled among homeless people, prisoners and problem drug users in London. PMID:17289861

  4. City lights of London, England taken during Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-04

    ISS006-E-22939 (4 February 2003) --- City lights of London, England were captured with a digital still camera by one of the Expedition Six crewmembers on the International Space Station (ISS). This nighttime view of the British capital shows the city’;s urban density and infrastructure as highlighted by electrical lighting. Beyond lie isolated bright areas marking the numerous smaller cities and towns of the region and as far southeast as Hastings on the coast. London’;s two major airports, Heathrow and Gatwick, are visible to the south of the city.

  5. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  6. Length of migration and eating habits of Portuguese university students living in London, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Caraher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment.

  7. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  8. Battersea: Education in a London Parish since 1750

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of educational institutions and buildings in one slice of a big city over a long timescale. The city is London and the slice Battersea, an inner suburb of mixed character and volatile fortunes. The narrative explores the shifts and interactions between state and voluntary provision, local community needs and…

  9. Exploring anterograde associative memory in London taxi drivers

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2013-01-01

    London taxi drivers are renowned for their navigation ability, spending a number of years acquiring ‘The Knowledge’ of London’s complex layout and having to pass stringent examinations to obtain an operating licence. In several studies, this navigation skill has been associated with increased posterior but also decreased anterior hippocampal grey matter volume. Neuropsychologically, gain and loss has also been documented in taxi drivers; while very skilled at navigation in London, they are significantly poorer than controls at learning and recalling new object-location associations. Here we tested a group of London taxi drivers and matched control participants on this object-location associations task, while also submitting them to a battery of challenging anterograde associative memory tests involving verbal, visual and auditory material both within and across modalities. Our aim was to assess whether their difficulty in previous studies reflected a general problem with associative memory, or was restricted to the spatial domain. We replicated previous findings of poor learning and memory of object-location associations. By contrast, their performance on the other anterograde associative memory tasks was comparable to controls. This resolves an outstanding question in the memory profile of London taxi drivers following hippocampal plasticity, and underlines the close relationship between space and the hippocampus. PMID:22955143

  10. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  11. In London, a Working-Class University Wrestles with Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    Patrick McGhee, vice chancellor of the University of East London, has a lot in common with many of the 28,000 students at the large urban institution he leads. He was the first in his family to attend university. And he dislikes much about the government's higher-education reform efforts, which he has deemed "misguided, premature, unproven…

  12. The University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Davis, Stephen; Bartrip, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research note gives details of 2 releases of audio recordings available from speakers who stutter that can be accessed on the Web. Method: Most of the recordings are from school-age children. These are available on the University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS) Web site, and information is provided about how to…

  13. A Community Approach to Youth Work in East London.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Derek M.

    Instituted as part of "Avenues Unlimited" (The Tower Hamlets Youth Project), a community development approach to youth services was attempted in the cosmopolitan inner city slum district of Spitalfields, East London. Efforts began in 1966 with a clean up campaign, a neighborhood club for parents and youth, and other activities by the…

  14. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  15. Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654): London's first general practitioner?

    PubMed

    Farthing, Michael J G

    2015-08-01

    Nicholas Culpeper is often regarded as an ill-disciplined, maverick, mid-17th century herbalist and the father of contemporary alternative medicine. There are elements of this statement that have some truth but to dismiss his contribution to the development of health provision in London at the time would be a great injustice. Culpeper did not complete his apprenticeship as an apothecary and was not a formally trained physician, but he developed a clinical practice for the poor of London, indistinguishable from the role of the present day general practitioner. Observers at the time recognised his concern and compassion and his commitment to treat the whole patient and not just the disease. His enduring contribution was his translation from Latin of the physicians' Pharmacopoeia Londinensis which could be regarded as the first major step towards the demystification of medicine. Culpeper's London Dispensatory and the many other medical treatises that followed were affordable and widely available to the common man. Culpeper antagonised both apothecaries and physicians because he breached the regulations of the day by accepting patients directly. So perhaps Culpeper was, de facto, London's first general practitioner, at least 150 years before the role was formally recognised in the Apothecaries Act 1815.

  16. In London, a Working-Class University Wrestles with Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2012-01-01

    Patrick McGhee, vice chancellor of the University of East London, has a lot in common with many of the 28,000 students at the large urban institution he leads. He was the first in his family to attend university. And he dislikes much about the government's higher-education reform efforts, which he has deemed "misguided, premature, unproven…

  17. The London Lighthouse. A centre for people with AIDS.

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    In October last year an Evian Health Award was presented to Mr Christopher Spence, director of London Lighthouse, for pioneering the first independent aids hospice against much opposition. The Lighthouse is now open and although the hospice is the core of its work it also provides a range of other services.

  18. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  19. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  20. Battersea: Education in a London Parish since 1750

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of educational institutions and buildings in one slice of a big city over a long timescale. The city is London and the slice Battersea, an inner suburb of mixed character and volatile fortunes. The narrative explores the shifts and interactions between state and voluntary provision, local community needs and…

  1. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  2. A three-year survey of viral hepatitis in West London.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J S; Farrow, L J; Clifford, R E; Lamb, S G; Coghill, N F; Lindon, R L; Sanderson, I M; Dodd, P A; Smith, H G; Preece, J W; Zuckerman, A J

    1978-07-01

    During a total population survey of viral hepatitis in the London Boroughs of Hounslow, Richmond and Ealing, 784 patients were seen in three years from 1 March 1972 to 28 February 1975. A diagnosis of viral hepatitis was accepted in 489. The annual incidence was 24 per 100 000. 455 of the patients were tested for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by a radioimmunoassay technique and 93 (20%) of these were positive. The majority of the patients with type B hepatitis were in their third or fourth decades. None was under the age of 16. The male to female ratio among patients with hepatitis B was 2 to 1 in those under the age of 30 and 5 to 1 in those aged 30 and over. The seasonal distribution of viral hepatitis showed a peak in the spring, solely from an increased incidence of non-B hepatitis, and a second, smaller peak in the autumn. There was no appreciable clustering of patients except for one local outbreak in a housing estate during the first year affecting mainly children going to the same primary school, and their parents. Patients with hepatitis B had a longer pre-icteric illness (p less than 0.05), greater duration of jaundice (p less than 0.001) and higher peak levels of serum bilirubin (p less than 0.0005) and serum alanine amino transferase (A1T) (p less than 0.03) than patients with non-B hepatitis. The finding of the surface antigen was also associated with a higher frequency of skin rash (p less than 0.0005) and a greater duration of arthralgia (p less than 0.03). Among the HBsAg negative patients the incidence of arthralgia increased with age (p less than 0.0005). Abdominal pain (p less than 0.005) and vomiting (p less than 0.005) were more common in the young. The injection experience of patients with hepatitis B showed a high proportion of 'non-therapeutic' exposure such as drug addiction. Significantly more HBsAg positive men were single than in the local community (p less than 0.001) or among the HBsAg negative men (p less than 0.01). There

  3. The social impact of dizziness in London and Siena.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Adolfo M; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A; Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele; Shetye, Anu; Silove, Yvonne

    2010-02-01

    Although dizziness is a common presenting symptom in general and hospital practice, its social cost is not known. We assessed the social and work life impact of dizziness on patients in two contrasting European cities, Siena and London. First, we developed the 'Social life & Work Impact of Dizziness questionnaire' (SWID), which was validated by administering it to 43 patients with dizziness and 45 normal controls and by correlating the results with the EQ-5D (Europe quality of life) questionnaire. The SWID and EQ-5D scores were worse in patients than controls (p < 0.001) and the two correlated significantly (r = 0.50 p < 0.001). Then two hundred consecutive patients per city attending tertiary specialised 'dizzy patient' clinics, one in London led by a neurologist, one in Siena led by an ear, nose and throat specialist (ENT), were investigated with SWID. Amongst the 400 patients, 27% reported changing their jobs and 21% giving up work as a result of the dizziness. Over 50% of patients felt that their efficiency at work had dropped considerably. The mean number of days off work attributed to the dizziness in the previous 6 months was 7.15 days. Social life was disrupted in 57% of all 400 patients. Factor analysis identified that detrimental effects on work, travel, social and family life combine to create a single factor accounting for much of the overall impact of their dizziness. Significant differences in some measures of handicap between London and Siena emerged, with London patients often faring worse. Reasons for these location differences include, as expected, a higher proportion of neurological patients in London than in Siena. However, factors related to city demographics and social cohesion may also modulate the impact on quality of life and working practice. Regardless of inter-city differences, these findings highlight the high social and economic impact of dizziness.

  4. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21). 146 deaths (60%) were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7) other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43%) of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%). The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03). Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found. PMID:21078190

  5. London through Rose-Colored Graphics: Visual Rhetoric and Information Graphic Design in Charles Booth's Maps of London Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine a historical information graphic--Charles Booth's maps of London poverty (1889-1902)--to analyze the cultural basis of ideas of transparency and clarity in information graphics. I argue that Booth's maps derive their rhetorical power from contemporary visual culture as much as from their scientific authority. The visual…

  6. Timing of the initiation of antenatal care: An exploratory qualitative study of women and service providers in East London

    PubMed Central

    Hatherall, Bethan; Morris, Joanne; Jamal, Farah; Sweeney, Lorna; Wiggins, Meg; Kaur, Inderjeet; Renton, Adrian; Harden, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objective to explore the factors which influence the timing of the initiation of a package of publically-funded antenatal care for pregnant women living in a diverse urban setting Design a qualitative study involving thematic analysis of 21 individual interviews and six focus group discussions. Setting Newham, a culturally diverse borough in East London, UK Participants individual interviews were conducted with 21 pregnant and postnatal women and focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 26 health service staff members(midwives and bilingual health advocates) and 32 women from four community groups (Bangladeshi, Somali, Lithuanian and Polish). Findings initial care-seeking by pregnant women is influenced by the perception that the package of antenatal care offered by the National Health Service is for viable and continuing pregnancies, as well as little perceived urgency in initiating antenatal care. This is particularly true when set against competing responsibilities and commitments in women’s lives and for pregnancies with no apparent complications or disconcerting symptoms. Barriers to access to this package of antenatal care include difficulties in navigating the health service and referral system, which are compounded for women unable to speak English, and service provider delays in the processing of referrals. Accessing antenatal care was sometimes equated with relinquishing control, particularly for young women and women for whom language barriers prohibit active engagement with care. Conclusions and implications for practice if women are to be encouraged to seek antenatal care from maternity services early in pregnancy, the purpose and value to all women of doing so need to be made clear across the communities in which they live. As a woman may need time to accept her pregnancy and address other priorities in her life before seeking antenatal care, it is crucial that once she does decide to seek such care, access is quick and easy

  7. Timing of the initiation of antenatal care: An exploratory qualitative study of women and service providers in East London.

    PubMed

    Hatherall, Bethan; Morris, Joanne; Jamal, Farah; Sweeney, Lorna; Wiggins, Meg; Kaur, Inderjeet; Renton, Adrian; Harden, Angela

    2016-05-01

    to explore the factors which influence the timing of the initiation of a package of publically-funded antenatal care for pregnant women living in a diverse urban setting a qualitative study involving thematic analysis of 21 individual interviews and six focus group discussions. Newham, a culturally diverse borough in East London, UK PARTICIPANTS: individual interviews were conducted with 21 pregnant and postnatal women and focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 26 health service staff members(midwives and bilingual health advocates) and 32 women from four community groups (Bangladeshi, Somali, Lithuanian and Polish). initial care-seeking by pregnant women is influenced by the perception that the package of antenatal care offered by the National Health Service is for viable and continuing pregnancies, as well as little perceived urgency in initiating antenatal care. This is particularly true when set against competing responsibilities and commitments in women's lives and for pregnancies with no apparent complications or disconcerting symptoms. Barriers to access to this package of antenatal care include difficulties in navigating the health service and referral system, which are compounded for women unable to speak English, and service provider delays in the processing of referrals. Accessing antenatal care was sometimes equated with relinquishing control, particularly for young women and women for whom language barriers prohibit active engagement with care. if women are to be encouraged to seek antenatal care from maternity services early in pregnancy, the purpose and value to all women of doing so need to be made clear across the communities in which they live. As a woman may need time to accept her pregnancy and address other priorities in her life before seeking antenatal care, it is crucial that once she does decide to seek such care, access is quick and easy. Difficulties found in navigating the system of referral for antenatal care point to a

  8. The management for tuberculosis control in Greater London in comparison with that in Osaka City: lessons for improvement of TB control management in Osaka City urban setting.

    PubMed

    Ohkado, Akihiro; Williams, Gini; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Shimouchi, Akira; Simon, Carter

    2005-07-01

    Network are major key functioning bodies to involve relevant professionals as wide as possible. The specialist TB nurses play key roles for TB case management across Greater London, while in Osaka City, TB control is characterised with strong leadership and commitment of Osaka City Government for the TB control programme. The Osaka City Public Health Centre (PHC) takes initiatives to expand "Cohort Analysis and Case Management Conferences" at each of the 24 Ward Health and Welfare Centres as well as "DOTS Conferences" at hospitals for improvement of case management by physicians and nurses at hospitals as well as by the health centre staff. Public health nurses (PHNs) play very important roles for TB case management as frontline in Osaka City. Comparing the TB control in both cities, the following suggested recommendations are made to both cities for further improvement. Four suggested recommendations to Osaka City are: more resource re-allocation to community-based TB care than to hospital-based TB care should be done; Cohort Analysis and Case Management Conferences should be strengthened through involving more multi-disciplinary sectors; specialist TB PHN at each of the 24 Ward Health and Welfare Centres should be assigned in order to concentrate more on TB control activities; and accessibility to laboratory data such as drug susceptibility test for health centre staff should be improved. Two suggested recommendations to Greater London are: screening for TB high-risk group like homeless people should be strengthened, and regular sector-wide multi-disciplinary case conferences for proper case management should be strengthened.

  9. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-08-02

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  10. Key demographic characteristics of patients with bacteriuria due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a multiethnic community, in North West London.

    PubMed

    Gopal Rao, G; Batura, Deepak; Batura, Neha; Nielsen, Peder Bo

    2015-01-01

    Infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) are encountered worldwide, particularly in certain regions of the world and in certain ethnic groups. Simple criteria for identification of patients likely to be infected with ESBLE may enable clinicians to select appropriate empirical antibiotics for treatment. The aim of this study was to explore the association between ESBLE bacteriuria and readily available key demographic characteristics (age, gender and ethnicity) in a multiethnic population. In this cross-sectional observational study, we explored the association between ESBLE bacteriuria and age, gender and ethnicity in 134 831 patients who submitted urine specimens for culture during 2007-2009 in two multiethnic boroughs in London, UK. In multivariate analysis, the risk of ESBLE bacteriuria was higher in males (odds ratio, OR = 1.3) and in patients older than 60 years (OR > 2). Patients from an Asian ethnic group were significantly more likely than White British subjects to have ESBLE bacteriuria (Indians, OR = 2.7; Asians of any other background, OR = 2.4; and Pakistanis, OR = 1.8). In contrast, patients who were of white ethnic background other than Irish were 0.66 times less likely to have ESBLE bacteriuria than White British patients (p = 0.025). Our study shows that in our local multiethnic population, older patients (> 60 years), males and those of South Asian ethnicity were significantly more likely to have ESBLE bacteriuria than others. Knowledge of these simple and readily available demographic data can help identify groups of patients at risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) with ESBLE and may aid in choice of empirical antibiotics.

  11. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  12. Dedicated outreach service for hard to reach patients with tuberculosis in London: observational study and economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Jit, Mark; Stagg, Helen R; Aldridge, Robert W; White, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the cost effectiveness of the Find and Treat service for diagnosing and managing hard to reach individuals with active tuberculosis. Design Economic evaluation using a discrete, multiple age cohort, compartmental model of treated and untreated cases of active tuberculosis. Setting London, United Kingdom. Population Hard to reach individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis screened or managed by the Find and Treat service (48 mobile screening unit cases, 188 cases referred for case management support, and 180 cases referred for loss to follow-up), and 252 passively presenting controls from London’s enhanced tuberculosis surveillance system. Main outcome measures Incremental costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and cost effectiveness ratios for the Find and Treat service. Results The model estimated that, on average, the Find and Treat service identifies 16 and manages 123 active cases of tuberculosis each year in hard to reach groups in London. The service has a net cost of £1.4 million/year and, under conservative assumptions, gains 220 QALYs. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was £6400-£10 000/QALY gained (about €7300-€11 000 or $10 000-$16 000 in September 2011). The two Find and Treat components were also cost effective, even in unfavourable scenarios (mobile screening unit (for undiagnosed cases), £18 000-£26 000/QALY gained; case management support team, £4100-£6800/QALY gained). Conclusions Both the screening and case management components of the Find and Treat service are likely to be cost effective in London. The cost effectiveness of the mobile screening unit in particular could be even greater than estimated, in view of the secondary effects of infection transmission and development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:22067473

  13. Survey of women׳s experiences of care in a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area of London, England – 1: Methods and women׳s overall ratings of care

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Alison J.; Rocca-Ihenacho, Lucia; Turner, Lyle R.; Roth, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective to describe and compare women׳s choices and experiences of maternity care before and after the opening of the Barkantine Birth Centre, a new freestanding midwifery unit in an inner city area. Design telephone surveys undertaken in late pregnancy and about six weeks after birth in two separate time periods, Phase 1 before the birth centre opened and Phase 2 after it had opened. Setting Tower Hamlets, a deprived inner city borough in east London, England, 2007–2010. Participants 620 women who were resident in Tower Hamlets and who satisfied the Barts and the London NHS Trust׳s eligibility criteria for using the birth centre. Of these, 259 women were recruited to Phase 1 and 361 to Phase 2. Measurements and findings women who satisfied the criteria for birth centre care and who booked antenatally for care at the birth centre were significantly more likely to rate their care as good or very good overall than corresponding women who also satisfied these criteria but booked initially at the hospital. Women who started labour care in spontaneous labour at the birth centre were significantly more likely to be cared for by a midwife they had already met, have one to one care in labour and have the same midwife with them throughout their labour. They were also significantly more likely to report that the staff were kind and understanding, that they were treated with respect and dignity and that their privacy was respected. Key conclusions and implications for practice this survey in an inner city area showed that women who chose the freestanding midwifery unit care had positive experiences to report. Taken together with the findings of the Birthplace Programme, it adds further weight to the evidence in support of freestanding midwifery unit care for women without obstetric complications. PMID:24820003

  14. Can social support protect bullied adolescents from adverse outcomes? A prospective study on the effects of bullying on the educational achievement and mental health of adolescents at secondary schools in East London.

