Science.gov

Sample records for long-range signal transmission

  1. Long range correlation in earthquake precursory signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, H.; Barman, C.; Iyengar, A. N. S.; Ghose, D.; Sen, P.; Sinha, B.

    2013-07-01

    Research on earthquake prediction has drawn serious attention of the geophysicist, geologist and investigators in different fields of science across the globe for many decades. Researchers around the world are actively working on recording pre-earthquake changes in non-seismic parameters through a variety of methods that include anomalous changes in geochemical parameters of the Earth's crust, geophysical properties of the lithosphere as well as ionosphere etc. Several works also have been done in India to detect earthquake precursor signals using geochemical and geophysical methods. However, very few works have been done so far in India in this field through the application of nonlinear techniques to the recorded geophysical and geochemical precursory signals for earthquakes. The present paper deals with a short review of the early works on geochemical precursors that have been carried out in India as yet. With a view to detect earthquake precursory signals by means of gas-geochemical method we developed a network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories in India in hot springs and mud volcano crater. In the last few years we detected several geochemical anomalies and those were observed prior to some major earthquakes that occurred within a radius of 1500 km from the test sites. In the present paper we have applied nonlinear techniques to the long term, real-time and natural data sets of radon-222 and associated gamma originated out of the terrestrial degassing process of the earth. The results reveal a clear signature of the long range correlation present in the geochemical time series. This approach appears to be a potential tool to explore intrinsic information hidden within the earthquake precursory signals.

  2. Fast Faraday fading of long range satellite signals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heron, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    20 MHz radio signals have been received during the day from satellite Beacon-B when it was below the optical horizon by using a bank of narrow filters to improve the signal to noise ratio. The Faraday fading rate becomes constant, under these conditions, at a level determined by the plasma frequency just below the F-layer peak. Variations in the Faraday fading rate reveal fluctuations in the electron density near the peak, while the rate of attaining the constant level depends on the shape of the electron density profile.

  3. A long range transmission system communication plan for ComEd of Chicago 1995 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, R.; Gerleve, F.J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of a telecommunication fiber optical network serving ComEd`s commercial centers and generation stations is described. A long range communication plan is presented describing a migration of transmission substation protection, monitoring and control from an analog system over power line carrier, microwave, and leased phone lines to a digital system using an optimum mix of communication channels including fiber.

  4. 75 FR 1799 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard, DHS... Register of January 7, 2010 (75 FR 998). The document announced termination of the Long Range Aids...

  5. Long-range high-speed visible light communication system over 100-m outdoor transmission utilizing receiver diversity technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiguang; Huang, Xingxing; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuan-quan; Chi, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) has no doubt become a promising candidate for future wireless communications due to the increasing trends in the usage of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In addition to indoor high-speed wireless access and positioning applications, VLC usage in outdoor scenarios, such as vehicle networks and intelligent transportation systems, are also attracting significant interest. However, the complex outdoor environment and ambient noise are the key challenges for long-range high-speed VLC outdoor applications. To improve system performance and transmission distance, we propose to use receiver diversity technology in an outdoor VLC system. Maximal ratio combining-based receiver diversity technology is utilized in two receivers to achieve the maximal signal-to-noise ratio. A 400-Mb/s VLC transmission using a phosphor-based white LED and a 1-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing VLC transmission using a red-green-blue LED are both successfully achieved over a 100-m outdoor distance with the bit error rate below the 7% forward error correction limit of 3.8×10-3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate at 100-m outdoor VLC transmission ever achieved. The experimental results clearly prove the benefit and feasibility of receiver diversity technology for long-range high-speed outdoor VLC systems.

  6. Mode tomography using signals from the Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment (LOAPEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrayadula, Tarun K.

    Ocean acoustic tomography uses acoustic signals to infer the environmental properties of the ocean. The procedure for tomography consists of low frequency acoustic transmissions at mid-water depths to receivers located at hundreds of kilometer ranges. The arrival times of the signal at the receiver are then inverted for the sound speed of the background environment. Using this principle, experiments such as the 2004 Long Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment have used acoustic signals recorded across Vertical Line Arrays (VLAs) to infer the Sound Speed Profile (SSP) across depth. The acoustic signals across the VLAs can be represented in terms of orthonormal basis functions called modes. The lower modes of the basis set concentrated around mid-water propagate longer distances and can be inverted for mesoscale effects such as currents and eddies. In spite of these advantages, mode tomography has received less attention. One of the important reasons for this is that internal waves in the ocean cause significant amplitude and travel time fluctuations in the modes. The amplitude and travel time fluctuations cause errors in travel time estimates. The absence of a statistical model and the lack of signal processing techniques for internal wave effects have precluded the modes from being used in tomographic inversions. This thesis estimates a statistical model for modes affected by internal waves and then uses the estimated model to design appropriate signal processing methods to obtain tomographic observables for the low modes. In order to estimate a statistical model, this thesis uses both the LOAPEX signals and also numerical simulations. The statistical model describes the amplitude and phase coherence across different frequencies for modes at different ranges. The model suggests that Matched Subspace Detectors (MSDs) based on the amplitude statistics of the modes are the optimum detectors to make travel time estimates for modes up to 250 km. The mean of the

  7. 75 FR 998 - Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Terminate Long Range Aids to Navigation (Loran-C) Signal AGENCY: U.S. Coast Guard, DHS..., the Department of Transportation has determined that sufficient alternative navigation aids...

  8. Long-range vibration sensor based on correlation analysis of optical frequency-domain reflectometry signals.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenyang; Yao, X Steve; Liu, Tiegen; Du, Yang; Liu, Kun; Han, Qun; Meng, Zhuo; Chen, Hongxin

    2012-12-17

    We present a novel method to achieve a space-resolved long- range vibration detection system based on the correlation analysis of the optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) signals. By performing two separate measurements of the vibrated and non-vibrated states on a test fiber, the vibration frequency and position of a vibration event can be obtained by analyzing the cross-correlation between beat signals of the vibrated and non-vibrated states in a spatial domain, where the beat signals are generated from interferences between local Rayleigh backscattering signals of the test fiber and local light oscillator. Using the proposed technique, we constructed a standard single-mode fiber based vibration sensor that can have a dynamic range of 12 km and a measurable vibration frequency up to 2 kHz with a spatial resolution of 5 m. Moreover, preliminarily investigation results of two vibration events located at different positions along the test fiber are also reported.

  9. Long range transmission loss of broadband seismic pulses in the Arctic under ice-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Thode, Aaron; Kim, Katherine H; Greene, Charles R; Roth, Ethan

    2010-10-01

    In 2008 the Louis S. St-Laurent (LSSL) surveyed deep Arctic waters using a three-airgun seismic source. Signals from the seismic survey were detected between 400 km and 1300 km range on a directional autonomous acoustic recorder deployed in water 53 m deep off the Alaskan North Slope. Observations of received signal levels between 10-450 Hz versus LSSL range roughly fit a cylindrical transmission loss model plus 0.01 dB/km attenuation in deep ice-free waters, and fit previous empirical models in ice-covered waters. The transition between ice-free and ice-covered propagation conditions shifted 200 km closer to the recorder during the survey.

  10. Glutamate Induces Calcium Waves in Cultured Astrocytes: Long-Range Glial Signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell-Bell, Ann H.; Finkbeiner, Steven M.; Cooper, Mark S.; Smith, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    The finding that astrocytes possess glutamate-sensitive ion channels hinted at a previously unrecognized signaling role for these cells. Now it is reported that cultured hippocampal astrocytes can respond to glutamate with a prompt and oscillatory elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium, visible through use of the fluorescent calcium indicator fluo-3. Two types of glutamate receptor-one preferring quisqualate and releasing calcium from intracellular stores and the other preferring kainate and promoting surface-membrane calcium influx-appear to be involved. Moreover, glutamate-induced increases in cytoplasmic free calcium frequently propagate as waves within the cytoplasm of individual astrocytes and between adjacent astrocytes in confluent cultures. These propagating waves of calcium suggest that networks of astrocytes may constitute a long-range signaling system within the brain.

  11. Color signal integration for color discrimination along a long-range apparent motion trajectory.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Kimura, Hiroto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the classical view that fundamental visual attributes such as color and motion are independently processed in the visual system (e.g. Livingstone and Hubel, 1987; Marr, 1982), recent studies have revealed various forms of cross-attribute interactions, such as averaging of color appearance along the motion trajectory of an object (Nishida et al., 2007). In this study, we investigated whether such color signal integration along a motion trajectory can be induced only by motion mechanisms having large receptive fields, without simple integration within direction-selective neurons with small receptive fields, like those in V1. The stimulus consisted of discs with long-range apparent motion along a circular trajectory. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between disc presentations controlled the strength of the apparent motion perception. We measured observers' sensitivity in detecting color modulation on the discs. The results showed that the measured sensitivity was lowest at SOAs corresponding to the strongest motion perception. This can be interpreted as follows: color signals were integrated along an apparent motion path, and this integration reduced chromatic sensitivity by averaging color signals. Another experiment that controlled apparent motion perception in a different way also supported this idea. However, this integration effect seemed to be linked to responses of motion detectors for the apparent motion stimuli, not directly to perceptual motion representation in the visual system. These results suggest that the human visual system handles color information from retinal inputs regarding moving objects based not only on a retinotopic coordinate but also on object-based coordinates, even when the moving object yields only long-range apparent motion.

  12. Long-Range Underwater Sound Propagation: Environmental Variability, Signal Stability and Signal Coherence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Variability, Signal Stability and Signal Coherence Michael G. Brown Division of Applied Marine Physics Rosenstiel School of Marine and...variability on signal stability and coherence . We seek to understand the fundamental limits to signal processing imposed by ocean variability to enable...logistics of which is very simple. That field work has been partially supported by NSF. Field work has been complemented by data-driven theoretical

  13. Long-Range Underwater Sound Propagation: Environmental Variability, Signal Stability and Signal Coherence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Variability, Signal Stability and Signal Coherence Michael G. Brown Division of Applied Marine Physics Rosenstiel School of Marine and...variability on signal stability and coherence . We seek to understand the fundamental limits to signal processing imposed by ocean variability to enable...stability parameter α or the asymptotically equivalent mode-based waveguide invariant β) of the background sound speed profile, rather than details

  14. Branched Motifs Enable Long-Range Interactions in Signaling Networks through Retrograde Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Jesan, Tharmaraj; Sarma, Uddipan; Halder, Subhadra; Saha, Bhaskar; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2013-01-01

    Branched structures arise in the intra-cellular signaling network when a molecule is involved in multiple enzyme-substrate reaction cascades. Such branched motifs are involved in key biological processes, e.g., immune response activated by T-cell and B-cell receptors. In this paper, we demonstrate long-range communication through retrograde propagation between branches of signaling pathways whose molecules do not directly interact. Our numerical simulations and experiments on a system comprising branches with JNK and p38MAPK as terminal molecules respectively that share a common MAP3K enzyme MEKK3/4 show that perturbing an enzyme in one branch can result in a series of changes in the activity levels of molecules “upstream” to the enzyme that eventually reaches the branch-point and affects other branches. In the absence of any evidence for explicit feedback regulation between the functionally distinct JNK and p38MAPK pathways, the experimentally observed modulation of phosphorylation amplitudes in the two pathways when a terminal kinase is inhibited implies the existence of long-range coordination through retrograde information propagation previously demonstrated in single linear reaction pathways. An important aspect of retrograde propagation in branched pathways that is distinct from previous work on retroactivity focusing exclusively on single chains is that varying the type of perturbation, e.g., between pharmaceutical agent mediated inhibition of phosphorylation or suppression of protein expression, can result in opposing responses in the other branches. This can have potential significance in designing drugs targeting key molecules which regulate multiple pathways implicated in systems-level diseases such as cancer and diabetes. PMID:23741327

  15. Preliminary results of Terabit-per-second long-range free-space optical transmission Experiment THRUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giggenbach, D.; Poliak, J.; Mata-Calvo, R.; Fuchs, C.; Perlot, N.; Freund, R.; Richter, T.

    2015-10-01

    Future Very High Throughput Satellite Systems (VHTS) will perform at several Tbit/s throughput and thus face the challenge of limited feeder-link spectrum. Whereas with conventional RF feeder links several tens of ground gateway stations would be required, the total capacity can alternatively be linked through a single optical ground station using Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) techniques as known from terrestrial fiber communications. While intermittent link blockage by clouds can be compensated by ground station diversity, the optical uplink signal is directly affected by scintillation and beam wander induced by the atmospheric index-of-refraction turbulence. The transmission system must be capable to mitigate these distortions by according high-speed tracking and fading compensation techniques. We report on the design of a near-ground long-range (10km) atmospheric transmission test-bed which is, with its relatively low elevation of 1.8 degrees, exemplary for a worst case GEO uplink scenario. The transmitting side of the test-bed consists of a single telescope with a a fine pointing assembly in order to track the atmospheric angle-ofarrival and precisely aim towards the beacon of the receiver. On the other side of the test-bed, the receiver telescope is also capable of fine pointing by tracking the transmitted signal. The GEO uplink scenario is modelled by a precise scaling of the beam divergence and the receiver's field of view as well as by the beacon offset to model the point-ahead angle. In order to make the experimental test-bed correspond to an actual feeder link scenario, the link budget as well as the turbulence profile of the experimental scenario are modelled and compared to the GEO uplink. Several DWDM channels are multiplexed to reach the total link capacity of above one Tbit/s.

  16. Long-range, full-duplex, modulated-reflector cell phone for voice/data transmission

    DOEpatents

    Neagley, Daniel L.; Briles, Scott D.; Coates, Don M.; Freund, Samuel M.

    2002-01-01

    A long-range communications apparatus utilizing modulated-reflector technology is described. The apparatus includes an energy-transmitting base station and remote units that do not emit radiation in order to communicate with the base station since modulated-reflector technology is used whereby information is attached to an RF carrier wave originating from the base station which is reflected by the remote unit back to the base station. Since the remote unit does not emit radiation, only a low-power power source is required for its operation. Information from the base station is transmitted to the remote unit using a transmitter and receiver, respectively. The range of such a communications system is determined by the properties of a modulated-reflector half-duplex link.

  17. Fear Conditioning Potentiates Synaptic Transmission onto Long-Range Projection Neurons in the Lateral Subdivision of Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Penzo, Mario A.; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CeL) is essential for fear learning. Specifically, fear conditioning induces cell-type-specific synaptic plasticity in CeL neurons that is required for the storage of fear memories. The CeL also controls fear expression by gating the activity of the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM), the canonical amygdala output to areas that mediate defensive responses. In addition to the connection with CeM, the CeL sends long-range projections to innervate extra-amygdala areas. However, the long-range projection CeL neurons have not been well characterized, and their role in fear regulation is unknown. Here we show in mice that a subset of CeL neurons directly project to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, two brain areas implicated in defensive behavior. These long-range projection CeL neurons are predominantly somatostatin-positive (SOM+) neurons, which can directly inhibit PAG neurons, and some of which innervate both the PAG and paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Notably, fear conditioning potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission onto these long-range projection CeL neurons. Thus, our study identifies a subpopulation of SOM+ CeL neurons that may contribute to fear learning and regulate fear expression independent of CeM. PMID:24523533

  18. Fear conditioning potentiates synaptic transmission onto long-range projection neurons in the lateral subdivision of central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Penzo, Mario A; Robert, Vincent; Li, Bo

    2014-02-12

    Recent studies indicate that the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CeL) is essential for fear learning. Specifically, fear conditioning induces cell-type-specific synaptic plasticity in CeL neurons that is required for the storage of fear memories. The CeL also controls fear expression by gating the activity of the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM), the canonical amygdala output to areas that mediate defensive responses. In addition to the connection with CeM, the CeL sends long-range projections to innervate extra-amygdala areas. However, the long-range projection CeL neurons have not been well characterized, and their role in fear regulation is unknown. Here we show in mice that a subset of CeL neurons directly project to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, two brain areas implicated in defensive behavior. These long-range projection CeL neurons are predominantly somatostatin-positive (SOM(+)) neurons, which can directly inhibit PAG neurons, and some of which innervate both the PAG and paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Notably, fear conditioning potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission onto these long-range projection CeL neurons. Thus, our study identifies a subpopulation of SOM(+) CeL neurons that may contribute to fear learning and regulate fear expression independent of CeM.

  19. Long-Range Signaling in MutS and MSH Homologs via Switching of Dynamic Communication Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Francis, Joshua; Law, Sean M.; Feig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Allostery is conformation regulation by propagating a signal from one site to another distal site. This study focuses on the long-range communication in DNA mismatch repair proteins MutS and its homologs where intramolecular signaling has to travel over 70 Å to couple lesion detection to ATPase activity and eventual downstream repair. Using dynamic network analysis based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations, multiple preserved communication pathways were identified that would allow such long-range signaling. The pathways appear to depend on the nucleotides bound to the ATPase domain as well as the type of DNA substrate consistent with previously proposed functional cycles of mismatch recognition and repair initiation by MutS and homologs. A mechanism is proposed where pathways are switched without major conformational rearrangements allowing for efficient long-range signaling and allostery. PMID:27768684

  20. Long-Range Correlations in the Sequence of Human Heartbeats and Other Biological Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teich, Malvin C.

    1998-03-01

    specificity for various salient measures, as a function of data length, is determined by the use of ROC analysis. A phase-space reconstruction based on generalized heart rate is used to obtain a putative attractor's capacity dimension. Though the dependence of this dimension on the embedding dimension is consistent with that of a low-dimensional dynamical system, surrogate-data analysis shows that identical behavior emerges from long-range temporal correlations in a stochastic process.^2 An integrate-and-fire model, comprising a fractal-Gaussian-noise kernel and Gaussian event-jittering,(S. Thurner, S. B. Lowen, M. C. Feurstein, C. Heneghan, H. G. Feichtinger, and M. C. Teich, Fractals) 5, No. 4 (1997). provides a realistic simulation of heartbeat sequences for both normal and heart-failure patients, over all time scales. These results could be of use in generating an artificial heartbeat that mimics the healthy heartbeat sequence for applications such as pacemakers. The presentation will be concluded with a brief discussion of the application of these methods to other unitary biological signals.

  1. Collective cell durotaxis emerges from long-range intercellular force transmission.

    PubMed

    Sunyer, Raimon; Conte, Vito; Escribano, Jorge; Elosegui-Artola, Alberto; Labernadie, Anna; Valon, Léo; Navajas, Daniel; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Muñoz, José J; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Trepat, Xavier

    2016-09-09

    The ability of cells to follow gradients of extracellular matrix stiffness-durotaxis-has been implicated in development, fibrosis, and cancer. Here, we found multicellular clusters that exhibited durotaxis even if isolated constituent cells did not. This emergent mode of directed collective cell migration applied to a variety of epithelial cell types, required the action of myosin motors, and originated from supracellular transmission of contractile physical forces. To explain the observed phenomenology, we developed a generalized clutch model in which local stick-slip dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions was integrated to the tissue level through cell-cell junctions. Collective durotaxis is far more efficient than single-cell durotaxis; it thus emerges as a robust mechanism to direct cell migration during development, wound healing, and collective cancer cell invasion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Adapting brain metabolism to myelination and long-range signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Hirrlinger, Johannes; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2014-11-01

    In the mammalian brain, the subcortical white matter comprises long-range axonal projections and their associated glial cells. Here, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes serve specific functions during development and throughout adult life, when they meet the metabolic needs of long fiber tracts. Within a short period of time, oligodendrocytes generate large amount of lipids, such as cholesterol, and membrane proteins for building the myelin sheaths. After myelination has been completed, a remaining function of glial metabolism is the energetic support of axonal transport and impulse propagation. Astrocytes can support axonal energy metabolism under low glucose conditions by the degradation of stored glycogen. Recently it has been recognized that the ability of glycolytic oligodendrocytes to deliver pyruvate and lactate is critical for axonal functions in vivo. In this review, we discuss the specific demands of oligodendrocytes during myelination and potential routes of metabolites between glial cells and myelinated axons. As examples, four specific metabolites are highlighted (cholesterol, glycogen, lactate, and N-acetyl-aspartate) that contribute to the specific functions of white matter glia. Regulatory processes are discussed that could be involved in coordinating metabolic adaptations and in providing feedback information about metabolic states.

  3. Magnitude and sign of long-range correlated time series: Decomposition and surrogate signal generation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Extremera, Manuel; Carpena, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro A

    2016-04-01

    We systematically study the scaling properties of the magnitude and sign of the fluctuations in correlated time series, which is a simple and useful approach to distinguish between systems with different dynamical properties but the same linear correlations. First, we decompose artificial long-range power-law linearly correlated time series into magnitude and sign series derived from the consecutive increments in the original series, and we study their correlation properties. We find analytical expressions for the correlation exponent of the sign series as a function of the exponent of the original series. Such expressions are necessary for modeling surrogate time series with desired scaling properties. Next, we study linear and nonlinear correlation properties of series composed as products of independent magnitude and sign series. These surrogate series can be considered as a zero-order approximation to the analysis of the coupling of magnitude and sign in real data, a problem still open in many fields. We find analytical results for the scaling behavior of the composed series as a function of the correlation exponents of the magnitude and sign series used in the composition, and we determine the ranges of magnitude and sign correlation exponents leading to either single scaling or to crossover behaviors. Finally, we obtain how the linear and nonlinear properties of the composed series depend on the correlation exponents of their magnitude and sign series. Based on this information we propose a method to generate surrogate series with controlled correlation exponent and multifractal spectrum.

  4. A new ionosphere-free ambiguity resolution method for long-range baseline with GNSS triple-frequency signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue; Chen, Wu; Weng, Duojie

    2015-10-01

    New GNSS systems (i.e. GPS modernization, BeiDou, and Galileo) will provide multiple navigation signals for reliable navigation services. The triple or even multiple frequency signals are expected to bring great benefits to the ambiguity resolution (AR) over long-range baselines, which is always regarded as a huge challenge. Another issue in the long baseline AR is the unmodeled ionospheric delay, which is one of the major errors in ranging signals. A new triple-frequency, ionosphere-free technique for ambiguity resolution of long-range baseline is developed in this study. In this technique, the optimal observation combinations are chosen considering the effect of ionospheric delay. At the same time, using this technique, the double difference (DD) ionospheric delay is nullified in the ambiguity search process. The performance of the new technique is examined using the simulated GPS triple frequency data as well as the real BDS observation. Results show that the ambiguity can be fixed within 10 min for GPS and BDS long-range baselines with this new technique.

  5. Direct functional consequences of ZRS enhancer mutation combine with secondary long range SHH signalling effects to cause preaxial polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Edward J; Neely, David M; Dunn, Ian C; Davey, Megan G

    2014-08-15

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) plays a central role in patterning numerous embryonic tissues including, classically, the developing limb bud where it controls digit number and identity. This study utilises the polydactylous Silkie (Slk) chicken breed, which carries a mutation in the long range limb-specific regulatory element of SHH, the ZRS. Using allele specific SHH expression analysis combined with quantitative protein analysis, we measure allele specific changes in SHH mRNA and concentration of SHH protein over time. This confirms that the Slk ZRS enhancer mutation causes increased SHH expression in the posterior leg mesenchyme. Secondary consequences of this increased SHH signalling include increased FGF pathway signalling and growth as predicted by the SHH/GREM1/FGF feedback loop and the Growth/Morphogen models. Manipulation of Hedgehog, FGF signalling and growth demonstrate that anterior-ectopic expression of SHH and induction of preaxial polydactyly is induced secondary to increased SHH signalling and Hedgehog-dependent growth directed from the posterior limb. We predict that increased long range SHH signalling acts in combination with changes in activation of SHH transcription from the Slk ZRS allele. Through analysis of the temporal dynamics of anterior SHH induction we predict a gene regulatory network which may contribute to activation of anterior SHH expression from the Slk ZRS.

  6. Asynchronous decoding of finger movements from ECoG signals using long-range dependencies conditional random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Saa, Jaime F.; de Pesters, Adriana; Cetin, Mujdat

    2016-06-01

    Objective. In this work we propose the use of conditional random fields with long-range dependencies for the classification of finger movements from electrocorticographic recordings. Approach. The proposed method uses long-range dependencies taking into consideration time-lags between the brain activity and the execution of the motor task. In addition, the proposed method models the dynamics of the task executed by the subject and uses information about these dynamics as prior information during the classification stage. Main results. The results show that incorporating temporal information about the executed task as well as incorporating long-range dependencies between the brain signals and the labels effectively increases the system’s classification performance compared to methods in the state of art. Significance. The method proposed in this work makes use of probabilistic graphical models to incorporate temporal information in the classification of finger movements from electrocorticographic recordings. The proposed method highlights the importance of including prior information about the task that the subjects execute. As the results show, the combination of these two features effectively produce a significant improvement of the system’s classification performance.

  7. Long-range Ca2+ waves transmit brain-damage signals to microglia.

    PubMed

    Sieger, Dirk; Moritz, Christian; Ziegenhals, Thomas; Prykhozhij, Sergey; Peri, Francesca

    2012-06-12

    Microglia are the resident phagocytes of the brain that are responsible for the clearance of injured neurons, an essential step in subsequent tissue regeneration. How death signals are controlled both in space and time to attract these cells toward the site of injury is a topic of great interest. To this aim, we have used the optically transparent zebrafish larval brain and identified rapidly propagating Ca2+ waves that determine the range of microglial responses to neuronal cell death. We show that while Ca2+-mediated microglial responses require ATP, the spreading of intercellular Ca2+ waves is ATP independent. Finally, we identify glutamate as a potent inducer of Ca2+-transmitted microglial attraction. Thus, this real-time analysis reveals the existence of a mechanism controlling microglial targeted migration to neuronal injuries that is initiated by glutamate and proceeds across the brain in the form of a Ca2+ wave. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-range allosteric signaling in red light–regulated diguanylyl cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Gourinchas, Geoffrey; Etzl, Stefan; Göbl, Christoph; Vide, Uršula; Madl, Tobias; Winkler, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Nature has evolved an astonishingly modular architecture of covalently linked protein domains with diverse functionalities to enable complex cellular networks that are critical for cell survival. The coupling of sensory modules with enzymatic effectors allows direct allosteric regulation of cellular signaling molecules in response to diverse stimuli. We present molecular details of red light–sensing bacteriophytochromes linked to cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate–producing diguanylyl cyclases. Elucidation of the first crystal structure of a full-length phytochrome with its enzymatic effector, in combination with the characterization of light-induced changes in conformational dynamics, reveals how allosteric light regulation is fine-tuned by the architecture and composition of the coiled-coil sensor-effector linker and also the central helical spine. We anticipate that consideration of molecular principles of sensor-effector coupling, going beyond the length of the characteristic linker, and the appreciation of dynamically driven allostery will open up new directions for the design of novel red light–regulated optogenetic tools. PMID:28275738

  9. Effect of extreme data loss on long-range correlated and anticorrelated signals quantified by detrended fluctuation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is an improved method of classical fluctuation analysis for nonstationary signals where embedded polynomial trends mask the intrinsic correlation properties of the fluctuations. To better identify the intrinsic correlation properties of real-world signals where a large amount of data is missing or removed due to artifacts, we investigate how extreme data loss affects the scaling behavior of long-range power-law correlated and anticorrelated signals. We introduce a segmentation approach to generate surrogate signals by randomly removing data segments from stationary signals with different types of long-range correlations. The surrogate signals we generate are characterized by four parameters: (i) the DFA scaling exponent α of the original correlated signal u(i), (ii) the percentage p of the data removed from u(i), (iii) the average length μ of the removed (or remaining) data segments, and (iv) the functional form P(l) of the distribution of the length l of the removed (or remaining) data segments. We find that the global scaling exponent of positively correlated signals remains practically unchanged even for extreme data loss of up to 90%. In contrast, the global scaling of anticorrelated signals changes to uncorrelated behavior even when a very small fraction of the data is lost. These observations are confirmed on two examples of real-world signals: human gait and commodity price fluctuations. We further systematically study the local scaling behavior of surrogate signals with missing data to reveal subtle deviations across scales. We find that for anticorrelated signals even 10% of data loss leads to significant monotonic deviations in the local scaling at large scales from the original anticorrelated to uncorrelated behavior. In contrast, positively correlated signals show no observable changes in the local scaling for up to 65% of data loss, while for larger percentage of data loss, the local scaling shows overestimated

  10. Noggin4 is a long-range inhibitor of Wnt8 signalling that regulates head development in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Eroshkin, Fedor M; Nesterenko, Alexey M; Borodulin, Alexander V; Martynova, Natalia Yu; Ermakova, Galina V; Gyoeva, Fatima K; Orlov, Eugeny E; Belogurov, Alexey A; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Bayramov, Andrey V; Zaraisky, Andrey G

    2016-03-14

    Noggin4 is a Noggin family secreted protein whose molecular and physiological functions remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in contrast to other Noggins, Xenopus laevis Noggin4 cannot antagonise BMP signalling; instead, it specifically binds to Wnt8 and inhibits the Wnt/β -catenin pathway. Live imaging demonstrated that Noggin4 diffusivity in embryonic tissues significantly exceeded that of other Noggins. Using the Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) assay and mathematical modelling, we directly estimated the affinity of Noggin4 for Wnt8 in living embryos and determined that Noggin4 fine-tune the Wnt8 posterior-to-anterior gradient. Our results suggest a role for Noggin4 as a unique, freely diffusing, long-range inhibitor of canonical Wnt signalling, thus explaining its ability to promote head development.

  11. Noggin4 is a long-range inhibitor of Wnt8 signalling that regulates head development in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Eroshkin, Fedor M.; Nesterenko, Alexey M.; Borodulin, Alexander V.; Martynova, Natalia Yu.; Ermakova, Galina V.; Gyoeva, Fatima K.; Orlov, Eugeny E.; Belogurov, Alexey A.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Bayramov, Andrey V.; Zaraisky, Andrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Noggin4 is a Noggin family secreted protein whose molecular and physiological functions remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in contrast to other Noggins, Xenopus laevis Noggin4 cannot antagonise BMP signalling; instead, it specifically binds to Wnt8 and inhibits the Wnt/β -catenin pathway. Live imaging demonstrated that Noggin4 diffusivity in embryonic tissues significantly exceeded that of other Noggins. Using the Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) assay and mathematical modelling, we directly estimated the affinity of Noggin4 for Wnt8 in living embryos and determined that Noggin4 fine-tune the Wnt8 posterior-to-anterior gradient. Our results suggest a role for Noggin4 as a unique, freely diffusing, long-range inhibitor of canonical Wnt signalling, thus explaining its ability to promote head development. PMID:26973133

  12. Effects of coarse-graining on the scaling behavior of long-range correlated and anti-correlated signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yinlin; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Schmitt, Daniel T.; Bernaola-Galván, Pedro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2011-11-01

    We investigate how various coarse-graining (signal quantization) methods affect the scaling properties of long-range power-law correlated and anti-correlated signals, quantified by the detrended fluctuation analysis. Specifically, for coarse-graining in the magnitude of a signal, we consider (i) the Floor, (ii) the Symmetry and (iii) the Centro-Symmetry coarse-graining methods. We find that for anti-correlated signals coarse-graining in the magnitude leads to a crossover to random behavior at large scales, and that with increasing the width of the coarse-graining partition interval Δ, this crossover moves to intermediate and small scales. In contrast, the scaling of positively correlated signals is less affected by the coarse-graining, with no observable changes when Δ<1, while for Δ>1 a crossover appears at small scales and moves to intermediate and large scales with increasing Δ. For very rough coarse-graining ( Δ>3) based on the Floor and Symmetry methods, the position of the crossover stabilizes, in contrast to the Centro-Symmetry method where the crossover continuously moves across scales and leads to a random behavior at all scales; thus indicating a much stronger effect of the Centro-Symmetry compared to the Floor and the Symmetry method. For coarse-graining in time, where data points are averaged in non-overlapping time windows, we find that the scaling for both anti-correlated and positively correlated signals is practically preserved. The results of our simulations are useful for the correct interpretation of the correlation and scaling properties of symbolic sequences.

  13. HermesD: A High-Rate Long-Range Wireless Transmission System for Simultaneous Multichannel Neural Recording Applications.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Henrique; Gilja, Vikash; Chestek, Cindy A; Shenoy, Krishna V; Meng, Teresa H

    2010-06-01

    HermesD is a high-rate, low-power wireless transmission system to aid research in neural prosthetic systems for motor disabilities and basic motor neuroscience. It is the third generation of our "Hermes systems" aimed at recording and transmitting neural activity from brain-implanted electrode arrays. This system supports the simultaneous transmission of 32 channels of broadband data sampled at 30 ks/s, 12 b/sample, using frequency-shift keying modulation on a carrier frequency adjustable from 3.7 to 4.1 GHz, with a link range extending over 20 m. The channel rate is 24 Mb/s and the bit stream includes synchronization and error detection mechanisms. The power consumption, approximately 142 mW, is low enough to allow the system to operate continuously for 33 h, using two 3.6-V/1200-mAh Li-SOCl2 batteries. The transmitter was designed using off-the-shelf components and is assembled in a stack of three 28 mm ? 28-mm boards that fit in a 38 mm ? 38 mm ? 51-mm aluminum enclosure, a significant size reduction over the initial version of HermesD. A 7-dBi circularly polarized patch antenna is used as the transmitter antenna, while on the receiver side, a 13-dBi circular horn antenna is employed. The advantages of using circularly polarized waves are analyzed and confirmed by indoor measurements. The receiver is a stand-alone device composed of several submodules and is interfaced to a computer for data acquisition and processing. It is based on the superheterodyne architecture and includes automatic frequency control that keeps it optimally tuned to the transmitter frequency. The HermesD communications performance is shown through bit-error rate measurements and eye-diagram plots. The sensitivity of the receiver is -83 dBm for a bit-error probability of 10(-9). Experimental recordings from a rhesus monkey conducting multiple tasks show a signal quality comparable to commercial acquisition systems, both in the low-frequency (local field potentials) and upper-frequency bands

  14. Auxin is a long-range signal that acts independently of ethylene signaling on leaf abscission in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xu; Zimmermann, Jorma; Polle, Andrea; Fischer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Timing of leaf abscission is an important trait for biomass production and seasonal acclimation in deciduous trees. The signaling leading to organ separation, from the external cue (decreasing photoperiod) to ethylene-regulated hydrolysis of the middle lamellae in the abscission zone, is only poorly understood. Data from annual species indicate that the formation of an auxin gradient spanning the abscission zone regulates the timing of abscission. We established an experimental system in Populus to induce leaf shedding synchronously under controlled greenhouse conditions in order to test the function of auxin in leaf abscission. Here, we show that exogenous auxin delayed abscission of dark-induced leaves over short and long distances and that a new auxin response maximum preceded the formation of an abscission zone. Several auxin transporters were down-regulated during abscission and inhibition of polar auxin transport delayed leaf shedding. Ethylene signaling was not involved in the regulation of these auxin transporters and in the formation of an abscission zone, but was required for the expression of hydrolytic enzymes associated with cell separation. Since exogenous auxin delayed abscission in absence of ethylene signaling auxin likely acts independently of ethylene signaling on cell separation. PMID:26322071

  15. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  16. Long Range Technology Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambron, Sueann, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This summary of a meeting of the Apple Education Advisory Council, on long range technology plans at the state, county, district, and school levels, includes highlights from group discussions on future planning, staff development, and curriculum. Three long range technology plans at the state level are provided: Long Range Educational Technology…

  17. Experimental evaluation of long-range acoustic sensing using super-directivity speaker and super-resolution signal processing with pulse compression technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Yuya; Okubo, Kan; Tagawa, Norio

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic sensing technology in air is a promising method for acquiring the shape and/or position of a target. Universal and smart technology, however, cannot be sufficiently established because of various acoustic environmental noises, attenuation effect, and so forth. To overcome this problem, in this study, we propose acoustic sensing that combines a super-directivity speaker and super-resolution signal processing. Our experimental results suggest that the proposed method enables long-range high-resolution acoustic imaging.

  18. Institutional Long Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell Community Coll. and Technical Inst., Lenoir, NC.

    Long-range institutional planning has been in effect at Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute since 1973. The first step in the process was the identification of planning areas: administration, organization, educational programs, learning resources, student services, faculty, facilities, maintenance/operation, and finances. The major…

  19. Long Range Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson Coll., Hillsboro, MO.

    This document presents Jefferson College's "Long Range Plan," which is intended to provide the College's governing board, administration, and faculty and staff with a task-oriented blueprint for maximizing the delivery of higher education services to students and the community in a predictable, programmatic, and fiscally sound manner.…

  20. Long Range Facilities Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Richard Muther range facilities Many alterna- analysis indi- cated that if NASSCO ever expected to surpass its output of the last several years, current...Marine Engineers (SNAME) SP-1 Panel Meeting. The Maritime Administration had Richard Muther (an authority on long range facility planning) address a

  1. Long range chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Luciana I Gómez; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2014-01-01

    Splicing is a predominantly co-transcriptional process that has been shown to be tightly coupled to transcription. Chromatin structure is a key factor that mediates this functional coupling. In light of recent evidence that shows the importance of higher order chromatin organization in the coordination and regulation of gene expression, we discuss here the possible roles of long-range chromatin organization in splicing and alternative splicing regulation. PMID:25764333

  2. Genome Analysis of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 014 Lineage in Australian Pigs and Humans Reveals a Diverse Genetic Repertoire and Signatures of Long-Range Interspecies Transmission.

    PubMed

    Knight, Daniel R; Squire, Michele M; Collins, Deirdre A; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype (RT) 014 is well-established in both human and porcine populations in Australia, raising the possibility that C. difficile infection (CDI) may have a zoonotic or foodborne etiology. Here, whole genome sequencing and high-resolution core genome phylogenetics were performed on a contemporaneous collection of 40 Australian RT014 isolates of human and porcine origin. Phylogenies based on MLST (7 loci, STs 2, 13, and 49) and core orthologous genes (1260 loci) showed clustering of human and porcine strains indicative of very recent shared ancestry. Core genome single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis found 42% of human strains showed a clonal relationship (separated by ≤2 SNVs in their core genome) with one or more porcine strains, consistent with recent inter-host transmission. Clones were spread over a vast geographic area with 50% of the human cases occurring without recent healthcare exposure. These findings suggest a persistent community reservoir with long-range dissemination, potentially due to agricultural recycling of piggery effluent. We also provide the first pan-genome analysis for this lineage, characterizing its resistome, prophage content, and in silico virulence potential. The RT014 is defined by a large "open" pan-genome (7587 genes) comprising a core genome of 2296 genes (30.3% of the total gene repertoire) and an accessory genome of 5291 genes. Antimicrobial resistance genotypes and phenotypes varied across host populations and ST lineages and were characterized by resistance to tetracycline [tetM, tetA(P), tetB(P) and tetW], clindamycin/erythromycin (ermB), and aminoglycosides (aph3-III-Sat4A-ant6-Ia). Resistance was mediated by clinically important mobile genetic elements, most notably Tn6194 (harboring ermB) and a novel variant of Tn5397 (harboring tetM). Numerous clinically important prophages (Siphoviridae and Myoviridae) were identified as well as an uncommon accessory gene regulator locus (agr3). Conservation

  3. Genome Analysis of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 014 Lineage in Australian Pigs and Humans Reveals a Diverse Genetic Repertoire and Signatures of Long-Range Interspecies Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Daniel R.; Squire, Michele M.; Collins, Deirdre A.; Riley, Thomas V.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype (RT) 014 is well-established in both human and porcine populations in Australia, raising the possibility that C. difficile infection (CDI) may have a zoonotic or foodborne etiology. Here, whole genome sequencing and high-resolution core genome phylogenetics were performed on a contemporaneous collection of 40 Australian RT014 isolates of human and porcine origin. Phylogenies based on MLST (7 loci, STs 2, 13, and 49) and core orthologous genes (1260 loci) showed clustering of human and porcine strains indicative of very recent shared ancestry. Core genome single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis found 42% of human strains showed a clonal relationship (separated by ≤2 SNVs in their core genome) with one or more porcine strains, consistent with recent inter-host transmission. Clones were spread over a vast geographic area with 50% of the human cases occurring without recent healthcare exposure. These findings suggest a persistent community reservoir with long-range dissemination, potentially due to agricultural recycling of piggery effluent. We also provide the first pan-genome analysis for this lineage, characterizing its resistome, prophage content, and in silico virulence potential. The RT014 is defined by a large “open” pan-genome (7587 genes) comprising a core genome of 2296 genes (30.3% of the total gene repertoire) and an accessory genome of 5291 genes. Antimicrobial resistance genotypes and phenotypes varied across host populations and ST lineages and were characterized by resistance to tetracycline [tetM, tetA(P), tetB(P) and tetW], clindamycin/erythromycin (ermB), and aminoglycosides (aph3-III-Sat4A-ant6-Ia). Resistance was mediated by clinically important mobile genetic elements, most notably Tn6194 (harboring ermB) and a novel variant of Tn5397 (harboring tetM). Numerous clinically important prophages (Siphoviridae and Myoviridae) were identified as well as an uncommon accessory gene regulator locus (agr3

  4. Time scale independent signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltin, L.

    1980-05-01

    The paper presents a method which permits the conversion of time scale variations occurring during signal transmission into time shifts proportionally related to these variations. It is demonstrated that the method can be used to reject the adverse effects of the time scale variations (such as wow and flutter in magnetic tape recordings) and/or to determine the scale change exactly (such as would be required in Doppler signal processing). Finally, it is noted that since the system performance degrades with rising frequency of the time scale distortions, an upper bound for this frequency is derived.

  5. Long-Range Neutron Detection

    SciTech Connect

    AJ Peurrung; DC Stromswold; RR Hansen; PL Reeder; DS Barnett

    1999-11-24

    A neutron detector designed for detecting neutron sources at distances of 50 to 100 m has been constructed and tested. This detector has a large surface area (1 m{sup 2}) to enhance detection efficiency, and it contains a collimator and shielding to achieve direction sensitivity and reduce background. An unusual feature of the detector is that it contains no added moderator, such as polyethylene, to moderate fast neutrons before they reach the {sup 3}He detector. As a result, the detector is sensitive mainly to thermal neutrons. The moderator-free design reduces the weight of the detector, making it more portable, and it also aids in achieving directional sensitivity and background reduction. Test results show that moderated fission-neutron sources of strength about 3 x 10{sup 5} n/s can be detected at a distance out to 70 m in a counting time of 1000 s. The best angular resolution of the detector is obtained at distances of 30 m or less. As the separation .distance between the source and detector increases, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the measured signal increases with a resultant decrease in the ability to detect the direction to a distant source. Applications for which the long-range detector appears to be suitable include detecting remote neutron sources (including sources in moving vehicles) and monitoring neutron storage vaults for the intrusion of humans and the effects they make on the detected neutron signal. Also, the detector can be used to measure waste for the presence of transuranic material in the presence of high gamma-ray background. A test with a neutron source (3 x 10{sup 5} n/s) in a vehicle showed that the detector could readily measure an increase in count rate at a distance of 10 m for vehicle speeds up to 35 mph (the highest speed tested). These results. indicate that the source should be detectable at this distance at speeds up to 55 mph.

  6. USAKA Long Range Planning Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    ORGANIZATION ERIM (if applicable ) United States Army I Strategic Defense Command 6c ADDRESS ICty. State. and ZIP Code) 7b ADDRESS (City, State. and ZIP...IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (if applicable ) US Army Strategic Def.Com. CSSD-H-KT DASG60-89-C-0013 8c ADDRESS (City, State. and ZIP Code) 10...activities. These are natural applications for the high power long range, well situated radars located at Kwajalein. The objective of the study described

  7. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  8. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  9. Long Range Acoustic Communication in Deep Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Acoustic communication at long range in the ocean is challenging due to the substantial propagation loss, multipath delay spread , and channel...20 Hz in the upward refracting Arctic acoustic channel. However, the seafloor topography in the region of the Chukchi Plateau is very uneven over...which the depth was 600 m and thus the seafloor affected every mode of the ACOUS signal except for mode 1 which was confined to the upper 200 m. In April

  10. Long-range electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent investigations have shed much light on the nuclear and electronic factors that control the rates of long-range electron tunneling through molecules in aqueous and organic glasses as well as through bonds in donor–bridge–acceptor complexes. Couplings through covalent and hydrogen bonds are much stronger than those across van der Waals gaps, and these differences in coupling between bonded and nonbonded atoms account for the dependence of tunneling rates on the structure of the media between redox sites in Ru-modified proteins and protein–protein complexes. PMID:15738403

  11. Long Range Fast Tool Servo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-31

    AD-A271 614 r, FINAL REPORT w to I OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH [I on * LONG RANGE FAST TOOL SERVO I ONR CONTRACT NO. N00014-92-J-4082-PII Covering the...n I I 1 INTRODUCTION The PEC’s MAC 100 Fast Tool Servo (FTS) System has demonstrated the efficacy of fabricating off-axis parabolic segments on axis...by utilizing a fast tool motion to machine non-rotationally symmetric surfaces [1]. The key to this technique was a servo for the tool motion that had

  12. Long range planning at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1987-01-01

    NASA's current plans for the U.S. space program are described. Consideration is given to the debate between manned or unmanned exploration of space, missions to the moon versus missions to Mars, and the exploration of space applications or science. NASA has created the Office of Policy and Planning and the Office of Exploration in order to improve the planning of future space activities. Long-range trends such as second-generation Shuttles, cargo launch vehicles with large capacity systems, an advanced Space Station, the use of robotics, closed cycle life support, health maintenance techniques, and the processing of extraterrestrial materials are considered.

  13. Structure of the Full-Length Bacteriophytochrome from the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas campestris Provides Clues to its Long-Range Signaling Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Otero, Lisandro Horacio; Klinke, Sebastián; Rinaldi, Jimena; Velázquez-Escobar, Francisco; Mroginski, María Andrea; Fernández López, María; Malamud, Florencia; Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; Hildebrandt, Peter; Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto; Bonomi, Hernán Ruy

    2016-09-25

    Phytochromes constitute a major superfamily of light-sensing proteins that are reversibly photoconverted between a red-absorbing (Pr) and a far-red-absorbing (Pfr) state. Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs) are found among photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria, including pathogens. To date, several BphPs have been biophysically characterized. However, it is still not fully understood how structural changes are propagated from the photosensory module to the output module during the signal transduction event. Most phytochromes share a common architecture consisting of an N-terminal photosensor that includes the PAS2-GAF-PHY domain triad and a C-terminal variable output module. Here we present the crystal structure of the full-length BphP from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (XccBphP) bearing its photosensor and its complete output module, a PAS9 domain. In the crystals, the protein was found to be in the Pr state, whereas diffraction data together with resonance Raman spectroscopic and theoretical results indicate a ZZZssa and a ZZEssa chromophore configuration corresponding to a mixture of Pr and Meta-R state, the precursor of Pfr. The XccBphP quaternary assembly reveals a head-to-head dimer in which the output module contributes to the helical dimer interface. The photosensor, which is shown to be a bathy-like BphP, is influenced in its dark reactions by the output module. Our structural analyses suggest that the photoconversion between the Pr and Pfr states in the full-length XccBphP may involve changes in the relative positioning of the output module. This work contributes to understand the light-induced structural changes propagated from the photosensor to the output modules in phytochrome signaling.

  14. Long range handheld thermal imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, Edward; Struckhoff, Andrew; McDaniel, Robert; Shamai, Shlomo

    2006-05-01

    Today's warfighter requires a lightweight, high performance thermal imager for use in night and reduced visibility conditions. To fill this need, the United States Marine Corps issued requirements for a Thermal Binocular System (TBS) Long Range Thermal Imager (LRTI). The requirements dictated that the system be lightweight, but still have significant range capabilities and extended operating time on a single battery load. Kollsman, Inc. with our partner Electro-Optics Industries, Ltd. (ElOp) responded to this need with the CORAL - a third-generation, Military Off-the-Shelf (MOTS) product that required very little modification to fully meet the LRTI specification. This paper will discuss the LRTI, a successful result of size, weight and power (SWaP) tradeoffs made to ensure a lightweight, but high performance thermal imager.

  15. Long-Range Atlantic Acoustic Multipath Identification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legters, George Richard

    Multipath data from three long-range (900 kilometers) transmissions are examined. Two of the transmissions follow similar tracks, but are separated by the Gulf Stream at the receiving end. The third, which is substantially free of Gulf Stream influence, has been intensively studied Spiesberger et al. (J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67, 2011-7 (1980)). A package of computer algorithms based on the geometrical optics approximation was developed to model and analyze the acoustic transmission. Path identification with ray calculations was attempted for the two transmission channels exhibiting stable multipath with success for the major features of the path structures. Excessive smoothing of the sound speed profile which eliminates the influence of the Atlantic eighteen-degree celsius water mass in the upper layers is shown to degrade the identification of early arrivals. The slight curvature of the ocean sound speed profile around four kilometers of depth also was critical to early arrival identification. The effect of weak range dependence was small while the effect of a gradual sloping bottom near one receiver was significant.

  16. Optical signal processing for wireless transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Millimeter-wave bands are attracting attention because of the availability of wideband for high-speed transmission. However, due to the limitation of the performance of electric signal processing, it is rather difficult to modulate and demodulate millimeter-wave signals with high-speed baseband modulation. In this paper, we describe optical signal processing for high-speed modulation of millimeter-wave, based on high-speed and precise lightwave control. In optical fiber communication systems, various types of modulation formats, such as quadrature-amplitude-modulation, are reported to achieve high-speed transmission. Optical two-tone signals can be converted into millimeter-wave signals by using high-speed photodetectors. This technique can be used for distribution of stable reference signals in large-scale antenna arrays for radio astronomy. By using the millimeter-wave signal generation technique and the optical advanced modulation formats, we can achieve high-speed modulation of millimeter-waves, where the carrier frequency and bit rate can be over 90GHz and 40Gb/s, respectively.

  17. Long Range Surface Plasmon Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasry, Amal; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Surface plasmon modes, excited at the two sides of a thin metal layer surrounded by two (nearly) identical dielectric media interact via the overlap of their electromagnetic fields. This overlap results in two new-coupled modes, a short and a long-range surface plasmon (LRSP). We demonstrate that combining the LRSP optics with fluorescence spectroscopy can result in a huge enhancement of the fluorescence signal due to the enhanced optical field of the LRSP at the metal dielectric interface, and to its increased evanescent depth into the analyte. This was demonstrated for the detection of the fluorescence intensity of chromophore labeled protein bound to the surface sensor. Beside that, some fundamentals were studied leading to some interesting difference between SPFS and LRSPFS.