    PubMed

    Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to achieve the appropriate academic achievement benchmark for their age group and bullied boys (but not girls) were more likely to exhibit depressive symptoms compared to those not bullied. High levels of social support from family were important in promoting good mental health. There was evidence that high levels of support from friends and moderate (but not high) family support was able to protect bullied adolescents from poor academic achievement. Support from friends and family was not sufficient to protect adolescents against mental health difficulties that they might face as a result of being bullied. More active intervention from schools is recommended. Copyright © 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A mathematical model of the London riots and their policing.

    PubMed

    Davies, Toby P; Fry, Hannah M; Wilson, Alan G; Bishop, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, several areas of London experienced episodes of large-scale disorder, comprising looting, rioting and violence. Much subsequent discourse has questioned the adequacy of the police response, in terms of the resources available and strategies used. In this article, we present a mathematical model of the spatial development of the disorder, which can be used to examine the effect of varying policing arrangements. The model is capable of simulating the general emergent patterns of the events and focusses on three fundamental aspects: the apparently-contagious nature of participation; the distances travelled to riot locations; and the deterrent effect of policing. We demonstrate that the spatial configuration of London places some areas at naturally higher risk than others, highlighting the importance of spatial considerations when planning for such events. We also investigate the consequences of varying police numbers and reaction time, which has the potential to guide policy in this area.

  16. Exploiting London dispersion forces in nonequilibrium growth of surface-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    2013-03-01

    London dispersion forcedescribes the weak interaction between transient dipoles or multipoles associated with different parts of matter, and accounts for a major part of the attractive van der Waals (vdW) force. It is ubiquitous in nature, yet its importance in various physical and chemical processes just starts to be increasingly recognized. Such advances through definitive quantitative studies are largely enabled by the availability of more accurate descriptions of the weak interactions associated with long-range electron correlation effects within first-principles approaches. The present talk contains two parts, both obtained within the vdW-DF scheme on the theory side. In the first part, we critically assess the binding strengths of different classes of adatoms on ultrathin metal films of varying thicknesses. For inert gas atoms such as Xe, the London dispersion force is found to drastically enhance their adsorption, but the overall binding behavior depends only weakly on the film thickness. In contrast, for atoms with unpaired valence electrons such as H or O, the overall binding is much stronger, and also depends more sensitively on the film thickness, but with a much weaker and (in some cases) repulsive vdW contribution. These results have important implications in our developing a better understanding of atomic and molecular adsorption on different metal substrates. In the second part, we demonstrate unambiguously the decisive role of London dispersion force in non-equilibrium growth of ordered nanostructures on metal substrates using aromatic source molecules. Our multi-scale modeling integrating first-principles calculations with kinetic rate equation analysis shows that a drastic reduction in the growth temperature, from 1000°C to (250-300)°C, can be achieved in graphene growth on Cu(111) when the typical carbon source of methane is replaced by benzene or p-Terphenyl. The enhanced London dispersion forces effectively prevent easy desorption of the

  17. Popular opinion leaders in London: a response to Kelly.

    PubMed

    Elford, J; Bolding, G; Sherr, L

    2004-02-01

    Controlled trials conducted in the USA provide clear evidence that peer education can bring about a reduction in high risk sexual behaviour among gay men. HIV prevention interventions that systematically identified, recruited, trained and engaged popular opinion leaders (POLs) made a significant impact on sexual behaviour at a community level in small US towns. However, recent trials conducted in the UK have failed to replicate these findings. A POL intervention in London made no significant impact at a community level on the risk behaviours of gay men. Jeffrey Kelly, one of the authors of the US studies, has identified nine core elements central to the popular opinion leader model. In Kelly's view 'the UK projects were not tests of the popular opinion leader model because they did not employ most of these POL core elements'. The absence of any significant impact of the UK programmes on sexual risk behaviour at a community level was not, therefore, surprising. In fact, the London POL project incorporated all the core elements into its design and succeeded in employing seven out of nine in its delivery. Attempts to employ all the core elements, however, were hampered by problems in recruiting popular opinion leaders as well as barriers to communication. Process evaluation revealed that it was these obstacles which limited diffusion. This in turn explained the absence of any impact of the London POL project on sexual risk behaviour at a community level. The obstacles to successful diffusion in London have provided a valuable opportunity for examining the processes that underlie the POL model. Our study raises the question as to whether social interventions shown to be effective in one setting, place or moment in time can be replicated in another.

  18. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  19. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (4) Anchorage D. In Long Island Sound approximately two miles west-southwest of New London Ledge...,460 yards; 009°, 2,480 yards; 026°, 1,175 yards; and 008°, 1,075 yards. (3) Anchorage C. In the Thames... Ledge Light: 246°, 2.6 miles; 247°, 2.1 miles; 233°, 2.1 miles; and 235°, 2.6 miles. (5) Anchorage...

  20. Increasing Plasmodium falciparum malaria in southwest London: a 25 year observational study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J; Chitre, M; Sharland, M

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To identify changes in the presenting number and species of imported malaria in children in southwest London. Methods: A prospective single observer study over 25 years (1975–99) of all cases of paediatric malaria seen at St George's Hospital. Results: A confirmed diagnosis was made in 249 children (56% boys; 44% girls; median age 8.0 years). Of these, 53% were UK residents and 44% were children travelling to the UK. A significant increase was noted in the number of cases over the 25 years (1975–79: mean 4.8 cases/year; 1990–99: mean 13.7 cases/year). Over the 25 years Plasmodium falciparum was seen in 77%, P vivax in 14%, P ovale in 6%, and P malariae in 3% of cases. P falciparum had increased in frequency (1975–79: P falciparum 50%, P vivax 50%; 1990–99: P falciparum 82%, P vivax 6%), associated with an increase in the proportion of children acquiring their infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Median time between arrival in the UK to the onset of fever was: P falciparum, 5 days; P ovale, 25 days; P malariae, 37 days; and P vivax, 62 days. Median time interval between the onset of fever to commencement of treatment was 4 days. This had not improved over the 25 year period. Only 41% of UK resident children presenting to hospital had taken prophylaxis and the overall number of symptomatic children taking no prophylaxis was increasing. Conclusion: Imported childhood P falciparum malaria is increasing in southwest London associated with increasing travel from sub-Saharan Africa. Over the 25 year period there has been no improvement in chemoprophylaxis rates or time to diagnosis. PMID:12023177

  1. Millennium-long recession of limestone facades in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2008-12-01

    Historical data on the temperature and precipitation data for London has been combined with output from the Hadley Model to estimate the climate of London for the period 1100-2100 CE. This has been converted to other parameters such as freeze-thaw frequency and snowfall relevant to the weathering of stone facades. The pollutant concentrations have been estimated for the same period, with the historical values taken from single box modelling and future values from changes likely given current policy within the metropolis. These values are used in the Lipfert model to show that the recession from karst weathering dominates across the period, while the contributions of sulphur deposition seem notable only across a shorter period 1700-2000 CE. Observations of the late seventeenth century suggest London architects witnessed a notable increase in the recession rate and attributed “fretting quality” to “smoaks of the sea-coal”. The recession rates measured in the late twentieth century lend some support to the estimates from the Lipfert model. The recession looks to increase only slightly, and frost shattering will decrease while salt weathering is likely to increase.

  2. The ClearfLo project - Understanding London's meteorology and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Stephen; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    ClearfLo is a large multi-institutional project funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ClearfLo established integrated measurements of meteorology, gaseous and particulate composition/loading of London's (UK) urban atmosphere in 2011 and 2012 to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. A new and unique long-term measurement infrastructure was established in London at street level, urban background and elevated sites and contrasted against rural locations to determine the urban increment in meteorology and pollution. This approach enables understanding the seasonal variations in the meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. In addition two intensive observation periods (IOPs) provide more detail in winter 2012 and during the Olympics in summer 2012 focusing upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer, chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production, in particular the role of volatile organic compounds, and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution and composition of particulate matter. In this talk we present early analysis of the meteorology and air quality measurements within ClearfLo. In particular we show measurements that indicate the dominant regimes of London's boundary layer.

  3. Enhancement of the London Penetration Depth in Pnictides at the Onset of Spin-Density-Wave Order under Superconducting Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, A.; Vavilov, M. G.; Khodas, M.; Chubukov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    Recent measurements of the doping dependence of the London penetration depth λ(x) at low T in clean samples of isovalent BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 at T≪Tc [Hashimoto et al., Science 336, 1554 (2012)SCIEAS0036-8075] revealed a peak in λ(x) near optimal doping x=0.3. The observation of the peak at T≪Tc, points to the existence of a quantum critical point beneath the superconducting dome. We associate such a quantum critical point with the onset of a spin-density-wave order and show that the renormalization of λ(x) by critical magnetic fluctuations gives rise to the observed feature. We argue that the case of pnictides is conceptually different from a one-component Galilean invariant Fermi liquid, for which correlation effects do not cause the renormalization of the London penetration depth at T=0.

  4. Flood-inundation maps for the Peckman River in the Townships of Verona, Cedar Grove, and Little Falls, and the Borough of Woodland Park, New Jersey, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niemoczynski, Michal J.; Watson, Kara M.

    2016-10-19

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 7.5-mile reach of the Peckman River in New Jersey, which extends from Verona Lake Dam in the Township of Verona downstream through the Township of Cedar Grove and the Township of Little Falls to the confluence with the Passaic River in the Borough of Woodland Park, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the probable areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey (station number 01389534). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/.Flood profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgages on the Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey (station number 01389534) and the Peckman River at Little Falls, New Jersey (station number 01389550). The hydraulic model was then used to compute eight water-surface profiles for flood stages at 0.5-foot (ft) intervals ranging from 3.0 ft or near bankfull to 6.5 ft, which is approximately the highest recorded water level during the period of record (1979–2014) at USGS streamgage 01389534, Peckman River at Ozone Avenue at Verona, New Jersey. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS

  5. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in south London: what value the p value?

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, H. C.; Holmes, E.; Hollyer, J.; Strangeways, J. E.; Foster, P.; Holliman, R. E.; Stanwell-Smith, R.

    1995-01-01

    An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis which affected 44 people in January and February 1991 was identified through local surveillance at a South London Public Health Laboratory. Preliminary enquiries revealed that more than half the patients were adult and that there were no common factors other than geographical association. A case-control study showed a significant association between illness and consumption of tap water supplied by a particular water company, as well as a dose response effect. There were no apparent breaches or irregularities in the water distribution system and no indication of a problem through routine monitoring indices. This incident demonstrates the problems of establishing the source of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in the absence of evidence of environmental abnormality, as well as possibly indicating that water conforming to current treatment standards may occasionally contain sufficient numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts to cause sporadic cases or clusters. PMID:7589267

  6. Using educational outreach and a financial incentive to increase general practices' contribution to chlamydia screening in South-East London 2003-2011.

    PubMed

    Kalwij, Sebastian; French, Sarah; Mugezi, Rumbi; Baraitser, Paula

    2012-09-18

    The London Boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark have high levels of sexually transmitted infections including Chlamydia trachomatis. Modelling studies suggest that reductions in the prevalence of chlamydia infection will require a high level of population screening coverage and positivity among those screened. General practice has a potentially important role to play in delivering these levels of coverage since large numbers (up to 60%) of young people visit their general practice every year but previous work suggests that there are barriers to delivering screening in this setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate an intervention to increase chlamydia screening in general practice within Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) of Lambeth and Southwark, a strategy combining financial incentives and supportive practice visits to raise awareness and solve problems. Data on age, gender, venue and chlamydia result for tests on under 25 s in Lambeth from 2003-11 was obtained from the National Chlamydia Screening Programme. We analysed the number and percentage of tests generated in general practice, and looked at the number of practices screening more than 10% of their practice cohort of 15-24 year olds, male/female ratio and positivity rates across other screening venues. We also looked at practices screening less than 10% and studied change over time. We compared data from Lambeth and Southwark with London and England. We also studied features of the level and type of educational and financial incentive interventions employed. Chlamydia tests performed in general practice increased from 23 tests in 2003-4 to 4813 tests in 2010-11 in Lambeth. In Southwark they increased from 5 tests in 2003/04 to 4321 in 2010/11. In 2011, 44.6% of tests came from GPs in Lambeth and 46% from GP's in Southwark. In Lambeth 62.7% of practices tested more than 10% of their cohort and in Southwark this was 55.8%. In Lambeth, postivity rate in 2010/11 was 5.8% in men and 6.0% in women. In Southwark

  7. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant south London Asians.

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, D. P.; Powell, K. J.; Thaker, A.; Millard, F. J.; Maxwell, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London. METHODS--Using a case-control study technique Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent diagnosed with tuberculosis during the past 10 years and two Asian control groups (community and outpatient clinic controls) from the Indian subcontinent were investigated. Cases and community controls were approached by letter. A structured questionnaire concerning a range of demographic, migration, socioeconomic, dietary, and health topics was administered by a single trained interviewer to subjects (56 cases and 100 controls) who agreed to participate. RESULTS--The results confirmed earlier findings that Hindu Asians had an increased risk of tuberculosis compared with Muslims. However, further analysis revealed that religion had no independent influence after adjustment for vegetarianism (common among Hindu Asians). Unadjusted odds ratios for tuberculosis among vegetarians were 2.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.4) using community controls, and 4.3 (95% CI 1.8 to 10.4) using clinic controls. There was a trend of increasing risk of tuberculosis with decreasing frequency of meat or fish consumption. Lactovegetarians had an 8.5 fold risk (95% CI 1.6 to 45.4) compared with daily meat/fish eaters. Adjustment for a range of other socioeconomic, migration, and lifestyle variables made little difference to the relative risks derived using either community or clinic controls. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that a vegetarian diet is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant Asians. The mechanism is unexplained. However

  8. Religion and HIV diagnosis among Africans living in London.

    PubMed

    Fakoya, I; Johnson, Am; Fenton, Ka; Anderson, J; Nwokolo, N; Sullivan, Ak; Munday, P; Burns, Fm

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the paper was to describe the association of religion with HIV outcomes in newly diagnosed Africans living in London. A survey of newly diagnosed HIV-positive Africans attending 15 HIV treatment centres across London was carried out between April 2004 and February 2006. Confidential self-completed questionnaires were used, linked to clinical records. Bivariate analyses were conducted to ascertain whether religious beliefs were associated with late diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, and immunological and virological outcome 6 months post diagnosis. A total of 246 Black Africans were eligible and included in the analysis: 62.6% were women, and the median age was 34 years. The median CD4 count at diagnosis was 194 cells/μL (range 0-1334 cells/μL) and 75.6% presented late, as defined as a CD4 count < 350 cells/μL. Most participants were religious: non-Roman Catholic Christians (55.7%), Roman Catholics (35.2%) and Muslims (6.1%). Only 1.2% stated that they did not have a religion. Participants who attended religious services at least monthly were more likely to believe that 'faith alone can cure HIV' than those who attended less frequently (37.7% vs. 15.0%; P = 0.002). A small proportion (5.2%) believed that taking antiretroviral therapy implied a lack of faith in God. Bivariate analysis found no relationship between religiousness (as measured using frequency of attendance at religious services and religious attitudes or beliefs) and late diagnosis, changes in CD4 count/viral load 6 months post diagnosis, or initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Strong religious beliefs about faith and healing are unlikely to act as a barrier to accessing HIV testing or antiretroviral treatment for Black Africans living in London. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  9. Air pollution dispersion models for human exposure predictions in London.

    PubMed

    Beevers, Sean D; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Williams, Martin L; Kelly, Frank J; Ross Anderson, H; Carslaw, David C

    2013-01-01

    The London household survey has shown that people travel and are exposed to air pollutants differently. This argues for human exposure to be based upon space-time-activity data and spatio-temporal air quality predictions. For the latter, we have demonstrated the role that dispersion models can play by using two complimentary models, KCLurban, which gives source apportionment information, and Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ)-urban, which predicts hourly air quality. The KCLurban model is in close agreement with observations of NO(X), NO(2) and particulate matter (PM)(10/2.5), having a small normalised mean bias (-6% to 4%) and a large Index of Agreement (0.71-0.88). The temporal trends of NO(X) from the CMAQ-urban model are also in reasonable agreement with observations. Spatially, NO(2) predictions show that within 10's of metres of major roads, concentrations can range from approximately 10-20 p.p.b. up to 70 p.p.b. and that for PM(10/2.5) central London roadside concentrations are approximately double the suburban background concentrations. Exposure to different PM sources is important and we predict that brake wear-related PM(10) concentrations are approximately eight times greater near major roads than at suburban background locations. Temporally, we have shown that average NO(X) concentrations close to roads can range by a factor of approximately six between the early morning minimum and morning rush hour maximum periods. These results present strong arguments for the hybrid exposure model under development at King's and, in future, for in-building models and a model for the London Underground.

  10. The psychological and psychiatric effects of terrorism: lessons from London.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Wessely, Simon

    2013-09-01

    The 7 July 2005 bombings in London caused heightened levels of distress among some in the general community. This distress was most notable in Muslims and members of ethnic minority groups. These effects were transient for most. An estimated 30% of those who were more affected by the attacks, including victims and witnesses, developed psychiatric disorders as a result. An outreach program was set up to screen those who were exposed to potentially traumatic events and to offer them evidence-based treatment. This article discusses what lessons might be learned from studies of the general community and the screen-and-treat approach.

  11. Miscellanea: Survey of nameplates in a well known London Street

    PubMed Central

    Bickerton, Richard C; Milton, Catherine M

    1986-01-01

    In 1951 a well known otolaryngologist recorded 798 brass nameplates in a well known London street. In the 35 years since this last survey was conducted the number has decreased by 23. This surprising finding is attributed to the communal entryphone and to the emergence of the shoddy plate. A definition of a plate is proposed, the concentration described, and the geographical distribution of plates summarised. A new phenomenon is encountered, the ghost plate, type A and type B. Further study is required to elucidate the significance of ghost plates. Imagesp1680-a PMID:20742754

  12. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  13. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  14. Space in Pentecostal healing practices among Ghanaian migrants in London.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    In this article I analyze different spatial practices related to Pentecostal healing, drawing on fieldwork with Pentecostal believers who have migrated from Ghana to London, UK. I explore the relationship between space and the manifestation of the Holy Spirit by looking at how points of contact with the divine are created in the personal life of people and at the sites where the casting out of demons takes place. Unlike in other spirit-centered healing traditions, the Christian Holy Spirit is not conceived of as embodied in specific places, but rather is spatially unbound. To manifest, however, the Holy Spirit requires specific spatial qualities and esthetics.

  15. London penetration depth of strongly coupled isotropic superconductors: Low-temperature behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Leyronas, X.; Combescot, R.

    1996-08-01

    We proceed to a systematic exploration of the low-temperature dependence of the London penetration depth of isotropic superconductors within strong-coupling theory in the clean limit. For a sizable range of parameters, we find that strong-coupling effects can reasonably simulate a power law dependence, sometimes with excellent precision. In such cases it would be quite difficult to distinguish experimentally between a pure power law and the strong-coupling result. Physically we have been able to ascribe this temperature dependence to low-frequency phonons which produce a quasielastic scattering for electrons. The presence of these low-frequency phonons requires rather wide phonon spectra and their effectiveness in scattering implies a fairly strong coupling. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Lucy Waruguru; Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  17. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use. PMID:27643788

  18. Nonperturbative calculation of the London-van der Waals interaction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, P. R.; Ford, G. W.; Milonni, P. W.

    2014-02-01

    The so-called remarkable formula [G. W. Ford, J. T. Lewis, and R. F. O'Connell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2273 (1985), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.55.2273] for the Helmholtz free energy is applied to the problem of determining the interaction potential to all orders in the coupling strength of a pair of oscillator dipoles interacting through the familiar dipole-dipole interaction of electrodynamics. Simple, straightforward calculations lead to expressions for (1) the London short-range potential, (2) the Casimir-Polder long-range potential, and (3) the potential at high temperature. Explicit results are shown for both the temperature dependence of the interaction potential and its deviation from the weak-coupling limit. It is stressed that the interaction potential is a change in free energy, not the energy; in particular, in the high temperature case, the change of energy is zero.

  19. Demographics and outcome of elective cerclage in a multi-ethnic London district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, G; Steel, A; Yoong, W; Fakokunde, A

    2009-01-01

    Elective cerclage is a rare procedure, but is reported to be relatively more common in developing countries. This variation in rate may be reflected in a multi-ethnic population as seen in London. Our study analysed the epidemiology and rate of elective cerclage performed in a London district general hospital. Factors contributing to the outcome of the procedures were also reviewed. A total of 41 elective cerclages were performed in the hospital between 2000 and 2007. Data from these were collected retrospectively, including maternal history, operative details, and gestational age at delivery. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Of the 41 cases, 19 pregnancies were carried to term (>or=37 weeks' gestation), nine were pre-term (24-36 weeks' gestation) and seven miscarried (<24 weeks' gestation); six cases had not yet delivered. All of the patients were immigrants from developing countries but ethnicity did not affect the operative outcome (p = 0.89, Fisher's exact). The other factors studied were also noted to have no significant impact on success. These included cervical length at insertion (p = 1.00, Fisher's exact), type of suture (p = 0.90, Fisher's exact) and average gestation at insertion (p = 0.20, Fisher's exact). In conclusion, all patients requiring intervention in this study originated from developing countries. This is a disproportionately high figure relative to the demographic breakdown of the study population. Such a finding may be due to geographical variation of risk factors for cervical incompetence but may also be influenced by observer bias. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the influence of ethnicity on the rate of elective cerclage. None of the variables analysed in this study significantly affected the outcome of the procedure.

  20. Observation of the London moment and trapped flux in precision gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Y. M.; Felson, W.; Wu, C. H.; Keiser, G. M.; Turneaure, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The London-moment readout has been observed in flight quality gyroscopes and it has been demonstrated that it is possible to reduce magnetic field trapped in these gyroscopes to levels as low as 1.5 x 10 exp -11 T. A preliminary analysis shows that the horizontal component of the London-moment signal is 60 percent of the total expected London-moment signal and is proportional to the gyro spin speed. Experiments were carried out in a unique ground test facility which was designed to provide the conditions necessary to observe the London moment of the spinning gyroscope.

  1. Public health assessment for US Naval Submarine Base, New London, Groton, New London County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980906515. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-26

    The New London Submarine Base was divided by the town boundaries of Groton to the south and Ledyard to the north in New London County, Connecticut. In 1983, the Navy identified 16 potential source areas of environmental contamination during their investigations. The submarine base was listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in August 1990 because of the potential for on-base groundwater contamination to migrate to off-base residential wells that are close to the New London Submarine Base.

  2. Combined heat and power for the City of London

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1994-06-01

    The first phase of an innovative combined heat and power (CHP) system for the City of London is now almost complete and should be operating at full capacity by the end of 1994. Test runs are taking place. The system is powered by two large 18-cylinder Waertsilae Vasa 46GD multifuel engines developing a total of just under 32 MW of power. The engines drive ABB Stromberg HSG 160O water-cooled generators with electrical efficiencies exceeding 97%. The station will use natural gas and heavy fuel oil to generate electricity for the grid, hot water for district heating and chilled water for air conditioning. In the first phase of the project, underground pipework and cabling will connect the power station to various buildings in the City including the Barbican Center, Guildhall and the Museum of London/Bastion House. State-of-the-art emission control equipment has been installed to reduce NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by over 90%. 5 figs.

  3. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults in East London.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-06-01

    This study explored ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults and assessed the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in explaining those inequalities. We analysed data on 2013 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults and children living in East London in 2009-10. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries at home. Dental caries was measured using the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or DMFT index. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (sex and age groups) and SEP measures (education and socioeconomic classification). White Eastern European and White Other had higher DMFT, whereas all Asian (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Other) and all Black (African, Caribbean and Other) ethnic groups had lower DMFT than White British. Similar inequalities were found for the number of filled and missing teeth, but there were no differences in the number of decayed teeth between ethnic groups. This study showed considerable disparities in dental caries between and within the major ethnic categories, which were independent of demographics and SEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. On the exchange-hole model of London dispersion forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángyán, János G.

    2007-07-01

    First-principles derivation is given for the heuristic exchange-hole model of London dispersion forces by Becke and Johnson [J. Chem. Phys. 122, 154104 (2005)]. A one-term approximation is used for the dynamic charge density response function, and it is shown that a central nonempirical ingredient of the approximate nonexpanded dispersion energy is the charge density autocorrelation function, a two-particle property, related to the exchange-correlation hole. In the framework of a dipolar approximation of the Coulomb interaction around the molecular origin, one obtains the so-called Salem-Tang-Karplus approximation to the C6 dispersion coefficient. Alternatively, by expanding the Coulomb interaction around the center of charge (centroid) of the exchange-correlation hole associated with each point in the molecular volume, a multicenter expansion is obtained around the centroids of electron localization domains, always in terms of the exchange-correlation hole. In order to get a formula analogous to that of Becke and Johnson, which involves the exchange-hole only, further assumptions are needed, related to the difficulties of obtaining the expectation value of a two-electron operator from a single determinant. Thus a connection could be established between the conventional fluctuating charge density model of London dispersion forces and the notion of the "exchange-hole dipole moment" shedding some light on the true nature of the approximations implicit in the Becke-Johnson model.

  5. Characterization and reconstruction of historical London, England, acidic aerosol concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Thurston, G D

    1989-01-01

    Several past studies of the historical London air pollution record have reported an association between daily mortality and British Smoke levels. However, this pollution index does not give direct information on particulate mass or its chemical composition. A more specific particulate matter index, aerosol acidity, was measured at a site in central London, and daily data are available for the period 1963-1972. British Smoke and SO2 were also measured at the same site. Also, meteorological parameters were routinely measured at a nearby British Meteorological Office. Thus, daily fluctuation of the acidic aerosols was characterized in terms of other environmental parameters. Each of the other parameters analyzed seems necessary, but not sufficient to explain a high level of acidic aerosol. Overall, about half of the variance of log-transformed daily fluctuations of acidic aerosols can be explained by a combination of parameters including SO2 and British Smoke concentrations, temperature, ventilation by wind, and humidity. The rest of the variance cannot be explained by the parameters included in this analysis. Potential factors responsible for this unique variance would be variations in the availability of basic gases to cause neutralization and variation in the availability of catalytic metal salts. Because the acidic aerosol has a unique component of variation, it may be possible to distinguish health effects due to this specific pollutant from other available pollution indices or environmental factors. PMID:2651105

  6. The decline of adult smallpox in eighteenth-century London.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Romola; Schwarz, Leonard; Boulton, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Smallpox was probably the single most lethal disease in eighteenth-century Britain, but was a minor cause of death by the mid-nineteenth century. Although vaccination was crucial to the decline of smallpox, especially in urban areas, from the beginning of the nineteenth century, it remains disputed the extent to which smallpox mortality declined before vaccination. Analysis of age-specific changes in smallpox burials within the large west London parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields revealed a precipitous reduction in adult smallpox risk from the 1770s, and this pattern was duplicated in the east London parish of St Dunstan's. Most adult smallpox victims were rural migrants, and such a drop in their susceptibility is consistent with a sudden increase in exposure to smallpox in rural areas. We investigated whether this was due to the spread of inoculation, or an increase in smallpox transmission, using changes in the age patterns of child smallpox burials. Smallpox mortality rose among infants, and smallpox burials became concentrated at the youngest ages, suggesting a sudden increase in infectiousness of the smallpox virus. Such a change intensified the process of smallpox endemicization in the English population, but also made cities substantially safer for young adult migrants.

  7. Lessons from the syphilis outbreak in homosexual men in east London

    PubMed Central

    Hourihan, M; Wheeler, H; Houghton, R; Goh, B

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the epidemiology, presentation, and diagnosis of early syphilis in 103 homosexual men in east London. Methods: A retrospective study using data from KC60 returns, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) enhanced surveillance forms and case notes. Results: 40 cases of primary (PS), 40 of secondary (SS) and 23 of early latent syphilis were identified, 33% co-infected with HIV. 41% had concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Pain featured in 35% of PS and itch in 13% of rashes. Dark ground microscopy (DGM), performed in 44 of the symptomatic cases, was positive in 37 (84%) allowing early management. Initial syphilis serology was negative in 15/40 (37%) cases of PS. 51% and 49% opted for parenteral and oral treatment, respectively. In 53/103 (51%) cases oral sex was the only risk factor. 86% of infections were UK acquired. Only 4% of contacts were seen. Conclusion: This outbreak, reflecting the resurgence of syphilis across the United Kingdom, highlights several important points. Painful chancres and itchy rash are common presentations. DGM is a highly sensitive diagnostic tool. Initial negative serological screening tests are common in PS and sero-surveillance for 3 months is recommended. The high prevalence of concomitant STIs indicates ongoing unprotected sexual intercourse. Oral sex is a significant risk factor and is a distinctly "unsafe" practice. Conventional partner notification is ineffective. Other methods of screening of the at-risk homosexual population are warranted. Continued education is required to reduce STI acquisition in homosexual men. PMID:15572625

  8. Did the London Initiative Zone investment programme affect general practice structure and performance in East London? A time series analysis of cervical screening coverage and asthma prescribing.

    PubMed

    Naish, J; Eldridge, S; Moser, K; Sturdy, P

    2002-11-01

    A programme of incentives was set up in the London Initiative Zones to improve primary care in inner London based on the findings of the Tomlinson Enquiry in 1992. This descriptive study is a 4-y time series analysis of changes in general practice structure in East London as the result of London Initiative Zone investment, and an exploration of the possible effect of investment on practice performance. We used routinely available administrative data for the whole analysis. General practice characteristics and two selected performance indicators: the asthma prophylaxis to bronchodilator ratio and cervical cytology screening rate, for all practices in the East London and the City Health Authority for 4 y, 1993-1996, were used. Both reflect practice efficiency, but relate to different aspects of practice performance. The prescribing indicator is more indicative of the quality of clinical practise, whereas cervical screening coverage relates more to the characteristics of the practice population and to practice organisation. Repeated measures analyses were used to identify trends and to explore the relationship between changes in practice characteristics and performance. Graphical methods were used to compare East London trends with the rest of England. There were significant improvements in practice structure as the consequence of London Initiative Zone investment. There was a positive association with improvements in practice performance, but East London still lagged some way behind national patterns. The findings suggest that while improvements in asthma prescribing follow the national trend, practices have difficulty in achieving and sustaining the 80% target for cervical cytology screening, and that an overall population coverage of 80% may be in doubt.Increased investment in practice staffing may be influential in improving some aspects of performance. However, in common with other inner cities, a greater effort and more innovative strategies may be needed to

  9. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Anthony C; Fenton, Norman

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL) investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor's perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events.

  10. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL) investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor’s perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events. PMID:28654698

  11. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thames River, Naval Submarine....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... notified by personnel of the New London Submarine Base that such use will interfere with...

  12. Engendering City Politics and Educational Thought: Elite Women and the London Labour Party, 1914-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article uses biographical approaches to recover the contribution of hitherto neglected figures in the history of education and the political history of the Left in London. Place and location are important since it is important to grasp the uniqueness of the London County Council within the framework of English local government and of the…

  13. The Increasing Presence of Spanish-Speaking Latinos in London: An Emergent Community?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the number of Spanish-speaking Latinos in Britain and London has grown considerably. Estimates from different sources put the population in London as high as 300,000. Unfortunately, this growing ethnolinguistic group is an underresearched minority, and information of any kind is hard to come by. In this article, my aim is to…

  14. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... restricted area provided their vessels display registration numbers issued by the Naval Submarine Base, New... above, providing: (i) The Commanding Officer, Naval Submarine Base New London, and the Coast...

  15. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  16. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... channel to a point located at latitude 41°24′04.1″ N, longitude 72°05′51.2″ W then southerly along...

  17. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... channel to a point located at latitude 41°24′04.1″ N, longitude 72°05′51.2″ W then southerly along...

  18. 33 CFR 334.75 - Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Base New London, restricted area. 334.75 Section 334.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....75 Thames River, Naval Submarine Base New London, restricted area. (a) The area: The open waters of... channel to a point located at latitude 41°24′04.1″ N, longitude 72°05′51.2″ W then southerly along...

  19. 77 FR 67566 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Coast Guard is temporarily establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Thames River in New London Harbor, New London, CT. The RNA will establish speed and wake restrictions and allow the Coast Guard to prohibit all vessel traffic through the RNA during degaussing range replacement...

  20. Report to the Vincent Astor Foundation; New York/London Middle School Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Urban Coalition, NY.

    The New York-London Middle Schools Project of 1976 provided an opportunity for a representative group of London educators to study New York City's public school system in terms of school community relations, school based planning and staff development at the junior high/intermediate school level. In this report, British educators provide a brief…

  1. Schools Library Services: Their Changing Value to the Education of London's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Judith

    2005-01-01

    In the history of education Schools Library Services are relative newcomers. The London County Council and its successor, the Inner London Education Authority, developed Schools Library Services for their own schools from the 1950s onwards. After the Education Reform Act 1988 became law, responsibility for education passed to the inner London…

  2. The New Education and the Institute of Education, University of London, 1919-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The London Day Training College (LDTC), founded in 1902, soon became the leading institution for the study of education and for the training of teachers in England. In 1932 it was transmuted into the Institute of Education of the University of London. Its title and pre-eminence have continued to this day. In the period 1919-1945 it was closely,…

  3. Diversity in Adoption of Linguistic Features of London English by Chinese and Bangladeshi Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…

  4. 77 FR 54495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... operates a fixed degaussing range in New London Harbor, New London, CT. This range is buried in sand on the... sensors and cables encompasses a much larger area of the river bottom, from the river's west shore by Fort... supporting system's boundaries are outlined with a magenta dotted line and labeled ``Cable Area''. The Navy...