  18. Long-range polarimetric imaging through fog.

    PubMed

    Fade, Julien; Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Carré, Anthony; Frein, Ludovic; Hamel, Cyril; Bretenaker, Fabien; Ramachandran, Hema; Alouini, Mehdi

    2014-06-20

    We report an experimental implementation of long-range polarimetric imaging through fog over kilometric distance in real field atmospheric conditions. An incoherent polarized light source settled on a telecommunication tower is imaged at a distance of 1.3 km with a snapshot polarimetric camera including a birefringent Wollaston prism, allowing simultaneous acquisition of two images along orthogonal polarization directions. From a large number of acquisitions datasets and under various environmental conditions (clear sky/fog/haze, day/night), we compare the efficiency of using polarized light for source contrast increase with different signal representations (intensity, polarimetric difference, polarimetric contrast, etc.). With the limited-dynamics detector used, a maximum fourfold increase in contrast was demonstrated under bright background illumination using polarimetric difference image.

  19. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  20. Advanced Climate Analysis and Long Range Forecasting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Advanced Climate Analysis and Long Range Forecasting...project is to improve the long range and climate support provided by the U.S. Naval Oceanography Enterprise (NOe) for planning, conducting, and...months, several seasons, several years). The primary transition focus is on improving the long range and climate support capabilities of the Fleet

  1. The Long-Range Impact of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    Long range effects may be of three varieties: those which are observable in the immediate period subsequent to exposure but are long range because of their continuing repetitive accumulation with each exposure; those which represent the cumulative or delayed impact on individuals of exposure to television; or those which represent the immediate…

  2. Long Range Plan, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Coll. of Technology, Williamsport. Office of Strategic Planning and Research.

    At Pennsylvania College of Technology (PCT), long range planning is used to define institutional philosophy and mission and determine strategies to make the best use of available resources and implement actions to fulfill institutional mission. This document presents PCT's long-range plan for 1997-2000 in three parts. The first part describes long…

  3. Measurements on wireless transmission of ECG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Lax, I.

    2016-12-01

    The scope of this research is to design an electronic prototype, an operative system as a proof of concept, to transmit and receive biological parameters, in particular electrocardiogram signals, through dedicated wireless circuits. The apparatus features microelectronics chips that were developed for more general biomedical applications, here adapted to deal with cardiac signals. The paper mainly focuses on the electronic aspects, as in this study we do not face medical or clinical aspects of the system. The transmitter circuit uses a commercial instrumentation amplifier and the receiver has been equipped with wide-band amplifiers along with made-in-the-lab band-pass filters centered at the carrier. We have been able to mount the entire system prototype into a preliminary data acquisition chain that reads out the electrocardiogram signal. The prototype allows acquiring the waveform, converting it to a digital pattern and open the transmission through a series of high-frequency packets exploiting the Ultra Wide Band protocol. The sensor value is embedded in the transmission through the rate of the digital packets. In fact, these are sent wireless at a specific packet-frequency that depends on the sensor amplitude and are detected into a receiver circuit that recovers the information.

  4. Long-range dismount activity classification: LODAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garagic, Denis; Peskoe, Jacob; Liu, Fang; Cuevas, Manuel; Freeman, Andrew M.; Rhodes, Bradley J.

    2014-06-01

    Continuous classification of dismount types (including gender, age, ethnicity) and their activities (such as walking, running) evolving over space and time is challenging. Limited sensor resolution (often exacerbated as a function of platform standoff distance) and clutter from shadows in dense target environments, unfavorable environmental conditions, and the normal properties of real data all contribute to the challenge. The unique and innovative aspect of our approach is a synthesis of multimodal signal processing with incremental non-parametric, hierarchical Bayesian machine learning methods to create a new kind of target classification architecture. This architecture is designed from the ground up to optimally exploit correlations among the multiple sensing modalities (multimodal data fusion) and rapidly and continuously learns (online self-tuning) patterns of distinct classes of dismounts given little a priori information. This increases classification performance in the presence of challenges posed by anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) sensing. To fuse multimodal features, Long-range Dismount Activity Classification (LODAC) develops a novel statistical information theoretic approach for multimodal data fusion that jointly models multimodal data (i.e., a probabilistic model for cross-modal signal generation) and discovers the critical cross-modal correlations by identifying components (features) with maximal mutual information (MI) which is efficiently estimated using non-parametric entropy models. LODAC develops a generic probabilistic pattern learning and classification framework based on a new class of hierarchical Bayesian learning algorithms for efficiently discovering recurring patterns (classes of dismounts) in multiple simultaneous time series (sensor modalities) at multiple levels of feature granularity.

  5. Long-range correlations in computer diskettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebende, G. F.; de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Penna, T. J. P.

    1998-03-01

    We find that successive versions of the files stored on a personal computer diskette mimic the evolution mechanism claimed to be responsible for the long-range correlations observed in DNA sequences. Starting from uncorrelated random files, long-range correlations are gradually introduced by successive editing, corresponding to point mutations, insertions, and deletions. This system has the advantage (over DNA sequences) of allowing experiments.

  6. Long range electrostatic forces in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Smith, Alexander M; Dobbs, Howard A; Lee, Alpha A; Warr, Gregory G; Banquy, Xavier; Valtiner, Markus; Rutland, Mark W; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Perkin, Susan; Atkin, Rob

    2017-01-19

    Ionic liquids are pure salts that are liquid under ambient conditions. As liquids composed solely of ions, the scientific consensus has been that ionic liquids have exceedingly high ionic strengths and thus very short Debye screening lengths. However, several recent experiments from laboratories around the world have reported data for the approach of two surfaces separated by ionic liquids which revealed remarkable long range forces that appear to be electrostatic in origin. Evidence has accumulated demonstrating long range surface forces for several different combinations of ionic liquids and electrically charged surfaces, as well as for concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts in solvent. The original interpretation of these forces, that ionic liquids could be envisioned as "dilute electrolytes," was controversial, and the origin of long range forces in ionic liquids remains the subject of discussion. Here we seek to collate and examine the evidence for long range surface forces in ionic liquids, identify key outstanding questions, and explore possible mechanisms underlying the origin of these long range forces. Long range surface forces in ionic liquids and other highly concentrated electrolytes hold diverse implications from designing ionic liquids for energy storage applications to rationalizing electrostatic correlations in biological self-assembly.

  7. Photon assisted long-range tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Sánchez, Rafael; Platero, Gloria

    2015-03-21

    We analyze long-range transport through an ac driven triple quantum dot with a single electron. Resonant transitions between separated and detuned dots are mediated by the exchange of n photons with the time-dependent field. An effective model is proposed in terms of second order (cotunneling) processes which dominate the long-range transport between the edge quantum dots. The ac field renormalizes the inter dot hopping, modifying the level hybridization. It results in a non-trivial behavior of the current with the frequency and amplitude of the external ac field.

  8. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  9. Muskegon Community College Long-Range Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Peter M.; And Others

    Long-range planning assumptions and goals are presented for Muskegon Community College (MCC) as they were submitted by a committee of area citizens. After introductory material summarizing the committee's mandate and activities, the report discusses the fiscal, demographic, curricular, and administrative changes likely to affect MCC during the…

  10. Long Range Program for Georgia Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept of Education, Atlanta. Div. of Public Library Services.

    The development of each area of Georgia's long range plan required the identification of present and projected needs, the definition of objectives and action plans to meet those needs, establishment of periodic evaluation procedures, dissemination of information, coordination with all types of libraries and their programs, allocations of funds for…

  11. Long Range Planning and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karger, Delmar W.; Malik, Zafar A.

    1975-01-01

    The cited research very clearly indicates that the top management of any profit-seeking organization is delinquent or grossly negligent if it does not engage in fully integrated long-range planning--at least this would seem to be true in the ordinary case. (Author)

  12. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  13. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  14. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  15. Lattice gas models with long range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristoff, David; Zhu, Lingjiong

    2017-02-01

    We study microcanonical lattice gas models with long range interactions, including power law interactions. We rigorously obtain a variational principle for the entropy. In a one dimensional example, we find a first order phase transition by proving the entropy is non-differentiable along a certain curve.

  16. Look Ahead: Long-Range Learning Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Faced with an unsteady economy and fluctuating learning needs, planning a learning strategy designed to last longer than the next six months can be a tall order. But a long-range learning plan can provide a road map for success. In this article, four companies (KPMG LLP, CarMax, DPR Construction, and EMC Corp.) describe their learning plans, and…

  17. Discussion of long-range weather prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-09-10

    A group of scientists at Los Alamos have held a series of discussions of the issues in and prospects for improvements in Long-range Weather Predictions Enabled by Proving of the Atmosphere at High Space-Time Resolution. The group contained the requisite skills for a full evaluation, although this report presents only an informal discussion of the main technical issues. The group discussed all aspects of the proposal, which are grouped below into the headings: (1) predictability; (2) sensors and satellites, (3) DIAL and atmospheric sensing; (4) localized transponders; and (5) summary and integration. Briefly, the group agreed that the relative paucity of observations of the state of the atmosphere severely inhibits the accuracy of weather forecasts, and any program that leads to a more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather more dense and uniform observational network is welcome. As shown in Long-range Weather Predictions, the pay-back of accurate long-range forecasts should more than justify the expenditure associated with improved observations and forecast models required. The essential step is to show that the needed technologies are available for field test and space qualification.

  18. Dynamics of Mechanical Signal Transmission through Prestressed Stress Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of mechanical stimuli through the actin cytoskeleton has been proposed as a mechanism for rapid long-distance mechanotransduction in cells; however, a quantitative understanding of the dynamics of this transmission and the physical factors governing it remains lacking. Two key features of the actin cytoskeleton are its viscoelastic nature and the presence of prestress due to actomyosin motor activity. We develop a model of mechanical signal transmission through prestressed viscoelastic actin stress fibers that directly connect the cell surface to the nucleus. The analysis considers both temporally stationary and oscillatory mechanical signals and accounts for cytosolic drag on the stress fibers. To elucidate the physical parameters that govern mechanical signal transmission, we initially focus on the highly simplified case of a single stress fiber. The results demonstrate that the dynamics of mechanical signal transmission depend on whether the applied force leads to transverse or axial motion of the stress fiber. For transverse motion, mechanical signal transmission is dominated by prestress while fiber elasticity has a negligible effect. Conversely, signal transmission for axial motion is mediated uniquely by elasticity due to the absence of a prestress restoring force. Mechanical signal transmission is significantly delayed by stress fiber material viscosity, while cytosolic damping becomes important only for longer stress fibers. Only transverse motion yields the rapid and long-distance mechanical signal transmission dynamics observed experimentally. For simple networks of stress fibers, mechanical signals are transmitted rapidly to the nucleus when the fibers are oriented largely orthogonal to the applied force, whereas the presence of fibers parallel to the applied force slows down mechanical signal transmission significantly. The present results suggest that cytoskeletal prestress mediates rapid mechanical signal transmission and allows

  19. 29. VIEW OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES ON NORTH BRIDGE SUPPORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES ON NORTH BRIDGE SUPPORT, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, NEAR SOUTH NORWALK SWITCH TOWER - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  20. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3-Vaidya background. A prescription was given for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. Moreover, we found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlatormore » and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.« less

  1. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C.-K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-03-01

    DNA SEQUENCES have been analysed using models, such as an it-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations1. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  2. Gemini: A long-range cargo transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed Gemini, a long-range cargo transport, is designed as a high capacity, dedicated cargo transporter of 8'x8'x20' inter-modal containers, and long-range design. These requirements will result in a design that is larger than any existing aircraft. Due to the size, a conventional configuration would result in an aircraft unable to operate economically at existing airports. It is necessary to design for a minimum possible empty weight, wingspan, and landing gear track. After considering both a single fuselage biplane and a double fuselage biplane configuration, the design team choose the double fuselage biplane configuration. Both of these configuration choices result in a reduced wing root bending moment and subsequently in substantial savings in the wing weight. An overall decrease in the weight of the airplane, its systems, and fuel will be a direct result of the wing weight savings.

  3. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    DNA sequences have been analysed using models, such as an n-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  4. Long-range correlations in nucleotide sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Havlin, S.; Sciortino, F.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1992-01-01

    DNA sequences have been analysed using models, such as an n-step Markov chain, that incorporate the possibility of short-range nucleotide correlations. We propose here a method for studying the stochastic properties of nucleotide sequences by constructing a 1:1 map of the nucleotide sequence onto a walk, which we term a 'DNA walk'. We then use the mapping to provide a quantitative measure of the correlation between nucleotides over long distances along the DNA chain. Thus we uncover in the nucleotide sequence a remarkably long-range power law correlation that implies a new scale-invariant property of DNA. We find such long-range correlations in intron-containing genes and in nontranscribed regulatory DNA sequences, but not in complementary DNA sequences or intron-less genes.

  5. Bottom Interaction in Long Range Acoustic Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    model calculations (RR, RSR, RBR, SRBR ray paths and the mode-like finale region), 2) deep shadow zone arrivals arising from the spread of energy below...arrivals near 75Hz were observed on bottom-mounted hydrophones in the shadow zone well below the SOFAR channel. Dushaw et al (1999) note: "This...explain the energy in the shadow zones: 1) energy is scattered from internal waves and fine structure in the ocean, or 2) long range sound propagation

  6. Long-range aircraft are in demand

    SciTech Connect

    Demeis, R.

    1991-05-01

    The overriding technological combinations that must be developed to provide for increased payload/long-range efficiency in commercial aircraft are discussed. The many requirements include: lighter structures, fuel efficiency, available engine thrust at optimum cruise altitude, and the relationship of lift, drag, and engine fuel efficiency to produce the greatest range when drag divided by speed is kept to a minimum. Attention is given to the various new ultra-high-bypass turbofans under development that approach the 100,000 lb thrust category with bypass ratios of better than 20/1.

  7. Long-range laser-illuminated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Browne, Stephen L.; Sandven, Steven C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Gallegos, Joe; Shilko, Michael L., Sr.

    2000-11-01

    We demonstrate the utility of laser illuminated imaging for clandestine night time surveillance from a simulated airborne platform at standoff ranges in excess 20 km. In order to reduce the necessary laser per pulse energy required for illumination at such long ranges, and to mitigate atmospheric turbulence effects on image resolution, we have investigated a unique multi-frame post-processing technique. It is shown that in the presence of atmospheric turbulence and coherent speckle effects, this approach can produce superior results to conventional scene flood illumination.

  8. NASA's Long-range Technology Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is part of the Final Report performed under contract NASW-3864, titled "NASA's Long-Range Technology Goals". The objectives of the effort were: To identify technologies whose development falls within NASA's capability and purview, and which have high potential for leapfrog advances in the national industrial posture in the 2005-2010 era. To define which of these technologies can also enable quantum jumps in the national space program. To assess mechanisms of interaction between NASA and industry constituencies for realizing the leapfrog technologies. This Volume details the findings pertaining to the advanced space-enabling technologies.

  9. A criterion autoscheduler for long range planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sponsler, Jeffrey L.

    1994-01-01

    A constraint-based scheduling system called SPIKE is used to create long-term schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. A meta-level scheduler called the Criterion Autoscheduler for Long range planning (CASL) was created to guide SPIKE's schedule generation according to the agenda of the planning scientists. It is proposed that sufficient flexibility exists in a schedule to allow high level planning heuristics to be applied without adversely affected crucial constraints such as spacecraft efficiency. This hypothesis is supported by test data which is described.

  10. Long Range Interactions in Nanoscale Science

    SciTech Connect

    French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian; Podgonik, Rudolph; Rajter, Rick; Jagota, Anand; Luo, Jian; Asthagiri, Dilip; Chaudhury, Manoj; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Granick, Steve; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kardar, Mehran; Kjellander, Roland; Langreth, David C.; Lewis, Jennifer; Lustig, Steve; Wesolowski, David J; Wettlaufer, John; Ching, Wai-Yim; Finnis, Mike; Houlihan, Frank; Von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole; Van Oss, Carel; Zemb, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the long range electrodynamic, electrostatic, and polar interactions that dominate the organization of small objects at separations beyond an interatomic bond length is reviewed. From this basic-forces perspective, a large number of systems are described from which one can learn about these organizing forces and how to modulate them. The many practical systems that harness these nanoscale forces are then surveyed. The survey reveals not only the promise of new devices and materials, but also the possibility of designing them more effectively.

  11. Booming far: the long-range vocal strategy of a lekking bird.

    PubMed

    Cornec, C; Hingrat, Y; Aubin, T; Rybak, F

    2017-08-01

    The pressures of selection acting on transmission of information by acoustic signals are particularly high in long-distance communication networks. Males of the North African houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) produce extremely low-frequency vocalizations called 'booms' as a component of their courtship displays. These displays are performed on sites separated by a distance of on average 550 m, constituting exploded leks. Here, we investigate the acoustic features of booms involved in species-specific identity. We first assessed the modifications of acoustic parameters during boom transmission at long range within the natural habitat of the species, finding that the frequency content of booms was reliably transmitted up to 600 m. Additionally, by testing males' behavioural responses to playbacks of modified signals, we found that the presence of the second harmonic and the frequency modulation are the key parameters for species identification, and also that a sequence of booms elicited stronger responses than a single boom. Thus, the coding-decoding process relies on redundant and propagation-resistant features, making the booms particularly well adapted for the long-range transmission of information between males. Moreover, by experimentally disentangling the presentation of visual and acoustic signals, we showed that during the booming phase of courtship, the two sensory modalities act in synergy. The acoustic component is dominant in the context of intra-sexual competition. While the visual component is not necessary to induce agonistic response, it acts as an amplifier and reduces the time of detection of the signaller. The utilization of these adaptive strategies allows houbara males to maximize the active space of vocalizations emitted in exploded leks.

  12. Transmission of isolated LVDS signal pulses at long distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formenti, F.; Scapparone, E.

    2010-03-01

    We discuss in this paper the challenge of transmitting isolated LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling) pulses over long cables ( L> 40 m). A safe approach is developed paying special care in the choice of the components used at the different stages of the data transmission. In each step, starting from the signal generation, then facing the propagation through the cable and finally addressing the signal detection at the far end, we tried to preserve the signal shape, while reducing the sources of the signal attenuation and distortion. Two different approaches for a successful data transmission are discussed, both allowing a safe performance.

  13. Signal transmissibility in marginal granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the ‘transmissibility’ of a simulated two-dimensional pack of frictionless disks formed by confining dilute disks in a shrinking, periodic box to the point of mechanical stability. Two opposite boundaries are then removed, thus allowing a set of free motions. Small free displacements on one boundary then induce proportional displacements on the opposite boundary. Transmissibility is the ability to distinguish different perturbations by their distant responses. We assess transmissibility by successively identifying free orthonormal modes of motion that have the smallest distant responses. The last modes to be identified in this ‘pessimistic’ basis are the most transmissive. The transmitted amplitudes of these most transmissive modes fall off exponentially with mode number. Similar exponential falloff is seen in a simple elastic medium, though the responsible modes differ greatly in structure in the two systems. Thus the marginal pack’s transmissibility is qualitatively similar to that of a simple elastic medium. We compare our results with recent findings based on the projection of the space of free motion onto interior sites.

  14. Holographic thermalization with initial long range correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shu

    2016-01-19

    Here, we studied the evolution of the Wightman correlator in a thermalizing state modeled by AdS3-Vaidya background. A prescription was given for calculating the Wightman correlator in coordinate space without using any approximation. For equal-time correlator , we obtained an enhancement factor v2 due to long range correlation present in the initial state. This was missed by previous studies based on geodesic approximation. Moreover, we found that the long range correlation in initial state does not lead to significant modification to thermalization time as compared to known results with generic initial state. We also studied the spatially integrated Wightman correlator and showed evidence on the distinction between long distance and small momentum physics for an out-of-equilibrium state. We also calculated the radiation spectrum of particles weakly coupled to O and found that lower frequency mode approaches thermal spectrum faster than high frequency mode.

  15. Long-range Order in Canary Song

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E.; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules. PMID:23658509

  16. Long-range order in canary song.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Ivie, Elizabeth; Kligler, Laura; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Bird songs range in form from the simple notes of a Chipping Sparrow to the rich performance of the nightingale. Non-adjacent correlations can be found in the syntax of some birdsongs, indicating that the choice of what to sing next is determined not only by the current syllable, but also by previous syllables sung. Here we examine the song of the domesticated canary, a complex singer whose song consists of syllables, grouped into phrases that are arranged in flexible sequences. Phrases are defined by a fundamental time-scale that is independent of the underlying syllable duration. We show that the ordering of phrases is governed by long-range rules: the choice of what phrase to sing next in a given context depends on the history of the song, and for some syllables, highly specific rules produce correlations in song over timescales of up to ten seconds. The neural basis of these long-range correlations may provide insight into how complex behaviors are assembled from more elementary, stereotyped modules.

  17. Frequency Spreading in Underwater Acoustic Signal Transmission.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-15

    acoustic signal transmitted and received underwater J-2 J.2 Signal spectrum computing block diagram. J-3 Chapter I. Frequency spreading 1.0 Introduction... transmitted frequency can be expected in the received signal [1] - [18]. This frequency spreading behavior is the result of the amplitude and phase...result of phase modulation of the transmitted sinusoid by the moving surface, and the separation between the spectral lines at the receiving point is

  18. Long Range Microimage Transmission Techniques Study for AFMPC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    disadvantage of this approach is that a 43 ^ Pfe ,.„, ^.^^VfZ^f^V-Tfgf body of statistical data on the source material must first be accumulated...features in computer hardware and operating systems, and sound auditing methods, however, are still vital to overall system security. The

  19. Long range inductive power transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, James; Pinuela, Manuel; Yates, David C.; Lucyszyn, Stepan; Mitcheson, Paul D.

    2013-12-01

    We report upon a recently developed long range inductive power transfer system (IPT) designed to power remote sensors with mW level power consumption at distances up to 7 m. In this paper an inductive link is established between a large planar (1 × 1 m) transmit coil (Tx) and a small planer (170 × 170 mm) receiver coil (Rx), demonstrating the viability of highly asymmetrical coil configurations that real-world applications such as sensor networks impose. High Q factor Tx and Rx coils required for viable power transfer efficiencies over such distances are measured using a resonant method. The applicability of the Class-E amplifier in very low magnetic coupling scenarios and at the high frequencies of operation required for high Q operation is demonstrated by its usage as the Tx coil driver.

  20. Percolation with long-range correlated disorder.

    PubMed

    Schrenk, K J; Posé, N; Kranz, J J; van Kessenich, L V M; Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J

    2013-11-01

    Long-range power-law correlated percolation is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain several static and dynamic critical exponents as functions of the Hurst exponent H, which characterizes the degree of spatial correlation among the occupation of sites. In particular, we study the fractal dimension of the largest cluster and the scaling behavior of the second moment of the cluster size distribution, as well as the complete and accessible perimeters of the largest cluster. Concerning the inner structure and transport properties of the largest cluster, we analyze its shortest path, backbone, red sites, and conductivity. Finally, bridge site growth is also considered. We propose expressions for the functional dependence of the critical exponents on H.

  1. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T; Inouye, Henry; Schaffhauser, Anthony C.

    1980-01-01

    Malleable long range ordered alloys having high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe).sub.3 and V(Co,Fe,Ni).sub.3 system having the composition comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-50% Fe, 0-22% Co and 19-40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22-23% V, 35-45% Fe, 0-10% Co, 25-35% Ni; 22-23% V, 28-33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22-23% V, 19-22% Ni, 19-22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  2. Fe-based long range ordered alloys

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    Malleable long range ordered alloys with high critical ordering temperatures exist in the V(Co,Fe)/sub 3/ and V(Co,Fe,Ni)/sub 3/ system. The composition comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 50% Fe, 0 to 22% Co and 19 to 40% Ni with an electron density no greater than 8.00. Excellent high temperature properties occur in alloys having compositions comprising by weight 22 to 23% V, 35 to 45% Fe, 0 to 10% Co, 25 to 35% Ni; 22 to 23% V, 28 to 33% Ni and the remainder Fe; and 22 to 23% V, 19 to 22% Co and the remainder Fe. The alloys are fabricable by casting, deforming and annealing for sufficient time to provide ordered structure.

  3. A Long-Range Video Observation Post

    SciTech Connect

    Arlowe, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Long Range Video Observation Post (LRVOP) Project is a cooperative effort between the US and a Middle Eastern country to develop an improved version of their current video observation post. This project is part of a larger effort to cooperatively develop anti-terrorist technology. This particular equipment is required to facilitate the recording and identification of humans at a range of 1000 meters in day-light and 500 meters at night. The project objective was to take advantage of recent advances in camera technology, recorders, and image processing to provide an significant increase in performance with only a minimum increase in size, weight, and cost. The goal of the project was to convert the users general needs and desires into specific requirements that could be bid on by several companies. This paper covers the specific performance requirements, generally describe the components that might be used, and concentrate on describing the more difficult issues and technical challenges.

  4. Dependence effects in unique signal transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    ''Unique Signals'' are communicated from a source to a ''strong link'' safety device in a weapon by means of one or more digital communication channels. The probability that the expected unique signal pattern could be generated accidentally (e.g., due to an abnormal environment) would be an important measure. A probabilistic assessment of this likelihood is deceptive, because it depends on characteristics of the other traffic on the communication channel. One such characteristic that is frequently neglected in analysis is dependence. This report gives a mathematical model for dependence; cites some of the ways in which dependence can increase the likelihood of inadvertent unique signal pattern generation; and suggests that communicating each unique signal ''event'' at the highest level of protocol in the communication system minimizes dependence effects. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J. L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A. V.; Ivanov, P. Ch.; Carpena, P.

    2012-06-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome.

  6. Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations

    PubMed Central

    Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J.L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A.V.; Ivanov, P.Ch.; Carpena, P.

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome. PMID:23645997

  7. Unpowered wireless transmission of ultrasound signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Paramo, D.; Deshmukh, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasound sensing system that uses frequency conversion to convert the ultrasound signal to a microwave signal and transmit it directly without digitization. Constructed from a few passive microwave components, the sensor is able to sense, modulate, and transmit the full waveform of ultrasound signals wirelessly without requiring any local power source. The principle of operation of the unpowered wireless ultrasound sensor is described first, and this is followed by a detailed description of the implementation of the sensor and the sensor interrogation unit using commercially available antennas and microwave components. Validation of the sensing system using an ultrasound pitch-catch system and the power analysis model of the system are also presented.

  8. Mechanisms of cytoskeleton-mediated mechanical signal transmission in cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongyun; Gouget, Cecile L.M.; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated very rapid long-distance transmission of mechanical forces within cells. Because the speed of this transmission greatly exceeds that of reaction-diffusion signaling, it has been conjectured that it occurs via the propagation of elastic waves through the actin stress fiber network. To explore the plausibility of this conjecture, we recently developed a model of small amplitude stress fiber deformations in prestressed viscoelastic stress fibers subjected to external forces. The model results demonstrated that rapid mechanical signal transmission is only possible when the external force is applied orthogonal to the stress fiber axis and that the dynamics of this transmission are governed by a balance between the prestress in the stress fiber and the stress fiber's material viscosity. The present study, which is a follow-up on our previous model, uses dimensional analysis to: (1) further evaluate the plausibility of the elastic wave conjecture and (2) obtain insight into mechanical signal transmission dynamics in simple stress fiber networks. We show that the elastic wave scenario is likely not the mechanism of rapid mechanical signal transmission in actin stress fibers due to the highly viscoelastic character of these fibers. Our analysis also demonstrates that the time constant characterizing mechanical stimulus transmission is strongly dependent on the topology of the stress fiber network, implying that network organization plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cellular responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. PMID:23336020

  9. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009{degrees}(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions.

  10. Long Range Infrared Surveillance System (LRIRSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Gregg W.

    1987-09-01

    The contract requirement for the LRIRSS program was to design, fabricate, test, and deliver infrared (IR) surveillance systems capable of target detection and recognition at extended ranges. Several significant technical advancements were made during the course of the program. The twenty three inch primary reflecting surface had to be of aluminum due to thermal and weight considerations. This was accomplished through the use of diamond point turned aluminum. The IR and laser receivers are active simultaneously; this has been achieved through the incorporation of a "chopping" mirror that time shares the main aperture between the FLIR and CO2 laser receivers. In addition, the laser had to be eye-safe at the transmitter exit aperture. The use of a single pulse Carbon Dioxide (CO2) laser has met the requirement, and is certified by the US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency in Study No. 25-42-0335-85. The major technical challenges have been met, as well as several minor difficulties that arose during the execution of the effort. All hardware has been delivered to the Government in accord with the contractual schedule. NOMENCLATURE CO2 Carbon Dioxide CPU Central Processing Unit FLIR Forward Looking Infrared FOV Field of View IFOV Instantaneous Field of View IR Infrared LRF Laser Rangefinder LRIRSS Long Range Infrared Surveillance System PCB Printed Circuit Board

  11. A Long-Range Precision Ranging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterling, Mahlon

    1961-01-01

    A technique is presented that may be used for precision real-time continuous range measuring at long ranges. The technique uses a carrier that is phase modulated by a pseudo-random binary sequence. The characteristics of the sequence that make it acquirable are discussed. The general form of a receiver capable of tracking the carrier is given and is shown to be a kind of phase-locked loop. A two-loop system capable of tracking a pseudo-random sequence and its clock is given. The combination of the receiver and the sequence tracking system form a ranging receiver. The power division necessary between the carrier and the sidebands is shown to be determined by the noise bandwidths of the two tracking systems. The bandwidths necessary for tracking space probes and Earth satellites are given and some experiments in radar-tracking Earth satellites are described. Based on these experiments, estimates are made of the useful range of such a system in tracking space probes.

  12. 34. DETAIL OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAIL OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON TOP OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, NEAR SOUTHWALK SWITCH TOWER - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Fiber optics transmission of LV signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. D.; Gunter, W. D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The first use of a long optical fiber for transmitting megahertz frequencies in a laser velocimeter (LV) receiver system is reported. The fiber comprises a 600-micron diameter fused silica core, a silicon polymer cladding and a plastic jacket. The fiber numerical aperture is 0.22, corresponding to a maximum entrance half-angle of 0.22 rad. The 10-m length used results in a 5.6% attenuation loss. The fiber is found to transmit an 80-MHz signal with excellent resolution. It is established that an LV receiver using fiber optics sends a clean signal in electronically noisy and high-pressure environments and allows velocity measurements in places too small for a photomultiplier tube.

  14. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  15. High bandwidth magnetically isolated signal transmission circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repp, John Donald (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Many current electronic systems incorporate expensive or sensitive electrical components. Because electrical energy is often generated or transmitted at high voltages, the power supplies to these electronic systems must be carefully designed. Power supply design must ensure that the electrical system being supplied with power is not exposed to excessive voltages or currents. In order to isolate power supplies from electrical equipment, many methods have been employed. These methods typically involve control systems or signal transfer methods. However, these methods are not always suitable because of their drawbacks. The present invention relates to transmitting information across an interface. More specifically, the present invention provides an apparatus for transmitting both AC and DC information across a high bandwidth magnetic interface with low distortion.

  16. Long-range response in ac electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013), 10.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology—for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions—a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014), 10.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found.

  17. Long-range response in ac electricity grids.

    PubMed

    Jung, Daniel; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Local changes in the topology of electricity grids can cause overloads far away from the disturbance [D. Witthaut and M. Timme, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 377 (2013)EPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2013-40469-4], making the prediction of the robustness against changes in the topology-for example, caused by power outages or grid extensions-a challenging task. The impact of single-line additions on the long-range response of dc electricity grids has recently been studied [D. Labavić, R. Suciu, H. Meyer-Ortmanns, and S. Kettemann, Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 2517 (2014)1951-635510.1140/epjst/e2014-02273-0]. By solving the real part of the static ac load flow equations, we conduct a similar investigation for ac grids. In a regular two-dimensional grid graph with cyclic boundary conditions, we find a power law decay for the change of power flow as a function of distance to the disturbance over a wide range of distances. The power exponent increases and saturates for large system sizes. By applying the same analysis to the German transmission grid topology, we show that also in real-world topologies a long-ranged response can be found.

  18. Temperature-dependent signal transmission in chloroplast accumulation response.

    PubMed

    Higa, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Kodama, Yutaka; Wada, Masamitsu

    2017-07-01

    Chloroplast photorelocation movement, well-characterized light-induced response found in various plant species from alga to higher plants, is an important phenomenon for plants to increase photosynthesis efficiency and avoid photodamage. The signal for chloroplast accumulation movement connecting the blue light receptor, phototropin, and chloroplasts remains to be identified, although the photoreceptors and the mechanism of movement via chloroplast actin filaments have now been revealed in land plants. The characteristics of the signal have been found; the speed of signal transfer is about 1 µm min(-1) and that the signal for the accumulation response has a longer life and is transferred a longer distance than that of the avoidance response. Here, to collect the clues of the unknown signal substances, we studied the effect of temperature on the speed of signal transmission using the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and found the possibility that the mechanism of signal transfer was not dependent on the simple diffusion of a substance; thus, some chemical reaction must also be involved. We also found new insights of signaling substances, such that microtubules are not involved in the signal transmission, and that the signal could even be transmitted through the narrow space between chloroplasts and the plasma membrane.

  19. Eclipsing effects with high-duty-actor waveforms in long-range radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billam, E. R.

    1985-12-01

    The partial eclipsing of returns in long-range radar with a high-duty-factor waveform is considered, and two eclipsing zones are shown to exist. The effects on clutter levels, by virtue of increased range sidelobes, and on signal/noise ratio, pulsewidth and pulse amplitude are examined. It is shown that the enhancement of range sidelobes caused by eclipsing, and the associated clutter effects, do no extend outside the eclipsing zones. It is further shown that, for a phased array radar, it is feasible to envisage working well within the first eclipsing zone, which extends to the range equivalent of the transmitted pulse length, and that the instrumented range can be usefully extended beyond the range which corresponds to the resumption of transmission. The use of auxiliary compression filters matched to eclipsed returns as a means of restoring low-range sidelobes is considered.

  20. An evaluation methodology for long-range jammer to CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-pan; Ren, Guang-sen; Wang, Yan-bin; Li, Hua; Zhu, Rong-zhen

    2015-11-01

    By analyzing the factors of laser transmission from long-range jammer to CCD in the distribution of laser at the entrance of optical system of CCD, an evaluation methodology was established which utilized the ATP error data and the distribution of laser through turbulent atmosphere together and could get the jamming probability which could be used to get evaluation result. A conversion method was devised to convert test data to simulation data of ATP. Based on circular aperture Fraunhofer diffraction theory, a simplified model that only used the central bright patch was provided to convert the relationship between the number of saturated pixel and the incident laser energy by testing to the relationship in simulation. Some advice was given for the usage of test data of ATP and the relationship between the number of saturated pixel and the incident laser energy by testing to make sure that the data is available.

  1. Oscillation-Induced Signal Transmission and Gating in Neural Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Sven; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin; Timme, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Reliable signal transmission constitutes a key requirement for neural circuit function. The propagation of synchronous pulse packets through recurrent circuits is hypothesized to be one robust form of signal transmission and has been extensively studied in computational and theoretical works. Yet, although external or internally generated oscillations are ubiquitous across neural systems, their influence on such signal propagation is unclear. Here we systematically investigate the impact of oscillations on propagating synchrony. We find that for standard, additive couplings and a net excitatory effect of oscillations, robust propagation of synchrony is enabled in less prominent feed-forward structures than in systems without oscillations. In the presence of non-additive coupling (as mediated by fast dendritic spikes), even balanced oscillatory inputs may enable robust propagation. Here, emerging resonances create complex locking patterns between oscillations and spike synchrony. Interestingly, these resonances make the circuits capable of selecting specific pathways for signal transmission. Oscillations may thus promote reliable transmission and, in co-action with dendritic nonlinearities, provide a mechanism for information processing by selectively gating and routing of signals. Our results are of particular interest for the interpretation of sharp wave/ripple complexes in the hippocampus, where previously learned spike patterns are replayed in conjunction with global high-frequency oscillations. We suggest that the oscillations may serve to stabilize the replay. PMID:25503492

  2. Long-range interactions between chiral molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, A.

    2015-01-22

    Results of molecular quantum electrodynamics calculations of discriminatory interactions between two chiral molecules undergoing resonance energy transfer, van der Waals dispersion, and optical binding are presented. A characteristic feature of the theory is that the radiation field is quantized with signals consequently propagating between centres at the speed of light. In order to correctly describe optically active chromophores, it is necessary to include magnetic as well as electric dipole coupling terms in the time-dependent perturbation theory computations. Recent work investigating the effect of an absorptive and dispersive chiral medium on the rate of migration of energy will also be discussed.

  3. Heart rate, multiple body temperature, long-range and long-life telemetry system for free-ranging animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-range, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body temperatures at multiple locations from free-ranging animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium range transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-range transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying temperature information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-range tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.

  4. Heart rate, multiple body temperature, long-range and long-life telemetry system for free-ranging animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F.; Westbrook, R. M.; Fryer, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    The design details and rationale for a versatile, long-range, long-life telemetry data acquisition system for heart rates and body temperatures at multiple locations from free-ranging animals are presented. The design comprises an implantable transmitter for short to medium range transmission, a receiver retransmitter collar to be worn for long-range transmission, and a signal conditioner interface circuit to assist in signal discrimination and demodulation of receiver or tape-recorded audio outputs. Implanted electrodes are used to obtain an ECG, from which R-wave characteristics are selected to trigger a short RF pulse. Pulses carrying heart rate information are interrupted periodically by a series of pulse interval modulated RF pulses conveying temperature information sensed at desired locations by thermistors. Pulse duration and pulse sequencing are used to discriminate between heart rate and temperature pulses as well as radio frequency interference. The implanted transmitter may be used alone for medium and short-range tracking, or with a receiver-transmitter collar that employs commercial tracking equipment for transmissions of up to 12 km. A system prototype has been tested on a dog.

  5. MRI dynamic range and its compatibility with signal transmission media

    PubMed Central

    Gabr, Refaat E.; Schär, Michael; Edelstein, Arthur D.; Kraitchman, Dara L.; Bottomley, Paul A.; Edelstein, William A.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of MRI phased array coil elements grows, interactions among cables connecting them to the system receiver become increasingly problematic. Fiber optic or wireless links would reduce electromagnetic interference, but their dynamic range (DR) is generally less than that of coaxial cables. Raw MRI signals, however, have a large DR because of the high signal amplitude near the center of k-space. Here, we study DR in MRI in order to determine the compatibility of MRI multicoil imaging with non-coaxial cable signal transmission. Since raw signal data are routinely discarded, we have developed an improved method for estimating the DR of MRI signals from conventional magnitude images. Our results indicate that the DR of typical surface coil signals at 3 T for human subjects is less than 88 dB, even for three-dimensional acquisition protocols. Cardiac and spine coil arrays had a maximum DR of less than 75 dB and head coil arrays less than 88 dB. The DR derived from magnitude images is in good agreement with that measured from raw data. The results suggest that current analog fiber optic links, with a spurious-free DR of 60–70 dB at 500 kHz bandwidth, are not by themselves adequate for transmitting MRI data from volume or array coils with DR ~90 dB. However, combining analog links with signal compression might make non-coaxial cable signal transmission viable. PMID:19251444

  6. Transmission of RF Signals Over Optical Fiber for Avionics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaveski, Filip; Sluss, James, Jr.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Hung, Nguyen; Ngo, Duc

    2002-01-01

    During flight, aircraft avionics transmit and receive RF signals to/from antennas over coaxial cables. As the density and complexity of onboard avionics increases, the electromagnetic interference (EM) environment degrades proportionately, leading to decreasing signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and potential safety concerns. The coaxial cables are inherently lossy, limiting the RF signal bandwidth while adding considerable weight. To overcome these limitations, we have investigated a fiber optic communications link for aircraft that utilizes wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to support the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals (including RF) over a single optical fiber. Optical fiber has many advantages over coaxial cable, particularly lower loss, greater bandwidth, and immunity to EM. In this paper, we demonstrate that WDM can be successfully used to transmit multiple RF signals over a single optical fiber with no appreciable signal degradation. We investigate the transmission of FM and AM analog modulated signals, as well as FSK digital modulated signals, over a fiber optic link (FOL) employing WDM. We present measurements of power loss, delay, SNR, carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), total harmonic distortion (THD), and bit error rate (BER). Our experimental results indicate that WDM is a fiber optic technology suitable for avionics applications.

  7. Long-Range Planning. School Districts Prepare for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    Long-range planning is becoming increasingly important for educators in today's rapidly changing society. This bulletin accordingly presents a step-by-step model for school districts to use in developing and successfully implementing a long-range plan. Chapter 1 introduces long-range planning and suggests ways of getting district personnel…

  8. Signaling within Allosteric Machines: Signal Transmission Pathways Inside G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    PubMed

    Bartuzi, Damian; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, our understanding of function of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has changed from a picture of simple signal relays, transmitting only a particular signal to a particular G protein heterotrimer, to versatile machines, capable of various responses to different stimuli and being modulated by various factors. Some recent reports provide not only the data on ligands/modulators and resultant signals induced by them, but also deeper insights into exact pathways of signal migration and mechanisms of signal transmission through receptor structure. Combination of these computational and experimental data sheds more light on underlying mechanisms of signal transmission and signaling bias in GPCRs. In this review we focus on available clues on allosteric pathways responsible for complex signal processing within GPCRs structures, with particular emphasis on linking compatible in silico- and in vitro-derived data on the most probable allosteric connections.

  9. Hub-activated signal transmission in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, Sven; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin; Timme, Marc

    2014-03-01

    A wide range of networked systems exhibit highly connected nodes (hubs) as prominent structural elements. The functional roles of hubs in the collective nonlinear dynamics of many such networks, however, are not well understood. Here, we propose that hubs in neural circuits may activate local signal transmission along sequences of specific subnetworks. Intriguingly, in contrast to previous suggestions of the functional roles of hubs, here, not the hubs themselves, but nonhub subnetworks transfer the signals. The core mechanism relies on hubs and nonhubs providing activating feedback to each other. It may, thus, induce the propagation of specific pulse and rate signals in neuronal and other communication networks.

  10. Regulation of NMDA-receptor synaptic transmission by Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cerpa, Waldo; Gambrill, Abigail; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Barria, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Wnt ligands are secreted glycoproteins controlling gene expression and cytoskeleton reorganization involved in embryonic development of the nervous system. However, their role in later stages of brain development, particularly in the regulation of established synaptic connections is not known. We found that Wnt-5a acutely and specifically up-regulates synaptic NMDAR currents in rat hippocampal slices facilitating induction of LTP, a cellular model of learning and memory. This effect requires an increase in postsynaptic Ca2+ and activation of non-canonical downstream effectors of the Wnt signaling pathway. In contrast, Wnt-7a, an activator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, has no effect on NMDAR mediated synaptic transmission. Moreover, endogenous Wnt ligands are necessary to maintain basal NMDAR synaptic transmission adjusting the threshold for synaptic potentiation. This novel role for Wnt ligands provides a mechanism for Wnt signaling to acutely modulate synaptic plasticity and brain function in later stages of development and in the mature organism. PMID:21715611

  11. Stable swarming using adaptive long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbonos, Dan; Gov, Nir S.

    2017-04-01

    Sensory mechanisms in biology, from cells to humans, have the property of adaptivity, whereby the response produced by the sensor is adapted to the overall amplitude of the signal, reducing the sensitivity in the presence of strong stimulus, while increasing it when it is weak. This property is inherently energy consuming and a manifestation of the nonequilibrium nature of living organisms. We explore here how adaptivity affects the effective forces that organisms feel due to others in the context of a uniform swarm, in both two and three dimensions. The interactions between the individuals are taken to be attractive and long-range and of power-law form. We find that the effects of adaptivity inside the swarm are dramatic, where the effective forces decrease (or remain constant) with increasing swarm density. Linear stability analysis demonstrates how this property prevents collapse (Jeans instability), when the forces are adaptive. Adaptivity therefore endows swarms with a natural mechanism for self-stabilization.

  12. Fingerprint of local disorder in long range ordered isometric pyrochlores.

    PubMed

    Martel, Laura; Naji, Mohamed; Popa, Karin; Vigier, Jean-François; Somers, Joseph

    2017-09-25

    The detailed characterization of local order and disorder in isometric A2B2O7 crystalline pyrochlores is of significant importance in view of their wide range and sensitive technological applications. Nevertheless, much remains to be understood concerning their atomic scale structures. Here we specifically pinpoint local order and disorder in four stoichiometric Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm and Eu) pyrochlores using a combination of three standard easily available laboratory techniques: XRD, (17)O solid-state MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy. The evolution of the oxygen sub-lattice identifies specific features (extra (17)O NMR signals and Raman bands) which undoubtedly reveal local oxygen order and disorder in these stoichiometric long range ordered crystalline pyrochlores. These results complete the understanding of the atomic scale in these stoichiometric pyrochlores necessitating the need for new microscopic structural models.

  13. Stable swarming using adaptive long-range interactions.

    PubMed

    Gorbonos, Dan; Gov, Nir S

    2017-04-01

    Sensory mechanisms in biology, from cells to humans, have the property of adaptivity, whereby the response produced by the sensor is adapted to the overall amplitude of the signal, reducing the sensitivity in the presence of strong stimulus, while increasing it when it is weak. This property is inherently energy consuming and a manifestation of the nonequilibrium nature of living organisms. We explore here how adaptivity affects the effective forces that organisms feel due to others in the context of a uniform swarm, in both two and three dimensions. The interactions between the individuals are taken to be attractive and long-range and of power-law form. We find that the effects of adaptivity inside the swarm are dramatic, where the effective forces decrease (or remain constant) with increasing swarm density. Linear stability analysis demonstrates how this property prevents collapse (Jeans instability), when the forces are adaptive. Adaptivity therefore endows swarms with a natural mechanism for self-stabilization.

  14. Long-range correlation and market segmentation in bond market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the long-range auto-correlations and cross-correlations in bond market. Based on Detrended Moving Average (DMA) method, empirical results present a clear evidence of long-range persistence that exists in one year scale. The degree of long-range correlation related to maturities has an upward tendency with a peak in short term. These findings confirm the expectations of fractal market hypothesis (FMH). Furthermore, we have developed a method based on a complex network to study the long-range cross-correlation structure and applied it to our data, and found a clear pattern of market segmentation in the long run. We also detected the nature of long-range correlation in the sub-period 2007-2012 and 2011-2016. The result from our research shows that long-range auto-correlations are decreasing in the recent years while long-range cross-correlations are strengthening.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1420 - Signals-radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Signals-radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals. 1926.1420 Section 1926.1420 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1420 Signals—radio, telephone or other electronic...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1420 - Signals-radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Signals-radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals. 1926.1420 Section 1926.1420 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1420 Signals—radio, telephone or other electronic...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1420 - Signals-radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signals-radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals. 1926.1420 Section 1926.1420 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1420 Signals—radio, telephone or other electronic...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1420 - Signals-radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signals-radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals. 1926.1420 Section 1926.1420 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1420 Signals—radio, telephone or other electronic...

  19. Calculate bit error rate for digital radio signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Jorgen

    1987-06-01

    A method for estimating symbol error rate caused by imperfect transmission channels is proposed. The method relates the symbol error rate to peak-to-peak amplitude and phase ripple, maximum gain slope, and maximum group delay distortion. The performance degradation of QPSK, offset QPSK (OQPSK), M-ary PSK (MSK) signals transmitted over a wideband channel, exhibiting either sinusoidal amplitude or phase ripples are evaluated using the proposed method. The transmission channel model, which is a single filter with transfer characteristics, for modeling the frequency of response of a system is described. Consideration is given to signal detection and system degradation. The calculations reveal that the QPSK modulated carrier degrades less then the OQPSK and MSK carriers for peak-to-peak amplitude ripple values less than 6 dB and peak-to-peak phase ripple values less than 45 deg.

  20. Biophoton signal transmission and processing in the brain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rendong; Dai, Jiapei

    2014-10-05

    The transmission and processing of neural information in the nervous system plays a key role in neural functions. It is well accepted that neural communication is mediated by bioelectricity and chemical molecules via the processes called bioelectrical and chemical transmission, respectively. Indeed, the traditional theories seem to give valuable explanations for the basic functions of the nervous system, but difficult to construct general accepted concepts or principles to provide reasonable explanations of higher brain functions and mental activities, such as perception, learning and memory, emotion and consciousness. Therefore, many unanswered questions and debates over the neural encoding and mechanisms of neuronal networks remain. Cell to cell communication by biophotons, also called ultra-weak photon emissions, has been demonstrated in several plants, bacteria and certain animal cells. Recently, both experimental evidence and theoretical speculation have suggested that biophotons may play a potential role in neural signal transmission and processing, contributing to the understanding of the high functions of nervous system. In this paper, we review the relevant experimental findings and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms of biophoton signal transmission and processing in the nervous system.

  1. Compression and Transmission of RF Signals for Telediagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Toshihiro; Doi, Motonori; Oshiro, Osamu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2000-05-01

    Health care is a critical issue nowadays. Much emphasis is given to quality care for all people. Telediagnosis has attracted public attention. We propose a new method of ultrasound image transmission for telediagnosis. In conventional methods, video image signals are transmitted. In our method, the RF signals which are acquired by an ultrasound probe, are transmitted. The RF signals can be transformed to color Doppler images or high-resolution images by a receiver. Because a stored form is adopted, the proposed system can be realized with existent technology such as hyper text transfer protocol (HTTP) and file transfer protocol (FTP). In this paper, we describe two lossless compression methods which specialize in the transmission of RF signals. One of the methods uses the characteristics of the RF signal. In the other method, the amount of the data is reduced. Measurements were performed in water targeting an iron block and triangular Styrofoam. Additionally, abdominal fat measurement was performed. Our method achieved a compression rate of 13% with 8 bit data.

  2. Can We Trust Long-Range Weather Forecasts ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailier, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    Long-range weather forecasts are widely used in key sectors of the economy, but too often their properties and limitations are not understood well enough. This poster reviews the characteristics, methods and reliability of long-range weather forecasts, making recommendations regarding their use and quality assessment. Despite their limited skill, long-range weather forecasts can still be a valuable tool for managing weather risk provided the necessary caution is exercised.