  5. Diversity in Adoption of Linguistic Features of London English by Chinese and Bangladeshi Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Lau, Lawrence; Sachdev, Itesh

    2011-01-01

    This comparative study, conducted in multicultural London, investigates the occurrence in interviews with a researcher and in constructed same-sex peer conversations of five linguistic features characteristic of London English in the speech of two groups of British-born adolescents: ethnic Bangladeshis and ethnic Chinese of Cantonese heritage. The…

  6. Acheiving speech intelligibility at Paddington Station, London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Helen M.

    2002-11-01

    Paddington Station in London, UK is a large rail terminus for long distance electric and diesel powered trains. This magnificent train shed has four arched spans and is one of the remaining structural testaments to the architect Brunel. Given the current British and European legislative requirements for intelligible speech in public buildings AMS Acoustics were engaged to design an electroacoustic solution. In this paper we will outline how the significant problems of lively natural acoustics, the high operational noise levels and the strict aesthetic constraints were addressed. The resultant design is radical, using the most recent dsp controlled line array loudspeakers. In the paper we detail the acoustic modeling undertaken to predict both even direct sound pressure level coverage and STI. Further it presents the speech intelligibility measured upon handover of the new system. The design has proved to be successful and given the nature of the space, outstanding speech intelligibility is achieved.

  7. Herald waves of cholera in nineteenth century London.

    PubMed

    Tien, Joseph H; Poinar, Hendrik N; Fisman, David N; Earn, David J D

    2011-05-06

    Deaths from cholera in London, UK, were recorded weekly from 1824 to 1901. Three features of the time series stand out: (i) cholera deaths were strongly seasonal, with peak mortality almost always in the summer, (ii) the only non-summer outbreaks occurred in the spring of 1832, the autumn of 1848 and the winter of 1853, and (iii) extraordinarily severe summer outbreaks occurred in 1832, 1849, 1854 and 1866 (the four 'great' cholera years). The non-summer outbreaks of 1832, 1848 and 1853 appear to have been herald waves of newly invading cholera strains. In addition, a simple mathematical model confirms that a non-summer introduction of a new cholera strain can result in an initial herald wave, followed by a severe outbreak the following summer. Through the analysis of the genomes of nineteenth-century specimens, it may be possible to identify the strains that caused these herald waves and the well-known cholera epidemics that followed.

  8. Attraction or Repulsion? London Dispersion Forces Control Azobenzene Switches.

    PubMed

    Schweighauser, Luca; Strauss, Marcel A; Bellotto, Silvia; Wegner, Hermann A

    2015-11-02

    Large substituents are commonly seen as entirely repulsive through steric hindrance. Such groups have additional attractive effects arising from weak London dispersion forces between the neutral atoms. Steric interactions are recognized to have a strong influence on isomerization processes, such as in azobenzene-based molecular switches. Textbooks indicate that steric hindrance destabilizes the Z isomers. Herein, we demonstrate that increasing the bulkiness of electronically equal substituents in the meta-position decreases the thermal reaction rates from the Z to the E isomers. DFT computations revealed that attractive dispersion forces essentially lower the energy of the Z isomers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cosmic Rays & ULF Waves: Research in Schools Projects in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Research in Schools (RiS) projects offer school students opportunities to experience scientific research over prolonged periods within their school environment. Over the past two years we have piloted a RiS programme with five London schools across two research areas: the cosmic ray muons which serve as backgrounds to current neutrino experiments; and the magnetospheric ultra-low frequency waves that play a key role within space weather. From the evaluation of this pilot programme we have found that RiS can have significantly positive results on students' understanding and appreciation of science, as well as equipping them with vital skills. Teachers are also found to benefit from the projects, reconnecting them with their subject at an academic level, challenging them and aiding towards their professional development. It is important to note that supervision from current researchers was key to these outcomes. Finally, a number of recommendations on project structure, resources and workloads are presented.

  10. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M

    2016-09-19

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets.

  11. Cost benefit analysis of 20 mph zones in London.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Rebecca; Cairns, John; Grundy, Chris; Edwards, Phil

    2013-06-01

    Evidence suggests that 20 mph zones are an effective intervention to reduce casualties from road traffic crashes in urban areas. This analysis compares the costs of construction of the 20 mph zone intervention in high and low casualty areas in London to the value of casualties avoided over 5 and 10 year time horizons. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantify uncertainty in the results associated with model parameters. Results indicate a net present value (NPV) of £18 947 (90% credible limits -£75 252 to £82 021 2005 prices) after 5 years and £67 306 (£-29 157 to £137 890) after 10 years when 20 mph zones are implemented in areas with one or more casualty per kilometre of road. Simulations from our model suggest that the 'threshold of casualties' where NPVs become positive using a 10 year time horizon is 0.7 casualties per kilometre.

  12. Brachial plexus injury: the London experience with supraclavicular traction lesions.

    PubMed

    Birch, Rolfe

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author details the experiences of his hospital and other London hospitals in treating brachial plexus injury. As noted, important advances have been made in methods of diagnosis and repair. Myelography was replaced by CT scan and later by MRI. Among the topics the author explores are diagnosis (including pain, the presence or absence of the Tinel sign, and the irradiation of pins and needles) and the principles of repair. The author emphasizes that it is imperative that ruptured nerves be repaired as soon as possible, with the closed traction lesion coming, in urgency, close behind reattachment of the amputated hand or repair of a great artery and a trunk nerve in the combined lesion. Finally, the article concludes that the surgeon must be actively engaged in the whole process of rehabilitation and treatment of pain. This is part of a Point-Counterpoint discussion with Dr. David G. Kline's presentation of "A Personal Experience."

  13. Dr. William Briggs: ophthalmic physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, London.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, J

    2001-01-01

    William Briggs, MD, established himself as one of the first ophthalmic physicians, whom today we would call a neuro-ophthalmologist, to practice in the United Kingdom. After graduating with an MD from Cambridge in 1677, and while a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, he carried out original studies in visual anatomy and physiology. He described and named the optic papilla and the retinal nerve fibers in his book Ophthalmographia, published in 1676. He published his New Theory of Vision in 1682. While at Cambridge, he was a contemporary and a friend of Isaac Newton, with whom Briggs worked but who, in matters of visual anatomy and physiology, came to reach different conclusions from Briggs. In 1683, Briggs came to London to practice as a physician at St. Thomas' Hospital, where he established a considerable reputation as an ophthalmologist. For political reasons he was forced to resign from the Hospital prematurely.

  14. Polonium-210 poisoning in London: hypochondriasis and public health.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Oliver W; Page, Lisa; Forrester, Sarah; Maguire, Helen

    2008-01-01

    In November 2006, a Russian dissident died from radioactive Polonium-210 (210Po) poisoning in London. Providing reassuring messages during a public health incident may be ineffective for individuals with high health anxiety (hypochondriasis). Members of the public who called a 24-hour telephone helpline were offered a follow-up call by a health protection specialist for reassurance. A psychiatrist attempted to contact those callers who were unable to be reassured by the health protection specialist. Of 872 individuals contacted for reassurance, seven (0.6%) could not be reassured. The psychiatrist contacted four of these individuals. Three had a history of health-related anxiety and two attributed somatic symptoms to 210Po exposure. For individuals with hypochondriasis, reassurance during major public health incidents may be ineffective. Having a psychiatrist available was helpful in managing individuals with excessive health anxiety.

  15. Clostridium botulinum in the lakes and waterways of London.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. R.; Moryson, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Mud samples collected during 1974 from a large proportion of the lakes and waterways of London were examined for Clostridium botulinum. Of 69 such sites, 50 (72.5%) contained at least one type of the organism. Of the 50 positive sites, 31, 12, 1 and 10 contained, respectively, types B, C, D and E. Most of the demonstrations of type B required trypsinization of culture filtrates. An examination of 7 lakes in Edinburgh, made for the purpose of comparison, showed that 4 contained type B and one type C. An analysis of the results gave quantitative information on the value of (1) resampling apparently negative lakes, (2) the use of both heated and unheated culture inocula, and (3) trypsinization of culture filtrates. PMID:1104711

  16. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets. PMID:27641692

  17. The prevalence of cervical ribs in a London population.

    PubMed

    Brewin, James; Hill, Martin; Ellis, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Cervical ribs are an important cause of neurovascular compression at the thoracic outlet. Previous studies have shown the prevalence of cervical ribs to be between 0.05 and 3%, depending on the sex and race of the population studied. We examined 1,352 chest radiographs to determine the prevalence of cervical ribs in a London population of mixed sex and ethnicity. Our study found that the overall prevalence of cervical ribs was 0.74% with a higher rate in females compared with males (1.09 and 0.42%, respectively). Of the 10 individuals with a cervical rib, five were on the left, three were on the right and two were bilateral. The presence of elongated C7 transverse processes (transverse apophysomegaly) was also noted. We found a total of 30 elongated transverse processes with an overall prevalence of 2.21%. They were also more common in females (3.43%) than males (1.13%).

  18. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress Report from London 2015.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was held in London from 29 August to 2 September 2015. It is the leading conference in cardiology in the world, with presentations on the latest scientific discoveries, innovations, technology, education, and clinical practices. More than 32,000 delegates and 5,000 exhibitors from 140 countries participated, sharing a number of scientific presentations, including 28 clinical hot lines, 18 clinical trial updates, 20 registry studies, 12 basic and translational science hot line studies, and 4,533 abstract studies. Japan had the highest number of accepted abstracts at the Congress, indicating the great contribution of Japanese scientists and the Japanese Circulation Society.

  19. Sex differentials in caries frequencies in Medieval London.

    PubMed

    Walter, Brittany S; DeWitte, Sharon N; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-03-01

    Tooth decay is one of the most common oral infections observed in skeletal assemblages. Sex differentials in caries frequency are commonly examined, with most studies finding that females tend to have a higher frequency of carious lesions (caries) compared to males. Less research has examined differences in caries between males and females with respect to age in past populations. Findings from living populations indicate that caries frequencies are higher in females, at least in part, because of the effects of estrogen and pregnancy. We are interested in the interaction of age, sex, and caries in medieval London, during a period of repeated famines, which might have exacerbated underlying biological causes of caries sex differentials. We examined caries in adults from two medieval London cemeteries dating to c. 1120-1539 AD: St. Mary Spital (n=291) and St. Mary Graces (n=80) to test the hypothesis that males and females have different caries frequencies irrespective of age. The association between maxillary molar caries and sex was tested using hierarchical log-linear analysis to control for the effects of age on caries frequencies. The results indicate a higher frequency of maxillary molar caries in females (P<0.00), and that the age distribution of caries differs between the sexes (P=0.01), with a consistent increase in frequency with age for females until late adulthood, but not males. The difference in caries frequencies is not explained by differences in the age distributions of the sexes. Differences in the age patterns of caries for males and females could be the result of biological factors that present during reproductive age, differences in diet, or differential access to resources during famine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R S; Bell, J N B; James, P W; Chimonides, P J; Rumsey, F J; Tremper, A; Purvis, O W

    2007-03-01

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality.

  1. Impact of HIV on adult (15-54) mortality in London: 1979-96

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, M.; Bardsley, M.; De Angelis, D.; Ward, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of HIV on mortality in men and women aged 15-54 in London. DESIGN: Combination of routine mortality statistics with reports of AIDS deaths adjusted for underreporting and change in address from time of report to time of death. Calculation of standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for males including and excluding HIV comparing inner London and outer London with the rest of England and Wales. METHODS: Comparison of trends in all cause mortality and SMRs in males over time. Comparison of trends in HIV related deaths with other main causes of deaths in males and females in London. RESULTS: Age standardised rates for the rest of England and Wales showed a continual decline from 1979 to 1996 but rates in inner London males (ages 15-54) stopped declining around 1984-5 leading to a considerable increase in the SMR for inner London from 127 for 1985-7 to 171 for 1994-6. SMRs excluding HIV related deaths for inner London, however, showed no significant change over this time. There was a fall in HIV related mortality in 1996, though HIV was still the leading cause of death in males and second leading cause of death in females in inner London, and the fourth commonest cause of death in males in outer London. CONCLUSION: These data are the first to indicate the impact of HIV on mortality within a significant population in England and Wales. They show that public health priorities in London are different from the rest of the country. Analyses of trends of all cause mortality in people under 65 may mislead unless they take account of HIV. 


 PMID:10754940

  2. Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research: report on a symposium at King's College London, London UK.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Shanta J; Arden, Catherine; Bergsten, Peter; Bone, Adrian J; Brown, James; Dunmore, Simon; Harrison, Moira; Hauge-Evans, Astrid; Kelly, Catriona; King, Aileen; Maffucci, Tania; Marriott, Claire E; McClenaghan, Neville; Morgan, Noel G; Reers, Christina; Russell, Mark A; Turner, Mark D; Willoughby, Emma; Younis, Mustafa Y G; Zhi, Z L; Jones, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory-based research aimed at understanding processes regulating insulin secretion and mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction and loss in diabetes often makes use of rodents, as these processes are in many respects similar between rats/mice and humans. Indeed, a rough calculation suggests that islets have been isolated from as many as 150,000 rodents to generate the data contained within papers published in 2009 and the first four months of 2010. Rodent use for islet isolation has been mitigated, to a certain extent, by the availability of a variety of insulin-secreting cell lines that are used by researchers world-wide. However, when maintained as monolayers the cell lines do not replicate the robust, sustained secretory responses of primary islets which limits their usefulness as islet surrogates. On the other hand, there have been several reports that configuration of MIN6 β-cells, derived from a mouse insulinoma, as three-dimensional cell clusters termed ‘pseudoislets’ largely recapitulates the function of primary islet β-cells. The Diabetes Research Group at King’s College London has been using the MIN6 pseudoislet model for over a decade and they hosted a symposium on “Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research”, which was funded by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), in London on 15th and 16th April 2010. This small, focused meeting was conceived as an opportunity to consolidate information on experiences of working with pseudoislets between different UK labs, and to introduce the theory and practice of pseudoislet culture to laboratories working with islets and/or β-cell lines but who do not currently use pseudoislets. This short review summarizes the background to the development of the cell line-derived pseudoislet model, the key messages arising from the symposium and emerging themes for future pseudoislet research.

  3. Recent TB transmission, clustering and predictors of large clusters in London, 2010–2012: results from first 3 years of universal MIRU-VNTR strain typing

    PubMed Central

    Hamblion, Esther L; Le Menach, Arnaud; Anderson, Laura F; Lalor, Maeve K; Brown, Tim; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Anderson, Charlotte; Maguire, Helen; Anderson, Sarah R

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of TB has doubled in the last 20 years in London. A better understanding of risk groups for recent transmission is required to effectively target interventions. We investigated the molecular epidemiological characteristics of TB cases to estimate the proportion of cases due to recent transmission, and identify predictors for belonging to a cluster. Methods The study population included all culture-positive TB cases in London residents, notified between January 2010 and December 2012, strain typed using 24-loci multiple interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors for clustering using sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of cases and for cluster size based on the characteristics of the first two cases. Results There were 10 147 cases of which 5728 (57%) were culture confirmed and 4790 isolates (84%) were typed. 2194 (46%) were clustered in 570 clusters, and the estimated proportion attributable to recent transmission was 34%. Clustered cases were more likely to be UK born, have pulmonary TB, a previous diagnosis, a history of substance abuse or alcohol abuse and imprisonment, be of white, Indian, black-African or Caribbean ethnicity. The time between notification of the first two cases was more likely to be <90 days in large clusters. Conclusions Up to a third of TB cases in London may be due to recent transmission. Resources should be directed to the timely investigation of clusters involving cases with risk factors, particularly those with a short period between the first two cases, to interrupt onward transmission of TB. PMID:27417280

  4. The clinical characteristics at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population: the South London Diabetes cohort (SOUL-D).

    PubMed

    Winkley, K; Thomas, S M; Sivaprasad, S; Chamley, M; Stahl, D; Ismail, K; Amiel, S A

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in an urban multi-ethnic cohort. A population-based cross-sectional design was used. People diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in the preceding 6 months were recruited from primary care practices in three adjacent inner-city boroughs of South London, serving a population in which 20% of residents are of black African or Caribbean ethnicity. Sociodemographic and biomedical data were collected by standardised clinical assessment and from medical records. Multiple logistic regression methods were used to report associations between ethnicity and diabetes-complication status. From 96 general practices, 1,506 patients were recruited. Their mean age was 55.6 (± 11.07) years, 55% were men, 60% were asymptomatic at diagnosis and 51%, 38% and 11% were of white, black and South Asian/other ethnicity, respectively. Compared with white participants, black and South Asian/other participants were: younger (mean age 58.9 [± 10.09], 52.4 [± 11.19] and 51.5 [± 10.42] years, respectively; p < 0.0001); less likely to have neuropathy (10.1%, 3.6% and 4.4%; p < 0.0001) or report coronary artery disease (12.7%, 4.8% and 7.3%; p < 0.0001). In logistic regression, compared with white participants, black participants had lower levels of macrovascular complications (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.84; p = 0.01). Male sex was independently associated with microvascular disease (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.26, 2.28; p < 0.0001). The prevalence of complications at time of diagnosis was lower than expected, especially in black and South Asian/other ethnic groups. However, in multi-ethnic inner-city populations, onset of type 2 diabetes occurred almost 10 years earlier in non-white populations than in white participants, predicating a prolonged morbidity.

  5. Aircraft trace gas measurements during the London 2012 Olympics: Air quality and emission fluxes derived from sampling upwind and downwind of a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; O'Shea, S.; Muller, J.; Jones, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Lee, J. D.; Bauguitte, S.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C.; Barratt, B.; McQuaid, J. B.; Illingworth, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements recorded during July and August 2012, across the period of the London 2012 Summer Olympics and simultaneous with the Clear air for London (ClearfLo) ground-based measurement and modelling campaign. Through long-term (2-year) and intensive observation periods (Winter 2011 and Summer 2012), the ClearfLo programme aims to better understand emissions, as well as the chemical, dynamical and micro-meteorological processes which modulate air quality in the London urban environment - an important risk factor for both acute and chronic health effects. The work presented here focuses on two contrasting case studies within the summer ClearfLo period: 30 July 2012 and 9 August 2012, representing relatively clean background and polluted background cases, respectively, and characterised by well-mixed Atlantic westerly maritime inflow in the former and stagnant air (high pressure) in the latter. Measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, HCN, and other gases measured on board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft will be presented and interpreted, with emphasis on observed concentration gradients and tracer-tracer correlations as well as airmass vertical structure and airmass history upwind and downwind of central London in each case. By applying a simple advective model and making use of vertically resolved thermodynamic and composition data, we are able to derive emission strengths for these gases that are representative of the total enclosed surface area. Example emissions for these two cases range between 6x105 kg(C)/hr and 9x105 kg(C)/hr for CO2, and ~0.6x105 kg(C)/hr for CH4. This airborne sampling methodology highlights the unique utility of aircraft measurements to routinely and climatologically characterise emissions from area sources such as cities, and points to future missions to target localised hotspots and distributed point sources.

  6. Reexamination of London, England, mortality in relation to exposure to acidic aerosols during 1963-1972 winters.

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, G D; Ito, K; Lippmann, M; Hayes, C

    1989-01-01

    Air pollution epidemiology since the 1950s has been able to demonstrate that increases in daily mortality in London, England, were associated with elevated concentrations of index air pollutants, i.e., British Smoke (BS) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In this work, we reanalyze that portion of the 1958-1972 winter mortality-pollution record for which daily direct acid aerosol measurements were made at a central site in London (St. Bartholomew's Medical College). The purposes of these exploratory analyses are to examine the dataset for indications of a relationship between acid aerosol pollution and human mortality and to compare any noted associations with those for other pollution variables. It is found that the log of acid aerosol concentrations is more strongly associated with raw total mortality in bivariate analyses than is BS or SO2, despite the fact that acid data are available from only one central site (versus seven disperse sites for BS and SO2). The logarithmic nature of the exposure side of the H2SO4-mortality relationship implies a saturation model of pollution effects, possibly due to multiday pollution harvesting influences on a susceptible subpopulation. Moreover, mortality-pollution cross-correlation analyses indicate that mortality effects usually follow pollution in time, supporting a causal relationship between the two. The apparent advantage of H2SO4 over BS in predicting total raw mortality is consistent with the hypothesis that it is the portion of particulate mass of greater health significance and may also allow the development of London mortality results which are more easily transferable to other environments than is the case for existing BS results. PMID:2785034

  7. Investigating an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis in a school using smartphone technology, London, March 2013.

    PubMed

    Simone, B; Atchison, C; Ruiz, B; Greenop, P; Dave, J; Ready, D; Maguire, H; Walsh, B; Anderson, S

    2014-05-15

    On 22 March 2013, 150 of 1,255 students (13–17 years) and staff at a school in London reported gastrointestinal symptoms; onset peaked 8 to 12 hours after a lunch served in the school on 21 March. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all students and staff. We defined cases as school attenders on 20 and 21 March with onset of gastrointestinal symptoms between 20 and 23 March. We tested food, environmental and stool samples of cases for common pathogens and bacterial toxins. We administered an online questionnaire via email, encouraging the use of smartphones to respond, to measure risk of illness for food items eaten at school on 20 and 21 March. Survey response was 45%. Adjusted risk ratios were generated in a multivariable analysis. Those who ate chicken balti on 21 March were 19.3 times more likely to become ill (95% confidence interval: 7.3–50.9). Clostridium perfringens was detected in all 19 stool samples collected. Within eight school hours of its launch, 412 of 561 (73%) responders had completed the survey. Hygienic standards in the kitchen were satisfactory. The investigation was done rapidly due to smartphone technology and we recommend considering this technology in future outbreaks.

  8. Rates of undiagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in London drug and alcohol detoxification units.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Zoe; Maltezos, Stefanos; Williams, Charlotte; Morinan, Alun; Hammon, Amy; Ball, David; Marshall, E Jane; Keaney, Francis; Young, Susan; Bolton, Patrik; Glaser, Karen; Howe-Forbes, Raoul; Kuntsi, Jonna; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip J

    2012-12-06

    ADHD is a common childhood onset mental health disorder that persists into adulthood in two-thirds of cases. One of the most prevalent and impairing comorbidities of ADHD in adults are substance use disorders. We estimate rates of ADHD in patients with substance abuse disorders and delineate impairment in the co-morbid group. Screening for ADHD followed by a research diagnostic interview in people attending in-patient drug and alcohol detoxification units. We estimated prevalence of undiagnosed ADHD within substance use disorder in-patients in South London around 12%. Those individuals with substance use disorders and ADHD had significantly higher self-rated impairments across several domains of daily life; and higher rates of substance abuse and alcohol consumption, suicide attempts, and depression recorded in their case records. This study demonstrates the high rates of untreated ADHD within substance use disorder populations and the association of ADHD in such patients with greater levels of impairment. These are likely to be a source of additional impairment to patients and represent an increased burden on clinical services.

  9. Rates of undiagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in London drug and alcohol detoxification units

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common childhood onset mental health disorder that persists into adulthood in two-thirds of cases. One of the most prevalent and impairing comorbidities of ADHD in adults are substance use disorders. We estimate rates of ADHD in patients with substance abuse disorders and delineate impairment in the co-morbid group. Method Screening for ADHD followed by a research diagnostic interview in people attending in-patient drug and alcohol detoxification units. Results We estimated prevalence of undiagnosed ADHD within substance use disorder in-patients in South London around 12%. Those individuals with substance use disorders and ADHD had significantly higher self-rated impairments across several domains of daily life; and higher rates of substance abuse and alcohol consumption, suicide attempts, and depression recorded in their case records. Conclusions This study demonstrates the high rates of untreated ADHD within substance use disorder populations and the association of ADHD in such patients with greater levels of impairment. These are likely to be a source of additional impairment to patients and represent an increased burden on clinical services. PMID:23216993

  10. Stuart London's standard of living: re-examining the Settlement of Tithes of 1638 for rents, income, and poverty.

    PubMed

    Baer, William C

    2010-01-01

    The Settlement of Tithes of 1638 can be tested for biases in its London rents. Even so, it proves to be a relatively good source for seventeenth-century London, and for calculating associated median and mean rents, as well as a Gini coefficient of inequality for the distribution of resources. Through other evidence in the Settlement, rent/income ratios for London can be approximated, and from them estimates made of London's median income. Median rents and income also allow estimates of the percentage of Londoners in poverty. Though the last is inevitably disputable, the estimate holds up well to testing by other evidence.

  11. Herald waves of cholera in nineteenth century London

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Joseph H.; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Fisman, David N.; Earn, David J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Deaths from cholera in London, UK, were recorded weekly from 1824 to 1901. Three features of the time series stand out: (i) cholera deaths were strongly seasonal, with peak mortality almost always in the summer, (ii) the only non-summer outbreaks occurred in the spring of 1832, the autumn of 1848 and the winter of 1853, and (iii) extraordinarily severe summer outbreaks occurred in 1832, 1849, 1854 and 1866 (the four ‘great’ cholera years). The non-summer outbreaks of 1832, 1848 and 1853 appear to have been herald waves of newly invading cholera strains. In addition, a simple mathematical model confirms that a non-summer introduction of a new cholera strain can result in an initial herald wave, followed by a severe outbreak the following summer. Through the analysis of the genomes of nineteenth-century specimens, it may be possible to identify the strains that caused these herald waves and the well-known cholera epidemics that followed. PMID:21123253

  12. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  13. INVITATION : Latest astronomical results from ISO: Press briefing in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    Representatives of the media are invited to attend the briefing at the Institute of Physics, which will commence with registration and demonstrations at 10:00 a.m. London time. As of 10:30, Paul Murdin, Head of Astronomy at PPARC will initiate the briefing on behalf of PPARC. Reinhard Genzel, a German astronomer and Director of the Max Planck Institute, will make an independent assessment of ISO's achievements and announce some recent discoveries. Martin Kessler, the European Space Agency's project scientist, will summarize the extent of ISO's observations and describe the continuing work of analysis. At 11:45 (after questions) ISO scientists will be available for interviews, with quiet rooms for radio interviews and a scale model of ISO as backdrop for TV interviews and still pictures. Other facilities will include digital images from ISO, and a demonstration of educational project work. To coincide with the event, ESA will distribute a video news release, an Information Note, and new pictures from ISO. After the briefing there will be a buffet lunch. The nearest underground stations to the Institute of Physics are Great Portland Street and Regent's Park. Representatives of the media wishing to attend are requested to return by fax (+33(0)1.53.69.76.90) the attached accreditation form. For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel : +33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax : +33(0)1.53.69.76.90

  14. Urban smoke concentrations at Kew, London, 1898-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    Historical smoke concentrations at monthly resolution for the early twentieth century are found for Kew Observatory, London, using the atmospheric electricity proxy technique. Smoke particles modify the electrical properties of urban air: an increase in smoke concentration reduces air's electrical conductivity and increases the Potential Gradient (PG). Calibrated PG data are available from Kew since 1898, and air conductivity was measured routinely between 1909 and 1979 using the technique developed by C.T.R. Wilson. Automated smoke observations at the same site overlap with the atmospheric electrical measurements from 1921, providing an absolute calibration to smoke concentration. This shows that the late nineteenth century winter smoke concentrations at Kew were approximately 100 times greater than contemporary winter smoke concentrations. Following smoke emission regulations reducing the smoke concentration, the electrical parameters of the urban air did not change dramatically. This is suggested to be due to a composition change, with an increase in the abundance of small aerosol compensating for the decrease in smoke.

  15. Geological Society of London Issues Statement on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerhayes, Colin

    2011-02-01

    On 1 November the Geological Society of London (GSL) published a statement (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site//GSL//lang/en/climatechange) about the geological evidence relating to past climates, atmospheric carbon levels, and their interrelationships. The online version also carries a list of recommendations for further reading. The GSL's Geoscientist magazine (http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/gsl/site/GSL/lang/en/page8578.html) reported Bryan Lovell, GSL president, as saying, “Climate change is a defining issue of our time, whose full understanding needs geology's long perspective. Earth scientists can read…the geological record of changes in climate that occurred long before we were around to light so much as a camp fire, let alone burn coal, gas and oil. A dramatic global warming event 55 million years ago gives us a particularly clear indication of what happens when there is a sudden release of 1500 billion tonnes of carbon into Earth's atmosphere. It gets hot, the seas become more acid, and there is widespread extinction of life. We are a third of the way to repeating that ancient natural input of carbon through our own agency. The message from the rocks is that it would be a good idea to stop pulling that carbon trigger.”

  16. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renyi; Gomez, Mario E.; Yang, Lingxiao; Levy Zamora, Misti; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Hu, Tafeng; Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Jian; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Guohui; Wang, Jiayuan; Tian, Pengfei; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wang, Weigang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yujiao; Li, Yixin; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Cai, Li; Cheng, Yuting; Ji, Yuemeng; Zhang, Fang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Liss, Peter S.; Duce, Robert A.; Kolb, Charles E.; Molina, Mario J.

    2016-11-01

    Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH3 and NO2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world.

  17. Efficient Calculation of Molecular Integrals over London Atomic Orbitals.

    PubMed

    Irons, Tom J P; Zemen, Jan; Teale, Andrew M

    2017-08-08

    The use of London atomic orbitals (LAOs) in a nonperturbative manner enables the determination of gauge-origin invariant energies and properties for molecular species in arbitrarily strong magnetic fields. Central to the efficient implementation of such calculations for molecular systems is the evaluation of molecular integrals, particularly the electron repulsion integrals (ERIs). We present an implementation of several different algorithms for the evaluation of ERIs over Gaussian-type LAOs at arbitrary magnetic field strengths. The efficiencies of generalized McMurchie-Davidson (MD), Head-Gordon-Pople (HGP), and Rys quadrature schemes are compared. For the Rys quadrature implementation, we avoid the use of high precision arithmetic and interpolation schemes in the computation of the quadrature roots and weights, enabling the application of this algorithm seamlessly to a wide range of magnetic fields. The efficiency of each generalized algorithm is compared by numerical application, classifying the ERIs according to their total angular momenta and evaluating their performance for primitive and contracted basis sets. In common with zero-field integral evaluation, no single algorithm is optimal for all angular momenta; thus, a simple mixed scheme is put forward that selects the most efficient approach to calculate the ERIs for each shell quartet. The mixed approach is significantly more efficient than the exclusive use of any individual algorithm.

  18. External and internal noise surveys of London primary schools.

    PubMed

    Shield, Bridget; Dockrell, Julie E

    2004-02-01

    Internal and external noise surveys have been carried out around schools in London, UK, to provide information on typical levels and sources to which children are exposed while at school. Noise levels were measured outside 142 schools, in areas away from flight paths into major airports. Here 86% of the schools surveyed were exposed to noise from road traffic, the average external noise level outside a school being 57 dB L(Aeq). Detailed internal noise surveys have been carried out in 140 classrooms in 16 schools, together with classroom observations. It was found that noise levels inside classrooms depend upon the activities in which the children are engaged, with a difference of 20 dB L(Aeq) between the "quietest" and "noisiest" activities. The average background noise level in classrooms exceeds the level recommended in current standards. The number of children in the classroom was found to affect noise levels. External noise influenced internal noise levels only when children were engaged in the quietest classroom activities. The effects of the age of the school buildings and types of window upon internal noise were examined but results were inconclusive.

  19. Air earth current measurements at Kew, London, 1909 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Ingram, W. J.

    2005-07-01

    A vertical conduction current arises from the global ionospheric potential and the integrated electrical resistance between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. The conduction current density varies with the ionospheric potential and the vertical (columnar) resistance. At the surface, the conduction current density is known as the air-earth current. C.T.R. Wilson developed a measurement technique for the air-earth current in 1906, which was implemented by the British Meteorological Office at its Kew Observatory (51° 28'N, 0° 19'W) near London in 1909. Simultaneous measurements of air-earth current, potential gradient and positive air conductivity were made almost continuously until 1979 using the Wilson method on fine afternoons. A summary of the complete set of monthly mean measurements is presented here for the first time. The data span the nuclear weapons testing period and the UK Clean Air Act of 1956, both of which influenced the measurements obtained. Annual average values of the air earth current density at Kew are 0.97 pA·m -2 (1909-1931), 1.04 pA·m -2 (1932-1949) and 1.41 pA·m -2 (1967-1979).

  20. Cord blood banking in London: the first 1000 collections.

    PubMed

    Armitage, S; Warwick, R; Fehily, D; Navarrete, C; Contreras, M

    1999-07-01

    The London Cord Blood Bank was established with the aim of collecting, processing and storing 10000 unrelated stem cell donations for the significant number of children in the UK requiring transplantation, for whom a matched unrelated bone marrow donor cannot be found. Collection is performed at two hospitals by dedicated cord blood bank staff after delivery of the placenta. Mothers are interviewed regarding medical, ethnic and behavioural history by nurse counsellors and sign a detailed consent form. Donations are returned to the bank for processing. Volume reduction is undertaken by a simple, closed, semi-automated blood processing system, with excellent recovery of progenitor cells. Units are cryopreserved and stored in the vapour phase of liquid nitrogen. Blood samples from mothers and cord blood donations are tested for the UK mandatory red cell and microbiology markers for blood donors. Donations are typed for HLA-A, B and DR at medium resolution (antigen split) level using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing and sequence-specific priming techniques. The selection of collection hospitals on the basis of ethnic mix has proven effective, with 41.5% of donations derived from non-European caucasoid donors. Bacterial contamination of collections has been dramatically reduced by implementation of improved umbilical cord decontamination protocols.

  1. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  2. The London polonium incident: lessons in risk communications.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Amlôt, Richard; Page, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Public responses to large-scale radiological incidents are often thought to be disproportionate to the objective risk and can involve widespread societal disruption. Recent experiences of the (200)Po incident in central London suggest that public responses depend heavily on the nature of the incident and the effectiveness of risk communication efforts. This paper describes the outcome of several studies done in the aftermath of the (200)Po incident that suggest the reaction of the public on this occasion was muted, even for those directly affected. However, the desire for accurate, up-to-date and individually-tailored information was strong, and satisfaction with the efforts of the responding agencies was mediated by this information provision. A small minority of individuals was difficult to reassure effectively. This group may confer a particular drain on resources. Lessons for the risk communication efforts of public health responders are identified, in particular the importance of helping individuals to identify their risk of exposure, understand the difference between acute and chronic effects of exposure, and appreciate the meaning of any test results. Attempts at providing reassurance in the absence of specific information are likely to be counterproductive in any future radiological incident.