  3. Long Range Facilities Planning Plan Guide Lines. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Maritime Administration invited Richard M. Muther to address the group on the subject of long range facility planning. Atlanta, Georgia. by MARAD was...NASSCO submitted a contract proposal to MARAD for cost sharing the development of NASSCO’s Long Range Facility Plan. Richard M. Muther addressed...given from United States A week-long seminar sponsored to train facility planners shipyards in the Muther tech- niques of long range facility planning

  4. Long-range magnetic coupling across a polar insulating layer.

    PubMed

    Lü, W M; Saha, Surajit; Wang, X Renshaw; Liu, Z Q; Gopinadhan, K; Annadi, A; Zeng, S W; Huang, Z; Bao, B C; Cong, C X; Venkatesan, M; Yu, T; Coey, J M D; Ariando; Venkatesan, T

    2016-03-16

    Magnetic interactions in solids are normally mediated by short-range exchange or weak dipole fields. Here we report a magnetic interaction that can propagate over long distances (∼10 nm) across a polar insulating oxide spacer. Evidence includes oscillations of magnetization, coercivity and field-cooled loop shift with the thickness of LaAlO3 in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Similar modifications of the hysteresis loop appear when two coupled films of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 are separated by LaAlO3, or another polar insulator, but they are absent when the oxide spacer layer is nonpolar. The loop shift is attributed to strong spin-orbit coupling and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the interfaces. There is evidence from inelastic light scattering that the polar spacer mediates long-range transmission of orbital magnetization. This coupling mechanism is expected to apply for any conducting ferromagnetic oxide with mixed valence; in view of electron hopping frequency involved, it raises the prospect of terahertz tunability of magnetic coupling.

  5. Long-range magnetic coupling across a polar insulating layer

    PubMed Central

    Lü, W. M.; Saha, Surajit; Wang, X. Renshaw; Liu, Z. Q.; Gopinadhan, K.; Annadi, A.; Zeng, S. W.; Huang, Z.; Bao, B. C.; Cong, C. X.; Venkatesan, M.; Yu, T.; Coey, J. M. D.; Ariando; Venkatesan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic interactions in solids are normally mediated by short-range exchange or weak dipole fields. Here we report a magnetic interaction that can propagate over long distances (∼10 nm) across a polar insulating oxide spacer. Evidence includes oscillations of magnetization, coercivity and field-cooled loop shift with the thickness of LaAlO3 in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Similar modifications of the hysteresis loop appear when two coupled films of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 are separated by LaAlO3, or another polar insulator, but they are absent when the oxide spacer layer is nonpolar. The loop shift is attributed to strong spin–orbit coupling and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction at the interfaces. There is evidence from inelastic light scattering that the polar spacer mediates long-range transmission of orbital magnetization. This coupling mechanism is expected to apply for any conducting ferromagnetic oxide with mixed valence; in view of electron hopping frequency involved, it raises the prospect of terahertz tunability of magnetic coupling. PMID:26980456

  6. Chip-to-chip optical interconnect using gold long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Tae; Ju, Jung Jin; Park, Suntak; Kim, Min-su; Park, Seung Koo; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-18

    We demonstrate a novel on-board chip-to-chip optical interconnect using long-range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP) waveguides that feature 2.5-cm-long gold strips embedded in a low loss polymer cladding. A TM-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at a wavelength of 1.3 microm was butt-coupled into the waveguides in order to excite a fundamental LR-SPP mode and then the transmitted light was received with a photo-diode (PD). The waveguide width is varied in the range of 1.5-5.0 microm in order to optimize the insertion loss where the 3-microm-wide waveguide provides a minimum insertion loss of -17 dB, consisting of 6 dB/cm propagation loss and 2 dB coupling loss. An interconnect system based on the optimized waveguide with a 4-channel array is assembled with the arrayed optoelectronic chips. It shows the feasibility of 10 Gbps (2.5 Gbps x 4 channels) signal transmission indicating that the LR-SPP waveguide is a potential transmission line for optical interconnection.

  7. Long range laser propagation: power scaling and beam quality issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper will address long range laser propagation applications where power and, in particular beam quality issues play a major role. Hereby the power level is defined by the specific mission under consideration. I restrict myself to the following application areas: (1)Remote sensing/Space based LIDAR, (2) Space debris removal (3)Energy transmission, and (4)Directed energy weapons Typical examples for space based LIDARs are the ADM Aeolus ESA mission using the ALADIN Nd:YAG laser with its third harmonic at 355 nm and the NASA 2 μm Tm:Ho:LuLiF convectively cooled solid state laser. Space debris removal has attracted more attention in the last years due to the dangerous accumulation of debris in orbit which become a threat to the satellites and the ISS space station. High power high brightness lasers may contribute to this problem by partially ablating the debris material and hence generating an impulse which will eventually de-orbit the debris with their subsequent disintegration in the lower atmosphere. Energy transmission via laser beam from space to earth has long been discussed as a novel long term approach to solve the energy problem on earth. In addition orbital transfer and stationkeeping are among the more mid-term applications of high power laser beams. Finally, directed energy weapons are becoming closer to reality as corresponding laser sources have matured due to recent efforts in the JHPSSL program. All of this can only be realized if he laser sources fulfill the necessary power requirements while keeping the beam quality as close as possible to the diffraction limited value. And this is the rationale and motivation of this paper.

  8. Secure optical telecommunications using chaos in wavelength for signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedgebuer, Jean-Pierre; Larger, Laurent

    1997-12-01

    Secure communications based on chaos have been investigated for some years, especially in the area of radio frequency transmissions. Signal decoding and decoding is then generally achieved using a RF carrier whose amplitude fluctuates chaotically. Recent advances have also been reported in the field of optical telecommunications. Optical chaos produced by random fluctuations of laser power is the sued to encrypt signals. However most of the system reported so far are plagued by their low flexibility which makes difficult the key to be changed easily. We report experiments in which chaos in wavelength, rather than in power, is advantageously used to encrypt signals. The latter are encrypted as chaotic fluctuations of the wavelength of a tunable semiconductor laser driven by a generator of chaos. Decoding makes use of another generator of chaos operating as a local oscillator synchronized on the first one. The first results are reported in the wavelength range of 1550 nm.

  9. Secure optical telecommunications using chaos in wavelength for signal transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedgebuer, Jean-Pierre; Larger, Laurent; Rhodes, William T.

    1999-07-01

    Severe communications based on chaos have been investigated for some years, especially in the area of radiofrequency transmissions. Signal decoding and decoding is then generally achieved using a RF carrier whose amplitude fluctuates chaotically. Recent advances have also been reported in the field of optical telecommunications. Optical chaos produced by random fluctuations of laser power is then used to encrypt signals. However most of the systems reported so far are plagued by their low flexibility which makes difficult the key to be changed easily. We report experiments in which chaos in wavelength, rather than in power, is advantageously used to encrypt signals. The latter are encrypted as chaotic fluctuations of the wavelength of a tunable semiconductor laser driven by a generator of chaos. Decoding makes use of another generator of chaos operating as a local oscillator synchronized on the first one. The first results are reported in the wavelength range of 1550 nm.

  10. 76 FR 77300 - Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Alaska Federal Lands Long Range Transportation Plan AGENCY: Federal Highway.... SUMMARY: The Federal Highway Administration, along with the Bureau of Land Management, Fish and Wildlife... Lands Long Range Transportation Plans (LRTP) for public review and comment. The draft plans outline a...

  11. Long-range attraction in aqueous colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qing; Coult, Jason; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2010-11-01

    Long-range attractions in aqueous suspensions were observed between polymeric microspheres and also between microspheres and a gel bead. Attractive displacements were consistently seen even between like-charged entities, and they were observed over spans as large as 2 mm. Such behaviors are unexpected, and may reside in a long-range attraction mechanism.

  12. A 16-channel flex circuit for cryogenic microwave signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarey, Patrick; Mani, Hamdi; Wheeler, Caleb; Groppi, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Heterodyne focal plane arrays used in the terahertz (THz) regime currently require a discrete set of rigid coaxial cables for the transmission of individual intermediate frequency (IF) signals. Consequently, the size of an array is limited to ~10s of pixels due to limited physical space and the complexity of assembly. In order to achieve an array with ~1000 pixels or greater, new interconnections must be developed capable of carrying multiple IF signals on a single carrier which is flexible, robust to noise, and terminated with a high density RF connector. As an intermediate step to the development of a ~1000 pixel heterodyne focal plane array, the Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) has developed a 16 channel IF flex circuit. Initially, design simulations were performed to evaluate various means of high-frequency (1~10 GHz) signal transmission, including microstrip, stripline and coplanar waveguides. The method allowing for the closest signal spacing and greatest resistance to radio frequency interference (RFI) was determined to be stripline. Designs were considered where stripline transitioned to microstrip in order to terminate the signal. As microstrip transmission lines are sensitive to RFI, a design featuring just stripline was evaluated. In both the stripline-to-microstrip and stripline-only designs, a three-layer copper-coated polyimide substrate was used. Signal transitions were accomplished by a signal carrying "hot" via passing through a series of three conductive pads, similar to work by Leib et al. (2010). The transition design essentially mimics a coaxial line, where the radial distance between the pads and the ground plane is optimized in order to achieve desired impedances. In simulation, 50 Ohm impedances were achieved throughout, with crosstalk and return loss limited to -30dB. Terminations are made via an array of Corning Gilbert G3PO blind mate connectors, which are small enough to match the 6mm pixel pitch of the KAPPa focal plane unit

  13. Calcium signal transmission in chick sensory neurones is diffusion based.

    PubMed

    Coatesworth, William; Bolsover, Stephen

    2008-03-01

    In many cells, the cytosol is an excitable medium through which calcium waves propagate by calcium induced calcium release (CICR). Many labs. have reported CICR in neurones subsequent to calcium influx through voltage gated channels. However, these have used long depolarizations. We have imaged calcium within chick sensory neurones following 50 ms depolarizations. Calcium signals travelled rapidly throughout the cell, such that changes at the cell centre were delayed by 24 ms compared to regions 3 microm from the plasma membrane. The nuclear envelope imposed a delay of 9 ms. A simple diffusion model with few unknowns gave good fits to the measured data, indicating that passive diffusion is responsible for signal transmission in these neurones. Simulations run without indicator dye did not reveal markedly different spatiotemporal dynamics, although concentration changes were larger. Simulations of calcium changes during action potentials revealed that large calcium transients occurring in the cytosol close to the nucleus are significantly attenuated by the nuclear envelope. Our results indicate that for the brief depolarisations that neurones will experience during normal signal processing calcium signals are transmitted by passive diffusion only. Diffusion is perfectly capable of transmitting the calcium signal into the interior of nerve cell bodies, and into the nucleoplasm.

  14. Signal processing for an optical wide band data transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Leskovar, B.; Turko, B. T.

    1987-07-01

    The signal processing for an optical wide band transmission system using gallium arsenide (GaAs) digital integrated circuits and optical fibers has been investigated. Multiplexing, coding, synchronization, demultiplexing, and error checking at 780 Mbit/s data rates are described. Data storage in memory for linking to a computer is also considered. The design uses available GaAs and silicon components. The reliability of GaAs components is discussed as well as the layout and thermal considerations required for a high speed system.

  15. Long-Range Architecture in a Viral RNA Genome

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Eva J.; Simpson, Mark A.; Watts, Nicholas J.; O’Kane, Rory; Wang, Bangchen; Erie, Dorothy A.; McPherson, Alex; Weeks, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a model for the secondary structure of the 1058-nucleotide plus-strand RNA genome of the icosahedral satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) using nucleotide-resolution SHAPE chemical probing of the viral RNA isolated from virions and within the virion, perturbation of interactions distant in the primary sequence, and atomic force microscopy. These data are consistent with long-range base pairing interactions and a three-domain genome architecture. The compact domains of the STMV RNA have dimensions of 10 to 45 nm. Each of the three domains corresponds to a specific functional component of the virus: The central domain corresponds to the coding sequence of the single (capsid) protein encoded by the virus, whereas the 5′ and 3′ untranslated domains span signals essential for translation and replication, respectively. This three-domain architecture is compatible with interactions between the capsid protein and short RNA helices previously visualized by crystallography. STMV is among the simplest of the icosahedral viruses but, nonetheless, has an RNA genome with a complex higher-order structure that likely reflects high information content and an evolutionary relationship between RNA domain structure and essential replicative functions. PMID:23614526

  16. Deep seafloor arrivals in long range ocean acoustic propagation.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Ralph A; Bolmer, S Thompson; Udovydchenkov, Ilya A; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Andrew, Rex K; Mercer, James A; Colosi, John A; Howe, Bruce M

    2013-10-01

    Ocean bottom seismometer observations at 5000 m depth during the long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiment in the North Pacific in 2004 show robust, coherent, late arrivals that are not readily explained by ocean acoustic propagation models. These "deep seafloor" arrivals are the largest amplitude arrivals on the vertical particle velocity channel for ranges from 500 to 3200 km. The travel times for six (of 16 observed) deep seafloor arrivals correspond to the sea surface reflection of an out-of-plane diffraction from a seamount that protrudes to about 4100 m depth and is about 18 km from the receivers. This out-of-plane bottom-diffracted surface-reflected energy is observed on the deep vertical line array about 35 dB below the peak amplitude arrivals and was previously misinterpreted as in-plane bottom-reflected surface-reflected energy. The structure of these arrivals from 500 to 3200 km range is remarkably robust. The bottom-diffracted surface-reflected mechanism provides a means for acoustic signals and noise from distant sources to appear with significant strength on the deep seafloor.

  17. Long-range ordering effect in electrodeposition of zinc and zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Sheng; Shi, Zi-Liang; Ma, Guo-Bin; Wang, Mu; Peng, Ru-Wen; Hao, Xi-Ping; Ming, Nai-Ben

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we report the long-range ordering effect observed in the electro-crystallization of Zn and ZnO from an ultrathin aqueous electrolyte layer of ZnSO4 . The deposition branches are regularly angled, covered with random-looking, scalelike crystalline platelets of ZnO. Although the orientation of each crystalline platelet of ZnO appears random, transmission electron microscopy shows that they essentially possess the same crystallographic orientation as the single-crystalline zinc electrodeposit underneath. Based on the experimental observations, we suggest that this unique long-range ordering effect results from an epitaxial nucleation effect in electrocrystallization.

  18. Transmission of multiplexed video signals in multimode optical fiber systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Preston, III

    1988-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has the need for economical transmission of two multiplexed video signals along multimode fiberoptic systems. These systems must span unusual distances and must meet RS-250B short-haul standards after reception. Bandwidth is a major problem and studies of the installed fibers, available LEDs and PINFETs led to the choice of 100 MHz as the upper limit for the system bandwidth. Optical multiplexing and digital transmission were deemed inappropriate. Three electrical multiplexing schemes were chosen for further study. Each of the multiplexing schemes included an FM stage to help meet the stringent S/N specification. Both FM and AM frequency division multiplexing methods were investigated theoretically and these results were validated with laboratory tests. The novel application of quadrature amplitude multiplexing was also considered. Frequency division multiplexing of two wideband FM video signal appears the most promising scheme although this application requires high power highly linear LED transmitters. Futher studies are necessary to determine if LEDs of appropriate quality exist and to better quantify performance of QAM in this application.

  19. Transmission of multiplexed video signals in multimode optical fiber systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Preston, III

    1988-10-01

    Kennedy Space Center has the need for economical transmission of two multiplexed video signals along multimode fiberoptic systems. These systems must span unusual distances and must meet RS-250B short-haul standards after reception. Bandwidth is a major problem and studies of the installed fibers, available LEDs and PINFETs led to the choice of 100 MHz as the upper limit for the system bandwidth. Optical multiplexing and digital transmission were deemed inappropriate. Three electrical multiplexing schemes were chosen for further study. Each of the multiplexing schemes included an FM stage to help meet the stringent S/N specification. Both FM and AM frequency division multiplexing methods were investigated theoretically and these results were validated with laboratory tests. The novel application of quadrature amplitude multiplexing was also considered. Frequency division multiplexing of two wideband FM video signal appears the most promising scheme although this application requires high power highly linear LED transmitters. Futher studies are necessary to determine if LEDs of appropriate quality exist and to better quantify performance of QAM in this application.

  20. Long-range patterns in Hindmarsh-Rose networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etémé, Armand Sylvin; Tabi, Conrad Bertrand; Mohamadou, Alidou

    2017-02-01

    Long-range diffusive effects are included in a discrete Hindmarsh-Rose neural network. Their impact on the emergence of nonlinear patterns is investigated via the modulational instability. The whole system is first shown to fully reduce to a single nonlinear differential-difference equation, which has plane wave solutions. The stability of such solutions is investigated and regions of instability are found to be importantly influenced by long-range parameters. The analytical results are confirmed through direct numerical simulations, where scattered and chaotic patterns illustrate the long-range effect. Synchronized states are described by quasi-periodic patterns for nearest-neighbor coupling. The external stimulus is also shown to efficiently control strong long-range effects via more regular spatiotemporal patterns.

  1. Assessment of a long-range corrected hybrid functional

    SciTech Connect

    Vydrov, Oleg A.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2006-12-21

    Common approximate exchange-correlation functionals suffer from self-interaction error, and as a result, their corresponding potentials have incorrect asymptotic behavior. The exact asymptote can be imposed by introducing range separation into the exchange component and replacing the long-range portion of the approximate exchange by the Hartree-Fock counterpart. The authors show that this long-range correction works particularly well in combination with the short-range variant of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange functional. This long-range-corrected hybrid, here denoted LC-{omega}PBE, is remarkably accurate for a broad range of molecular properties, such as thermochemistry, barrier heights of chemical reactions, bond lengths, and most notably, description of processes involving long-range charge transfer.

  2. Generation of short and long range temporal correlated noise

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, A.H.; Sancho, J.M.

    1999-11-20

    The authors present the implementation of an algorithm to generate Gaussian random noises with prescribed time correlations that can be either long or short ranged. Examples of Langevin dynamics with short and long range noises are presented and discussed.

  3. Dynamics of Quantum Matter with Long-Range Entanglement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-07

    REPORT Final Report: Dynamics of quantum matter with long-range entanglement. 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Recent experiments on...ultracold atoms in optical lattices have opened a remarkable new window on the dynamics of quantum matter with long-range entanglement. The simplest...paradigm of this is the boson superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition in two spatial dimensions. This project will study the theoretical

  4. Long-range surface magnetoplasmons in thin nickel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickernell, Robert K.; Sarid, Dror

    1987-08-01

    The results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of long-range surface magnetoplasmons in thin, magnetic metal films are presented. With a transversely applied magnetic field, the reflectance modulation measurements from prism-coupled modes in nickel films are in agreement with the theory. The reflectance modulation is the same order of magnitude for prism-coupled long-range and single-interface magnetoplasmons.

  5. Long-range rapidity correlations in hadron-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, A.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1984-06-01

    Long-range rapidity correlations between particles produced in proton-nucleus interactions at 200 GeV/c are studied in the multichain dual parton model. A large long-range correlation between particles produced in two rapidity intervals is predicted, provided these two rapidity intervals are properly chosen. The predicted effect is easily measurable. Predictions at 1 TeV are also given.

  6. Fabrication of long-range surface plasmon polaritons waveguide by wet chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ying; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Xuliang; Zhang, Meiling; Chen, Changming; Wang, Fei; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Daming

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LRSPPs) waveguides based on a thin Au stripe embedded in poly(methyl-methacrylate-glycidly-methacrylate) polymers was investigated. By patterning the photoresist, a wet chemical etching technique was used to avoid sharp pin-like and shark-fin-like structures on the edges of the Au stripe. The surface morphology of the Au film and polymer cladding were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), as well as by using the waveguide configuration of the Au stripe. AFM images proved the elimination of parasitic structures. A 2 cm long, 4 μm wide, and 25 nm thick Au stripe waveguide exhibited a propagation loss of approximately 4.3 dB cm-1 measured by the cut-back method and end-fire excitation of LRSPP mode guiding at 1550 nm. The demonstration of optical signal transmission indicates that the LRSPP waveguide fabricated by wet chemical etching is a potential solution to on-chip optical interconnections.

  7. Signal and Power Synchronous Transmission in WPT System Based on Capacitance Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaosheng; Gu, Xuanpu; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jiasheng; Xu, Dianguo

    2017-05-01

    In inductive coupled power transmission system, at the same time of power transmission, signal transmission is necessary in order to realize the closed-loop control. Synchronous transmission of power and signal has advantages of high speed and stability. By using the method of capacitance modulation via changing capacitance, the working state of the resonator changes. The voltage across the coil appears certain changes. After step-down divider, demodulation, filtering, comparison and a series of signal processing, the transmitting signal will reproduce. The simulation and experiments show that the scheme is correct, the signal can be sent and extracted correctly, and the effect of power transmission is small. The synchronous transmission of signal in wireless power transmission system is realized

  8. Power and signal transmission for mobile teleoperated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Appropriate means must be furnished for supplying power and for sending controlling commands to mobile teleoperated systems. Because a sizable number of possibilities are available for such applications, methods used in designing both the power and communications systems built into mobile vehicles that serve in radiological emergencies must be carefully selected. This paper describes a number of umbilical, on-board, and wireless systems used in tranmitting power that are available for mobile teleoperator services. The pros and cons of selecting appropriate methods from a list of possible communication systems (wired, fiber optic, and radio frequency) are also examined. Moreover, hybrid systems combining wireless power transmissions with command-information signals are also possible.

  9. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-04-27

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short-and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species.

  10. Long-range interactions in lattice field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    Lattice quantum field theories containing fermions can be formulated in a chirally invariant way provided long-range interactions are introduced. It is established that in weak-coupling perturbation theory such a lattice theory is renormalizable when the corresponding continuum theory is, and that the continuum theory is indeed recovered in the perturbative continuum limit. In the strong-coupling limit of these theories one is led to study an effective Hamiltonian describing a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with long-range interactions. Block-spin renormalization group methods are used to find a critical rate of falloff of the interactions, approximately as inverse distance squared, which separates a nearest-neighbor-antiferromagnetic phase from a phase displaying identifiable long-range effects. A duality-type symmetry is present in some block-spin calculations.

  11. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short- and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species.

  12. Long-range oil and gas forecasting methodologies: literature survey

    SciTech Connect

    Cherniavsky, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    Performance of long-range energy system analyses requires the capability to project conventional domestic oil and gas supplies in the long term. The objective of the Long-range Forecasting Methodology project is to formulate an approach to this problem which will be compatible with the principal tool employed by the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy for long-range energy system analyses, the Long-term Energy Analysis Package (LEAP). This paper reports on projection methodologies that have appeared in the literature, evaluates them in terms of their applicability to the LEAP framework, and discusses the principal determinants of conventional domestic oil and gas supply in the long run.

  13. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    DOE PAGES

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-04-27

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short-and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without externalmore » water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species.« less

  14. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview assessment of three separate programs at Langley Research Center that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of an span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. This concept has the potential for reduced structural weights. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The use of LFC can reduce the fuel requirements during long-range cruise. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel. Coal-derived hydrogen as an aircraft fuel offers both the prospect for reduced dependence on petroleum fuels and improved performance for long-range aircraft.

  15. Long-Range Interactions Restrict Water Transport in Pyrophyllite Interlayers

    PubMed Central

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Water diffusion within smectite clay interlayers is reduced by confinement and hence is highly determined by the interlayer spacings that are adopted during swelling. However, a molecular understanding of the short- and long-range forces governing interlayer water structure and dynamics is lacking. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water intercalated between pyrophyllite (smectite prototype) layers we provide a detailed picture of the variation of interlayered water mobility accompanying smectite expansion. Subtle changes in hydrogen bond network structure cause significant changes in water mobility that is greater for stable hydration states and reduced for intermediate separations. By studying pyrophyllite with and without external water we reveal that long-range electrostatic forces apply a restraining effect upon interlayer water mobility. Our findings are relevant for broad range of confining nanostructures with walls thin enough to permit long-range interactions that could affect the mobility of confined solvent molecules and solute species. PMID:27118164

  16. Long-range surface plasmons in electrode structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegeman, G. I.; Burke, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Surface polaritons guided by symmetric double metal film structures are analyzed, with particular attention given to the attenuation of the two long-range modes that occur. It is found that long-range surface plasmon polariton modes do exist for double electrode structures over a limited range of material parameters. Guided by thin metal electrodes, surface plasmon polaritons can achieve millimeter plus propagation distances in the near infrared. It is pointed out that if the slab is electrooptic, then very low voltages will be needed to manipulate the waves. The fact that long-range modes exist simultaneously with junction tunnel plasmons may be of use in providing directional radiation from light-emitting junctions or the inverse process of light to electrical energy conversion.

  17. Fourth International Symposium on Long-Range Sound Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Long range sound propagation is an aspect of many acoustical problems ranging from en route aircraft noise to the acoustic detection of aircraft. Over the past decade, the University of Mississippi and the Open University of England, together with a third institution, have held a symposium approx. every 2 years so that experts in the field of long range propagation could exchange information on current research, identify areas needing additional work, and coordinate activities as much as possible. The Fourth International Symposium on Long Range Sound Propagation was jointly sponsored by the University of Mississippi, the Open University of England, and NASA. Papers were given in the following areas: ground effects on propagation; infrasound propagation; and meteorological effects on sound propagation. A compilation of the presentations made at the symposium is presented along with a list of attendees, and the agenda.

  18. Measurements of long-range correlations and bicoherence during biasing in HSX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Robert; van Milligen, Boudewijn; Pedrosa, Maria Angeles; Ramisch, Mirko; Anderson, David

    2010-11-01

    Using toroidally-spaced Langmuir probes, long-range fluctuation correlations have been measured in floating potential signals during biased discharges in the HSX stellarator. The increase in long-range correlations during biasing occurs in the floating potential signals, but not in the ion saturation current signals. This has been linked to zonal flow formation in the TJ-II stellarator, both in biased discharges and in naturally occurring improved-confinement discharges [1]. Measurements of the auto-bicoherence of the poloidal electric field signals show an increase in broadband 3-wave coupling during biasing, which is analyzed and compared to both biased and naturally occurring enhanced-confinement discharges in TJ-II [2]. Additional measurements of fluctuation moments in HSX are also presented.[4pt] [1] M.A. Pedrosa, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 215003.[0pt] [2] B.Ph. van Milligen, et al, Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 115003

  19. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  20. Emergent long-range synchronization of oscillating ecological populations without external forcing described by Ising universality

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Andrew E.; Machta, Jonathan; Hastings, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the synchronization of oscillations across space is fundamentally important to many scientific disciplines. In ecology, long-range synchronization of oscillations in spatial populations may elevate extinction risk and signal an impending catastrophe. The prevailing assumption is that synchronization on distances longer than the dispersal scale can only be due to environmental correlation (the Moran effect). In contrast, we show how long-range synchronization can emerge over distances much longer than the length scales of either dispersal or environmental correlation. In particular, we demonstrate that the transition from incoherence to long-range synchronization of two-cycle oscillations in noisy spatial population models is described by the Ising universality class of statistical physics. This result shows, in contrast to all previous work, how the Ising critical transition can emerge directly from the dynamics of ecological populations. PMID:25851364

  1. Emergent long-range synchronization of oscillating ecological populations without external forcing described by Ising universality.

    PubMed

    Noble, Andrew E; Machta, Jonathan; Hastings, Alan

    2015-04-08

    Understanding the synchronization of oscillations across space is fundamentally important to many scientific disciplines. In ecology, long-range synchronization of oscillations in spatial populations may elevate extinction risk and signal an impending catastrophe. The prevailing assumption is that synchronization on distances longer than the dispersal scale can only be due to environmental correlation (the Moran effect). In contrast, we show how long-range synchronization can emerge over distances much longer than the length scales of either dispersal or environmental correlation. In particular, we demonstrate that the transition from incoherence to long-range synchronization of two-cycle oscillations in noisy spatial population models is described by the Ising universality class of statistical physics. This result shows, in contrast to all previous work, how the Ising critical transition can emerge directly from the dynamics of ecological populations.

  2. Design of a high capacity long range cargo aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.

    1994-01-01

    This report examines the design of a long range cargo transport to attempt to reduce ton-mile shipping costs and to stimulate the air cargo market. This design effort involves the usual issues but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; cargo loading and unloading; and defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This report reviews the long range transport design problem and several solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University. The results show that it will be difficult to build large transports unless the infrastructure is changed and unless the basic form of the airplane changes so that aerodynamic and structural efficiencies are employed.

  3. Small long-range alpha detector (LRAD) with computer readout

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1991-10-01

    The small long-range alpha detector developed by N-2 was described in detail in the Los Alamos publication LA-12073-MS, Long-Range Alpha Detector,'' published in 1991. Since publication of that report, a computerized data acquisition system has been added to the LRAD detector. In addition to detailing the new data acquisition system, we discuss new data generated with the enhanced system, including measurements of (1) ultimate sensitivity; (2) detector linearity; (3) ion lifetime; and (4) characteristics. Furthermore, we have expanded our understanding of ion recombination and statistical noise effects in the LRAD and have addressed them here as well as several proposed applications. 6 refs., 30 figs.

  4. Long-range correction for dipolar fluids at planar interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Stephan; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans

    2015-12-01

    A slab-based long-range correction for dipolar interactions in molecular dynamics simulation of systems with a planar geometry is presented and applied to simulate vapour-liquid interfaces. The present approach is validated with respect to the saturated liquid density and the surface tension of the Stockmayer fluid and a molecular model for ethylene oxide. The simulation results exhibit no dependence on the cut-off radius for radii down to 1 nm, proving that the long-range correction accurately captures the influence of the dipole moment on the intermolecular interaction energies and forces as well as the virial and the surface tension.

  5. Specific heat spectra of long-range correlated DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, D. A.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Mauriz, P. W.; Vasconcelos, M. S.

    2006-11-01

    The specific heat spectra of long-range correlated DNA molecules is theoretically analyzed for a stacked array of single-stranded DNA made up from the nucleotides guanine G, adenine A, cytosine C and thymine T arranged in the Fibonacci and Rudin-Shapiro quasiperiodic sequences, with the aim to compare them with those related with a genomic DNA sequence. The energy spectra are calculated using the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation in a tight-binding approximation with the on-site energy exhibiting long-range disorder and nonrandom hopping amplitudes.

  6. Signal transmission within the P2X2 trimeric receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    P2X2 receptor channel, a homotrimer activated by the binding of extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to three intersubunit ATP-binding sites (each located ∼50 Å from the ion permeation pore), also shows voltage-dependent activation upon hyperpolarization. Here, we used tandem trimeric constructs (TTCs) harboring critical mutations at the ATP-binding, linker, and pore regions to investigate how the ATP activation signal is transmitted within the trimer and how signals generated by ATP and hyperpolarization converge. Analysis of voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in these TTCs showed that: (a) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating of P2X2 requires binding of at least two ATP molecules. (b) D315A mutation in the β-14 strand of the linker region connecting the ATP-binding domains to the pore-forming helices induces two different gating modes; this requires the presence of the D315A mutation in at least two subunits. (c) The T339S mutation in the pore domains of all three subunits abolishes the voltage dependence of P2X2 gating in saturating [ATP], making P2X2 equally active at all membrane potentials. Increasing the number of T339S mutations in the TTC results in gradual changes in the voltage dependence of gating from that of the wild-type channel, suggesting equal and independent contributions of the subunits at the pore level. (d) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating in TTCs differs depending on the location of one D315A relative to one K308A that blocks the ATP binding and downstream signal transmission. (e) Voltage- and [ATP]-dependent gating does not depend on where one T339S is located relative to K308A (or D315A). Our results suggest that each intersubunit ATP-binding signal is directly transmitted on the same subunit to the level of D315 via the domain that contributes K308 to the β-14 strand. The signal subsequently spreads equally to all three subunits at the level of the pore, resulting in symmetric and independent contributions of the three

  7. Long-range enhancers modulate Foxf1 transcription in blood vessels of pulmonary vascular network.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyejin; Kim, Jinsun; Park, Gi-Hee; Kim, Yuri; Cho, Sung-Won

    2016-09-01

    Intimate crosstalk occurs between the pulmonary epithelium and the vascular network during lung development. The transcription factor forkhead box f1 (Foxf1) is expressed in the lung mesenchyme and plays an indispensable role in pulmonary angiogenesis. Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a signalling molecule, is expressed in lung epithelium and is required to establish proper angiogenesis. It has been suggested that Foxf1, a downstream target of the Shh signalling pathway, mediates interaction between angiogenesis and the epithelium in lung. However, there has been no clear evidence showing the mechanism how Foxf1 is regulated by Shh signalling pathway during lung development. In this study, we investigated the lung-specific enhancers of Foxf1 and the Gli binding on the enhancers. At first, we found three evolutionarily conserved Foxf1 enhancers, two of which were long-range enhancers. Of the long-range enhancers, one demonstrated tissue-specific activity in the proximal and distal pulmonary blood vessels, while the other one demonstrated activity only in distal blood vessels. At analogous positions in human, these long-range enhancers were included in a regulatory region that was reportedly repeatedly deleted in alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary vein patients, which indicates the importance of these enhancers in pulmonary blood vessel formation. We also determined that Gli increased the activity of one of these long-range enhancers, which was specific to distal blood vessel, suggesting that Shh regulates Foxf1 transcription in pulmonary distal blood vessel formation.

  8. Investigation of implantable signal transmission characteristics based on visible data of the human leg.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue-Ming; Ye, Yan-Ting; Lin, Shi; Vasić, Željka Lučev; Vai, Mang-I; Du, Min; Cifrek, Mario; Pun, Sio-Hang

    2017-07-04

    Signal transmission characteristics between implanted medical devices and external equipment has been a common key issue, as has the problem of supplying energy to the devices. It can be used to enable signal transmission from implanted devices that the human body's conductive properties. Using signal transmission by galvanic coupling is one of the most effective signal transmission methods. The signal transmission characteristics by galvanic coupling of implantable devices using a frequency range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz was analyzed in this article. A finite element (FEM) model and a phantom model established by visible human leg data were used to investigate the signal transmission characteristics of implant-to-surface, with implantable receiver electrodes at different locations. The results showed that the FEM model and the phantom model had similar implantable signal transmission characteristics, with an increase of frequency, signal attenuation basically remained unchanged. The gain in signal attenuation in the fixed attenuation values fluctuated no more than 5 dB and signal attenuation values rose as the channel length increased. Our results of signal transmission characteristics of surface-to-implant will provide a theoretical basis for implantable transceiver design, and for realization of a recharging method for implanted medical devices.

  9. Optimal noise-aided signal transmission through populations of neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, Thomas; Wenning, Gregor; Obermayer, Klaus

    2003-07-01

    Metabolic considerations and neurophysiological measurements indicate that biological neural systems prefer information transmission via many parallel low intensity channels, compared to few high intensity ones [S. B. Laughlin et al., Nature Neurosci. 1, 36 (1998)]. Furthermore, cortical neurons are exposed to a considerable amount of synaptic background activity, which increases the neurons’ conductance and leads to a fluctuating membrane potential that, on average, is close to the threshold [A. Destexhe and D. Paré, J. Neurophysiol. 81, 1531 (1999)]. Recent studies have shown that noise can improve the transmission of subthreshold signals in populations of neurons, e.g., if their response is pooled. In general, the optimal noise level depends on the stimulus distribution and on the number of neurons in the population. In this contribution we show that for a large enough number of neurons the latter dependency becomes weak, such that the optimal noise level becomes almost independent of the number of neurons in the population. First we investigate a binary threshold model of neurons. We derive an analytic expression for the optimal noise level at each single neuron, which—for a large enough population size—depends only on quantities that are locally available to a single neuron. Using numerical simulations, we then verify the weak dependence of the optimal noise level on population size in a more realistic framework using leaky integrate-and-fire as well as Hodgkin-Huxley type model neurons. Next we construct a cost function, where quality of information transmission is traded against its metabolic costs. Again we find that—for subthreshold signals—there is an optimal noise level which maximizes this cost. This noise level, however, is almost independent of the number of neurons, even for small population sizes, as numerical simulations using the Hodgkin-Huxley model show. Since the dependence of the optimal noise level on population size is weak for

  10. Probabilistic approach to long range planning of manpower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lejk, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Publication presents a total long range planning model for project oriented organizations. The total model consists of planning systems which originate - /1/ at the project level and consolidate into an overall plan, and /2/ from a budetary ceiling and allocate to the individual projects. Analysis of /1/ and /2/ is provided for management decision making.

  11. Air Force B-21 Long Range Strike Bomber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-14

    Congressional Research Service 7 Industrial Base Northrop Grumman intends to build the B-21 at its facilities at Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, CA, which were...DefenseNews.com, March 2, 2016. 32 A useful discussion of these issues can be found in Andrew Hunter , “Long Range Strike: 3 Lessons from Defense

  12. Strategic Long Range Planning for Universities. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael E.

    The use of strategic long-range planning at Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) is discussed. A structure for strategic planning analysis that integrates existing techniques is presented, and examples of planning activities at CMU are included. The key concept in strategic planning is competitive advantage: if a university has a competitive…

  13. Long Range Planning Model. Management for Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. Dept. of Instructional Services.

    The Management for Effective Teaching (MET) Long Range Planning Model has been developed to provide practical assistance in planning for classroom management and teaching. The planning procedures were devised to help elementary teachers in the Fairfax County (Virginia) Public Schools implement the school system's Program of Studies. In the model…

  14. Long Range Development Plan, University of California, Riverside.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell (George Vernon) and Associates, Architects and Planners.

    A long range development plan, conceived as a general guide to final objectives, uses many diagrams and maps to illustrate the text. The plan is predicated on the assumption that orderly and efficient development of site possibilities is subject to ever-changing influences. The following areas are examined--(1) campus environment, (2) academic…

  15. Long-Range Planning--Finances. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robert C.

    This paper presents views on long-range financial planning for public and private higher education. Emphasis is placed on a mix of revenue sources for future support and on key budgetary considerations such as faculty and non-academic wages, the rising cost of graduate education, and the community and junior college movement. A triple crisis is…

  16. Transport in Nonneutral Plasmas due to Long-Range Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, F.; Driscoll, C. F.; Hollmann, E. M.; Kriesel, J. M.; Huang, X.-P.; Dubin, D. H. E.; O'Neil, T. M.

    1997-11-01

    Recent experiments on nonneutral plasmas have measured test particle transport, bulk viscous transport, and heat transport; all three measurements show enhanced transport due to long-range interactions. Classical Boltzmann theory describes transport in terms of short-range velocity-scattering collisions with impact parameters less than the cyclotron radius, i.e. ρ < r_c. Here we observe the effects of long-range collisions with rc < ρ applteq λ_D. Experiments show that: a) The measured test particle diffusion across B is about ten times faster than predicted by classical collisional theory, in precise agreement with long-range collisional theory over a wide range of parameters. b) Viscous transport measurements obtained from plasma density profiles relaxing to thermal equilibrium indicate that bulk particle transport across the magnetic field may be enhanced by up to 10^4. c) Preliminary measurements of heat transport created by localized laser cooling or heating indicate that the thermal conductivity can be much larger than predicted by classical theory, consistent with long-range theory. Supported by ONR N00014-96-1-0239 and NSF PHY94-21318. ^**Present address: NIST, 325 Broadway Ave., Boulder CO 80303.

  17. Long Range Development Plan, University of California, Riverside.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell (George Vernon) and Associates, Architects and Planners.

    A long range development plan, conceived as a general guide to final objectives, uses many diagrams and maps to illustrate the text. The plan is predicated on the assumption that orderly and efficient development of site possibilities is subject to ever-changing influences. The following areas are examined--(1) campus environment, (2) academic…

  18. Long range orbital error estimation for applications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonavito, N. L.; Foreman, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A method of optimum orbital averaging was employed to study the long range accuracy potential of polar orbiting applications satellites. This approach involved the determination of the boundary conditions of one set of differential equations of motion by adjusting the initial conditions in a least square sense with the use of data generated by another set of differential equations of motion.

  19. Report of the Board Committee on Long Range Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Educational Broadcasters, Washington, DC.

    The impact of predicted technological developments on educational broadcasting depends on the long range planning done to exploit them. It is expected that in the future computers will be used extensively by broadcasting agencies to collect, analyze, and provide, on call, a wide range of data about audience groupings. Determination of program…

  20. [The Long-Range Plan for Colorado College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenn

    This is a series of 3 reports to the Colorado College faculty and administration on a long-range plan. The first report deals with some of the technical features of a modular course plan, mainly: (1) the construction of a modular schedule, (2) registration and enrollment procedures, and (3) campus space and fixtures. The second report contains a…

  1. Strategic Long Range Planning for Universities. AIR Forum 1980 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael E.

    The use of strategic long-range planning at Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) is discussed. A structure for strategic planning analysis that integrates existing techniques is presented, and examples of planning activities at CMU are included. The key concept in strategic planning is competitive advantage: if a university has a competitive…

  2. SOVIET LONG-RANGE SPACE-EXPLORATION PROGRAM: ANALYTICAL SURVEY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This analytical survey is based on Soviet open sources published 1956-1965. It is one of a series of reports dealing with the Soviet long-range space ... exploration program and is concerned, in particular, with lunar surface research. Information not directly related to this subject has been included

  3. Mechanobiological induction of long-range contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The long-range nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to long-range “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development.

  4. Mechanobiological induction of long-range contractility by diffusing biomolecules and size scaling in cell assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Dasbiswas, K.; Alster, E.; Safran, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanobiological studies of cell assemblies have generally focused on cells that are, in principle, identical. Here we predict theoretically the effect on cells in culture of locally introduced biochemical signals that diffuse and locally induce cytoskeletal contractility which is initially small. In steady-state, both the concentration profile of the signaling molecule as well as the contractility profile of the cell assembly are inhomogeneous, with a characteristic length that can be of the order of the system size. The long-range nature of this state originates in the elastic interactions of contractile cells (similar to long-range “macroscopic modes” in non-living elastic inclusions) and the non-linear diffusion of the signaling molecules, here termed mechanogens. We suggest model experiments on cell assemblies on substrates that can test the theory as a prelude to its applicability in embryo development where spatial gradients of morphogens initiate cellular development. PMID:27283037

  5. Real time biomedical signal transmission of mixed ECG signal and patient information using visible light communication.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yee Yong; Jung, Sang-Joong; Chung, Wan-Young

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of radio-frequency (RF) communication technology in healthcare application, especially in the transmission of health-related data such as biomedical signal and patient information is often perturbed by electromagnetic interference (EMI). This will not only significantly reduce the accuracy and reliability of the data transmitted, but could also compromise the safety of the patients due to radio frequency (RF) radiation. In this paper, we propose a method which utilizes visible light communication technology as a platform for transmission and to provide real-time monitoring of heart rate and patient information. White LED beam is used as the illuminating source to simultaneously transmit biomedical signal as well as patient record. On-off Keying (OOK) modulation technique is used to modulate all the data onto the visible light beam. Both types of data will be transmitted using a single data packet. At the receiving end, a receiver circuit consisting of a high-speed PIN photodetector and a demodulation circuit is employed to demodulate the data from the visible light beam. The demodulated data is then serially transmitted to a personal computer where the biomedical signal, patient information and heart rate can be monitored in real-time.

  6. Concentric core optical fiber with multiple-mode signal transmission

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, J.D.

    1997-05-06

    A concentric core optical fiber provides for the simultaneous but independent transmission of signals over a single optical fiber. The concentric optical fiber is constructed of a single-mode or multimode inner optical fiber defined by a core and a cladding of a lower index of refraction than the core and an outer optical fiber defined by additional cladding concentrically disposed around the cladding and of an index of refraction lower than the first mentioned cladding whereby the latter functions as the core of the outer optical fiber. By employing such an optical fiber construction with a single-mode inner core or optical fiber, highly sensitive interferometric and stable less sensitive amplitude based sensors can be placed along the same length of a concentric core optical fiber. Also, by employing the concentric core optical fiber secure telecommunications can be achieved via the inner optical fiber since an intrusion of the concentric optical fiber will first cause a variation in the light being transmitted through the outer optical fiber and this variation of light being used to trigger a suitable alarm indicative of the intrusion. 3 figs.

  7. INSTRUMENTATION FOR SURVEYING ACOUSTIC SIGNALS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-09-01

    In the U.S. natural gas is distributed through more than one million miles of high-pressure transmission pipelines. If all leaks and infringements could be detected quickly, it would enhance safety and U.S. energy security. Only low frequency acoustic waves appear to be detectable over distances up to 60 km where pipeline shut-off valves provide access to the inside of the pipeline. This paper describes a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) developed to record and identify acoustic signals characteristic of: leaks, pump noise, valve and flow metering noise, third party infringement, manual pipeline water and gas blow-off, etc. This PAMP consists of a stainless steel 1/2 inch NPT plumbing tree rated for use on 1000 psi pipelines. Its instrumentation is designed to measure acoustic waves over the entire frequency range from zero to 16,000 Hz by means of four instruments: (1) microphone, (2) 3-inch water full range differential pressure transducer with 0.1% of range sensitivity, (3) a novel 3 inch to 100 inch water range amplifier, using an accumulator with needle valve and (4) a line-pressure transducer. The weight of the PAMP complete with all accessories is 36 pounds. This includes a remote control battery/switch box assembly on a 25-foot extension chord, a laptop data acquisition computer on a field table and a sun shield.

  8. Concentric core optical fiber with multiple-mode signal transmission

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1997-01-01

    A concentric core optical fiber provides for the simultaneous but independent transmission of signals over a single optical fiber. The concentric optical fiber is constructed of a single-mode or multimode inner optical fiber defined by a core and a cladding of a lower index of refraction than the core and an outer optical fiber defined by additional cladding concentrically disposed around the cladding and of an index of refraction lower than the first mentioned cladding whereby the latter functions as the core of the outer optical fiber. By employing such an optical fiber construction with a single-mode inner core or optical fiber, highly sensitive interferometric and stable less sensitive amplitude based sensors can be placed along the same length of a concentric core optical fiber. Also, by employing the concentric core optical fiber secure telecommunications can be achieved via the inner optical fiber since an intrusion of the concentric optical fiber will first cause a variation in the light being transmitted through the outer optical fiber and this variation of light being used to trigger a suitable alarm indicative of the intrusion.

  9. Probing the role of long-range interactions in the dynamics of a long-range Kitaev chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Anirban; Dutta, Amit

    2017-09-01

    We study the role of long-range interactions (more precisely, the long-range superconducting gap term) on the nonequilibrium dynamics considering a long-range p -wave superconducting chain in which the superconducting term decays with distance between two sites in a power-law fashion characterized by an exponent α . We show that the Kibble-Zurek scaling exponent, dictating the power-law decay of the defect density in the final state reached following a slow (in comparison to the time scale associated with the minimum gap in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian) quenching of the chemical potential μ across a quantum critical point, depends nontrivially on the exponent α as long as α <2 ; on the other hand, for α >2 , we find that the exponent saturates to the corresponding well-known value of 1 /2 expected for the short-range model. Furthermore, studying the dynamical quantum phase transitions manifested in the nonanalyticities in the rate function of the return possibility I (t ) in subsequent temporal evolution following a sudden change in μ , we show the existence of a new region; in this region, we find three instants of cusp singularities in I (t ) associated with a single sector of Fisher zeros. Notably, the width of this region shrinks as α increases and vanishes in the limit α →2 , indicating that this special region is an artifact of the long-range nature of the Hamiltonian.

  10. Long-range intermolecular interaction between broken DNA fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.; Vysotskii, Vladimir I.

    2001-03-01

    We analyzed the long-range intermolecular interaction between fragments of broken DNA. We considered two constituents of long-range intermolecular interaction. The first is a net electrostatic Coulomb interaction between charges, involved in a structure of opposite nucleotides, which we evaluate using Debye-Huckel theory. The second one is the Van der Waals interaction between the nucleotides. The general Lifshitz theory of Van der Waals forces was used to evaluate this interaction. Numerical calculations showed that a repulsive force between broken DNA fragments can arise in specific cases. This repulsion can prevent DNA from repairing itself after a double-strand break. The height of the barrier decreases with an increase of the ionic strength of the intracellular milieu, or with a reduction of its viscosity.

  11. Temperature inversion in long-range interacting systems.

    PubMed

    Teles, Tarcísio N; Gupta, Shamik; Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Casetti, Lapo

    2015-08-01

    Temperature inversions occur in nature, e.g., in the solar corona and in interstellar molecular clouds: Somewhat counterintuitively, denser parts of the system are colder than dilute ones. We propose a simple and appealing way to spontaneously generate temperature inversions in systems with long-range interactions, by preparing them in inhomogeneous thermal equilibrium states and then applying an impulsive perturbation. In similar situations, short-range systems would typically relax to another thermal equilibrium, with a uniform temperature profile. By contrast, in long-range systems, the interplay between wave-particle interaction and spatial inhomogeneity drives the system to nonequilibrium stationary states that generically exhibit temperature inversion. We demonstrate this mechanism in a simple mean-field model and in a two-dimensional self-gravitating system. Our work underlines the crucial role the range of interparticle interaction plays in determining the nature of steady states out of thermal equilibrium.

  12. Optical measurements of long-range protein vibrations.

    PubMed

    Acbas, Gheorghe; Niessen, Katherine A; Snell, Edward H; Markelz, A G

    2014-01-01

    Protein biological function depends on structural flexibility and change. From cellular communication through membrane ion channels to oxygen uptake and delivery by haemoglobin, structural changes are critical. It has been suggested that vibrations that extend through the protein play a crucial role in controlling these structural changes. While nature may utilize such long-range vibrations for optimization of biological processes, bench-top characterization of these extended structural motions for engineered biochemistry has been elusive. Here we show the first optical observation of long-range protein vibrational modes. This is achieved by orientation-sensitive terahertz near-field microscopy measurements of chicken egg white lysozyme single crystals. Underdamped modes are found to exist for frequencies >10 cm(-1). The existence of these persisting motions indicates that damping and intermode coupling are weaker than previously assumed. The methodology developed permits protein engineering based on dynamical network optimization.