  3. Improved performance in the Tower of London test following yoga.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, N K; Telles, S

    2001-07-01

    Twenty girls between 10 and 13 years of age, studying at a residential school were randomly assigned to two groups. One group practiced yoga for one hour fifteen minutes per day, 7 days a week, while the other group was given physical training for the same time. Time for planning and for execution and the number of moves required to complete the Tower of London task were assessed for both groups at the beginning and end of a month. These three assessments were separately tested in increasingly complex tasks requiring 2-moves, 4-moves and 5-moves. The pre-post data were compared using the Wilcoxon paired signed ranks test. The yoga group showed a significant reduction in planning time for both 2-moves and 4-moves tasks (53.9 and 59.1 percent respectively), execution time in both 4-moves and 5-moves tasks (63.7 and 60.3 percent respectively), and in the number of moves in the 4-moves tasks (20.9 percent). The physical training group showed no change. Hence yoga training for a month reduced the planning and execution time in simple (2-moves) as well as complex tasks (4, 5-moves) and facilitated reaching the target with a smaller number of moves in a complex task (4-moves).

  4. Evaluating sexual health planning for the London 2012 Olympics.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Ava; Robinson, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    The public health impact of mass gatherings should not be underestimated, requiring careful planning. This evaluation identified the successes and failures of a programme targeted to mitigate against potential increases in sexual ill health during the London 2012 Olympics. Programme planning was evaluated using documentary analysis. Stakeholders' experiences were explored using an online survey. Finally, selected stakeholders were interviewed in depth. Over 100 documents were analysed, 36 survey responses received and 12 interviews conducted. Most respondents felt aims were appropriate, potentially overambitious. 'Business as usual', with no disruption or increased demand, was reported in sexual health services. Some interviewees felt evidence for increased demand was limited, although contingency planning was needed. Signposting service users and providing 'residual risk responses' appeared successful. Planned service transformation was not fully achieved and perhaps inappropriate, although new service collaborations emerged. Over 2000 individuals participated; wider public engagement was seen as inappropriate. A 'Sex Factor 2012' competition was particularly successful. Legacy opportunities included planning work, groundwork for transformation, relationship building and continuing the resilience changes. The Games allowed sexual health services to explore new ways of working, engage with stakeholders and develop new relationships, although in reality demand for services did not increase. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renyi; Gomez, Mario E.; Yang, Lingxiao; Levy Zamora, Misti; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Hu, Tafeng; Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Jian; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Guohui; Wang, Jiayuan; Tian, Pengfei; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wang, Weigang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yujiao; Li, Yixin; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Cai, Li; Cheng, Yuting; Ji, Yuemeng; Zhang, Fang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Liss, Peter S.; Duce, Robert A.; Kolb, Charles E.; Molina, Mario J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH3 and NO2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world. PMID:27849598

  6. Daily concentrations of air pollution and plasma fibrinogen in London.

    PubMed

    Pekkanen, J; Brunner, E J; Anderson, H R; Tiittanen, P; Atkinson, R W

    2000-12-01

    The reason for the association between air pollution and risk of cardiovascular diseases is unknown. The hypothesis was examined that daily concentrations of air pollution are associated with daily concentrations of fibrinogen, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Data on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen for 4982 male and 2223 female office workers, collected in a cross sectional survey in London between September 1991 and May 1993, were combined with data on concentrations of air pollution during the day of blood sampling and during the 3 preceding days. After adjustment for weather and other confounding factors, an increase in the 24 hour mean NO(2) during the previous day from the 10th to the 90th percentile (61.7 microg/m(3)) was associated with a 1.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.4% to 2.5%) higher fibrinogen concentration. The respective increase for CO (1.6 mg/m(3)) was 1.5% (95% CI 0.5%, 2.5%). These associations tended to be stronger in the warm season (April to September). Significant associations were found for black smoke and particulate matter of diameter 10 microm (PM(10)) only in the warm season. No association with fibrinogen was found for SO(2) or ozone. The short term association between air pollution, possibly from traffic, and risk of cardiovascular events may be at least partly mediated through increased concentrations of plasma fibrinogen, possibly due to an inflammatory reaction caused by air pollution.

  7. The London Academic Training Scheme: learning research methods through teaching.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, J; Iliffe, S

    1998-04-01

    The London Academic Training Scheme (LATS) provides a 1-year training programme in research methods and teaching for GPs who have recently finished vocational training. This paper describes an adult educational approach to learning about research methods through teaching as part of the LATS trainees' weekly academic programme. We aimed to provide and evaluate a course exploring research methodologies used in primary care by a three-step approach to learning, with trainees taking the main role as teachers. Trainees on the LATS programme met for one afternoon each week for one term. During alternate sessions a pair of trainees would deliver a whole afternoon's seminar on one aspect of primary care research methodology. The teaching of each session was evaluated by the whole group, by academic supervisors and by experts. Sessions were scored by participants for content, style of presentation, educational value and enjoyment on a seven-point rating scale where 1 = no value, 4 = neutral and 7 = very valuable. All sessions scored above 4 and usually above 5 for each aspect. Open comments collected showed that trainees greatly appreciated this self-directed approach to learning and teaching. The active involvement of learners as teachers is a practical and rewarding means of using adult educational principles in providing an academic programme.

  8. London 2012: occupational health in the construction programme.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Lawrence

    2007-05-01

    This article explores the approach to occupational health in the UK construction industry in both broad and narrow contexts. The construction programme for the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games includes the creation of a large urban park in east London containing many sports venues and served by enhanced infrastructure. The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), responsible for the construction programme, is developing plans that seek to assure the health of the thousands of workers who will be engaged in this work. Such plans are not being drafted in a vacuum. In addition to considerable consultation with stakeholders the ODA is also drawing on some of the exciting work that has been undertaken in occupational health in recent years. In particular, the move from a focus on technical health services provided by 'experts' to an acceptance that health issues should be managed within employing organizations. Understanding this broad context provides a solid basis for analysing the specific proposals for occupational support during the Olympic Park construction.

  9. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon) experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  10. Scoping the role and education needs of practice nurses in London.

    PubMed

    Procter, Susan; Griffiths, Lauren; Fanning, Agnes; Wallman, Lizzie; Loveday, Heather P

    2017-03-27

    Aims To identify education priorities for practice nursing across eight London Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs); to identify the education, training, development and support needs of practice nurses in undertaking current and future roles.

  11. Apprentices in Trouble: Some Problems in the Training of Surgeons and Apothecaries in Seventeenth Century London

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Thomas R.

    1979-01-01

    Mayor's Court interrogatories and depositions in six disputes between apprentices and their surgeon and apothecary masters in London in 1654-1684 are reviewed. Evidence is presented to illustrate aspects of the operation of the apprentice system. PMID:377827

  12. Joseph Clover and the cobra: a tale of snake envenomation and attempted resuscitation with bellows in London, 1852.

    PubMed

    Ball, C

    2010-07-01

    The Industrial Revolution saw the creation of many new jobs, but probably none more curious than that of zookeeper. The London Zoological Gardens, established for members in 1828, was opened to the general public in 1847. In 1852 the "Head Keeper in the Serpent Room", Edward Horatio Girling, spent a night farewelling a friend departing for Australia. He arrived at work in an inebriated state and was bitten on the face by a cobra that he was handling in a less than sensible manner. He was taken by cab to University College Hospital where he was resuscitated by a number of doctors, including Joseph Clover then the resident medical officer to the hospital and later to become the leading anaesthetist in London. Clover recorded this event in his diary along with the resuscitation method used. The patient eventually died but his treatment created a flurry of correspondence in the medical and lay press. Interestingly, the attempted resuscitation was with bellows, which had been abandoned by the Royal Humane Society twenty years earlier Clover records other cases of resuscitation with bellows at University College Hospital during his time as a resident medical officer there (1848 to 1853). There is a casebook belonging to Joseph Clover in the Geoffrey Kaye Museum, in Melbourne. This story is one of the many interesting stories uncovered during a study of this book and Clover's other personal papers.

  13. Enhancement of the London penetration depth in pnictides at the onset of SDW order under superconducting dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, Alex; Vavilov, Maxim; Kuzmanovski, Dushko; Khodas, Maxim; Chubukov, Andrey

    2013-03-01

    Recent measurements of the doping dependence of the London penetration depth λ (x) in clean samples of isovalent BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 at T <case of pnictides is conceptually different from a one-component Galilean invariant Fermi liquid, for which correlation effects do not cause the renormalization of the London penetration depth at T = 0 .

  14. Work characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in London.

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, S A; North, F M; White, I; Marmot, M G

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To describe the association between self reported and externally assessed work characteristics and psychiatric disorder. DESIGN--Analysis of questionnaire data collected from the first phase of the Whitehall II study, a cohort study of an employed population. SETTING--Twenty civil service departments in London. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 6900 male and 3414 female civil servants aged 35-55 years. MAIN RESULTS--High levels of subjective social support at work, control at work, job variety, and skill use were associated with greater satisfaction and wellbeing and less psychiatric disorder measured by the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ). High levels of subjective work pace and conflicting demands were associated with less satisfaction and wellbeing and greater psychiatric disorder. The combined effects of work characteristics were similar to the effects of the work characteristics considered separately, except that for men there was a small interaction between psychological demands and control on the GHQ. There was little overall support for the two factor job strain model. In contrast, objective indices of work were generally not associated with the psychological indices. Findings in men and women were generally comparable and were not significantly influenced by employment grade. CONCLUSIONS--Negative affectivity and a tendency to report negatively about both work and the psychological indices may partly explain the difference in the findings between subjective and objective work characteristics. However, subjective work characteristics were still associated with psychiatric disorder after adjusting for negative affectivity. The potential confounding effects of employment grade did not explain the association between either subjective or objective work characteristics and the psychological indices. While modifications to the work environment may directly reduce certain adverse physical health effects, the influence of work place design and

  15. Work characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in London.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, S A; North, F M; White, I; Marmot, M G

    1995-02-01

    To describe the association between self reported and externally assessed work characteristics and psychiatric disorder. Analysis of questionnaire data collected from the first phase of the Whitehall II study, a cohort study of an employed population. Twenty civil service departments in London. Altogether 6900 male and 3414 female civil servants aged 35-55 years. High levels of subjective social support at work, control at work, job variety, and skill use were associated with greater satisfaction and wellbeing and less psychiatric disorder measured by the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ). High levels of subjective work pace and conflicting demands were associated with less satisfaction and wellbeing and greater psychiatric disorder. The combined effects of work characteristics were similar to the effects of the work characteristics considered separately, except that for men there was a small interaction between psychological demands and control on the GHQ. There was little overall support for the two factor job strain model. In contrast, objective indices of work were generally not associated with the psychological indices. Findings in men and women were generally comparable and were not significantly influenced by employment grade. Negative affectivity and a tendency to report negatively about both work and the psychological indices may partly explain the difference in the findings between subjective and objective work characteristics. However, subjective work characteristics were still associated with psychiatric disorder after adjusting for negative affectivity. The potential confounding effects of employment grade did not explain the association between either subjective or objective work characteristics and the psychological indices. While modifications to the work environment may directly reduce certain adverse physical health effects, the influence of work place design and management on psychological wellbeing, satisfaction, and psychiatric

  16. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556

  17. Royal London space analysis: plaster versus digital model assessment.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Balpreet; Lee, Robert T; Zou, Lifong; Johal, Ama

    2017-06-01

    With the advent of digital study models, the importance of being able to evaluate space requirements becomes valuable to treatment planning and the justification for any required extraction pattern. This study was undertaken to compare the validity and reliability of the Royal London space analysis (RLSA) undertaken on plaster as compared with digital models. A pilot study (n = 5) was undertaken on plaster and digital models to evaluate the feasibility of digital space planning. This also helped to determine the sample size calculation and as a result, 30 sets of study models with specified inclusion criteria were selected. All five components of the RLSA, namely: crowding; depth of occlusal curve; arch expansion/contraction; incisor antero-posterior advancement and inclination (assessed from the pre-treatment lateral cephalogram) were accounted for in relation to both model types. The plaster models served as the gold standard. Intra-operator measurement error (reliability) was evaluated along with a direct comparison of the measured digital values (validity) with the plaster models. The measurement error or coefficient of repeatability was comparable for plaster and digital space analyses and ranged from 0.66 to 0.95mm. No difference was found between the space analysis performed in either the upper or lower dental arch. Hence, the null hypothesis was accepted. The digital model measurements were consistently larger, albeit by a relatively small amount, than the plaster models (0.35mm upper arch and 0.32mm lower arch). No difference was detected in the RLSA when performed using either plaster or digital models. Thus, digital space analysis provides a valid and reproducible alternative method in the new era of digital records.

  18. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London

    PubMed Central

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  19. The London Underground: dust and hazards to health

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Cherrie, J; Dennekamp, M; Donaldson, K; Hurley, J; Tran, C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To assess hazards associated with exposure to dust in the London Underground railway and to provide an informed opinion on the risks to workers and the travelling public of exposure to tunnel dust. Methods: Concentrations of dust, as mass (PM2.5) and particle number, were measured at different underground stations and in train cabs; its size and composition were analysed; likely maximal exposures of staff and passengers were estimated; and in vitro toxicological testing of sample dusts in comparison with other dusts was performed. Results: Concentrations on station platforms were 270–480 µg/m3 PM2.5 and 14 000–29 000 particles/cm3. Cab concentrations over a shift averaged 130–200 µg/m3 and 17 000–23 000 particles/cm3. The dust comprised by mass approximately 67% iron oxide, 1–2% quartz, and traces of other metals, the residue being volatile matter. The finest particles are drawn underground from the surface while the coarser dust is generated by interaction of brakes, wheels, and rails. Taking account of durations of exposure, drivers and station staff would have maximum exposures of about 200 µg/m3 over eight hours; the occupational exposure standard for welding fume, as iron oxide, is 5 mg/m3 over an eight hour shift. Toxicology showed the dust to have cytotoxic and inflammatory potential at high doses, consistent with its composition largely of iron oxide. Discussion: It is unjustifiable to compare PM2.5 exposure underground with that on the surface, since the adverse effects of iron oxide and combustion generated particles differ. Concentrations of ultrafine particles are lower and of coarser (PM2.5) particles higher underground than on the surface. The concentrations underground are well below allowable workplace concentrations for iron oxide and unlikely to represent a significant cumulative risk to the health of workers or commuters. PMID:15901881

  20. The London Underground: dust and hazards to health.

    PubMed

    Seaton, A; Cherrie, J; Dennekamp, M; Donaldson, K; Hurley, J F; Tran, C L

    2005-06-01

    To assess hazards associated with exposure to dust in the London Underground railway and to provide an informed opinion on the risks to workers and the travelling public of exposure to tunnel dust. Concentrations of dust, as mass (PM2.5) and particle number, were measured at different underground stations and in train cabs; its size and composition were analysed; likely maximal exposures of staff and passengers were estimated; and in vitro toxicological testing of sample dusts in comparison with other dusts was performed. Concentrations on station platforms were 270-480 microg/m3 PM2.5 and 14,000-29,000 particles/cm3. Cab concentrations over a shift averaged 130-200 microg/m3 and 17,000-23,000 particles/cm3. The dust comprised by mass approximately 67% iron oxide, 1-2% quartz, and traces of other metals, the residue being volatile matter. The finest particles are drawn underground from the surface while the coarser dust is generated by interaction of brakes, wheels, and rails. Taking account of durations of exposure, drivers and station staff would have maximum exposures of about 200 microg/m3 over eight hours; the occupational exposure standard for welding fume, as iron oxide, is 5 mg/m3 over an eight hour shift. Toxicology showed the dust to have cytotoxic and inflammatory potential at high doses, consistent with its composition largely of iron oxide. It is unjustifiable to compare PM2.5 exposure underground with that on the surface, since the adverse effects of iron oxide and combustion generated particles differ. Concentrations of ultrafine particles are lower and of coarser (PM2.5) particles higher underground than on the surface. The concentrations underground are well below allowable workplace concentrations for iron oxide and unlikely to represent a significant cumulative risk to the health of workers or commuters.

  1. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.

  2. Medical student experience of London general practice teaching attachments.

    PubMed

    Schamroth, A J; Haines, A P; Gallivan, S

    1990-07-01

    Forty-eight students kept a log diary of activities during their central London general practice teaching attachments associated with the Department of Primary Health Care of University College and Middlesex School of Medicine. The students each saw on average 96 patients per week, of whom 69% were discussed by the general practitioner with the student after the consultation. Students spent an average of 21.5 hours a week sitting in with the general practitioner. While most of this time was as a passive observer, the students were also able to participate more actively, personally taking histories for a median of 1.25 hours a week and personally examining patients for a median of 1.7 hours a week. During these periods of active involvement each student personally took a mean of 10 short and 2.5 long histories per week and performed a mean of 25.5 short and 1.2 long examinations per week. General practitioners to whom the students were attached spent a mean of 4 hours a week on (patient-oriented) teaching. The tuition was highly rated by the students in terms of both usefulness and stimulation. Students also received a mean of 2.3 hours a week of teaching from other members of the primary health care team, which was somewhat less well received. Areas for improvement were: the relatively few home visits (median of 6 per week) per student; the limited time students spent on self-education (average of 65 minutes per week); and the few practical procedures performed by the students. Students could also be encouraged to play a more active role in examining and interviewing patients.

  3. Millennium-long damage to building materials in London.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M

    2009-02-01

    Damage functions from a range of sources are used to estimate deterioration of carbonate stone, iron and copper, in addition to the rate of blackening of stone surfaces in London across the period 1100-2100 CE. Meteorological and pollution input is available for only a relatively short part of this span, so non-instrumental weather records and modelled pollution are utilised for historic values, while future climate is adapted from the HadCM3A2 model output and pollution assessed from likely regulatory trends. The results from the different damage functions compare reasonably well showing comparable changes in damage rates with time. A potential square-root dependence of change in deposition velocity of SO2 to limestone suggests a possible overestimate of damage when pollution is high. Deterioration is especially intense from the 1700s. It is difficult to be certain whether the corrosion of copper accelerated as early as this or it developed in the 20th century. Nevertheless all the functions predict a decline in copper corrosion from the end of the 20th century. A blackening function was developed to relate elemental carbon concentration and the colour of deposited particulate matter to blackening rate, which suggests that soiling was particularly rapid in the late 19th century. The increase and subsequent decrease in damage to building materials is interpreted in terms of a Kuznets curve. The centuries where pollution controlled damage to durable building material seems to be over. Weathering, in a changing climate may have the greatest impact in the future.

  4. Experience of delivering women with HIV in an inner city London hospital 1994-2004.

    PubMed

    Parisaei, Maryam; Anderson, J; Erskine, K J; Gann, S

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare deliveries in women with HIV at Homerton University Hospital with those in the general antenatal hospital population. The study was a retrospective case-note review of deliveries from 1994 to 2004 at an Inner City London Hospital, UK (Homerton University Hospital). In all, 113 deliveries were studied in 98 women with HIV. Compared with the general antenatal population, women with HIV were more likely to be from African backgrounds, describe inadequate housing and be without the support of a partner or family; 79.8% of deliveries in women with HIV were by caesarean section in comparison with 22.4% in the overall hospital population. A majority of women with HIV received antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy. Intercurrent medical and antenatal complications were uncommon and in a majority the postpartum periods were uncomplicated. A significantly higher proportion of women with HIV infection described a previous history of depression than in the general hospital population. There were two instances of vertical transmission of HIV. In conclusion, our observations suggest that with appropriate monitoring and management strategies, successful pregnancy outcomes can be achieved in a complex HIV-positive patient population.

  5. Biomedical practices from a patient perspective. Experiences of Polish female migrants in Barcelona, Berlin and London.

    PubMed

    Main, Izabella

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the diversity in patients' experience of bio-medicine and contrasts it with the normative view characteristic of health professionals. Ethnographic fieldwork among Polish migrant women in London, Barcelona and Berlin included interviews about their experiences with local healthcare and health professionals. Themes drawn from the narratives are differences between the cities in terms of communication between patients and health professionals, respect for patients' choices and dignity, attitudes to pregnancy and birth (different levels of medicalization), and paediatric care. It is argued that patients continuously negotiate among their own views and expectations based on previous experiences and knowledge from personal communication; internet forums and publications; and the offer of medical services in the countries of their settlement. Patients experience pluralism of therapeutic traditions within and outside bio-medicine. In turn, representatives of bio-medicine are rarely aware of other medical practices and beliefs and this leads to various misunderstandings. By highlighting the pluralism of medical practices in European countries and the increasing mobility of patients, this case study has useful implications for medical anthropologists and health professionals in a broader Western context, such as raising sensitivity to different communication strategies and a diversity of curing traditions and expectations.

  6. Integrated care pilot in north-west London: a mixed methods evaluation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Natasha; Harris, Matthew; Gunn, Laura H; Pappas, Yannis; Blunt, Ian; Soljak, Michael; Mastellos, Nikolaos; Holder, Holly; Smith, Judith; Majeed, Azeem; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka; Greaves, Felix; Belsi, Athina; Costin-Davis, Nicola; Jones Nielsen, Jessica D; Greenfield, Geva; Cecil, Elizabeth; Patterson, Susan; Car, Josip; Bardsley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in north-west London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and/or those aged 75+ through care planning, multidisciplinary case reviews, information sharing and project management support. The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey); and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level datasets and a matched control study). The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, the engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes. Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that National Health Service managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  7. The Prevalence of Chronic Respiratory Disease in the Male Physicians of London, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Lefcoe, Neville M.; Wonnacott, Thomas H.

    1970-01-01

    a survey of respiratory disease among male physicians of London, Ontario, resulted in a 96.3% response. The age-standardized rates of chronic bronchitis were not very different from others reported in the recent medical literature, taking into account smoking habits, but the overall prevalence of bronchial asthma was high (7.4%), with a low prevalence in the category “obstructive lung disease”. The possibility of overlap or interchange in these diagnoses is raised, although the diagnosis of bronchial asthma in this particular group is believed to be well established in every case. A history of seasonal hay fever was given by 19.4%. One of 88 (1%) non-smokers had bronchitis, whereas six of them (7%) had asthma. Rhonchi heard in the chest, on a single examination, appeared to be most closely related to current smoking habits, ventilatory function tests and also to a clinical diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or obstructive lung disease, but not to bronchial asthma. PMID:5414924

  8. Wilate use in 47 children with von Willebrand disease: the North London paediatric haemophilia network experience.

    PubMed

    Khair, K; Batty, P; Riat, R; Bowles, L; Burgess, C; Chen, Y-H; Hart, D; Platton, S; Pasi, J; Liesner, R

    2015-01-01

    Children with von Willebrand disease (VWD) in whom DDAVP is ineffective or contraindicated require treatment with a coagulation factor concentrate containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII). The aim of this study was to monitor the safety, efficacy and tolerability of Wilate(®) (a VWF:FVIII concentrate with a 1:1 ratio) used across the North London Paediatric Haemophilia Network since May 2010. In total, 47 children (aged 0.0-17.0 years) with type 1 (n = 28), type 2 (n = 7), type 3 (n = 10) and acquired VWS (n = 2) have been treated for bleeds, surgery and/or prophylaxis using 260 000 IU Wilate(®). Analysis of dose and frequency of treatment show expected responses to treatment with mean doses of 55, 50 and 50 IU kg(-1) for bleeds, surgery and prophylaxis respectively. Most bleeds responded to a single treatment. Surgical procedures were covered with clinician approved dosing schedules with 95% (39/41) reported as having excellent or good efficacy. There was no accumulation of FVIII or VWF and no thromboembolic events. This case series confirms the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Wilate(®) in neonates, children and adolescents when used on-demand, prophylactically and in the surgical setting.

  9. The permeable institution: an ethnographic study of three acute psychiatric wards in London.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Alan; Lelliott, Paul; Seale, Clive

    2006-10-01

    In Asylums, Goffman [1961. Asylums. London: Penguin] identified some permeable features of the old mental hospitals but presented them as exceptions to the rule and focused on their impermeable aspects. We argue that this emphasis is no longer valid and offer an alternative ideal type that better represents the reality of everyday life in contemporary 'bricks and mortar' psychiatric institutions. We call this the "permeable institution". The research involved participant observation of between 3 and 4 months and interviews with patients, patient advocates and staff on 3 psychiatric wards. Evidence for permeability includes that ward membership is temporary and changes rapidly (patients tend to have very short stays and staff turnover is high); patients maintain contact with the outside world during their stay; and institutional identities are blurred to the point where visitors or new patients can easily mistake staff and patients for one another. Permeability has both positive consequences (e.g., reduced risk of institutionalism), and negative consequences (e.g., unwanted people coming into hospital to cause trouble, and illicit drug use among patients). Staff employ various methods to regulate their ward's permeability, within certain parameters. The metaphor of the total/closed institution remains valuable, but it fails to capture the highly permeable nature of the psychiatric institutions we studied. Analysts may therefore find the permeable institution a more helpful reference point or ideal type against which to examine and compare empirical cases. Perhaps most helpful is to conceptualise a continuum of institutional permeability with total and permeable institutions at each extreme.

  10. Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection in homosexual men in London.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D H; Weller, I; Iliescu, V; Wara, D W

    1984-08-01

    Twenty five homosexual men from London, 14 of whom had persistent lymphadenopathy and 11 of whom did not, were tested for immunity to Epstein-Barr (EB) virus. All yielded positive results to serological tests for the viral capsid antibody, and 11 had antibodies to the early antigen. Thirteen out of 17 were excreting virus into the saliva; culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two of these patients showed no detectable regression induced by T cells that was specific to EB virus. No differences were found between the patients with and without lymphadenopathy. Peripheral blood B cells from six patients with hypergammaglobulinaemia were double stained for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin and EB viral nuclear antigen, and in all cases the activated B cells producing immunoglobulin did not contain EB nuclear antigen. Similarly, lymph node biopsy specimens from five patients showed no cells with EB nuclear antigen. These results indicate that although homosexual men have a high incidence of reactivated infection with EB virus, this viral infection is not the cause of the polyclonal activation of B cells seen in peripheral blood and is not implicated in the aetiology of the lymphadenopathy found in these men.

  11. A cross-sectional study of knife injuries at a London major trauma centre.

    PubMed

    Pallett, J R; Sutherland, E; Glucksman, E; Tunnicliff, M; Keep, J W

    2014-01-01

    No national recording systems for knife injuries exist in the UK. Understanding the true size and nature of the problem of knife injuries is the first stage in reducing the burden of this injury. The aim of this study was to survey every knife injury seen in a single inner city emergency department (ED) over a one-year period. A cross-sectional observational study was performed of all patients attending with a knife injury to the ED of a London major trauma centre in 2011. Demographic characteristics, patterns of injury, morbidity and mortality data were collected. A total of 938 knife injuries were identified from 127,191 attendances (0.77% of all visits) with a case fatality rate of 0.53%. A quarter (24%) of the major trauma team's caseload was for knife injuries. Overall, 44% of injuries were selfreported as assaults, 49% as accidents and 8% as deliberate self-harm. The highest age specific incident rate occurred in the 16-24 year age category (263/100,000). Multiple injuries were seen in 19% of cases, of which only 81% were recorded as assaults. The mean length of stay for those admitted to hospital was 3.04 days. Intrathoracic injury was seen in 26% of cases of chest trauma and 24% of abdominal injuries had a second additional chest injury. Violent intentional injuries are a significant contributory factor to the workload of the major trauma team at this centre. This paper contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of these injuries seen in the ED.

  12. A cross-sectional study of knife injuries at a London major trauma centre

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, E; Glucksman, E; Tunnicliff, M; Keep, JW

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION No national recording systems for knife injuries exist in the UK. Understanding the true size and nature of the problem of knife injuries is the first stage in reducing the burden of this injury. The aim of this study was to survey every knife injury seen in a single inner city emergency department (ED) over a one-year period. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was performed of all patients attending with a knife injury to the ED of a London major trauma centre in 2011. Demographic characteristics, patterns of injury, morbidity and mortality data were collected. RESULTS A total of 938 knife injuries were identified from 127,191 attendances (0.77% of all visits) with a case fatality rate of 0.53%. A quarter (24%) of the major trauma team’s caseload was for knife injuries. Overall, 44% of injuries were selfreported as assaults, 49% as accidents and 8% as deliberate self-harm. The highest age specific incident rate occurred in the 16–24 year age category (263/100,000). Multiple injuries were seen in 19% of cases, of which only 81% were recorded as assaults. The mean length of stay for those admitted to hospital was 3.04 days. Intrathoracic injury was seen in 26% of cases of chest trauma and 24% of abdominal injuries had a second additional chest injury. CONCLUSIONS Violent intentional injuries are a significant contributory factor to the workload of the major trauma team at this centre. This paper contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of these injuries seen in the ED. PMID:24417825

  13. Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Apperson, Charles S; Harrison, Bruce A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Irby, William S; Savage, Harry M; Aspen, Stephen E; Watson, D Wesley; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Engber, Barry R; Nasci, Roger S

    2002-09-01

    The host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the Borough of Queens in New York City in July and August 2000 were investigated using an indirect ELISA and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-heteroduplex assay. Culex pipiens L. and Cx. restuans Theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic vectors of West Nile virus. Culex salinarius Coquillett and Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) fed mainly on mammals, with fewer blood meals taken from birds, and these two species are potential bridge vectors of West Nile virus. Culex mosquitoes took blood meals (n = 54) from 11 different avian species. Only the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), American robin (Turdus migratorius), and Brown-headed cow bird (MolIothrus ater) were fed upon by all three Culex species. Multiple blood feedings on avian hosts were detected in Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans. Species identifications of Culex mosquitoes made using morphological characteristics were confirmed with a PCR assay that employed species-specific primers. All Cx. pipiens (n = 20) and Cx. salinarius (n = 10) specimens were correctly identified, but three (20%) of 15 Cx. restuans were misidentified as Cx. pipiens.

  14. Reisebericht London: Interner Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science" (London Travel Report: Internal Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner

    Written in German, this report summarizes a workshop on teaching and research activities in information science that was held at the City University, London, and attended by faculty and students from the university's Department of Information Science and H.-R. Simon of the GID (Gesellschaft fur Information und Dokumentation), Frankfort am Main,…

  15. Reisebericht London: Interner Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science" (London Travel Report: Internal Workshop: "Knowledge Based Systems in Information Science").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner

    Written in German, this report summarizes a workshop on teaching and research activities in information science that was held at the City University, London, and attended by faculty and students from the university's Department of Information Science and H.-R. Simon of the GID (Gesellschaft fur Information und Dokumentation), Frankfort am Main,…

  16. Police deaths in New York and London during the twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Kyriacou, D N; Monkkonen, E H; Peek‐Asa, C; Lucke, R E; Labbett, S; Pearlman, K S; Hutson, H R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the incidences and causes of occupational police deaths in New York City in the United States and Greater London in the United Kingdom during the twentieth century. To assess the relation between overall societal violence and violence directed toward police officers in these metropolitan areas. Design and setting Ecological study of New York and London from 1900 through 1999. Main outcome measures Intentional and unintentional occupational police mortality rates for New York and London were estimated for each decade. The general population homicide rates of both New York and London were assessed for their correlation with their respective intentional occupational police mortality rates. Results During the 20th century, 585 police officers in New York and 160 police officers in London died while participating in law enforcement activities. New York had markedly greater intentional police mortality rates compared to London throughout most of the 20th century, but these differences decreased significantly by the end of the century. Intentional gunshot wounds comprised 290 police deaths in New York, but only 14 police deaths in London. In New York, gun shot wounds (both intentional and unintentional) accounted for more occupational police deaths (51.6%) than did all other injury mechanisms combined. In London, motor vehicle collision was the most common cause (47.5%) of occupational police death. There were no apparent correlations between the general population homicide rates and intentional police mortality rates in either New York (r2 = 0.05, 95% CI −0.77 to 0.81) or London (r2 = 0.34, 95% CI −0.61 to 0.89). Conclusions During the 20th century, both intentional and unintentional occupational police mortality rates were significantly greater in New York compared to London. These differences are likely from several socioeconomic, cultural, and occupational factors. The declines in police deaths in New York during the latter part of

  17. Psychological and behavioural reactions to the bombings in London on 7 July 2005: cross sectional survey of a representative sample of Londoners

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, G James; Brewin, Chris R; Greenberg, Neil; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of the bombings in London on 7 July on stress levels and travel intentions in London's population. Design A cross sectional telephone survey using random digit dialling was conducted to contact a representative sample of adults. Respondents were asked to participate in an interview enquiring about current levels of stress and travel intentions. Setting Interviews took place between 18 and 20 July. Participants 1010 participants (10% of the eligible people we contacted) completed the interviews. Main outcome measures Main outcomes were presence of substantial stress, measured by using an identical tool to that used to assess the emotional impact of 11 September 2001 in the US population, and intention to travel less on tubes, trains, and buses, or into central London, once the transport network had returned to normal. Results 31% of Londoners reported substantial stress and 32% reported an intention to travel less. Among other things, having difficulty contacting friends or family by mobile phone (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.7), having thought you could have been injured or killed (3.8, 2.4 to 6.2), and being Muslim (4.0, 2.5 to 6.6) were associated with a greater presence of substantial stress, whereas being white (0.3, 0.2 to 0.4) and having previous experience of terrorism (0.6, 0.5 to 0.9) were associated with reduced stress. Only 12 participants (1%) felt that they needed professional help to deal with their emotional response to the attacks. Conclusions Although the psychological needs of those intimately caught up in the attacks will require further assessment, we found no evidence of a widespread desire for professional counselling. The attacks have inflicted disproportionately high levels of distress among non-white and Muslim Londoners. PMID:16126821

  18. Reassessment of the lethal London fog of 1952: novel indicators of acute and chronic consequences of acute exposure to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Bell, M L; Davis, D L

    2001-06-01

    This article develops and assesses novel indicators of respiratory and other morbidity and mortality following London's lethal smog in the winter of 1952. Public health insurance claims, hospital admission rates for cardiac and respiratory disease, pneumonia cases, mortality records, influenza reports, temperature, and air pollutant concentrations are analyzed for December-February 1952-1953 and compared with those for the previous year or years. Mortality rates for the smog episode from December 1952 to February 1953 were 50-300% higher than the previous year. Claims that the smog only elevated health risks during and immediately following the peak fog 5-9 December 1952 and that an influenza epidemic accounted fully for persisting mortality increases in the first 2 months of 1953 are rejected. We estimate about 12,000 excess deaths occurred from December 1952 through February 1953 because of acute and persisting effects of the 1952 London smog. Pollution levels during the London smog were 5-19 times above current regulatory standards and guidelines and approximate current levels in some rapidly developing regions. Ambient pollution in many regions poses serious risks to public health.

  19. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London.

    PubMed

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-11-10

    To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked 'aid in stop smoking' as the most important (56%), with 'cheaper alternative' (43%) and 'social/recreational use' (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as 'e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic' were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community pharmacists look forward to regulations so to conduct their duties in a

  20. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons.