  13. Optical measurements of long-range protein vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acbas, Gheorghe; Niessen, Katherine A.; Snell, Edward H.; Markelz, A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Protein biological function depends on structural flexibility and change. From cellular communication through membrane ion channels to oxygen uptake and delivery by haemoglobin, structural changes are critical. It has been suggested that vibrations that extend through the protein play a crucial role in controlling these structural changes. While nature may utilize such long-range vibrations for optimization of biological processes, bench-top characterization of these extended structural motions for engineered biochemistry has been elusive. Here we show the first optical observation of long-range protein vibrational modes. This is achieved by orientation-sensitive terahertz near-field microscopy measurements of chicken egg white lysozyme single crystals. Underdamped modes are found to exist for frequencies >10 cm-1. The existence of these persisting motions indicates that damping and intermode coupling are weaker than previously assumed. The methodology developed permits protein engineering based on dynamical network optimization.

  14. Entanglement Area Laws for Long-Range Interacting Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Foss-Feig, Michael; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2017-08-01

    We prove that the entanglement entropy of any state evolved under an arbitrary 1 /rα long-range-interacting D -dimensional lattice spin Hamiltonian cannot change faster than a rate proportional to the boundary area for any α >D +1 . We also prove that for any α >2 D +2 , the ground state of such a Hamiltonian satisfies the entanglement area law if it can be transformed along a gapped adiabatic path into a ground state known to satisfy the area law. These results significantly generalize their existing counterparts for short-range interacting systems, and are useful for identifying dynamical phase transitions and quantum phase transitions in the presence of long-range interactions.

  15. Long-range correlations in chaotic cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisele, Michael

    1991-03-01

    One-dimensional cellular automata of class 3 are studied as models for spatially extended, chaotic systems. Their irreversible dynamics can generate weak, but long-range spatial correlations. The one labelled 22 by Wolfram is treated in an exemplary way. Its stationary state is approximated by a Markov chain. The regular grammar underlying the Markov chain is chosen with care, so that it includes a maximum amount of information on the stationary state. The approximation can be performed without simulating the dynamics of the cellular automaton 22 and reproduces its long-range correlations qualitatively. Their origin is explained intuitively and they are argued to be a frequent feature of cellular automata with more complicated rules.

  16. Long-range correlation analysis of urban traffic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Peng; Wang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Zhao, Shu-Long

    2010-08-01

    This paper investigates urban traffic data by analysing the long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis. Through a large number of real data collected by the travel time detection system in Beijing, the variation of flow in different time periods and intersections is studied. According to the long-range correlation in different time scales, it mainly discusses the effect of intersection location in road net, people activity customs and special traffic controls on urban traffic flow. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the urban traffic flow represents three-phase characters similar to highway traffic. Moreover, compared by the two groups of data obtained before and after the special traffic restrictions (vehicles with special numbered plates only run in a special workday) enforcement, it indicates that the rules not only reduce the flow but also avoid irregular fluctuation.

  17. Long-range hybrid ridge and trench plasmonic waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Yusheng; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-06-23

    We report a class of long-range hybrid plasmon polariton waveguides capable of simultaneously achieving low propagation loss and tight field localization at telecommunication wavelength. The symmetric (quasi-symmetric) hybrid configurations featuring high-refractive-index-contrast near the non-uniform metallic nanostructures enable significantly improved optical performance over conventional hybrid waveguides, exhibiting considerably longer propagation distances and dramatically enhanced figure of merits for similar degrees of confinement. Compared to their traditional long-range plasmonic counterparts, the proposed hybrid waveguides put much less stringent requirements on index-matching conditions, demonstrating nice performance under a wide range of physical dimensions and robust characteristics against certain fabrication imperfections. Studies concerning crosstalk between adjacent identical waveguides further reveal their potential for photonic integrations. In addition, alternative configurations with comparable guiding properties to the structures in our case studies are also proposed, which can potentially serve as attractive prototypes for numerous high-performance nanophotonic components.

  18. The design of a long-range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Allen, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are examining the market and feasibility of long-range passenger aircraft carrying more than 600 passengers. These aircraft would carry travelers at reduced cost and, at the same time, reduce congestion around major airports. The design of a large, long-range transport involves broad issues such as: the integration of airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; trade-offs between aircraft size and the cost to reconfigure these existing facilities; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law. Thirteen Purdue design teams generated RFP's that defined passenger capability and range, based upon team perception of market needs and infrastructure constraints. Turbofan engines were designed by each group to power these aircraft. The design problem and the variety of solutions developed are reviewed.

  19. The Dependence of Long-Range Reverberation on Bottom Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauss, Roger; Fromm, David; LePage, Kevin; Gragg, Robert

    2004-11-01

    At long-range, shallow-water reverberation can be driven by sub-critical-angle scattering, i.e. by rough interrace scattering. The Naval Research Laboratory has recently developed a small-slope model for elastic seafloors that provides physics-based estimates of the dependence of scattering on the incident and scattered angles, and physical descriptors of the environment. In this paper, this incoherent model is used as kernels in reverberation models, which in turn are used to assess the sensitivity at 3.5 kHz of long-range monostatic reverberation to the roughness of the water-sediment interface. It is shown that when sub-critical-angle scattering dominates, the acoustic field could be quite sensitive to the parameter values of the roughness, thus arguing for the need for regional in-situ methods for its estimation.

  20. Travel: a long-range goal of retired women.

    PubMed

    Staats, Sara; Pierfelice, Loretta

    2003-09-01

    The authors surveyed retired persons (predominately women) with regard to their immediate, intermediate, and long-range activities following retirement. As predicted, leisure travel emerged as a frequent long-range goal for persons retired more than 5 years. The travel activity preferences of long-retired older women present challenges and opportunities to both researchers and marketers. Length of trips and frequency of trips have been predicted from regression models, with trip length in particular being well predicted by the problem of daily life hassles. A theoretical model of continued post-retirement travel is presented as a variant of Solomon's opponent process theory of affect (R. L. Solomon, 1980). The authors suggest that to the degree that places traveled to are varied and different, older people may remain stimulated and continue to enjoy retirement.

  1. Reaching for the Horizon: The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geesaman, Donald

    2015-10-01

    In April 2014, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee was charged to conduct a new study of the opportunities and priorities for United States nuclear physics research and to recommend a long range plan for the coordinated advancement of the Nation's nuclear science program over the next decade. The entire community actively contributed to developing this plan. Ideas and goals, new and old, were examined and community priorities were established. The Long Range Plan Working Group gathered at Kitty Hawk, NC to converge on the recommendations. In this talk I will discuss the vision for the future that has emerged from this process. The new plan, ``Reaching for the Horizon,'' offers the promise of great leaps forward in our understanding of nuclear science and new opportunities for nuclear science to serve society. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  2. Long-range mutual information and topological uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Chao-Ming; Kim, Isaac; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    Ordered phases in Landau paradigm can be diagnosed by a local order parameter, whereas topologically ordered phases cannot be detected in such a way. In this paper, we propose long-range mutual information (LRMI) as a unified diagnostic for both conventional long-range order and topological order. Using the LRMI, we characterize orders in n +1D gapped systems as m-membrane condensates with 0 <= m <= n-1. The familiar conventional order and 2 +1D topological orders are respectively identified as 0-membrane and 1-membrane condensates. We propose and study the topological uncertainty principle, which describes the non-commuting nature of non-local order parameters in topological orders.

  3. Long-range exciton dissociation in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Domenico; Troisi, Alessandro

    2012-08-21

    It is normally assumed that electrons and holes in organic solar cells are generated by the dissociation of excitons at the interface between donor and acceptor materials in strongly bound hole-electron pairs. We show in this contribution that excitons can dissociate tens of angstroms away from the interface and generate partially separated electrons and holes, which can more easily overcome their coulombic attraction and form free charges. We first establish under what conditions long-range exciton dissociation is likely (using a kinetic model and a microscopic model for the calculation of the long-range electron transfer rate). Then, defining a rather general model Hamiltonian for the donor material, we show that the phenomenon is extremely common in the majority of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  4. Long range science scheduling for the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Glenn; Johnston, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Observations with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are scheduled with the assistance of a long-range scheduling system (SPIKE) that was developed using artificial intelligence techniques. In earlier papers, the system architecture and the constraint representation and propagation mechanisms were described. The development of high-level automated scheduling tools, including tools based on constraint satisfaction techniques and neural networks is described. The performance of these tools in scheduling HST observations is discussed.

  5. The design of a long range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Allen, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    During the period from August 1991 - June 1992 two design classes at Purdue University participated in the design of a long range, high capacity transport aircraft, dubbed the megatransport. Thirteen Purdue design teams generated RFP's that defined passenger capability and range, based upon team perception of market needs and infrastructure constraints. Turbofan engines were designed by each group to power these aircraft. The design problem and the variety of solutions developed are described in an attached paper.

  6. Frequency multiplexed long range swept source optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zurauskas, Mantas; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel swept source optical coherence tomography configuration, equipped with acousto-optic deflectors that can be used to simultaneously acquire multiple B-scans originating from different depths. The sensitivity range of the configuration is evaluated while acquiring five simultaneous B-scans. Then the configuration is employed to demonstrate long range B-scan imaging by combining two simultaneous B-scans from a mouse head sample. PMID:23760762

  7. Dissipative long-range entanglement generation between electronic spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, M.; Schuetz, M. J. A.; Cirac, J. I.; Platero, G.; Giedke, G.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a scheme for deterministic generation and long-term stabilization of entanglement between two electronic spin qubits confined in spatially separated quantum dots. Our approach relies on an electronic quantum bus, consisting either of quantum Hall edge channels or surface acoustic waves, that can mediate long-range coupling between localized spins over distances of tens of micrometers. Since the entanglement is actively stabilized by dissipative dynamics, our scheme is inherently robust against noise and imperfections.

  8. Long Range Interactions With Laser Cooled Neutral Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gattobigio, Giovanni Luca; Michaud, Franck; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Kaiser, Robin; Loureiro, Jorge; Mendonca, Jose Tito; Tercas, Hugo; Pohl, Thomas

    2008-09-07

    Multiple scattering of light in a trap of laser cooled neutral atoms leads to repulsion forces between the atoms. The corresponding interactions have long range behavior in 1/r{sup 2} and are thus similar to Coulomb interaction in an one component confined plasma. Consequences of these interactions will be described in this paper, including the limitation of the spatial density one can obtain in such systems and self-sustained oscillations of the cloud.

  9. Extreme long range process effects characterization and compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiro, Thiago; Browning, Clyde; Thornton, Martin J.; Vannuffel, Cyril; Choi, Kang-Hoon; Hohle, Christoph; Tortai, Jean-Herve; Schiavone, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Proximity Effects in electron beam lithography impact feature dimensions, pattern fidelity and uniformity. These effects are addressed using a mathematical model representing the radial exposure intensity distribution induced by a point electron source, commonly named as the Point Spread Function (PSF). PSF models are usually employed for predicting and compensating for effects up to 15μm. It is well known that there are also some process related phenomena that impact pattern uniformity that have a longer range, namely CMP effects, fogging, etc. Performing proximity effects corrections can result in lengthy run times as file size and pattern densities continue to increase exponentially per technology node. Running corrections for extreme long range phenomena becomes computational and file size prohibitive. Nevertheless, since extreme long range may reach up several millimeters, and new technology nodes require a high level of precision, a strategy for predicting and compensating these phenomena is crucial. In this paper a set of test patterns are presented in order to verify and calibrate the so called extreme long range effects in the electron beam lithography. Moreover, a strategy to compensate for extreme long range effects based on the pattern density is presented. Since the evaluation is based on a density map instead of the actual patterns, the computational effort is feasible. The proposed method may be performed off-line (in contrast to machine standard in-line correction). The advantage of employing off-line compensation relies on enhancing the employ of dose and/or geometry modulation. This strategy also has the advantage of being completely decoupled from other e-beam writer's internal corrections (like Fogging Effect Correction - FEC).

  10. Long-Range Tunneling Processes across Ferritin-Based Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Karuppannan Senthil; Pasula, Rupali Reddy; Lim, Sierin; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-03-02

    The mechanism of long-range charge transport across tunneling junctions with monolayers of ferritin is investigated. It is shown that the mechanism can be switched between coherent tunneling, sequential tunneling, and hopping by changing the iron content inside the ferritin. This study shows that ferritins are an interesting class of biomolecules to control charge transport. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Long range Ising model for credit risk modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molins, Jordi; Vives, Eduard

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of maximum entropy principle we show that the finite-size long-range Ising model is the adequate model for the description of homogeneous credit portfolios and the computation of credit risk when default correlations between the borrowers are included. The exact analysis of the model suggest that when the correlation increases a first-order-like transition may occur inducing a sudden risk increase.

  12. IMI long-range surface plasmon Bragg micro-cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Kai; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Chunliang; Wang, Meiting

    2016-10-01

    The defect layer is introduced to the insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) Bragg waveguide structure. The micro-cavity structure of long-range surface plasma is proposed based on the defect mode. The liquid crystal is the defect layer in the structure of Bragg. The energy band characteristics of the long-range surface plasmon Bragg micro-cavity structure are analyzed by using the finite difference time domain method. The influence of the period number and the length of the micro-cavity on the quality factor Q and the volume V of the Bragg grating are discussed. The results show that the photonic energy can be confined very well in the micro-cavity by the structure of the micro-cavity. By controlling the birefringence of liquid crystal, the resonance wavelength of the micro-cavity appears with redshift phenomenon. The tuning range is 42 nm. The tuning of the working window of the long-range surface plasmon filter is realized. The photonic energy is the strongest in the insulating layer and the metal interface. The increase of cycles number has certain limitation on the improvement of the quality factor Q of the cavity. The influence of the defect-cavity length on the resonant wavelength, the quality factor Q and the mode volume V is obvious. The performance of the micro-cavity can be improved by adjusting the number of the micro-cavity and the length of the defect-cavity, and the ratio of Q/V can reach 43,750 in the communication band. The nano micro-cavity provides a new design idea and basis for the fabrication of tunable long-range surface plasmon wave filter in this paper.

  13. Emergent long-range couplings in arrays of fluid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Douglas Bruce

    2014-08-07

    We present a system exhibiting extraordinarily long-range cooperative effects, on a length scale far exceeding the bulk correlation length. We give a theoretical explanation of these phenomena based on the mesoscopic picture of phase coexistence in finite systems, which is confirmedly Monte Carlo (MC) simulation studies. Our work demonstrates that such action-at-a-distance can occur in classical systems involving simple or complex fluids, such as colloid-polymer mixtures, or ferromagnets.

  14. Acceleration of Evolutionary Spread by Long-Range Dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallatschek, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    The spreading of evolutionary novelties across populations is the central element of adaptation. Unless population are well-mixed (like bacteria in a shaken test tube), the spreading dynamics not only depends on fitness differences but also on the dispersal behavior of the species. Spreading at a constant speed is generally predicted when dispersal is sufficiently short-ranged. However, the case of long-range dispersal is unresolved: While it is clear that even rare long-range jumps can lead to a drastic speedup, it has been difficult to analyze the ensuing stochastic growth process. We present a simple self-consistent argument supported by simulations that accurately predicts evolutionary spread for broad distributions of long distance dispersal. In contrast to the exponential laws predicted by deterministic ``mean-field'' models, spread is either according to a super-linear power-law or a stretched exponential law, depending on the tails of the dispersal kernel. Fluctuations and the relation to supercritical long-range percolation are discussed. Due to the simplicity of our model, which lacks any complex interactions between individuals, we expect our results to be applicable to a wide range of spreading processes. Our results may be used, in particular, to estimate the spread of modern human epidemics, which are greatly accelerated by the human aviation. Based on joint work with Daniel S. Fisher, Stanford.

  15. Observation of prethermalization in long-range interacting spin chains

    PubMed Central

    Neyenhuis, Brian; Zhang, Jiehang; Hess, Paul W.; Smith, Jacob; Lee, Aaron C.; Richerme, Phil; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Monroe, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Although statistical mechanics describes thermal equilibrium states, these states may or may not emerge dynamically for a subsystem of an isolated quantum many-body system. For instance, quantum systems that are near-integrable usually fail to thermalize in an experimentally realistic time scale, and instead relax to quasi-stationary prethermal states that can be described by statistical mechanics, when approximately conserved quantities are included in a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). We experimentally study the relaxation dynamics of a chain of up to 22 spins evolving under a long-range transverse-field Ising Hamiltonian following a sudden quench. For sufficiently long-range interactions, the system relaxes to a new type of prethermal state that retains a strong memory of the initial conditions. However, the prethermal state in this case cannot be described by a standard GGE; it rather arises from an emergent double-well potential felt by the spin excitations. This result shows that prethermalization occurs in a broader context than previously thought, and reveals new challenges for a generic understanding of the thermalization of quantum systems, particularly in the presence of long-range interactions. PMID:28875166

  16. Long-range infrasound monitoring of eruptive volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Emanuele; Innocenti, Lorenzo; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Lacanna, Giorgio; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The efficient long-range propagation in the atmosphere makes infrasound of active volcanoes extremely promising and opens new perspectives for volcano monitoring at large scale. In favourable propagation conditions, long-range infrasound observations can be used to track the occurrence and the duration of volcanic eruptions also at remote non-monitored volcanoes, but its potential to infer volcanic eruptive source term is still debated. We present results of comparing five years of infrasound of eruptive activity at Mt.Etna volcano (Italy) recorded both at local (~5 km) and at regional distances (~600 km) from the source. Infrasound of lava fountains at Etna volcano, occurring in between 2010 and 2015, are analysed in terms of the local and regional wavefield record, and by comparing to all available volcanic source terms (i.e. plume height and mass eruption rates). Besides, the potential of near real-time notification of ongoing volcanic activity at Etna volcano at a regional scale is investigated. In particular we show how long range infrasound, in the case of Etna volcano, can be used to promptly deliver eruption notification and reliability is constrained by the results of the local array. This work is performed in the framework of the H2020 ARISE2 project funded by the EU in the period 2015-2018.

  17. Long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rongguo; Yan, Guozheng; Zhang, Wenqiang; Wang, Long

    2008-11-01

    The long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities under normal physiological conditions are studied by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The DFA is an effective period representation with a single quantitative scaling exponent α to accurately quantify long-range correlations naturally presented in a complex non-stationary time series. The method shows that the colonic activities of the healthy subjects exhibit long-range power-law correlations; however such correlations either will be destroyed if we randomly shuffle the original data or will cease to be of a power-law form if we chop some high-amplitude spikes off. These facts indicate that the colonic tissue or enteric nervous system (ENS) with a good functional motility has a good memory to its past behaviours and generates well-organized colonic spikes; however such good memory becomes too long to be remembered for the colonic activity of the slow transit constipation (STC) patient and colonic dysmotility occurs.

  18. Continuous concentric lamellar block copolymer nanofibers with long range order.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minglin; Titievsky, Kirill; Thomas, Edwin L; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2009-04-01

    Fibers with long-range ordered internal structures have applications in various areas such as photonic band gap fibers, optical waveguides, wearable power, sensors, and sustained drug release. Up to now, such fibers have been formed by melt extrusion or drawing from a macroscopic preformed rod and were typically limited to diameters >10 microm with internal features >1 microm (Abouraddy, A. F.; et al. Nat. Mater. 2007, 6, 336). We describe a new class of continuous fibers and fibrous membranes with long-range ordered concentric lamellar structure that have fiber diameters and feature sizes 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than those made by conventional methods. These fibers are created through confined self-assembly of block copolymers within core-shell electrospun filaments. In contrast to the copolymer in bulk or thin films, the domains of the concentric lamellar structure are shown here to vary quantitatively with (radial) position and to exhibit a novel dislocation that accommodates variations in fiber diameter robustly, permitting for the first time the realization of long-range order in technologically meaningful, continuous fibers with approximately 300 nm diameter and 50 nm radial period.

  19. Possible Long Range Component in the Nuclear Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, T.

    In search of the possible long range force between hadrons, S wave phase shift data of the proton-proton scattering are analyzed. In the analysis, the once subtracted Kantor amplitude is calculated, and the one-pion exchange contribution is separated. The remainder of the Kantor amplitude has a huge cusp at the threshold with the attractive sign. It is shown that such a cusp cannot be fitted by the spectral function of the twopion exchange, since it starts at t = 4μ {π }2 . The cusp is fitted by a potential of the long range type with the asymptotic form of V(r) -C/rα. After the chi square search, it turns out α is 6.1 7 and C is positive and has the strength of the strong interaction. It is consistent with the potential of the strong van der Waals force. The transition from the London type to the Casimir-Polder type of the van der Waals interaction is examined. Possible experiments to observe directly such a long range force in the nuclear force are also indicated.

  20. Observation of prethermalization in long-range interacting spin chains.

    PubMed

    Neyenhuis, Brian; Zhang, Jiehang; Hess, Paul W; Smith, Jacob; Lee, Aaron C; Richerme, Phil; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Gorshkov, Alexey V; Monroe, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Although statistical mechanics describes thermal equilibrium states, these states may or may not emerge dynamically for a subsystem of an isolated quantum many-body system. For instance, quantum systems that are near-integrable usually fail to thermalize in an experimentally realistic time scale, and instead relax to quasi-stationary prethermal states that can be described by statistical mechanics, when approximately conserved quantities are included in a generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE). We experimentally study the relaxation dynamics of a chain of up to 22 spins evolving under a long-range transverse-field Ising Hamiltonian following a sudden quench. For sufficiently long-range interactions, the system relaxes to a new type of prethermal state that retains a strong memory of the initial conditions. However, the prethermal state in this case cannot be described by a standard GGE; it rather arises from an emergent double-well potential felt by the spin excitations. This result shows that prethermalization occurs in a broader context than previously thought, and reveals new challenges for a generic understanding of the thermalization of quantum systems, particularly in the presence of long-range interactions.

  1. Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Dobbs, Howard A; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-06-16

    Electrolyte solutions with high concentrations of ions are prevalent in biological systems and energy storage technologies. Nevertheless, the high interaction free energy and long-range nature of electrostatic interactions makes the development of a general conceptual picture of concentrated electrolytes a significant challenge. In this work, we study ionic liquids, single-component liquids composed solely of ions, in an attempt to provide a novel perspective on electrostatic screening in very high concentration (nonideal) electrolytes. We use temperature-dependent surface force measurements to demonstrate that the long-range, exponentially decaying diffuse double-layer forces observed across ionic liquids exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence: Increasing the temperature decreases the measured exponential (Debye) decay length, implying an increase in the thermally driven effective free-ion concentration in the bulk ionic liquids. We use our quantitative results to propose a general model of long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids, where thermally activated charge fluctuations, either free ions or correlated domains (quasiparticles), take on the role of ions in traditional dilute electrolyte solutions. This picture represents a crucial step toward resolving several inconsistencies surrounding electrostatic screening and charge transport in ionic liquids that have impeded progress within the interdisciplinary ionic liquids community. More broadly, our work provides a previously unidentified way of envisioning highly concentrated electrolytes, with implications for diverse areas of inquiry, ranging from designing electrochemical devices to rationalizing electrostatic interactions in biological systems.

  2. Characterization of long-range transport of aerosols over Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talianu, Camelia; Seibert, Petra

    2017-04-01

    The long-range transport of aerosols over Austria is characterized using measurements from EARLINET lidar stations and AERONET stations closest to Austria, and aerosol transport models. The analysis is based on selected events of long-range transport of aerosols recorded over Central and South-Eastern Europe: dust, biomass burning, continental aerosols and a special case of volcanic ash, using measurements from EARLINET and AERONET stations around Austria: Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Munich, Leipzig (all stations located in Germany), and Bucharest (Romania). Aerosol layers have been determined using a wavelet analysis applied to the lidar measurements. The optical properties of these aerosols have been also determined from lidar and sunphotometer measurements. The analysis of the trajectories has been performed with the FLEXTRA model, while the estimation of the potential areas of aerosols' sources has been performed using FLEXPART transport model. Based on the spatial and temporal distributions of the trajectories, the main groups of trajectories have been identified using a cluster analysis. The results shows that the long-range transported aerosols over Austria in the spring and summer seasons originate mainly from Sahara (dust) and Canada (biomass burning), coming over Germany. A comparison of the results with the CALIPSO satellite measurements over Austria is also performed. Supported by Austrian Science Fund FWF, Project M 2031, Meitner-Programm.

  3. Long range interactions on wires: A reciprocal space based formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mináry, Peter; Morrone, Joseph A.; Yarne, Dawn A.; Tuckerman, Mark E.; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2004-12-01

    There are many atomic scale systems in materials, chemistry, and biology that can be effectively modeled as finite in two of the physical spatial dimensions and periodically replicated in the third including nanoscale metallic and semiconducting wires, carbon nanotubes, and DNA. However, it is difficult to design techniques to treat long range forces in these systems without truncation or recourse to slowly convergent supercells or computationally inefficient Poisson solvers. In this paper, a rigorous reciprocal space based formalism which permits long range forces on wires to be evaluated simply and easily via a small modification of existing methods for three dimensional periodicity is derived. The formalism is applied to determine long range interactions both between point particles using an Ewald-like approach and the continuous charge distributions that appear in electronic structure calculations. In this way, both empirical force field calculations and, for example, plane-wave based density functional theory computations on wires can be performed easily. The methodology is tested on model and realistic systems including a lithium doped carbon nanotube.

  4. Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids

    PubMed Central

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Dobbs, Howard A.; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    Electrolyte solutions with high concentrations of ions are prevalent in biological systems and energy storage technologies. Nevertheless, the high interaction free energy and long-range nature of electrostatic interactions makes the development of a general conceptual picture of concentrated electrolytes a significant challenge. In this work, we study ionic liquids, single-component liquids composed solely of ions, in an attempt to provide a novel perspective on electrostatic screening in very high concentration (nonideal) electrolytes. We use temperature-dependent surface force measurements to demonstrate that the long-range, exponentially decaying diffuse double-layer forces observed across ionic liquids exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence: Increasing the temperature decreases the measured exponential (Debye) decay length, implying an increase in the thermally driven effective free-ion concentration in the bulk ionic liquids. We use our quantitative results to propose a general model of long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids, where thermally activated charge fluctuations, either free ions or correlated domains (quasiparticles), take on the role of ions in traditional dilute electrolyte solutions. This picture represents a crucial step toward resolving several inconsistencies surrounding electrostatic screening and charge transport in ionic liquids that have impeded progress within the interdisciplinary ionic liquids community. More broadly, our work provides a previously unidentified way of envisioning highly concentrated electrolytes, with implications for diverse areas of inquiry, ranging from designing electrochemical devices to rationalizing electrostatic interactions in biological systems. PMID:26040001

  5. Optical signal monitoring in phase modulated optical fiber transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) is one of the essential functions for future high speed optical networks. Among the parameters to be monitored, chromatic dispersion (CD) is especially important since it has a significant impact on overall system performance. In this thesis effective CD monitoring approaches for phase-shift keying (PSK) based optical transmission systems are investigated. A number of monitoring schemes based on radio frequency (RF) spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling are proposed and their performance evaluated. A method for dispersion monitoring of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals based on RF power detection is studied. The RF power spectrum is found to increase with the increase of CD and decrease with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The spectral power density dependence on CD is studied theoretically and then verified through simulations and experiments. The monitoring sensitivity for nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) based systems can reach 80ps/nm/dB and 34ps/nm/dB respectively. The scheme enables the monitoring of differential group delay (DGD) and CD simultaneously. The monitoring sensitivity of CD and DGD can reach 56.7ps/nm/dB and 3.1ps/dB using a bandpass filter. The effects of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), DGD, fiber nonlinearity and chirp on the monitoring results are investigated. Two RF pilot tones are employed for CD monitoring of DPSK signals. Specially selected pilot tone frequencies enable good monitoring sensitivity with minimum influence on the received signals. The dynamic range exceeding 35dB and monitoring sensitivity up to 9.5ps/nm/dB are achieved. Asynchronous sampling technique is employed for CD monitoring. A signed CD monitoring method for 10Gb/s NRZ-DPSK and RZ-DPSK systems using asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique is studied. The demodulated signals suffer asymmetric waveform distortion if

  6. Long-range surface modes supported by thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuzi; Sambles, J. R.; Bradberry, G. W.

    1991-09-01

    A detailed analysis of the surface modes of a thin slab of material of dielectric constant ɛ2 (=ɛr2-iɛi2) surrounded symmetrically by dielectric media is presented. Results show that in the thin-film limit, as well as the well-known long-range surface plasmon for a thin metal layer and the TM guided mode for a thin dielectric, a long-range surface mode exists for almost any value of ɛ2. This is even true if the imaginary part of ɛ2, ɛi2, is much larger than the real part ɛr2. We also find that a long-range surface mode may arise from the coupling between two surfaces which individually cannot support a surface mode. These are a pair of special coupled-surface modes which may exist below a certain critical film thickness and which have two separate propagation vectors each with the same field symmetry. It is also found that the inverse situation may pertain, that is for certain relative values of dielectric constants even though ordinary surface modes may exist, below a critical thickness the resulting coupled long-range mode no longer exists. The analysis has also been extended to practical situations with weakly absorbing surrounding media and to circumstances where the dielectric constants of the surrounding media are slightly different. Both of these effects modify the dispersion relations obtained for the simple case and introduce further limit thicknesses into the problem. Analytic formulas in the thin-film limit are presented for all the above situations and field distributions and energy flow (Poynting vector) profiles presented to illustrate as necessary the nature of the modes supported by these systems. Finally experimental results are presented which illustrate the rather sweeping conclusion that a long-range surface mode may exist on a thin film for almost all values of ɛr2 and ɛi2. This result paves the way for a range of optics experiments on absorbing structures.

  7. Short-range/Long-range Integrated Target (SLIT) for Video Guidance Sensor Rendezvous and Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Fred D. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A laser target reflector assembly for mounting upon spacecraft having a long-range reflector array formed from a plurality of unfiltered light reflectors embedded in an array pattern upon a hemispherical reflector disposed upon a mounting plate. The reflector assembly also includes a short-range reflector array positioned upon the mounting body proximate to the long-range reflector array. The short-range reflector array includes three filtered light reflectors positioned upon extensions from the mounting body. The three filtered light reflectors retro-reflect substantially all incident light rays that are transmissive by their monochromatic filters and received by the three filtered light reflectors. In one embodiment the short-range reflector array is embedded within the hemispherical reflector,

  8. Long-range spin accumulation from heat injection in mesoscopic superconductors with Zeeman splitting.

    PubMed

    Silaev, M; Virtanen, P; Bergeret, F S; Heikkilä, T T

    2015-04-24

    We describe far-from-equilibrium nonlocal transport in a diffusive superconducting wire with a Zeeman splitting, taking into account different spin relaxation mechanisms. We demonstrate that due to the Zeeman splitting, an injection of current in a superconducting wire creates spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization. This effect leads to a long-range spin accumulation detectable in the nonlocal signal. Our model gives a qualitative explanation and provides accurate fits of recent experimental results in terms of realistic parameters.

  9. Long-range temporal correlations in neural narrowband time-series arise due to critical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Duncan A J; Nikulin, Vadim V

    2017-01-01

    We show theoretically that the hypothesis of criticality as a theory of long-range fluctuation in the human brain may be distinguished from the theory of passive filtering on the basis of macroscopic neuronal signals such as the electroencephalogram, using novel theory of narrowband amplitude time-series at criticality. Our theory predicts the division of critical activity into meta-universality classes. As a consequence our analysis shows that experimental electroencephalography data favours the hypothesis of criticality in the human brain.

  10. Experimental evaluation of a radio-on-FSO communication system for multiple RF signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaura, Kamugisha; Dat, Pham; Bekkali, Abdelmoula; Shah, Alam; Suzuki, Toshiji; Wakamori, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto, Mitsuji; Nakamura, Takuya; Takahashi, Koichi; Higashino, Takeshi; Aburakawa, Yuji; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present the design concept plus experimental results and evaluation of a newly developed advanced DWDM Radio-on-Free-Space Optical (RoFSO) communication system capable of simultaneous transmission of multiple RF signals. The RoFSO system is evaluated based on the performance metric parameters defined for the various RF signals comprising of different wireless services including terrestrial digital broadcasting signals, cellular 3GPP W-CDMA signals, IEEE 802.11 WLAN based signals etc being transmitted over the RoFSO link. The performance metric parameters being considered include standard optical received power, CNR and BER characteristics, W-CDMA signal transmission metric parameters like Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), modulation error ratio (MER) for digital terrestrial television broadcasting signals as well as spectrum mask and EVM for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN signal transmission.

  11. Dynamic data transmission technology for expendable current profiler based on low-voltage differential signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuhan; Zhang, Qisheng; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Shenghui; Yuan, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Xinyue

    2017-07-01

    A dynamic data transmission technology for expendable current profilers (XCPs) is proposed in this paper. Two parallel varnished wires are employed as the data transmission medium. By testing the transmission properties of the varnished wires, a baseband transmission system is studied and designed. Modified low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS) is adopted as the physical layer for data transmission. The data transmission protocol is modified and optimized in accordance with the RS-232 protocol, and the Manchester code is superimposed. According to the results of indoor and marine tests, the data transmission distance of the designed system, which employs a 0.1 mm diameter varnished wire, extends to 2 km with high efficiency and accuracy for data transmission, exhibiting excellent performance. Moreover, this data transmission technology could be used for other expendable marine-environment parametric measuring instruments such as an expendable bathythermograph and an expendable conductivity temperature depth profiler.

  12. Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Fisher, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The spreading of evolutionary novelties across populations is the central element of adaptation. Unless populations are well mixed (like bacteria in a shaken test tube), the spreading dynamics depend not only on fitness differences but also on the dispersal behavior of the species. Spreading at a constant speed is generally predicted when dispersal is sufficiently short ranged, specifically when the dispersal kernel falls off exponentially or faster. However, the case of long-range dispersal is unresolved: Although it is clear that even rare long-range jumps can lead to a drastic speedup—as air-traffic–mediated epidemics show—it has been difficult to quantify the ensuing stochastic dynamical process. However, such knowledge is indispensable for a predictive understanding of many spreading processes in natural populations. We present a simple iterative scaling approximation supported by simulations and rigorous bounds that accurately predicts evolutionary spread, which is determined by a trade-off between frequency and potential effectiveness of long-distance jumps. In contrast to the exponential laws predicted by deterministic “mean-field” approximations, we show that the asymptotic spatial growth is according to either a power law or a stretched exponential, depending on the tails of the dispersal kernel. More importantly, we provide a full time-dependent description of the convergence to the asymptotic behavior, which can be anomalously slow and is relevant even for long times. Our results also apply to spreading dynamics on networks with a spectrum of long-range links under certain conditions on the probabilities of long-distance travel: These are relevant for the spread of epidemics. PMID:25368183

  13. Modelling control of epidemics spreading by long-range interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the spread of epidemics characterized by a mixture of local and non-local interactions. The infection spreads on a two-dimensional lattice with the fixed nearest neighbour connections. In addition, long-range dynamical links are formed by moving agents (vectors). Vectors perform random walks, with step length distributed according to a thick-tail distribution. Two distributions are considered in this paper, an α-stable distribution describing self-similar vector movement, yet characterized by an infinite variance and an exponential power characterized by a large but finite variance. Such long-range interactions are hard to track and make control of epidemics very difficult. We also allowed for cryptic infection, whereby an infected individual on the lattice can be infectious prior to showing any symptoms of infection or disease. To account for such cryptic spread, we considered a control strategy in which not only detected, i.e. symptomatic, individuals but also all individuals within a certain control neighbourhood are treated upon the detection of disease. We show that it is possible to eradicate the disease by using such purely local control measures, even in the presence of long-range jumps. In particular, we show that the success of local control and the choice of the optimal strategy depend in a non-trivial way on the dispersal patterns of the vectors. By characterizing these patterns using the stability index of the α-stable distribution to change the power-law behaviour or the exponent characterizing the decay of an exponential power distribution, we show that infection can be successfully contained using relatively small control neighbourhoods for two limiting cases for long-distance dispersal and for vectors that are much more limited in their dispersal range. PMID:19126536

  14. Acceleration of evolutionary spread by long-range dispersal.

    PubMed

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Fisher, Daniel S

    2014-11-18

    The spreading of evolutionary novelties across populations is the central element of adaptation. Unless populations are well mixed (like bacteria in a shaken test tube), the spreading dynamics depend not only on fitness differences but also on the dispersal behavior of the species. Spreading at a constant speed is generally predicted when dispersal is sufficiently short ranged, specifically when the dispersal kernel falls off exponentially or faster. However, the case of long-range dispersal is unresolved: Although it is clear that even rare long-range jumps can lead to a drastic speedup--as air-traffic-mediated epidemics show--it has been difficult to quantify the ensuing stochastic dynamical process. However, such knowledge is indispensable for a predictive understanding of many spreading processes in natural populations. We present a simple iterative scaling approximation supported by simulations and rigorous bounds that accurately predicts evolutionary spread, which is determined by a trade-off between frequency and potential effectiveness of long-distance jumps. In contrast to the exponential laws predicted by deterministic "mean-field" approximations, we show that the asymptotic spatial growth is according to either a power law or a stretched exponential, depending on the tails of the dispersal kernel. More importantly, we provide a full time-dependent description of the convergence to the asymptotic behavior, which can be anomalously slow and is relevant even for long times. Our results also apply to spreading dynamics on networks with a spectrum of long-range links under certain conditions on the probabilities of long-distance travel: These are relevant for the spread of epidemics.

  15. Cross-correlation of long-range correlated series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna

    2009-03-01

    A method for estimating the cross-correlation Cxy(τ) of long-range correlated series x(t) and y(t), at varying lags τ and scales n, is proposed. For fractional Brownian motions with Hurst exponents H1 and H2, the asymptotic expression for Cxy(τ) depends only on the lag τ (wide-sense stationarity) and scales as a power of n with exponent H1+H2 for \\tau \\rightarrow 0 . The method is illustrated on: (i) financial series, to show the leverage effect; (ii) genomic sequences, to estimate the correlations between structural parameters along the chromosomes.

  16. DIII-D tokamak long range plan. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1992-08-01

    The DIII-D Tokamak Long Range Plan for controlled thermonuclear magnetic fusion research will be carried out with broad national and international participation. The plan covers: (1) operation of the DIII-D tokamak to conduct research experiments to address needs of the US Magnetic Fusion Program; (2) facility modifications to allow these new experiments to be conducted; and (3) collaborations with other laboratories to integrate DIII-D research into the national and international fusion programs. The period covered by this plan is 1 November 19983 through 31 October 1998.

  17. Anisotropic blockade using pendular long-range Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiles, Matthew T.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.

    2017-05-01

    We propose an experiment to demonstrate a blockade mechanism caused by long-range anisotropic interactions in an ultracold dipolar gas composed of the recently observed "butterfly" Rydberg molecules. At the blockade radius, the strong intermolecular interaction between two adjacent molecules shifts their molecular states out of resonance with the photoassociation laser, preventing their simultaneous excitation. When the molecules are prepared in a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) trap, the interaction's strength can be tuned via a weak external field. The molecular density thus depends strongly on the angle between the trap axis and the field. The available Rydberg and internal molecular states provide a wide range of tunability.

  18. A Long Range Science Rover For Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation currently underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of a long range science rover for future missions to Mars. The small rover prototype, called Rocky 7, is capable of long traverse. autonomous navigation. and science instrument control, carries three science instruments, and can be commanded from any computer platform and any location using the World Wide Web. In this paper we describe the mobility system, the sampling system, the sensor suite, navigation and control, onboard science instruments. and the ground command and control system.

  19. INEL D&D Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility.

  20. Long-range Prediction of Examining Room Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Andrew T.; Hsieh, Richard K. C.

    1972-01-01

    A quantitative methodology for predicting long-range examining room requirements of an orthopedic outpatient clinic is described. A simulation model of the clinic is used in an analysis of the sensitivity of four performance measures to changes in the clinic components, providing upper and lower boundaries for the component values and ranking the components by their importance. Regression equations relate the number of examining rooms to the performance measures, and an overall equation is constructed to predict examining room requirements as a function of weights assigned to the four measures. PMID:5072861

  1. ATHLETE Mobility Performance in Long-Range Traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a modular mobility and manipulation platform being developed to support NASA operations in a variety of missions, including exploration of planetary surfaces. The agile system consists of a symmetrical arrangement of six limbs, each with seven articulated degrees of freedom and a powered wheel. This design enables transport of bulky payloads over a wide range of terrains and is envisioned as a tool to mobilize habitats, power-generation equipment, and other supplies for long-range exploration and outpost construction.

  2. INEL D&D long-range plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  3. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is presented of three separate programs that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of a span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel.

  4. Restricted Boltzmann machines for the long range Ising models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Tamao

    2016-12-01

    We set up restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) to reproduce the long range Ising (LRI) models of the Ohmic type in one dimension. The RBM parameters are tuned by using the standard machine learning procedure with an additional method of configuration with probability (CwP). The quality of resultant RBM is evaluated through the susceptibility with respect to the magnetic external field. We compare the results with those by block decimation renormalization group (BDRG) method, and our RBM clear the test with satisfactory precision.

  5. Passive vibration isolation for long range aerial reconnaissance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoole, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses an approach to the design of a passive isolation system for a high-altitude, long-range oblique reconnaissance camera which works in conjunction with the active, gyro-stabilized system to attenuate a broad spectrum of vibratory inputs. The proposed design provides an elastic suspension system with minimum damping forces and a damping system which controls the excursions of the camera in the resonant region of disturbance; it has both spring and damping forces in complete balance about the center of gravity of the camera. Mathematical equations and definition in support of the proposed approach are presented together with some pertinent data.

  6. Hysteresis of long-range ordering in CuAu

    SciTech Connect

    Chalupa, B.; Chmelik, F.; Sima, V.; Sprusil, B.; Spanl, M.; Lang, H.; Pfeiler, W.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of heating and cooling on the long-range order transformation in stoichiometric CuAu is investigated by several complementary measuring methods. Measurements of heat flow, resistometry and acoustic emission are done dynamically by linear heating/cooling. It is shown that measuring dynamically yields the expected effect of undercooling, which decreases with decreasing cooling rate. The dependence of undercooling on cooling rate is compared with the concept of continuous cooling for glass forming. A small influence of heating rate on disordering temperature is reported (retro-effect).

  7. The design of a long range megatransport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Layton, J. B.; Allen, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Megatransport objectives and constraints are briefly reviewed, and certain solutions developed by student design teams at Perdue University are summarized. Particular attention is given to the market needs and the economic risks involved in such a project; and the different approaches taken to solve the problem and difficulties faced by the design teams. A long range megatransport aircraft is aimed at carrying more than 600 passengers at reduced cost, and at the same time, reducing airport and airway congestion. The design effort must take into account airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures.

  8. Long-range attraction of particles adhered to lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarfati, Raphael; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2016-07-01

    Many biological systems fold thin sheets of lipid membrane into complex three-dimensional structures. This microscopic origami is often mediated by the adsorption and self-assembly of proteins on a membrane. As a model system to study adsorption-mediated interactions, we study the collective behavior of micrometric particles adhered to a lipid vesicle. We estimate the colloidal interactions using a maximum likelihood analysis of particle trajectories. When the particles are highly wrapped by a tense membrane, we observe strong long-range attractions with a typical binding energy of 150 kBT and significant forces extending a few microns.

  9. Hydrogen Atoms Cause Long-Range Electronic Effects on Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffieux, P.; Gröning, O.; Schwaller, P.; Schlapbach, L.; Gröning, P.

    2000-05-01

    We report on long-range electronic effects caused by hydrogen-carbon interaction at the graphite surface. Two types of defects could be distinguished with a combined mode of scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy: chemisorption of hydrogen on the basal plane of graphite and atomic vacancy formation. Both types show a \\(3×3\\)R30° superlattice in the local density of states but have a different topographic structure. The range of modifications in the electronic structure, of fundamental importance for electronic devices based on carbon nanostructures, has been found to be of the order of 20-25 lattice constants.

  10. Political Mechanisms for Long-Range Survival and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.

    As the first species aware of extinction and capable of proactively ensuring our long-term survival and development, it is striking that we do not do so with the rigor, formality, and foresight it requires. Only from a reactive posture have we responded to the challenges of global warfare, human rights, environmental concerns, and sustainable development. Despite our awareness of the possibility for extinction and apocalyptic set-backs to our evolution, and despite the existence of long-range studies-which must still be dramatically increased-proactive global policy implementation regarding our long-term survival and development is arguably non-existent. This lack of long-term policy making can be attributed in part to the lack of formal political mechanisms to facilitate longer-range policy making that extends 30 years or more into the future. Political mechanisms for infusing long-range thinking, research, and strategic planning into the policy-making process can help correct this shortcoming and provide the motivation needed to adequately address long-term challenges with the political rigor required to effectively establish and implement long-term policies. There are some efforts that attempt to address longer-range issues, but those efforts often do not connect to the political process, do not extend 30 or more years into the future, are not well-funded, and are not sufficiently systemic. Political mechanisms for long-range survival and prosperity could correct these inadequacies by raising awareness, providing funding, and most importantly, leveraging political rigor to establish and enforce long-range strategic planning and policies. The feasibility of such mechanisms should first be rigorously studied and assessed in a feasibility study, which could then inform implementation. This paper will present the case for such a study and suggest some possible political mechanisms that should be investigated further in the proposed study. This work is being further

  11. Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    ted to the Army’s burn center between March 2003 and February 2007. Data in- cluded total body surface area (TBSA) burn, ventilatory status... total body surface area (range, ə%–95%) with a mean Injury Severity Score of 12.2 13.7. One hundred eight-one (33.5%) casualties required venti...Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  12. The long range transport of sulfurous aerosol to Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Ottar, B.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the LRTAP program and other European studies are discussed which show that considerable long-range transport of air pollutants from the UK and central Europe to Scandinavia occurs. Data are examined which reveal that the sulfate deposition pattern in Scandinavia is largely governed by precipitation and wind direction and that sulfates deposition reaches maximum values of 3 to 5 metric tons/sq km in southern Scandinavia. The contribution from precipitation is found to outweigh the dry deposition, particularly in southern Norway.

  13. Coherent long-range thermoelectrics in nonadiabatic driven quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Marcos, F.; Platero, G.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate direct energy and heat transfer between two distant sites of a triple quantum dot connected to reservoirs, where one of the edge dots is driven by an ac-gate voltage. We theoretically propose how to implement heat and cooling engines mediated by long-range photoassisted transport. Additionally, we propose a simple setup to heat up coherently the two reservoirs symmetrically and a mechanism to store energy in the closed system. The present proposals can be experimentally implemented and easily controlled by tuning the external parameters.

  14. ATHLETE Mobility Performance in Long-Range Traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a modular mobility and manipulation platform being developed to support NASA operations in a variety of missions, including exploration of planetary surfaces. The agile system consists of a symmetrical arrangement of six limbs, each with seven articulated degrees of freedom and a powered wheel. This design enables transport of bulky payloads over a wide range of terrains and is envisioned as a tool to mobilize habitats, power-generation equipment, and other supplies for long-range exploration and outpost construction.

  15. Anisotropic blockade using pendular long-range Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiles, M. T.; Lee, H.; Pérez-Ríos, J.; Greene, C. H.

    2017-07-01

    We propose an experiment to demonstrate a novel blockade mechanism caused by long-range anisotropic interactions in an ultracold dipolar gas composed of the recently observed "butterfly" Rydberg molecules. At the blockade radius, the strong intermolecular interaction between two adjacent molecules shifts their molecular states out of resonance with the photoassociation laser, preventing their simultaneous excitation. When the molecules are prepared in a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) trap, the interaction's strength can be tuned via a weak external field. The molecular density thus depends strongly on the angle between the trap axis and the field. The available Rydberg and molecular states provide a wide range of tunability.

  16. Long-range exchange interaction between magnetic impurities in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, M.; Mishchenko, E. G.

    2017-02-01

    The effective spin exchange RKKY coupling between impurities (adatoms) on graphene mediated by conduction electrons is studied as a function of the strength of the potential part of the on-site energy U of the electron-adatom interaction. With increasing U , the exchange coupling becomes long range, determined largely by the impurity levels with energies close to the Dirac points. When adatoms reside on opposite sublattices, their exchange coupling, normally antiferromagnetic, becomes ferromagnetic and resonantly enhanced at a specific distance where an impurity level crosses the Dirac point.

  17. A linear signal transmission system calibration method of wideband GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Zhao, Kai; Gu, Ling-jia; Cao, Qiong; Li, Xiao-feng; Zheng, Xing-ming

    2016-09-01

    In VHF pulse Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) system, the echo pass through the antenna and transmission line circuit, then reach the GPR receiver. Thus the reflection coefficient at the receiver sampling gate interface, which is at the end of the transmission line, is different from the real reflection coefficient of the media at the antenna interface, which could cause the GPR receiving error. The pulse GPR receiver is a wideband system that can't be simply described as traditional narrowband transmission line model. Since the GPR transmission circuit is a linear system, the linear transformation method could be used to analyze the characteristic of the GPR receiving system. A GPR receiver calibration method based on transmission line theory is proposed in this paper, which analyzes the relationship between the reflection coefficients of theory calculation at antenna interface and the measuring data by network analyzer at the sampling gate interface. Then the least square method is introduced to calibrate the transfer function of the GPR receiver transmission circuit. This calibration method can be useful in media quantitative inversion by GPR. When the reflection coefficient at the sampling gate is obtained, the real reflection coefficient of the media at the antenna interface can be easily determined.

  18. Long-range synchrony and emergence of neural reentry

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Hanna; Marom, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    Neural synchronization across long distances is a functionally important phenomenon in health and disease. In order to access the basis of different modes of long-range synchrony, we monitor spiking activities over centimetre scale in cortical networks and show that the mode of synchrony depends upon a length scale, λ, which is the minimal path that activity should propagate through to find its point of origin ready for reactivation. When λ is larger than the physical dimension of the network, distant neuronal populations operate synchronously, giving rise to irregularly occurring network-wide events that last hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds. In contrast, when λ approaches the dimension of the network, a continuous self-sustained reentry propagation emerges, a regular seizure-like mode that is marked by precise spatiotemporal patterns (‘synfire chains’) and may last many minutes. Termination of a reentry phase is preceded by a decrease of propagation speed to a halt. Stimulation decreases both propagation speed and λ values, which modifies the synchrony mode respectively. The results contribute to the understanding of the origin and termination of different modes of neural synchrony as well as their long-range spatial patterns, while hopefully catering to manipulation of the phenomena in pathological conditions. PMID:27874019

  19. Phase transitions in simplified models with long-range interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha Filho, T. M.; Amato, M. A.; Mello, B. A.; Figueiredo, A.

    2011-10-01

    We study the origin of phase transitions in several simplified models with long-range interactions. For the self-gravitating ring model, we are unable to observe a possible phase transition predicted by Nardini and Casetti [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.80.060103 80, 060103R (2009).] from an energy landscape analysis. Instead we observe a sharp, although without any nonanalyticity, change from a core-halo to a core-only configuration in the spatial distribution functions for low energies. By introducing a different class of solvable simplified models without any critical points in the potential energy we show that a behavior similar to the thermodynamics of the ring model is obtained, with a first-order phase transition from an almost homogeneous high-energy phase to a clustered phase and the same core-halo to core configuration transition at lower energies. We discuss the origin of these features for the simplified models and show that the first-order phase transition comes from the maximization of the entropy of the system as a function of energy and an order parameter, as previously discussed by Hahn and Kastner [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.72.056134 72, 056134 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. BEPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2006-00100-7 50, 311 (2006)], which seems to be the main mechanism causing phase transitions in long-range interacting systems.

  20. Disordered Kitaev chains with long-range pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaoming

    2017-03-01

    We study the competition of disorder and superconductivity for a generalized Kitaev model in incommensurate potentials. The generalized Kitaev model describes one dimensional spinless fermions with long-range p-wave superconducting pairing, which decays with distance l as a power law  ∼1/{{l}α} . We focus on the transition from the topological superconducting phase to the topologically trivial Anderson localized phase, and effects of the exponent α on this phase transition. In the topological superconducting phase, for a system under open boundary condition the amplitude of zero-mode Majorana fermion has a hybrid exponential-algebraic decay as the distance increases from the edge. In the Anderson localized phase, some single-particle states remain critical for very strong disorders and the number of critical states increases as α decreases. In addition, except for critical disorders, the correlation function always has an exponential decay at the short range and an algebraic decay at the long range. Phase transition points are also numerically determined and the topological phase transition happens earlier at a smaller disorder strength for a system with smaller α.

  1. Dolphin "packet" use during long-range echolocation tasks.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J

    2013-03-01

    When echolocating, dolphins typically emit a single broadband "click," then wait to receive the echo before emitting another click. However, previous studies have shown that during long-range echolocation tasks, they may instead emit a burst, or "packet," of several clicks, then wait for the packet of echoes to return before emitting another packet of clicks. The reasons for the use of packets are unknown. In this study, packet use was examined by having trained bottlenose dolphins perform long-range echolocation tasks. The tasks featured "phantom" echoes produced by capturing the dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks, convolving the clicks with an impulse response to create an echo waveform, and then broadcasting the delayed, scaled echo to the dolphin. Dolphins were trained to report the presence of phantom echoes or a change in phantom echoes. Target range varied from 25 to 800 m. At ranges below 75 m, the dolphins rarely used packets. As the range increased beyond 75 m, two of the three dolphins increasingly produced packets, while the third dolphin instead utilized very high click repetition rates. The use of click packets appeared to be governed more by echo delay (target range) than echo amplitude.

  2. Helioseismology with long-range dark matter-baryon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Ilídio; Panci, Paolo; Silk, Joseph E-mail: panci@iap.fr

    2014-11-10

    Assuming the existence of a primordial asymmetry in the dark sector, we study how long-range dark matter (DM)-baryon interactions, induced by the kinetic mixing of a new U(1) gauge boson and a photon, affect the evolution of the Sun and, in turn, the sound speed the profile obtained from helioseismology. Thanks to the explicit dependence on the exchanged momenta in the differential cross section (Rutherford-like scattering), we find that DM particles with a mass of ∼10 GeV, kinetic mixing parameter of the order of 10{sup –9}, and a mediator with a mass smaller than a few MeV improve the agreement between the best solar model and the helioseismic data without being excluded by direct detection experiments. In particular, the LUX detector will soon be able to either constrain or confirm our best-fit solar model in the presence of a dark sector with long-range interactions that reconcile helioseismology with thermal neutrino results.

  3. Emergent long-range magnetic ordering in manganite superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burganov, Bulat; Macke, Sebastian; Monkman, Eric; Adamo, Carolina; Shai, Daniel; Schlom, Darrell; Sawatzky, George; Shen, Kyle

    2015-03-01

    Complex oxides composed into atomically precise heterostructures host a plethora of new phenomena driven by interface effects, dimensionality, correlations and strain. An example is emergent ferromagnetism in the superlattices (SL) of LaMnO3/SrMnO3 and the dimensionality-driven metal insulator transition, still not well understood theoretically. We use soft x-ray scattering combined with SQUID magnetometry to determine the magnetic and orbital ordering in the (LaMnO3)2n /(SrMnO3)n SL for n =1,2,3,4. By composition this system is close to colossal-magnetoresistive La2/3Sr1/3MnO3, an FM metal below 400K. The system undergoes a metal-insulator transition with higher n and is believed to have a complex magnetic ordering. We observe an unexpected long-range order in the n =4 sample where the magnetic period is equal to two chemical periods. The observed half-order Bragg peaks show strong linear and no circular dichroism. The temperature and polarization dependence of reflectometry points towards alignment between A-type AFM orders in the neighboring LaMnO3 layers, which is very unusual and indicates a long range interaction acting across the thick SrMnO3 layers with nominally G-type spin configuration. We simulate the reflectometry data for several model spin configurations to further elucidate the nature of this ordering.

  4. The Frontiers of Nuclear Science: A Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-01

    In a letter dated July 17, 2006, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science for Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Mathematical and Physical Sciences Directorate charged the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) to “conduct a study of the opportunities and priorities for U.S. nuclear physics research and recommend a long range plan that will provide a framework for coordinated advancement of the nation’s nuclear science research programs over the next decade.” This request set in motion a bottom-up review and forward look by the nuclear science community. With input from this community-wide process, a 59 member working group, which included the present NSAC members, gathered at the beginning of May, 2007, to develop guidance on how to optimize the future research directions for the field based on the projected resources outlined in the charge letter from DOE and NSF. A new long range plan—The Frontiers of Nuclear Science—grew out of this meeting. For the last decade, the top priority for nuclear science has been to utilize the flagship facilities that were built with investments by the nation in the 1980s and 1990s. Research with these facilities has led to many significant new discoveries that have changed our understanding of the world in which we live. But new discoveries demand new facilities, and the successes cannot continue indefinitely without new investment.

  5. Coping With Climate Noise: Long Range Dependence and Weather Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewson, S.; Caballero, R.

    2002-12-01

    Random day-to-day changes in weather lead to random year-to-year fluctuations in monthly and seasonal means, a feature known as "climate noise". Such climate noise has direct economic impact on a wide variety of businesses. A typical example is energy vendors, whose annual revenues are closely correlated with seasonal mean temperatures. To deal with this risk, a form of insurance known as weather derivatives has been developed in recent years. We discuss a Monte Carlo approach to the pricing of weather derivatives based on stochastic modeling of daily temperature. It will be shown that this approach can only be succesful if the time-series model correctly captures the autocorrelation structure of the data even at very high lags. Evidence will be presented that observed daily temperatures exhibit long-range dependence, i.e. power-law decay of the autocorrelation. This means that classical Box-Jenkins ARMA models are unequal to the task, since their autocorrelations decay exponentially. A generalisation of ARMA models which explicitly includes long-range dependence does however prove to be suitable, at least in some cases. We also briefly discuss the physical mechanisms which give rise to the long memory found in the data.

  6. An analysis of foliage effects on long-range surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, D. L.

    1980-04-01

    Visibility is one of the key factors in determining the outcome of battles. With the advent of long range, moving target, air to ground surveillance radars, the motion of both the observing platform and the target have added to the visibility problem, which heretofore was analyzed in terms of shielding. The interaction of such factors as the minimum detectable velocity of the target, the trajectories of the target and the airborne radar platform, and the terrain and foliage masking combine to control the amount of time which a target is observed in a given scenario. This report continues the work done on dynamic masking, compares the masking calculation with and without foliage on a typical super highway in New England, and finally examines the correlation between predicted and observed foliage and terrain masking. The work was done in connection with the test and evaluation of the Multiple Antenna Surveillance Radar (MASR), a scaled model of a long range moving target surveillance system. MASR operated at L-band with a beamwidth of approximately 4.5 deg. In typical flight operation it observed the target complex from a range of 25 to 40 km. The altitude was selected to give lookdown angles ranging from 3 deg to 6 deg.

  7. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Bourasseau, E; Malfreyt, P; Ghoufi, A

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  8. On the Long-Range Directed Polymer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ran

    2016-10-01

    We study the long-range directed polymer model on Z in a random environment, where the underlying random walk lies in the domain of attraction of an α -stable process for some α in (0,2]. Similar to the more classic nearest-neighbor directed polymer model, as the inverse temperature β increases, the model undergoes a transition from a weak disorder regime to a strong disorder regime. We extend most of the important results known for the nearest-neighbor directed polymer model on Z^d to the long-range model on Z. More precisely, we show that in the entire weak disorder regime, the polymer satisfies an analogue of invariance principle, while in the so-called very strong disorder regime, the polymer end point distribution contains macroscopic atoms and under some mild conditions, the polymer has a super-α -stable motion. Furthermore, for α in (1,2], we show that the model is in the very strong disorder regime whenever β >0, and we give explicit bounds on the free energy.

  9. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bourasseau, E.; Ghoufi, A.

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  10. Long-range synchrony and emergence of neural reentry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keren, Hanna; Marom, Shimon

    2016-11-01

    Neural synchronization across long distances is a functionally important phenomenon in health and disease. In order to access the basis of different modes of long-range synchrony, we monitor spiking activities over centimetre scale in cortical networks and show that the mode of synchrony depends upon a length scale, λ, which is the minimal path that activity should propagate through to find its point of origin ready for reactivation. When λ is larger than the physical dimension of the network, distant neuronal populations operate synchronously, giving rise to irregularly occurring network-wide events that last hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds. In contrast, when λ approaches the dimension of the network, a continuous self-sustained reentry propagation emerges, a regular seizure-like mode that is marked by precise spatiotemporal patterns (‘synfire chains’) and may last many minutes. Termination of a reentry phase is preceded by a decrease of propagation speed to a halt. Stimulation decreases both propagation speed and λ values, which modifies the synchrony mode respectively. The results contribute to the understanding of the origin and termination of different modes of neural synchrony as well as their long-range spatial patterns, while hopefully catering to manipulation of the phenomena in pathological conditions.

  11. The ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program Long Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.

    1984-09-01

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 76 individual surplus facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. The ORNL SFMP has prepared this Long Range Plan to outline the long-term management strategy for those facilities included in the program. The primary objective of this plan are to: (1) develop a base of information for each ORNL SFMP facility, (2) conduct preliminary decommissioning analyses to identify feasible alternatives, (3) assess the current and future risk of each facility, (4) establish a priority list for the decommissioning projects, and (5) integrate the individual project costs and schedules into an overall program schedule and cost estimate for the ORNL site. The Long Range Plan also provides an overview of the ORNL SFMP management structure, specifies the decommissioning criteria to be employed, and identifies special technical problems, research and development needs, and special facilities and equipment that may be required for decommissioning operations.

  12. One-dimensional long-range percolation: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, G.; Michelangeli, M.; Defenu, N.; Trombettoni, A.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we study bond percolation on a one-dimensional chain with power-law bond probability C /rd +σ , where r is the distance length between distinct sites and d =1 . We introduce and test an order-N Monte Carlo algorithm and we determine as a function of σ the critical value Cc at which percolation occurs. The critical exponents in the range 0 <σ <1 are reported. Our analysis is in agreement, up to a numerical precision ≈10-3 , with the mean-field result for the anomalous dimension η =2 -σ , showing that there is no correction to η due to correlation effects. The obtained values for Cc are compared with a known exact bound, while the critical exponent ν is compared with results from mean-field theory, from an expansion around the point σ =1 and from the ɛ -expansion used with the introduction of a suitably defined effective dimension deff relating the long-range model with a short-range one in dimension deff. We finally present a formulation of our algorithm for bond percolation on general graphs, with order N efficiency on a large class of graphs including short-range percolation and translationally invariant long-range models in any spatial dimension d with σ >0 .

  13. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Message (EOM) codes using the EAS Protocol. The Attention Signal must precede any emergency audio message. After January 1, 1998, the shortened Attention Signal may only be used as an audio alert signal and the... programming before EAS message transmission should not cause television receivers to mute EAS audio messages...

  14. A study on Data Transmission Scheme for High Functional Railway Signaling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Sano, Minoru; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Railway signaling systems that transmit control information via rails have been deployed in many applications, for example, digital automatic train control (ATC) systems for controlling train speed. Since the performance of digital ATC systems depends on the signal transmission speed, recently there have been many studies aimed at realizing high-speed data transmission. However, it is difficult to increase the transmission speed because rails have strong attenuation in proportion to an increase of the frequency. In this paper, we aimed to increase the transmission speed by improving the modulation scheme to overcome these limitations. We proposed CDMA-QAM method that is combined code-division multiple access (CDMA) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). And we evaluated in a field trial the CDMA-QAM rail transmission device developed using DSP. On the other hand, an analog ATC based on an amplitude modulation (AM) is still employed in some railway lines. It is difficult for their lines to introduce the digital signal due to track circuit configurations and interoperability conditions. So we studied a data transmission scheme that makes it possible to mix an analog signal and a digital signal, and evaluated the influence given to both signals using a developed device that generates the mixed signal of analog and digital signal.

  15. [Research progress on key technology of power and signal transmission in neuroprosthetic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Peng, Chenglin; Liu, Tao; Wang, Rui; Hou, Wensheng; Zheng, Xiaolin; Zheng, Erxin

    2011-10-01

    The power and signal transmission technology is one of the key technologies in neuroprosthetic research. This paper proposes firstly the related theory of power and signal transmission technology in neuroprosthetic, then summarizes the three key aspects of the power and signal transmission technology in neuroprosthetic. After analyzed the development of the inductive wireless power harvesting technology, the wireless telemetry technology and the wireless power harvesting telemetry technology, the emphasis on research contents will be proposed and discussed, which will help accelerate the further research of prosthetic.

  16. Batteryless wireless transmission system for electronic drum uses piezoelectric generator for play signal and power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Takemura, K.; Tanaka, A.; Douseki, T.

    2015-12-01

    A batteryless self-powered wireless transmission system has been developed that sends a signal from a drum pad to a synthesizer. The power generated by a piezoelectric generator functions both as the “Play” signal for the synthesizer and as the power source for the transmitter. An FM transmitter, which theoretically operates with zero latency, and a receiver with quick-response squelch of the received signal were developed for wireless transmission with a minimum system delay. Experimental results for an electronic drum without any connecting wires fully demonstrated the feasibility of self-powered wireless transmission with a latency of 900 μs.

  17. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-09-19

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application.

  18. Spontaneous emission noise in long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous emission noise is an important limit to the performance of active plasmonic devices. Here, we investigate the spontaneous emission noise in the long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide based optical gyroscope. A theoretical model of the sensitivity is established to study the incoherent multi-beam interference of spontaneous emission in the gyroscope. Numerical results show that spontaneous emission produces a drift in the transmittance spectra and lowers the signal-to-noise-ratio of the gyroscope. It also strengthens the shot noise to be the main limit to the sensitivity of the gyroscope for high propagation loss. To reduce the negative effects of the spontaneous emission noise on the gyroscope, an external feedback loop is suggested to estimate the drift in the transmittance spectra and therefor enhance the sensitivity. Our work lays a foundation for the improvement of long-range surface plasmon-polariton gyroscope and paves the way to its practical application. PMID:25234712