    PubMed

    Marklein, Kathryn E; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2-11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman's correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative indices for

  1. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Douglas E.

    2017-01-01

    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2–11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman’s correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative

  2. Effects of air pollution on general practitioner consultations for upper respiratory diseases in London.

    PubMed

    Hajat, S; Anderson, H R; Atkinson, R W; Haines, A

    2002-05-01

    Few published studies have examined the effect of air pollution on upper respiratory conditions. Furthermore, most epidemiological studies on air pollution focus on mortality or hospital admissions as the main health outcomes, but very rarely consider the effect in primary care. If pollution effects do exist then the public health impact could be considerable because of the many patient contacts involved. We investigated the relation between air pollution and upper respiratory disease as reflected in number of consultations made at family practices in London. The study used non-parametric methods of analysis of time series data, adjusting for seasonal factors, day of the week, holiday effects, influenza, weather, pollen concentrations, and serial correlation. It was estimated that a 10-90th percentile change (13-31 microg/m(3)) in sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) measures resulted in a small increase in numbers of childhood consultation: 3.5% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.4% to 5.8%). Stronger associations were found in the case of a 10-90th percentile change (16-47 microg/m(3)) in fine particles (PM(10)) in adults aged 15-64 5.7% (2.9% to 8.6%), and in adults aged 65 and over: 10.2% (5.3% to 15.3%). In general, associations were strongest in elderly people, weakest in the children, and were largely found in the winter months for these two age groups, and in the summer months for adults aged 15-64. An apparent decrease in consultations was associated with ozone concentrations but this was most pronounced in colder months when ozone concentrations were at their lowest. The results suggest an adverse effect of air pollution on consultations for upper respiratory symptoms, in particular in the case of PM(10) and SO(2). The effects are relatively small; however, due to the many consultations made in primary care, the impact on demand for services could be considerable.

  3. Implementation of an improved urban parametrisation into the mesoscale meteorology model METRAS and application to London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawe, D.; Thompson, H. L.; Salmond, J.; Cai, X.-M.; Schluenzen, K. H.

    2009-09-01

    Urban areas have well documented effects on thermal and dynamic properties of the air as well as its chemical composition. E.g. increased heat storage, anthropogenic heat sources and radiative trapping can cause increased temperatures in the urban canopy, leading to an urban heat island with potentially adverse effects on human health and comfort. A nocturnal heat island may exacerbate the impact of summer heat waves. With growing urbanisation and in a changing climate it can be expected that these effects will increase. In order to mitigate adverse effects of the urban heat island, the strength of the heat island needs to be assessed for current levels of urbanisation, as well as for prospective urbanisation scenarios. For this purpose, the mesoscale meteorology model METRAS (Schlünzen, 2003) has been extended by the urban canopy model BEP (Martilli et al., 2002), which has previously been validated and implemented in other mesoscale meteorology models. BEP parameterises the effects of the urban canopy walls and surfaces on momentum, heat and turbulent kinetic energy and takes into account very detailed specifications of building parameters, such as building height distributions and street axis orientations. The implementation of BEP in METRAS allows the use of a separate numerical grid for BEP, so that for the model simulations presented in this study a very fine vertical grid with 5m cell height (compared to 20m in the METRAS grid) could be used. Greater London forms the largest urban area within the UK and has therefore been selected as the focus area for the validation of results from the improved model and for selected case studies. A domain covering 100km x 100km around London has been set up with a horizontal grid resolution of 1km x 1km. Results of the validation show that the inclusion of BEP improves the performance of METRAS for most cases when compared with measurements in the urban area. This improvement can ultimately be used to provide better

  4. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    PubMed

    Skjøth, C A; Smith, M; Brandt, J; Emberlin, J

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts>80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts (n=60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  5. Access to primary care in Hong Kong, Greater London and New York City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean; Gusmano, Michael K; Weisz, Daniel; Rodwin, Victor G; Chan, Kam Che

    2013-01-01

    We investigate avoidable hospital conditions (AHC) in three world cities as a way to assess access to primary care. Residents of Hong Kong are healthier than their counterparts in Greater London or New York City. In contrast to their counterparts in New York City, residents of both Greater London and Hong Kong face no financial barriers to an extensive public hospital system. We compare residence-based hospital discharge rates for AHC, by age cohorts, in these cities and find that New York City has higher rates than Hong Kong and Greater London. Hong Kong has the lowest hospital discharge rates for AHC among the population 15-64, but its rates are nearly as high as those in New York City among the population 65 and over. Our findings suggest that in contrast to Greater London, older residents in Hong Kong and New York face significant barriers in accessing primary care. In all three cities, people living in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods are more likely to be hospitalized for an AHC, but neighborhood inequalities are greater in Hong Kong and New York than in Greater London.

  6. Imaging at London 2012 summer Olympic Games: analysis of demand and distribution of workload.

    PubMed

    Bethapudi, Sarath; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars; O'Connor, Philip

    2013-09-01

    Very little data on the provision of imaging services at the summer Olympic Games have been published before. With 7.9 million Euros (£6.6 million, US$11 million) invested into setting up the imaging equipment at the purpose-built polyclinics for London 2012 summer Olympics, an ideal opportunity was presented to study the demand and distribution of workload on imaging services at the games. Imaging services within polyclinics, London 2012 summer Olympic Games. To analyse the demand and distribution of workload on radiology services at the London 2012 summer Olympic Games. Data on radiological investigations performed at London 2012 summer Olympic Games were retrieved from Radiology Information System-picture archiving communication system, ATOS medical encounter database and analysed. 1711 diagnostic and interventional procedures were performed at the Stratford Polyclinic within the main games village. Of these 48.8% were MRI scans, 20.2% were diagnostic ultrasound examinations, 23.6% were plain radiographs, 2.9% were CT scans and interventional procedures accounted for 4.3%. Nearly 75% of imaging was performed on athletes while less than 5% of the services were utilised by the workforce. Demand on radiology services peaked during week 2 of the games. Imaging played a substantial role in providing medical services at the London 2012 summer Olympics.

  7. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  8. A tale of two cities: factors affecting place of cancer death in London and New York.

    PubMed

    Decker, Sandra L; Higginson, Irene J

    2007-06-01

    Most American and English cancer patients prefer to die at home. Factors associated with greater likelihood of dying at home have been contradictory in many studies and no studies have compared the effects of factors in different countries. The objective of this paper is to compare the factors affecting place of cancer death in two major cities, New York and London. We use data on all individuals aged >/=40 dying of cancer in London (59 604) and New York City (51 668) in the years 1995 through 1998. The probability of death at home is examined in each city as a function of gender, age group (40-55, 56-64, 65-74, 75+), year, type of cancer, and area socioeconomic status, using multiple logistic regression. Although the probability of death at home is the same in the two cities (approximately 1 in 5), being female lowers the odds of death at home by approximately 7% in London, and raises it by approximately 22% in New York. Older age is associated with increased odds of dying at home in New York but decreased odds of dying at home in London. Being in the lowest tercile of socioeconomic status (relative to the highest) lowers the odds of death at home by 22% in London and 39% in New York. Site of death varies significantly by patient and area characteristics in both cities, an understanding, which should be taken account of in future planning of end-of-life care.

  9. Prolonged incubation period of imported P. vivax malaria in London.

    PubMed

    Warwick, R; Swimer, G J; Britt, R P

    1980-05-01

    Between January 1976 and July 1979, 453 cases of malaria were seen at Hillingdon Hospital. The majority of cases were Plasmodium vivax infections in Asians from the Punjab in Northern India-either new immigrants or United Kingdom resident Asians returning from holidays. Twenty-four cases were contracted in Africa or the Middle East. Figures are presented showing a considerable increase in cases during the period of study. In P. vivax infections the time interval between arrival and development of the acute illness was significantly greater for those subjects entering the United Kingdom in autumn or winter.

  10. Analytical calculations of frequency-dependent hypermagnetizabilities and Cotton-Mouton constants using London atomic orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth; Rizzo, Antonio; Coriani, Sonia

    2008-10-01

    We present the first gauge-origin-independent, frequency-dependent calculations of the hypermagnetizability anisotropy, which determines the temperature-independent contribution to magnetic-field-induced linear birefringence, the so-called Cotton-Mouton effect. A density-matrix-based scheme for analytical calculations of frequency-dependent molecular properties for self-consistent field models has recently been developed, which is also valid with frequency- and field-dependent basis sets. Applying this scheme to Hartree-Fock wave functions and using London atomic orbitals in order to obtain gauge-origin-independent results, we have calculated the hypermagnetizability anisotropy. Our results show that the use of London orbitals leads to somewhat better basis-set convergence for the hypermagnetizability compared to conventional basis sets and that London orbitals are mandatory in order to obtain reliable magnetizability anisotropies.

  11. To Moscow with love: partial reconstruction of Vygotsky's trip to London.

    PubMed

    van der Veer, René; Zavershneva, Ekaterina

    2011-12-01

    The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) left the Soviet Union only once to attend a conference on the education of the deaf in London. So far almost nothing was known about this trip, which took place in a period when Vygotsky was still completely unknown as a psychologist, both inside his own country and abroad. Making use of a newly discovered notebook, it proved possible to partially reconstruct Vygotsky's journey and stay in London. Vygotsky's very personal remarks show him to have been a very sensitive and spirited man, who was prey to strong emotions during the conference and afterwards. Rather surprisingly, Vygotsky's own paper about the education of the deaf was never presented during the conference and the stay in London appears to have had a limited value for his own scientific development.

  12. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2009-11-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from cyclic perfluorocarbon tracer experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study dispersion over a large vertical gradient. These gradients are then compared with classical Gaussian profiles of the relevant stability classes over a range of distances as well as interpretation of data with reference to both anemometry and LIDAR measurements made. Data are then compared with an operational model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign looking at dosage compared with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analysis illustrates the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation in urban ethnobotany: the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia in London.

    PubMed

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Torry, Bren; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-12-08

    To investigate traditional health care practices and changes in medicinal plant use among the growing Colombian community in London. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 Colombians living in London and botanical identification of 46 plant species actively used as herbal remedies. Subsequently, research data were compared with literature on ethnobotany and traditional herbal medicine in the home country, using a framework on cross-cultural adaptation, adjusted for the purpose of this study. Similarities and discrepancies between data and literature are interpreted as potential indicators of continuity and loss (or deculturation) of traditional remedies, respectively. Remedies used in London that are not corroborated by the literature suggest possible newly acquired uses. Cross-cultural adaptation related to health care practices is a multifaceted process. Persistence, loss and incorporation of remedies into the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia after migration are influenced by practical adaptation strategies as well as by symbolic-cultural motives of ethnic identity.

  14. An analysis of population and social change in London wards in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Congdon, P

    1989-01-01

    "This paper discusses the estimation and projection of small area populations in London, [England] and considers trends in intercensal social and demographic indices which can be calculated using these estimates. Information available annually on vital statistics and electorates is combined with detailed data from the Census Small Area Statistics to derive demographic component based population estimates for London's electoral wards over five year periods. The availability of age disaggregated population estimates permits derivation of small area social indicators for intercensal years, for example, of unemployment and mortality. Trends in spatial inequality of such indicators during the 1980s are analysed and point to continuing wide differentials. A typology of population and social indicators gives an indication of the small area distribution of the recent population turnaround in inner London, and of its association with other social processes such as gentrification and ethnic concentration."

  15. Internationally recruited neonatal nurses' experiences in the National Health Service in London.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Obrey; Shillingford, Adeline

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore internationally recruited neonatal nurses' (IRNNs) perceptions of their experiences of working in the National Health Service (NHS) in London. This was an exploratory study. A purposive sample of 13 nurses (all females) from two teaching hospitals in London participated in this study. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used to capture IRNNs views of working in the NHS in London. Five themes emerged, namely: motivation to migrate, lack of preparation for neonatal nurses, environmental conditions impacting on care delivery, neonatal nurses deskilling, and role restrictions as well as professional development. The findings of this study provide first-hand insights from the subjective perspectives of IRNN experiences. IRNNs experienced some challenges to their working lives; however, good preparation is important when recruiting them to work in the NHS. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Infant Mortality and Income in 4 World Cities: New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Rodwin, Victor G.; Neuberg, Leland G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between average income or deprivation and infant mortality rate across neighborhoods of 4 world cities. Methods. Using a maximum likelihood negative binomial regression model that controls for births, we analyzed data for 1988–1992 and 1993–1997. Results. In Manhattan, for both periods, we found an association (.05% significance level) between income and infant mortality. In Tokyo, for both periods, and in Paris and London for period 1, we found none (5% significance level). For period 2, the association just missed statistical significance for Paris, whereas for London it was significant (5% level). Conclusions. In stark contrast to Tokyo, Paris, and London, the association of income and infant mortality rate was strongly evident in Manhattan. PMID:15623865

  17. Alaska Undergraduates Produce a New Bathymetric Map of Auke Lake near Juneau Using an Acoustic Depth Sounder, Differential GPS, and ArcGIS as part of collaboration between the City and Borough of Juneau and the University of Alaska Southeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Smith, L.; Knuth, E.; Farrell, M.; Monteith, D.

    2006-12-01

    The University of Alaska Southeast (UAS), in collaboration with the City and Borough of Juneau (CBJ) is planning an upgrade to the old Auke Lake trail. A summer 2006 field course in Archeology required anthropology and environmental science students to do independent research projects along the shoreline of Auke Lake, adjacent to the UAS campus. For this study, depth and location data were collected from a small boat using an acoustic depth sounder (1 kilowatt transducer with a 6 degree narrow beam width) coupled with a differential GPS (DGPS) receiver which logged positions at 5 second intervals. The accuracy of the soundings is thought to be about 0.5 m and DGPS locations accurate to about 1 m. Raw water depth data was registered to 17 m above MHHW, an elevation recorded on the 1986, 1:25,000 scale, USGS Juneau B2 NW topographic map. Auke Lake level remains relatively constant due to a NOAA fish weir and dam downstream which blocks the outlet stream (Auke Creek. 4904 soundings were collected and co-registered with DGPS positions to produce a bathymetric map of the lake in order to better understand the origin of its bedrock basin and glacial history. This map will also aid in studies of impacts to shoreline habitats by lake recreational users. These include lakeside residents including the University, shoreline fishers, canoers, kayakers, swimmers, jet skiers, other motorized boaters, and float plane pilots taking off and landing. In addition, the new map will support ongoing ecology and fisheries studies directed at questions about physical limnology, sockeye and pink salmon habitat distributed by depth, water quality, and nutrient cycling. The map was produced using bathymetry processed with 3D Analyst in ArcGIS 9.1, using existing IKONOS 1 m/pixel imagery for the basemap.

  18. Developing an Integrated Approach for Local Urban Climate Models in London from Neighbourhood to Street Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, M.; Davies, M.; Steadman, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    We currently have an incomplete understanding of how weather varies across London and how the city's microclimate will intensify levels of heat, cold and air pollution in the future. There is a need to target priority areas of the city and to promote design guidance on climate change mitigation strategies. As a result of improvements in the accuracy of local weather data in London, an opportunity is emerging for designers and planners of the built environment to measure the impact of their designs on local urban climate and to enhance the designer's role in creating more informed design choices at an urban micro-scale. However, modelling the different components of the urban environment separately and then collating and comparing the results invariably leads to discrepancies in the output of local urban climate modelling tools designed to work at different scales. Of particular interest is why marked differences appear between the data extracted from local urban climate models when we change the scale of modelling from city to building scale. An example of such differences is those that have been observed in relation to the London Unified Model and London Site Specific Air Temperature model. In order to avoid these discrepancies we need a method for understanding and assessing how the urban environment impacts on local urban climate as a whole. A step to achieving this is by developing inter-linkages between assessment tools. Accurate information on the net impact of the urban environment on the local urban climate will in turn facilitate more accurate predictions of future energy demand and realistic scenarios for comfort and health. This paper will present two key topographies of London's urban environment that influence local urban climate: land use and street canyons. It will look at the possibilities for developing an integrated approach to modelling London's local urban climate from the neighbourhood to the street scale.

  19. Integrated Cancer System: a perspective on developing an integrated system for cancer services in London

    PubMed Central

    Haire, K; Burton, C; Park, R; Reynolds, J; Stewart, D

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the potential for integrated cancer systems to improve the quality of care and deliver cost efficiencies and improve outcomes for cancer patients. Currently, patients in the UK still have poorer survival rates than comparable countries such as Canada, Sweden, Norway and Australia. Improving the quality of cancer services is a key policy objective and cancer is a priority outcome measure in both the NHS and Public Health Outcomes Framework. Evidence suggests that better integrated delivery has the potential to improve the quality and reduce the cost of healthcare, and ultimately improve health outcomes. One of the key themes from the Model of Care for Cancer Services1 was that cancer services should be commissioned along pathways and that provider networks should be established to deliver care. London has two integrated cancer systems; one covering north central and east London (London Cancer) and the other covering west and south London (London Cancer Alliance). There a number of areas in cancer care that the current model of service provision has failed to adequately address and which have the potential to improve significantly though implementation of integrated services. These include improving early diagnosis, reducing inequalities in access to treatment and outcomes and maximising research and training across the system. Important drivers for the integration of cancer services are strong clinical leadership, shared informatics systems, focusing on quality of services and improving patient experience. Emerging needs of integrated cancer in London are around strengthening the involvement of primary care, public health and the third sector; working to develop sufficient capacity and expertise in primary care and collaborating more closely with commissioners to develop integrated systems. PMID:25949664

  20. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.