  19. Long range correlations in tree ring chronologies of the USA: Variation within and across species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, M. C.; Gao, J. B.; Tung, W. W.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Tree ring width data are among the best proxies for reconstructing past temperature and precipitation records. The discovery of fractal scaling and long-memory in meteorological and hydrological <span class="hlt">signals</span> motivates us to investigate such properties in tree ring chronologies. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis are utilized to estimate the Hurst parameter values of 697 tree ring chronologies from the continental United States. We find significant differences in the Hurst parameter values across the 10 species studied in the work. The <span class="hlt">long-range</span> scaling relations found here suggest that the behavior of tree ring growth observed in a short calibration period may be similar to the general behavior of tree ring growth in a much longer period, and therefore, the limited calibration period may be more useful than originally thought. The variations of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations within and across species may be further explored in future to better reconstruct paleoclimatic records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6410K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6410K"><span>Reservoir shore development in <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> terrestrial laser scanning monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaczmarek, Halina</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Shore zones of reservoirs are in most cases very active, getting transformed as a result of coastal processes and mass movements initiated on the slopes surrounding the reservoir. From the point of view of the users of water reservoirs shore recession strongly undesirable as it causes destruction to infrastructure and buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. For this reason, reservoir shores require continuous geodetic monitoring. Fast and accurate geodetic measurements covering shore sections several kilometers long, often in poorly accessible areas, are available using <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The possibilities of using <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> terrestrial laser scanning are shown on the example of the reservoir Jeziorsko on the Warta River (Central Poland). This reservoir, created in the years 1986-1992, is a typical retention reservoir, the annual fluctuations of which reach 5 m. Depending on the water level its surface area ranges from 42.3 to 19.6 km2. The width of the reservoir is 2.5 km. The total shore length of the reservoir, developed in Quaternary till and sand-till sediments, is 44.3 km, including 30.1 km of the unreinforced shore. Out of the unreinforced shore 27% is subject to coastal erosion. The cliff heights vary from a few cm to 12.5 meters, and the current rate of the cliff recession ranges from 0 to 1.12 m/y. The study used a terrestrial <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> laser scanner Riegl VZ-4000 of a range of up to 4000 m. It enabled conducting the measurements of the cliff recession from the opposite shore of the reservoir, with an angular resolution of 0.002°, which gives about 50 measurement points per 1 m2. The measurements were carried out in the years 2014-2015, twice a year, in early spring before high water level, and in late autumn at a dropping water level. This allowed the separation of the impact of coastal processes and frost weathering on the cliff recession and their quantitative determination. The size and nature of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612134D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612134D"><span>Multi-scale variability and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> memory in indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios; Barbosa, Susana</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The presence or absence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in the variations of indoor Radon concentrations has recently attracted considerable interest. As a radioactive gas naturally emitted from the ground in certain geological settings, understanding environmental factors controlling Radon concentrations and their dynamics is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we re-analyze two high-resolution records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements. In order to evaluate the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations and fractal scaling, we utilize a multiplicity of complementary methods, including power spectral analysis, ARFIMA modeling, classical and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis, and two different estimators of the <span class="hlt">signals</span>' fractal dimensions. Power spectra and fluctuation functions reveal some complex behavior with qualitatively different properties on different time-scales: white noise in the high-frequency part, indications of some <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlated process dominating time scales of several hours to days, and pronounced low-frequency variability associated with tidal and/or meteorological forcing. In order to further decompose these different scales of variability, we apply two different approaches. On the one hand, applying multi-resolution analysis based on the discrete wavelet transform allows separately studying contributions on different time scales and characterize their specific correlation and scaling properties. On the other hand, singular system analysis (SSA) provides a reconstruction of the essential modes of variability. Specifically, by considering only the first leading SSA modes, we achieve an efficient de-noising of our environmental <span class="hlt">signals</span>, highlighting the low-frequency variations together with some distinct scaling on sub-daily time-scales resembling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPSJ...84g4002E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPSJ...84g4002E"><span>Parallelized Stochastic Cutoff Method for <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Interacting Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Endo, Eishin; Toga, Yuta; Sasaki, Munetaka</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We present a method of parallelizing the stochastic cutoff (SCO) method, which is a Monte-Carlo method for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interacting systems. After interactions are eliminated by the SCO method, we subdivide a lattice into noninteracting interpenetrating sublattices. This subdivision enables us to parallelize the Monte-Carlo calculation in the SCO method. Such subdivision is found by numerically solving the vertex coloring of a graph created by the SCO method. We use an algorithm proposed by Kuhn and Wattenhofer to solve the vertex coloring by parallel computation. This method was applied to a two-dimensional magnetic dipolar system on an L × L square lattice to examine its parallelization efficiency. The result showed that, in the case of L = 2304, the speed of computation increased about 102 times by parallel computation with 288 processors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91i4518K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91i4518K"><span><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> p -wave proximity effect into a disordered metal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keser, Aydin Cem; Stanev, Valentin; Galitski, Victor</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We use quasiclassical methods of superconductivity to study the superconducting proximity effect from a topological p -wave superconductor into a disordered quasi-one-dimensional metallic wire. We demonstrate that the corresponding Eilenberger equations with disorder reduce to a closed nonlinear equation for the superconducting component of the matrix Green's function. Remarkably, this equation is formally equivalent to a classical mechanical system (i.e., Newton's equations), with the Green function corresponding to a coordinate of a fictitious particle and the coordinate along the wire corresponding to time. This mapping allows us to obtain exact solutions in the disordered nanowire in terms of elliptic functions. A surprising result that comes out of this solution is that the p -wave superconductivity proximity induced into the disordered metal remains <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, decaying as slowly as the conventional s -wave superconductivity. It is also shown that impurity scattering leads to the appearance of a zero-energy peak.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49v2005F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49v2005F"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> effects in electron scattering by polar molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fabrikant, Ilya I.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We review <span class="hlt">long-range</span> effects in electron collisions with polar molecules, starting with elastic scattering. We then go to rotationally and vibrationally inelastic processes and dissociative electron attachment. The last two are strongly affected by vibrational Feshbach resonances which have been observed and described theoretically in many systems from simple diatomic molecules to more complex polyatomics, biologically relevant molecules, and van der Waals clusters. We then review environmental effects which include electron interaction with molecules adsorbed on surfaces and molecules in cluster environments. We concentrate on physics rather than on listing results of ab initio calculations. With increasing complexity of targets and processes model approaches become more relevant. We demonstrate their success in the theoretical description of electron attachment to polyatomic molecules and to molecules in complex environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070035972&hterms=bias&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbias','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070035972&hterms=bias&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbias"><span>Bias Reduction and Filter Convergence for <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Stereo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sibley, Gabe; Matthies, Larry; Sukhatme, Gaurav</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We are concerned here with improving <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> stereo by filtering image sequences. Traditionally, measurement errors from stereo camera systems have been approximated as 3-D Gaussians, where the mean is derived by triangulation and the covariance by linearized error propagation. However, there are two problems that arise when filtering such 3-D measurements. First, stereo triangulation suffers from a range dependent statistical bias; when filtering this leads to over-estimating the true range. Second, filtering 3-D measurements derived via linearized error propagation leads to apparent filter divergence; the estimator is biased to under-estimate range. To address the first issue, we examine the statistical behavior of stereo triangulation and show how to remove the bias by series expansion. The solution to the second problem is to filter with image coordinates as measurements instead of triangulated 3-D coordinates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatPh..13..655B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatPh..13..655B"><span>Contactless nonlinear optics mediated by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Rydberg interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Busche, Hannes; Huillery, Paul; Ball, Simon W.; Ilieva, Teodora; Jones, Matthew P. A.; Adams, Charles S.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In conventional nonlinear optics, linear quantum optics, and cavity quantum electrodynamics to create effective photon-photon interactions photons must have, at one time, interacted with matter inside a common medium. In contrast, in Rydberg quantum optics, optical photons are coherently and reversibly mapped onto collective atomic Rydberg excitations, giving rise to dipole-mediated effective photon-photon interactions that are <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>. Consequently, a spatial overlap between the light modes is no longer required. We demonstrate such a contactless coupling between photons stored as collective Rydberg excitations in spatially separate optical media. The potential induced by each photon modifies the retrieval mode of its neighbour, leading to correlations between them. We measure these correlations as a function of interaction strength, distance and storage time, demonstrating an effective interaction between photons separated by 15 times their wavelength. Contactless effective photon-photon interactions are relevant for scalable multichannel photonic devices and the study of strongly correlated many-body dynamics using light.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhA...50lLT02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhA...50lLT02M"><span>Traveling solitons in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> oscillator chains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miloshevich, George; Nguenang, Jean Pierre; Dauxois, Thierry; Khomeriki, Ramaz; Ruffo, Stefano</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We investigate the existence and propagation of solitons in a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> extension of the quartic Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) chain of anharmonic oscillators. The coupling in the linear term decays as a power-law with an exponent 1<α ≤slant 3 . We obtain an analytic perturbative expression of traveling envelope solitons by introducing a non linear Schrödinger equation for the slowly varying amplitude of short wavelength modes. Due to the non analytic properties of the dispersion relation, it is crucial to develop the theory using discrete difference operators. Those properties are also the ultimate reason why kink-solitons may exist but are unstable, at variance with the short-range FPU model. We successfully compare these approximate analytic results with numerical simulations for the value α =2 which was chosen as a case study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMagR.241...32P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMagR.241...32P"><span>Sparse labeling of proteins: Structural characterization from <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prestegard, James H.; Agard, David A.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Lavery, Laura A.; Morris, Laura C.; Pederson, Kari</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Structural characterization of biologically important proteins faces many challenges associated with degradation of resolution as molecular size increases and loss of resolution improving tools such as perdeuteration when non-bacterial hosts must be used for expression. In these cases, sparse isotopic labeling (single or small subsets of amino acids) combined with <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> paramagnetic constraints and improved computational modeling offer an alternative. This perspective provides a brief overview of this approach and two discussions of potential applications; one involving a very large system (an Hsp90 homolog) in which perdeuteration is possible and methyl-TROSY sequences can potentially be used to improve resolution, and one involving ligand placement in a glycosylated protein where resolution is achieved by single amino acid labeling (the sialyltransferase, ST6Gal1). This is not intended as a comprehensive review, but as a discussion of future prospects that promise impact on important questions in the structural biology area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARQ11001S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARQ11001S"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions in DNA melting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, Aaron; Klein`, William</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A theoretical understanding of the DNA melting transition may provide insight into the biological mechanisms of transcription and replication. If this process occurs via nucleation, it should exhibit several key features: metastability, rapid spontaneous growth, and droplet formation. In this talk, I describe the results of recent computational and theoretical studies on nearest-neighbor and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> DNA models. While the models exhibit some characteristics of classical nucleation when the interaction range is short, they may undergo spinodal nucleation when the interaction range is long. In contrast to classical nucleation droplets, which are compact, spinodal critical droplets are diffuse, fractal-like, and similar to the metastable state. These results have clear implications for transcription and replication in biological DNA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.557a2053K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.557a2053K"><span>Position-insensitive <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> inductive power transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwan, Christopher H.; Lawson, James; Yates, David C.; Mitcheson, Paul D.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This paper presents results of an improved inductive wireless power transfer system for reliable <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> powering of sensors with milliwatt-level consumption. An ultra-low power flyback impedance emulator operating in open loop is used to present the optimal load to the receiver's resonant tank. Transmitter power modulation is implemented in order to maintain constant receiver power and to prevent damage to the receiver electronics caused by excessive received voltage. Received power is steady up to 3 m at around 30 mW. The receiver electronics and feedback system consumes 3.1 mW and so with a transmitter input power of 163.3 W the receiver becomes power neutral at 4.75 m. Such an IPT system can provide a reliable alternative to energy harvesters for supplying power concurrently to multiple remote sensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..96e4441B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..96e4441B"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> interactions in antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bravo, B.; Cabra, D. C.; Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Rossini, G. L.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We study the role of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dipolar interactions on antiferromagnetic spin chains, from the classical S →∞ limit to the deep quantum case S =1 /2 , including a transverse magnetic field. To this end, we combine different techniques such as classical energy minima, classical Monte Carlo, linear spin waves, bosonization, and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). We find a phase transition from the already reported dipolar ferromagnetic region to an antiferromagnetic region for high enough antiferromagnetic exchange. Thermal and quantum fluctuations destabilize the classical order before reaching magnetic saturation in both phases, and also close to zero field in the antiferromagnetic phase. In the extreme quantum limit S =1 /2 , extensive DMRG computations show that the main phases remain present with transition lines to saturation significatively shifted to lower fields, in agreement with the bosonization analysis. The overall picture maintains a close analogy with the phase diagram of the anisotropic XXZ spin chain in a transverse field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21797327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21797327"><span>Vlasov equation for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions on a lattice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bachelard, R; Dauxois, T; De Ninno, G; Ruffo, S; Staniscia, F</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>We show that, in the continuum limit, the dynamics of Hamiltonian systems defined on a lattice with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> couplings is well described by the Vlasov equation. This equation can be linearized around the homogeneous state, and a dispersion relation, which depends explicitly on the Fourier modes of the lattice, can be derived. This allows one to compute the stability thresholds of the homogeneous state, which turns out to depend on the mode number. When this state is unstable, the growth rates are also functions of the mode number. Explicit calculations are performed for the α-Hamiltonian mean field model with 0≤α<1, for which the mean-field mode is always found to dominate the exponential growth. The theoretical predictions are successfully compared with numerical simulations performed on a finite lattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.13706012K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.13706012K"><span>Effective field theory for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> properties of bottomonium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krein, Gastão</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>In this communication we present selected results from a recent study [N. Brambilla, G. Krein, J. Tarrús Castellà and A. Vairo, Phys. Rev. D 93, 054002 (2016)] of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> properties of bottomonium. An analytical expression for the chromopolarizability of 1S bottomonium states is derived within the framework of potential nonrelativistic QCD (pNRQCD). Next, after integrating out the ultrasoft scale associated with the binding energy of bottomonium, the QCD trace anomaly is used to obtain the two-pion production amplitude for the chromopolarizability operator and the result is matched to a chiral effective field theory having bottomonium states and pions as degrees of freedom. We present results for the leading chiral logarithm correction to the mass of the 1S bottomonium and the van der Waals potential between two bottomonium states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23268201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23268201"><span>Mechanism of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> proton translocation along biological membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Medvedev, Emile S; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A</p> <p>2013-02-14</p> <p>Recent experiments suggest that protons can travel along biological membranes up to tens of micrometers, but the mechanism of transport is unknown. To explain such a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> proton translocation we describe a model that takes into account the coupled bulk diffusion that accompanies the migration of protons on the surface. We show that protons diffusing at or near the surface before equilibrating with the bulk desorb and re-adsorb at the surface thousands of times, giving rise to a power-law desorption kinetics. As a result, the decay of the surface protons occurs very slowly, allowing for establishing local gradient and local exchange, as was envisioned in the early local models of biological energy transduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93q4114G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93q4114G"><span>Disrupting <span class="hlt">long-range</span> polar order with an electric field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Hanzheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Xue, Fei; Chen, Long-Qing; Hong, Wei; Tan, Xiaoli</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Electric fields are known to favor <span class="hlt">long-range</span> polar order through the aligning of electric dipoles in relation to Coulomb's force. Therefore, it would be surprising to observe a disordered polar state induced from an ordered state by electric fields. Here we show such an unusual phenomenon in a polycrystalline oxide where electric fields induce a ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition. The nonergodic relaxor phase with disordered dipoles appears as an intermediate state under electric fields during polarization reversal of the ferroelectric phase. Using the phenomenological theory, the underlying mechanism for this unexpected behavior can be attributed to the slow kinetics of the ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition, as well as its competition against domain switching during electric reversal. The demonstrated material could also serve as a model system to study the transient stages in first-order phase transitions; the slow kinetics does not require the use of sophisticated ultrafast tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9092E..09R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9092E..09R"><span>Particle filter for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> radar in RUV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romeo, Kevin; Willett, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In this paper we present an approach for tracking with a high-bandwidth active radar in <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> scenarios with 3-D measurements in r-u-v coordinates. The 3-D low-process-noise scenarios considered are much more difficult than the ones we have previously investigated where measurements were in 2-D (i.e., polar coordinates). We show that in these 3-D scenarios the extended Kalman filter and its variants are not desirable as they suffer from either major consistency problems or degraded range accuracy, and most flavors of particle filter suffer from a loss of diversity among particles after resampling. This leads to sample impoverishment and divergence of the filter. In the scenarios studied, this loss of diversity can be attributed to the very low process noise. However, a regularized particle filter is shown to avoid this diversity problem while producing consistent results. The regularization is accomplished using a modified version of the Epanechnikov kernel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8915E..1HK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8915E..1HK"><span>Solid state <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> surface plasmon polariton single mode lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karami Keshmarzi, Elham; Tait, R. Niall; Berini, Pierre</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Incorporation of a solid-state gain medium in the cladding of a <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Surface Plasmon Polariton (LRSPP) waveguide in order to create a single-mode near-infrared laser source is proposed. LRSPP Bragg gratings based on stepping the width of the metal strip are used to form the laser's cavity. Three laser configurations are presented: The first 2 lasers employ DBRs (Distributed Bragg Reflectors) in ECL (External Cavity Laser) architecture while the third is based on the DFB (Distributed Feedback) configuration. All 3 configurations are thermally tunable by heating the gratings directly by injecting current. The lasers are convenient to fabricate leading to inexpensive sources that could be used in optical integrated circuits or waveguide biosensors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DPP.UI203H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DPP.UI203H"><span>Heat Transport due to <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Collisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hollmann, Eric M.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>Cross-magnetic-field heat transport in a quiescent pure ion plasma is found to be diffusive, with measured thermal diffusivity \\chi which is independent of magnetic field strength B and plasma density n. The measured values of \\chi are up to 100 times larger than the ``classical'' thermal diffusivity \\chic = (16 √π / 15) (n barv b^2 ) r_c^2 ln (rc / b) ∝ n^1 B-2 T-1/2 expected from velocity-scattering collisions;(M.N. Rosenbluth et al., Phys. Rev. 109), 1 (1958). but are in quantitative agreement with the thermal diffusivity \\chiL = 0.49 ( n barv b^2 ) λ_D^2 ∝ n^0 B^0 T-1/2 recently predicted to result from <span class="hlt">long-range</span> ``guiding center'' collisions.(D.H.E. Dubin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 3868 (1997). In these <span class="hlt">long-range</span> collisions, which occur in plasmas with λD > r_c, particles on well-separated field lines exchange parallel kinetic energy only. In the present experiments, the maximal impact parameters are ρ <= λ_D but in larger plasmas (with cross-field dimension L > 100 λ_D) the emission and absorption of plasma waves over impact parameters ρ <= L is predicted to give a further enhancement of the heat transport. The experiments are performed by heating (or cooling) the ions locally with a laser beam to create a thermal gradient. A second laser is then used to monitor the resulting radial heat flow. Remarkably, the ions are held in steady-state for periods of weeks by an applied ``rotating wall'' drive;(X.-P. Huang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 875 (1997). this allows for accurate, repeatable heat transport measurements over a wide range of plasma parameters. To date, the thermal diffusivity has been measured over a range of 100 in density, 4 in magnetic field, and 10^4 in temperature; and it is found that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> collisions dominate the heat transport over this entire range.(E.M. Hollmann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82). 4930 (1999). Separate measurements of the perp-to-parallel thermal isotropization rates show that short-range velocity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CNSNS..11..885T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CNSNS..11..885T"><span>Fractional dynamics of systems with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarasov, Vasily E.; Zaslavsky, George M.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We consider one-dimensional chain of coupled linear and nonlinear oscillators with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> powerwise interaction defined by a term proportional to 1/∣ n - m∣ α+1 . Continuous medium equation for this system can be obtained in the so-called infrared limit when the wave number tends to zero. We construct a transform operator that maps the system of large number of ordinary differential equations of motion of the particles into a partial differential equation with the Riesz fractional derivative of order α, when 0 < α < 2. Few models of coupled oscillators are considered and their synchronized states and localized structures are discussed in details. Particularly, we discuss some solutions of time-dependent fractional Ginzburg-Landau (or nonlinear Schrodinger) equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22753514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22753514"><span>On the origin of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in texts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altmann, Eduardo G; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Esposti, Mirko Degli</p> <p>2012-07-17</p> <p>The complexity of human interactions with social and natural phenomena is mirrored in the way we describe our experiences through natural language. In order to retain and convey such a high dimensional information, the statistical properties of our linguistic output has to be highly correlated in time. An example are the robust observations, still largely not understood, of correlations on arbitrary long scales in literary texts. In this paper we explain how <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations flow from highly structured linguistic levels down to the building blocks of a text (words, letters, etc..). By combining calculations and data analysis we show that correlations take form of a bursty sequence of events once we approach the semantically relevant topics of the text. The mechanisms we identify are fairly general and can be equally applied to other hierarchical settings.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26317720','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26317720"><span>Theory of <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Ultracold Atom-Molecule Photoassociation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Lepers, Maxence; Dulieu, Olivier</p> <p>2015-08-14</p> <p>The creation of ultracold molecules is currently limited to diatomic species. In this Letter, we present a theoretical description of the photoassociation of ultracold atoms and molecules to create ultracold excited triatomic molecules, thus being a novel example of a light-assisted ultracold chemical reaction. The calculation of the photoassociation rate of an ultracold Cs_{2} molecule in its rovibrational ground state with an ultracold Cs atom at frequencies close to its resonant excitation is reported, based on the solution of the quantum dynamics involving the atom-molecule <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions and assuming a model potential for the short-range physics. The rate for the formation of excited Cs_{3} molecules is predicted to be comparable with currently observed atom-atom photoassociation rates. We formulate an experimental proposal to observe this process relying on the available techniques of optical lattices and standard photoassociation spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARV44015Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARV44015Z"><span>Stripe Glass from Competing Short and <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zimanyi, Gergely; Pike, Chris; Scalettar, Richard</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We investigate a film of dipoles oriented perpendicular to the film. The system's behavior is related to inhomogeneous non-Fermi liquid states, recently studied by Kivelson and Spivak and by Schmalian and Wolynes. The competition of short range ferromagnetic and <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> antiferromagnetic interactions causes the formation of stripes. The system has an ordered stripe-crystal phase. However, this phase is avoided unless an extremely slow annealing protocol is utilized. Without any quenched disorder during normal annealing protocols the frustrated competing interactions self-generate a stripe-glass state. The stripe glass exhibits aging, manifesting itself in waiting-time dependent correlations. A scaling analysis of the aging is presented. The long time behavior shows stretched exponential behavior, the relaxation time surprisingly exhibiting a simple activated form. Dynamical inhomogeneities are identified, both frozen domains and instantaneous crystallites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhRvE..55.2632L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhRvE..55.2632L"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> correlations in quantum systems with aperiodic Hamiltonians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Zhifang; Goda, Masaki</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>An efficient algorithm for the computation of correlation function (CF) at very long distances is presented for quantum systems whose Hamiltonian is formed by the substitution aperiodic sequence alternating over unit intervals in time or space. The algorithm reorganizes the expression of the CF in such a way that the evaluation of the CF at distances equal to some special numbers is related to a family of graphs generated recursively. As examples of applications, we evaluate the CF, over unprecedentedly long time intervals up to order of 1012, for aperiodic two-level systems subject to kicking perturbations that are in the Thue-Morse, the period-doubling, and the Rudin-Shapiro sequences, respectively. Our results show the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations in all these aperiodic quantum systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27369543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27369543"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> energy transport in photosystem II.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roden, Jan J J; Bennett, Doran I G; Whaley, K Birgitta</p> <p>2016-06-28</p> <p>We simulate the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> inter-complex electronic energy transfer in photosystem II-from the antenna complex, via a core complex, to the reaction center-using a non-Markovian (ZOFE) quantum master equation description that allows the electronic coherence involved in the energy transfer to be explicitly included at all length scales. This allows us to identify all locations where coherence is manifested and to further identify the pathways of the energy transfer in the full network of coupled chromophores using a description based on excitation probability currents. We investigate how the energy transfer depends on the initial excitation-localized, coherent initial excitation versus delocalized, incoherent initial excitation-and find that the overall energy transfer is remarkably robust with respect to such strong variations of the initial condition. To explore the importance of vibrationally enhanced transfer and to address the question of optimization in the system parameters, we systematically vary the strength of the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational degrees of freedom. We find that the natural parameters lie in a (broad) region that enables optimal transfer efficiency and that the overall <span class="hlt">long-range</span> energy transfer on a ns time scale appears to be very robust with respect to variations in the vibronic coupling of up to an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, vibrationally enhanced transfer appears to be crucial to obtain a high transfer efficiency, with the latter falling sharply for couplings outside the optimal range. Comparison of our full quantum simulations to results obtained with a "classical" rate equation based on a modified-Redfield/generalized-Förster description previously used to simulate energy transfer dynamics in the entire photosystem II complex shows good agreement for the overall time scales of excitation energy transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100397"><span><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Correlations of Global Sea Surface Temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface temperature (SST) derived from 1870-2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSP...153..289G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JSP...153..289G"><span>Two-Dimensional SIR Epidemics with <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grassberger, Peter</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We extend a recent study of susceptible-infected-removed epidemic processes with <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> infection (referred to as I in the following) from 1-dimensional lattices to lattices in two dimensions. As in I we use hashing to simulate very large lattices for which finite size effects can be neglected, in spite of the assumed power law p( x)˜| x|- σ-2 for the probability that a site can infect another site a distance vector x apart. As in I we present detailed results for the critical case, for the supercritical case with σ=2, and for the supercritical case with 0< σ<2. For the latter we verify the stretched exponential growth of the infected cluster with time predicted by M. Biskup. For σ=2 we find generic power laws with σ-dependent exponents in the supercritical phase, but no Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) like critical point as in 1-d. Instead of diverging exponentially with the distance from the critical point, the correlation length increases with an inverse power, as in an ordinary critical point. Finally we study the dependence of the critical exponents on σ in the regime 0< σ<2, and compare with field theoretic predictions. In particular we discuss in detail whether the critical behavior for σ slightly less than 2 is in the short range universality class, as conjectured recently by F. Linder et al. As in I we also consider a modified version of the model where only some of the contacts are <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span>, the others being between nearest neighbors. If the number of the latter reaches the percolation threshold, the critical behavior is changed but the supercritical behavior stays qualitatively the same.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyD..333..310X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyD..333..310X"><span>Incoherent shock waves in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> optical turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, G.; Garnier, J.; Faccio, D.; Trillo, S.; Picozzi, A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Considering the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation as a representative model, we report a unified presentation of different forms of incoherent shock waves that emerge in the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interaction regime of a turbulent optical wave system. These incoherent singularities can develop either in the temporal domain through a highly noninstantaneous nonlinear response, or in the spatial domain through a highly nonlocal nonlinearity. In the temporal domain, genuine dispersive shock waves (DSW) develop in the spectral dynamics of the random waves, despite the fact that the causality condition inherent to the response function breaks the Hamiltonian structure of the NLS equation. Such spectral incoherent DSWs are described in detail by a family of singular integro-differential kinetic equations, e.g. Benjamin-Ono equation, which are derived from a nonequilibrium kinetic formulation based on the weak Langmuir turbulence equation. In the spatial domain, the system is shown to exhibit a large scale global collective behavior, so that it is the fluctuating field as a whole that develops a singularity, which is inherently an incoherent object made of random waves. Despite the Hamiltonian structure of the NLS equation, the regularization of such a collective incoherent shock does not require the formation of a DSW - the regularization is shown to occur by means of a different process of coherence degradation at the shock point. We show that the collective incoherent shock is responsible for an original mechanism of spontaneous nucleation of a phase-space hole in the spectrogram dynamics. The robustness of such a phase-space hole is interpreted in the light of incoherent dark soliton states, whose different exact solutions are derived in the framework of the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Vlasov formalism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144x5101R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144x5101R"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> energy transport in photosystem II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roden, Jan J. J.; Bennett, Doran I. G.; Whaley, K. Birgitta</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We simulate the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> inter-complex electronic energy transfer in photosystem II - from the antenna complex, via a core complex, to the reaction center - using a non-Markovian (ZOFE) quantum master equation description that allows the electronic coherence involved in the energy transfer to be explicitly included at all length scales. This allows us to identify all locations where coherence is manifested and to further identify the pathways of the energy transfer in the full network of coupled chromophores using a description based on excitation probability currents. We investigate how the energy transfer depends on the initial excitation - localized, coherent initial excitation versus delocalized, incoherent initial excitation - and find that the overall energy transfer is remarkably robust with respect to such strong variations of the initial condition. To explore the importance of vibrationally enhanced transfer and to address the question of optimization in the system parameters, we systematically vary the strength of the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational degrees of freedom. We find that the natural parameters lie in a (broad) region that enables optimal transfer efficiency and that the overall <span class="hlt">long-range</span> energy transfer on a ns time scale appears to be very robust with respect to variations in the vibronic coupling of up to an order of magnitude. Nevertheless, vibrationally enhanced transfer appears to be crucial to obtain a high transfer efficiency, with the latter falling sharply for couplings outside the optimal range. Comparison of our full quantum simulations to results obtained with a "classical" rate equation based on a modified-Redfield/generalized-Förster description previously used to simulate energy transfer dynamics in the entire photosystem II complex shows good agreement for the overall time scales of excitation energy transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4839764"><span><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Correlations of Global Sea Surface Temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Lu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Scaling behaviors of the global monthly sea surface temperature (SST) derived from 1870–2009 average monthly data sets of Hadley Centre Sea Ice and SST (HadISST) are investigated employing detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The global SST fluctuations are found to be strong positively <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlated at all pertinent time-intervals. The value of scaling exponent is larger in the tropics than those in the intermediate latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres. DFA leads to the scaling exponent α = 0.87 over the globe (60°S~60°N), northern hemisphere (0°N~60°N), and southern hemisphere (0°S~60°S), α = 0.84 over the intermediate latitude of southern hemisphere (30°S~60°S), α = 0.81 over the intermediate latitude of northern hemisphere (30°N~60°N) and α = 0.90 over the tropics 30°S~30°N [fluctuation F(s) ~ sα], which the fluctuations of monthly SST anomaly display long-term correlated behaviors. Furthermore, the larger the standard deviation is, the smaller <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations (LRCs) of SST in the corresponding regions, especially in three distinct upwelling areas. After the standard deviation is taken into account, an index χ = α * σ is introduced to obtain the spatial distributions of χ. There exists an obvious change of global SST in central east and northern Pacific and the northwest Atlantic. This may be as a clue on predictability of climate and ocean variabilities. PMID:27100397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598451"><span>Efficient Exciton Harvesting through <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Energy Transfer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yanbin; Ohkita, Hideo; Benten, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinzaburo</p> <p>2015-04-27</p> <p>Efficient exciton collection at charge-generation sites is one of the key requirements for the improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells, because only excitons arriving at a donor/acceptor interface can be dissociated into free charge carriers. We evaluated the effective diffusion length in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) by using donor/acceptor bilayers with two different exciton-quenching acceptors. One is an insoluble fullerene polymer (p-PCBVB), which is an efficient electron-accepting material with negligible absorption in the visible region. The other is a low-bandgap polymer, poly[(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl], (PSBTBT). This polymer has a large absorption band in the near-IR region, which overlaps well with the emission band of P3HT. The effective diffusion length of P3HT excitons is evaluated to be 15 nm for P3HT/p-PCBVB bilayers and improved to 30 nm for P3HT/PSBTBT bilayers. This improvement is ascribed to <span class="hlt">long-range</span> energy transfer from P3HT to PSBTBT. This finding suggests that the effective diffusion length of P3HT excitons can be increased through <span class="hlt">long-range</span> energy transfer by incorporating PSBTBT into P3HT/PCBM blends. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JIMTW..36..180K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JIMTW..36..180K"><span>Coherent Terahertz Wireless <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Using Advanced Optical Fiber Communication Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanno, Atsushi; Kuri, Toshiaki; Morohashi, Isao; Hosako, Iwao; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Coherent terahertz <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> with multilevel modulation and demodulation is demonstrated using an optical sub-harmonic IQ mixer (SHIQM), which consists of optical components in advanced optical fiber communication technologies. An optical-frequency-comb-employed <span class="hlt">signal</span> generator is capable of vector modulation as well as frequency tunability. Digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing (DSP) adopted from the recently developed optical digital coherent communication can easily demodulate multi-level modulated terahertz <span class="hlt">signals</span> by using electrical heterodyning for intermediate-frequency (IF) down conversion. This technique is applicable for mobile backhauling in the next-generation mobile communication technology directly connected to an optical fiber network as a high-speed wireless <span class="hlt">transmission</span> link.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080018812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080018812"><span>Method and apparatus for low-loss <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Siegel, Peter (Inventor); Yeh, Cavour (Inventor); Shimabukuro, Fred (Inventor); Fraser, Scott (Inventor)</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The present invention relates to the field of radio-frequency (RF) waveguides. More specifically, the present invention pertains to a method and apparatus that provides ultra-low-loss RF waveguide structures targeted between approximately 300 GHz and approximately 30 THz. The RF waveguide includes a hollow core and a flexible honeycomb, periodic-bandgap structure surrounding the hollow core. The flexible honeycomb, periodic-bandgap structure is formed of a plurality of tubes formed of a dielectric material such as of low-loss quartz, polyethylene, or high-resistivity silicon. Using the RF waveguide, a user may attach a terahertz <span class="hlt">signal</span> source to the waveguide and pass <span class="hlt">signals</span> through the waveguide, while a terahertz <span class="hlt">signal</span> receiver receives the <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090011790&hterms=transmission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtransmission','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090011790&hterms=transmission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dtransmission"><span><span class="hlt">Signal</span> Detection Theory Applied to Helicopter <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Diagnostic Thresholds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dempsey, Paula J.; Keller, Jonathan A.; Wade, Daniel R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) have potential for providing data to support increasing the service life of a dynamic mechanical component in the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of a helicopter. Data collected can demonstrate the HUMS condition indicator responds to a specific component fault with appropriate alert limits and minimal false alarms. Defining thresholds for specific faults requires a tradeoff between the sensitivity of the condition indicator (CI) limit to indicate damage and the number of false alarms. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to assess CI performance was demonstrated using CI data collected from accelerometers installed on several UH60 Black Hawk and AH64 Apache helicopters and an AH64 helicopter component test stand. Results of the analysis indicate ROC curves can be used to reliably assess the performance of commercial HUMS condition indicators to detect damaged gears and bearings in a helicopter <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041522','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080041522"><span><span class="hlt">Signal</span> Detection Theory Applied to Helicopter <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Diagnostic Thresholds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dempsey, Paula J.; Keller, Jonathan A.; Wade, Daniel R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) have potential for providing data to support increasing the service life of a dynamic mechanical component in the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of a helicopter. Data collected can demonstrate the HUMS condition indicator responds to a specific component fault with appropriate alert limits and minimal false alarms. Defining thresholds for specific faults requires a tradeoff between the sensitivity of the condition indicator (CI) limit to indicate damage and the number of false alarms. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to assess CI performance was demonstrated using CI data collected from accelerometers installed on several UH60 Black Hawk and AH64 Apache helicopters and an AH64 helicopter component test stand. Results of the analysis indicate ROC curves can be used to reliably assess the performance of commercial HUMS condition indicators to detect damaged gears and bearings in a helicopter <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090011790&hterms=Wade&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DWade','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090011790&hterms=Wade&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DWade"><span><span class="hlt">Signal</span> Detection Theory Applied to Helicopter <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Diagnostic Thresholds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dempsey, Paula J.; Keller, Jonathan A.; Wade, Daniel R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) have potential for providing data to support increasing the service life of a dynamic mechanical component in the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of a helicopter. Data collected can demonstrate the HUMS condition indicator responds to a specific component fault with appropriate alert limits and minimal false alarms. Defining thresholds for specific faults requires a tradeoff between the sensitivity of the condition indicator (CI) limit to indicate damage and the number of false alarms. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to assess CI performance was demonstrated using CI data collected from accelerometers installed on several UH60 Black Hawk and AH64 Apache helicopters and an AH64 helicopter component test stand. Results of the analysis indicate ROC curves can be used to reliably assess the performance of commercial HUMS condition indicators to detect damaged gears and bearings in a helicopter <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhLA..374.2163L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhLA..374.2163L"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> correlations and charge transport properties of DNA sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xiao-liang; Ren, Yi; Xie, Qiong-tao; Deng, Chao-sheng; Xu, Hui</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>By using Hurst's analysis and transfer approach, the rescaled range functions and Hurst exponents of human chromosome 22 and enterobacteria phage lambda DNA sequences are investigated and the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> coefficients, Landauer resistances and Lyapunov coefficients of finite segments based on above genomic DNA sequences are calculated. In a comparison with quasiperiodic and random artificial DNA sequences, we find that λ-DNA exhibits anticorrelation behavior characterized by a Hurst exponent 0.5<H<1 while, as far as the segments selected in our Letter are concerned, Ch22 sequence displays a transition from correlation behavior to anticorrelation behavior. The resonant peaks of the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> coefficient in genomic sequences can survive in longer sequence length than in random sequences but in shorter sequence length than in quasiperiodic sequences. It is shown that the genomic sequences have <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlation properties to some extent but the correlations are not strong enough to maintain the scale invariance properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395542','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395542"><span>Large magnetoresistance from <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interface coupling in armchair graphene nanoribbon junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Suchun; Son, Young-Woo; Quek, Su Ying</p> <p>2014-12-15</p> <p>In recent years, bottom-up synthesis procedures have achieved significant advancements in atomically controlled growth of several-nanometer-long graphene nanoribbons with armchair-shaped edges (AGNRs). This greatly encourages us to explore the potential of such well-defined AGNRs in electronics and spintronics. Here, we propose an AGNR based spin valve architecture that induces a large magnetoresistance up to 900%. We find that, when an AGNR is connected perpendicularly to zigzag-shaped edges, the AGNR allows for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> extension of the otherwise localized edge state. The huge magnetoresistance is a direct consequence of the coupling of two such extended states from both ends of the AGNR, which forms a perfect <span class="hlt">transmission</span> channel. By tuning the coupling between these two spin-polarized states with a magnetic field, the channel can be destroyed, leading to an abrupt drop in electron <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4226302','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4226302"><span>Monitoring <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Electron Transfer Pathways in Proteins by Stimulated Attosecond Broadband X-ray Raman Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> electron transfer (ET) is a crucial step in many energy conversion processes and biological redox reactions in living organisms. We show that newly developed X-ray pulses can directly probe the evolving oxidation states and the electronic structure around selected atoms with detail not available through conventional time-resolved infrared or optical techniques. This is demonstrated in a simulation study of the stimulated X-ray Raman (SXRS) <span class="hlt">signals</span> in Re-modified azurin, which serves as a benchmark system for photoinduced ET in proteins. Nonlinear SXRS <span class="hlt">signals</span> offer a direct novel window into the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> ET mechanism. PMID:25400875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25400875"><span>Monitoring <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Electron Transfer Pathways in Proteins by Stimulated Attosecond Broadband X-ray Raman Spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul</p> <p>2014-11-06</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> electron transfer (ET) is a crucial step in many energy conversion processes and biological redox reactions in living organisms. We show that newly developed X-ray pulses can directly probe the evolving oxidation states and the electronic structure around selected atoms with detail not available through conventional time-resolved infrared or optical techniques. This is demonstrated in a simulation study of the stimulated X-ray Raman (SXRS) <span class="hlt">signals</span> in Re-modified azurin, which serves as a benchmark system for photoinduced ET in proteins. Nonlinear SXRS <span class="hlt">signals</span> offer a direct novel window into the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> ET mechanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471885"><span>The ESCRT machinery regulates the secretion and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> activity of Hedgehog.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matusek, Tamás; Wendler, Franz; Polès, Sophie; Pizette, Sandrine; D'Angelo, Gisela; Fürthauer, Maximilian; Thérond, Pascal P</p> <p>2014-12-04</p> <p>The conserved family of Hedgehog (Hh) proteins acts as short- and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> secreted morphogens, controlling tissue patterning and differentiation during embryonic development. Mature Hh carries hydrophobic palmitic acid and cholesterol modifications essential for its extracellular spreading. Various extracellular transportation mechanisms for Hh have been suggested, but the pathways actually used for Hh secretion and transport in vivo remain unclear. Here we show that Hh secretion in Drosophila wing imaginal discs is dependent on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). In vivo the reduction of ESCRT activity in cells producing Hh leads to a retention of Hh at the external cell surface. Furthermore, we show that ESCRT activity in Hh-producing cells is required for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> <span class="hlt">signalling</span>. We also provide evidence that pools of Hh and ESCRT proteins are secreted together into the extracellular space in vivo and can subsequently be detected together at the surface of receiving cells. These findings uncover a new function for ESCRT proteins in controlling morphogen activity and reveal a new mechanism for the transport of secreted Hh across the tissue by extracellular vesicles, which is necessary for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> target induction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889686','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23889686"><span>In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-<span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> versus <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> flights.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-<span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9533E..08L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9533E..08L"><span>Simulation of the coherent MDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using principal modes of the optical fiber as <span class="hlt">signal</span> carriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Zakirov, Robert A.; Vinogradova, Irina L.; Sultanov, Albert K.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this paper we demonstrate computer simulation results obtained for the coherent mode division multiplexed (MDM) 5x5 QPSK <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using principal modes (PMs) of the stepped-index few-mode fiber (FMF) as a basis of independent <span class="hlt">signal</span> carriers. The output <span class="hlt">signal</span> recovering and the fiber propagation matrix determination are considered to be carried out in optical domain by means of reconfigurable multibranch diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Both the cases of Gaussian and Nyquist raised-cosine pulse shaping are considered for optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> modulation. The simulation results show, that the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in the basis of PMs in strong coupling regime allows the reliability of the coherent MDM system to be fundamentally improved. As a result, utilization of the optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing for MDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> could minimize substantially the DSP circuit complexity required for the real-time recovering of the transmitted <span class="hlt">signal</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26l3116P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Chaos..26l3116P"><span>Classical investigation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> coherence in biological systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Preto, Jordane</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Almost five decades ago, H. Fröhlich [H. Fröhlich, "<span class="hlt">Long-range</span> coherence and energy storage in biological systems," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2(5), 641-649 (1968)] reported, on a theoretical basis, that the excitation of quantum modes of vibration in contact with a thermal reservoir may lead to steady states, where under high enough rate of energy supply, only specific low-frequency modes of vibration are strongly excited. This nonlinear phenomenon was predicted to occur in biomolecular systems, which are known to exhibit complex vibrational spectral properties, especially in the terahertz frequency domain. However, since the effects of terahertz or lower-frequency modes are mainly classical at physiological temperatures, there are serious doubts that Fröhlich's quantum description can be applied to predict such a coherent behavior in a biological environment, as suggested by the author. In addition, a quantum formalism makes the phenomenon hard to investigate using realistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD) as they are usually based on the classical principles. In the current paper, we provide a general classical Hamiltonian description of a nonlinear open system composed of many degrees of freedom (biomolecular structure) excited by an external energy source. It is shown that a coherent behaviour similar to Fröhlich's effect is to be expected in the classical case for a given range of parameter values. Thus, the supplied energy is not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. The connection between our Hamiltonian description, carried out in the space of normal modes, and a more standard treatment in the physical space is emphasized in order to facilitate the prediction of the effect from MD simulations. It is shown how such a coherent phenomenon may induce <span class="hlt">long-range</span> resonance effects that could be of critical importance at the biomolecular level. The present work is motivated by recent experimental evidences of long-lived excited low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28039969','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28039969"><span>Classical investigation of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> coherence in biological systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Preto, Jordane</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Almost five decades ago, H. Fröhlich [H. Fröhlich, "<span class="hlt">Long-range</span> coherence and energy storage in biological systems," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2(5), 641-649 (1968)] reported, on a theoretical basis, that the excitation of quantum modes of vibration in contact with a thermal reservoir may lead to steady states, where under high enough rate of energy supply, only specific low-frequency modes of vibration are strongly excited. This nonlinear phenomenon was predicted to occur in biomolecular systems, which are known to exhibit complex vibrational spectral properties, especially in the terahertz frequency domain. However, since the effects of terahertz or lower-frequency modes are mainly classical at physiological temperatures, there are serious doubts that Fröhlich's quantum description can be applied to predict such a coherent behavior in a biological environment, as suggested by the author. In addition, a quantum formalism makes the phenomenon hard to investigate using realistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD) as they are usually based on the classical principles. In the current paper, we provide a general classical Hamiltonian description of a nonlinear open system composed of many degrees of freedom (biomolecular structure) excited by an external energy source. It is shown that a coherent behaviour similar to Fröhlich's effect is to be expected in the classical case for a given range of parameter values. Thus, the supplied energy is not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. The connection between our Hamiltonian description, carried out in the space of normal modes, and a more standard treatment in the physical space is emphasized in order to facilitate the prediction of the effect from MD simulations. It is shown how such a coherent phenomenon may induce <span class="hlt">long-range</span> resonance effects that could be of critical importance at the biomolecular level. The present work is motivated by recent experimental evidences of long-lived excited low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12264846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12264846"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> global population projections, as assessed in 1980.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>UN medium range projections prepared in the 1980 assessment projected the population of individual countries up to the year 2025. The <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> projections discussed here were prepared by projecting the population of 8 major world regions from 2025-2100. The purpose of the projection was to observe the implications of the changes from the 1978 assessment made in the 1980 medium range projections on the <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> projections of the world's populations. As in previous projections, high, medium, and low variants were prepared in which fertility is assumed to be constant at the replacement level but at different times in the future. In addition, these projections contain 2 variants not previously prepared--namely, the growth and decline variants, in which the ultimate net reproduction rate is 1.05 and 0.95, respectively. In all the variants, expectation of life at birth is assumed to reach 75 years for males and 80 for females. According to the current medium variant projection, the earth's population will become stationary after 2095 at 10.2 billion persons, compared with a total of 10.5 billion projected in the 1978 assessment. The lower projection is largely attributable to a recent decline in the growth rate of several countries in South Asia which was greater than previously assumed. When the world population becomes stationary, both crude birth and death rates would be about 13/1000. In the decline variant, total population would peak at 7.7 billion in 2055, then decline gradually to 7.2 billion in 2100. The total population as projected by the growth variant would equal 14.9 billion in 2100 and would still be growing slowly. Between 1980 and 2050, 95% of the world's growth will occur in the currently less developed regions. Their share of total population will increase from 75-85% during that period. The age structure in all regions is expected to converge to 1 in which the median age is 39 years, the proportion both below age 15 and above age 64 is about 19</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.370..239C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.370..239C"><span>Paired SSB optical OFDM channels for high spectral efficient <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> over DWDM networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chicharro, Francisco I.; Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A new high spectral efficient SSB-OOFDM DWDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system has been experimentally demonstrated. The proposed transmitter employs paired optical channels consisting of two SSB modulated OFDM <span class="hlt">signals</span> using opposite sidebands in order to allow an efficient use of the spectrum with optical carriers separation under 10 GHz. Moreover, different paired channels are multiplexed into the 25 GHz grid DWDM fiber <span class="hlt">transmission</span> link. Optical carrier spacing of 8.75 GHz in paired channels has been demonstrated allowing 40.8 Gb/s <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> rate over a 25 GHz paired channel bandwidth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5193432','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5193432"><span>Retinal Lateral Inhibition Provides the Biological Basis of <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Spatial Induction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bertalmío, Marcelo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Retinal lateral inhibition is one of the conventional efficient coding mechanisms in the visual system that is produced by interneurons that pool <span class="hlt">signals</span> over a neighborhood of presynaptic feedforward cells and send inhibitory <span class="hlt">signals</span> back to them. Thus, the receptive-field (RF) of a retinal ganglion cell has a center-surround receptive-field (RF) profile that is classically represented as a difference-of-Gaussian (DOG) adequate for efficient spatial contrast coding. The DOG RF profile has been attributed to produce the psychophysical phenomena of brightness induction, in which the perceived brightness of an object is affected by that of its vicinity, either shifting away from it (brightness contrast) or becoming more similar to it (brightness assimilation) depending on the size of the surfaces surrounding the object. While brightness contrast can be modeled using a DOG with a narrow surround, brightness assimilation requires a wide suppressive surround. Early retinal studies determined that the suppressive surround of a retinal ganglion cell is narrow (< 100–300 μm; ‘classic RF’), which led researchers to postulate that brightness assimilation must originate at some post-retinal, possibly cortical, stage where <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions are feasible. However, more recent studies have reported that the retinal interneurons also exhibit a spatially wide component (> 500–1000 μm). In the current study, we examine the effect of this wide interneuron RF component in two biophysical retinal models and show that for both of the retinal models it explains the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> effect evidenced in simultaneous brightness induction phenomena and that the spatial extent of this <span class="hlt">long-range</span> effect of the retinal model responses matches that of perceptual data. These results suggest that the retinal lateral inhibition mechanism alone can regulate local as well as <span class="hlt">long-range</span> spatial induction through the narrow and wide RF components of retinal interneurons, arguing against the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88f2718L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..88f2718L"><span>Dendritic <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> induced by intracellular charge inhomogeneities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lazarevich, Ivan A.; Kazantsev, Victor B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Signal</span> propagation in neuronal dendrites represents the basis for interneuron communication and information processing in the brain. Here we take into account charge inhomogeneities arising in the vicinity of ion channels in cytoplasm and obtain a modified cable equation. We show that charge inhomogeneities acting on a millisecond time scale can lead to the appearance of propagating waves with wavelengths of hundreds of micrometers. They correspond to a certain frequency band predicting the appearance of resonant properties in brain neuron <span class="hlt">signaling</span>. We also show that membrane potential in spiny dendrites obeys the modified cable equation suggesting a crucial role of the spines in dendritic subthreshold resonance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19894799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19894799"><span><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> sound propagation over a sea surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bolin, Karl; Boué, Mathieu; Karasalo, Ilkka</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>This paper describes methodology and results from a model-based analysis of data on sound <span class="hlt">transmission</span> from controlled sound sources at sea to a 10-km distant shore. The data consist of registrations of sound <span class="hlt">transmission</span> loss together with concurrently collected atmospheric data at the source and receiver locations. The purpose of the analysis is to assess the accuracy of methods for <span class="hlt">transmission</span> loss prediction in which detailed data on the local geography and atmospheric conditions are used for computation of the sound field. The results indicate that such sound propagation predictions are accurate and reproduce observed variations in the sound level as function of time in a realistic way. The results further illustrate that the atmospheric model must include a description of turbulence effects to ensure predicted noise levels to remain realistically high during periods of sound shadow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MARQ21001E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..MARQ21001E"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> electron transfer in a model for DNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Endres, R. G.; Cox, D. L.</p> <p>2001-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> electron transfer (ET) between well separated donor (D) and acceptor (A) sites through quantum mechanical tunneling is essential to many biological processes like respiration, photosynthesis and possibly DNA repair and damage. We are investigating the distance dependence of the electronic transition matrix element H_DA and hence of the electron transfer rate in a model for DNA. Fluorescence quenching in DNA at D-A distances of 40 Åand more suggests ET with an unusually high decay length β-1 of order 10 Å (S.O.Kelley and J.K.Barton, in:Metal Ions in Biological Systems), A.Sigel and H.Sigel, Eds., Marcel Dekker, New York, Vol.36, 1999. Assuming strong electron interactions on the D complex and suitable energetics, this could be explained by formation of a many electron Kondo boundstate. We obtain H_DA from the splitting between the two lowest adiabatic electronic eigenenergies, which constitute the potential energy surfaces (PES) of the nuclear motion in lowest order Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The PES are constructed by coupling D and A to local breathing modes and by making a semi-analytical variational ansatz for the adiabatic eigenstates. The results from the PES are compared with results from the Mulliken-Hush algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.T9001E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.T9001E"><span>Ultracold <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Rydberg Molecules with Complex Multichannel Spectra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eiles, Matthew; Greene, Chris</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>A generalized class of exotic <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Rydberg molecules consisting of a multichannel Rydberg atom bound to a distant ground state atom by the Rydberg electron is predicted. These molecules are characterized by the rich physics provided by the strongly perturbed multichannel Rydberg spectra of divalent atoms, in contrast to the regular Rydberg series of the alkali atoms used to form Rydberg molecules to date. These multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number n. In particular, the nd Rydberg state of calcium becomes nearly degenerate with states of high orbital angular momentum over the range 17 < n < 22 , promoting its admixture into the high l deeply bound ``trilobite'' molecule states and thereby circumventing the usual difficulty posed by electric dipole selection rules. Further novel molecular states are predicted to occur in the low- J states of silicon, which are strongly perturbed due to channel interactions between Rydberg series leading to the spin-orbit split ionization thresholds. These interactions manifest themselves in potential curves exhibiting two distinct length scales, providing novel opportunities for quantum manipulation. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306905.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208311"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> interacting systems in the unconstrained ensemble.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Ruffo, Stefano</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Completely open systems can exchange heat, work, and matter with the environment. While energy, volume, and number of particles fluctuate under completely open conditions, the equilibrium states of the system, if they exist, can be specified using the temperature, pressure, and chemical potential as control parameters. The unconstrained ensemble is the statistical ensemble describing completely open systems and the replica energy is the appropriate free energy for these control parameters from which the thermodynamics must be derived. It turns out that macroscopic systems with short-range interactions cannot attain equilibrium configurations in the unconstrained ensemble, since temperature, pressure, and chemical potential cannot be taken as a set of independent variables in this case. In contrast, we show that systems with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions can reach states of thermodynamic equilibrium in the unconstrained ensemble. To illustrate this fact, we consider a modification of the Thirring model and compare the unconstrained ensemble with the canonical and grand-canonical ones: The more the ensemble is constrained by fixing the volume or number of particles, the larger the space of parameters defining the equilibrium configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691838','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4691838"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into <span class="hlt">long-range</span> RNA–RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. PMID:26554032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21410204','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21410204"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A</p> <p>2011-04-19</p> <p>Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1129865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1129865"><span><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Chiral Imprinting of Cu(110) by Tartaric Acid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lawton, T J; Pushkarev, V; Wei, D; Lucci, F R; Sholl, D S; Gellman, A J; Sykes, E C. H.</p> <p>2013-10-31</p> <p>Restructuring of metals by chiral molecules represents an important route to inducing and controlling enantioselective surface chemistry. Tartaric acid adsorption on Cu(110) has served as a useful system for understanding many aspects of chiral molecule adsorption and ordering on a metal surface, and a number of chiral and achiral unit cells have been reported. Herein, we show that given the appropriate annealing treatment, singly deprotonated tartaric acid monolayers can restructure the Cu metal itself, and that the resulting structure is both highly ordered and chiral. Molecular resolution scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that singly deprotonated tartaric acid extracts Cu atoms from the Cu(110) surface layer and incorporates them into highly ordered, chiral adatom arrays capped by a continuous molecular layer. Further evidence for surface restructuring comes from images of atom-deep trenches formed in the Cu(110) surface during the process. These trenches also run in low symmetry directions and are themselves chiral. Simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images are consistent with the appearance of the added atom rows and etched trenches. The chiral imprinting results in a <span class="hlt">long-range</span>, highly ordered unit cell covering the whole surface as confirmed by low energy electron diffraction. Details of the restructuring mechanism were further investigated via time-lapse imaging at elevated temperature. This work reveals the stages of nanoscale surface restructuring and offers an interesting method for chiral modification of an achiral metal surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26554032"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into <span class="hlt">long-range</span> RNA-RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. © 2015 Yue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..472..164L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..472..164L"><span>Record length requirement of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependent teletraffic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Ming</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>This article contributes the highlights mainly in two folds. On the one hand, it presents a formula to compute the upper bound of the variance of the correlation periodogram measurement of teletraffic (traffic for short) with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> dependence (LRD) for a given record length T and a given value of the Hurst parameter H (Theorems 1 and 2). On the other hand, it proposes two formulas for the computation of the variance upper bound of the correlation periodogram measurement of traffic of fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) type and the generalized Cauchy (GC) type, respectively (Corollaries 1 and 2). They may constitute a reference guideline of record length requirement of traffic with LRD. In addition, record length requirement for the correlation periodogram measurement of traffic with either the Schuster type or the Bartlett one is studied and the present results about it show that both types of periodograms may be used for the correlation measurement of traffic with a pre-desired variance bound of correlation estimation. Moreover, real traffic in the Internet Archive by the Special Interest Group on Data Communication under the Association for Computing Machinery of US (ACM SIGCOMM) is analyzed in the case study in this topic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20020741','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20020741"><span>Assessing <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport potential of persistent organic pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Beyer, A.; Mackay, D.; Matthies, M.; Wania, F.; Webster, E.</p> <p>2000-02-15</p> <p>An analysis is presented of the factors controlling the potential for the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transport (LRT) of persistent organic pollutants subject to degrading reactions and reversible transport to other environmental media. The approach adopted generalizes those developed previously by van Pul et al. and Bennett et al. to estimate a characteristic travel distance (CTD) or a half-distance (analogous to a half-life) for a substance present in a mobile medium such as air and subject to reversible transport to other media such as soil and water. For substances discharged to immobile media, such as pesticides to soil, an effective travel distance (ETD) is defined as the distance that, for example, 1% of the discharged chemical may be transported. It is shown that existing multimedia box models can be used to estimate CTD and that a simple relationship exists between CTD and overall environmental persistence, which can be displayed graphically. CTDs in air and water are calculated illustratively for 18 chemicals, and recommendations are made regarding ranking or grouping chemicals according to their potential for LRT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010020216&hterms=Satellite+object+locations&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSatellite%2Bobject%2Blocations','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010020216&hterms=Satellite+object+locations&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSatellite%2Bobject%2Blocations"><span>Confirmation of NLDN <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Strike Locations with LIS Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boeck, William; Boccippio, Dennis; Goodman, Steve; Cummins, Kenneth; Cramer, John; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This study compares the lightning locations reported by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) with the lightning locations determined by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The NLDN system identifies the rf signature of cloud-to-ground lightning. The LIS data is the top level of a hierarchy of optical data objects. The centroid and timing of each LIS lightning activity center are compared with each flash in a subset of the NLDN <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> lightning location data in a portion of the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea consisting of those locations more than 625 km from any sensor. This subset is produced by analyzing each reported NLDN location to determine if that location is within the LIS field of view at the time of the reported flash. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite (TRMM) orbit limits the cross-sensor comparison to tropical and sub-tropical regions. Because the rf-detection system depends on ionospheric propagation conditions, a separate analysis was made for daylight conditions at both source and sensor as well as nighttime at both places. A full year of data is compared to provide an adequate sample of each data set. Confirmation of lightning in the general location of the NLDN report is established when LIS detected one or more centers of lightning activity within a 2 degree radius from the NLDN location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013627','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013627"><span>Stochastic Kinetic Monte Carlo algorithms for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> Hamiltonians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mason, D R; Rudd, R E; Sutton, A P</p> <p>2003-10-13</p> <p>We present a higher order kinetic Monte Carlo methodology suitable to model the evolution of systems in which the transition rates are non- trivial to calculate or in which Monte Carlo moves are likely to be non- productive flicker events. The second order residence time algorithm first introduced by Athenes et al.[1] is rederived from the n-fold way algorithm of Bortz et al.[2] as a fully stochastic algorithm. The second order algorithm can be dynamically called when necessary to eliminate unproductive flickering between a metastable state and its neighbors. An algorithm combining elements of the first order and second order methods is shown to be more efficient, in terms of the number of rate calculations, than the first order or second order methods alone while remaining statistically identical. This efficiency is of prime importance when dealing with computationally expensive rate functions such as those arising from <span class="hlt">long</span>- <span class="hlt">range</span> Hamiltonians. Our algorithm has been developed for use when considering simulations of vacancy diffusion under the influence of elastic stress fields. We demonstrate the improved efficiency of the method over that of the n-fold way in simulations of vacancy diffusion in alloys. Our algorithm is seen to be an order of magnitude more efficient than the n-fold way in these simulations. We show that when magnesium is added to an Al-2at.%Cu alloy, this has the effect of trapping vacancies. When trapping occurs, we see that our algorithm performs thousands of events for each rate calculation performed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NatCh...3..400H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011NatCh...3..400H"><span>Directed <span class="hlt">long-range</span> molecular migration energized by surface reaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harikumar, K. R.; Polanyi, John C.; Zabet-Khosousi, Amir; Czekala, Piotr; Lin, Haiping; Hofer, Werner A.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The recoil of adsorbates away (desorption) and towards (reaction) surfaces is well known. Here, we describe the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> recoil of adsorbates in the plane of a surface, and accordingly the novel phenomenon of reactions occurring at a substantial distance from the originating event. Three thermal and three electron-induced surface reactions are shown by scanning tunnelling microscopy to propel their physisorbed ethylenic products across the rough surface of Si(100) over a distance of up to 200 Å before an attachment reaction. The recoil energy in the ethylenic products comes from thermal exoergicity or from electronic excitation of chemisorbed alkenes. We propose that the mechanism of migration is a rolling motion, because the recoiling molecule overcomes raised surface obstacles. Electronic excitation of propene causes directional recoil and often end-to-end inversion, suggesting cartwheeling. Ab initio calculations of the halogenation and electron-induced reactions support a model in which asymmetric forces between the molecule and the surface induce rotation and therefore migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSRv..140..189C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SSRv..140..189C"><span><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Reconnaissance Imager on New Horizons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, A. F.; Weaver, H. A.; Conard, S. J.; Morgan, M. F.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Boldt, J. D.; Cooper, K. A.; Darlington, E. H.; Grey, M. P.; Hayes, J. R.; Kosakowski, K. E.; Magee, T.; Rossano, E.; Sampath, D.; Schlemm, C.; Taylor, H. W.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">LOng-Range</span> Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) is the high-resolution imaging instrument for the New Horizons mission to Pluto, its giant satellite Charon, its small moons Nix and Hydra, and the Kuiper Belt, which is the vast region of icy bodies extending roughly from Neptune’s orbit out to 50 astronomical units (AU). New Horizons launched on January 19, 2006, as the inaugural mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program. LORRI is a narrow-angle (field of view=0.29°), high-resolution (4.95 μrad pixels), Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 20.8-cm diameter primary mirror, a focal length of 263 cm, and a three-lens, field-flattening assembly. A 1,024×1,024 pixel (optically active region), thinned, backside-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) detector is used in the focal plane unit and is operated in frame-transfer mode. LORRI provides panchromatic imaging over a bandpass that extends approximately from 350 nm to 850 nm. LORRI operates in an extreme thermal environment, situated inside the warm spacecraft with a large, open aperture viewing cold space. LORRI has a silicon carbide optical system, designed to maintain focus over the operating temperature range without a focus adjustment mechanism. Moreover, the spacecraft is thruster-stabilized without reaction wheels, placing stringent limits on the available exposure time and the optical throughput needed to satisfy the measurement requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91c2815J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91c2815J"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> epidemic spreading in a random environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Juhász, Róbert; Kovács, István A.; Iglói, Ferenc</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Modeling <span class="hlt">long-range</span> epidemic spreading in a random environment, we consider a quenched, disordered, d -dimensional contact process with infection rates decaying with distance as 1 /rd +σ . We study the dynamical behavior of the model at and below the epidemic threshold by a variant of the strong-disorder renormalization-group method and by Monte Carlo simulations in one and two spatial dimensions. Starting from a single infected site, the average survival probability is found to decay as P (t ) ˜t-d /z up to multiplicative logarithmic corrections. Below the epidemic threshold, a Griffiths phase emerges, where the dynamical exponent z varies continuously with the control parameter and tends to zc=d +σ as the threshold is approached. At the threshold, the spatial extension of the infected cluster (in surviving trials) is found to grow as R (t ) ˜t1 /zc with a multiplicative logarithmic correction and the average number of infected sites in surviving trials is found to increase as Ns(t ) ˜(lnt) χ with χ =2 in one dimension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871165"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> epidemic spreading in a random environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Juhász, Róbert; Kovács, István A; Iglói, Ferenc</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Modeling <span class="hlt">long-range</span> epidemic spreading in a random environment, we consider a quenched, disordered, d-dimensional contact process with infection rates decaying with distance as 1/rd+σ. We study the dynamical behavior of the model at and below the epidemic threshold by a variant of the strong-disorder renormalization-group method and by Monte Carlo simulations in one and two spatial dimensions. Starting from a single infected site, the average survival probability is found to decay as P(t)∼t-d/z up to multiplicative logarithmic corrections. Below the epidemic threshold, a Griffiths phase emerges, where the dynamical exponent z varies continuously with the control parameter and tends to zc=d+σ as the threshold is approached. At the threshold, the spatial extension of the infected cluster (in surviving trials) is found to grow as R(t)∼t1/zc with a multiplicative logarithmic correction and the average number of infected sites in surviving trials is found to increase as Ns(t)∼(lnt)χ with χ=2 in one dimension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95c2702S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95c2702S"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> interactions between rubidium and potassium Rydberg atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samboy, Nolan</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">long-range</span>, two-body interactions between rubidium and potassium atoms in highly excited (n =70 ) Rydberg states. After establishing properly symmetrized asymptotic basis states, we diagonalize an interaction Hamiltonian consisting of the standard Coulombic potential expansion and atomic fine structure to calculate electronic potential energy curves. We find that when both atoms are excited to either the 70 s state or the 70 p state, both the Ω =0+ symmetry interactions and the Ω =0- symmetry interactions demonstrate a deep potential well capable of supporting many bound levels; the sizes of the corresponding dimer states are of the order of 2.25 μ m . We establish n -scaling relations for the equilibrium separation Re and the dissociation energy De and find these relations to be consistent with similar calculations involving the homonuclear interactions between rubidium and cesium. We discuss the specific effects of ℓ mixing and the exact composition of the calculated potential well via the expansion coefficients of the asymptotic basis states. Finally, we apply a Landau-Zener treatment to show that the dimer states are stable with respect to predissociation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21857673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21857673"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> spin Seebeck effect and acoustic spin pumping.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uchida, K; Adachi, H; An, T; Ota, T; Toda, M; Hillebrands, B; Maekawa, S; Saitoh, E</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Imagine that a metallic wire is attached to a part of a large insulator, which itself exhibits no magnetization. It seems impossible for electrons in the wire to register where the wire is positioned on the insulator. Here we found that, using a Ni₈₁Fe₁₉/Pt bilayer wire on an insulating sapphire plate, electrons in the wire recognize their position on the sapphire. Under a temperature gradient in the sapphire, surprisingly, the voltage generated in the Pt layer is shown to reflect the wire position, although the wire is isolated both electrically and magnetically. This non-local voltage is due to the coupling of spins and phonons: the only possible carrier of information in this system. We demonstrate this coupling by directly injecting sound waves, which realizes the acoustic spin pumping. Our finding provides a persuasive answer to the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> nature of the spin Seebeck effect, and it opens the door to 'acoustic spintronics' in which sound waves are exploited for constructing spin-based devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7880549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7880549"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> interactions between DNA-bound ligands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samuelson, P; Jansen, K; Kubista, M</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>We have studied the interaction of the A:T specific minor-groove binding ligand 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) with synthetic DNA oligomers containing specific binding sites in order to investigate possible <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions between bound ligands. We find that DAPI binds cooperatively to the oligomers. The degree of cooperativity increases with increasing number of binding sites and decreases with the separation between them. This dependence is paralleled by changes in the induced circular dichroism spectrum of DAPI, which decreases in intensity at 335 nm and increases at 365 nm. These results are consistent with an allosteric interaction of DAPI with DNA, where bound ligands cooperatively alter the structure of the DNA molecule. This structural change seems possible to induce under various conditions, including physiological. One consequence of allosteric binding is that ligands bound at a distance from each other sense each other's presence and influence each others' properties. If some regulatory proteins induce the same conformational change as DAPI, novel mechanisms for controlling gene expression can be anticipated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSMTE..04.4001P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSMTE..04.4001P"><span>Entropy production in systems with <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pakter, Renato; Levin, Yan</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>On a fine grained scale the Gibbs entropy of an isolated system remains constant throughout its dynamical evolution. This is a consequence of Liouville’s theorem for Hamiltonian systems and appears to contradict the second law of thermodynamics. In reality, however, there is no problem since the thermodynamic entropy should be associated with the Boltzmann entropy, which for non-equilibrium systems is different from Gibbs entropy. The Boltzmann entropy accounts for the microstates which are not accessible from a given initial condition, but are compatible with a given macrostate. In a sense the Boltzmann entropy is a coarse grained version of the Gibbs entropy and will not decrease during the dynamical evolution of a macroscopic system. In this paper we will explore the entropy production for systems with <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> interactions. Unlike for short range systems, in the thermodynamic limit, the probability density function for these systems decouples into a product of one particle distribution functions and the coarse grained entropy can be calculated explicitly. We find that the characteristic time for the entropy production scales with the number of particles as {{N}α} , with α >0 , so that in the thermodynamic limit entropy production takes an infinite amount of time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854464','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854464"><span>Functional Sites Induce <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Evolutionary Constraints in Enzymes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jack, Benjamin R.; Meyer, Austin G.; Echave, Julian; Wilke, Claus O.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Functional residues in proteins tend to be highly conserved over evolutionary time. However, to what extent functional sites impose evolutionary constraints on nearby or even more distant residues is not known. Here, we report pervasive conservation gradients toward catalytic residues in a dataset of 524 distinct enzymes: evolutionary conservation decreases approximately linearly with increasing distance to the nearest catalytic residue in the protein structure. This trend encompasses, on average, 80% of the residues in any enzyme, and it is independent of known structural constraints on protein evolution such as residue packing or solvent accessibility. Further, the trend exists in both monomeric and multimeric enzymes and irrespective of enzyme size and/or location of the active site in the enzyme structure. By contrast, sites in protein–protein interfaces, unlike catalytic residues, are only weakly conserved and induce only minor rate gradients. In aggregate, these observations show that functional sites, and in particular catalytic residues, induce <span class="hlt">long-range</span> evolutionary constraints in enzymes. PMID:27138088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PrSS...40..210D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PrSS...40..210D"><span>On <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forces of repulsion between biological cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Derjaguin, B. V.; Golovanov, M. V.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>We have established experimentally that when biological cells, for example, blood, are suspended in concentrated solutions of inorganic electrolytes (for instance, in a 15% solution of sodium chloride) then around some cells (leucocytes, especially tumour cells) there form haloes, i.e., circular spaces free from background cells (erythrocytes, yeast cells, colloidal particles of Indian ink). In the medium made up of erythrocytes the haloes form during 5-10 min as a result of the background cells drawing apart from the central halo-forming cell (HFC) at a distance of 10-100 μm and more. In the medium made of the Indian ink particles, the haloes form during 2-4 s and attain a thickness of about 10-20 μm. The erythrocytes and the haloes forming in their medium can be preserved for about three to five days at room temperature. It has been established that, when tumour HFCs are present at sufficient concentrations, they form hexagonal periodic structures having a mean spacing between cells of up to 60 μm. The authors put forward as one probable suggestion that the formation of haloes is largely determined by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> repulsive forces arising from the phenomenon of diffusiophoresis generated by the diffusion currents that emerge from the surface of halo-forming cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93b2702C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93b2702C"><span>Lifetimes of ultra-<span class="hlt">long-range</span> strontium Rydberg molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camargo, F.; Whalen, J. Â. D.; Ding, R.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The lifetimes of the lower-lying vibrational states of ultra-<span class="hlt">long-range</span> strontium Rydberg molecules comprising one ground-state 5 s2 1S0 atom and one Rydberg atom in the 5 s 38 s 3S1 state are reported. The molecules are created in an ultracold gas held in an optical dipole trap and their numbers determined using field ionization, the product electrons being detected by a microchannel plate. The measurements show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This results because the strong p -wave resonance in low-energy electron-rubidium scattering, which strongly influences the rubidium molecular lifetimes, is not present for strontium. The absence of this resonance offers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing of theories of molecular formation and decay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MAR.K1088S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MAR.K1088S"><span><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> attraction between two different likely charged macroions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shklovskii, B. I.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>It is known that in a water solution two likely charged macroions can attract each other due to correlations of multivalent counterions adsorbed on their surfaces [1]. This attraction is short-ranged and decays exponentially with distance between macroions. In this work, we show that a longer range attraction exists when the bare surface charge densities of the two macroions have the same sign but different in absolute values. The key idea is that with adsorbed multivalent counterions, two such macroions can be considered as conductors with fixed but different electric potentials. Each potential is determined by the difference between the entropic bulk chemical potential of a multivalent counterion and its correlation chemical potential determined by the bare surface charge density of the macroion. When the two macroions are close enough, their adjacent spots form a charged capacitor, which leads to attraction. This attraction is <span class="hlt">long-ranged</span>: it decays with distance as a power law. This attractive force may play a important role in gene delivery, in which poly-cations are used to invert the charge of negative DNA so that it is not repelled by negative charged cell membrane. The attraction discussed above makes sure that even the charge of the membrane is also inverted, DNA may still be attracted to it. [1] I. Rouzina and V. A. Bloomfield, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 9977 (1996).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95a2140L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvE..95a2140L"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> interacting systems in the unconstrained ensemble</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Ruffo, Stefano</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Completely open systems can exchange heat, work, and matter with the environment. While energy, volume, and number of particles fluctuate under completely open conditions, the equilibrium states of the system, if they exist, can be specified using the temperature, pressure, and chemical potential as control parameters. The unconstrained ensemble is the statistical ensemble describing completely open systems and the replica energy is the appropriate free energy for these control parameters from which the thermodynamics must be derived. It turns out that macroscopic systems with short-range interactions cannot attain equilibrium configurations in the unconstrained ensemble, since temperature, pressure, and chemical potential cannot be taken as a set of independent variables in this case. In contrast, we show that systems with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions can reach states of thermodynamic equilibrium in the unconstrained ensemble. To illustrate this fact, we consider a modification of the Thirring model and compare the unconstrained ensemble with the canonical and grand-canonical ones: The more the ensemble is constrained by fixing the volume or number of particles, the larger the space of parameters defining the equilibrium configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4169270','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4169270"><span>Measured <span class="hlt">long-range</span> repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies1–3. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces4. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz5–7, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these <span class="hlt">long-range</span> forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies8–11. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction12, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction13–15. PMID:19129843</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5273044','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5273044"><span>ORNL <span class="hlt">long-range</span> environmental and waste management plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baldwin, J.S.; Bates, L.D.; Brown, C.H.; Easterday, C.A.; Hill, L.G.; Kendrick, C.M.; McNeese, L.E.; Myrick, T.E.; Payne, T.L.; Pepper, C.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Rohwer, P.S.; Scanlan, T.F.; Smith, M.A.; Stratton, L.E.; Trabalka, J.R.</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>This report, the ORNL <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Environmental and Waste Management Plan, is the annual update in a series begun in fiscal year 1985. Its primary purpose is to provide a thorough and systematic planning document to reflect the continuing process of site assessment, strategy development, and planning for the current and long-term control of environmental issues, waste management practices, and remedial action requirements. The document also provides an estimate of the resources required to implement the current plan. This document is not intended to be a budget document; it is, however, intended to provide guidance to both Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the US Department of Energy (DOE) management as to the near order of magnitude of the resources (primarily funding requirements) and the time frame required to execute the strategy in the present revision of the plan. As with any document of this nature, the near-term (one to three years) part of the plan is a pragmatic assessment of the current program and ongoing capital projects and reflects the efforts perceived to be necessary to comply with all current state and federal regulations and DOE orders. It also should be in general agreement with current budget (funding) requests and obligations for these immediate years. 55 figs., 72 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21505500"><span>Directed <span class="hlt">long-range</span> molecular migration energized by surface reaction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harikumar, K R; Polanyi, John C; Zabet-Khosousi, Amir; Czekala, Piotr; Lin, Haiping; Hofer, Werner A</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The recoil of adsorbates away (desorption) and towards (reaction) surfaces is well known. Here, we describe the <span class="hlt">long-range</span> recoil of adsorbates in the plane of a surface, and accordingly the novel phenomenon of reactions occurring at a substantial distance from the originating event. Three thermal and three electron-induced surface reactions are shown by scanning tunnelling microscopy to propel their physisorbed ethylenic products across the rough surface of Si(100) over a distance of up to 200 Å before an attachment reaction. The recoil energy in the ethylenic products comes from thermal exoergicity or from electronic excitation of chemisorbed alkenes. We propose that the mechanism of migration is a rolling motion, because the recoiling molecule overcomes raised surface obstacles. Electronic excitation of propene causes directional recoil and often end-to-end inversion, suggesting cartwheeling. Ab initio calculations of the halogenation and electron-induced reactions support a model in which asymmetric forces between the molecule and the surface induce rotation and therefore migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA133145','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA133145"><span>Low Rate <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> of Video <span class="hlt">Signals</span> Using Adaptive Delta Modulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-08-15</p> <p>UNCLASSIFIED F/G 17/2 NL EEEIIEIElllll mllEllllil h EE~h~hhhhEEE EEEhhhEh a12. 11111".25 *L4 IflflK EUM OFSA32M-%- % %~ 84 .. .. .. .4...output of the auto-router is .I multiplexed between a voice or data contentrator. The <span class="hlt">signals</span> from the data and voice concentrators are then TD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title25-vol1-sec170-410.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title25-vol1-sec170-410.pdf"><span>25 CFR 170.410 - What is the purpose of tribal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation planning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the purpose of tribal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation... Program Facilities <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Transportation Planning § 170.410 What is the purpose of tribal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation planning? (a) The purpose of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation planning is to clearly demonstrate a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title25-vol1-sec170-410.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title25-vol1-sec170-410.pdf"><span>25 CFR 170.410 - What is the purpose of tribal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation planning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the purpose of tribal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation... Program Facilities <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Transportation Planning § 170.410 What is the purpose of tribal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation planning? (a) The purpose of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation planning is to clearly demonstrate a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title25-vol1-sec170-411.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title25-vol1-sec170-411.pdf"><span>25 CFR 170.411 - What may a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan include?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What may a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan include? 170.411... <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Transportation Planning § 170.411 What may a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan include? A comprehensive <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan may include: (a) An evaluation of a full range of...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title25-vol1-sec170-410.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title25-vol1-sec170-410.pdf"><span>25 CFR 170.410 - What is the purpose of tribal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation planning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the purpose of tribal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation... Program Facilities <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Transportation Planning § 170.410 What is the purpose of tribal <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation planning? (a) The purpose of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation planning is to clearly demonstrate a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title25-vol1-sec170-411.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title25-vol1-sec170-411.pdf"><span>25 CFR 170.411 - What may a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan include?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What may a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan include? 170... <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Transportation Planning § 170.411 What may a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan include? A comprehensive <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan may include: (a) An evaluation of a full range of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title25-vol1-sec170-411.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title25-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title25-vol1-sec170-411.pdf"><span>25 CFR 170.411 - What may a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan include?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What may a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan include? 170... <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Transportation Planning § 170.411 What may a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan include? A comprehensive <span class="hlt">long-range</span> transportation plan may include: (a) An evaluation of a full range of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4570401','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4570401"><span>Efficient Sparse <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> over a Lossy Link Using Compressive Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Liantao; Yu, Kai; Cao, Dongyu; Hu, Yuhen; Wang, Zhi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Reliable data <span class="hlt">transmission</span> over lossy communication link is expensive due to overheads for error protection. For <span class="hlt">signals</span> that have inherent sparse structures, compressive sensing (CS) is applied to facilitate efficient sparse <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmissions</span> over lossy communication links without data compression or error protection. The natural packet loss in the lossy link is modeled as a random sampling process of the transmitted data, and the original <span class="hlt">signal</span> will be reconstructed from the lossy <span class="hlt">transmission</span> results using the CS-based reconstruction method at the receiving end. The impacts of packet lengths on <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency under different channel conditions have been discussed, and interleaving is incorporated to mitigate the impact of burst data loss. Extensive simulations and experiments have been conducted and compared to the traditional automatic repeat request (ARQ) interpolation technique, and very favorable results have been observed in terms of both accuracy of the reconstructed <span class="hlt">signals</span> and the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> energy consumption. Furthermore, the packet length effect provides useful insights for using compressed sensing for efficient sparse <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> via lossy links. PMID:26287195</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5417502','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5417502"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> temporal correlations in neural narrowband time-series arise due to critical dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We show theoretically that the hypothesis of criticality as a theory of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> fluctuation in the human brain may be distinguished from the theory of passive filtering on the basis of macroscopic neuronal <span class="hlt">signals</span> such as the electroencephalogram, using novel theory of narrowband amplitude time-series at criticality. Our theory predicts the division of critical activity into meta-universality classes. As a consequence our analysis shows that experimental electroencephalography data favours the hypothesis of criticality in the human brain. PMID:28472078</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4541519','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4541519"><span>Selective detection of bacteria in urine with a <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguide biosensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Béland, Paul; Krupin, Oleksiy; Berini, Pierre</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Experimentation demonstrates <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon polariton waveguides as a useful biosensor to selectively detect gram negative or gram positive bacteria in human urine having a low concentration of constituents. The biosensor can detect bacteria at concentrations of 105 CFU/ml, the internationally recommended threshold for diagnostic of urinary tract infection. Using a negative control urine solution of bacterial concentration 1000☓ higher than the targeted bacteria, we obtain a ratio of 5.4 for the positive to negative <span class="hlt">signals</span>. PMID:26309755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980SPIE..242..142F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980SPIE..242..142F"><span>Big 'R', little 'c', integrated data annotation and sensor control for <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> oblique photography /LOROP/</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fishell, W. G.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The data annotation requirements of the <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Oblique Photography (LOROP) reconnaissance system are considered, and sensor control functions are discussed from the standpoint of those control <span class="hlt">signals</span> that are common to most elements of a multi-sensor system, including a LOROP camera. It is shown that the integration of sensor control and data annotation functions increases system simplicity and reliability, since the two components need common inputs and interfaces with cockpit controls. A detailed description of the AN/ASQ-172 Sensor Control/Data Display set illustrates how the two functions are combined to save power, space and weight in the F-14 Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21110540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21110540"><span>A direct method for measuring acoustic ground impedance in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> propagation experiments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soh, Jin H; Gilbert, Kenneth E; Frazier, W M Garth; Talmadge, Carrick L; Waxler, Roger</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>A method is reported for determining ground impedance in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> propagation experiments by using the definition of impedance directly. The method is envisioned as way of measuring the impedence at multiple locations along the propagation path, using the <span class="hlt">signals</span> broadcast during the experiment itself. In a short-range (10 m) test, the direct method was in good agreement with a more conventional model-based least-squares method. The utility of the direct method was demonstrated in a 400 m propagation experiment in a agricultural field. The resulting impedance was consistent with the impedance measured previously in the same field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1163490-monitoring-long-range-electron-transfer-pathways-proteins-stimulated-attosecond-broadband-ray-raman-spectroscopy','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1163490-monitoring-long-range-electron-transfer-pathways-proteins-stimulated-attosecond-broadband-ray-raman-spectroscopy"><span>Monitoring <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electron transfer pathways in proteins by stimulated attosecond broadband X-ray Raman spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan; ...</p> <p>2014-10-09</p> <p>In this study, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electron transfer (ET) plays a key role in many biological energy conversion and synthesis processes. We show that nonlinear spectroscopy with attosecond X-ray pulses provides a real time movie of the evolving oxidation states and electron densities around atoms, and can probe these processes with high spatial and temporal resolution. This is demonstrated in a simulation study of the stimulated X-ray Raman (SXRS) <span class="hlt">signals</span> in Re-modified azurin, which had long served as a benchmark for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> ET in proteins. Nonlinear SXRS <span class="hlt">signals</span> are sensitive to the local electronic structure and should offer a novel window formore » <span class="hlt">long-range</span> ET.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18542162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18542162"><span>Electronic post-compensation of WDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> impairments using coherent detection and digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xiaoxu; Chen, Xin; Goldfarb, Gilad; Mateo, Eduardo; Kim, Inwoong; Yaman, Fatih; Li, Guifang</p> <p>2008-01-21</p> <p>A universal post-compensation scheme for fiber impairments in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems is proposed based on coherent detection and digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing (DSP). <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> of 10 x 10 Gbit/s binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) <span class="hlt">signals</span> at a channel spacing of 20 GHz over 800 km dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) has been demonstrated numerically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA456511','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA456511"><span>Navigation Using <span class="hlt">Signals</span> of Opportunity in the AM <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Band</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>compo- nents. The overall goal was to create two <span class="hlt">signals</span>, both sampled at the standard GNURadio sampling frequency of 4MHz, which are separated in...detailed in the previous section, the USRP hardware, the GNURadio software detailed in Section 2.5, two personal computers, and various cables and...the following World Wide Web (WWW) sites are highly recommended: 1. http://www.gnu.org/software/ gnuradio /index.html 2. http://www.nd.edu/~dshen/GNU/ 3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6187501','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6187501"><span>Engineering Technology Division <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Plan, 1991--1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This Engineering Technology Division <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Plan is a departure from planning processes of the past. About a year ago we decided to approach our strategic planning in a very different way. With this plan we complete the first phase of a comprehensive process that has involved most of the Division staff. Through a series of brainstorming''meetings, we have accumulated a wealth of ideas. By this process, we have been able to identify our perceived strengths and weaknesses and to propose very challenging goals for the future. Early on in our planning, we selected two distinct areas where we desire changes. First, we want to pursue program development in a much more structured and dynamic manner: deciding what we want to do, developing plans, and providing the resources to follow through. Second, we want to change the way that we do business by developing more effective ways to work together within the Division and with the important groups that we interact with throughout Energy Systems. These initiatives are reflected in the plan and in related actions that the Division is implementing. The ETD mission is to perform research, development, conceptual design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and system demonstration of technology essential for (1) nuclear reactor systems and related technologies (2) space and defense systems (3) advanced systems for energy conversion and utilization, and (4) water and waste management systems, and to foster a vigorous program of technology transfer using the best available techniques of technical infusion into the marketplace. In meeting this mission, the Division will institute a documented pollution prevention program, ensure that environmental impact statements are prepared for the supporting program, and adhere to all environmental safety and health requirements. 4 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhDT.......110R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhDT.......110R"><span>Device Applications of <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Surface Plasmons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richards, John David</p> <p></p> <p>Device applications of surface plasmons have been the subject of much interest since the introduction of surface plasmon biosensors in the early 1980's. A less well known coupled surface plasmon mode, called the <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> surface plasmon (LRSP), exhibits lower loss and larger electric field enhancement than the surface plasmon (SP) mode. As a result, the LRSP mode has the potential to produce devices with better performance than the corresponding SP devices. In this thesis, the use of the LRSP mode in sensor and light modulator applications is theoretically and experimentally investigated. LRSP sensors are compared with SP sensors, both theoretically and experimentally. LRSP sensors offer greater design flexibility than SP sensors. In SP sensors, only the metal film thickness can be varied, as compared to LRSP sensors, where the thickness of the metal film and a dielectric coupling gap can be varied. Theoretical calculations indicate that LRSP sensors are more sensitive to changes in interfacial permittivity, both bulk refractive index changes and refractive index changes caused by the formation of dielectric overlayers on the metal film. Experimental measurements are performed to verify that LRSP sensors provide higher sensitivity than SP sensors. A theoretical comparison of reflection-mode modulators for free space optical interconnects is performed. Fabry -Perot (FP), SP, and LRSP polymeric electro-optic modulators are considered. The reflectance and modulation characteristics of these devices are determined using a model that accounts for anisotropic layered media. The sensitivity of the reflectance and modulation characteristics to parameters such as the collimation of the optical beam, the choice of metal film, the operating wavelength, and the temperature of the polymeric film, is analyzed for these modulator structures. SP and FP polymeric electro-optic modulators have already been experimentally demonstrated. The experimental feasibility of a LRSP</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016isms.confEFA07M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016isms.confEFA07M"><span>a Global Model for <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Interaction `DAMPING Functions'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myatt, Philip Thomas; McCourt, Frederick R. W.; Le Roy, Robert J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In recent years, `damping functions', which characterize the weakening of inverse-power-sum <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interatomic interaction energies with increasing electron overlap, have become an increasing important component of models for diatomic molecule interaction potentials. However, a key feature of models for damping functions, their portability, has received little scrutiny. The present work set out to examine all available ab initio induction and dispersion damping function data and to attempt to devise a `global' scheme for diatomic molecule damping functions. It appears that while neutral (H, He, Li, and Ne, homonuclear and mixed) and anion (H^- with H, He and Li) species obey (approximately) one common rule, proton plus neutral (H^+ with H, He and Li) and non-proton-cation plus neutral systems (He^+ and Li^+ with H, He and Li), must each be treated separately. However, for all three cases, a version of the Douketis-Scoles-Thakkar (ionization potential)power factor is a key scaling parameter. R.J. Le Roy, C. C. Haugen, J. Tao and Hui Li, Mol. Phys. 109,435 (2011). P.J. Knowles and W.J. Meath,J. Mol. Phys. 60, 1143 (1987); R.J. Wheatley and W.J. Meath,J. Mol. Phys. 80, 25 (1993); R.J. Wheatley and W.J. Meath J. Chem. Phys. 179, 341 (1994); R.J. Wheatley and W.J. Meath,J. Chem. Phys. 203, 209 (1996). C. Douketis,G. Scoles, S. Marchetti, M. Zen and A. J. Thakkar, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 3057 (1982).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25967617','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25967617"><span>Secure chaotic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of electrocardiography <span class="hlt">signals</span> with acousto-optic modulation under profiled beam propagation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Almehmadi, Fares S; Chatterjee, Monish R</p> <p>2015-01-10</p> <p>Electrocardiography (ECG) <span class="hlt">signals</span> are used for both medical purposes and identifying individuals. It is often necessary to encrypt this highly sensitive information before it is transmitted over any channel. A closed-loop acousto-optic hybrid device acting as a chaotic modulator is applied to ECG <span class="hlt">signals</span> to achieve this encryption. Recently improved modeling of this approach using profiled optical beams has shown it to be very sensitive to key parameters that characterize the encryption and decryption process, exhibiting its potential for secure <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog and digital <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Here the encryption and decryption is demonstrated for ECG <span class="hlt">signals</span>, both analog and digital versions, illustrating strong encryption without significant distortion. Performance analysis pertinent to both analog and digital <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of the ECG waveform is also carried out using output <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise, <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-distortion, and bit-error-rate measures relative to the key parameters and presence of channel noise in the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25723426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25723426"><span>Performance evaluation of analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in an orbital angular momentum multiplexing system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Shuhui; Wang, Jian</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We propose and experimentally demonstrate analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing system. By employing two spatial light modulators (SLMs), each loaded with a complex phase pattern generating 4 OAM beams, an 8 OAM multiplexing system is established for analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. The crosstalk between each OAM channel is measured to assess the performance of the OAM multiplexing system. Using 3-GHz analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> over 8 OAM beams, we evaluate the performance of OAM multiplexing analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. The spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of the second-order-harmonic distortion (SHD) and the third-order-harmonic distortion (THD) are measured and characterized for each OAM channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19964776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19964776"><span>IBCOM (intra-brain communication) microsystem: wireless <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of neural <span class="hlt">signals</span> within the brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Ashmouny, Khaled M; Boldt, Chris; Ferguson, John E; Erdman, Arthur G; Redish, A; Yoon, Euisik</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We report our preliminary work to explore a new method of <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> for bio-implantable microsystems. Intra-brain communication or IBCOM is a wireless <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> method that uses the brain itself as a conductive medium to transmit the data and commands between neural implants and data processing systems outside the brain. Two miniaturized IBCOM (micro-IBCOM) CMOS chips were designed and fabricated for an in vivo test bed to transmit two prerecorded neural <span class="hlt">signals</span> at different binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) carrier frequencies to validate the feasibility of IBCOM concept. The chips were packaged for full implantation in a rat brain except for external power delivery. The original neural <span class="hlt">signal</span> waveforms were successfully recovered after being transmitted between two platinum electrodes separated by 15 mm with <span class="hlt">transmission</span> power less than 650 pJ/bit for the CMOS implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ITAES..31..430K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995ITAES..31..430K"><span>High-quality frame-synchronization for satellite video <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kubota, Shuji; Morikura, Masahiro; Kato, Shuzo</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A high-quality frame-synchronizer for video <span class="hlt">signal</span> switching and freezing is proposed. In order to realize high-quality frame-synchronization, a novel high-speed and high-definition 11 bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter which achieves the quite high unweighted S/N ratio performance of 63 dB is developed. It provides synchronized video <span class="hlt">signal</span> switching by field freezing for high-quality video <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5100592','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5100592"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> correlations in the mechanics of small DNA circles under topological stress revealed by multi-scale simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sutthibutpong, Thana; Matek, Christian; Benham, Craig; Slade, Gabriel G.; Noy, Agnes; Laughton, Charles; K. Doye, Jonathan P.; Louis, Ard A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract It is well established that gene regulation can be achieved through activator and repressor proteins that bind to DNA and switch particular genes on or off, and that complex metabolic networks determine the levels of transcription of a given gene at a given time. Using three complementary computational techniques to study the sequence-dependence of DNA denaturation within DNA minicircles, we have observed that whenever the ends of the DNA are constrained, information can be transferred over long distances directly by the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of mechanical stress through the DNA itself, without any requirement for external <span class="hlt">signalling</span> factors. Our models combine atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) with coarse-grained simulations and statistical mechanical calculations to span three distinct spatial resolutions and timescale regimes. While they give a consensus view of the non-locality of sequence-dependent denaturation in highly bent and supercoiled DNA loops, each also reveals a unique aspect of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> informational transfer that occurs as a result of restraining the DNA within the closed loop of the minicircles. PMID:27664220</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27664220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27664220"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> correlations in the mechanics of small DNA circles under topological stress revealed by multi-scale simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sutthibutpong, Thana; Matek, Christian; Benham, Craig; Slade, Gabriel G; Noy, Agnes; Laughton, Charles; K Doye, Jonathan P; Louis, Ard A; Harris, Sarah A</p> <p>2016-11-02</p> <p>It is well established that gene regulation can be achieved through activator and repressor proteins that bind to DNA and switch particular genes on or off, and that complex metabolic networks determine the levels of transcription of a given gene at a given time. Using three complementary computational techniques to study the sequence-dependence of DNA denaturation within DNA minicircles, we have observed that whenever the ends of the DNA are constrained, information can be transferred over long distances directly by the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of mechanical stress through the DNA itself, without any requirement for external <span class="hlt">signalling</span> factors. Our models combine atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) with coarse-grained simulations and statistical mechanical calculations to span three distinct spatial resolutions and timescale regimes. While they give a consensus view of the non-locality of sequence-dependent denaturation in highly bent and supercoiled DNA loops, each also reveals a unique aspect of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> informational transfer that occurs as a result of restraining the DNA within the closed loop of the minicircles. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28660667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28660667"><span>Pivotal role of hMT+ in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> disambiguation of interhemispheric bistable surface motion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duarte, João Valente; Costa, Gabriel Nascimento; Martins, Ricardo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>It remains an open question whether <span class="hlt">long-range</span> disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires <span class="hlt">long-range</span> integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding. Our fMRI study (n = 30) revealed a close relation between activity in hMT+ and perceptual switches involving interhemispheric segregation/integration of motion <span class="hlt">signals</span>, crucially under nonlocal conditions where components do not overlap and belong to distinct hemispheres. Higher <span class="hlt">signal</span> changes were found in hMT+ in response to spatially segregated component (incoherent) percepts than to pattern (coherent) percepts. This did not occur in early visual cortex, unlike apparent motion, which does not entail surface segmentation. We also identified a role for top-down mechanisms in state transitions. Deconvolution analysis of switch-related changes revealed prefrontal, insula, and cingulate areas, with the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) being particularly involved. We observed that directed influences could emerge either from left or right hMT+ during bistable motion integration/segregation. SPL also exhibited significant directed functional connectivity with hMT+, during perceptual state maintenance (Granger causality analysis). Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interhemispheric binding of ambiguous motion representations mainly reflect bottom-up processes from hMT+ during perceptual state maintenance. In contrast, state transitions maybe influenced by high-level regions such as the SPL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4882-4897, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014843','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014843"><span>Application of 3-<span class="hlt">signal</span> coherence to core noise <span class="hlt">transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krejsa, E. A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A method for determining transfer functions across turbofan engine components and from the engine to the far-field is developed. The method is based on the three-<span class="hlt">signal</span> coherence technique used previously to obtain far-field core noise levels. This method eliminates the bias error in transfer function measurements due to contamination of measured pressures by nonpropagating pressure fluctuations. Measured transfer functions from the engine to the far-field, across the tailpipe, and across the turbine are presented for three turbofan engines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA513408','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA513408"><span>LOAPEX: The <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Ocean Acoustic Propagation EXperiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>of low-frequency sound, in particular, scattering into the deep acoustic shadow zone. Broad- band acoustic <span class="hlt">transmissions</span> centered near 75 Hz were made...a source range of 3200 km showed the potential for incoherent averaging. Finally, shadow zone receptions were observed on an ocean bottom seismometer...energy far into the geometric shadow zones beneath caustics ( shadow zone arrivals) [2], and 4) the effects of bottom interaction near bottom-mounted</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10133718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10133718"><span>Leaky coaxial cable <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> for remote facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, S.F.; Crutcher, R.I.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>To develop reliable communications methods to meet the rigorous requirements for nuclear hot cells and similar environments, including control of cranes, transporters, and advanced servomanipulators, the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted extensive tests of numerous technologies to determine their applicability to remote operations. To alleviate the need for large bundles of cables that must accommodate crane/transporter motion relative to the boundaries of the cell, several <span class="hlt">transmission</span> techniques are available, including slotted-line radio-frequency couplers, infrared beams, fiber-optic cables, free-space microwave, and inductively coupled leaky coaxial cable. This paper discusses the general characteristics, mode of operation, and proposed implementation of leaky coaxial cable technology in a waste-handling facility scheduled to be built in the near future at ORNL. In addition, specific system hardware based around the use of leaky coaxial cable is described in detail. Finally, data from a series of radiation exposure tests conducted by the CFRP on several samples of the basic leaky coaxial cable and associated connectors are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6605996','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6605996"><span>Leaky coaxial cable <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> for remote facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, S.F.; Crutcher, R.I.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>To develop reliable communications methods to meet the rigorous requirements for nuclear hot cells and similar environments, including control of cranes, transporters, and advanced servomanipulators, the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted extensive tests of numerous technologies to determine their applicability to remote operations. To alleviate the need for large bundles of cables that must accommodate crane/transporter motion relative to the boundaries of the cell, several <span class="hlt">transmission</span> techniques are available, including slotted-line radio-frequency couplers, infrared beams, fiber-optic cables, free-space microwave, and inductively coupled leaky coaxial cable. This paper discusses the general characteristics, mode of operation, and proposed implementation of leaky coaxial cable technology in a waste-handling facility scheduled to be built in the near future at ORNL. In addition, specific system hardware based around the use of leaky coaxial cable is described in detail. Finally, data from a series of radiation exposure tests conducted by the CFRP on several samples of the basic leaky coaxial cable and associated connectors are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.7098M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.7098M"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> inversions for ocean acoustic tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Ocean acoustic tomography was proposed by Munk and Wunsch (1979) as a method for making measurements of ocean variability over large areas. After the successful demonstration of the feasibility of the idea in the 1981 three-dimensional mesoscale experiment (Ocean Tomography Group, 1982) the tomography group has proposed a new experiment to be carried out in 1986 in the eastern Pacific Ocean on ranges as long as the subtropical gyre scale. In this paper the gyre-scale experiment is simulated in the model ocean, using Holland's eddy-resolving general circulation quasi-geostrophic model. The paper addresses the following issues: (1) measurement of the heat content vertical profile horizontally averaged along the tomographic section; (2) adequacy of the linearized inverse over very <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span> and the need for its improvement; (3) possible improvements in the specification of the field statistics to obtain more accurate estimates and to measure properties like average pycnocline trends; (4) relationship of possible range-dependent information from the inversion to the assigned noise level. The results of the modeling simulation can be summarized as follows: (1) The linearized stochastic inversion needs to be improved for gyre-scale ranges providing estimates of the average heat content that have warm or cold biases. Iteration is used and shown to provide good estimates of the average heat content. (2) A smaller number of iterations is necessary if the initial estimate is improved. This can be done by including a spatial mean in the horizontal covariance function for regions of the ocean where the energy level in the mean and in the long length scales may be even more important than the mesoscale energy peak. (3) General trends like average pycnocline slopes can be estimated very well by including an inhomogeneous covariance in the inversion. (4) The estimates of the mean heat content values and of the average slopes are rather insensitive to the specified noise level</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413322T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413322T"><span>Multifractal Geophysical Extremes: Nonstationarity and <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Correlations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Throughout the world, extremes in environmental sciences are of prime importance. They are key variables not only for risk assessments and engineering designs (e.g. of dams and bridges), but also for resource management (e.g. water and energy) and for land use. A better understanding of them is more and more indispensable in settling the debate on their possible climatological evolution. Whereas it took decades before a uniform technique for estimating flow frequencies within a stationary framework, it is often claimed that « stationarity is dead ! ». The fact that geophysical and environmental fields are variable over a wider range of scales than previously thought require to go beyond the limits of the (classical) Extreme Value Theory (EVT). Indeed, <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations are beyond the scope of the classical EVT theory. We show that multifractal concepts and techniques are particularly appealing because they can effectively deal with a cascade of interactions concentrating for instance energy, liquid water, etc. into smaller and smaller space-time domains. Furthermore, a general outcome of these cascade processes -which surprisingly was realized only rather recently- is that rather independently of their details they yield probability distributions with power-law fall-offs, often called (asymptotic) Pareto or Zipf laws. We discuss the corresponding probability distributions of their maxima and its relationship with the Frechet law. We use these multifractal techniques to investigate the possibility of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we assess the multifractal parameter uncertainty with the help of long synthetic multifractal series and their sub-samples, in particular to obtain an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of this approach with its application to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993CP....176..589O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993CP....176..589O"><span><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electron transfer in helical polyproline II oligopeptides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogawa, Michael Y.; Moreira, Icaro; Wishart, James F.; Isied, Stephan S.</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>A series of binuclear donor-acceptor complexes with helical polyproline bridges [(bpy) 2Ru IIL-(Pro) n-apy-Ru III(NH 3) 5] 5+, n = 6, 7, 9, where L = 4-carboxy-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine, and apy = 4-aminopyridine, were synthesized and characterized by absorption spectra, electrochemistry and HPLC. The CD spectra of the complexes confirm that they exist in the helical polyproline II structure. Intramolecular electron transfer within these complexes was studied by generating the [(bpy) 2Ru IL ·-(Pro) n-apy-Ru III(NH 3) 5] intermediate from the reaction of eaq (from pulse radiolysis) with the [(bpy) 2Ru IIL-(Pro) n-apy-Ru III(NH 3) 5] species in aqueous solution. The driving force for this reaction is estimated to be |Δ G0| ≈ 1.5 V. The rates ( k, 25°C) and activation parameters (Δ H‡ (kcal/mol), Δ S‡ (eu)) for the intramolecular electron transfer were found to be: 1.08×10 5 s -1, 5.6, -17; 6.40 × 10 4 s -1, 5.1, -19; 1.91 × 10 4 s -1, 4.0, and -26 for n = 6, 7, 9 respectively. The rate ( k, 25°C) and activation parameters (Δ H‡ (kcal/mol), Δ S‡ (eu)) for the intermolecular reaction between [(bpy) 2Ru IL ·] and [(NH 3) 5Ru III-apy-Pro] were found to be 2.1 × 10 9 M -1 s -1, 3.3 and -5. This series extends our studies of the distance dependence of rate versus the number of helical prolines bridging a donor and acceptor ruthenium site to a metal-to-metal distance ≈ 40 Å. The weak dependence of rate versus the number of prolines observed for n = 6, 7, and 9 is very similar to that observed earlier for [(bpy) 2Ru IIL-(Pro) n-Co III(NH 3) 5], n = 4-6. The rapid rates observed at these long distances show that <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electron transfer can be observed between an appropriate donor and acceptor directly connected to the proline bridge via peptide bonds at distances similar to the diameter of a small protein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21923189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21923189"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> electron transfer in biomolecules. Tunneling or hopping?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Voityuk, Alexander A</p> <p>2011-10-27</p> <p>Two competing mechanisms are relevant for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> electron transfer (ET) in biomolecules: direct electron tunneling between donor (D) and acceptor (A), D → A, and multistep hopping D → X → A, where an electron or an electron hole is transiently localized on intermediate sites X. Which of these mechanisms dominates the ET reaction is determined by the arrangement and electronic properties of the redox centers. For thermal ET, it is shown that single-step tunneling is overcome by hopping when the energy gap E between D and X is smaller than the crossover barrier E(C), E(C) = (ΔG/2) + (3/4)k(B)TβR(DA), where ΔG is the driving force, β the decay parameter, and R(DA) the donor-acceptor distance. In proteins at T = 300 K, hopping will dominate when E < E(C) = (ΔG/2) + (R(DA)/50) (E and ΔG are in eV, R(DA) in Å); single-step tunneling will be operative when E > E(C). Thus, one can explore the ET mechanism using three quantities E, ΔG, and R(DA). When ΔG = 0 and E = 0.5 eV (the difference in redox potentials of D and X is 0.5 V), two-step hopping D → X → A will be favored at R(DA) >25 Å. In protein ET chains, the distance between redox cofactors is often smaller than 20 Å, but the gap E between the cofactors and surrounding amino acid residues is larger than 0.5 eV. Therefore, ET in the systems should occur by single-step tunneling D → A. In the activationless regime (ΔG ≈ -λ, λ is the reorganization energy) often observed for photoinduced ET, the crossing point energy is determined by E(C) = (2λkTβR(DA))(1/2) - λ. The suggested expressions for the threshold barrier may be useful to predict the ET mechanism in natural and artificial redox systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span>37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf"><span>37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span>37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span>37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf"><span>37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span>37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf"><span>37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title37-vol1-sec258-4.pdf"><span>37 CFR 258.4 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.4 Section 258.4 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.4 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of digital <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title37-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title37-vol1-sec258-3.pdf"><span>37 CFR 258.3 - Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. 258.3 Section 258.3 Patents... AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY FEE FOR SECONDARY <span class="hlt">TRANSMISSIONS</span> BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 258.3 Royalty fee for secondary <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of analog <span class="hlt">signals</span> of broadcast stations by satellite carriers. (a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28928479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28928479"><span>Decline of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> temporal correlations in the human brain during sustained wakefulness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meisel, Christian; Bailey, Kimberlyn; Achermann, Peter; Plenz, Dietmar</p> <p>2017-09-19</p> <p>Sleep is crucial for daytime functioning, cognitive performance and general well-being. These aspects of daily life are known to be impaired after extended wake, yet, the underlying neuronal correlates have been difficult to identify. Accumulating evidence suggests that normal functioning of the brain is characterized by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> temporal correlations (LRTCs) in cortex, which are supportive for decision-making and working memory tasks. Here we assess LRTCs in resting state human EEG data during a 40-hour sleep deprivation experiment by evaluating the decay in autocorrelation and the scaling exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis from EEG amplitude fluctuations. We find with both measures that LRTCs decline as sleep deprivation progresses. This decline becomes evident when taking changes in <span class="hlt">signal</span> power into appropriate consideration. In contrast, the presence of strong <span class="hlt">signal</span> power increases in some frequency bands over the course of sleep deprivation may falsely indicate LRTC changes that do not reflect the underlying <span class="hlt">long-range</span> temporal correlation structure. Our results demonstrate the importance of sleep to maintain LRTCs in the human brain. In complex networks, LRTCs naturally emerge in the vicinity of a critical state. The observation of declining LRTCs during wake thus provides additional support for our hypothesis that sleep reorganizes cortical networks towards critical dynamics for optimal functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18262579','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18262579"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> correlations improve understanding of the influence of network structure on contact dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peyrard, N; Dieckmann, U; Franc, A</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Models of infectious diseases are characterized by a phase transition between extinction and persistence. A challenge in contemporary epidemiology is to understand how the geometry of a host's interaction network influences disease dynamics close to the critical point of such a transition. Here we address this challenge with the help of moment closures. Traditional moment closures, however, do not provide satisfactory predictions close to such critical points. We therefore introduce a new method for incorporating longer-range correlations into existing closures. Our method is technically simple, remains computationally tractable and significantly improves the approximation's performance. Our extended closures thus provide an innovative tool for quantifying the influence of interaction networks on spatially or socially structured disease dynamics. In particular, we examine the effects of a network's clustering coefficient, as well as of new geometrical measures, such as a network's square clustering coefficients. We compare the relative performance of different closures from the literature, with or without our <span class="hlt">long-range</span> extension. In this way, we demonstrate that the normalized version of the Bethe approximation-extended to incorporate <span class="hlt">long-range</span> correlations according to our method-is an especially good candidate for studying influences of network structure. Our numerical results highlight the importance of the clustering coefficient and the square clustering coefficient for predicting disease dynamics at low and intermediate values of <span class="hlt">transmission</span> rate, and demonstrate the significance of path redundancy for disease persistence.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27933879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27933879"><span>Short- and <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Attractive Forces That Influence the Structure of Montmorillonite Osmotic Hydrates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tester, Chantel C; Aloni, Shaul; Gilbert, Benjamin; Banfield, Jillian F</p> <p>2016-11-22</p> <p>Clay swelling is a colloidal phenomenon that has a large influence on flow and solute migration in soils and sediments. While models for clay swelling have been proposed over many years, debate remains as to the interaction forces that combine to produce the observed swelling behavior. Using cryogenic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering, we study the influence of salinity, in combination with layer charge, interlayer cation, and particle size, on montmorillonite swelling. We observe a decrease in swelling with increased layer charge, increased cation charge, and decreased cation hydration, each indicative of the critical influence of Coulombic attraction between the negatively charged layers and interlayer cations. Cryo-TEM images of individual montmorillonite particles also reveal that swelling is dependent upon the number of layers in a particle. Calculations of the van der Waals (vdW) interaction based on new measurements of Hamaker coefficients confirm that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> vdW interactions extend beyond near-neighbor layer interactions and result in a decrease in layer spacing with a larger number of layers. This work clarifies the short- and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> attractive interactions that govern clay structure and ultimately the stability and permeability of hydrated clays in the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28516324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28516324"><span>Bacterial intelligence: imitation games, time-sharing, and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> quantum coherence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Majumdar, Sarangam; Pal, Sukla</p> <p>2017-05-17</p> <p>Bacteria are far more intelligent than we can think of. They adopt different survival strategies to make their life comfortable. Researches on bacterial communication to date suggest that bacteria can communicate with each other using chemical <span class="hlt">signaling</span> molecules as well as using ion channel mediated electrical <span class="hlt">signaling</span>. Though in past few decades the scopes of chemical <span class="hlt">signaling</span> have been investigated extensively, those of electrical <span class="hlt">signaling</span> have received less attention. In this article, we present a novel perspective on time-sharing behavior, which maintains the biofilm growth under reduced nutrient supply between two distant biofilms through electrical <span class="hlt">signaling</span> based on the experimental evidence reported by Liu et al., in 2017. In addition, following the recent work by Humphries et al. Cell 168(1):200-209, in 2017, we highlight the consequences of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> electrical <span class="hlt">signaling</span> within biofilm communities through spatially propagating waves of potassium. Furthermore, we address the possibility of two-way cellular communication between artificial and natural cells through chemical <span class="hlt">signaling</span> being inspired by recent experimental observation (Lentini et al. 2017) where the efficiency of artificial cells in imitating the natural cells is estimated through cellular Turing test. These three spectacular observations lead us to envisage and devise new classical and quantum views of these complex biochemical networks that have never been realized previously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495552','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4495552"><span>Immune response and insulin <span class="hlt">signalling</span> alter mosquito feeding behaviour to enhance malaria <span class="hlt">transmission</span> potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cator, Lauren J.; Pietri, Jose E.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Ohm, Johanna R.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Read, Andrew F.; Luckhart, Shirley; Thomas, Matthew B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Malaria parasites alter mosquito feeding behaviour in a way that enhances parasite <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. This is widely considered a prime example of manipulation of host behaviour to increase onward <span class="hlt">transmission</span>, but transient immune challenge in the absence of parasites can induce the same behavioural phenotype. Here, we show that alterations in feeding behaviour depend on the timing and dose of immune challenge relative to blood ingestion and that these changes are functionally linked to changes in insulin <span class="hlt">signalling</span> in the mosquito gut. These results suggest that altered phenotypes derive from insulin <span class="hlt">signalling</span>-dependent host resource allocation among immunity, blood feeding, and reproduction in a manner that is not specific to malaria parasite infection. We measured large increases in mosquito survival and subsequent <span class="hlt">transmission</span> potential when feeding patterns are altered. Leveraging these changes in physiology, behaviour and life history could promote effective and sustainable control of female mosquitoes responsible for <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. PMID:26153094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26153094"><span>Immune response and insulin <span class="hlt">signalling</span> alter mosquito feeding behaviour to enhance malaria <span class="hlt">transmission</span> potential.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cator, Lauren J; Pietri, Jose E; Murdock, Courtney C; Ohm, Johanna R; Lewis, Edwin E; Read, Andrew F; Luckhart, Shirley; Thomas, Matthew B</p> <p>2015-07-08</p> <p>Malaria parasites alter mosquito feeding behaviour in a way that enhances parasite <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. This is widely considered a prime example of manipulation of host behaviour to increase onward <span class="hlt">transmission</span>, but transient immune challenge in the absence of parasites can induce the same behavioural phenotype. Here, we show that alterations in feeding behaviour depend on the timing and dose of immune challenge relative to blood ingestion and that these changes are functionally linked to changes in insulin <span class="hlt">signalling</span> in the mosquito gut. These results suggest that altered phenotypes derive from insulin <span class="hlt">signalling</span>-dependent host resource allocation among immunity, blood feeding, and reproduction in a manner that is not specific to malaria parasite infection. We measured large increases in mosquito survival and subsequent <span class="hlt">transmission</span> potential when feeding patterns are altered. Leveraging these changes in physiology, behaviour and life history could promote effective and sustainable control of female mosquitoes responsible for <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23215467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23215467"><span>Impact of turbulence in <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> quantum and classical communications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Capraro, Ivan; Tomaello, Andrea; Dall'Arche, Alberto; Gerlin, Francesca; Ursin, Ruper; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo</p> <p>2012-11-16</p> <p>The study of the free-space distribution of quantum correlations is necessary for any future application of quantum and classical communication aiming to connect two remote locations. Here we study the propagation of a coherent laser beam over 143 km (between Tenerife and La Palma Islands of the Canary archipelagos). By attenuating the beam we also studied the propagation at the single photon level. We investigated the statistic of arrival of the incoming photons and the scintillation of the beam. From the analysis of the data, we propose the exploitation of turbulence to improve the <span class="hlt">signal</span> to noise ratio of the <span class="hlt">signal</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28868629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28868629"><span>AFM Imaging of Hybridization Chain Reaction-Mediated <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Between two DNA Origami Structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Helmig, Sarah; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager</p> <p>2017-09-03</p> <p><span class="hlt">Signal</span> transfer is central to the controlled exchange of information in biology and advanced technologies. Therefore, the development of reliable, <span class="hlt">long-ranging</span> <span class="hlt">signal</span> transfer systems for artificial nanoscale assemblies is of great scientific interest. We have designed such a system for <span class="hlt">signal</span> transfer between two connected DNA nanostructures, using the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Two sets of metastable DNA hairpins - of which one is immobilized in specific points along tracks on DNA origami structures - are polymerized to form a continuous DNA duplex, which is visible using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Upon addition of a designed initiator, the initiation <span class="hlt">signal</span> is efficiently transferred >200 nm from a specific location on one origami structure to an end point on another origami structure. The system shows no significant loss of <span class="hlt">signal</span> when crossing from one nanostructure to another, and therefore has the potential to be applied to larger multi-component DNA assemblies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203263"><span>Direct observation of the dynamic process underlying allosteric <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brüschweiler, Sven; Schanda, Paul; Kloiber, Karin; Brutscher, Bernhard; Kontaxis, Georg; Konrat, Robert; Tollinger, Martin</p> <p>2009-03-04</p> <p>Allosteric regulation is an effective mechanism of control in biological processes. In allosteric proteins a <span class="hlt">signal</span> originating at one site in the molecule is communicated through the protein structure to trigger a specific response at a remote site. Using NMR relaxation dispersion techniques we directly observe the dynamic process through which the KIX domain of CREB binding protein communicates allosteric information between binding sites. KIX mediates cooperativity between pairs of transcription factors through binding to two distinct interaction surfaces in an allosteric manner. We show that binding the activation domain of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) transcription factor to KIX induces a redistribution of the relative populations of KIX conformations toward a high-energy state in which the allosterically activated second binding site is already preformed, consistent with the Monod-Wyman-Changeux (WMC) model of allostery. The structural rearrangement process that links the two conformers and by which allosteric information is communicated occurs with a time constant of 3 ms at 27 degrees C. Our dynamic NMR data reveal that an evolutionarily conserved network of hydrophobic amino acids constitutes the pathway through which information is transmitted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5922718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5922718"><span><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> transported pollutants and conductivity of atmospheric ice on insulators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fikke, S.M. ); Hanssen, J.E. ); Rolfseng, L. )</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Internationally comprehensive studies have been performed to analyze the effect of clean or contaminated snow and ice accretions on high voltage insulators. The experience with <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines in inland mountainous areas reveals a substantial contribution of pollution from anthropogenic (man made) contaminants. One observation of a flash over case with thin rime ice layers in contrast to the many cases with thicker accretions without similar failures, led to the question of the role of the ion content of the ice. 55 ice samples are analyzed and the contributions to the conductivity from natural (sea salt) and man made ions (sulphur and nitrogen components) are found. It is shown that <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> transported anthropogenic ions contributed to more than 50% of the conductivity in 33 of the 55 cases, and in 21 cases the contribution was more than 80%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10193E..0KM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10193E..0KM"><span><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> robust multi-terawatt MWIR and LWIR atmospheric light bullets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moloney, Jerome V.; Schuh, Kolja; Panagiotopoulos, Paris; Kolesik, M.; Koch, S. W.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>There is a strong push worldwide to develop multi-Joule femtosecond duration laser pulses at wavelengths around 3.5-4 and 9-11μm within important atmospheric <span class="hlt">transmission</span> windows. We have shown that pulses with a 4 μm central wavelength are capable of delivering multi-TW powers at km range. This is in stark contrast to pulses at near-IR wavelengths which break up into hundreds of filaments with each carrying around 5 GW of power per filament over meter distances. We will show that nonlinear envelope propagators fail to capture the true physics. Instead a new optical carrier shock singularity emerges that can act to limit peak intensities below the ionization threshold leading to low loss <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> propagation. At LWIR wavelengths many-body correlations of weakly-ionized electrons further suppress the Kerr focusing nonlinearity around 10μm and enable whole beam self-trapping without filaments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/918095','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/918095"><span>2006 <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Philliber, Jeff</p> <p>2007-01-22</p> <p>This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been reduced since the Notice of Preparation for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JInst...512041B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JInst...512041B"><span>LVDS tester: a systematic test of cable <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> at the ALICE experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnby, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bombara, M.; Evans, D.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jovanović, P.; Jusko, A.; Kour, R.; Králik, I.; Krivda, M.; Lazzeroni, C.; Lietava, R.; Matthews, Z. L.; Navin, S.; Palaha, A.; Petrov, P.; Platt, R.; Šándor, L.; Scott, P.; Urbán, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In the ALICE experiment, the Low-Voltage Differential <span class="hlt">Signalling</span> (LVDS) format is used for the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of trigger inputs from the detectors to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP), the L0 trigger outputs from Local Trigger Units (LTU) boards back to the detectors and the BUSY inputs from the sub-detectors to the CTP. ALICE has designed a set-up, called the LVDS <span class="hlt">transmission</span> tester, that aims to measure various <span class="hlt">transmission</span> quality parameters and the bit-error rate (BER) for long period runs in an automatic way. In this paper, this method is described and the conclusions from these tests for the ALICE LVDS cables are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20588368','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20588368"><span>Demonstration of optical steganography <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using temporal phase coded optical <span class="hlt">signals</span> with spectral notch filtering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Xuezhi; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Lei; He, Sailing</p> <p>2010-06-07</p> <p>A novel approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for optical steganography <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in WDM networks using temporal phase coded optical <span class="hlt">signals</span> with spectral notch filtering. A temporal phase coded stealth channel is temporally and spectrally overlaid onto a public WDM channel. Direct detection of the public channel is achieved in the presence of the stealth channel. The interference from the public channel is suppressed by spectral notching before the detection of the optical stealth <span class="hlt">signal</span>. The approach is shown to have good compatibility and robustness to the existing WDM network for optical steganography <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JAP....99e4901A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JAP....99e4901A"><span>Extremely wideband <span class="hlt">signal</span> shaping using one- and two-dimensional nonuniform nonlinear <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Afshari, E.; Bhat, H. S.; Hajimiri, A.; Marsden, J. E.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We propose a class of electrical circuits for extremely wideband (EWB) <span class="hlt">signal</span> shaping. A one-dimensional, nonlinear, nonuniform <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line is proposed for narrow pulse generation. A two-dimensional <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lattice is proposed for EWB <span class="hlt">signal</span> combining. Model equations for the circuits are derived. Theoretical and numerical solutions of the model equations are presented, showing that the circuits can be used for the desired application. The procedure by which the circuits are designed exemplifies a modern, mathematical design methodology for EWB circuits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11487656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11487656"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> synchrony in the gamma band: role in music perception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhattacharya, J; Petsche, H; Pereda, E</p> <p>2001-08-15</p> <p>Synchronization seems to be a central mechanism for neuronal information processing within and between multiple brain areas. Furthermore, synchronization in the gamma band has been shown to play an important role in higher cognitive functions, especially by binding the necessary spatial and temporal information in different cortical areas to build a coherent perception. Specific task-induced (evoked) gamma oscillations have often been taken as an indication of synchrony, but the presence of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> synchrony cannot be inferred from spectral power in the gamma range. We studied the usefulness of a relatively new measure, called similarity index to detect asymmetric interdependency between two brain regions. Spontaneous EEG from two groups-musicians and non-musicians-were recorded during several states: listening to music, listening to text, and at rest (eyes closed and eyes open). While listening to music, degrees of the gamma band synchrony over distributed cortical areas were found to be significantly higher in musicians than non-musicians. Yet no differences between these two groups were found at resting conditions and while listening to a neutral text. In contrast to the degree of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> synchrony, spectral power in the gamma band was higher in non-musicians. The degree of spatial synchrony, a measure of <span class="hlt">signal</span> complexity based on eigen-decomposition method, was also significantly increased in musicians while listening to music. As compared with non-musicians, the finding of increased <span class="hlt">long-range</span> synchrony in musicians independent of spectral power is interpreted as a manifestation of a more advanced musical memory of musicians in binding together several features of the intrinsic complexity of music in a dynamical way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818355M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818355M"><span>Impact of gravity waves on <span class="hlt">long-range</span> infrasound propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Millet, Christophe; Lott, François; De La Camara, Alvaro</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this work we study infrasound propagation in acoustic waveguides that support a finite number of propagating modes. We analyze the effects of gravity waves on these acoustic waveguides. Testing sound propagation in such perturbed fields can potentially be used to improve the gravity wave models. A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the forward-scattering approximation. The wave mode structure is determined by the effective sound speed profile which is strongly affected by gravity wave breaking. The random perturbations are described by a stochastic field predicted by a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves, which is operational in the LMDz climate model. The justification for this approach is two fold. On the one hand, the use of a few monochromatic waves mimics the observations of rather narrow-banded gravity wave packets in the lower stratosphere. On the other hand, the stochastic sampling of the gravity wave field and the random choice of wave properties deals with the inherent unpredictability of mesoscale dynamics from large scale conditions provided by the meteorological reanalysis. The transmitted acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span> contain a stable front and a small-amplitude incoherent coda. A general expression for the stable front is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. This approach extract the dominant effects in the acoustic - gravity wave interaction. We present results that show how statistics of the transmitted <span class="hlt">signal</span> are related to a few saddle-points and how the GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>. While some of the characteristics of the stable front can be directly related to that of a few individual gravity waves, it is shown that the amount of the launched gravity waves included in climate models can be estimated using</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA568751','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA568751"><span>Memoir of the <span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">Range</span> Acoustic Propagation Program (LRAPP)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>painfully and expensively gathered in support of the SQS-26 system by Alpine UNCLASSIFIED LOUIS P. SOLOMON UNCLASSIFIED 188 Geophysical over many years for...experiments, depending on the size of the exercise, was generally measured in millions of dollars. A failure of a critical element, measurement device , or... devices with large cylinders and magnetic delay lines that had con- nection points to the <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing over its entire surface. However, as electronics</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhyA..369..632M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhyA..369..632M"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> dependencies in heart rate signals—revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makowiec, Danuta; Gałaşka, Rafał; Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Zwierz, Marcin</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The arguments are given that local exponents obtained in multifractal analysis by two methods: wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) allow to separate statistically hearts of healthy people and subjects suffering from reduced left ventricle systolic function (NYHA I-III class). Proposed indices of fractality suggest that a <span class="hlt">signal</span> of human heart rate is a mixture of two processes: monofractal and multifractal ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21894694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21894694"><span>[Study on <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> characteristics of meridian based on electrical network theory and experiments].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhi-Gong; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Gao, Jian-Yun; Wang, Yu-Hang; Huang, Cen-Yu; Chen, Yue-Lin; Xing, Li-Yang; Wang, Gui-Ying</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Study on features of acupoints with resistance test in the past half century is reviewed in this article. Mechanism and technology of the method are introduced as well as its shortcomings. The determination method of <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> along meridians with the combination of electrical network theories and practice is advanced. And the result of a series experiments on one meridian at the superficial part of the body are given as well. Thus, it is concluded that the <span class="hlt">signals</span> of the point-in/point-out and the <span class="hlt">signals</span> along a non-meridian path with the same distance are significantly different, which gives a verification of the feasibility of the method by using electrical network theories to set out characteristics of <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> along meridians dynamically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17746816"><span>Infrasound at <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> from saturn v, 1967.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Donn, W L; Posmentier, E; Fehr, U; Balachandran, N K</p> <p>1968-12-06</p> <p>Two distinct groups of infrasonic waves from Saturn V, 1967, were recorded at Palisades, New York, 1485 kilometers from the launch site. The first group, of 10-minute duration, began about 70 minutes after launch time; the second, having more than twice the amplitude and a duration of 9 minutes, commenced 81 minutes after launch time. From information on the Saturn V trajectory and analysis of recorded data, it is established that the first group represents sound emitted either by the first stage reentry or by the second stage when its elevation was above 120 kilometers. The second, more intense wave group represents the sound from the powered first stage. A reversal of <span class="hlt">signal</span> occurs because the rocket outran its own sound. Fourier analyses indicate that the energy extends to relatively long periods-10 seconds for the first stage and 7 seconds for the second. Trapping of sound in the upper atmospheric sound channel can be the cause of the separation of the <span class="hlt">signal</span> into two distinct groups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24116524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24116524"><span><span class="hlt">Long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> acoustic measurements of an undersea volcano.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L; Snellen, Mirjam</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>A seamount 8 km southeast of Sarigan Island erupted on 29 May 2010 and was visually observed. The recordings on two sets of hydrophones, operated by International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) are analyzed. Each array is a triplet of axial single hydrophones deployed as a 2 km triangle. Measurements of acoustic intensity for the path to the southern triplet are on the order of 6 dB lower than those received on the northern triplet. Temporal cross-correlation beamforming estimation is performed and the estimated arrival angles for the two arrays, 265° and 267° were consistent with the predicted geodesic arrival of 264.6° and 267.8°, respectively. Cross-correlation between single phones on the northern and southern arrays reveals a peak at 266°, with a cross-correlation of 0.1. Nx2D parabolic equation modeling predicts complete blockage due to seamount interaction along the geodesic path. Overprediction of the seamount blockage indicates that the 2D approximation is incorrect, and three-dimensional propagation must be used to explain the observations. This is demonstrated by the computation of the Adiabatic Mode Parabolic Equation <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Loss, which predicts a 5-10 dB lower reception at the southern site.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395654','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395654"><span>Hydrogen-mediated <span class="hlt">long-range</span> magnetic ordering in Pd-rich alloy film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, Wen-Chin Tsai, Cheng-Jui; Huang, Han-Yuan; Mudinepalli, Venkata Ramana; Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Wang, Bo-Yao</p> <p>2015-01-05</p> <p>The effect of hydrogenation on a 14 nm Co{sub 14}Pd{sub 86}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) thin film was investigated on the basis of the magnetooptical Kerr effect. After exposure to H{sub 2} gas, the squareness of the hysteresis loop showed a large transition from approximately 10% to 100% and the saturation Kerr <span class="hlt">signal</span> was reduced to nearly 30% of the pristine value. The reversibility of the transition was verified and the response time was within 2–3 s. These observations indicate that the hydride formation transformed the short-range coupled and disordered magnetic state of the Co{sub 14}Pd{sub 86} film to a <span class="hlt">long-range</span>-ordered ferromagnetic state and induced appreciable decrease in the magnetic moment. The enhanced <span class="hlt">long-range</span>-ordering and the reduction of the magnetic moment were attributed to the change of electronic structure in Co{sub 14}Pd{sub 86} with hydrogen uptake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26625038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26625038"><span>Quasi-phase matching for efficient <span class="hlt">long-range</span> plasmonic third-harmonic generation via graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nasari, Hadiseh; Abrishamian, Mohammad Sadegh</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We propose and numerically investigate an efficient method for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> third-harmonic generation (THG) of propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves on graphene sheets for nonlinear plasmonic purposes in the terahertz (THZ) gap region of the electromagnetic spectrum via a developed nonlinear finite-difference time-domain technique. We reveal that although extended and unmodulated graphene sheets with low Fermi levels can offer high-conversion efficiency (CE) for SPP THG at short distances, suitable for miniaturized plasmonic circuits, they suffer from inherent absorption loss induced by graphene that noticeably reduces the CE of the THG at <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">ranges</span>. We suggest a structure benefiting from low Fermi-level graphene regions of strong nonlinear response as oscillators and high Fermi-level ones of low loss as a propagating medium in a periodic manner, which satisfies the quasi-phase matching condition and shows considerable efficiency improvement at long propagation distances. We predict that such a configuration can find valuable potential applications in the realm of nonlinear THz plasmonics for generating new frequencies and also in spectroscopy, <span class="hlt">signal</span> processing, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EL....11130011T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EL....11130011T"><span>Emergence of a collective crystal in a classical system with <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turchi, Alessio; Fanelli, Duccio; Leoncini, Xavier</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A one-dimensional <span class="hlt">long-range</span> model of classical rotators with an extended degree of complexity, as compared to paradigmatic <span class="hlt">long-range</span> systems, is introduced and studied. Working at constant density, in the thermodynamic limit one can prove the statistical equivalence with the Hamiltonian mean-field (HMF) model and α-HMF: a second-order phase transition is indeed observed at the critical energy threshold \\varepsilon_c=0.75 . Conversely, when the thermodynamic limit is performed at infinite density (while keeping the length of the hosting interval L constant), the critical energy \\varepsilonc is modulated as a function of L. At low energy, a self-organized collective crystal phase is reported to emerge, which converges to a perfect crystal in the limit ε → 0 . To analyze the phenomenon, the equilibrium one-particle density function is analytically computed by maximizing the entropy. The transition and the associated critical energy between the gaseous and the crystal phase is computed. Molecular dynamics show that the crystal phase is apparently split into two distinct regimes, depending on the energy per particle ε. For small ε, particles are exactly located on the lattice sites; above an energy threshold \\varepsilon{*} , particles can travel from one site to another. However, \\varepsilon{*} does not <span class="hlt">signal</span> a phase transition but reflects the finite time of observation: the perfect crystal observed for \\varepsilon >0 corresponds to a long-lasting dynamical transient, whose lifetime increases when the \\varepsilon >0 approaches zero.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA541759','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA541759"><span>Near-Axial Interference Effects for <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Sound <span class="hlt">Transmissions</span> through Ocean Internal Waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-09-30</p> <p>Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 While the eikonal equation can be solved for the ray paths and travel times can be calculated by integrating the index of... point source problem with the parabolic index of refraction squared was studied in detail in Refs. (3) and (4). The integral representation of the...for the axial wave can be obtained as well by transforming the integral representation of the exact solution of the point source problem. But this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA612578','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA612578"><span>Near-Axial Interference Effects for <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Sound <span class="hlt">Transmissions</span> through Ocean Internal Waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-09-30</p> <p>Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 While the eikonal equation can be solved for the ray paths and travel times can be calculated by integrating...Within the scope of the project the following results were obtained. The two-dimentional reference point source problem with the parabolic index of...transforming the integral representation of the exact solution of the point source problem. But this method is not applicable to the range-dependent medium</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJST.225..663T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJST.225..663T"><span>Uninformed sacrifice: Evidence against <span class="hlt">long-range</span> alarm <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in foraging ants exposed to localized abduction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tejera, F.; Reyes, A.; Altshuler, E.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>It is well established that danger information can be transmitted by ants through relatively small distances, provoking either a state of alarm when they move away from potentially dangerous stimulus, or charge toward it aggressively. There is almost no knowledge if danger information can be transmitted along large distances. In this paper, we abduct leaf cutting ants of the species Atta insularis while they forage in their natural environment at a certain point of the foraging line, so ants make a "U" turn to escape from the danger zone and go back to the nest. Our results strongly suggest that those ants do not transmit "danger information" to other nestmates marching towards the abduction area. The individualistic behavior of the ants returning from the danger zone results in a depression of the foraging activity due to the systematic sacrifice of non-informed individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+financial+AND+statements&pg=5&id=ED205087','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+financial+AND+statements&pg=5&id=ED205087"><span>An Approach to <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Planning in the 1980's. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lueck, Lowell A.</p> <p></p> <p>Key ingredients of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning described in the literature during the last 10 years, the role of an office of institutional research, and a coordinated <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning process as it might occur in a public four-year college or university are described. A successful <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning process is characterized by centralized…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=economy+AND+centralized&pg=5&id=ED205087','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=economy+AND+centralized&pg=5&id=ED205087"><span>An Approach to <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Planning in the 1980's. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lueck, Lowell A.</p> <p></p> <p>Key ingredients of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning described in the literature during the last 10 years, the role of an office of institutional research, and a coordinated <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning process as it might occur in a public four-year college or university are described. A successful <span class="hlt">long-range</span> planning process is characterized by centralized…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span>7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans. (a) All borrowers are required to maintain up-to-date <span class="hlt">long-range</span> engineering plans and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span>7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans. (a) All borrowers are required to maintain up-to-date <span class="hlt">long-range</span> engineering plans and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span>7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans. (a) All borrowers are required to maintain up-to-date <span class="hlt">long-range</span> engineering plans and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span>7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans. (a) All borrowers are required to maintain up-to-date <span class="hlt">long-range</span> engineering plans and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol11/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol11-sec1717-604.pdf"><span>7 CFR 1717.604 - <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work... AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS Operational Controls § 1717.604 <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> engineering plans and construction work plans. (a) All borrowers are required to maintain up-to-date <span class="hlt">long-range</span> engineering plans and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8009E..23R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8009E..23R"><span><span class="hlt">Transmission</span> line galloping image monitoring system based on digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Hai Peng; Ma, Zhan Feng</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>An embedded image monitoring system based on TMS320DM642 Digital <span class="hlt">Signal</span> Processor (DSP) is proposed for the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line monitoring. The system can detect galloping, ice or snow covering, and other abnormal status of the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line in a real time mode. The image detection algorithms are compared using the controlled experiment under the complex weather environment, thereby, a set of image processing algorithms is proposed for <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines image monitoring. The DSP/BOIS multi-threaded programming techniques are used to realize the algorithm in the DSPs' embedded software. A wireless communication based on General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) module is designed to transmit the detection results and the changed information of the image to the monitoring center, so that the operators can get the real time status of the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line. The application of the system will play an important role in the condition-based maintenance of power <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines and improve the reliability of power delivery system. <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> line; Status monitoring; Complex weather factor; Image filtering and sharpening; Image segment; Morphological filtering; Wireless communication; Digital <span class="hlt">signal</span> processor; Multi-threaded programming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910007383','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910007383"><span>Meteorological effects on <span class="hlt">long-range</span> outdoor sound propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klug, Helmut</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of sound propagation over distances up to 1000 m were carried out with an impulse sound source offering reproducible, short time <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Temperature and wind speed at several heights were monitored simultaneously; the meteorological data are used to determine the sound speed gradients according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The sound speed profile is compared to a corresponding prediction, gained through the measured travel time difference between direct and ground reflected pulse (which depends on the sound speed gradient). Positive sound speed gradients cause bending of the sound rays towards the ground yielding enhanced sound pressure levels. The measured meteorological effects on sound propagation are discussed and illustrated by ray tracing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014889','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014889"><span><span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Emergency Preemption of Traffic Lights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bachelder, Aaron</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A forwarding system could prove beneficial as an addition to an electronic communication-and-control system that automatically modifies the switching of traffic lights to give priority to emergency vehicles. A system to which the forwarding system could be added could be any of a variety of emergency traffic-<span class="hlt">signal</span>-preemption systems: these include systems now used in some municipalities as well as advanced developmental systems described in several NASA Tech Briefs articles in recent years. Because of a variety of physical and design limitations, emergency traffic-<span class="hlt">signal</span>- preemption systems now in use are often limited in range to only one intersection at a time: in a typical system, only the next, closest intersection is preempted for an emergency vehicle. Simulations of gridlock have shown that such systems offer minimal advantages and can even cause additional delays. In analogy to what happens in fluid dynamics, the forwarding system insures that flow at a given location is sustained by guaranteeing downstream flow along the predicted route (typically a main artery) and intersecting routes (typically, side streets). In simplest terms, the forwarding system starts by taking note of any preemption issued by the preemption system to which it has been added. The forwarding system predicts which other intersections could be encountered by the emergency vehicle downstream of the newly preempted intersection. The system then forwards preemption triggers to those intersections. Beyond affording a right of way for the emergency vehicle at every intersection that lies ahead along any likely route from the current position of the vehicle, the forwarding system also affords the benefit of clearing congested roads far ahead of the vehicle. In a metropolitan environment with heavy road traffic, forwarding of preemption triggers could greatly enhance the performance of a pre-existing preemption system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IEITC..92.3597S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IEITC..92.3597S"><span>Performance Analysis of Control <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Technique for Cognitive Radios in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sakata, Ren; Tomioka, Tazuko; Kobayashi, Takahiro</p> <p></p> <p>When cognitive radio (CR) systems dynamically use the frequency band, a control <span class="hlt">signal</span> is necessary to indicate which carrier frequencies are currently available in the network. In order to keep efficient spectrum utilization, this control <span class="hlt">signal</span> also should be transmitted based on the channel conditions. If transmitters dynamically select carrier frequencies, receivers have to receive control <span class="hlt">signals</span> without knowledge of their carrier frequencies. To enable such <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and reception, this paper proposes a novel scheme called DCPT (Differential Code Parallel <span class="hlt">Transmission</span>). With DCPT, receivers can receive low-rate information with no knowledge of the carrier frequencies. The transmitter transmits two <span class="hlt">signals</span> whose carrier frequencies are spaced by a predefined value. The absolute values of the carrier frequencies can be varied. When the receiver acquires the DCPT <span class="hlt">signal</span>, it multiplies the <span class="hlt">signal</span> by a frequency-shifted version of the <span class="hlt">signal</span>; this yields a DC component that represents the data <span class="hlt">signal</span> which is then demodulated. The performance was evaluated by means of numerical analysis and computer simulation. We confirmed that DCPT operates successfully even under severe interference if its parameters are appropriately configured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23366224','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23366224"><span><span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> through human muscle for implantable medical devices using galvanic intra-body communication technique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Xi Mei; Mak, Peng Un; Pun, Sio Hang; Gao, Yue Ming; Vai, Mang I; Du, Min</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> over human tissues has long been the center research topic for biomedical engineering in both academic and industrial arenas. This is particular important for implantable medical devices (IMD) to communicate with other sensor devices in achieving health care and monitoring functions. Traditional Radio Frequency (RF) <span class="hlt">transmission</span> technique suffers from not only high attenuation but also potential interference & eavesdropping. This paper has examined the alternate galvanic type Intra-Body Communication Technique (IBC) in transmitting <span class="hlt">signal</span> across the body tissue (mainly muscle) in both analytical electromagnetic model with simulation results. Comparisons of these results with traditional RF data in literatures show a high promising potential (saving over 10 dB or more in path loss) for IBC <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. Concrete discussions and several further research directions are also given out at the end of this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JTePh..62..101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JTePh..62..101K"><span>Specific features of waveguide heating due to <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of high-power microwave <span class="hlt">signals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kudryavtsev, I. V.; Gotselyuk, O. B.; Novikov, E. S.; Demin, V. G.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Waveguide heating due to <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of microwave <span class="hlt">signals</span> is studied. Mathematical models are developed to evaluate heat liberation, and differential equations of thermal balance are derived with allowance for different working conditions of waveguides. The results prove the necessity of the further study of the effect of heat liberation in waveguides on strength and functional characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title47-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title47-vol5-sec90-317.pdf"><span>47 CFR 90.317 - Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed ancillary <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and data <span class="hlt">transmissions</span>. 90.317 Section 90.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Authorization in the Band 470-512 MHz (UHF-TV...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072761"><span>Experimental demonstration of analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in a silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gui, Chengcheng; Zhang, Yong; Du, Jing; Xia, Jinsong; Wang, Jian</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We design and fabricate a silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator for chip-scale analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. The lattice constant (a) is 420 nm, and the radius of holes (r) is 126 nm. The three holes adjacent to the cavity are laterally shifted by 0.175a, 0.025a and 0.175a, respectively. We experimentally evaluate the performance of silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator for chip-scale analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. The spurious free dynamic ranges (SFDRs) of the second-order harmonic distortion (SHD) and the third-order harmonic distortion (THD), which are important factors to assess the analog link performance, are measured for the chip-scale analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> through the fabricated silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator. The SHD SFDR and THD SFDR are measured to be ~34.6 dB and ~52.2 dB even with the input optical carrier sitting at the dip resonance wavelength of the fabricated silicon photonic crystal L3 resonator. The influences of the optical carrier wavelength and input optical power on the SHD SFDR and THD SFDR are studied in the experiment. The impacts of geometric parameters of the cavity structure (lattice constant, radius of holes, shift of the hole) on the analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> are also analyzed, showing favorable analog link performance with relatively large fabrication tolerance to design parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6877E..0DM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6877E..0DM"><span>Characterization of RF <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using FSO links considering atmospheric effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mohammad Shah, Alam; Dat, Pham Tien; Kazaura, Kamugisha; Wakamori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Toshiji; Omae, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Mitsuji; Aburakawa, Yuji; Takahashi, Koichi; Nakamura, Takuya; Higashino, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Katsutoshi; Komaki, Shozo</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Radio on Free-Space Optics (RoFSO) communication systems have attracted a considerable attention for a variety of applications where optical fibers are not feasible, especially in rural areas, to provide ubiquitous wireless services quickly and more effectively. RoFSO links can be used to transmit <span class="hlt">signals</span> like cellular W-CDMA, terrestrial digital TV or WLAN <span class="hlt">signals</span>. In spite of its potential, such links are highly dependent on the deployment environment characteristics in particular the weather conditions. Severity and duration of the atmospheric effects have direct impact on the availability of the links as well as on the quality of RF <span class="hlt">signal</span> transmitted over it. Thus, the necessity of investigating the effects of various weather conditions on RF <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using FSO links. In collaboration with several institutions, we are currently developing an advanced Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) RoFSO antenna capable of transporting multiple RF <span class="hlt">signals</span>. As preliminary work, we are conducting experiments on a 1 km link using an off-the-shelf Radio Frequency - FSO (RF-FSO) antenna, with the objective of obtaining and characterizing performance related parameters of RF-FSO <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in operational environment. As an example, we examine the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> quality of W-CDMA <span class="hlt">signal</span>. Among the performance metric of interest is the Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR) which will be measured, analyzed and correlated with the weather conditions. An atmospheric fluctuation model for estimating the communication quality of RF <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> on FSO links is being developed. Also the obtained results will be used for the deployment environment characterization as well as baseline for the design and performance evaluation of new advanced DWDM RoFSO communication systems we are currently developing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19923429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19923429"><span>Transcription factors mediate <span class="hlt">long-range</span> enhancer-promoter interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nolis, Ilias K; McKay, Daniel J; Mantouvalou, Eva; Lomvardas, Stavros; Merika, Menie; Thanos, Dimitris</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We examined how remote enhancers establish physical communication with target promoters to activate gene transcription in response to environmental <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Although the natural IFN-beta enhancer is located immediately upstream of the core promoter, it also can function as a classical enhancer element conferring virus infection-dependent activation of heterologous promoters, even when it is placed several kilobases away from these promoters. We demonstrated that the remote IFN-beta enhancer "loops out" the intervening DNA to reach the target promoter. These chromatin loops depend on sequence-specific transcription factors bound to the enhancer and the promoter and thus can explain the specificity observed in enhancer-promoter interactions, especially in complex genetic loci. Transcription factor binding sites scattered between an enhancer and a promoter can work as decoys trapping the enhancer in nonproductive loops, thus resembling insulator elements. Finally, replacement of the transcription factor binding sites involved in DNA looping with those of a heterologous prokaryotic protein, the lambda repressor, which is capable of loop formation, rescues enhancer function from a distance by re-establishing enhancer-promoter loop formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DPPCO7002V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DPPCO7002V"><span>Observation of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> coherent OTR from LPA electron beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Tilborg, Jeroen; Lin, Chen; Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Matlis, Nicholas; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim; Loasis Program Collaboration</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>We report the observation of coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) from electron bunches that have propagated for up to 4 m from the exit of the laser plasma accelerator (LPA). This measurement indicates sub-percent-level slice energy spread of the LPA-produced electron beams. Transition radiation images, produced by electrons passing through two separate foils (located from the LPA at 2.3 m and 3.8 m) were recorded with a high resolution imaging system. Transition radiation in the visible wavelength regime was measured at <span class="hlt">signal</span> levels of more than two orders of magnitude greater than expected from incoherent emission, indicating that femtosecond structure on the electron beams persisted over meter-scale propagation distances. This persistence implies an upper limit for the slice energy spread on the sub-percent level. Furthermore, for a selection of shots the coherent enhancement from the 3.8-m foil was higher than the closer 2.3-m one, consistent with dynamic changes of the bunch structure due to beam velocity bunching. Experimental results and modeling efforts will be presented. This work was supported by US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074605','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26074605"><span>Power-efficient method for IM-DD optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of multiple OFDM <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Effenberger, Frank; Liu, Xiang</p> <p>2015-05-18</p> <p>We propose a power-efficient method for transmitting multiple frequency-division multiplexed (FDM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) <span class="hlt">signals</span> in intensity-modulation direct-detection (IM-DD) optical systems. This method is based on quadratic soft clipping in combination with odd-only channel mapping. We show, both analytically and experimentally, that the proposed approach is capable of improving the power efficiency by about 3 dB as compared to conventional FDM OFDM <span class="hlt">signals</span> under practical bias conditions, making it a viable solution in applications such as optical fiber-wireless integrated systems where both IM-DD optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and OFDM <span class="hlt">signaling</span> are important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28726370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28726370"><span>Ultrastretchable Analog/Digital <span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Line with Carbon Nanotube Sheets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Yourack; Joo, Min-Kyu; Le, Viet Thong; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Lepró, Xavier; Lima, Márcio D; Suh, Daniel G; Yu, Han Young; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok</p> <p>2017-08-09</p> <p>Stretchable conductors can be used in various applications depending on their own characteristics. Here, we demonstrate simple and robust elastomeric conductors that are optimized for stretchable electrical <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line. They can withstand strains up to 600% without any substantial change in their resistance (≤10% as is and ≤1% with passivation), and exhibit suppressed charge fluctuations in the medium. The inherent elasticity of a polymeric rubber and the high conductivity of flexible, highly oriented carbon nanotube sheets were combined synergistically, without losing both properties. The nanoscopic strong adhesion between aligned carbon nanotube arrays and strained elastomeric polymers induces conductive wavy folds with microscopic bending of radii on the scale of a few micrometers. Such features enable practical applications such as in elastomeric length-changeable electrical digital and analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> lines at above MHz frequencies. In addition to reporting basic direct current, alternating current, and noise characterizations of the elastomeric conductors, various examples as a stretchable <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line up to 600% strains are presented by confirming the capability of transmitting audio and video <span class="hlt">signals</span>, as well as low-frequency medical <span class="hlt">signals</span> without information distortion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981asa..meet.....L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981asa..meet.....L"><span>The effect of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> sound propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laplante, R. F.; Koenigs, P. D.; Browning, D. G.</p> <p>1981-10-01</p> <p>This document contains the oral and visual presentation given at the 101st Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, 20May 1981, Ottawa, Canada. Previous <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> acoustic experiments show that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a major topographic feature rising to the deep sound channel axis can have a significant effect on SOFAR propagation. (R. J. Urick, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35(9), 1413, 1963.) In order to quantify this effect, data have been analyzed from a recent SOFAR experiment that deployed SUS charges during several transits across the Ridge. The <span class="hlt">signals</span> were received on a hydrophone located near Bermuda, a distance of approximately 2500 km. These results are comapared with data from Atlantic seamounts of similar height and ridges in other oceans. (K. M. Guthrie, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 68(S1), S52(A), 1980.) The enhancement or shadowing of SOFAR propagation is presented as a function of source depth and frequency for various geometries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677181"><span>Dynamics of chromatin accessibility and <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions in response to glucocorticoid pulsing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stavreva, Diana A; Coulon, Antoine; Baek, Songjoon; Sung, Myong-Hee; John, Sam; Stixova, Lenka; Tesikova, Martina; Hakim, Ofir; Miranda, Tina; Hawkins, Mary; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Chow, Carson C; Hager, Gordon L</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Although physiological steroid levels are often pulsatile (ultradian), the genomic effects of this pulsatility are poorly understood. By utilizing glucocorticoid receptor (GR) <span class="hlt">signaling</span> as a model system, we uncovered striking spatiotemporal relationships between receptor loading, lifetimes of the DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs), <span class="hlt">long-range</span> interactions, and gene regulation. We found that hormone-induced DHSs were enriched within ± 50 kb of GR-responsive genes and displayed a broad spectrum of lifetimes upon hormone withdrawal. These lifetimes dictate the strength of the DHS interactions with gene targets and contribute to gene regulation from a distance. Our results demonstrate that pulsatile and constant hormone stimulations induce unique, treatment-specific patterns of gene and regulatory element activation. These modes of activation have implications for corticosteroid function in vivo and for steroid therapies in various clinical settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhA.123...31B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhA.123...31B"><span>Viability assessment of bacteria using <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguide biosensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Béland, Paul; Berini, Pierre</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguide biosensors are useful to monitor the quiver of immobilized live bacteria in buffer and in human urine. First, the biosensor captures bacteria selectively, based on gram, using antibodies against gram adsorbed on the surface of the waveguide through Protein G coupling. Then, analysis of the noise present on the optical output <span class="hlt">signal</span> reveals quiver of bacteria immobilized on the waveguide. Live bacteria produce a noisy signature compared to baseline levels. The standard deviation over time of the optical power output from the biosensor increased by factors of 3-60 over that of the baseline level for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli immobilized selectively on waveguides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26599483"><span>Detection of dengue NS1 antigen using <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, Wei Ru; Sekaran, Shamala Devi; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd; Berini, Pierre</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>The non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of the dengue virus circulates in infected patients' blood samples and can be used for early diagnosis of dengue infection. In this paper, we present the detection of naturally-occurring dengue NS1 antigen in infected patient blood plasma using straight <span class="hlt">long-range</span> surface plasmon waveguides. Three commercially-available anti-NS1 monoclonal antibodies were used for recognition and their performance was compared and discussed. A similar figure of merit to the one used in conventional dengue NS1 capture using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to our results. In general, the positive patient samples can be clearly differentiated from the negative ones and the results agree with those obtained using ELISA. The largest <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio observed during the experiments was 356 and the best detection limit observed is estimated as 5.73 pg/mm(2).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3780893','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3780893"><span>Breakdown of <span class="hlt">long-range</span> temporal dependence in default mode and attention networks during deep sleep</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tagliazucchi, Enzo; von Wegner, Frederic; Morzelewski, Astrid; Brodbeck, Verena; Jahnke, Kolja; Laufs, Helmut</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The integration of segregated brain functional modules is a prerequisite for conscious awareness during wakeful rest. Here, we test the hypothesis that temporal integration, measured as long-term memory in the history of neural activity, is another important quality underlying conscious awareness. For this aim, we study the temporal memory of blood oxygen level-dependent <span class="hlt">signals</span> across the human nonrapid eye movement sleep cycle. Results reveal that this property gradually decreases from wakefulness to deep nonrapid eye movement sleep and that such decreases affect areas identified with default mode and attention networks. Although blood oxygen level-dependent spontaneous fluctuations exhibit nontrivial spatial organization, even during deep sleep, they also display a decreased temporal complexity in specific brain regions. Conversely, this result suggests that <span class="hlt">long-range</span> temporal dependence might be an attribute of the spontaneous conscious mentation performed during wakeful rest. PMID:24003146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28059306','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28059306"><span>Mitigation of nonlinear <span class="hlt">transmission</span> effects for OFDM 16-QAM optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> using adaptive modulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skidin, Anton S; Sidelnikov, Oleg S; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Turitsyn, Sergei K</p> <p>2016-12-26</p> <p>The impact of the fiber Kerr effect on error statistics in the nonlinear (high power) <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of the OFDM 16-QAM <span class="hlt">signal</span> over a 2000 km EDFA-based link is examined. We observed and quantified the difference in the error statistics for constellation points located at three power-defined rings. Theoretical analysis of a trade-off between redundancy and error rate reduction using probabilistic coding of three constellation power rings decreasing the symbol-error rate of OFDM 16-QAM <span class="hlt">signal</span> is presented. Based on this analysis, we propose to mitigate the nonlinear impairments using the adaptive modulation technique applied to the OFDM 16-QAM <span class="hlt">signal</span>. We demonstrate through numerical modelling the system performance improvement by the adaptive modulation for the large number of OFDM subcarriers (more than 100). We also show that a similar technique can be applied to single carrier <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JGR....94.4749W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989JGR....94.4749W"><span>The feasibility of measuring ocean pH by <span class="hlt">long-range</span> acoustics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Worcester, Peter F.</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>Low frequency (<1000 Hz) sound absorption in the ocean depends exponentially on ocean pH. While the absolute amplitudes measured in <span class="hlt">long-range</span> (order of 1000 km) acoustic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> experiments depend in a complex manner on ocean structure and are difficult to interpret without ambiguity, measurements of differential absorption as a function of frequency contain significant information. For surface-reflected rays (RSR) there is the additional factor of frequency-dependent reflectivity. In principle, a comparison of transmitted and received acoustic spectra can be inverted to obtain ocean pH and surface roughness. Calculations performed with preliminary data from a 750-km path in the North Pacific give qualitative agreement with theory (higher frequencies are attenuated more than lower frequencies) but are inadequate for quantitative comparisons (the experiment was not optimized for differential attenuation measurements). Our conclusion is that it is possible, but not easy, to obtain quantitative information on ocean pH and surface roughness from measurements of differential attenuation with frequency along resolved ray paths. To obtain an accuracy of 0.05 in pH with a 750-km <span class="hlt">transmission</span> at 550+/-100 Hz would require about 100 independent samples for the North Pacific (pH~7.7) and 60 independent samples for the Atlantic (pH~8.0) in order to achieve adequate averaging of amplitude fluctuations induced by internal waves and ambient acoustic noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITC..93.2104Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITC..93.2104Y"><span>Frequency-Domain Block <span class="hlt">Signal</span> Detection for Single-Carrier <span class="hlt">Transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takeda, Kazuki; Adachi, Fumiyuki</p> <p></p> <p>One-tap frequency-domain equalization (FDE) based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion can significantly improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of single-carrier (SC) <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in a frequency-selective fading channel. However, a big performance gap from the theoretical lower bound still exists due to the presence of residual inter-symbol interference (ISI) after MMSE-FDE. In this paper, we point out that the frequency-domain received SC <span class="hlt">signal</span> can be expressed using the matrix representation similar to the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multiplexing and therefore, <span class="hlt">signal</span> detection schemes developed for MIMO multiplexing, other than simple one-tap MMSE-FDE, can be applied to SC <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. Then, for the reception of SC <span class="hlt">signals</span>, we propose a new <span class="hlt">signal</span> detection scheme, which combines FDE with MIMO <span class="hlt">signal</span> detection, such as MMSE detection and Vertical-Bell Laboratories layered space-time architecture (V-BLAST) detection (we call this frequency-domain block <span class="hlt">signal</span> detection). The achievable average BER performance using the proposed frequency-domain block <span class="hlt">signal</span> detection is evaluated by computer simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3432956','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3432956"><span>Multiple roles for mTOR <span class="hlt">signaling</span> in both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weston, Matthew C.; Chen, Hongmei; Swann, John W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) <span class="hlt">signaling</span> pathway in neurons integrates a variety of extracellular <span class="hlt">signals</span> to produce appropriate translational responses. mTOR <span class="hlt">signaling</span> is hyperactive in neurological syndromes in both humans and mouse models that are characterized by epilepsy, autism and cognitive disturbances. In addition, rapamycin, a clinically important immunosuppressant, is a specific and potent inhibitor of mTOR <span class="hlt">signaling</span>. While mTOR is known to regulate growth and synaptic plasticity of glutamatergic neurons, its effects on basic parameters of synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> are less well studied, and its role in regulating GABAergic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> is unexplored. We therefore performed an electrophysiological and morphological comparison of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in which mTOR <span class="hlt">signaling</span> was either increased by loss of the repressor Pten or decreased by treatment with rapamycin. We found that hyperactive mTOR <span class="hlt">signaling</span> increased evoked synaptic responses in both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons by approximately 50%, due to an increase in the number of synaptic vesicles available for release, the number of synapses formed and the miniature event size. Prolonged (72 hours) rapamycin treatment prevented these abnormalities and also decreased synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in wild-type glutamatergic, but not GABAergic, neurons. Further analyses suggested that hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway also impairs presynaptic function, possibly by interfering with vesicle fusion. Despite this presynaptic impairment, the net effect of Pten loss is enhanced synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in both GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons, which has numerous implications – depending on where in the brain mutations of an mTOR suppressor gene takes place during development. PMID:22895726</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10231E..2AM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10231E..2AM"><span>Simultaneous <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of standard data, precise time, stable frequency and sensing <span class="hlt">signals</span> and their possible interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Munster, P.; Horvath, T.; Havlis, O.; Vojtech, J.; Radil, J.; Velc, R.; Skaljo, E.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Since optical fibre is a standard medium for all current and new networks, these optical networks offer possibility for connecting new applications over long distances almost to anywhere. However with increasing number of applications, the large number of dedicated fibres will be necessary. This constitution is quite unpractical in terms of costs, however since wavelength division multiplexing enables <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of multiple different <span class="hlt">signals</span> over one fibre it is more than suitable to use this technology for cost reduction and network efficiency increase. Wavelength division multiplexing technology is common in data networks where parameters of all <span class="hlt">signals</span> may be optimized (especially maximum optical power launched into the fibre) for simultaneous <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. In case of non-data applications the situation is more difficult because each application is connected by different type of <span class="hlt">signal</span> and with its own requirements for <span class="hlt">transmission</span> parameters. Hence it is necessary to evaluate possible interactions before field deployment. In this paper we deal with possible interaction of a coherent 100 Gb/s dual polarisation QPSK data <span class="hlt">signal</span> with new applications like accurate time and stable frequency <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and high-power pulse <span class="hlt">signal</span> used for distributed sensing. In laboratory setup we performed a measurement with a standard G.652D single mode optical fibre and also with G.655 fibre which can also be found in some networks and may be source of more nonlinear interactions. All <span class="hlt">signals</span> were transmitted in a grid with 100GHz spacing according to ITU standard. Results confirmed our assumptions that 100GHz spacing is not large enough and also that G.655 optical fibre is prone to more non-linear interactions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24315106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24315106"><span>Using optogenetics to interrogate the dynamic control of <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> by the Ras/Erk module.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toettcher, Jared E; Weiner, Orion D; Lim, Wendell A</p> <p>2013-12-05</p> <p>The complex, interconnected architecture of cell-<span class="hlt">signaling</span> networks makes it challenging to disentangle how cells process extracellular information to make decisions. We have developed an optogenetic approach to selectively activate isolated intracellular <span class="hlt">signaling</span> nodes with light and use this method to follow the flow of information from the <span class="hlt">signaling</span> protein Ras. By measuring dose and frequency responses in single cells, we characterize the precision, timing, and efficiency with which <span class="hlt">signals</span> are transmitted from Ras to Erk. Moreover, we elucidate how a single pathway can specify distinct physiological outcomes: by combining distinct temporal patterns of stimulation with proteomic profiling, we identify <span class="hlt">signaling</span> programs that differentially respond to Ras dynamics, including a paracrine circuit that activates STAT3 only after persistent (>1 hr) Ras activation. Optogenetic stimulation provides a powerful tool for analyzing the intrinsic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> properties of pathway modules and identifying how they dynamically encode distinct outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23367466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23367466"><span>Limb joint effects on <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in capacitive coupled intra-body communication systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seyedi, MirHojjat; Lai, Daniel T H; Faulkner, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper contributes empirical measurements towards an understanding of <span class="hlt">signal</span> attenuation in intra-body communication (IBC) systems due to limb posture effects. Recent studies have shown a degradation of <span class="hlt">transmission</span> <span class="hlt">signals</span> for IBC <span class="hlt">transmissions</span> between limb segments, but these degradations have yet to be quantified with respect to relative limb position and within the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> frequency range from 300 KHz to 200 MHz. We examine the impact of limb position specifically the effect of elbow joint flexion and extension into account using a portable vector network analyzer. The results presented indicate that the <span class="hlt">signal</span> attenuation is larger in the case of extension, i.e., when the angle between forearm and upper arm increases. The minimum attenuation was 20.64 dB and 24.81 dB for the fix distance of 15 cm between transmitter and receiver electrodes and the joint angle of 45 and 180 degree respectively. It was found that attenuation decreased at an approximately linear rate over 300 KHz to 100 MHz and increased over the frequency range from 100 MHz to 200 MHz for the input <span class="hlt">signal</span> frequency range from 300 KHz to 200 MHz. It was concluded that the minimum attenuation for the range of flexions and extensions occurred in the range 80-100 MHz. Future work will explore theoretical models to explain the observed results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10072E..0SB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10072E..0SB"><span>Measurements of pulse rate using <span class="hlt">long-range</span> imaging photoplethysmography and sunlight illumination outdoors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blackford, Ethan B.; Estepp, Justin R.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Imaging photoplethysmography, a method using imagers to record absorption variations caused by microvascular blood volume pulsations, shows promise as a non-contact cardiovascular sensing technology. The first <span class="hlt">long-range</span> imaging photoplethysmography measurements at distances of 25, 50, and 100 meters from the participant was recently demonstrated. Degraded <span class="hlt">signal</span> quality was observed with increasing imager-to-subject distances. The degradation in <span class="hlt">signal</span> quality was hypothesized to be largely attributable to inadequate light return to the image sensor with increasing lens focal length. To test this hypothesis, a follow-up evaluation with 27 participants was conducted outdoors with natural sunlight illumination resulting in 5-33 times the illumination intensity. Video was recorded from cameras equipped with ultra-telephoto lenses and positioned at distances of 25, 50, 100, and 150 meters. The brighter illumination allowed high-definition video recordings at increased frame rates of 60fps, shorter exposure times, and lower ISO settings, leading to higher quality image formation than the previous indoor evaluation. Results were compared to simultaneous reference measurements from electrocardiography. Compared to the previous indoor study, we observed lower overall error in pulse rate measurement with the same pattern of degradation in <span class="hlt">signal</span> quality with respect to increasing distance. This effect was corroborated by the <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio of the blood volume pulse <span class="hlt">signal</span> which also showed decreasing quality with respect to increasing distance. Finally, a popular chrominance-based method was compared to a blind source separation approach; while comparable in measurement of <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio, we observed higher overall error in pulse rate measurement using the chrominance method in this data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024644','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024644"><span><span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> through the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) transmembrane helices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wescott, Melanie P.; Kufareva, Irina; Paes, Cheryl; Goodman, Jason R.; Thaker, Yana; Puffer, Bridget A.; Berdougo, Eli; Rucker, Joseph B.; Handel, Tracy M.; Doranz, Benjamin J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The atomic-level mechanisms by which G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit extracellular ligand binding events through their transmembrane helices to activate intracellular G proteins remain unclear. Using a comprehensive library of mutations covering all 352 residues of the GPCR CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), we identified 41 amino acids that are required for <span class="hlt">signaling</span> induced by the chemokine ligand CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). CXCR4 variants with each of these mutations do not <span class="hlt">signal</span> properly but remain folded, based on receptor surface trafficking, reactivity to conformationally sensitive monoclonal antibodies, and ligand binding. When visualized on the structure of CXCR4, the majority of these residues form a continuous intramolecular <span class="hlt">signaling</span> chain through the transmembrane helices; this chain connects chemokine binding residues on the extracellular side of CXCR4 to G protein-coupling residues on its intracellular side. Integrated into a cohesive model of <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span>, these CXCR4 residues cluster into five functional groups that mediate (i) chemokine engagement, (ii) <span class="hlt">signal</span> initiation, (iii) <span class="hlt">signal</span> propagation, (iv) microswitch activation, and (v) G protein coupling. Propagation of the <span class="hlt">signal</span> passes through a “hydrophobic bridge” on helix VI that coordinates with nearly every known GPCR <span class="hlt">signaling</span> motif. Our results agree with known conserved mechanisms of GPCR activation and significantly expand on understanding the structural principles of CXCR4 <span class="hlt">signaling</span>. PMID:27543332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5703029','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5703029"><span>An analytic overview of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> passive detection and localization in an inhomogeneous ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Middleton, D</p> <p>1991-07-01</p> <p>An analytic summary or overview of the problem of <span class="hlt">long</span> <span class="hlt">range</span> passive source detection and localization is presented. The principal aims are to provide an analytic basis for developing effective weak-<span class="hlt">signal</span> detection and estimation algorithms and performance measures in a model-based approach, when the desired source (or sources) are not surely known to be present p(H{sub 1})<1, in a general ambient noise field due primarily to surface or near-surface noise mechanisms. In addition to threshold detection and estimation (when (pH{sub 1})<1: <span class="hlt">signal</span> not surely present) with correlated space and time noise samples, procedures for modeling the random acoustic noise and <span class="hlt">signal</span> fields are outlined, from the viewpoint of the ocean as an inhomogeneous acoustic waveguide, {nabla}c{ne}0, with boundaries, and arbitrary (near) surface distributions of noise sources. The latter are required to specify these otherwise canonical results to the present class of problems. The Report concludes with a short list of next steps, and references to pertinent supporting material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297587"><span><span class="hlt">Long-range</span> Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of the pediatric subglottis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Volgger, Veronika; Sharma, Giriraj K.; Jing, Joe; Peaks, Ya-Sin A.; Loy, Anthony Chin; Lazarow, Frances; Wang, Alex; Qu, Yueqiao; Su, Erica; Chen, Zhongping; Ahuja, Gurpreet S.; Wong, Brian J-F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Acquired subglottic stenosis (SGS) most commonly results from prolonged endotracheal intubation and is a diagnostic challenge in the intubated child. At present, no imaging modality allows for in vivo characterization of subglottic microanatomy to identify early signs of acquired SGS while the child remains intubated. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is a minimally invasive, light-based imaging modality which provides high resolution, three dimensional (3D) cross-sectional images of biological tissue. We used <span class="hlt">long-range</span> FD-OCT to image the subglottis in intubated pediatric patients undergoing minor head and neck surgical procedures in the operating room. Methods A <span class="hlt">long-range</span> FD-OCT system and rotary optical probes (1.2 mm and 0.7 mm outer diameters) were constructed. Forty-six pediatric patients (ages 2–16 years) undergoing minor upper airway surgery (e.g. tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy) were selected for intraoperative, trans-endotracheal tube FD-OCT of the subglottis. Images were analyzed for anatomical landmarks and subepithelial histology. Volumetric image sets were rendered into virtual 3D airway models in Mimics software. Results FD-OCT was performed on 46 patients (ages 2–16 years) with no complications. Gross airway contour was visible on all 46 data sets. Twenty (43%) high-quality data sets clearly demonstrated airway anatomy (e.g., tracheal rings, cricoid, vocal folds) and layered microanatomy of the mucosa (e.g., epithelium, basement membrane, lamina propria). The remaining 26 data sets were discarded due to artifact, high <span class="hlt">signal</span>-to-noise ratio or missing data. 3D airway models allowed for user-controlled manipulation and multiplanar airway slicing (e.g. sagittal, coronal) for visualization of OCT data at multiple anatomic levels simultaneously. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Long-range</span> FD-OCT produces high-resolution, 3D volumetric images of the pediatric subglottis. This technology offers a safe and practical means for in vivo evaluation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27137550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27137550"><span>Optical diversity <span class="hlt">transmission</span> using WDM <span class="hlt">signal</span> and phase-conjugate lights through multi-core fiber.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koga, Masafumi; Moroi, Mitsuki; Takara, Hidehiko</p> <p>2016-05-02</p> <p>This paper proposes a maximum-ratio combining (MRC) scheme for a WDM <span class="hlt">signal</span> and phase-conjugate pair (PCP) diversity <span class="hlt">transmission</span> to cancel nonlinear phase-shift. A transfer function approximation for nonlinear phase-shift cancellation is formulated. It shows, with the help of a numerical calculation, that span-by-span chromatic dispersion compensation is more effective than the lumped equivalent at the receiver. This is confirmed in a 2-core diversity 5 channel WDM <span class="hlt">transmission</span> experiment over 3-spans of 60km MCF with 25 Gbit/s-QPSK PCP. The peak Q-value was enhanced by 3.6dB through MRC, resulting in superior bitrate-distance product and optical power density limit, compared to twice the single core <span class="hlt">transmission</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3796471','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3796471"><span>Call <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> Efficiency in Native and Invasive Anurans: Competing Hypotheses of Divergence in Acoustic <span class="hlt">Signals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Llusia, Diego; Gómez, Miguel; Penna, Mario; Márquez, Rafael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Invasive species are a leading cause of the current biodiversity decline, and hence examining the major traits favouring invasion is a key and long-standing goal of invasion biology. Despite the prominent role of the advertisement calls in sexual selection and reproduction, very little attention has been paid to the features of acoustic communication of invasive species in nonindigenous habitats and their potential impacts on native species. Here we compare for the first time the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency of the advertisement calls of native and invasive species, searching for competitive advantages for acoustic communication and reproduction of introduced taxa, and providing insights into competing hypotheses in evolutionary divergence of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>: acoustic adaptation vs. morphological constraints. Using sound propagation experiments, we measured the attenuation rates of pure tones (0.2–5 kHz) and playback calls (Lithobates catesbeianus and Pelophylax perezi) across four distances (1, 2, 4, and 8 m) and over two substrates (water and soil) in seven Iberian localities. All factors considered (<span class="hlt">signal</span> type, distance, substrate, and locality) affected <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>, which was maximized with lower frequency sounds, shorter distances, and over water surface. Despite being broadcast in nonindigenous habitats, the advertisement calls of invasive L. catesbeianus were propagated more efficiently than those of the native species, in both aquatic and terrestrial substrates, and in most of the study sites. This implies absence of optimal relationship between native environments and propagation of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span> in anurans, in contrast to what predicted by the acoustic adaptation hypothesis, and it might render these vertebrates particularly vulnerable to intrusion of invasive species producing low frequency <span class="hlt">signals</span>, such as L. catesbeianus. Our findings suggest that mechanisms optimizing sound <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in native habitat can play a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24155940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24155940"><span>Call <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency in native and invasive anurans: competing hypotheses of divergence in acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Llusia, Diego; Gómez, Miguel; Penna, Mario; Márquez, Rafael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Invasive species are a leading cause of the current biodiversity decline, and hence examining the major traits favouring invasion is a key and long-standing goal of invasion biology. Despite the prominent role of the advertisement calls in sexual selection and reproduction, very little attention has been paid to the features of acoustic communication of invasive species in nonindigenous habitats and their potential impacts on native species. Here we compare for the first time the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency of the advertisement calls of native and invasive species, searching for competitive advantages for acoustic communication and reproduction of introduced taxa, and providing insights into competing hypotheses in evolutionary divergence of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>: acoustic adaptation vs. morphological constraints. Using sound propagation experiments, we measured the attenuation rates of pure tones (0.2-5 kHz) and playback calls (Lithobates catesbeianus and Pelophylax perezi) across four distances (1, 2, 4, and 8 m) and over two substrates (water and soil) in seven Iberian localities. All factors considered (<span class="hlt">signal</span> type, distance, substrate, and locality) affected <span class="hlt">transmission</span> efficiency of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span>, which was maximized with lower frequency sounds, shorter distances, and over water surface. Despite being broadcast in nonindigenous habitats, the advertisement calls of invasive L. catesbeianus were propagated more efficiently than those of the native species, in both aquatic and terrestrial substrates, and in most of the study sites. This implies absence of optimal relationship between native environments and propagation of acoustic <span class="hlt">signals</span> in anurans, in contrast to what predicted by the acoustic adaptation hypothesis, and it might render these vertebrates particularly vulnerable to intrusion of invasive species producing low frequency <span class="hlt">signals</span>, such as L. catesbeianus. Our findings suggest that mechanisms optimizing sound <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in native habitat can play a less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptSp.119..708Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptSp.119..708Z"><span>Optical radio-photonic channel for <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of a coherent narrowband analog <span class="hlt">signal</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhuk, D. I.; Denisyuk, I. Yu.; Fokina, M. I.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The channel of an optical <span class="hlt">transmission</span> line of coherent narrowband analog <span class="hlt">signal</span> consisting of a continuous-wave laser, an electro-optic modulator, and a vector phase rotator based on electrically controlled fiber-optical 1 × 2 splitter and fixed delay lines is analyzed. The scheme is constructed from commercially available components used in digital optical communication systems. The applicability of components for analog and small-<span class="hlt">signal</span> circuits is determined. Variation of radio <span class="hlt">signal</span> phase in the range from 0° to 170° for radio <span class="hlt">signal</span> frequencies between 1 and 2 GHz is demonstrated experimentally. It is shown that phase variation is a linear function of frequency in this range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9772E..0NL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9772E..0NL"><span>Photonics aided ultra-wideband W-band <span class="hlt">signal</span> generation and air space <span class="hlt">transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We achieve several field trial demonstrations of ultra-wideband W-band millimeter-wave (mm-wave) <span class="hlt">signal</span> generation and its long-distance air space <span class="hlt">transmission</span> based on some enabling technologies and advanced devices. First, we demonstrated photonics generation and up to 1.7-km wireless delivery of 20-Gb/s polarization division multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) <span class="hlt">signal</span> at W-band, adopting both optical and antenna polarization multiplexing. Then, we demonstrated photonics generation and up to 300-m wireless delivery of 80-Gb/s PDM-QPSK <span class="hlt">signal</span> at W-band, adopting both optical and antenna polarization multiplexing as well as multi-band multiplexing. We also demonstrated photonics generation and up to 100-m wireless delivery of 100-Gb/s QPSK <span class="hlt">signal</span> at W-band, adopting antenna polarization multiplexing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptFT..26..201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptFT..26..201L"><span><span class="hlt">Transmission</span> and reception of PDM dual-subcarrier coherent 16QAM-OFDM <span class="hlt">signals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Fan; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, 16-Gbaud polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) dual-subcarrier coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and reception are successfully demonstrated without overhead. The in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) components of dual-subcarrier 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM <span class="hlt">signal</span> are both seven-level <span class="hlt">signals</span> in time domain, and thus can be equalized like a 49 QAM <span class="hlt">signal</span> in time domain with cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization method. The experimental results show that there is no power penalty observed between optical back to back (OBTB) and after 80-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) with time domain CMMA equalization method. A 0.4 dB optical <span class="hlt">signal</span> to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty in OBTB is observed when the bandwidth of channel is set at 26 GHz at the BER of 2.0 × 10-2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3528083','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3528083"><span>Computational quest for understanding the role of astrocyte <span class="hlt">signaling</span> in synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span> and plasticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Pittà, Maurizio; Volman, Vladislav; Berry, Hugues; Parpura, Vladimir; Volterra, Andrea; Ben-Jacob, Eshel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The complexity of the <span class="hlt">signaling</span> network that underlies astrocyte-synapse interactions may seem discouraging when tackled from a theoretical perspective. Computational modeling is challenged by the fact that many details remain hitherto unknown and conventional approaches to describe synaptic function are unsuitable to explain experimental observations when astrocytic <span class="hlt">signaling</span> is taken into account. Supported by experimental evidence is the possibility that astrocytes perform genuine information processing by means of their calcium <span class="hlt">signaling</span> and are players in the physiological setting of the basal tone of synaptic <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. Here we consider the plausibility of this scenario from a theoretical perspective, focusing on the modulation of synaptic release probability by the astrocyte and its implications on synaptic plasticity. The analysis of the <span class="hlt">signaling</span> pathways underlying such modulation refines our notion of tripartite synapse and has profound implications on our understanding of brain function. PMID:23267326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcAau..69..777F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcAau..69..777F"><span>SETI: The <span class="hlt">transmission</span> rate of radio communication and the <span class="hlt">signal</span>'s detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fridman, P. A.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transmission</span> rate of communication between radio telescopes on Earth and extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) is here calculated up to distances of 1000 light years. Both phase-shift keying (PSK) and frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation schemes are considered. It is shown that M-ary FSK is advantageous in terms of energy. Narrow-band pulses scattered over the spectrum sharing a common drift rate can be the probable <span class="hlt">signals</span> of ETI. Modern SETI spectrum analyzers are well suited to searching for these types of <span class="hlt">signals</span>. Such <span class="hlt">signals</span> can be detected using the Hough transform which is a dedicated tool for detecting patterns in an image. The time-frequency plane representing the power output of the spectrum analyzer during the search for ETI gives an image from which the Hough transform (HT) can detect <span class="hlt">signal</span> patterns with frequency drift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28687798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28687798"><span>Achieving low-emissivity materials with high <span class="hlt">transmission</span> for broadband radio-frequency <span class="hlt">signals</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Liu; Chang, Huiting; Xu, Tao; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Chi; Hang, Zhi Hong; Hu, Xinhua</p> <p>2017-07-07</p> <p>The use of low-emissivity (low-e) materials in modern buildings is an extremely efficient way to save energy. However, such materials are coated by metallic films, which can strongly block radio-frequency <span class="hlt">signals</span> and prevent indoor-outdoor wireless communication. Here, we demonstrate that, when specially-designed metallic metasurfaces are covered on them, the low-e materials can remain low emissivity for thermal radiation and allow very high <span class="hlt">transmission</span> for a broad band of radio-frequency <span class="hlt">signals</span>. It is found that the application of air-connected metasurfaces with subwavelength periods is critical to the observed high <span class="hlt">transmission</span>. Such effects disappear if periods are comparable to wavelengths or metal-connected structures are utilized. The conclusion is supported by both simulations and experiments. Advantages such as easy to process, low cost, large-area fabrication and design versatility of the metasurface make it a promising candidate to solve the indoor outdoor communication problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..467...74L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyA..467...74L"><span>Synchronization <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of spatiotemporal chaotic <span class="hlt">signal</span> in the uncertain time-varying network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lü, Ling; Chen, Liansong; Han, Changhui; Ge, Lianjun; Gao, Liyu</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, a new method is presented for the synchronization <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of spatiotemporal chaotic <span class="hlt">signal</span> in the uncertain time-varying network. By designing a special function to construct the Lyapunov function of the network, it is sure that the uncertain time-varying network can effectively synchronize the spatiotemporal chaotic <span class="hlt">signal</span> generated by the synchronization target. At the same time, we also design the identification laws of uncertain parameters and the adaptive laws of the time-varying coupling matrix elements. Especially in our work, the nodes of the uncertain time-varying network and the synchronization target are different. Obviously, this research has the reference value for the application fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4423841','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4423841"><span>cAMP-<span class="hlt">Signalling</span> Regulates Gametocyte-Infected Erythrocyte Deformability Required for Malaria Parasite <span class="hlt">Transmission</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thompson, Eloise; Breil, Florence; Lorthiois, Audrey; Dupuy, Florian; Cummings, Ross; Duffier, Yoann; Corbett, Yolanda; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Vernick, Kenneth; Taramelli, Donatella; Baker, David A.; Langsley, Gordon; Lavazec, Catherine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Blocking Plasmodium falciparum <span class="hlt">transmission</span> to mosquitoes has been designated a strategic objective in the global agenda of malaria elimination. <span class="hlt">Transmission</span> is ensured by gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIE) that sequester in the bone marrow and at maturation are released into peripheral blood from where they are taken up during a mosquito blood meal. Release into the blood circulation is accompanied by an increase in GIE deformability that allows them to pass through the spleen. Here, we used a microsphere matrix to mimic splenic filtration and investigated the role of cAMP-<span class="hlt">signalling</span> in regulating GIE deformability. We demonstrated that mature GIE deformability is dependent on reduced cAMP-<span class="hlt">signalling</span> and on increased phosphodiesterase expression in stage V gametocytes, and that parasite cAMP-dependent kinase activity contributes to the stiffness of immature gametocytes. Importantly, pharmacological agents that raise cAMP levels in <span class="hlt">transmissible</span> stage V gametocytes render them less deformable and hence less likely to circulate through the spleen. Therefore, phosphodiesterase inhibitors that raise cAMP levels in P. falciparum infected erythrocytes, such as sildenafil, represent new candidate drugs to block <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of malaria parasites. PMID:25951195</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6204224','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6204224"><span><span class="hlt">Signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> techniques for large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herndon, J.N.; Bible, D.W.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The RCE is currently developing a prototypic microwave-based <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system for reprocessing cell applications. This system, being developed for use in the Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS), will operate in the 10-GHz frequency range. Provisions are being made for five real-time video channels, three bidirectional data channels at one megabaud data rate each, and two audio channels. The basic utility of the concept has been proven in a laboratory demonstration using gallium arsenide gunn diode transmitter/receivers with horn antennas. Unidirectional <span class="hlt">transmission</span> of one real-time video channel over a distance of 200 ft was demonstrated. No evidence of multipath interference was detected even when the <span class="hlt">transmission</span> path was surrounded by metallic reflectors. The microwave <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> system for the AIMS application is in final design. Fabrication in the ORNL instrument shops will begin in October 1985, and the system should be operational in the Maintenance Systems Test Area (MSTA) at ORNL in the latter half of 1986.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA561933','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA561933"><span>A Statistical Multimodel Ensemble Approach to Improving <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Forecasting in Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>MULTIMODEL ENSEMBLE APPROACH TO IMPROVING <span class="hlt">LONG-RANGE</span> FORECASTING IN PAKISTAN by Shane D. Gillies March 2012 Thesis Co-Advisors: Tom Murphree...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Statistical Multimodel Ensemble Approach to Improving <span class="hlt">Long-Range</span> Forecasting in Pakistan 5...was selected based on DoD and national intelligence priorities for <span class="hlt">long-range</span> support. For this test case, the system uses 81 ensemble forecast</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25702457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25702457"><span>[Neuronal mechanisms of motor <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in thalamic Voi nucleus in spasmodic torticollis patients].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sedov, A S; Raeva, S N; Pavlenko, V B</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Neural mechanisms of motor <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in ventrooral (Voi) nucleus of motor thalamus during the realization-of voluntary and involuntary abnormal (dystonic) movements in patients with spasmodic torticollis were investigated by means of microelectrode technique. The high reactivity of the cellular Voi elements to various functional (mainly motor) tests was proved. Analysis of neuronal activity showed: (1) the difference of neural mechanisms of motor <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> in the realization of voluntary movement with and without the involvement of the pathological axial neck muscles, as well as passive and abnormal involuntary dystonic movements; (2) significance of sensory component in the mechanisms of sensorimotor interactions during realization of voluntary and involuntary dystonic head and neck movements, causing the activation of the axial neck muscles; (3) important role of the rhythmic and synchronized neuronal activity in motor <span class="hlt">signal</span> <span class="hlt">transmission</span> during the realization of active and passive movements. Participation of Voi nucleus in pathological mechanisms of spasmodic torticollis was shown. The data obtained can be used for identificatiori of Voi thalamic nucleus during stereotactic neurosurgical operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis for selection the optimum destruction (stimulation) target and reduction of postoperative effects.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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